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Sample records for raises bar lowers

  1. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  2. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  3. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  4. Raising the Bar for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal; Doctor, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the emergence of a broad consensus on raising the standards for entering the teaching profession. The NEA, AFT, and Council of Chief State School Officers all have said they want higher entry standards. Such an exam would be modeled after other professions and is a potential game changer. If sufficiently rigorous, the exam…

  5. A nutrient-dense, high fiber, fruit-based supplement bar increases HDL, particularly large HDL, lowers homocysteine, and raises glutathione in a 2-week trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary intake modulates disease risk, but little is known as to how components within food mixtures affect pathophysiology. Here, a low-calorie, high-fiber, fruit-based nutrient-dense bar of defined composition (e.g., vitamins/minerals, fruit polyphenolics, B-glucan, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) app...

  6. Raising the Bar: Engaging Staff and Students in a Culture of Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To thrive, a successful school library program needs active participation from all members of its community. As an instructional leader, the school librarian must be the one to raise the bar, not just informing other educators about resources and services, but empowering all adults to become engaged in the school library program. For example,…

  7. Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

  8. Raising the Bar on Faculty Productivity: Realigning Performance Standards to Enhance Quality Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardré, Patricia L.

    2014-01-01

    Many universities have observed needs and shared goals that include increasing faculty members' research productivity (in quantity or quality). Strategies for raising faculty performance include revising standards and supporting valued outcomes with rewards and incentives. One college at a research-extensive university received institutional…

  9. On the raising and lowering difference operators for eigenvectors of the finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakishiyeva, M K; Atakishiyev, N M

    2015-01-01

    We construct explicit forms of raising and lowering difference operators that govern eigenvectors of the finite (discrete) Fourier transform. Some of the algebraic properties of these operators are also examined. (paper)

  10. Dynamics of 30 large channel bars in the Lower Mississippi River in response to river engineering from 1985 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Y. Jun

    2018-01-01

    Channel bars are a major depositional feature in alluvial rivers and their morphodynamics has been investigated intensively in the past several decades. However, relatively less is known about how channel bars in alluvial rivers respond to river engineering and regulations. In this study, we assessed 30-yr morphologic changes of 30 large emerged bars located in a 223 km reach of the highly regulated Lower Mississippi River from Vicksburg, Mississippi, to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River diversion. Landsat imagery and river stage data between 1985 and 2015 were utilized to characterize bar morphologic features and quantify decadal changes. Based on bar surface areas estimated with the satellite images at different river stages, a rating curve was developed for each of the 30 bars to determine their volumes. Results from this study show that the highly regulated river reach favored the growth of mid-channel and attached bars, while more than half of the point bars showed degradation. Currently, the mid-channel and attached bars accounted for 38% and 34% of the total volume of the 30 bars. The average volume of a single mid-channel bar is over two times that of an attached bar and over four times that of a point bar. Overall, in the past three decades, the total volume of the studied 30 bars increased by 110,118,000 m3 (41%). Total dike length in a dike field was found mostly contributing to the bar volume increase. Currently, the emerged volume of the 30 bars was estimated approximately 378,183,000 m3. The total bar volume is equivalent to 530 million metric tons of coarse sand, based on an average measured bulk density of 1.4 t/m3 for the bar sediment. The findings show that these bars are large sediment reservoirs.

  11. Raising the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Bryan D.; Gambero, Lori; Allen, Michael; Juarez, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    The Fresno (California) Unified School District has one of the highest poverty levels in the nation. The district is made up of approximately 84% Hispanic students, and 70% of their parents speak only Spanish in the home. Many students have difficulty passing the California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE), which is required to receive a…

  12. Raising the Bar for Reproducible Science at the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable concern has been raised regarding research reproducibility both within and outside the scientific community. Several factors possibly contribute to a lack of reproducibility, including a failure to adequately employ statistical considerations during study design, bia...

  13. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR.

  14. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for Lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch river. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received contaminants, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. There is little data regarding the quantities of most contaminants potentially released from the ORR to the Clinch River, particularly for the early years of ORR operations. Estimates of the quantities released during this period are available for most radionuclides and some inorganic contaminants, indicating that releases 30 to 50 years ago were much higher than today. Since the early 1970s, the release of potential contaminants has been monitored for compliance with environmental law and reported in the annual environmental monitoring reports for the ORR

  15. Remedial investigation/feasibility study report for lower Watts Bar Reservoir Operable Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document is the combined Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study Report for the Lower Watts Bar Reservoir (LWBR) Operable Unit (OU). The LWBR is located in Roane, Rhea, and Meigs counties, Tennessee, and consists of Watts Bar Reservoir downstream of the Clinch River. This area has received hazardous substances released over a period of 50 years from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), a National Priority List site established under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). As required by this law, the ORR and all off-site areas that have received containments, including LWBR, must be investigated to determine the risk to human health and the environment resulting from these releases, the need for any remedial action to reduce these risks, and the remedial actions that are most feasible for implementation in this OU. Contaminants from the ORR are primarily transported to the LWBR via the Clinch River. Water-soluble contaminants released to ORR surface waters are rapidly diluted upon entering the Clinch River and then quickly transported downstream to the Tennessee River where further dilution occurs. Almost the entire quantity of these diluted contaminants rapidly flows through LWBR. In contrast, particle-associated contaminants tend to accumulate in the lower Clinch River and in LWBR in areas of sediment deposition. Those particle-associated contaminants that were released in peak quantities during the early years of ORR operations (e.g., mercury and 137 Cs) are buried under as much as 80 cm of cleaner sediment in LWBR. Certain contaminants, most notably polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have accumulated in LWBR biota. The contamination of aquatic biota with PCBs is best documented for certain fish species and extends to reservoirs upstream of the ORR, indicating a contamination problem that is regional in scope and not specific to the ORR

  16. The cholesterol-lowering effect of coconut flakes in humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Resaba, Rosario L; Masa, Dina B

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coconut flakes on serum cholesterol levels of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol in 21 subjects. The serum total cholesterol of subjects differed and ranged from 259 to 283 mg/dL. The study was conducted in a double-blind randomized crossover design on a 14-week period, consisting of four 2-week experimental periods, with each experimental period separated by a 2-week washout period. The test foods were as follows: corn flakes as the control food, oat bran flakes as the reference food, and corn flakes with 15% and 25% dietary fiber from coconut flakes (made from coconut flour production). Results showed a significant percent reduction in serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (in mg/dL) for all test foods, except for corn flakes, as follows: oat bran flakes, 8.4 +/- 1.4 and 8.8 +/- 6.0, respectively; 15% coconut flakes, 6.9 +/- 1.1 and 11.0 +/- 4.0, respectively; and 25% coconut flakes, 10.8 +/- 1.3 and 9.2 +/- 5.4, respectively. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced for all test foods: corn flakes, 14.5 +/- 6.3%; oat bran flakes, 22.7 +/- 2.9%; 15% coconut flakes, 19.3 +/- 5.7%; and 25% coconut flakes, 21.8 +/- 6.0%. Only 60% of the subjects were considered for serum triglycerides reduction (serum triglycerides >170 mg/dL). In conclusion, both 15% and 25% coconut flakes reduced serum total and LDL cholesterol and serum triglycerides of humans with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. Coconut flour is a good source of both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, and both types of fiber may have significant role in the reduction of the above lipid biomarker. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted to show a relationship between dietary fiber from a coconut by-product and a lipid biomarker. Results from this study serves as a good basis in the development of coconut flakes/flour as a functional food, justifying the increased production of coconut and coconut by-products.

  17. The effect of ν-bar(E) energy dependence at E 239Pu in the lower energy groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, A.G.; Gusejnov, M.A.; Rabotnov, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the energy dependence of the average number of prompt neutrons on the 239 Pu fission BNAB-26 group cross-sections has been estimated. It was also found that the values of ν-bar(E) are lowered by approximately 1% when the temperature increases from 300 deg. K to 2000 deg. K. Taking this dependence into account may improve the predictability of the plutonium-fueled reactor characteristics. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer increase endothelial progenitor cells, enhance myocardial vascularity, and improve diastolic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Gordts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol contribute to coronary heart disease but little is known about their direct effects on myocardial function. Low HDL and raised non-HDL cholesterol levels carried increased risk for heart failure development in the Framingham study, independent of any association with myocardial infarction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that increased endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number and function after lipid lowering or HDL raising gene transfer in C57BL/6 low density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLr(-/- mice may be associated with an enhanced relative vascularity in the myocardium and an improved cardiac function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer were performed using the E1E3E4-deleted LDLr expressing adenoviral vector AdLDLr and the human apolipoprotein A-I expressing vector AdA-I, respectively. AdLDLr transfer in C57BL/6 LDLr(-/- mice resulted in a 2.0-fold (p<0.05 increase of the circulating number of EPCs and in an improvement of EPC function as assessed by ex vivo EPC migration and EPC adhesion. Capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium were 28% (p<0.01 and 22% (p<0.05 higher, respectively, in AdLDLr mice compared to control mice. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 12% (p<0.05 and the time constant of isovolumetric relaxation was decreased by 14% (p<0.05 after AdLDLr transfer. Similarly, HDL raising gene transfer increased EPC number and function and raised both capillary density and relative vascularity in the myocardium by 24% (p<0.05. The peak rate of isovolumetric relaxation was increased by 16% (p<0.05 in AdA-I mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both lipid lowering and HDL raising gene transfer have beneficial effects on EPC biology, relative myocardial vascularity, and diastolic function. These findings raise concerns over the

  19. Long-term Sediment Accumulation in Mid-channel Bars of the Upper Reach of the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Xu, Y. J.

    2016-02-01

    A recent study reported that about 44% of the total Mississippi River suspended load reaching the Old River Control Structure (ORCS) was trapped upstream of the Gulf of Mexico by overbank storage and channel bed aggradation. Considering an average annual sediment load of 120 million metric tons passing ORCS to the Mississippi River main channel, the trapped sediment load would be equivalent to annually rebuilding 44-km2 coastal land of 1 meter in depth, assuming a sedimentation bulk density of 1.2 tons m-3. No study has yet demonstrated such a high sediment accumulation rate within the confined river channel or on a floodplain area that surrounds the only unleeved stretch ( 30-km long) of the Lower Mississippi River downstream of ORCS. In this study, we utilized satellite images taken from 1983 to 2013 and analyzed changes in surface area of nine major mid-channel and point bars over a 130-km river reach from ORCS to Baton Rouge. Using river stage records and the estimated surface areas, we developed a stage - surface area rating curve for each of the bars and estimated changes in bar volume over time. We found that more than half of the bars have grown, while the others have shrunken in the past three decades. As a whole, there was a substantial net gain of surface area and volume accretion. Sediment trapping was most prevalent during the spring floods, especially during the period from 2007 to 2011 when two large floods occurred. This paper presents the channel morphological change and sediment accumulation rates under different flow conditions, and discusses their implications for the current understanding and practices of the Mississippi River sediment diversion.

  20. Matlab/simMechanics based control of four-bar passive lower-body mechanism for rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, use of wearable devices is becoming popular for providing precise ways of rehabilitation. The focus of this paper is to propose a passive lower body mechanism using a four-bar linkage, which can be actuated via the hip joint to move the other two joints at knee and ankle as well. Simulations are performed here by considering an average male human (height six feet by modelling the gait cycle in CAD software and executing the control strategy in the SimMechanics, which provides a convenient way to study without use of detailed computational mathematics. The study of the controller aspects of the passive mechanism is presented with both PD and PID controllers with auto- and manual-tuned gains. Significant reduction in actuator torques is observed with the manually-tuned PID controller over automatically-tuned PID controller with marginal degradation in the overshoot and settling time.

  1. Reacquisition of the lower temporal bar in sexually dimorphic fossil lizards provides a rare case of convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Tiago R; Funston, Gregory F; Vafaeian, Behzad; Nydam, Randall L; Doschak, Michael R; Caldwell, Michael W

    2016-04-13

    Temporal fenestration has long been considered a key character to understand relationships amongst reptiles. In particular, the absence of the lower temporal bar (LTB) is considered one of the defining features of squamates (lizards and snakes). In a re-assessment of the borioteiioid lizard Polyglyphanodon sternbergi (Cretaceous, North America), we detected a heretofore unrecognized ontogenetic series, sexual dimorphism (a rare instance for Mesozoic reptiles), and a complete LTB, a feature only recently recognized for another borioteiioid, Tianyusaurus zhengi (Cretaceous, China). A new phylogenetic analysis (with updates on a quarter of the scorings for P. sternbergi) indicates not only that the LTB was reacquired in squamates, but it happened independently at least twice. An analysis of the functional significance of the LTB using proxies indicates that, unlike for T. zhengi, this structure had no apparent functional advantage in P. sternbergi, and it is better explained as the result of structural constraint release. The observed canalization against a LTB in squamates was broken at some point in the evolution of borioteiioids, whereas never re-occuring in other squamate lineages. This case of convergent evolution involves a mix of both adaptationist and structuralist causes, which is unusual for both living and extinct vertebrates.

  2. Reacquisition of the lower temporal bar in sexually dimorphic fossil lizards provides a rare case of convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Tiago R.; Funston, Gregory F.; Vafaeian, Behzad; Nydam, Randall L.; Doschak, Michael R.; Caldwell, Michael W.

    2016-04-01

    Temporal fenestration has long been considered a key character to understand relationships amongst reptiles. In particular, the absence of the lower temporal bar (LTB) is considered one of the defining features of squamates (lizards and snakes). In a re-assessment of the borioteiioid lizard Polyglyphanodon sternbergi (Cretaceous, North America), we detected a heretofore unrecognized ontogenetic series, sexual dimorphism (a rare instance for Mesozoic reptiles), and a complete LTB, a feature only recently recognized for another borioteiioid, Tianyusaurus zhengi (Cretaceous, China). A new phylogenetic analysis (with updates on a quarter of the scorings for P. sternbergi) indicates not only that the LTB was reacquired in squamates, but it happened independently at least twice. An analysis of the functional significance of the LTB using proxies indicates that, unlike for T. zhengi, this structure had no apparent functional advantage in P. sternbergi, and it is better explained as the result of structural constraint release. The observed canalization against a LTB in squamates was broken at some point in the evolution of borioteiioids, whereas never re-occuring in other squamate lineages. This case of convergent evolution involves a mix of both adaptationist and structuralist causes, which is unusual for both living and extinct vertebrates.

  3. Surface Textural Analysis of Quartz Grains from Modern Point Bar Deposits in Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Liu, Cong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Nie, Qi; Wen, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    The surfaces of quartz grains contain characteristic textures formed during the process of transport, due to their stable physical and chemical properties. The surface textures include the information about source area, transporting force, sedimentary environment and evolution history of sediment. Surface textures of quartz grains from modern point bar deposits in the lower reaches of the Yellow River are observed and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that there are 22 kinds of surface textures. The overall surface morphology of quartz grains shows short transporting time and distance and weak abrasive action of the river water. The combined surface textures caused by mechanical action indicate that quartz grains are transporting in a high-energy hydrodynamic condition and suffer a strong mechanical impact and abrasion. The common solution pits prove that the chemical property of transportation medium is very active and quartz grains receive an obvious chemical action. The combination of these surface textures can be an identification mark of fluvial environment, and that is: quartz grains are main subangular outline, whose roundness is higher with the farther motion distance; Surface fluctuation degree of quartz grains is relatively high, and gives priority to high and medium relief; V-shaped percussion marks are very abundant caused by mechanical action; The conchoidal of different sizes and steps are common-developed with paragenesis relationship; Solution pits are common-developed as well. The study makes up for the blank of surface textures analysis of quartz grains from modern fluvial deposits in China. It provides new ideas and evidence for studies of the sedimentary process and environmental significance, although the deep meanings of these micro textures remain to be further researched.

  4. Raising the (Salad) Bar on Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Concern over what kids eat-in and out of school has exploded in the past two years. Study after study shows that American children are becoming overweight and obese in dangerously high numbers. This is because of the proliferation of super-sized meals, ubiquitous fast-food restaurants, and less time and fewer options for physical activity are…

  5. Raising the Bar with Trades Staffing Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the APPA's Trades Staffing Guidelines Task Force for college campus building maintenance and presents descriptions of the proposed guideline levels and a matrix of indicators for the Trades Staffing Guidelines. The levels and matrix are intended to mimic features of the custodial staffing guidelines. (GR)

  6. Raising the Bar for Microbiologists | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-09

    Dec 9, 2010 ... We hope to create a new nurturing environment where research can flourish and ... out with diagnostics, determining the frequency and number of cases. ... Bridging the gap between farmers and supermarkets in Nicaragua.

  7. Heart rate and blood pressure interactions during attempts to consciously raise or lower heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, Peter; Murray, Alan; Langley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during conscious control under visual biofeedback and background noise conditions. Normotensive volunteers were instructed to (i) decrease and (ii) increase HR (group A, n = 16) or BP (group B, n = 16). After instructions to lower HR or BP there was no significant change in HR or BP for either group. After instructions to raise HR, HR increased significantly (13.8 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001) and BP did not change. However, following instructions to raise BP, both HR and BP increased significantly: systolic BP (5.2 ± 1.5 mmHg, P < 0.001), diastolic BP (3.5 ± 0.9 mmHg, P < 0.001) and HR (8.6 ± 1.3 beats min −1 , P < 0.0001). Biofeedback and background noise did not alter the relative change in HR or BP. In conclusion, normotensive subjects were unable to reduce BP or HR under conscious control. Subjects were able to increase both HR and BP, and voluntary increases in HR did not alter BP, while voluntary increases in BP also increased HR indicating distinct HR/BP interactions during conscious control

  8. Triple bar, high efficiency mechanical sealer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Donald J.; Hawkins, Samantha A.; Young, John E.

    2013-03-19

    A clamp with a bottom clamp bar that has a planar upper surface is provided. The clamp may also include a top clamp bar connected to the bottom clamp bar, and a pressure distribution bar between the top clamp bar and the bottom clamp bar. The pressure distribution bar may have a planar lower surface in facing relation to the upper surface of the bottom clamp bar. An object is capable of being disposed in a clamping region between the upper surface and the lower surface. The width of the planar lower surface may be less than the width of the upper surface within the clamping region. Also, the pressure distribution bar may be capable of being urged away from the top clamp bar and towards the bottom clamp bar.

  9. Postprandial glucose-lowering effect of premeal consumption of protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Lee Kyung; Min, Se Hee; Ahn, Chang Ho; Cho, Young Min

    2018-03-04

    Protein preload improves postprandial glycemia by stimulating secretion of insulin and incretin hormones. However, it requires a large dose of protein to produce a significant effect. The present study was carried out to investigate the postprandial glucose-lowering effect of a premeal protein-enriched, dietary fiber-fortified bar (PFB), which contains moderate amounts of protein, in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus or normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The participants (15 type 2 diabetes mellitus and 15 NGT) were randomly assigned to either a premeal or postmeal PFB group and underwent two mixed meal tolerance tests, 1 week apart in reverse order. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide were measured. During the mixed meal tolerance tests, the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma glucose levels was lower with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB in the type 2 diabetes mellitus (14,723 ± 1,310 mg min/dL vs 19,642 ± 1,367 mg min/dL; P = 0.0002) and NGT participants (3,943 ± 416 mg min/dL vs 4,827 ± 520 mg min/dL, P = 0.0296). In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, insulinogenic index and the incremental area under the curve from 0 to 180 min of plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels were higher with premeal PFB than with postmeal PFB, but not in the NGT participants. There was no difference in postprandial glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide levels between premeal and postmeal PFB in both groups. Acute administration of premeal PFB decreased postprandial glucose excursion in both type 2 diabetes mellitus and NGT participants. In the type 2 diabetes mellitus participants, premeal PFB augmented the early-phase insulin secretion, possibly through enhancing glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons

  10. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    A steam generator tube support structure comprises expandable antivibration bars positioned between rows of tubes in the steam generator and attached to retaining rings surrounding the bundle of tubes. The antivibration bars have adjacent bar sections with mating surfaces formed as inclined planes which upon relative longitudinal motion between the upper and lower bars provides a means to increase the overall thickness across the structure to the required value. The bar section is retained against longitudinal movement in take-up assembly whereas the bar section is movable longitudinally by rotation of a nut. (author)

  11. Fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers postprandial glucose and insulin without raising triglycerides: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rebecca A; Frese, Michael; Romero, Julio; Cunningham, Judy H; Mills, Kerry E

    2017-08-01

    Background: Conflicting evidence exists on the effects of fructose consumption in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. No systematic review has addressed the effect of isoenergetic fructose replacement of glucose or sucrose on peak postprandial glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. Objective: The objective of this study was to review the evidence for postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses after isoenergetic replacement of either glucose or sucrose in foods or beverages with fructose. Design: We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and clinicaltrials.gov The date of the last search was 26 April 2016. We included randomized controlled trials measuring peak postprandial glycemia after isoenergetic replacement of glucose, sucrose, or both with fructose in healthy adults or children with or without diabetes. The main outcomes analyzed were peak postprandial blood glucose, insulin, and triglyceride concentrations. Results: Replacement of either glucose or sucrose by fructose resulted in significantly lowered peak postprandial blood glucose, particularly in people with prediabetes and type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Similar results were obtained for insulin. Peak postprandial blood triglyceride concentrations did not significantly increase. Conclusions: Strong evidence exists that substituting fructose for glucose or sucrose in food or beverages lowers peak postprandial blood glucose and insulin concentrations. Isoenergetic replacement does not result in a substantial increase in blood triglyceride concentrations. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Bar dimensions and bar shapes in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuven, Jasper; Kleinhans, Maarten; Weisscher, Steven; van der Vegt, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Estuaries cause fascinating patterns of dynamic channels and shoals. Intertidal sandbars are valuable habitats, whilst channels provide access to harbors. We still lack a full explanation and classification scheme for the shapes and dimensions of bar patterns in natural estuaries, in contrast with bars in rivers. Analytical physics-based models suggest that bar length in estuaries increases with flow velocity, tidal excursion length or estuary width, depending on which model. However, these hypotheses were never validated for lack of data and experiments. We present a large dataset and determine the controls on bar shape and dimensions in estuaries, spanning bar lengths from centimeters (experiments) to 10s of kilometers length. First, we visually identified and classified 190 bars, measured their dimensions (width, length, height) and local braiding index. Data on estuarine geometry and tidal characteristics were obtained from governmental databases and literature on case studies. We found that many complex bars can be seen as simple elongated bars partly cut by mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels. Data analysis shows that bar dimensions scale with estuary dimensions, in particular estuary width. Breaking up the complex bars in simple bars greatly reduced scatter. Analytical bar theory overpredicts bar dimensions by an order of magnitude in case of small estuarine systems. Likewise, braiding index depends on local width-to-depth ratio, as was previously found for river systems. Our results suggest that estuary dimensions determine the order of magnitude of bar dimensions, while tidal characteristics modify this. We will continue to model bars numerically and experimentally. Our dataset on tidal bars enables future studies on the sedimentary architecture of geologically complex tidal deposits and enables studying effects of man-induced perturbations such as dredging and dumping on bar and channel patterns and habitats.

  13. Raising and lowering operators for quantum billiards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYUSH KUMAR MANDWAL

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... Abstract. For planar integrable billiards, the eigenstates can be classified with respect to a quantity determined by the quantum numbers. Given the quantum numbers as m, n, the index which represents a class is c = m mod kn for a natural number, k. We show here that the entire tower of states can be ...

  14. Raising and lowering operators for quantum billiards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For planar integrable billiards, the eigenstates can be classified with respect to a quantity determined by the quantum numbers. Given the quantum numbers as m , n , the index which represents a class is c = m mod k n for a natural number, k . We show here that the entire tower of states can be generated from an initially ...

  15. Influence of package and health-related claims on perception and sensory acceptability of snack bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Vinícius Rodrigues Arruda; Freitas, Tamara Beatriz de Oliveira; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Melo, Laura Fernandes; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Bressan, Josefina

    2017-11-01

    Concerns for health can lead to healthier food choices, especially if the consumer is well informed. This study aimed to evaluate the importance of package and health-related claims on Brazilian consumers' acceptance of snack bars. In order to evaluate package attributes, in focus groups discussions, 19 consumers chose the most important factors that influence their purchase decisions. Next, 102 consumers evaluated six commercial brands of snack bars in a three-session acceptance test: the first with no information about the product, the second containing the product package and the third with information on health-related claims associated with consumption of the bar. In general, package attributes, price and flavor were the most important factors that influence the purchase of snack bars. Health claims positively influenced consumer acceptance, but information concerning the absence of gluten and lactose did not significantly alter sensory acceptance. The presence of omega-3s, sugars, preservatives, flavorings and colorings have the potential to improve acceptability, because they were able to raise the acceptance of the seed bar, removing it from the rejection region. Protein and nut bars are not well known to the general public and the lower mean acceptance of the seed and protein bars demonstrated the need for sensorial improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The bridge technique for pectus bar fixation: a method to make the bar un-rotatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo; Moon, Young Kyu; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-08-01

    Pectus bar rotation is a major challenge in pectus repair. However, to date, no satisfactory technique to completely eliminate bar displacement has been introduced. Here, we propose a bar fixation technique using a bridge that makes the bar unmovable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of this bridge technique. A total of 80 patients underwent pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum with the bridge technique from July 2013 to July 2014. The technique involved connecting 2 parallel bars using plate-screws at the ends of the bars. To determine bar position change, the angles between the sternum and pectus bars were measured on postoperative day 5 (POD5) and 4 months (POM4) and compared. The mean patient age was 17.5 years (range, 6-38 years). The mean difference between POD5 and POM4 were 0.23° (P=.602) and 0.35° (P=.338) for the upper and lower bars, respectively. Bar position was virtually unchanged during the follow-up, and there was no bar dislocation or reoperation. A "bridge technique" designed to connect 2 parallel bars using plates and screws was demonstrated as a method to avoid pectus bar displacement. This approach was easy to implement without using sutures or invasive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Raising the Bar: Ethics Education for Quality Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s an "ethics boom" has occurred to counter the disappearance of ethics education from tertiary institutions. This "boom" appears to be absent from teacher education programs in Australia and the United States. Given persistent calls to enhance teacher quality this is problematic because quality teaching is…

  18. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  19. Barred Owl [ds8

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data define the current range of Barred and hybrid Barred/Spotted Owls in California. The current range includes the coastal mountains of northern California...

  20. Observations of barred spirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of barred spiral galaxies are discussed which show that the presence of a bar increases the likelihood for grand design spiral structure only in early Hubble types. This result is contrary to the more common notion that grand design spiral structure generally accompanies bars in galaxies. Enhanced deprojected color images are shown which reveal that a secondary set of spiral arms commonly occurs in barred galaxies and also occasionally in ovally distorted galaxies. 6 refs

  1. On Modified Bar recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    Modified bar recursion is a variant of Spector's bar recursion which can be used to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice. This realizability allows for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of forall-exists-formulas in classical analysis. In this talk I...... shall report on results regarding the relationship between modified and Spector's bar recursion. I shall also show that a seemingly weak form of modified bar recursion is as strong as "full" modified bar recursion in higher types....

  2. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  3. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  4. Bar and Theta Hyperoperations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vougiouklis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In questionnaires the replacement of the scale of Likert by a bar was suggested in 2008 by Vougiouklis & Vougiouklis. The use of the bar was rapidly accepted in social sciences. The bar is closely related with fuzzy theory and has several advantages during both the filling-in questionnaires and mainly in the research processing. In this paper we relate hyperstructure theory with questionnaires and we study the obtained hyperstructures which are used as an organising device of the problem.

  5. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  6. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  7. Hanging off a bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, F.; Walmink, W.; Toprak, C.; Bongers, Bert; Graether, E.; Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with

  8. Bar-tailed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, S.; Hidayati, N.A.; Piersma, T.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability.Aims To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  9. Four bars inn; Four bars inn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiumi, T. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    The name Four Bars Inn puns on four drinking bars and four bars on a musical score. It is a public house sited on the busy St. Mary Street, Cardiff, England. During my stay in that town, I often attended the regular jam session that opened at the bar at nine o`clock every Monday evening. A jam session is an event in which any amateur player, and a professional artist occasionally, is allowed to come on the stage freely and to play jazz, the participation fee as low as 300-yen. It is an occasion that provides a friendly meeting of man and woman, young and old, everyone carrying a pint of ale. Senior people happily talking to young ones aged like their grandchildren certainly presents a heart-warming scene, which we scarcely encounter in Japan. The affection that the British entertain toward their domestic furnishings relayed down through many a generation may lead to their respect for senior citizens. I heartily look forward detecting like scenes some day at drinking spots in Japan where the consumption-happy days are over. (NEDO)

  10. Exotic open-flavor $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ tetraquark states

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei; Steele, T. G.; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2013-01-01

    We study the exotic $bc\\bar{q}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{s}\\bar{s}$ and $qc\\bar{q}\\bar{b}$, $sc\\bar{s}\\bar{b}$ systems by constructing the corresponding tetraquark currents with $J^P=0^+$ and $1^+$. After investigating the two-point correlation functions and the spectral densities, we perform QCD sum rule analysis and extract the masses of these open-flavor tetraquark states. Our results indicate that the masses of both the scalar and axial vector tetraquark states are about $7.1-7.2$ GeV for the $bc\\...

  11. Determining vertical bar Vub vertical bar from the B-bar→Xulν-bar dilepton invariant mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian W.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The invariant mass spectrum of the lepton pair in inclusive semileptonic B-bar→X u lν-bar decay yields a model independent determination of vertical bar V ub vertical bar. Unlike the lepton energy and hadronic invariant mass spectra, nonperturbative effects are only important in the resonance region, and play a parametrically suppressed role when dΓ/dq 2 is integrated over q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 , which is required to eliminate the B-bar→X c lν-bar background. We discuss these backgrounds for q 2 slightly below (m B -m D ) 2 , and point out that instead of q 2 >(m B -m D ) 2 =11.6 GeV 2 , the cut can be lowered to q 2 > or approx. 10.5 GeV 2 . This is important experimentally, particularly when effects of a finite neutrino reconstruction resolution are included

  12. Snack bar compositions and their acute glycaemic and satiety effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mary R; Parsons, Andrew; Whalley, Gillian A; Kelleher, John; Rush, Elaine C

    Maintaining blood glucose within homeostatic limits and eating foods that sup-press hunger and promote satiety have beneficial impacts for health. This study investigated the glycaemic re-sponse and satiety effects of a serving size of a healthier snack bar, branded Nothing Else, that met the required nutrient profiling score criteria for a health claim, in comparison to two top-selling commercial snack bars. In an experimental study, 24 participants aged >=50 years were recruited. On three different days blood glucose concentration was measured twice at baseline and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after consumption of a serving size of each bar. Satiety effects were self-reported hunger, fullness, desire to eat, and amount could eat ratings on visual analogue scales. The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve (iAUC) over two hours for the Nothing Else bar was 30% lower than commercial Bar 2 (pbar induced the highest fullness rating and lowest hunger rating among the three snack bars. At two hours, fullness induced by the Nothing Else bar was twice that of Bar 2 (p=0.019), but not different to Bar 1 (p=0.212). The Nothing Else snack bar developed using the nutrient profiling scheme as a guideline, with its high protein and dietary fibre contents, had a lower glycaemic impact and induced a higher subjective satiety than the two commercial snack bars of equal weight.

  13. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  14. Breaking through the Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2011-01-01

    Howard University School of Law had a problem, and school officials knew it. Over a 20-year period, 40 percent of its graduates who took the Maryland bar exam failed it on their first try. During the next 24 months--the time frame required to determine its "eventual pass rate"--almost 90 percent of the students did pass. What they did…

  15. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Postinfective physeal bars – MRI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-traumatic physeal bar due to a Salter Harris IV fracture – T1 weighted (a) and gradient echo (b) .... the tilted growth arrest and recovery lines and for detecting fatty marrow ... Physeal bars are more common in the lower than upper.

  16. Role of Erosion in Shaping Point Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.; Meade, R.

    2012-04-01

    floods during a water year. Erosion often was preferential and removed part or all of pods at lower elevations, and in time left what appears to be a random arrangement of sediment pods forming the point bar. Thus, we conclude that the erosional process is as important as the deposition process in shaping the final form of the point bar, and that point bars are not uniformly aggradational or transgressive deposits of sediment in which the age of the deposit increases monotonically downward at all locations across the point bar.

  17. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  18. Bar codes for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keswani, A.N.; Bieber, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Bar codes similar to those used in supermarkets can be used to reduce the effort and cost of collecting nuclear materials accountability data. A wide range of equipment is now commercially available for printing and reading bar-coded information. Several examples of each of the major types of commercially-available equipment are given, and considerations are discussed both for planning systems using bar codes and for choosing suitable bar code equipment

  19. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  20. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  1. Cooling of rectangular bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frainer, V.J.

    1979-01-01

    A solution of the time-transient Heat Transfer Differential Equation in rectangular coordinates is presented, leading to a model which describes the temperature drop with time in rectangular bars. It is similar to an other model for cilindrical bars which has been previously developed in the Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy of UFRGS. Following these models, a generalization has been made, which permits cooling time evaluation for all profiles. These results are compared with experimental laboratory data in the 1200 to 800 0 C range. Some other existing models were also studied which have the purpose of studing the same phenomenon. Their mathematical forms and their evaluated values are analyzed and compared with experimental ones. (Author) [pt

  2. The Possible Heavy Tetraquarks $qQ\\bar q \\bar Q$, $qq\\bar Q \\bar Q$ and $qQ\\bar Q \\bar Q$

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Ying; Chen, Xiao-Lin; Deng, Wei-Zhen; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2006-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a $qc \\bar q \\bar c$ tetraquark and using its mass as input, we perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections.

  3. Triply heavy tetraquark states with the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ configuration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Wu, Jing; Liu, Yan-Rui; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of the color-magnetic interaction, we systematically investigate the mass splittings of the $QQ\\bar{Q}\\bar{q}$ tetraquark states and estimated their rough masses in this work. These systems include the explicitly exotic states $cc\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$ and $bb\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$ and the hidden exotic states $cc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, $cb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$, $bc\\bar{c}\\bar{q}$, and $bb\\bar{b}\\bar{q}$. If a state around the estimated mass region could be observed, its nature as a genuine tetraquark ...

  4. Dynamics of a stellar bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamical properties of a prolate bar have been studied by means of a three-dimensional computer model. The bar pattern rotates in the sense of the total angular momentum. The mean particle motion is a rapid streaming in the direction of pattern rotation as seen from a frame that rotates with the bar. Rotation rates that would be inferred from observation are significantly (2--3 times) faster than the pattern rotation speed. Velocity dispersions are anisotropic with the largest component along the bar. Particles oscillate in the bar potential significantly faster than pattern rotation: typical oscillation frequencies are around ω/sub z/=ω/sub y/=6Ω and ω/sub x/=3Ω where z is the direction of angular momentum, x lies along the bar, and Ω is the pattern angular velocity. About 25% of the star orbits are near 2:2:1 resonance with the slow motion along the bar. Particle motion is highly ordered in the bar:the ratio t=T/sub mean//vertical-barWvertical-bar is 0.21--0.24. Observable properties are described; where comparisons can be made, observable properties are in agreement with observations of brightness contours, velocity fields, and velocity dispersions. The bar has nearly exponential density profiles

  5. Crack tip field in circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB in tension affected by loss of axial symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Toribio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the stress intensity factor (SIF is computed in a circumferentially-cracked round bar (CCRB subjected to tensile loading, considering that the resistant ligament is circular and exhibits certain eccentricity in relation to the cylinder axis. The computation was performed by means of the finite element method (FEM using a three dimensional (3D model and the J-integral, the analyzed variable being the eccentricity of the circular ligament. Results show that the SIF is higher at the deepest point of the crack and that an increase of eccentricity (in relation to the bar axis raises the difference between the SIF values along the crack front. From a certain value of the misalignment a bending effect appears, so that the crack remains closed in the area near the point of lower depth.

  6. Ukola Club. Bar americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azpiazu, J. R.

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available En la calle de Serrano, aprovechando un semisótano dedicado a otro negocio anteriormente, se ha instalado un bar americano, de cuyo interior ofrecemos algunos pormenores. Se han cuidado, especialmente, las condiciones acústicas, resueltas por medio de un techo de escayola perforada, con vitrofib en su parte superior, y paredes de madera, que contribuyen a darle un ambiente cálido y acogedor. El soporte de hierro laminado existente en el centro del local, cuya supresión hubiera sido costosa, se ha revestido con lajas de mármol que le convierten en un elemento decorativo.

  7. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Jiří; Pulpan, Půlpán; Rusin, Luboš

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 kΩ for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 kΩ and 500 Ω, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions.

  8. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  9. K-bar-mesic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dote, Akinobu; Akaishi, Yoshinori; Yamazaki, Toshimitsu

    2005-01-01

    New nuclei 'K-bar-Mesic Nuclei' having the strangeness are described. At first it is shown that the strongly attractive nature of K-bar N interaction is reasoned inductively from consideration of the relation between Kaonic hydrogen atom and Λ (1405) which is an excited state of hyperon Λ. The K-bar N interactions are reviewed and summarized into three categories: 1. Phenomenological approach with density dependent K-bar N interaction (DD), relativistic mean field (RMF) approach, and hybrid of them (RMF+DD). 2. Boson exchange model. 3. Chiral SU(3) theory. The investigation of some light K-bar-nuclei by Akaishi and Yamazaki using phenomenological K-bar N interaction is explained in detail. Studies by antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) approach are also presented. From these theoretical researches, the following feature of K-bar-mesic nuclei are revealed: 1) Ground state is discrete and bound by 100 MeV or more. 2) Density is very high in side the K-bar-mesic nuclei. 3) Strange structures develop which are not seen in ordinary nuclei. Finally some recent experiments to explore K-bar-mesic nuclei are reviewed. (S. Funahashi)

  10. Barred spiral structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Weng, s.; Xu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Observational data indicate the grand design of spiral or barred spiral structure in disk galaxies. The problem of spiral structure has been thoroughly investigated by C. C. Lin and his collaborators, but yet the problem of barred spiral structure has not been investigated systematically, although much work has been done, such as in Ref. 3--7. Using the gasdynamic model for galaxies and a method of integral transform presented in Ref. 1, we investigated the barred spiral structure and obtained an analytical solution. It gives the large-scale pattern of barred-spirals, which is in fairly good agreement with observational data

  11. Comparison of vertical hydraulic conductivity in a streambed-point bar system of a gaining stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Weihong; Chen, Xunhong; Wang, Zhaowei; Ou, Gengxin; Liu, Can

    2012-07-01

    SummaryVertical hydraulic conductivities (Kv) of both streambed and point bars can influence water and solute exchange between streams and surrounding groundwater systems. The sediments in point bars are relatively young compared to the older sediments in the adjacent aquifers but slightly older compared to submerged streambeds. Thus, the permeability in point bar sediments can be different not only from regional aquifer but also from modern streambed. However, there is a lack of detailed studies that document spatial variability of vertical hydraulic conductivity in point bars of meandering streams. In this study, the authors proposed an in situ permeameter test method to measure vertical hydraulic conductivity of the two point bars in Clear Creek, Nebraska, USA. We compared the Kv values in streambed and adjacent point bars through 45 test locations in the two point bars and 51 test locations in the streambed. The Kv values in the point bars were lower than those in the streambed. Kruskal-Wallis test confirmed that the Kv values from the point bars and from the channel came from two statistically different populations. Within a point bar, the Kv values were higher along the point bar edges than those from inner point bars. Grain size analysis indicated that slightly more silt and clay particles existed in sediments from inner point bars, compared to that from streambed and from locations near the point bar edges. While point bars are the deposits of the adjacent channel, the comparison of two groups of Kv values suggests that post-depositional processes had an effect on the evolution of Kv from channel to point bars in fluvial deposits. We believed that the transport of fine particles and the gas ebullition in this gaining stream had significant effects on the distribution of Kv values in a streambed-point bar system. With the ageing of deposition in a floodplain, the permeability of point bar sediments can likely decrease due to reduced effects of the upward

  12. Comparison of the passivity between cast alloy and laser-welded titanium overdenture bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Jose; Givan, Daniel A; Broome, James C; Lemons, Jack E; McCracken, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fit of cast alloy overdenture and laser-welded titanium-alloy bars by measuring induced strain upon tightening of the bars on a master cast as well as a function of screw tightening sequence. Four implant analogs were secured into Type IV dental stone to simulate a mandibular edentulous patient cast, and two groups of four overdenture bars were fabricated. Group I was four cast alloy bars and Group II was four laser-welded titanium bars. The cast alloy bars included Au-Ag-Pd, Pd-Ag-Au, Au-Ag-Cu-Pd, and Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, while the laser-welded bars were all Ti-Al-V alloy. Bars were made from the same master cast, were torqued into place, and the total strain in the bars was measured through five strain gauges bonded to the bar between the implants. Each bar was placed and torqued 27 times to 30 Ncm per screw using three tightening sequences. Data were processed through a strain amplifier and analyzed by computer using StrainSmart software. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Significant differences were found between alloy types. Laser-welded titanium bars tended to have lower strains than corresponding cast bars, although the Au-Ag-Pd bar was not significantly different. The magnitudes of total strain were the least when first tightening the ends of the bar. The passivity of implant overdenture bars was evaluated using total strain of the bar when tightening. Selecting a high modulus of elasticity cast alloy or use of laser-welded bar design resulted in the lowest average strain magnitudes. While the effect of screw tightening sequence was minimal, tightening the distal ends first demonstrated the lowest strain, and hence the best passivity.

  13. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  14. Implementation of viscoelastic Hopkinson bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govender R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the properties of soft, viscoelastic materials at high strain rates are important in furthering our understanding of their role during blast or impact events. Testing these low impedance materials using a metallic split Hopkinson pressure bar setup results in poor signal to noise ratios due to impedance mismatching. These difficulties are overcome by using polymeric Hopkinson bars. Conventional Hopkinson bar analysis cannot be used on the polymeric bars due to the viscoelastic nature of the bar material. Implementing polymeric Hopkinson bars requires characterization of the viscoelastic properties of the material used. In this paper, 30 mm diameter Polymethyl Methacrylate bars are used as Hopkinson pressure bars. This testing technique is applied to polymeric foam called Divinycell H80 and H200. Although there is a large body of of literature containing compressive data, this rarely deals with strain rates above 250s−1 which becomes increasingly important when looking at the design of composite structures where energy absorption during impact events is high on the list of priorities. Testing of polymeric foams at high strain rates allows for the development of better constitutive models.

  15. Bar Coliseo, en Sevilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-10-01

    Full Text Available This bar is situated inside the «Coliseo» building, which houses a cinema, as well as a number of commercial establishments. In order not to break the unity of the total project, no attempt has been made to alter the exterior aspect of the bar. No attempt was made, either, to make it into an intimate, club type of bar, now so much in fashion. Rather has it been given a diaphanous style, seeking the best possible use of the floor space. The windows of the building are elongated, and there is an intermediate floor level, whose detailed structure is metallic. A cleverly designed staircase, of folded sheet metal connects the ground floor, the intermediate floor level and the restaurant. Materials were carefully chosen in accordance with their function. The colour scheme has a sustained unity throughout the building, and care has been taken to avoid surprising or vivid chromatic patterns. Ceramic enamels by the painter Santiago del Campo provide a feature of decoration on the ground floor, and also serve to cover up the return air ducts. On the top floor, the restaurant is fitted with coloured tile facings, the work of the Seville painters Maria Josefa Sánchez, María Dolores Sánchez and Emilio García Ortiz. The bottom joints of the timber beams, in conjunction with the tile patterns, is reminiscent of the traditional Sevillian habit of placing ceramic units between the timber framework of buildings. The initial problem of the architect was to combine the optimum functional efficiency and aesthetic quality of the project, and the final solution is undoubtedly successful.El establecimiento está situado dentro del edificio «Coliseo», complejo formado por una sala de cine, y con la parte lateral destinada a locales comerciales. Formando un conjunto único no se pensó nunca en transformar los revestimientos y molduras de fachada. Tampoco presidió la idea de conseguir un establecimiento íntimo «tipo Club», tan en boga actualmente, sino un

  16. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  17. Development of an effective pinch bar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ottermann, RW

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available . ....................................10 Figure 3-3: Layout of lightweight pinch bar extruded fibreglass tube. ..................................11 Figure 3-4: XDM lightweight pinch bar with manufactured glass fibre bar. ..........................12 Figure 3-5: XDM lightweight pinch... bar with extruded glass fibre tube. ................................12 Figure 3-6: Stiffness of a 2.8m lightweight pinch bar with an extruded glass fibre tube and a 25mm steel pinch bar...

  18. Low energy bar pp physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amsler, C.; Crowe, K.

    1989-02-01

    A detailed investigation of proton-antiproton interactions at low energy has become feasible with the commissioning of the LEAR facility in 1983. We shall shortly review the status of bar pp annihilation at rest and the physics motivations for second generation experiments with the Crystal Barrel detector. This type of detector would be adequate for the study of both Kp and bar pp interactions on an extracted beam of the KAON Factory. We shall conclude with a few remarks on the physics opportunities with bar p's at the KAON Factory which, in our opinion, will not be covered by the present LEAR facility. 11 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Possible heavy tetraquarks qQq-barQ-bar, qqQ-barQ-bar and qQQ-barQ-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Ying; Chen Xiaolin; Deng Weizhen; Zhu Shilin

    2007-01-01

    Assuming X(3872) is a qcq-barc-bar tetraquark and using its mass as input, the authors perform a schematic study of the masses of possible heavy tetraquarks using the color-magnetic interaction with the flavor symmetry breaking corrections. (authors)

  20. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  1. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  2. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  3. RELATING BOTTOM QUARK MASS IN DR-BAR AND MS-BAR REGULARIZATION SCHEMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The value of the bottom quark mass at Q = M Z in the (bar D)(bar R) scheme is an important input for the analysis of supersymmetric models with a large value of tan β. Conventionally, however, the running bottom quark mass extracted from experimental data is quoted in the (bar M)(bar S) scheme at the scale Q = m b . We describe a two loop procedure for the conversion of the bottom quark mass from (bar M)(bar S) to (bar D)(bar R) scheme. The Particle Data Group value m b # bar M# # bar S#(m b # bar M# # bar S#) = 4.2 ± 0.2 GeV corresponds to a range of 2.65-3.03 GeV for m b # bar D# # bar R#(M Z )

  4. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  5. Conditional approval: Japan lowers the bar for regenerative medicine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Douglas

    2015-04-02

    A new system for conditional approval of regenerative medicine products will allow products of undetermined efficacy to enter the Japanese market. The potential scientific, economic, and ethical implications of this program highlight the need for further discussion and refinement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Field observations of nearshore bar formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2008-01-01

      The formation of an inner nearshore bar was observed during a high-energy event at the sandy beach of Vejers, Denmark. The bar accreted in situ during surf zone conditions and the growth of the bar was associated with the development of a trough landward of the bar. Measurements of hydrodynamics...

  7. Measurement of the asymmetry parameter for the decay $\\bar\\Lambda \\to \\bar p\\pi^+$

    OpenAIRE

    BES collaboration

    2009-01-01

    Based on a sample of $58\\times10^6J/\\psi$ decays collected with the BESII detector at the BEPC, the $\\bar\\Lambda$ decay parameter $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}$ for $\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p \\pi^+$ is measured using about 9000 $J/\\psi\\to\\Lambda\\bar\\Lambda\\to p \\bar p \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays. A fit to the joint angular distributions yields $\\alpha_{\\bar\\Lambda}(\\bar\\Lambda\\to \\bar p\\pi^+)=-0.755\\pm0.083\\pm0.063$, where the first error is statistical, and the second systematic.

  8. Raising the Bar: Significant Advances and Future Needs for Promoting Learning for Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; Browder, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    This essay describes major advances in educating students with severe disabilities. The authors propose that applied behavior analysis, the focus on functional life skills, and the promotion of academic content have been the major advances in the "how" and "what" of learning for this population. An increased focus on literacy,…

  9. FDG PET/CT in oncology: 'raising the bar'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, C.N. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford Radcliffe NHS Trust, Oxford (United Kingdom); Goldstone, A.R.; Chowdhury, F.U. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarsbrook, A.F., E-mail: andrew.scarsbrook@leedsth.nhs.u [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-15

    Integrated positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has revolutionized oncological imaging in recent years and now has a firmly established role in a variety of tumour types. There have been simultaneous step-wise advances in scanner technology, which are yet to be exploited to their full potential in clinical practice. This article will review these technological developments and explore how refinements in imaging protocols can further improve the accuracy and efficacy of PET/CT in oncology. The promises, and limitations, of emerging oncological applications of FDG PET/CT in radiotherapy planning and therapy response assessment will be explored. Potential future developments, including the use of FDG PET probes in oncological surgery, advanced data analysis techniques, and the prospect of integrated PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) will be highlighted.

  10. Student Reading Growth Illuminates the Common Core Text-Complexity Standard: Raising Both Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Gary L.; Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, Jackson A.

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) establish a challenging text-complexity standard for all high school graduates to read at college and workplace text-complexity levels. We argue that implementation of the CCSS standard requires concurrent examination of historical student reading-growth trends. An example of a historical student average…

  11. Cure therapeutics and strategic prevention: raising the bar for mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, T R; Scolnick, E M

    2006-01-01

    Mental disorders cause more disability than any other class of medical illness in Americans between ages 15 and 44 years. The suicide rate is higher than the annual mortality from homicide, AIDS, and most forms of cancer. In contrast to nearly all communicable and most non-communicable diseases, there is little evidence that the morbidity and mortality from mental disorders have changed in the past several decades. Mental health advocates, including psychiatric researchers, have pointed to stigma as one of the reasons for the lack of progress with mental illnesses relative to other medical illnesses. This review considers how the expectations and goals of the research community have contributed to this relative lack of progress. In contrast to researchers in cancer and heart disease who have sought cures and preventions, biological psychiatrists in both academia and industry have set their sights on incremental and marketable advances, such as drugs with fewer adverse effects. This essay argues for approaches that can lead to cures and strategies for prevention of schizophrenia and mood disorders.

  12. Raising the Bar in Freshman Science Education: Student Lectures, Scientific Papers, and Independent Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Eva-Maria S.; Calhoun, Tessa R.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the combination of three enhanced educational approaches for training future scientists. These methods incorporate skills generally not introduced in the freshman year: student-led blackboard introductions; the writing of scientific papers; and the design, execution, and presentation of an independent lab module. We tested…

  13. Raising the Bar: Love, the Community of Inquiry, and the Flourishing Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yos, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    The author has been working at the same elementary school in Hawai'i for nearly twenty years. Nearly ten years ago, he argued in his doctoral dissertation that philosophy for children and its pedagogy of the community of inquiry is good for kids. His thesis is this: In today's American educational climate, with its laser-sharp focus on…

  14. Raising the bar of care for older people in Ontario emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Doris Splinter; Jennings, Jane; Moghabghab, Rola; Nancekivell, Tracy; Tsang, Clara; Cleland, Michelle; Shipman-Vokner, Karen

    2010-09-01

    To describe the role of geriatric emergency management nurses as a catalyst for culture change in emergency department processes with the goal to improve care and outcomes of older people. The changing context and literature has called for a culture change within emergency department care to integrate principles of older people care into care delivery. There is a paucity of reports describing how geriatric emergency care models bring about a broader change in culture within the entire emergency department. The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care in Canada established a programme to place geriatric emergency management nurses into emergency departments with the goal to improve delivery of care through development of unique, site-appropriate solutions. Geriatric emergency management nurses incorporate capacity building into their role to develop and strengthen the skills, instincts, abilities, process and resources of the emergency department. Care processes focus on areas of staffing, mobilization, comfort, medication, hygiene, nutrition/hydration, cognition, environment, equipment and stimulation. Multi-modal educational strategies and advocacy promote appropriate person-centred care. Improved communication among care providers at key patient transition points remains a priority system-level improvement. Geriatric emergency management nurses work collaboratively with the emergency department team to facilitate change in the way that emergency department care is provided to the older person experiencing health emergencies. Known strategies that have been effective in improving outcomes for older people within the hospital and residential care setting can be generalized into emergency department care. Further research into the effectiveness of these strategies in this environment is recommended. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Raising the Bar of Teacher Quality: Accountability, Collaboration, and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, DeLacy Derin; Quintanar, Anita P.; Loop, Lisa S.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, reform efforts to address poor student achievement have focused on a variety of issues other than teacher quality. Movements such as TQM (Total Quality Management), class size reduction (CSR), school leadership, parental involvement, and multicultural curriculum have not directly addressed the power or influence of the individual…

  16. Raising the Bar: A Data-Driven Discussion on Grade Inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The practice of handing out excellent grades to students who don't deserve them (grade inflation) is not a new phenomenon. Indeed grade inflation is among the oldest and most difficult issues to address in higher education. The author first studied the impact of grade inflation on student performance on standardized tests at the high school level…

  17. Raising the Bar: Standards and Tests in California's High Schools. A Town Hall Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnstine, Barbara; Futernick, Ken; Hodson, Timothy A.; Ostgaard, Kolleen

    In 1999, the LegiSchool Project planned to conduct the 12th in its series of televised Town Hall Meetings to provide a forum in which California high school students, educators, and legislators can engage in face-to-face dialogue about problems of mutual interest. For 1999, the topic is standards and tests in California high schools. This guide…

  18. Raising the Bar on External Research Funding: Infrastructure and Strategies for Enhancing Faculty Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chval, Kathryn B.; Nossaman, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Administrators seek faculty who have the expertise to secure external funding to support their research agenda. Administrators also seek strategies to support and enhance faculty productivity across different ranks. In this manuscript, we describe the infrastructure we established and strategies we implemented to enhance the research enterprise at…

  19. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  20. Dynamics of membrane nanotubes coated with I-BAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barooji, Younes F.; Rørvig-Lund, Andreas; Semsey, Szabolcs; Reihani, S. Nader S.; Bendix, Poul M.

    2016-07-01

    Membrane deformation is a necessary step in a number of cellular processes such as filopodia and invadopodia formation and has been shown to involve membrane shaping proteins containing membrane binding domains from the IRSp53-MIM protein family. In reconstituted membranes the membrane shaping domains can efficiently deform negatively charged membranes into tubules without any other proteins present. Here, we show that the IM domain (also called I-BAR domain) from the protein ABBA, forms semi-flexible nanotubes protruding into Giant Unilamellar lipid Vesicles (GUVs). By simultaneous quantification of tube intensity and tubular shape we find both the diameter and stiffness of the nanotubes. I-BAR decorated tubes were quantified to have a diameter of ~50 nm and exhibit no stiffening relative to protein free tubes of the same diameter. At high protein density the tubes are immobile whereas at lower density the tubes diffuse freely on the surface of the GUV. Bleaching experiments of the fluorescently tagged I-BAR confirmed that the mobility of the tubes correlates with the mobility of the I-BAR on the GUV membrane. Finally, at low density of I-BAR the protein upconcentrates within tubes protruding into the GUVs. This implies that I-BAR exhibits strong preference for negatively curved membranes.

  1. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo, E-mail: b.cervantes@irya.unam.mx, E-mail: o.sanchez@irya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-09-20

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  2. Do Low Surface Brightness Galaxies Host Stellar Bars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Sánchez García, Osbaldo

    2017-01-01

    With the aim of assessing if low surface brightness galaxies host stellar bars and by studying the dependence of the occurrence of bars as a function of surface brightness, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to construct a large volume-limited sample of galaxies and then segregate these galaxies as having low or high surface brightness in terms of their central surface brightness. We find that the fraction of low surface brightness galaxies hosting strong bars is systematically lower than that found for high surface brightness galaxies. The dependence of the bar fraction on the central surface brightness is mostly driven by a correlation of the surface brightness with the spin and the gas richness of the galaxies, showing only a minor dependence on the surface brightness. We also find that the length of the bars is strongly dependent on the surface brightness, and although some of this dependence is attributed to the gas content, even at a fixed gas-to-stellar mass ratio, high surface brightness galaxies host longer bars than their low surface brightness counterparts, which we attribute to an anticorrelation of the surface brightness with the spin.

  3. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  4. Star formation suppression and bar ages in nearby barred galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, P. A.; Percival, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    We present new spectroscopic data for 21 barred spiral galaxies, which we use to explore the effect of bars on disc star formation, and to place constraints on the characteristic lifetimes of bar episodes. The analysis centres on regions of heavily suppressed star formation activity, which we term `star formation deserts'. Long-slit optical spectroscopy is used to determine H β absorption strengths in these desert regions, and comparisons with theoretical stellar population models are used to determine the time since the last significant star formation activity, and hence the ages of the bars. We find typical ages of ˜1 Gyr, but with a broad range, much larger than would be expected from measurement errors alone, extending from ˜0.25 to >4 Gyr. Low-level residual star formation, or mixing of stars from outside the `desert' regions, could result in a doubling of these age estimates. The relatively young ages of the underlying populations coupled with the strong limits on the current star formation rule out a gradual exponential decline in activity, and hence support our assumption of an abrupt truncation event.

  5. Bar-spheroid interaction in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, Martin D.

    1992-01-01

    N-body simulation and linear analysis is employed to investigate the secular evolution of barred galaxies, with emphasis on the interaction between bars and spheroidal components of galaxies. This interaction is argued to drive secular transfer of angular momentum from bars to spheroids, primarily through resonant coupling. A moderately strong bar, having mass within corotation about 0.3 times the enclosed spheroid mass, is predicted to shed all its angular momentum typically in less than about 10 exp 9 yr. Even shorter depletion time scales are found for relatively more massive bars. It is suggested either that spheroids around barred galaxies are structured so as to inhibit strong coupling with bars, or that bars can form by unknown processes long after disks are established. The present models reinforce the notion that bars can drive secular evolution in galaxies.

  6. Observations of offshore bar decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart; Greenwood, Brian

    2010-01-01

    the upper shoreface, and finally a stage of decaying bar form through loss of sediment volume at the outer boundary of the upper shoreface. The phenomenon has been previously documented in the Netherlands, the USA, the Canadian Great Lakes, and in New Zealand, but our present understanding...

  7. Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states in chiral SU(3) quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Zhang Min; Zhang Zongye

    2007-01-01

    We study the masses of Qq(Q-bar)(q-bar)' states with J PC =0 ++ , 1 ++ , 1 +- and 2 ++ in the chiral SU(3) quark model, where Q is the heavy quark (c or b) and q(q') is the light quark (u,d or s). According to our numerical results, it is improbable to make the interpretation of [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 1 ++ and [cn(c-bar)(n-bar)] 2 ++ (n=u,d) states as X(3872) and Y(3940), respectively. However, it is interesting to find the tetraquarks in the bq(b-bar)(q-bar)' system. (authors)

  8. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Bus bar electrical feedthrough for electrorefiner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Mark; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2013-12-03

    A bus bar electrical feedthrough for an electrorefiner system may include a retaining plate, electrical isolator, and/or contact block. The retaining plate may include a central opening. The electrical isolator may include a top portion, a base portion, and a slot extending through the top and base portions. The top portion of the electrical isolator may be configured to extend through the central opening of the retaining plate. The contact block may include an upper section, a lower section, and a ridge separating the upper and lower sections. The upper section of the contact block may be configured to extend through the slot of the electrical isolator and the central opening of the retaining plate. Accordingly, relatively high electrical currents may be transferred into a glovebox or hot-cell facility at a relatively low cost and higher amperage capacity without sacrificing atmosphere integrity.

  10. Destruction of intertidal bar morphology during a summer storm surge event: Example of positive morphodynamic feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masselink, Gerd; Aagaard, Troels; Kroon, Aart

    2011-01-01

    . The measurements demonstrated an example of positive morphodynamic feedback. Once the bar crest elevation started to decrease because of wave overtopping and sediment transport into the runnel on the rising tide, the bar crest lowered and overwash frequency increased, leading to enhanced crest erosion, even under...

  11. Strengthing of Beams and Columns using GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, C. B.; Tade, M. K.; Thakare, S. B., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays infrastructure development is raising its pace. Many reinforced high concrete and masonry buildings are constructed annually around the globe. There are large numbers of structures which deteriorate or become unsafe to use because of changes in use, changes in loading condition, change in the design configuration, inferior building material used or natural calamities. Thus repairing and retrofitting of these structures for safe usage of has a great market. There are several situations in which a civil structure would require strengthening due to lack of strength, stiffness, ductility and durability. Beams, columns may be strengthened in flexure by using GFRP in tension zone. In this present work comparative study will be made with and without GFRP circular bars in a beam and column. An experiment study will be carried out to study the change in the structural behavior of beams & columns with GFRP circular bars of different thickness, varying span to depth ratio.

  12. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Dugger, Katie M.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  13. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  14. Going Smokefree Matters - Bars and Restaurants Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Going Smokefree Matters – Bars and Restaurants Infographic which outlines key facts related to the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in bars and...

  15. CP asymmetries in B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l and untagged B-bar s, Bs → φ( → K+K-) l-bar l decays at NLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeth, Christoph; Hiller, Gudrun; Piranishvili, Giorgi

    2008-01-01

    The decay B-bar → K-bar *( → K-bar π) l-bar l offers great opportunities to explore the physics at and above the electroweak scale by means of an angular analysis. We investigate the physics potential of the seven CP asymmetries plus the asymmetry in the rate, working at low dilepton mass using QCD factorization at next-to leading order (NLO). The b → s CP asymmetries are doubly Cabibbo-suppressed ∼ d , B d → K*( → K 0 π 0 ) l-bar l and B-bar s , B s → φ( → K + K - ) l-bar l decays. Analyses of these CP asymmetries can rule out, or further support the minimal description of CP violation through the CKM mechanism. Experimental studies are promising for (super) flavor factories and at hadron colliders.

  16. Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.

  17. Effects of flexi-bar and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscles activity in different postures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Sub; Park, Seol; Kim, JiYoung; Park, Ji Won

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises on trunk muscle activity in different postures in healthy adults. [Subjects] Twenty healthy right-hand dominant adults (10 males and 10 females) were selected for this study. None of the participants had experienced any orthopedic problems in the spine or in the upper and lower extremities in the previous six months. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to adopt three exercise postures: posture 1, quadruped; posture 2, side-bridge; and posture 3, standing. Surface electromyography of selected trunk muscles was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction. [Results] The external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae muscle activity showed significant differences between flexi-bar exercises and non-flexi-bar exercises. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that flexi-bar exercises are useful in the activation of trunk muscles.

  18. 49 CFR 236.705 - Bar, locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bar, locking. 236.705 Section 236.705..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.705 Bar, locking. A bar in an interlocking machine to which the locking dogs are attached. ...

  19. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system

  20. N-barN interaction theoretical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loiseau, B.

    1991-12-01

    In the framework of antinucleon-nucleon interaction theoretical models, our present understanding on the N-barN interaction is discussed, either from quark- or/and meson- and baryon-degrees of freedom, by considering the N-barN annihilation into mesons and the N-barN elastic and charge-exchange scattering. (author) 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Behavior of reinforced concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Tavares

    Full Text Available The use of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP bars is one of the alternatives presented in recent studies to prevent the drawbacks related to the steel reinforcement in specific reinforced concrete members. In this work, six reinforced concrete beams were submitted to four point bending tests. One beam was reinforced with CA-50 steel bars and five with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars. The tests were carried out in the Department of Structural Engineering in São Carlos Engineering School, São Paulo University. The objective of the test program was to compare strength, reinforcement deformation, displacement, and some anchorage aspects between the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams and the steel-reinforced concrete beam. The results show that, even though four GFRP-reinforced concrete beams were designed with the same internal tension force as that with steel reinforcement, their capacity was lower than that of the steel-reinforced beam. The results also show that similar flexural capacity can be achieved for the steel- and for the GFRP-reinforced concrete beams by controlling the stiffness (reinforcement modulus of elasticity multiplied by the bar cross-sectional area - EA and the tension force of the GFRP bars.

  2. Determination of the quark coupling strength vertical bar V-ub vertical bar using baryonic decays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Older, A. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Tolk, S.

    In the Standard Model of particle physics, the strength of the couplings of the b quark to the u and c quarks, vertical bar V-ub vertical bar and vertical bar V-ub vertical bar, are governed by the coupling of the quarks to the Higgs boson. Using data from the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron

  3. Derivation of asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, K.; Oneda, S.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the origin of the observed approximate Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule is the presence of an asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule which exists among certain two-body hadronic weak matrix elements, involving especially the ground-state hadrons

  4. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  5. Production of n-bar's and Sigma-bar+-'s in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, T.; Buchanan, C.; Nodulman, L.; Poster, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Morehouse, C.C.; Vannucci, F.

    1979-01-01

    The production of antineutrons and charged Sigma-bar's in e + e - annihilations has been measured at √s +- production between 4 and 7 GeV is consistent with simple expectations for charmed-baryon production. A search for the decays Lambda-bar - /sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - and Sigma-baratsup asteriskat/sub c//Sigma-bar/sub c/ → Lambda-bar - /sub c/π +- yields no significant peaks. An upper limit, at the 90% confidence level, of sigmaatsub Lambda-baratc-italicB (Lambda-bar/sub c/ → Sigma-bar +- π -+ π - ) < 56 pb is set

  6. Galaxy Zoo: Observing secular evolution through bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Edmond; Faber, S. M.; Koo, David C.; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, A.; Masters, Karen L.; Nichol, Robert C.; Melvin, Thomas; Bell, Eric F.; Lintott, Chris; Schawinski, Kevin; Skibba, Ramin A.; Willett, Kyle W.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use the Galaxy Zoo 2 data set to study the behavior of bars in disk galaxies as a function of specific star formation rate (SSFR) and bulge prominence. Our sample consists of 13,295 disk galaxies, with an overall (strong) bar fraction of 23.6% ± 0.4%, of which 1154 barred galaxies also have bar length (BL) measurements. These samples are the largest ever used to study the role of bars in galaxy evolution. We find that the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar is anticorrelated with SSFR, regardless of stellar mass or bulge prominence. We find that the trends of bar likelihood and BL with bulge prominence are bimodal with SSFR. We interpret these observations using state-of-the-art simulations of bar evolution that include live halos and the effects of gas and star formation. We suggest our observed trends of bar likelihood with SSFR are driven by the gas fraction of the disks, a factor demonstrated to significantly retard both bar formation and evolution in models. We interpret the bimodal relationship between bulge prominence and bar properties as being due to the complicated effects of classical bulges and central mass concentrations on bar evolution and also to the growth of disky pseudobulges by bar evolution. These results represent empirical evidence for secular evolution driven by bars in disk galaxies. This work suggests that bars are not stagnant structures within disk galaxies but are a critical evolutionary driver of their host galaxies in the local universe (z < 1).

  7. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Study of the reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ at 3.6 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Atherton, Henry W; Moebes, J P; Quercigh, Emanuele

    1974-01-01

    The reactions $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Sigma^{0}$ or $\\bar{\\Sigma^{0}} \\Lambda , \\bar{\\Sigma^{+}} \\Sigma^{+}$ are studied at an incident momentum of 3.6 GeV/c in a 35.4 event/$\\mu$ b experiment performed in the CERN 2m HBC. Total and differential cross sections are presented. The polarization of the hyperons is measured as a function of $t$ and for the reaction $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$ the complete spin correlation matrix is given. (23 refs).

  10. Numerical Study on Deflection Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Osama A.; Khattab, Rania; Hawat, Waddah Al

    2017-10-01

    Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bars are gaining popularity as sustainable alternatives to conventional reinforcing steel bars in reinforced concrete applications. The production of FRP bars has lower environmental impact compared to steel reinforcing bars. In addition, the non-corroding FRP materials can potentially decrease the cost or need for maintenance of reinforced concrete structural elements, especially in harsh environmental conditions that can impact both concrete and reinforcement. FRP bars offer additional favourable properties including high tensile strength and low unit weight. However, the mechanical properties of FRP bars can lead to large crack widths and deflections. The objective of this study is to investigate the deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with Glass FRP (GFRP) bars as a longitudinal main reinforcement. Six concrete beams reinforced with GFRP bars were modelled using the finite element computer program ANSYS. The main variable considered in the study is the reinforcement ratio. The deflection equations in current North American codes including ACI 440.1R-06, ACI 440.1R-15 and CSA S806-12 are used to compute deflections, and these are compared to numerical results. It was concluded in this paper that deflections predicted by ACI 440.1R-06 equations are lower than the numerical analysis results while ACI 440.1R-15 is in agreement with numerical analysis with tendency to be conservative. The values of deflections estimated by CSA S806-12 formulas are consistent with results of numerical analysis.

  11. Jackson Bar Training Structure Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    comparison of the one-dimensional bridge hydraulic routines from: HEC - RAS , HEC -2, and WSPRO. Davis, CA: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 5- 4 Jackson Bar Training Structure Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp and...Leroy Gage), a previously constructed HEC -2 model, and a previously constructed WES physical model from 1987. Three alternatives were modeled in an

  12. BaBar Data Aquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Hamilton, R T; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1998-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by analysing the decays of a very large sample of B and Bbar mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-11 accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detector subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "personality card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data are read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. Careful design of the core data acquisition code has enabled us to sustain events rates in excess of 20 kHz while maintaini...

  13. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  14. LOSS FACTOR AND DYNAMIC YOUNG MODULUS DETERMINATION FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS REINFORCED WITH STEEL FABRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin-Mihai MIRIŢOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I have build some composite sandwich bars. For these bars I have determined the dynamic response by recording their free vibrations. These bars have the core made of polypropylene honeycomb with upper and lower layers reinforced with steel wire mesh. For these bars I have determined the the eigenfrequency of the first eigenmode in this way: the bar was embedded at one end and free at the other where there was placed an accelerometer at 10 mm distance from the edge and I applied an initial force at the free end. I have determined the eigenfrequency because I will use its values for the loss factor and dynamic Young modulus determination.

  15. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Yu; Ho, Luis C.; Barth, Aaron J.

    2017-08-01

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle (I), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high I) or as a barlens structure (at low I). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%-80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass (M * 1010.5 M ⊙), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506-G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  16. Extruded bar reinforced structure and manufacturing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truchet, J.M.; Bozetto, P.

    1989-01-01

    A cooling tower has horizontal hoops connected by two inclined sets of bars to form a trellis of equilateral triangle anchored in the ground. The bars and hoops are connected at the corners of the triangle. A skin stretched over the trellis defines the tower. The bars are made with thermosetting resin reinforced by fibres. The fabrication of such tower is cheep and simple it can be used for every type of electrical power station, nuclear or not [fr

  17. TESTING THEORIES IN BARRED-SPIRAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-García, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    According to one version of the recently proposed 'manifold' theory that explains the origin of spirals and rings in relation to chaotic orbits, galaxies with stronger bars should have a higher spiral arms pitch angle when compared to galaxies with weaker bars. A subsample of barred-spiral galaxies in the Ohio State University Bright Galaxy Survey was used to analyze the spiral arms pitch angle. These were compared with bar strengths taken from the literature. It was found that the galaxies in which the spiral arms maintain a logarithmic shape for more than 70° seem to corroborate the predicted trend.

  18. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A.; Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  19. Nuss bar migrations: occurrence and classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Lauren E.; Binkovitz, Larry A. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Zendejas, Benjamin; Moir, Christopher R. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Surgery, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Pectus excavatum results from dorsal deviation of the sternum causing narrowing of the anterior-posterior diameter of the chest. It can result in significant cosmetic deformities and cardiopulmonary compromise if severe. The Nuss procedure is a minimally invasive technique that involves placing a thin horizontally oriented metal bar below the dorsal sternal apex for correction of the pectus deformity. To identify the frequency and types of Nuss bar migrations, to present a new categorization of bar migrations, and to present examples of true migrations and pseudomigrations. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records and all pertinent radiologic studies of 311 pediatric patients who underwent a Nuss procedure. We evaluated the frequency and type of bar migrations. Bar migration was demonstrated in 23 of 311 patients (7%) and occurred within a mean period of 26 days after surgery. Bar migrations were subjectively defined as deviation of the bar from the position demonstrated on the immediate postoperative radiographs and categorized as superior, inferior, rotation, lateral or flipped using a new classification system. Sixteen of the 23 migrations required re-operation. Nuss bar migration can be diagnosed with careful evaluation of serial radiographs. Nuss bar migration has a wide variety of appearances and requires exclusion of pseudomigration resulting from changes in patient positioning between radiologic examinations. (orig.)

  20. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  1. Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föhl, K.; Brook, N.; Castillo García, L.; Cussans, D.; Forty, R.; Frei, C.; Gao, R.; Gys, T.; Harnew, N.; Piedigrossi, D.; Rademacker, J.; Ros García, A.; van Dijk, M.

    2017-12-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  2. submitter Performance simulation of BaBar DIRC bar boxes in TORCH

    CERN Document Server

    Föhl, K; Castillo García, L; Cussans, D; Forty, R; Frei, C; Gao, R; Gys, T; Harnew, N; Piedigrossi, D; Rademacker, J; Ros García, A; van Dijk, M

    2017-01-01

    TORCH is a large-area precision time-of-flight detector based on the DIRC principle. The DIRC bar boxes of the BaBar experiment at SLAC could possibly be reused to form a part of the TORCH detector time-of-flight wall area, proposed to provide positive particle identification of low momentum kaons in the LHCb experiment at CERN. For a potential integration of BaBar bar boxes into TORCH, new imaging readout optics are required. From the several designs of readout optics that have been considered, two are used in this paper to study the effect of BaBar bar optical imperfections on the detector reconstruction performance. The kaon-pion separation powers obtained from analysing simulated photon hit patterns show the performance reduction for a BaBar bar of non-square geometry compared to a perfectly rectangular cross section.

  3. HCN(1-0) enhancement in the bar of NGC 2903

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, S.; Jeyakumar, S.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Lee, S. W.; Ocaña Flaquer, B.

    2008-12-01

    We have mapped the HCN(1-0) emission from two spiral galaxies, NGC 2903 and NGC 3504 to study the gas properties in the bars. The HCN(1-0) emission is detected in the center and along the bar of NGC 2903. The line ratio HCN(1-0)/ 12CO(1-0) ranges from 0.07 to 0.12 with the lowest value in the center. The enhancement of HCN(1-0) emission along the bar indicates a higher fraction of dense molecular gas in the bar than at the center. The mass of dense molecular gas in the center (2.2 × 107 M⊙) is about 6 times lower than that in the bar (1.2 × 108 M⊙). The total star formation rate (SFR) is estimated to be 1.4 M⊙ yr-1, where the SFR at the center is 1.9 times higher than that in the bar. The time scale of consumption of the dense molecular gas in the center is about ~ 3 × 107 yr which is much shorter than that in the bar of about 2 to 10 × 108 yr. The dynamical time scale of inflow of the gas from the bar to the center is shorter than the consumption time scale in the bar, which suggests that the star formation (SF) activity at the center is not deprived of fuel. In the bar, the fraction of dense molecular gas mass relative to the total molecular gas mass is twice as high along the leading edge than along the central axis of the bar. The HCN(1-0) emission has a large velocity dispersion in the bar, which can be attributed partially to the streaming motions indicative of shocks along the bar. In NGC 3504, the HCN(1-0) emission is detected only at the center. The fraction of dense molecular gas mass in the center is about 15%. Comparison of the SFR with the predictions from numerical simulations suggest that NGC 2903 harbors a young type B bar with a strong inflow of gas toward the center whereas NGC 3504 has an older bar and has already passed the phase of inflow of gas toward the center.

  4. Drunk and disorganised: relationships between bar characteristics and customer intoxication in European drinking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Karen; Quigg, Zara; Bellis, Mark A; Calafat, Amador; van Hasselt, Ninette; Kosir, Matej; Voorham, Lotte; Goossens, Ferry X; Duch, Mariangels; Juan, Montse

    2012-11-12

    Preventing alcohol-related harm in drinking environments is a growing international priority. Factors relating to the physical, social and staffing environments in bars can contribute to increased alcohol consumption and harm. Understanding the relationships between such factors and intoxication in European drinking environments is critical to developing appropriate interventions. We undertook a quantitative observational study in 60 bars in four European cities, in The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK (n = 237 observational visits). Using a structured observational schedule, researchers recorded characteristics of the bar environment and rated customer intoxication levels. All physical bar characteristics showed associations with intoxication before interactions between them were controlled for. Hierarchical modelling found significant independent associations between intoxication and use of plastic glassware, promotion of non-alcoholic drinks (often energy drinks), permissive environments, poor washroom facilities, the presence of a dance floor, customer sexual activity/competitiveness and later observational time. Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on raising and enforcing managerial standards in bars. While harm reduction measures such as plastic glassware are often promoted for high risk bars, such measures are inadequate to address public health concerns and insufficient to demonstrate social responsibility.

  5. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  6. On the Relation between Spector's Bar Recursion and Modified Bar Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliva, Paulo Borges

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a variant of Spector's Bar Recursion in finite types to give a realizability interpretation of the classical axiom of dependent choice allowing for the extraction of witnesses from proofs of Sigma_1 formulas in classical analysis. We also give a bar recursive definition of the fan...... functional and study the relationship of our variant of Bar Recursion with others....

  7. Bank pull or bar push: What drives scroll-bar formation in meandering rivers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W. I.; van Dijk, W. M.; Baar, A. W.; Rutten, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most striking features of meandering rivers are quasi-regular ridges of the point bar, evidence of a pulsed lateral migration of meander bends. Scroll bars formed on the inner bend are preserved on the point-bar surface as a series of ridges as meanders migrate, and in the subsurface of

  8. Test of bar window with internal bars free from the glass surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Jørgen Munthe

    1998-01-01

    A sealed glazing unit with 3 horisontal and 3 vertical bars and a reference glazing without bars have been tested in a guarded hotbox. The difference in measured heat loss coefficient between the two test objects is a measure of the thermal influence of the bars. The difference in heat loss...

  9. The cc-bar and bb-bar spectroscopy in the two-step potential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulshreshtha, D.S.; Kaiserslautern Univ.

    1984-07-01

    We investigate the spectroscopy of the charmonium (cc-bar) and bottonium (bb-bar) bound states in a static flavour independent nonrelativistic quark-antiquark (qq-bar) two-step potential model proposed earlier. Our predictions are in good agreement with experimental data and with other theoretical predictions. (author)

  10. Too Much Bar and Not Enough Mitzvah? A Proposed Research Agenda on Bar/Bat Mitzvah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Jewish educators are understandably interested in research on how bar/bat mitzvah affect Jewish education or research on what Jewish schools have done to avoid the distortions of a focus on bar/bat mitzvah. Research might also focus on the somewhat different and more ambitious topic of the role that bar/bat mitzvah play in contemporary Jewish…

  11. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  12. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  13. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  14. Bar Study Stories. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the impact of the availability of drinks in licensed establishments, such as bars and taverns on student drinking. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Cheap Drinks at College Bars Can Escalate Student Drinking (John D. Clapp); (2) High Alcohol Outlet Density: A Problem for Campuses and…

  15. Constraints on the Galactic bar with RAVE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoja, T.; Helmi, A.; Helmi, [Unknown

    We derive the pattern speed of the Galactic bar from the analysis of the kinematics of the Hercules stream at different Galactocentric radii with RAVE, assuming that Hercules is caused by the bar. We find a well constrained pattern speed of Ωb=1.98+0.04 -0.08 Ωo, where Ω0 is the local circular

  16. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  17. Why Are Some Galaxies Not Barred?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Kanak; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-05-01

    Although more than two-thirds of star-forming disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, some galaxies remain unbarred, occupying the upper half of the Hubble tuning fork diagram. Numerical simulations almost always produce bars spontaneously, so it remains a challenge to understand how galaxies sometimes prevent bars from forming. Using a set of collisionless simulations, we first reproduce the common result that cold stellar disks surrounding a classical bulge become strongly unstable to non-axisymmetric perturbations, leading to the rapid formation of spiral structure and bars. However, our analyses show that galaxy models with compact classical bulges (whose average density is greater than or comparable to the disk density calculated within bulge half-mass radii) are able to prevent bar formation for at least 4 Gyr even when the stellar disk is maximal and having low Toomre Q. Such bar prevention is the result of several factors such as (a) a small inner Lindblad resonance with a high angular rate, which contaminates an incipient bar with x 2 orbits, and (b) rapid loss of angular momentum accompanied by a rapid heating in the center from initially strong bar and spiral instabilities in a low-Q disk; in other words, a rapid initial rise to a value larger than ∼5 of the ratio of the random energy to the rotational energy in the central region of the galaxy.

  18. The Bar Tack Machine. Module 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the bar tack machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the bar tack machine. These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, a student self-check, and a…

  19. Deciphering the BAR code of membrane modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Ulrich; Kostan, Julius; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina

    2017-07-01

    The BAR domain is the eponymous domain of the "BAR-domain protein superfamily", a large and diverse set of mostly multi-domain proteins that play eminent roles at the membrane cytoskeleton interface. BAR domain homodimers are the functional units that peripherally associate with lipid membranes and are involved in membrane sculpting activities. Differences in their intrinsic curvatures and lipid-binding properties account for a large variety in membrane modulating properties. Membrane activities of BAR domains are further modified and regulated by intramolecular or inter-subunit domains, by intermolecular protein interactions, and by posttranslational modifications. Rather than providing detailed cell biological information on single members of this superfamily, this review focuses on biochemical, biophysical, and structural aspects and on recent findings that paradigmatically promote our understanding of processes driven and modulated by BAR domains.

  20. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  1. Characterization of Bars Induced by Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Martinez-Valpuesta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether the formation of bars is triggered by interactions or by internal processes has been discussed for many decades. In this work, we study differences between both mechanisms by means of numerical simulations. We relate our analysis to fly-by interactions in different mass groups or clusters according to the velocity of the encounters. We find that once the bar is created, the interaction does not much affect its evolution. We also find that bars can be triggered purely by a slow interaction. Those bars affected or triggered by interaction stay for a longer time in the slow regime, i.e., the corotation radius is more than 1.4 times the bar radius.

  2. Charmonium and bottomonium in bar pp interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, S.

    1993-12-01

    In this talk, I presented some examples of data from the CDF collaboration on J/ψ, χ, ψ' and Γ production. Such data are used to test models of production dynamics and for the understanding of rates for b quark production. I am not a member of the CDF experiment and showed their data with permission as an interested and impressed spectator. Data from D0 may be found in the talk of D. Denisov. As a complement to this data from the highest energy accelerator experiment, operating at √ bar s= 1.8 TeV, I also showed data from Fermilab experiment E760 on masses, widths, states and branching ratios in the Charmonium system, obtained by studying resonant formation of c bar c states in p bar p annihilation at √ bar s = m(c bar c)

  3. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a steam generator for a nuclear power plant comprising a shell, a plurality of tubes having a U-shaped configuration arranged in successive columns within the shell. The tubes are adapted to heat feedwater flowing around the outside of the tubes by the flow of hot reactor coolant within the tubes, and antivibration bars any vibrations of the tubes as a result of steam between the columns of tubes. The improvement described here comprises means for varying the thickness of the antivibration bars to fit substantially the actual space between the columns of tubes comprising first and second bars, with at least one bar being movable, and with at least one mating inclined surface between the first and second bars

  4. Measurement of bar pp single diffraction dissociation at √s =546 and 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chapin, T.J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.; Kephart, R.; Kesten, P.

    1994-01-01

    We report a measurement of the diffraction dissociation differential cross section d 2 σ SD /dM 2 dt for bar pp→ bar pX at √s =546 and 1800 GeV, M 2 /s 2 . Our results are compared to theoretical predictions and to extrapolations from experimental results at lower energies

  5. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  6. Dynamic compressive properties obtained from a split Hopkinson pressure bar test of Boryeong shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minju; Cho, Jung-Woo; Kim, Yang Gon; Park, Jaeyeong; Jeong, Myeong-Sik; Lee, Sunghak

    2016-09-01

    Dynamic compressive properties of a Boryeong shale were evaluated by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar, and were compared with those of a Hwangdeung granite which is a typical hard rock. The results indicated that the dynamic compressive loading reduced the resistance to fracture. The dynamic compressive strength was lower in the shale than in the granite, and was raised with increasing strain rate by microcracking effect as well as strain rate strengthening effect. Since the number of microcracked fragments increased with increasing strain rate in the shale having laminated weakness planes, the shale showed the better fragmentation performance than the granite at high strain rates. The effect of transversely isotropic plane on compressive strength decreased with increasing strain rate, which was desirable for increasing the fragmentation performance. Thus, the shale can be more reliably applied to industrial areas requiring good fragmentation performance as the striking speed of drilling or hydraulic fracturing machines increased. The present dynamic compressive test effectively evaluated the fragmentation performance as well as compressive strength and strain energy density by controlling the air pressure, and provided an important idea on which rock was more readily fragmented under dynamically processing conditions such as high-speed drilling and blasting.

  7. The n-n-bar oscillation experiment at the Pavia reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressi, G.; Calligarich, E.; Cambiaghi, M.; Dolfini, R.; Gigli, A.; Lanza, A.; Liguori, G.; Piazzoli, A.; Ratti, S.; Torre, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Conversi, M.; De Zorzi, G.; Massa, F.; Santonico, R.; Sebastiani, F.; Zanello, D.; Cesana, A.; Terrani, M.

    1986-01-01

    The n-n-bar oscillation experiment, presented at the Seventh European Conference of Triga Reactor Users in 1982, has recently entered the data collection phase. The possibility of a neutron-antineutron transition, under particular conditions, is foreseen by some Partial Unified Theory. The aim of the experiment is to detect any transition that should take place or to establish a lower limit for the transition time of at least 10 E7 s. A beam of slow neutrons, after a flight in a pipe, air exhausted and shielded against earth magnetic field, crosses a thin carbon target in which the produced antineutrons annihilate. The annihilation products (charged and neutral pions) are dejected in an apparatus situated all around the target. Due to the relatively low flux available a very large cross section beam (∼ 1 m 2 ) had to be used in order to obtain a neutron intensity adequate to the experimental requirements. This raised several problems concerning radiation protection and shielding, in particular in the detector region. The final experimental set up is described and the results concerning the shielding effectiveness and the intensity of the neutron beam obtained are compared with the values foreseen by computer code calculations. (author)

  8. A Study of (bar B)0 --> D(*)0 (bar K)(*)0 Decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.

    2004-01-01

    The authors presented evidence for the decay (bar B) 0 --> D* 0 (bar K) 0 as well as new measurements of the branching fractions for the decays (bar B) 0 --> D 0 (bar K) 0 and D 0 (bar K)* 0 . Their measurements are in agreement with the expectation derived from a cited reference and with previous measurements. They use the central value of their measurement for B((bar B) 0 --> (bar D) 0 K* 0 ) and obtain τ < 0.8 at the 90% C.L. from a central value of τ = 0.4 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.2 (syst.). The main contribution to the systematic uncertainty is from the estimated peaking background since most systematic uncertainties on the branching fractions cancel in the ratio

  9. Formation of q bar q resonances in the bar NN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, N.Ya.

    1995-01-01

    The formation of q bar q resonances lying on the leading Regge trajectories in the bar NN system is studied in the quark-gluon string model. The model predicts strong suppression of the decays of q bar q states into bar NN pairs in relation to two-meson modes. The author's analysis shows that the contributions of the resonances f 4 (2050) (I G J PC = 0 + 4 ++ ), ρ 5 (2240) (I G J PC = 1 + 5 -- ), and f 6 (2510) (I G J PC = 0 + 6 ++ ) to the processes of two-meson bar NN annihilation (bar pp → ππ, bar KK, hor-ellipsis) are about 1% of the corresponding experimental integrated cross sections. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. A Review of the Biomechanical Differences Between the High-Bar and Low-Bar Back-Squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Helms, Eric R; Brown, Scott R; Storey, Adam G

    2017-09-01

    Glassbrook, DJ, Helms, ER, Brown, SR, and Storey, AG. A review of the biomechanical differences between the high-bar and low-bar back-squat. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2618-2634, 2017-The back-squat is a common exercise in strength and conditioning for a variety of sports. It is widely regarded as a fundamental movement to increase and measure lower-body and trunk function, as well as an effective injury rehabilitation exercise. There are typically 2 different bar positions used when performing the back-squat: the traditional "high-bar" back-squat (HBBS) and the "low-bar" back-squat (LBBS). Different movement strategies are used to ensure that the center of mass remains in the base of support for balance during the execution of these lifts. These movement strategies manifest as differences in (a) joint angles, (b) vertical ground reaction forces, and (c) the activity of key muscles. This review showed that the HBBS is characterized by greater knee flexion, lesser hip flexion, a more upright torso, and a deeper squat. The LBBS is characterized by greater hip flexion and, therefore, a greater forward lean. However, there are limited differences in vertical ground reaction forces between the HBBS and LBBS. The LBBS can also be characterized by a greater muscle activity of the erector spinae, adductors, and gluteal muscles, whereas the HBBS can be characterized by greater quadriceps muscle activity. Practitioners seeking to develop the posterior-chain hip musculature (i.e., gluteal, hamstring, and erector muscle groups) may seek to use the LBBS. In comparison, those seeking to replicate movements with a more upright torso and contribution from the quadriceps may rather seek to use the HBBS in training.

  11. The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey. V. Statistical Study of Bars and Buckled Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhao-Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Barth, Aaron J., E-mail: lizy@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA, 92697-4575 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Simulations have shown that bars are subject to a vertical buckling instability that transforms thin bars into boxy or peanut-shaped structures, but the physical conditions necessary for buckling to occur are not fully understood. We use the large sample of local disk galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey to examine the incidence of bars and buckled bars across the Hubble sequence. Depending on the disk inclination angle ( i ), a buckled bar reveals itself as either a boxy/peanut-shaped bulge (at high i ) or as a barlens structure (at low i ). We visually identify bars, boxy/peanut-shaped bulges, and barlenses, and examine the dependence of bar and buckled bar fractions on host galaxy properties, including Hubble type, stellar mass, color, and gas mass fraction. We find that the barred and unbarred disks show similar distributions in these physical parameters. The bar fraction is higher (70%–80%) in late-type disks with low stellar mass ( M {sub *} < 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}) and high gas mass ratio. In contrast, the buckled bar fraction increases to 80% toward massive and early-type disks ( M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.5} M {sub ⊙}), and decreases with higher gas mass ratio. These results suggest that bars are more difficult to grow in massive disks that are dynamically hotter than low-mass disks. However, once a bar forms, it can easily buckle in the massive disks, where a deeper potential can sustain the vertical resonant orbits. We also find a probable buckling bar candidate (ESO 506−G004) that could provide further clues to understand the timescale of the buckling process.

  12. The bar in NGC 4596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The SBa galaxy NGC 4596 is characterized on the basis of CCD photometry obtained with a broad red filter on the 61-cm telescope at Whipple Observatory during January 1986 and long-slit CCD spectra obtained with the 4-m telescope at KPNO in May 1988 and with the MMT in March 1989. The results are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. Three components are identified: (1) an oblate spheroidal bulge with true ellipticity 0.26 and luminosity 4.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, (2) a 10.0 x 2.6-kpc rectangular bar with luminosity 6.7 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities, and (3) a lens of constant intensity with luminosity 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar luminosities out to a distance of 8.7 kpc. The characteristic slowdown time is calculated as 6-20 Gyr, and the velocity field is shown to deviate less from circular rotation than predicted by a simple dynamical model in which the disk kinematics are derived from an n-body simulation (Sparkle and Sellwood, 1987) and the bulge is assumed to be an oblate isotropic rotator. 31 refs

  13. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  14. BAR domain proteins regulate Rho GTPase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenström, Pontus

    2014-01-01

    BAR proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of multi-domain proteins with diverse biological functions. The common denominator is the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain that not only confers targeting to lipid bilayers, but also provides scaffolding to mold lipid membranes into concave or convex surfaces. This function of BAR proteins is an important determinant in the dynamic reconstruction of membrane vesicles, as well as of the plasma membrane. Several BAR proteins function as linkers between cytoskeletal regulation and membrane dynamics. These links are provided by direct interactions between BAR proteins and actin-nucleation-promoting factors of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family and the Diaphanous-related formins. The Rho GTPases are key factors for orchestration of this intricate interplay. This review describes how BAR proteins regulate the activity of Rho GTPases, as well as how Rho GTPases regulate the function of BAR proteins. This mutual collaboration is a central factor in the regulation of vital cellular processes, such as cell migration, cytokinesis, intracellular transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis.

  15. Bar Formation in Milky Way type Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyachenko E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many barred galaxies, possibly including the Milky Way, have cusps in their centers. There is a widespread belief, however, that the usual bar instability, which occurs in bulgeless galaxy models, is impossible for cuspy models because of the presence of the inner Lindblad resonance for any pattern speed. At the same time, there is numerical evidence that the bar instability can form a bar. We analyze this discrepancy by performing accurate and diverse N-body simulations and calculating the normal modes. We show that bar formation in cuspy galaxies can be explained by taking into account the disk thickness. The exponential growth time is moderate (about 250 Myr for typical current disk masses, but it increases considerably (by a factor of two or more if the live halo and bulge are substituted by a rigid halo/bulge potential; the pattern speeds remain almost the same. Normal mode analysis with different disk mass favors a young bar hypothesis, according to which the bar instability has saturated only recently.

  16. A Modern Picture of Barred Galaxy Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Michael; Weinberg, Martin; Katz, Neal

    2018-01-01

    Observations of disk galaxies suggest that bars are responsible for altering global galaxy parameters (e.g. structures, gas fraction, star formation rate). The canonical understanding of the mechanisms underpinning bar-driven secular dynamics in disk galaxies has been largely built upon the analysis of linear theory, despite galactic bars being clearly demonstrated to be nonlinear phenomena in n-body simulations. We present simulations of barred Milky Way-like galaxy models designed to elucidate nonlinear barred galaxy dynamics. We have developed two new methodologies for analyzing n-body simulations that give the best of both powerful analytic linear theory and brute force simulation analysis: orbit family identification and multicomponent torque analysis. The software will be offered publicly to the community for their own simulation analysis.The orbit classifier reveals that the details of kinematic components in galactic disks (e.g. the bar, bulge, thin disk, and thick disk components) are powerful discriminators of evolutionary paradigms (i.e. violent instabilities and secular evolution) as well as the basic parameters of the dark matter halo (mass distribution, angular momentum distribution). Multicomponent torque analysis provides a thorough accounting of the transfer of angular momentum between orbits, global patterns, and distinct components in order to better explain the underlying physics which govern the secular evolution of barred disk galaxies.Using these methodologies, we are able to identify the successes and failures of linear theory and traditional n-body simulations en route to a detailed understanding of the control bars exhibit over secular evolution in galaxies. We present explanations for observed physical and velocity structures in observations of barred galaxies alongside predictions for how structures will vary with dynamical properties from galaxy to galaxy as well as over the lifetime of a galaxy, finding that the transfer of angular

  17. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  18. First Measurement of σ(gg → t$\\bar{t}$)/σ(p$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamdari, Shabnaz Pashapour [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here is the first measurement of the fraction of top quark pair production through gluon-gluon fusion. We use an integrated luminosity of 0.96 ± 0.06 fb-1 of p{bar p} collisions at √s of 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. We select t$\\bar{t}$ candidates by identifying a high-pT lepton candidate, a large missing ET as evidence for a neutrino candidate and at least four high ET jets, one of which has to be identified as originating from a b quark. The challenge is to discriminate between the two production processes with the identical final state, gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{p}$ → t$\\bar{t}$. We take advantage of the fact that compared to a quark, a gluon is more likely to radiate a low momentum gluon and therefore, one expects a larger number of charged particles with low pT in a process involving more gluons. Given the large uncertainties associated with the modeling of the low pT charged particle multiplicity, a data-driven technique was employed. Using calibration data samples, we show there exists a clear correlation between the observed average number of low pT charged particles and the average number of gluons involved in the production process predicted by Monte Carlo calculations. Given the correlation, one can identify low pT charged particle multiplicity distributions associated with specific average number of gluons. The W + 0 jet sample and dijets sample with leading jet ET in the range of 80-100 GeV are used to find no-gluon and gluon-rich low p{sub T} charged particle multiplicity distributions, respectively. Using these no-gluon and gluon-rich distributions in a likelihood fit, we find the fraction of gluon-rich events in t{bar t} candidates. This fraction has contributions from the signal and background events. Taking into account these contributions and the gg → t$\\bar{t}$ and q$\\bar{q}$ → t$\\bar

  19. Effects of grab bar on utilized friction and dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Kato, Tomohisa; Honda, Keita; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars. Displacement and velocity of the center of mass and utilized friction, which is the required coefficient of friction to avoid slipping, were simultaneously measured by a three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates. A post hoc test for two-way ANOVA revealed that velocity of the center of mass in the vertical direction (pbar were significantly slower and smaller than those without the grab bar in young and elderly people. Moreover, the utilized friction at push off of the trailing leg with the vertical bar in elderly people was lower (pbar. The use of each grab bar while performing a lateral step over an obstacle may help maintaining balance in lateral and vertical directions. However, use of the vertical bar while lateral stepping over an object in elderly people may need low utilized friction to prevent slipping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Endophilin-A1 BAR domain interaction with arachidonyl CoA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petoukhov, Maxim V; Weissenhorn, Winfried; Svergun, Dmitri I

    2014-01-01

    Endophilin-A1 belongs to the family of BAR domain containing proteins that catalyze membrane remodeling processes via sensing, inducing and stabilizing membrane curvature. We show that the BAR domain of endophilin-A1 binds arachidonic acid and molds its coenzyme A (CoA) activated form, arachidonyl-CoA into a defined structure. We studied low resolution structures of endophilin-A1-BAR and its complex with arachidonyl-CoA in solution using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The free endophilin-A1-BAR domain is shown to be dimeric at lower concentrations but builds tetramers and higher order complexes with increasing concentrations. Extensive titration SAXS studies revealed that the BAR domain produces a homogenous complex with the lipid micelles. The structural model of the complexes revealed two arachidonyl-CoA micelles bound to the distal arms of an endophilin-A1-BAR dimer. Intriguingly, the radius of the bound micelles significantly decreases compared to that of the free micelles, and this structural result may provide hints on the potential biological relevance of the endophilin-A1-BAR interaction with arachidonyl CoA.

  1. What makes the family of barred disc galaxies so rich: damping stellar bars in spinning haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Angela; Shlosman, Isaac; Heller, Clayton

    2018-05-01

    We model and analyse the secular evolution of stellar bars in spinning dark matter (DM) haloes with the cosmological spin λ ˜ 0-0.09. Using high-resolution stellar and DM numerical simulations, we focus on angular momentum exchange between stellar discs and DM haloes of various axisymmetric shapes - spherical, oblate, and prolate. We find that stellar bars experience a diverse evolution that is guided by the ability of parent haloes to absorb angular momentum, J, lost by the disc through the action of gravitational torques, resonant and non-resonant. We confirm that dynamical bar instability is accelerated via resonant J-transfer to the halo. Our main findings relate to the long-term secular evolution of disc-halo systems: with an increasing λ, bars experience less growth and basically dissolve after they pass through vertical buckling instability. Specifically, with increasing λ, (1) the vertical buckling instability in stellar bars colludes with inability of the inner halo to absorb J - this emerges as the main factor weakening or destroying bars in spinning haloes; (2) bars lose progressively less J, and their pattern speeds level off; (3) bars are smaller, and for λ ≳ 0.06 cease their growth completely following buckling; (4) bars in λ > 0.03 haloes have ratio of corotation-to-bar radii, RCR/Rb > 2, and represent so-called slow bars without offset dust lanes. We provide a quantitative analysis of J-transfer in disc-halo systems, and explain the reasons for absence of growth in fast spinning haloes and its observational corollaries. We conclude that stellar bar evolution is substantially more complex than anticipated, and bars are not as resilient as has been considered so far.

  2. Efficacy of iron-supplement bars to reduce anemia in urban Indian women: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi; Platt, Alyssa C; Sun, Xizi; Desai, Mukesh; Clements, Dennis; Turner, Elizabeth L

    2017-03-01

    Background: India's high prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia has largely been attributed to the local diet consisting of nonheme iron, which has lower absorption than that of heme iron. Objective: We assessed the efficacy of the consumption of iron-supplement bars in raising hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages in anemic (hemoglobin concentration Indian women of reproductive age. Design: The Let's be Well Red study was a 90-d, pair-matched, cluster-randomized controlled trial. A total of 361 nonpregnant women (age 18-35 y) were recruited from 10 sites within Mumbai and Navi Mumbai, India. All participants received anemia education and a complete blood count (CBC). Random assignment of anemic participants to intervention and control arms occurred within 5 matched site-pairs. Intervention participants received 1 iron-supplement bar (containing 14 mg Fe)/d for 90 d, whereas control subjects received nothing. CBC tests were given at days 15, 45, and 90. Primary outcomes were 90-d changes from baseline in hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages. Linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations were used to model continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results: Of 179 anemic participants, 136 (76.0%) completed all follow-up assessments (65 intervention and 71 control participants). Baseline characteristics were comparable by arm. Mean hemoglobin and hematocrit increases after 90 d were greater for intervention than for control participants [1.4 g/dL (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6 g/dL) and 2.7% (95% CI: 2.2%, 3.2%), respectively]. The anemia prevalence at 90 d was lower for intervention (29.2%) than for control participants (98.6%) (OR: 0.007; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.04). Conclusions: The daily consumption of an iron-supplement bar leads to increased hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit percentages and to a lower anemia prevalence in the target population with no reported side effects. This intervention is an attractive option to combat anemia

  3. Effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on the biomechanics of stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand toilet transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jin; Mehta-Desai, Ricky; Oh, Kyunggeune; Sanford, Jon; Prilutsky, Boris I

    2018-03-09

    Kinetic characteristics of transfers to and from a toilet performed using bilateral grab bars are not fully quantified to inform grab bar design and configuration. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine effects of bilateral swing-away grab bars on peaks of ankle, knee and hip joint moments during grab bar assisted stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers; and (2) determine effects of three different heights and widths of swing-away grab bars on the same kinetic characteristics. Healthy subjects (N = 11, age 25-58 years) performed stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers with and without grab bars. In transfers with grab bars, 9 grab bar configurations were tested by varying their height from the floor (0.787 m, 0.813 m, 0.838 m; 31″-33″) and width, the distance of each grab bar from the toilet's centerline (0.330 m, 0.356 m, 0.381 m; 13″-15″). Motion capture, force plate and inverse dynamics analysis were used to determine lower limb joint moments. The use of bilateral grab bars generally reduced the peak magnitude of extension moments at lower limb joints during stand-to-sit and sit-to-stand transfers (p away grab bars is useful for informing grab bar design and configuration recommendations for assisted living and skilled nursing facilities. Our findings suggest that the swing-away grab bars located at certain ranges are a reasonable alternative to the grab bars mandated by the current Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines. Future research investigating the effects of grab bars on transfer performance should consider additional factors, such as a wider range of abilities and transfer methods of the users.

  4. Quarkonium Spectroscopy And Search for New States at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibinetto, G.

    2011-11-04

    The BaBar experiment at the PEP-II B-factory gives excellent opportunities for the quarkonium spectroscopy. Investigation of the properties of new states like the X(3872), Y(3940) and Y(4260) are performed aiming to understand their nature. Recent BaBar results will be presented in this paper. At the B-factories charmonium and charmonium-like states are copiously produced via several mechanisms: in B decay (color suppressed b {yields} c transition), double charmonium production (e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} c{bar c} + c{bar c}), two photons production ({gamma}*{gamma}* {yields} c{bar c}, where the c{bar c} state has positive C-parity) and in initial state radiation (ISR) when the e{sup {+-}} in its initial state emits a photon lowering the effective center of mass energy of the e{sup +}e{sup -} interaction (e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {gamma}{sub ISR} + c{bar c}, where the charmonium state has the quantum numbers J{sup PC} = 1{sup -2}). Many new states have been recently discovered at the B-factories, BaBar and Belle, above the D{bar D} threshold in the charmonium energy region. While some of them appear to be consistent with conventional c{sub c} states others do not fit with any expectation. Several interpretations for these states have been proposed: for some of them the mass values suggest that they could be conventional charmonia, but also other interpretations like D{sup 0}{bar D}*{sup 0} molecule or diquark-antidiquark states among many other models have been advanced. Reviews can be found in Refs. [1][2]. In all cases the picture is not completely clear. This situation could be remedied by a coherent search of the decay pattern to D{bar D}, search for production in two-photon fusion and ISR, and of course improving the statistical precision upon the current measurements. The BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric collider, designed to perform precision measurement of CP violation in the B meson system, has an extensive quarkonium spectroscopy program. Recent

  5. Sensory specific satiety and intake: The difference between nibble- and bar-size snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Liem, D.G.; Zandstra, E.H.; Graaf, de C.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated (1) whether consumption of a nibble-size snack, as compared to a bar-size snack, leads to more sensory specific satiety (SSS) and a lower intake; and (2) whether attention to consumption, as compared to usual consumption, leads to more SSS and a lower intake. Subjects

  6. Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)

  7. Ultrasound-Guided Bar Edge Labeling in the Perioperative Assessment of Nuss Bar Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Filippo; Bertocchini, Alessia; Ghionzoli, Marco; Messineo, Antonio

    2017-12-01

    Nuss bar removal after minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum in patients where bar ends are not palpable, can be a challenging procedure for the surgeon; a blind dissection toward the bar edges may lead to intercostal vessels or deep intercostal muscle injuries. In this article, we describe a fast, repeatable, low-cost technique to detect bar edge and stabilizers. A perioperative scan is performed by means of a portable ultrasonograph a few minutes before the operation. The bar edge stabilizer is detected as a hyperechogenic image with a concentric crescent while the bar edge is detected as a hyperechogenic dashed line with net edges. The scan is performed, and the actual projection on the skin of the metal plaque bulk is then labeled on the patient's chest by an ink marker. We believe that this method may improve morbidity, operative time, and consequently, hospitalization length and costs.

  8. New results from Fermilab E866 (NuSea) for d-bar/u-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenhower, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermilab dimuon experiment 866/NuSea measured Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Over 370,000 Drell-Yan muon pairs were recorded. From these data, the ratio of anti-down (d-bar) to anti-up (u-bar) quark distributions in the proton sea is determined over a wide range in Bjorken-x. A strong x dependence is observed in the ratio d-bar/u-bar, showing substantial enhancement of d-bar with respect to u-bar for x < 0.2. The results presented here for the full data sets confirm previously published results from E866 and are compared with parametrizations of parton distribution functions calculated both before and after the publication of the high-mass E866 data

  9. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mumtaz Al-Dabbagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR. By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  10. Practical, Reliable Error Bars in Quantum Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Faist, Philippe; Renner, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Precise characterization of quantum devices is usually achieved with quantum tomography. However, most methods which are currently widely used in experiments, such as maximum likelihood estimation, lack a well-justified error analysis. Promising recent methods based on confidence regions are difficult to apply in practice or yield error bars which are unnecessarily large. Here, we propose a practical yet robust method for obtaining error bars. We do so by introducing a novel representation of...

  11. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  12. Intelligent bar chart plagiarism detection in documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Rehman, Amjad; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts.

  13. Configurating computer-controlled bar system

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštaršič, Nejc

    2010-01-01

    The principal goal of my diploma thesis is creating an application for configurating computer-controlled beverages dispensing systems. In the preamble of my thesis I present the theoretical platform for point of sale systems and beverages dispensing systems, which are required for the understanding of the target problematics. As with many other fields, computer tehnologies entered the field of managing bars and restaurants quite some time ago. Basic components of every bar or restaurant a...

  14. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  15. The BaBar silicon vertex tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzi, C.; Carassiti, V.; Ramusino, A. Cotta; Dittongo, S.; Folegani, M.; Piemontese, L.; Abbott, B.K.; Breon, A.B.; Clark, A.R.; Dow, S.; Fan, Q.; Goozen, F.; Hernikl, C.; Karcher, A.; Kerth, L.T.; Kipnis, I.; Kluth, S.; Lynch, G.; Levi, M.; Luft, P.; Luo, L.; Nyman, M.; Pedrali-Noy, M.; Roe, N.A.; Zizka, G.; Roberts, D.; Barni, D.; Brenna, E.; Defendi, I.; Forti, A.; Giugni, D.; Lanni, F.; Palombo, F.; Vaniev, V.; Leona, A.; Mandelli, E.; Manfredi, P.F.; Perazzo, A.; Re, V.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bondioli, M.; Bosi, F.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Dutra, F.; Forti, F.; Gagliardi, D.; Giorgi, M.A.; Lusiani, A.; Mammini, P.; Morganti, M.; Morsani, F.; Paoloni, E.; Profeti, A.; Rama, M.; Rampino, G.; Rizzo, G.; Sandrelli, F.; Simi, G.; Triggiani, G.; Tritto, S.; Vitale, R.; Burchat, P.; Cheng, C.; Kirkby, D.; Meyer, T.; Roat, C.; Bona, M.; Bianchi, F.; Daudo, F.; Girolamo, B. Di; Gamba, D.; Giraudo, G.; Grosso, P.; Romero, A.; Smol, A.; Trapani, P.; Zanin, D.; Bosisio, L.; Ricca, G. Della; Lanceri, L.; Pompili, A.; Poropat, P.; Prest, M.; Rastelli, C.; Vallazza, E.; Vuagnin, G.; Hast, C.; Potter, E.P.; Sharma, V.; Burke, S.; Callahan, D.; Campagnari, C.; Dahmes, B.; Eppich, A.; Hale, D.; Hall, K.; Hart, P.; Kuznetsova, N.; Kyre, S.; Levy, S.; Long, O.; May, J.; Richman, J.; Verkerke, W.; Witherell, M.; Beringer, J.; Eisner, A.M.; Frey, A.; Grillo, A.; Grothe, M.; Johnson, R.; Kroeger, W.; Lockman, W.; Pulliam, T.; Rowe, W.; Schmitz, R.; Seiden, A.; Spencer, E.; Turri, M.; Wilder, M.; Charles, E.; Elmer, P.; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Scott, I.; Walsh, J.; Zobernig, H.

    2000-01-01

    The BaBar Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) is designed to provide the high-precision vertexing necessary for making measurements of CP violation at the SLAC B-Factory PEP-II. The instrument consists of five layers of double-sided silicon strip detectors and has been installed in the BaBar experiment and taking colliding beam data since May 1999. An overview of the design as well as performance and experience from the initial running will be presented

  16. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk ( Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis ), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  17. The hydrogen 700 project - 700 Bar Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambone, L.; Webster, C.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Major automotive companies, including DaimlerChrysler, Ford, Hyundai, Nissan, PSA Peugeot-Citroen, and Toyota, are co-operating in the Hydrogen 700 project at Powertech to establish a global basis for high pressure hydrogen fuel systems for vehicles. The fuel systems will store compressed hydrogen on-board at pressures up to 700 bar (10,000psi). It is anticipated that the 700 bar storage pressure will provide hydrogen powered vehicles with a range comparable to the range of petroleum-fueled vehicles. The Hydrogen 700 project has contracted world leaders in high pressure technologies to provide 700 bar fuel system components for evaluation. The data from these tests will be used as the basis for the development of relevant standards and regulations. In a development that complements the Hydrogen 700 project, Powertech Labs has established the world's first 700 bar hydrogen station for fast filling operations. This prototype station will be used to evaluate the performance of the 700 bar vehicle fuel system components. The presentation will provide an overview of the Hydrogen 700 project. Safety issues surrounding the use of compressed hydrogen gas as a vehicle fuel, as well as the use of higher storage pressures, will be reviewed. Test data involving the fire testing of vehicles containing hydrogen fuel systems will be presented. The project is intended to result in the introduction of 700 bar fuel systems in the next generation of hydrogen powered vehicles. (author)

  18. Formation of Tidally Induced Bars in Galactic Flybys: Prograde versus Retrograde Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokas, Ewa L.

    2018-04-01

    Bars in disk galaxies can be formed by interactions with other systems, including those of comparable mass. It has long been established that the effect of such interactions on galaxy morphology depends strongly on the orbital configuration, in particular the orientation of the intrinsic spin of the galactic disk with respect to its orbital angular momentum. Prograde encounters modify the morphology strongly, including the formation of tidally induced bars, while retrograde flybys should have little effect on morphology. Recent works on the subject reached conflicting conclusions, one using the impulse approximation and claiming no dependence on this angle in the properties of tidal bars. To resolve the controversy, we performed self-consistent N-body simulations of hyperbolic encounters between two identical Milky Way-like galaxies assuming different velocities and impact parameters, with one of the galaxies on a prograde and the other on a retrograde orbit. The galaxies were initially composed of an exponential stellar disk and an NFW dark halo, and they were stable against bar formation in isolation for 3 Gyr. We find that strong tidally induced bars form only in galaxies on prograde orbits. For smaller impact parameters and lower relative velocities, the bars are stronger and have lower pattern speeds. Stronger bars undergo extended periods of buckling instability that thicken their vertical structure. The encounters also lead to the formation of two-armed spirals with strength inversely proportional to the strength of the bars. We conclude that proper modeling of prograde and retrograde encounters cannot rely on the simplest impulse approximation.

  19. Anisotropic chemical etching of semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} ZnO crystallographic planes: polarity versus dangling bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Lidon, E; Perez-GarcIa, B; Colchero, J; Vennegues, P; Zuniga-Perez, J; Munoz-Sanjose, V

    2009-01-01

    ZnO thin films grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy along the nonpolar [112-bar] direction and exhibiting semipolar {101-bar 1-bar}/{101-bar +1} facets have been chemically etched with HCl. In order to get an insight into the influence of the ZnO wurtzite structure in the chemical reactivity of the material, Kelvin probe microscopy and convergent beam electron diffraction have been employed to unambiguously determine the absolute polarity of the facets, showing that {101-bar +1} facets are unstable upon etching in an HCl solution and transform into (000+1)/{101-bar 1-bar} planes. In contrast, {101-bar 1-bar} undergo homogeneous chemical etching perpendicular to the initial crystallographic plane. The observed etching behavior has been explained in terms of surface oxygen dangling bond density, suggesting that the macroscopic polarity plays a secondary role in the etching process.

  20. The dependence of bar frequency on galaxy mass, colour, and gas content - and angular resolution - in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Peter

    2018-03-01

    I use distance- and mass-limited subsamples of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) to investigate how the presence of bars in spiral galaxies depends on mass, colour, and gas content and whether large, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-based investigations of bar frequencies agree with local data. Bar frequency reaches a maximum of fbar ≈ 0.70 at M⋆ ˜ 109.7M⊙, declining to both lower and higher masses. It is roughly constant over a wide range of colours (g - r ≈ 0.1-0.8) and atomic gas fractions (log (M_{H I}/ M_{\\star }) ≈ -2.5 to 1). Bars are thus as common in blue, gas-rich galaxies are they are in red, gas-poor galaxies. This is in sharp contrast to many SDSS-based studies of z ˜ 0.01-0.1 galaxies, which report fbar increasing strongly to higher masses (from M⋆ ˜ 1010 to 1011M⊙), redder colours, and lower gas fractions. The contradiction can be explained if SDSS-based studies preferentially miss bars in, and underestimate the bar fraction for, lower mass (bluer, gas-rich) galaxies due to poor spatial resolution and the correlation between bar size and stellar mass. Simulations of SDSS-style observations using the S4G galaxies as a parent sample, and assuming that bars below a threshold angular size of twice the point spread function full width at half-maximum cannot be identified, successfully reproduce typical SDSS fbar trends for stellar mass and gas mass ratio. Similar considerations may affect high-redshift studies, especially if bars grow in length over cosmic time; simulations suggest that high-redshift bar fractions may thus be systematically underestimated.

  1. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  2. 21 CFR 610.67 - Bar code label requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bar code label requirements. 610.67 Section 610.67...) BIOLOGICS GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.67 Bar code label requirements. Biological products must comply with the bar code requirements at § 201.25 of this chapter. However, the bar...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1650 - Ophthalmic bar prism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar prism. 886.1650 Section 886.1650...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1650 Ophthalmic bar prism. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar prism is a device that is a bar composed of fused prisms of gradually increasing...

  4. 32 CFR 776.66 - Bar admission and disciplinary matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar admission and disciplinary matters. 776.66... ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.66 Bar admission and disciplinary matters. (a) Bar admission and disciplinary matters. A covered attorney, in connection with any application for bar admission...

  5. Chemical enrichment in isolated barred spiral galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Hugo; Carles, Christian; Robichaud, Fidéle; Ellison, Sara L.; Williamson, David J.

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the role of bars in the chemical evolution of isolated disc galaxies, we performed a series of 39 gas dynamical simulations of isolated barred and unbarred galaxies with various masses, initial gas fractions, and AGN feedback models. The presence of a bar drives a substantial amount of gas toward the central region of the galaxy. In the most massive galaxies, this results in a violent starburst, followed by a drop in star formation resulting from gas exhaustion. The time delay between Type Ia and Type II supernovae explosions means that barred galaxies experience a rapid increase in [O/H] in the central region, and a much more gradual increase in [Fe/H]. In unbarred galaxies, star formation proceeds at a slow and steady rate, and oxygen and iron are produced at steady rates which are similar except for a time offset. Comparing the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies with the same central stellar mass M*, we find in barred galaxies an enhancement of 0.07 dex in [O/H], 0.05 dex in [Fe/H], and 0.05 dex in [O/Fe]. The [O/H] enhancement is in excellent agreement with observations from the SDSS. The initial gas fraction has very little effect on the abundance ratios in barred and unbarred galaxies, unless the galaxies experience a starburst. We considered AGN-host galaxies located near the bottom of the AGN regime, M* ≳ 3 × 1010M⊙, where AGN feedback dominates over supernovae feedback. We found that the impact of AGN feedback on the central abundances is marginal.

  6. Membrane-sculpting BAR domains generate stable lipid microdomains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.

    2013-01-01

    Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR...... domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by "freezing" phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced...... phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved...

  7. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  8. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  9. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  10. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  11. Studying W‧ boson contributions in \\bar{B} \\rightarrow {D}^{(* )}{{\\ell }}^{-}{\\bar{\

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Long; Wei, Bin; Sheng, Jin-Huan; Wang, Ru-Min; Yang, Ya-Dong

    2018-05-01

    Recently, the Belle collaboration reported the first measurement of the τ lepton polarization P τ (D*) in \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {τ }-{\\bar{ν }}τ decay and a new measurement of the rate of the branching ratios R(D*), which are consistent with the Standard Model (SM) predictions. These could be used to constrain the New Physics (NP) beyond the SM. In this paper, we probe \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } (ℓ = e, μ, τ) decays in the model-independent way and in the specific G(221) models with lepton flavour universality. Considering the theoretical uncertainties and the experimental errors at the 95% C.L., we obtain the quite strong bounds on the model-independent parameters {C}{{LL}}{\\prime },{C}{{LR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RR}}{\\prime },{C}{{RL}}{\\prime },{g}V,{g}A,{g}V{\\prime },{g}A{\\prime } and the specific G(221) model parameter rates. We find that the constrained NP couplings have no obvious effects on all (differential) branching ratios and their rates, nevertheless, many NP couplings have very large effects on the lepton spin asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}(* ){{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell } decays and the forward–backward asymmetries of \\bar{B}\\to {D}* {{\\ell }}-{\\bar{ν }}{\\ell }. So we expect precision measurements of these observables would be researched by LHCb and Belle-II.

  12. H-bar and H-bar + production cross sections for the GBAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comini, P; Hervieux, P-A

    2013-01-01

    The production and cooling of the H-bar + ion is the key point of the GBAR experiment (Gravitational Behaviour of Antihydrogen at Rest), which aims at performing the free fall of antihydrogen atoms to measure g-bar , the acceleration of antimatter on Earth. H-bar + ions will be obtained from collisions between a positronium cloud and antiprotons delivered by the AD/ELENA facility at CERN, with intermediate formation of antihydrogen atoms. In order to optimise the experimental production of H-bar + ions, we computed the total cross sections of the two corresponding reactions, within the same theoretical framework of the Continuum Distorted Wave – Final State (CDW-FS) model. The different contributions of the H-bar excited states have been systematically investigated for different states of Ps. The results exhibit an increase of the H-bar production toward low kinetic energies, in agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, whereas the largest H-bar + production is obtained with low energy ground-state antihydrogen atoms. These theoretical predictions suggest that the overall production of H-bar + could be optimal for 2 keV antiproton impact energy, using positronium atoms prepared in the 2p state.

  13. Scroll bar growth on the coastal Trinity River, TX, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.; Hassenruck-Gudipati, H. J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2017-12-01

    The processes leading to the formation and growth of scroll bars remain relatively mysterious despite how often they are referenced in fluvial literature. Their definition is descriptive; they are characterized as arcuate topographic highs present on the inner banks of channel bends on meandering rivers, landward of point bars. Often, they are used as proxies for previous positions of point bars. This assumption of a one-to-one correspondence between point bars and scroll bars should be reconsidered as 1) planform curvature for scroll bars is consistently smaller than the curvature for adjacent point bars, and 2) deposition on the scroll bar is typically distinct and disconnected from the adjacent point bar deposition. Results from time-lapse airborne lidar data as well as from trenches through five separate scroll bar - point bar pairings on the Trinity River in east TX, USA, will be discussed in relation to formative scroll bar processes and their connection to point bars. On the lidar difference map, scroll bar growth appears as a strip of increased deposition flanked on both the land- and channel-ward sides by areas with no or limited deposition. Trenches perpendicular to these scrolls typically show a base of dune-scale cross stratification interpreted to be associated with a previous position of the point bar. These dune sets are overlain by sets of climbing-ripple cross-strata that form the core of the modern scroll bar and preserve a record of multiple transport directions (away from, towards, and parallel to the channel). Preliminary Trinity River grain-size analyses show that the constructional scrolls are enriched in all grain sizes less than 250 microns in diameter, while point bars are enriched in all grain sizes above this cut off. Scroll bars are hypothesized to be akin to levees along the inner banks of channels-flow expansion caused by the presence of point bars induces deposition of suspended sediment that defines the positions of the scroll bars.

  14. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At this time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable, however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  15. Bar code usage in nuclear materials accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mee, W.T.

    1983-01-01

    The age old method of physically taking an inventory of materials by listing each item's identification number has lived beyond its usefulness. In this age of computerization, which offers the local grocery store a quick, sure, and easy means to inventory, it is time for nuclear materials facilities to automate accountability activities. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant began investigating the use of automated data collection devices in 1979. At that time, bar code and optical-character-recognition (OCR) systems were reviewed with the purpose of directly entering data into DYMCAS (Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System). Both of these systems appeared applicable; however, other automated devices already employed for production control made implementing the bar code and OCR seem improbable. However, the DYMCAS was placed on line for nuclear material accountability, a decision was made to consider the bar code for physical inventory listings. For the past several months a development program has been underway to use a bar code device to collect and input data to the DYMCAS on the uranium recovery operations. Programs have been completed and tested, and are being employed to ensure that data will be compatible and useful. Bar code implementation and expansion of its use for all nuclear material inventory activity in Y-12 is presented

  16. Numerical modeling of the autumnal thermal bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsydenov, Bair O.

    2018-03-01

    The autumnal riverine thermal bar of Kamloops Lake has been simulated using atmospheric data from December 1, 2015, to January 4, 2016. The nonhydrostatic 2.5D mathematical model developed takes into account the diurnal variability of the heat fluxes and wind on the lake surface. The average values for shortwave and longwave radiation and latent and sensible heat fluxes were 19.7 W/m2, - 95.9 W/m2, - 11.8 W/m2, and - 32.0 W/m2 respectively. Analysis of the wind regime data showed prevailing easterly winds and maximum speed of 11 m/s on the 8th and 19th days. Numerical experiments with different boundary conditions at the lake surface were conducted to evaluate effects of variable heat flux and wind stress. The results of modeling demonstrated that the variable heat flux affects the process of thermal bar evolution, especially during the lengthy night cooling. However, the wind had the greatest impact on the behavior of the autumnal thermal bar: The easterly winds contributed to an earlier appearance of the thermal bar, but the strong winds generating the intensive circulations (the velocity of the upper lake flow increased to 6 cm/s) may destroy the thermal bar front.

  17. The He+H-bar → Hep-bar +e+ rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Allan C.; Armour, Edward A.G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a summary of our work in progress on calculating cross sections for the He+H-bar ->Hep-bar +e + rearrangement process in HeH-bar scattering. This has involved a study of the system Hep-bar within the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) approximation using the Rayleigh-Ritz variational method. This work has been reported in [A.C. Todd, E.A.G. Armour, J. Phys. B 38 (2005) 3367] and is summarised here. Similar calculations are in progress for the He+H-bar entrance channel. We intend to use the entrance channel and rearrangement channel wave functions to obtain the cross sections for the rearrangement using the distorted wave Born approximation T-matrix method described elsewhere in these proceedings [E.A.G. Armour, S. Jonsell, Y. Liu, A.C. Todd, these Proceedings, doi:10.1016/j.nimb.2006.01.049

  18. Numerical simulations of wave propagation in long bars with application to Kolsky bar testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Material testing using the Kolsky bar, or split Hopkinson bar, technique has proven instrumental to conduct measurements of material behavior at strain rates in the order of 103 s-1. Test design and data reduction, however, remain empirical endeavors based on the experimentalist's experience. Issues such as wave propagation across discontinuities, the effect of the deformation of the bar surfaces in contact with the specimen, the effect of geometric features in tensile specimens (dog-bone shape), wave dispersion in the bars and other particulars are generally treated using simplified models. The work presented here was conducted in Q3 and Q4 of FY14. The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of numerical simulations of Kolsky bar tests, which was done successfully.

  19. Application of photon Doppler velocimetry to direct impact Hopkinson pressure bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, Lewis J., E-mail: ll379@cam.ac.uk; Jardine, Andrew P. [SMF Fracture and Shock Physics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Direct impact Hopkinson pressure bar systems offer many potential advantages over split Hopkinson pressure bars, including access to higher strain rates, higher strains for equivalent striker velocity and system length, lower dispersion, and faster achievement of force equilibrium. Currently, these advantages are gained at the expense of all information about the striker impacted specimen face, preventing the experimental determination of force equilibrium, and requiring approximations to be made on the sample deformation history. In this paper, we discuss an experimental method and complementary data analysis for using photon Doppler velocimetry to measure surface velocities of the striker and output bars in a direct impact bar experiment, allowing similar data to be recorded as in a split bar system. We discuss extracting velocity and force measurements, and the precision of measurements. Results obtained using the technique are compared to equivalent split bar tests, showing improved stress measurements for the lowest and highest strains in fully dense metals, and improvement for all strains in slow and non-equilibrating materials.

  20. Let's move salad bars to schools: a public-private partnership to increase student fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Diane M; Seymour, Jennifer; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Cooper, Ann; Collins, Beth; DiSogra, Lorelei; Marshall, Andrew; Evans, Nona

    2012-08-01

    Few school-age youth consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, and increasing fruit and vegetable intake in children and adolescents is an important public health goal to maintain long-term good health and to decrease risk of chronic disease and obesity. School salad bars are an important tool to promote fruit and vegetable consumption among schoolchildren. Studies show that introduction of school salad bars increases the amount and variety of fruits and vegetables consumed by children in schools. However, many schools cannot afford the capital investment in the salad bar equipment. In 2010, the National Fruit & Vegetable Alliance (NFVA), United Fresh Produce Association Foundation, the Food Family Farming Foundation, and Whole Foods Market launched Let’s Move Salad Bars to Schools (LMSB2S) in support of First Lady Michelle Obama’s Let’s Move! initiative. The goal of LMSB2S is to place 6000 salad bars in schools over 3 years. As of June, 2012, over 1400 new salad bar units have been delivered to schools across the United States, increasing access to fruits and vegetables for over 700,000 students. Any K through 12 school district participating in the National School Lunch Program is eligible to submit an application at www.saladbars2schools. org/. Requests for salad bar units ($2625 each unit) are fulfilled through grassroots fund raising in the school community and through funds raised by the LMSB2S partners from corporate and foundation sources. LMSB2S is a model for coalition-building across many government, nonprofit, and industry partners to address a major public health challenge.

  1. Teaching corner: raising the bar: ethical considerations of medical student preparation for short-term immersion experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Nathan; McCarthy, Virginia

    2015-03-01

    Short-term international medical outreach experiences are becoming more popular among medical students. As the popularity of these trips grows, participants, scholars, and institutions have become more aware of the potential pitfalls of such experiences. Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) has an approximately 20-year international service immersion (ISI) program that has sent more than 1,400 participants to more than 30 countries. Recently, ISI programming has been adjusted to provide students more formal sessions exploring the ethics of the ISI trips. Students are required to attend both pre- and post-trip educational sessions covering a wide range of relevant global health topics as well as participating in in-country reflections and post-trip debriefings. This recent adjustment has evolved further to become the foundation for the SSOM's four-year Global Health Honors program that not only encourages an ethical foundation for the student's ISI experience but also hopes to provide a foundation for students as they look toward a future career in global health.

  2. Raising the Bar of Teacher Quality: Accountability, Collaboration, and Social Justice. The Claremont Letter. Volume 1, Issue 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, DeLacy Derin; Quintanar, Anita P.; Loop, Lisa S.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, reform efforts to address poor student achievement have focused on a variety of issues other than teacher quality. Movements such as TQM (Total Quality Management), class size reduction (CSR), school leadership, parental involvement, and multicultural curriculum have not directly addressed the power or influence of the individual…

  3. Raising the Bar: Challenging Students in a Capstone Project Course with an Android and Mobile Web Parallel Development Team Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wilson; Pepe, James; Englander, Irv

    2017-01-01

    Information systems capstone projects aim to prepare students for what they will encounter in the industry after graduation. Corporate application development is often a complex endeavor that requires coordination between related products. For example, software development in the mobile application sector may require a coordinated parallel…

  4. 76 FR 38267 - The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's 2011-2016 Strategic Plan: Raising the Safety Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Federal Docket Management System (FDMS) address: http://www.regulations.gov . Fax: 202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room... transport and logistics supply chain in improving CMV safety factors. This is a holistic view of safety that...

  5. Raising the bar on the foreign portfolio to 25 per cent: Strategic implications for South African investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David John Bradfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 28 of the Pension Funds Act now permits an increased allocation of 25 per cent to foreign investments. The regulation previously only permitted a 20 per cent allocation. Establishing the optimal foreign allocation for South African portfolio managers given the 25 per cent upper bound is an important consideration for strategic portfolio planning. In this paper we consider two methodological approaches to establish a strategic foreign allocation weight. Our first approach considers the strategic role of foreign investment in South African global balanced portfolios by using a mean-variance efficient frontier framework over a long-term period. We also implement a second assessment methodology that utilises a nonparametric procedure. Both the mean-variance and the non-parametric methodology yield compelling evidence for the foreign allocation to be set at the maximum allowable bound of 25 per cent.

  6. Raising the Bar: How a Teacher Built a Ballet-Centered Public School that Aces Standardized Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author features Todd Eric Allen, an acclaimed ballet dancer, who returns home to Florida's so-called Redneck Riviera and opens a magnet school for dance. When asked the inevitable question of what an internationally known ballet dancer is doing teaching 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders in Fort Walton Beach, he simply replies in a way…

  7. Re-study of the contribution of scalar potential and spectra of cc-bar, bb-bar and bc-bar(b-bar c) families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Ke Hongwei; Ding Yibing; Li Xueqian

    2012-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the role of the scalar potential which appears at the loop level is much smaller than that of the vector potential and is in fact negligible. But the situation is different for QCD, one reason is that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and second the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce a sizable scalar potential. In this work, we study phenomenologically the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonia, bottomonia and bc-bar (b-bar c) families. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonia and bottomonia spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of not only the charmonia and bottomonia families, but also the bc-bar family. We also consider the Lamb shift of the spectra. (authors)

  8. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-01-01

    The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the a...

  9. Jazz Chants Born in a Piano Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Graham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When I first arrived in New York in the late sixties, I began teaching ESL at New York University. I didn`t really think of teaching as a profession for me. I just thought it would pay the rent so I could do what I really wanted to do which was to sing and play ragtime piano in the piano bars. When I got my first piano job in an Irish Bar it was uptown, far away from NYU so I didn`t feel it was necessary to mention this night job to my boss.

  10. Precracking of round notched bars. Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scibetta, M.

    1996-02-01

    Precracking round notched bars is the first step before fracture mechanics testing. This report gives an overview of the different techniques described in the literature. Difficulties generally encountered are linked to the crack length determination and the creation of eccentric cracks. As the compliance technique is often used, a detailed study of the stress intensity factor and the compliance of the precracked bar under bending and tension is presented. Comparison with finite element calculations is made to validate the proposed analytical formulation. Finally a practical way for precracking is described

  11. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  12. Imaging of physeal bars in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, David C.; Deeney, Vincent; Roach, James W.; Shah, Amisha J.

    2015-01-01

    The growth plate, also known as the physis or epiphyseal plate, is essential for longitudinal growth of bones in the immature skeleton. A variety of insults to the growth plate from trauma to infection to idiopathic causes can lead to physeal bar formation, an interruption in normal growth plate cartilage, where a bony or fibrous bridge develops between the metaphysis and epiphysis. This bridge restricts subsequent bone growth, leading to limb shortening and/or angular deformities. Early recognition of the presence of a physeal bar can help direct appropriate surgical management to restore linear growth of the bone. (orig.)

  13. Radar application in void and bar detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abas; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Suhairy Sani

    2003-01-01

    Radar is one of the new non-destructive testing techniques for concrete and structures inspection. Radar is a non-ionizing electromagnetic wave that can penetrate deep into concrete or soil in about several tenths of meters. Method of inspection using radar enables us to perform high resolution detection, imaging and mapping of subsurface concrete and soil condition. This paper will discuss the use of radar for void and bar detection and sizing. The samples used in this paper are custom made samples and comparison will be made to validate the use of radar in detecting, locating and also size determination of voids and bars. (Author)

  14. A bar coding system for environmental projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, R.B.; Hunt, B.J.; Burgess, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents BeCode systems, a bar coding system which provides both nuclear and commercial clients with a data capture and custody management program that is accurate, timely, and beneficial to all levels of project operations. Using bar code identifiers is an essentially paperless and error-free method which provides more efficient delivery of data through its menu card-driven structure, which speeds collection of essential data for uploading to a compatible device. The effects of this sequence include real-time information for operator analysis, management review, audits, planning, scheduling, and cost control

  15. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  16. Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.M.; Kaplan, A.F.H.; Tuominen, J.; Vuoristo, P.; Miettinen, J.; Poutala, J.; Näkki, J.; Junkala, J.; Peltola, T.; Barsoum, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Laser clad defects are 0D-pores/inclusions, 1D-clad waviness or 2D-planar defects. ► Surface pore of laser clad bar initiates fatigue cracks. ► Side edge surface pores are more critical than in-clad surface pores. ► Smaller notch radius and angle of as-laser clad surface raises stress significantly. ► Planar inner defects grow faster towards surface. - Abstract: Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations

  17. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  18. My Bar Graph Tells a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Sue; McMillen, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Connecting stories to qualitative coordinate graphs has been suggested as an effective instructional strategy. Even students who are able to "create" bar graphs may struggle to correctly "interpret" them. Giving children opportunities to work with qualitative graphs can help them develop the skills to interpret, describe, and compare information…

  19. Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar, research results 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, D.M.C.; Hueting, T.F.; Joosten, B.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Martens, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    This document reports the advances made in 2016 for the Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement: Adaptive Automation, sub-project Adaptive Virtual Tow Bar. The ambition of the large scale TNO Early Research Program (ERP) Human Enhancement is to develop a transparent (human-in-the-loop)

  20. The bar coil for NMR tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogorodzki, P.; Piatkowski, A.; Wasielewski, J.

    1995-01-01

    The bar coil (bi-planar) for the NMR tomograph, designed for medical diagnostics, has been described. The tests of coil shown that it generates good homogenous magnetic field in a big volume what results in improving of the signal-to-noise ratio

  1. A piezo-bar pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, W. H.; Murphy, C. L.; Shanfield, I.

    1967-01-01

    Piezo-bar pressure type probe measures the impact velocity or pressure of a moving debris cloud. It measures pressures up to 200,000 psi and peak pressures may be recorded with a total pulse duration between 5 and 65 musec.

  2. The BaBar Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, I; Grosso, P; Huffer, M E; O'Grady, C; Russell, J J

    1999-01-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is designed to perform a search for CP violation by ana-lyzing the decays of a very large sample of B and B(Bar) mesons produced at the high luminosity PEP-II accelerator. The data acquisition system must cope with a sustained high event rate, while supporting real time feature extraction and data compression with minimal dead time. The BaBar data acquisition system is based around a common VME interface to the electronics read-out of the separate detec-tor subsystems. Data from the front end electronics is read into commercial VME processors via a custom "Personality Card" and PCI interface. The commercial CPUs run the Tornado operating system to provide a platform for detector subsystem code to perform the necessary data processing. The data is read out via a non-blocking network switch to a farm of commercial UNIX processors. The current implementation of the BaBar data acquisition sys-tem has been shown to sustain a Level 1 trigger rate of 1.3...

  3. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, B

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter is a hermetic, total-absorption array of CsI(Tl)-crystals, operated at the asymmetric e sup - e sup + -collider PEP-II at SLAC. The design and the status of the performance as of February 2002 is presented.

  4. Divorce and Bar Mitzvah: A First Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffen, Michael; Kaplan, Earl

    After an introductory discussion and review of literature on divorce among Jewish families, this document presents and analyzes two case studies which show the adverse effect of divorce and child-custody battles on the children of Jewish families who subsequently plan a B'nai Mitzvah (Bar or Bat Mitzvah) ceremony--a joyous ritual of initiation…

  5. QCD corrections to leptonic and hadronic observables from p bar p→W+X→ bar τντX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, H.; Reno, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    We set up a formalism for calculating the O(α s ) corrections to the process p bar p→W + X→ bar τν τ X with spin-correlated τ decays to leptons and mesons. Our results are applicable to Monte Carlo integration, which allows easy construction of any desired observable at next-to-leading-log level, and the possibility to include experimental cuts. Our results are applied explicitly to the decay modes τ→ bar ν τ bar eν e , bar τ→ bar ν τ π + , and bar τ→ bar ν τ π + π 0 ; other decay modes may be included in a straightforward fashion. We show results for transverse momentum and rapidity variables in leading-log and next-to-leading-log approximations; the leptonic observables are compared to similar observables from direct W→ bar eν e

  6. More Than Bar Codes: Integrating Global Standards-Based Bar Code Technology Into National Health Information Systems in Ethiopia and Pakistan to Increase End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Liuichi; Guirguis, Ramy; Hummel, Keith; Villanueva, Monica

    2017-12-28

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) DELIVER PROJECT work together to strengthen public health commodity supply chains by standardizing bar coding under a single set of global standards. From 2015, UNFPA and USAID collaborated to pilot test how tracking and tracing of bar coded health products could be operationalized in the public health supply chains of Ethiopia and Pakistan and inform the ecosystem needed to begin full implementation. Pakistan had been using proprietary bar codes for inventory management of contraceptive supplies but transitioned to global standards-based bar codes during the pilot. The transition allowed Pakistan to leverage the original bar codes that were preprinted by global manufacturers as opposed to printing new bar codes at the central warehouse. However, barriers at lower service delivery levels prevented full realization of end-to-end data visibility. Key barriers at the district level were the lack of a digital inventory management system and absence of bar codes at the primary-level packaging level, such as single blister packs. The team in Ethiopia developed an open-sourced smartphone application that allowed the team to scan bar codes using the mobile phone's camera and to push the captured data to the country's data mart. Real-time tracking and tracing occurred from the central warehouse to the Addis Ababa distribution hub and to 2 health centers. These pilots demonstrated that standardized product identification and bar codes can significantly improve accuracy over manual stock counts while significantly streamlining the stock-taking process, resulting in efficiencies. The pilots also showed that bar coding technology by itself is not sufficient to ensure data visibility. Rather, by using global standards for identification and data capture of pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and integrating the data captured into national and global tracking systems

  7. 50 CFR Figures 14a and 14b to Part... - Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Bent Bars... 223—Maximum Angle of Deflector Bars With Straight Bars Attached to the Bottom of the Frame and Maximum...

  8. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  9. Qualification of flat welding of nuclear fuel bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Rivera M, H.

    2001-01-01

    The qualification of flat welding consists in the process (procedures (11), instructions (5), specifications (4) and programs (3)) and equipment (systems (4), equipment (6)) with the Personal Qualification (operators and supervisors) that was done in simultaneous form and supported with test and training programs with its respective technical reports, liberated by the Quality Assurance Office of ININ. Moreover, specific procedures of process and personal qualification are realized with the respective supervision by Quality Assurance Office. For the process, 20 welding were realized as follow: 5 welding with maximum contributing of heat, 10 welding with nominal contributing of heat, 5 welding with minimum contributing of heat. The heat contributing for the qualification was done maximum, of increasing the welding current, diminishing the helium flux and the revolutions per minute of the bar, at the moment of welding, with respect to nominal values. In the minimum contributing of heat it is diminished the welding current, increasing the helium flux and the revolutions per minute of the bar with respect to nominal values. With the qualification it has been finished the development of flat welding with results which define an own method of ININ. It was implemented a pneumatic system, for the elimination of micron cracks. It was required a control of turn velocity of the bar of hundredth of revolution. Moreover the main welding parameters each 40 μs are acquired. Also it was automated completely the process to avoid possible human mistakes. The standard deviations of the values of the realized inspections in the quality, are lower. Process, equipment and personnel with their respective Quality reports and registries are qualified, as well as the Quality certificates of two operators and one supervisor. (Author)

  10. vertical bar Vub vertical bar from exclusive semileptonic B→π decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, Jonathan M.; Nieves, Juan

    2007-01-01

    We use Omnes representations of the form factors f + and f 0 for exclusive semileptonic B→π decays, paying special attention to the treatment of the B* pole and its effect on f + . We apply them to combine experimental partial branching fraction information with theoretical calculations of both form factors to extract vertical bar V ub vertical bar. The precision we achieve is competitive with the inclusive determination and we do not find a significant discrepancy between our result, vertical bar V ub vertical bar=(3.90+/-0.32+/-0.18)x10 -3 , and the inclusive world average value (4.45+/-0.20+/-0.26)x10 -3 [Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG), hep-ex/0603003

  11. Measurement of vertical bar Vub vertical bar in semi-inclusive charmless B → πX decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.S.; Lee, Jake; Oha, Sechul

    2002-01-01

    We study semi-inclusive charmless decays B → πX, where X does not contain a charm (anti)quark. The mode B-bar 0 → π - X turns out to be be particularly useful for determination of the CKM matrix element vertical bar V ub vertical bar. We present the branching ratio (BR) of B-bar 0 → π - X as a function of vertical bar V ub vertical bar, with an estimation of possible uncertainty. The BR is expected to be an order of 10 -4

  12. Search for scalar bottom quarks and third-generation leptoquarks in p(bar p) collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterre, Cecile

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a search for pair production of scalar bottom quarks ((bar b) 1 ) and scalar third-generation leptoquarks (LQ 3 ) in a data sample of 5.2 f b -1 collected by the D0 experiment at the Tevatron, the p(bar p) collider at Fermilab. We assume that sbottoms decay to a neutralino ((bar χ) 1 0 ) and a b quark, and we set 95% C.L. lower limits on their production in the (m # bar b# # sub 1#, m # bar χ)# sub 1# # sup 0#) mass plane such that m # bar b# # sub 1# > 247 GeV for m # bar χ)# sub 1# # sup 0# = 0 and m # bar χ)# sub 1# # sup 0# > 110 GeV for 160 # bar b# # sub 1# < 200 GeV. The leptoquarks are assumed to decay to a tau neutrino and a b quark, and we set a 95% C.L. lower limit of 247 GeV on the mass of a charge-1/3 third-generation leptoquark.

  13. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  14. DYNAMICAL CALCULATIONS OF (K)over-bar AND MULTI-(K)over-bar NUCLEI

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gazda, D.; Mareš, Jiří; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 2-3 (2009), s. 438-441 ISSN 0217-751X. [Conference MESON 2008. Jagiellonian Univ, Cracow, 06.06.2008-10.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100480617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : (K)over-bar-nuclear RMF calculations * (K)over-bar-nuclear bound states * kaon condensation Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  15. MASSIVE CLUSTERS IN THE INNER REGIONS OF NGC 1365: CLUSTER FORMATION AND GAS DYNAMICS IN GALACTIC BARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Galliano, Emmanuel; Alloin, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Cluster formation and gas dynamics in the central regions of barred galaxies are not well understood. This paper reviews the environment of three 10 7 M sun clusters near the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the barred spiral NGC 1365. The morphology, mass, and flow of H I and CO gas in the spiral and barred regions are examined for evidence of the location and mechanism of cluster formation. The accretion rate is compared with the star formation rate to infer the lifetime of the starburst. The gas appears to move from inside corotation in the spiral region to looping filaments in the interbar region at a rate of ∼6 M sun yr -1 before impacting the bar dustlane somewhere along its length. The gas in this dustlane moves inward, growing in flux as a result of the accretion to ∼40 M sun yr -1 near the ILR. This inner rate exceeds the current nuclear star formation rate by a factor of 4, suggesting continued buildup of nuclear mass for another ∼0.5 Gyr. The bar may be only 1-2 Gyr old. Extrapolating the bar flow back in time, we infer that the clusters formed in the bar dustlane outside the central dust ring at a position where an interbar filament currently impacts the lane. The ram pressure from this impact is comparable to the pressure in the bar dustlane, and both are comparable to the pressure in the massive clusters. Impact triggering is suggested. The isothermal assumption in numerical simulations seems inappropriate for the rarefaction parts of spiral and bar gas flows. The clusters have enough lower-mass counterparts to suggest they are part of a normal power-law mass distribution. Gas trapping in the most massive clusters could explain their [Ne II] emission, which is not evident from the lower-mass clusters nearby.

  16. Oscillations of rigid bar in the special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    2011-12-01

    In the special relativity, a rigid bar slides on herself, with a extreme oscillating harmonically. We have discovered at the movement amplitude and in the bar length, indispensable for the elimination of non physical solutions

  17. Numerical estimation of concrete beams reinforced with FRP bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protchenko Kostiantyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces numerical investigation on mechanical performance of a concrete beam reinforced with Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP bars, which can be competitive alternative to steel bars for enhancing concrete structures. The objective of this work is being identified as elaborating of reliable numerical model for predicting strength capacity of structural elements with implementation of Finite Element Analysis (FEA. The numerical model is based on experimental study prepared for the beams, which were reinforced with Basalt FRP (BFRP bars and steel bars (for comparison. The results obtained for the beams reinforced with steel bars are found to be in close agreement with the experimental results. However, the beams reinforced with BFRP bars in experimental programme demonstrated higher bearing capacity than those reinforced with steel bars, which is not in a good convergence with numerical results. Authors did attempt to describe the reasons on achieving experimentally higher bearing capacity of beams reinforced with BFRP bars.

  18. Does a tow-bar increase the risk of neck injury in rear-end collisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Anne Vingaard; Elvik, Rune; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Lahrmann, Harry S

    2018-06-01

    Does a tow-bar increase the risk of neck injury in the struck car in a rear-end collision? The rear part of a modern car has collision zones that are rendered nonoperational when the car is equipped with a tow-bar. Past crash tests have shown that a car's acceleration was higher in a car equipped with a tow-bar and also that a dummy placed in a car with a tow-bar had higher peak acceleration in the lower neck area. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of neck injury in drivers and passengers, and the presence of a registered tow-bar on the struck car in a rear-end collision. We performed a merger of police reports, the National Hospital Discharge Registry, and the National Registry of Motor Vehicles in Denmark. We identified 9,370 drivers and passengers of whom 1,519 were diagnosed with neck injury within the first year after the collision. We found a statistically insignificant 5% decrease in the risk of neck injury in the occupants of the struck car when a tow-bar was fitted compared to when it was not fitted (hazard ratio=0.95; 95% confidence level=0.85-1.05; p=0.32). The result was controlled for gender, age, and the seat of the occupant. Several other collision and car characteristics and demographic information on the drivers and passengers were evaluated as confounders but were not statistically significant. The present study may serve as valuable input for a meta-analysis on the effect of a tow-bar because negative results are necessary in order to avoid publication bias. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  20. Effect of bar sealing parameters on OPP/MCPP heat seal strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bar sealing parameters on the heat seal strength of oriented polypropylene (OPP/metallic cast polypropylene (MCPP laminate film was investigated. Based on the results obtained from the parametric study, a bar sealing process window was developed. All points drop within the process window are combinations of platen temperature and dwell time that produce acceptable heat seal. Optimum combinations are indicated by the lower border of the window. The plateau initiation temperature, Tpi of OPP/MCPP laminate film used in the present study occurred before the final melting temperature, Tmf of the sealant material. The highest achievable heat seal strength was at the plateau region, and the corresponding failure modes were delaminating, tearing or combine failure modes (delaminating and tearing. Minimum pressure level of 1.25 bars is necessary to bring the laminate interface into intimate contact in order to effect sealing.

  1. Tensile Capacity of U-bar Loop Connections with Precast Fiber Reinforced Dowels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Harrild; Hoang, Linh Cao; Olesen, John Forbes

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the tensile capacity of in-situ cast U-bar loop connections between precast concrete elements. The basic idea is to introduce a small precast cylindrical dowel of fiber reinforced mortar that fits into the bend diameter of the overlapping U...... that use of a precast fiber reinforced dowel performs at a slightly lower load level, as compared to a connection grouted solely with regular mortar and reinforced with the same amount of transverse reinforcement. However, the load-displacement response of specimens with a fiber reinforced dowel is closer......-bars. The remaining part of the connection is cast in-situ with a regular mortar, which then encapsulates the precast dowel. Different dowel configurations have been investigated, including the use of steel or synthetic fibers with or without lacer bars placed within the precast dowel. The experimental results show...

  2. Membrane-Sculpting BAR Domains Generate Stable Lipid Microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongxia; Michelot, Alphée; Koskela, Essi V.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios; Drubin, David G.; Lappalainen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins are central regulators of many cellular processes involving membrane dynamics. BAR domains sculpt phosphoinositide-rich membranes to generate membrane protrusions or invaginations. Here, we report that, in addition to regulating membrane geometry, BAR domains can generate extremely stable lipid microdomains by “freezing” phosphoinositide dynamics. This is a general feature of BAR domains, because the yeast endocytic BAR and Fes/CIP4 homology BAR (F-BAR) domains, the inverse BAR domain of Pinkbar, and the eisosomal BAR protein Lsp1 induced phosphoinositide clustering and halted lipid diffusion, despite differences in mechanisms of membrane interactions. Lsp1 displays comparable low diffusion rates in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that BAR domain proteins also generate stable phosphoinositide microdomains in cells. These results uncover a conserved role for BAR superfamily proteins in regulating lipid dynamics within membranes. Stable microdomains induced by BAR domain scaffolds and specific lipids can generate phase boundaries and diffusion barriers, which may have profound impacts on diverse cellular processes. PMID:24055060

  3. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  4. Mirrlees MB430 has 23 bar bmep potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-04-01

    Nominally rates at 1000 bhp per cylinder, the new Mirrlees Blackstone MB430 diesel engine with 430 mm bore and 480 mm stroke runs at 600 rev/min under bmep of 21 bar. Initially the engine has been released at 19 bar with the prospect of uprating to 23 bar bmep in due course. The performance testing of the engine is discussed.

  5. Investigation into brittle failure of some starter bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, D.A.; Vliet, M.R.A. van

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the cause and consequences of an observed brittle behaviour of some starter bars on a construction site in the Netherlands. A few bars suddenly failed when they were bent in order to align them. For the investigation firstly a batch of starter bars that

  6. Sensory profiling and consumer acceptability of new dark cocoa bars containing Tuscan autochthonous food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Claudio; Salusti, Patrizia; Romi, Marco; Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2018-03-01

    A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata ® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple. Bars containing apple and chestnut flour obtained higher acceptance ratings, compared to those with extra virgin olive oil. The bar with chestnut flour was preferred by consumers who considered it to be sweeter due to the presence of natural sugars, which lowered the bitter sensation of cocoa. These results showed that the selection of the preferred bar by consumers was mainly based on the level of bitterness and, in particular, elderly consumers expressed a strong preference for the sweetest product. As far as we know, this is the first study comparing the results of a panel of expert tasters with that of consumers in the tasting of dark chocolate.

  7. $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ As the Lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ State

    CERN Document Server

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2016-05-23

    The state $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ has recently been demoted by the Particle Data Group from its previous status as the conventional $c\\bar c$ $2 {}^3P_0$ state, largely due to the absence of expected $D\\bar D$ decays. We propose that $\\chi^{\\vphantom\\dagger}_{c0}(3915)$ is actually the lightest $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state, and calculate the spectrum of such states using the diquark model, identifying many of the observed charmoniumlike states that lack open-charm decay modes as $c\\bar c s \\bar s$. Among other results, we argue that $Y(4140)$ is a $J^{PC} = 1^{++}$ $c\\bar c s \\bar s$ state that has been not been seen in two-photon fusion largely as a consequence of the Landau-Yang theorem.

  8. A train for the bus(bars)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    On 8 April, the first SMACC (Superconducting Magnets and Circuits Consolidation) teams began work in the LHC tunnel. They are responsible for opening the interconnects between the magnets, laying the groundwork for the series of operations that will be performed by the team riding the ‘consolidation train’.   A technician installs the machine tool that allows them to prepare the surface of the section of the bar where the shunt will be fixed. The LHC’s 1,670 dipoles and quadrupoles are powered by power converters and connected by copper 'busbars’. The superconducting cables run through these bars, carrying a current of up to 11,850 amps. Six superconducting cables meet at each interconnect, where they are held together by a soldered (see box) electrical connection sandwiched between two pieces of copper, forming the splice between the busbars of the neighbouring magnets. The integrity of the electrical circuit is depen...

  9. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bar-code automated waste tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, T.E.

    1994-10-01

    The Bar-Code Automated Waste Tracking System was designed to be a site-Specific program with a general purpose application for transportability to other facilities. The system is user-friendly, totally automated, and incorporates the use of a drive-up window that is close to the areas dealing in container preparation, delivery, pickup, and disposal. The system features ''stop-and-go'' operation rather than a long, tedious, error-prone manual entry. The system is designed for automation but allows operators to concentrate on proper handling of waste while maintaining manual entry of data as a backup. A large wall plaque filled with bar-code labels is used to input specific details about any movement of waste

  11. Longitudinal ultrasonic waves dispersion in bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2001-01-01

    The exhibition intends to review some aspects of the propagation of the longitudinal ultrasonic pulses shortly in bars of traverse section uniform.Aspects they are part of the denominated geometric dispersion of the pulses.This phenomenon It can present like an additional complication in the ultrasonic essay of low frequency of thin pieces in structures and machines but takes place former ex professed in some applications of the wave guides been accustomed to in the prosecution of signs

  12. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  13. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monorchio, Diego; /INFN, Naples /Naples U.

    2011-09-13

    The authors will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)} {nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be payed in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment where to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  14. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  15. BAR-MOM code and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shunuan

    2002-01-01

    BAR-MOM code for calculating the height of the fission barrier Bf , the energy of the ground state is presented; the compound nucleus stability by limit with respect to fission, i.e., the angular momentum (the spin value) L max at which the fission barrier disappears, the three principal axis moments of inertia at saddle point for a certain nucleus with atomic number Z, atomic mass number A and angular momentum L in units of ℎ for 19< Z<102, and the model used are introduced briefly. The generalized BAR-MOM code to include the results for Z ≥ 102 by using more recent parameterization of the Thomas Fermi fission barrier is also introduced briefly. We have learned the models used in Code BAR-MOM, and run it successfully and correctly for a certain nucleus with atomic mass number A, atomic number Z, and angular momentum L on PC by Fortran-90. The testing calculation values to check the implementation of the program show that the results of the present work are in good agreement with the original one

  16. Measurement of $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ ratio at 13 TeV with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Young-kwon

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of the cross section ratio $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}/\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is presented using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3~$\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ collected in pp collisions at \\\\ $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. Events with two leptons and at least four reconstructed jets, including at least two identified as b quark jets, in the final state are selected. The measured ratio is $0.022 \\pm 0.003$(stat.)$\\pm0.006$(syst.) in the full phase space. The measured cross section $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}b\\bar{b}}$ is $3.9 \\pm 0.6$(stat.)$\\pm1.3$(syst.) pb and $\\sigma_{t\\bar{t}jj}$ is $176 \\pm 5$(stat.)$ \\pm 33 $(syst.) pb.

  17. Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Civil engineering work to raise the level of Route Goward will take place during Long Shutdown 1. The work will begin on 18 March 2013 and is expected to last around 5 months.   Route Goward runs over the top of the PS tunnel and is the only access route to the inside of the ring. The layer of shielding backfill beneath this road is the thinnest anywhere on the PS ring. As the purpose of this shielding is to protect against the ionising radiation emitted by the accelerator when in operation, this road has been classified as a “supervised radiation area” according to radiation protection regulations. This classification was merely a temporary solution and, on the recommendation of the PS Radiation Working Group (PSRWG), the decision has been taken to raise the surface level permanently by around 2 m in order to increase the thickness of the shielding and thus lower the dose rate to that of a non-designated area. As the PS tunnel itself is unable to withstand the weight of t...

  18. Antihydrogen Production in $ \\bar{p} $ Z - interaction

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS210 \\\\ \\\\ The production of the antihydrogen atom $ \\bar {H}^0 \\equiv \\bar{p}e $ as the simplest atomic bound state of antimatter has been studied. Nine $ \\bar {H}^0 $ have been observed.\\\\ \\\\ The production of $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is predominantly mediated by the two-photon mechanism in the antiproton-nucleus interaction. In principle $ \\bar {H}^0 $ is well suited for investigations of fundamental CPT violation studies under different forces, however, in the present experiment we concentrated on the production of this antimatter object, since so far it never had been observed.

  19. High-power diode laser bars as pump sources for fiber lasers and amplifiers (Invited Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonati, G.; Hennig, P.; Wolff, D.; Voelckel, H.; Gabler, T.; Krause, U.; T'nnermann, A.; Reich, M.; Limpert, J.; Werner, E.; Liem, A.

    2005-04-01

    Fiber lasers are pumped by fibercoupled, multimode single chip devices at 915nm. That"s what everybody assumes when asked for the type of fiber laser pumps and it was like this for many years. Coming up as an amplifier for telecom applications, the amount of pump power needed was in the range of several watts. Highest pump powers for a limited market entered the ten watts range. This is a range of power that can be covered by highly reliable multimode chips, that have to survive up to 25 years, e.g. in submarine applications. With fiber lasers entering the power range and the application fields of rod and thin disc lasers, the amount of pump power needed raised into the area of several hundred watts. In this area of pump power, usually bar based pumps are used. This is due to the much higher cost pressure of the industrial customers compared to telecom customers. We expect more then 70% of all industrial systems to be pumped by diode laser bars. Predictions that bar based pumps survive for just a thousand hours in cw-operation and fractions of this if pulsed are wrong. Bar based pumps have to perform on full power for 10.000h on Micro channel heat sinks and 20.000h on passive heatsinks in industrial applications, and they do. We will show a variety of data, "real" long time tests and statistics from the JENOPTIK Laserdiode as well as data of thousands of bars in the field, showing that bar based pumps are not just well suitable for industrial applications on high power levels, but even showing benefits compared to chip based pumps. And it"s reasonable, that the same objectives of cost effectiveness, power and lifetime apply as well to thin disc, rod and slab lasers as to fiber lasers. Due to the pumping of fiber lasers, examples will be shown, how to utilize bars for high brightness fiber coupling. In this area, the automation is on its way to reduce the costs on the fibercoupling, similar to what had been done in the single chip business. All these efforts are

  20. Decays of Higgs bosons to bb-bar, ττ-bar, and cc-bar as signatures of supersymmetry and CP phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran

    2003-01-01

    The branching ratio of the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign), ττ-bar and cc-bar is sensitive to supersymmetric effects. We include in this work the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays. Specifically we compute the deviation of the CP phase dependent branching ratio from the standard model result. The analysis includes the full one loop corrections of fermion masses including CP phases involving the gluino, the chargino and the neutralino exchanges. The analysis shows that the supersymmetric effects with CP phases can change the branching ratios by as much as 100% for the lightest Higgs boson decay into bb(bar sign) and ττ-bar with similar results holding for the heavier Higgs boson decays. A detailed analysis is also given for the effects of CP phases on the Higgs boson decays into cc-bar. The deviations of R b/τ and R b/c from the standard model result are investigated as a possible signature of supersymmetry and CP effects. Thus a measurement of the decays of the Higgs boson into bb-bar, ττ-bar and cc-bar may provide important clues regarding the existence of supersymmetry and CP phases

  1. Ceramic bar impact experiments for improved material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Proud, W.G.; Rajendran, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic bar-on-bar (uniaxial stress) experiments are performed to extend uniaxial strain deformation states imposed in flyer plate impact experiments. A number of investigators engaged in modeling the bar-on-bar experiments have varying degrees of success in capturing the observed fracture modes in bars and correctly simulating the measured in-situ axial stress or free surface velocity histories. The difficulties encountered are related to uncertainties in understanding the dominant failure mechanisms as a function of different stress states imposed in bar impacts. Free surface velocity of the far end of the target AD998 bar were measured using a VISAR in a series of bar-on-bar impact experiments at nominal impact speeds of 100 m/s, 220 m/s, and 300 m/s. Velocity history data at an impact of 100 m/s show the material response as elastic. At higher impact velocities of 200 m/s and 300 m/s the velocity history data suggest an inelastic material response. A high-speed (Imacon) camera was employed to examine the fracture and failure of impactor and target bars. High speed photographs provide comprehensive data on geometry of damage and failure patterns as a function of time to check the validity of a particular constitutive material model for AD998 alumina used in numerical simulations of fracture and failure of the bars on impact

  2. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  3. Kinematical and dynamical models for barred spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1983-01-01

    This is a review of published works on the kinematics and dynamics of stellar bars and barred spiral galaxies. The periodic orbits of stars are elongated along the bar and enhance it out to a certain distance from the center. The important role of the interstellar gas is pointed out by the models of gas clouds and flows: the trajectories are also along the bar, but shock waves arise in front of the bar and transient spiral structures appear at its ends. These models reproduce the observed velocity fields fairly well. The investigations of the stability of axisymmetric galactic disks show that they are very unstable with respect to bar shaped perturbations and might explain why two thirds of the known spiral galaxies are barred [fr

  4. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  5. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. General relativity over V4-bar - spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Kolarov, A.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    The results from the considerations of differentiable manifolds with contravariant and covariant affine connections and metrics are specialized for the case of (L n bar, g)-spaces with metric transport (∇ ξ g = 0 for all ξ is T (M), g ij;k = 0 and f j i = e φ · g j i (the s.c. (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with contravariant and covariant symmetric affine connections). Einstein's theory of gravitation is considered in (pseudo)Riemannian spaces with different (not only by sign) contravariant and covariant affine connections ((V n bar)-spaces, n = 4). The Euler-Lagrange equations and the corresponding energy-momentum tensors (EMT-s) are obtained and compared with the Einstein equations and the EMT-s in V 4 -spaces. The geodesic and autoparallel equations in V 4 bar -spaces are found as different equations in contrast to the case of V 4 -spaces

  6. California gull chicks raised near colony edges have elevated stress levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2011-01-01

    Coloniality in nesting birds represents an important life history strategy for maximizing reproductive success. Birds nesting near the edge of colonies tend to have lower reproductive success than individuals nesting near colony centers, and offspring of edge-nesting parents may be impaired relative to those of central-nesting parents. We used fecal corticosterone metabolites in California gull chicks (Larus californicus) to examine whether colony size or location within the colony influenced a chick's physiological condition. We found that chicks being raised near colony edges had higher fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations than chicks raised near colony centers, but that colony size (ranging from 150 to 11,554 nests) had no influence on fecal corticosterone levels. Fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations also increased with chick age. Our results suggest that similarly aged California gull chicks raised near colony edges may be more physiologically stressed, as indicated by corticosterone metabolites, than chicks raised near colony centers.

  7. Search for narrow structures in pp-barπ+ and Λp-bar+- systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, S.U.; Etkin, A.; Fernow, R.C.; Foley, K.J.; Goldman, J.H.; Kirk, H.; Kopp, J.; Lesnik, A.; Love, W.A.; Morris, T.W.; Ozaki, S.; Platner, E.D.; Protopopescu, S.D.; Saulys, A.; Weygand, D.P.; Wheeler, C.D.; Willen, E.H.; Winik, M.; Bensinger, J.; Morris, W.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Kramer, M.A.; Mallik, U.; Bar-Yam, Z.; Dowd, J.; Kern, W.; Button-Shafer, J.; Dhar, S.; Lichti, R.

    1981-01-01

    We have performed a high-statistics search for narrow meson states (GAMMA - p interactions at 16 GeV/c and decaying into pp-barπ + or Λp-barπ +- . This is the first systematic search in channels requiring exchange of exotic mesons. The cross section for production of such states is ruled out at the 95% confidence level with upper limits ranging from approx.10 nb at 2.3 GeV to approx.40 nb at 2.8 GeV

  8. Analysis of physical training influence on the technical execution of the dismounts off the uneven bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Potop

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: highlighting of physical training dynamics and its influence on the biomechanical characteristics of the dismounts off uneven bars executed by junior gymnasts aged 12 to 15 years. Material: a number of 8 gymnasts aged 12 to 15 participated in this research. They performed 12 dismounts off the uneven bars during the Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Junior National Championships in the all-around event and apparatus finals. The technical execution of the uneven bars dismounts was assessed by means of Physics ToolKit and Kinovea programs in accordance with the method of movement postural orientation, monitoring the key elements of sports technique. Seven tests of motricity were used in this study: 3 tests for strength-speed of lower limbs and arms, 3 tests for strength of the abdominal, back and complex muscles and 1 test of specific endurance. Results: We highlighted the level of specific physical training of junior gymnasts aged 12-15 years; the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the key elements of sports technique in terms of trajectories of body segments, angular speeds and moment of force in the dismounts off uneven bars; also, the dynamics of sports performances achieved in competitions. Conclusions: regarding the correlation of the physical training indicators with the indicators of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the dismounts off uneven bars consistent with the results achieved in competition, we revealed strong connections between indicators at P<0.05 and P<0.01 which confirms the influence of the physical training on the technical execution of the dismounts off uneven bars executed by junior gymnasts.

  9. Large-scale laboratory study of breaking wave hydrodynamics over a fixed bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, Dominic A.; van der Zanden, Joep; O'Donoghue, Tom; Hurther, David; Cáceres, Iván.; McLelland, Stuart J.; Ribberink, Jan S.

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale wave flume experiment has been carried out involving a T = 4 s regular wave with H = 0.85 m wave height plunging over a fixed barred beach profile. Velocity profiles were measured at 12 locations along the breaker bar using LDA and ADV. A strong undertow is generated reaching magnitudes of 0.8 m/s on the shoreward side of the breaker bar. A circulation pattern occurs between the breaking area and the inner surf zone. Time-averaged turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is largest in the breaking area on the shoreward side of the bar where the plunging jet penetrates the water column. At this location, and on the bar crest, TKE generated at the water surface in the breaking process reaches the bottom boundary layer. In the breaking area, TKE does not reduce to zero within a wave cycle which leads to a high level of "residual" turbulence and therefore lower temporal variation in TKE compared to previous studies of breaking waves on plane beach slopes. It is argued that this residual turbulence results from the breaker bar-trough geometry, which enables larger length scales and time scales of breaking-generated vortices and which enhances turbulence production within the water column compared to plane beaches. Transport of TKE is dominated by the undertow-related flux, whereas the wave-related and turbulent fluxes are approximately an order of magnitude smaller. Turbulence production and dissipation are largest in the breaker zone and of similar magnitude, but in the shoaling zone and inner surf zone production is negligible and dissipation dominates.

  10. Predicting Error Bars for QSAR Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeter, Timon; Schwaighofer, Anton; Mika, Sebastian; Ter Laak, Antonius; Suelzle, Detlev; Ganzer, Ursula; Heinrich, Nikolaus; Mueller, Klaus-Robert

    2007-01-01

    Unfavorable physicochemical properties often cause drug failures. It is therefore important to take lipophilicity and water solubility into account early on in lead discovery. This study presents log D 7 models built using Gaussian Process regression, Support Vector Machines, decision trees and ridge regression algorithms based on 14556 drug discovery compounds of Bayer Schering Pharma. A blind test was conducted using 7013 new measurements from the last months. We also present independent evaluations using public data. Apart from accuracy, we discuss the quality of error bars that can be computed by Gaussian Process models, and ensemble and distance based techniques for the other modelling approaches

  11. Hadronic Physics Studies at BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroili, R.

    2006-01-01

    A new resonance Y(4260) with a mass of 4259 ± 8 -6 +2 MeV/c 2 and J PC = 1 -- , discovered by the BaBar experiment shows peculiar behavior in his decay mode. The Λ c + baryon mass has been measured, using its decays to ΛK S 0 K + and Σ 0 K S 0 K + , and its value is 2286.46 ± 0.14 MeV/c 2 , the precision is greatly improved w.r.t. PDG value. Ξ c 0 and (Omega) c 0 decays and production have been studied with results greatly improved w.r.t. PDG

  12. Failure Waves in Cylindrical Glass Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazamias, James U.; Bless, Stephan J.; Marder, Michael P.

    1997-07-01

    Failure waves, a propagating front separating virgin and comminuted material, have been receiving a fair amount of attention the last couple of years. While most scientists have been looking at failure waves in plate impact geometries, we have conducted a series of experiments on Pyrex bars. In this paper, we present two types of photographic data from a series of tests. A streak camera was used to determine velocities of the failure front as a function of impact stress. A polaroid camera and a flash lamp provide detailed pictures of the actual event. Attempts were made to observe failure waves in amorphous quartz and acrylic.

  13. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  14. Competitive interactions and resource partitioning between northern spotted owls and barred owls in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, J. David; Anthony, Robert G.; Forsman, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    species, accounting for 81% and 49% of total dietary biomass for spotted owls and barred owls, respectively. Mean dietary overlap between pairs of spotted and barred owls in adjacent territories was moderate (42%; range = 28–70%). Barred owls displayed demographic superiority over spotted owls; annual survival probability of spotted owls from known-fate analyses (0.81, SE = 0.05) was lower than that of barred owls (0.92, SE = 0.04), and pairs of barred owls produced an average of 4.4 times more young than pairs of spotted owls over a 3-year period. We found a strong, positive relationship between seasonal (6-month) survival probabilities of both species and the proportion of old (>120 yr) conifer forest within individual home ranges, which suggested that availability of old forest was a potential limiting factor in the competitive relationship between these 2 species. The annual number of young produced by spotted owls increased linearly with increasing distance from a territory center of a pair of barred owls, and all spotted owls that attempted to nest within 1.5 km of a nest used by barred owls failed to successfully produce young. We identified strong associations between the presence of barred owls and the behavior and fitness potential of spotted owls, as shown by changes in movements, habitat use, and reproductive output of spotted owls exposed to different levels of spatial overlap with territorial barred owls. When viewed collectively, our results support the hypothesis that interference competition with barred owls for territorial space can constrain the availability of critical resources required for successful recruitment and reproduction of spotted owls. Availability of old forests and associated prey species appeared to be the most strongly limiting factors in the competitive relationship between these species, indicating that further loss of these conditions can lead to increases in competitive pressure. Our findings have broad implications

  15. Search for the decay of a B0 or B0bar meson to K*0bar K0 or K*0 K0bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.

    2006-06-27

    The authors present a search for the decay of a B{sup 0} or {bar B}{sup 0} meson to a {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0} or K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0} final state, using a sample of approximately 232 million B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at SLAC. The measured branching fraction is {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) = (0.2{sub -0.8, -0.3}{sup +0.9, +0.1}) x 10{sup -6}. They obtain the following upper limit for the branching fraction at 90% confidence level: {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar K}*{sup 0} K{sup 0}) + {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup 0} {bar K}{sup 0}) < 1.9 x 10{sup -6}. They use our result to constrain the Standard Model prediction for the deviation of the CP asymmetry in B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K{sup 0} from sin 2{beta}.

  16. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  17. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  18. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  19. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  20. Search for W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar in muon-jet events at the CERN proton-antiproton collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ransdell, J.

    1988-01-01

    A search for quark decays of the W and Z particles produced in proton-antiproton collisions at √s of 630 GeV in the UA1 experiment at the CERN collider is described. The search was made in the channels W→cs-bar, Z→cc-bar,bb-bar where b and c quarks were identified by the presence of a high-p/sub T/ muon in or near a jet. Although these decay channels avoid the copious background of QCD produced light quark and gluon jets, it was not possible to detect a W or Z signal because of the large cross section for strong cc-bar and bb-bar production

  1. Study of the ρ-bar, β-bar and Λ parameters of a light-water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riche, R.

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = ρ-bar/β-bar and b = β-bar/Λ, which are definite, while the reactivity ρ-bar, the delayed neutron fraction (β-bar and the generation time Λ are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction β-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction β-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = β-bar/Λ = 129 s -1 and β-bar 795.10 -5 , have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons γ β-bar/β 1.23 and the generation time Λ 59.10 -6 s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [fr

  2. Analysis of FRP bars used as reinforcement in concrete structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Brózda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the design and construction of building and engineering structures, it is of utmost importance to provide their reliability and safety. The use of FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymers bars as reinforcement of structural concrete elements could help reducing the typical defects of reinforced concrete and increase its strength parameters. In the paper the selected FRP bar characteristic properties are presented and advantages derived therefrom are specified. Furthermore, the most commonly used in construction types of FRP bars, depending on the raw material used during the production process are listed. In addition, the possibility of recycling of elements reinforced with FRP bars is presented and compared with traditional reinforced concrete (reinforced with steel bars. The production method of FRP bars (pultrusion is shown. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of using this method are discussed.

  3. A Modified Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar Approach for Mimicking Dynamic Oscillatory Stress Fluctuations During Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunagel, M. J.; Griffith, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Past experimental work has demonstrated that rock failure at high strain rates occurs by fragmentation rather than discrete fracture and is accompanied by a dramatic increase in rock strength. However, these observations are difficult to reconcile with the assertion that pulverized rocks in fault zones are the product of impulsive stresses during the passage of earthquake ruptures, as the distance from the principal slip zones of some pulverized rock is too great to exceed fragmentation transition. One potential explanation to this paradox that has been suggested is that repeated loading over the course of multiple earthquake ruptures may gradually reduce the pulverization threshold, in terms of both strain rate and strength. We propose that oscillatory loading during a single earthquake rupture may further lower these pulverization thresholds, and that traditional dynamic experimental approaches, such as the Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) wherein load is applied as a single, smooth, sinusoidal compressive wave, may not reflect natural loading conditions. To investigate the effects of oscillatory compressive loading expected during earthquake rupture propagation, we develop a controlled cyclic loading model on a SHPB apparatus utilizing two striker bars connected by an elastic spring. Unlike traditional SHPB experiments that utilize a gas gun to fire a projectile bar and generate a single compressive wave on impact with the incident bar, our modified striker bar assembly oscillates while moving down the gun barrel and generates two separate compressive pulses separated by a lag time. By modeling the modified assembly as a mass-spring-mass assembly accelerating due to the force of the released gas, we can predict the compression time of the spring upon impact and therefore the time delay between the generation of the first and second compressive waves. This allows us to predictably control load cycles with durations of only a few hundred microseconds. Initial

  4. The {{\\rm{D}}\\bar{{\\rm{D}}}}^{{\\rm{* }}} interaction with isospin zero in an extended hidden gauge symmetry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bao-Xi; Wan, Da-Ming; Zhao, Si-Yu

    2018-05-01

    The {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction via a ρ or ω exchange is constructed within an extended hidden gauge symmetry approach, where the strange quark is replaced by the charm quark in the SU(3) flavor space. With this {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} interaction, a bound state slightly lower than the {{{D}}\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} threshold is generated dynamically in the isospin zero sector by solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the coupled-channel approximation, which might correspond to the X(3872) particle announced by many collaborations. This formulism is also used to study the {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} interaction, and a {{{B}}\\bar{{{B}}}}{{* }} bound state with isospin zero is generated dynamically, which has no counterpart listed in the review of the Particle Data Group. Furthermore, the one-pion exchange between the D meson and the {\\bar{{{D}}}}{{* }} is analyzed precisely, and we do not think the one-pion exchange potential need be considered when the Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved.

  5. Latino Solo Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Health Risks and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Deborah M; Fuller-Thomson, Esme

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this descriptive report is to provide the first representative information on the sociodemographic profile and the prevalence of mental and physical health conditions of two "at-risk" groups of Latino caregivers: solo grandparent caregivers and single parents. The 2012 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System was used to compare five dimensions of health on a sample of Latino solo grandparents and Latino single parents, raising their grandchildren/children alone. Bivariate and logistic regression comparative analyses were conducted on study measures. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of chronic health conditions, including arthritis (51%), depression (40%), diabetes (34%), and asthma (34%). Latino single parents have lower but troubling health risks, including depression (22%), diabetes (14%), and asthma (14%). Differences between the two groups were largely due to the grandparents older age. Latino solo grandparents have a high prevalence of several chronic medical conditions. The prevalence of disorders is much lower for Latino single parents, although they too have disturbing health risks. Latino solo grandparents perform their parenting role under intense physical and emotional strain. Health professionals can be instrumental in facilitating interventions that affect the well-being of this expanding family group.

  6. The efficacy of daily snack replacement with oligofructose-enriched granola bars in overweight and obese adults: a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Korrie; de Graaf, Cees; Meyer, Diederick; Mars, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Oligofructose is a prebiotic dietary fibre obtained from chicory root inulin. Oligofructose supplementation may affect satiety, food intake, body weight and/or body composition. The aim was to examine the efficacy of oligofructose-supplemented granola bars on the following weight management outcomes: satiety, energy intake, body weight and body composition in overweight or obese adults. In all, fifty-five adults with overweight or obesity (thirty-six females/nineteen males; age: 41 (sd 12) years; 90·6 (sd 11·8) kg; BMI: 29·4 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) participated in a parallel, triple-blind, placebo-controlled intervention. A total of twenty-nine subjects replaced their snacks twice a day with an equienergetic granola bar supplemented with 8 g of oligofructose (OF-Bar). Subjects in the control group (n 26) replaced their snack with a control granola bar without added oligofructose (Co-Bar). Satiety, 24-h energy intake, body weight and body composition (fat mass and waist circumference) were measured at baseline, weeks 6 and 12. In addition, weekly appetite and gastrointestinal side effects were measured. During the intervention, energy intake, body weight and fat mass remained similar in the Co-Bar and OF-Bar groups (all P>0·05). Both groups lost 0·3 (sd 1·2) kg lean mass (P<0·01) and reduced their waist circumference with -2·2 (sd 3·6) cm (P<0·0001) after 12 weeks. The OF-Bar group reported decreased hunger in later weeks of the intervention (P=0·04), less prospective food consumption (P=0·03) and less thirst (P=0·003). To conclude, replacing daily snacks for 12 weeks with oligofructose-supplemented granola bars does not differentially affect energy intake, body weight and body composition compared with a control bar. However, there was an indication that appetite was lower after oligofructose bar consumption.

  7. Kolkata Restaurant Problem as a Generalised El Farol Bar Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    Generalisation of the El Farol bar problem to that of many bars here leads to the Kolkata restaurant problem, where the decision to go to any restaurant or not is much simpler (depending on the previous experience of course, as in the El Farol bar problem). This generalised problem can be exactly analysed in some limiting cases discussed here. The fluctuation in the restaurant service can be shown to have precisely an inverse cubic behavior, as widely seen in the stock market fluctuations.

  8. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  9. Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2013-01-01

    Principles and Practices of Bar and Beverage Management is a comprehensive text and resource book designed to explain the latest developments and new complexities of managing modern bars - be they stand alone or part of larger institutions such as hotels and resorts. Consumer expectations have changed, and a bar today must deliver an integrated social experience in a safe modern environment, which also offers the latest products and services in a professional and engaging fashion. Against ...

  10. Characterizing bars in low surface brightness disc galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Wesley; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm azimuthal light profiles of four low surface brightness galaxies (LSBs; UGC 628, F568-1, F568-3, F563-V2) to characterize three bar parameters: length, strength, and corotation radius. We employ three techniques to measure the radius of the bars, including a new method using the azimuthal light profiles. We find comparable bar radii between the I-band and 3.6 μm for all four galaxies when using our azimuthal light profile method, and that our bar lengths are comparable to those in high surface brightness galaxies (HSBs). In addition, we find the bar strengths for our galaxies to be smaller than those for HSBs. Finally, we use Fourier transforms of the B-band, I-band, and 3.6 μm images to characterize the bars as either `fast' or `slow' by measuring the corotation radius via phase profiles. When using the B- and I-band phase crossings, we find three of our galaxies have faster than expected relative bar pattern speeds for galaxies expected to be embedded in centrally dense cold dark matter haloes. When using the B-band and 3.6 μm phase crossings, we find more ambiguous results, although the relative bar pattern speeds are still faster than expected. Since we find a very slow bar in F563-V2, we are confident that we are able to differentiate between fast and slow bars. Finally, we find no relation between bar strength and relative bar pattern speed when comparing our LSBs to HSBs.

  11. Electromyographic Comparison of Barbell Deadlift, Hex Bar Deadlift, and Hip Thrust Exercises: A Cross-Over Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Mo, Dag-Andrè; Iversen, Vegard M; Vederhus, Torbjørn; Rockland Hellebø, Lars R; Nordaune, Kristina I; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2018-03-01

    Andersen, V, Fimland, MS, Mo, D-A, Iversen, VM, Vederhus, T, Rockland Hellebø, LR, Nordaune, KI, and Saeterbakken, AH. Electromyographic comparison of barbell deadlift, hex bar deadlift, and hip thrust exercises: a cross-over study. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 587-593, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the muscle activation level of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, and erector spinae in the hip thrust, barbell deadlift, and hex bar deadlift; each of which are compound resisted hip extension exercises. After 2 familiarization sessions, 13 resistance-trained men performed a 1 repetition maximum in all 3 exercises in 1 session, in randomized and counterbalanced order. The whole ascending movement (concentric phase), as well as its lower and upper parts (whole movement divided in 2), were analyzed. The hip thrust induced greater activation of the gluteus maximus compared with the hex bar deadlift in the whole (16%, p = 0.025) and the upper part (26%, p = 0.015) of the movement. For the whole movement, the biceps femoris was more activated during barbell deadlift compared with both the hex bar deadlift (28%, p bar deadlift (p = 0.049) compared with hip thrust. Biceps femoris activation in the upper part of the movement was 39% higher for the barbell deadlift compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.001) and 34% higher for the hip thrust compared with the hex bar deadlift (p = 0.002). No differences were displayed for the erector spinae activation (p = 0.312-0.859). In conclusion, the barbell deadlift was clearly superior in activating the biceps femoris compared with the hex bar deadlift and hip thrust, whereas the hip thrust provided the highest gluteus maximus activation.

  12. Prediction of Vibration Transmission within Periodic Bar Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    The present analysis focuses on vibration transmission within semi-infinite bar structure. The bar is consisting of two different materials in a periodic manner. A periodic bar model is generated using two various methods: The Finite Element method (FEM) and a Floquet theory approach. A parameter...... study is carried out regarding the influence of the number of periods at various frequencies within a semi-infinite bar, stop bands are illustrated at certain periodic intervals within the structure. The computations are carried out in frequency domain in the range below 500 Hz. Results from both...

  13. ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.

  14. A young person's game: immersion and distancing in bar work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Thomas; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2012-01-01

    Previous research indicates that bar workers report high levels of alcohol consumption, but the bar work experience itself has been little studied as a means to understand health threats associated with this job role. The subjective experience and meaning of bar work was explored in this study by interviewing current and ex-bar workers from a district in an Irish city that had a high density of bars and busy tourism industry. A total of 12 participants took part in focus groups (FGs) and seven in individual interviews. Four themes were identified in a thematic analysis. The central depiction of bar work was of an initial immersion in an intensive lifestyle characterised by heavy drinking, with subsequent distancing from the extremes of the lifestyle. The participants affiliated strongly with the bar work occupational identity, which included alcohol use in group scenarios for drinking during work, after work and on time off. The bar work lifestyle was most intense in the 'superpub' environment, characterised by permissive staff drinking norms and reported stress. Although an important identity, bar work was ultimately a transient role. The findings are considered in relation to research on occupation-specific stress and alcohol use, social identity and developmental needs in young adulthood.

  15. An exploratory study of drug use in bar environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocki, Karen; Michalak, Laurence; McDaniel, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of bars where drug use was observed compared to those where no drug use was observed. The study was done through a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques gleaned through observations and interviews. Among the most important of indicators were the type of activity (particularly dancing) and the level of rowdiness evident in the bars. In addition drug use bars had higher levels of other types of rule-breaking. Patron characteristics (more men) and behavioral patterns (more sexual risk-taking) also distinguished these bars. PMID:25221431

  16. Real-time Grill Bar Occupation: Archiving Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The project explores the unregarded function of the classic Danish grill bar, currently disappearing due to processes of gentrification. Despite its unassuming appearance, the grill bar is a vital place for social interaction and coexistence on an informal basis.Its architecture, often referred......’, conducted at the Aarhus School of Architecture. Engaging Through Architecture: “Real time Grill Bar Occupation wants to engage with the audience and questions the role of the architect (and architecture itself) in relation to the social dimension of the city – more specifically the seemingly banal function...... of the typical Danish grill bar as a vital place of social co-existence and informal interaction”....

  17. DWPF Melter No.2 Prototype Bus Bar Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterization and performance testing of a prototype DWPF Melter No.2 Dome Heater Bus Bar are described. The prototype bus bar was designed to address the design features of the existing system which may have contributed to water leaks on Melter No.1. Performance testing of the prototype revealed significant improvement over the existing design in reduction of both bus bar and heater connection maximum temperature, while characterization revealed a few minor design and manufacturing flaws in the bar. The prototype is recommended as an improvement over the existing design. Recommendations are also made in the area of quality control to ensure that critical design requirements are met

  18. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method of installing tubular anti-vibration bars into a tube bundle of a steam generator wherein the tube bundle comprises rows of tubes, with the anti-vibration bars received between adjacent rows of the tube bundle for stabilizing the tubes against vibration. The anti-vibration bars are first inserted between adjacent rows of the tube bundle and a pressurized fluid is then introduced into the anti-vibration bars which are thus expanded into contact with the tubes of the adjacent rows for support

  19. Experimental Study on Basic Mechanical Properties of BFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaochun; Xu, Ting; Zhou, Zhengrong; Zhou, Xun

    2017-10-01

    Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) bars have the advantages of corrosion resistance, high strength, light weight, good dielectric properties, and they are new type of green reinforced alternative material. In order to determine the mechanical properties of BFRP bars, the tensile strength of basalt fiber bars was necessary to be studied. The diameters of the basalt fiber bars were compared by means of uniaxial tensile test in this article. Then the stress-strain curve can be drawn out. The results show that the stress - strain curve of BFRP bars present straight line relation, and there is no sign before failure; there is no yield platform on the stress-strain curve of BFRP bars, which are typical brittle material;the tensile strength of BFRP bars is about 3 times higher than that of ordinary steel bars. and the elastic modulus is about 1/5 of that of ordinary steel; the ultimate tensile strength of BFRP bars varies little with the increase of diameter, but there exist some differences in modulus values.

  20. Packaging of high-power bars for optical pumping and direct applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Stefan; An, Haiyan; Barnowski, Tobias; Jiang, John; Negoita, Viorel; Roff, Robert; Vethake, Thilo; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Continuous cost reduction, improved reliability and modular platform guide the design of our next generation heatsink and packaging process. Power scaling from a single device effectively lowers the cost, while electrical insulation of the heatsink, low junction temperature and hard solder enable high reliability. We report on the latest results for scaling the output power of bars for optical pumping and materials processing. The epitaxial design and geometric structures are specific for the application, while packaging with minimum thermal impedance, low stress and low smile are generic features. The isolated heatsink shows a thermal impedance of 0.2 K/W and the maximum output power is limited by the requirement of a junction temperature of less than 68oC for high reliability. Low contact impedance are addressed for drive currents of 300 A. For pumping applications, bars with a fill factor of 60% are deployed emitting more than 300 W of output power with an efficiency of about 55% and 8 bars are arranged in a compact pump module emitting 2 kW of collimated power suitable for pumping disk lasers. For direct applications we target coupling kilowatts of output powers into fibers of 100 μm diameter with 0.1 NA based on dense wavelength multiplexing. Low fill factor bars with large optical waveguide and specialized coating also emit 300 W.

  1. Fusional Vergence Detected by Prism Bar and Synoptophore in Chinese Childhood Intermittent Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the changes in fusional vergence in Chinese children with intermittent exotropia (IXT and the association with the control of IXT. Methods. Ninety-two patients with IXT (8–15 years old were compared with 86 controls. Exodeviation control was evaluated using the Revised Newcastle Control Score. Angle of deviation was measured using prism and alternate cover testing at distance and near. Fusional vergence was measured using prism bar and synoptophore. This study was registered with ChiCTR-RCC-13003920. Results. Using prism bar, convergence break points were lower whereas divergence break points were higher in children with IXT at distance (P<0.001 and near (P<0.001 compared with controls. There was no significant difference in mean divergence amplitudes between the two groups when testing using a synoptophore (P=0.53. In children with IXT, the distance between recovery point and break point in both convergence (distance: P=0.02; near: P=0.02 and divergence (distance: P<0.001; near: P<0.001 was larger than controls when detected by prism bar and synoptophore (convergence: P=0.005; divergence: P=0.006. Conclusions. Children with IXT have reduced convergence amplitudes as detected by both prism bar and synoptophore.

  2. Cereal bar with added chayote peel flour: physico-chemical and sensory characteristics among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Wendler de Cristo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to verify the sensory acceptability of traditional cereal bars and cereal bars added with chayote peel flour, and determine the physico-chemical compositions of their formulations. Five cereal bars formulas were prepared and analyzed as follows: F1: standard (0% and with the addition of chayote peel flour in the proportions of 6.75% (F2; 13.5% (F3; 20.25% (F4 and 27% (F5. Sixty tasters, aged 7-10 took part in the sensorial analysis. There was no significant difference (p> 0.05 regarding appearance, aroma, texture and color among formulations. For the attributes taste, overall acceptance and purchase intention, higher scores were given towards the standard sample when compared to F5, but no differences were observed among the other sample scores. There was no statistical difference (p>0.05 for moisture, protein, fat and calories between F1 and F4 formulations. However, higher levels of ash and dietary fiber and lower level of carbohydrates were observed in F4 compared to F1. The formulas preparation demonstrated that a level of addition of up to 20.25% of chayote peel flour in cereal bars was well accepted by the panel, with a sensory acceptance similar to the standard product and good trading expectation.

  3. Hyperon polarisation in the reaction p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X

    CERN Document Server

    Pomp, S; Bröders, R; Bunker, B; Dennert, H; Eisenstein, R E; Eyrich, W; Fischer, H; Franklin, G; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Harris, P; Hauffe, J; Hertzog, D; Johansson, T; Jones, T; Kilian, K; Kraft, R A; Meyer, C; Oelert, W; Quinn, B; Röhrich, K; Rössle, E; Sachs, K; Schmitt, H; Schumacher, R; Sefzick, T; Stinzing, F; Tayloe, R; Todenhagen, R; Traneus, E; Wirth, S

    2000-01-01

    Data from the p-bar sup 1 sup 2 C -> LAMBDA-bar LAMBDA X reaction, collected by the PS185 experiment at antiproton momenta around 1.44 GeV/c, 1.66 GeV/c and 1.77 GeV/c, have been analyzed and the LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar polarisations have been extracted. The events are classified as quasi-free or non-quasi-free and it is found that the polarisations for LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar differ in the latter case. Such an effect comes from differences in the interaction of the outgoing LAMBDA and LAMBDA-bar with the residual nucleus and the measurement constitutes the first information on LAMBDA-bar interaction with nuclear matter.

  4. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  5. Study of J/psi -> p(p)over-bar and J/psi -> n(n)over-bar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Berger, N.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jia, L. K.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Leung, J. K. C.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, N. B.; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, Kun; Liu, P. L.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, H.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Pun, C. S. J.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. D.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tian, H. L.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Werner, M.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, T.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. G.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, T. R.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Zuo, J. X.

    2012-01-01

    The decays J/psi -> p (p) over bar and J/psi -> n (n) over bar have been investigated with a sample of 225.2 x 10(6) J/psi events collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII e(+)e(-) collider. The branching fractions are determined to be B(J/psi -> p (p) over bar) = (2.112 +/- 0.004 +/- 0.031 x

  6. CP violation in hyperon decays: the case p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π+ pπ-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, N.; He, X.G.; Landua, R.; Ohlsson, S.; Steger, H.; Valencia, G.; Fischer, H.; Geyer, R.; Hertzog, D.; Kolo, B.; Miller, J.P.; Rohrich, K.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of the experimental status of CP violation and of the phenomenology of hyperon non-leptonic decays. Updated information on the estimate of CP-violating observable in these decays is presented. An experimental programme is outlined, which aims to pursue the search for direct CP violation in hyperon-antihyperon decays by means of the reaction p-bar p → Λ-bar Λ → p-bar π + pπ - . The experiment as well as analysis methods are described. Alternative approaches employing hyperons are also discussed. 54 refs., 1 tab., 13 figs

  7. p-bar p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-01-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos do Jordao on January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of p-bar p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to make a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on back of the envelope estimates. Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. (author)

  8. /bar p/p collider physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1989-03-01

    This note encompasses a set of six lectures given at the summer school held at Campos Do Jordao in January of 1989 near Sao Paulo, Brazil. The intent of the lectures was to describe the physics of /bar p/p at CERN and Fermilab. Particular attention has been paid to making a self contained presentation to a prospective audience of graduate students. Since large Monte Carlo codes might not be available to all members of this audience, great reliance was placed on ''back of the envelope estimates.'' Emphasis was also placed on experimental data rather than theoretical speculation, since predictions for, for example, supersymmetric particle production are easily obtained by transcription of formulae already obtained. 9 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs

  9. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected

  10. A Preliminary Study on Detecting Fake Gold Bars Using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis: Simulation of Neutron Transmission in Gold Bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. M.; Sun, G. M. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop fake gold bar detecting method by using Prompt-gamma activation analysis (PGAA) facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). PGAA is an established nuclear analytical technique for non-destructive determination of elemental and isotopic compositions. For a preliminary study on detecting fake gold bar, Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transmission in gold bar was conducted and the possibility for detecting fake gold bar was confirmed. Under the gold bullion standard, it guaranteed the government would redeem any amount of currency for its value in gold. After the gold bullion standard ended, gold bars have been the target for investment as ever. But it is well known that fake gold bar exist in the gold market. This cannot be identified easily without performing a testing as it has the same appearance as the pure gold bar. In order to avoid the trading of fake gold bar in the market, they should be monitored thoroughly. Although the transmissivity of cold neutrons are low comparing that of thermal neutrons, the slower neutrons are more apt to be absorbed in a target, and can increase the prompt gamma emission rate. Also the flux of both thermal and cold neutron beam is high enough to activate thick target. If the neutron beam is irradiated on the front and the reverse side of gold bar, all insides of it can be detected.

  11. Pectus bar removal: surgical technique and strategy to avoid complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Joo; Kim, Kyung Soo

    2016-01-01

    Pectus bar removal is the final stage of the procedure for minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Based on our experience with one of the largest scale data, we would like to address the important issues in pectus bar removal, such as appropriate duration of bar maintenance, techniques for bar removal, and strategies to avoid complications. Between September 1999 and August 2015, we operated on 2,553 patients with pectus excavatum and carinatum using pectus bars for a minimally invasive approach. Among them, 1,821 patients (71.3%) underwent pectus bar removal as a final stage of pectus deformity repair, and their data were analyzed retrospectively to identify the outcomes and adverse effects of the pectus bar removal procedure. The mean age of the patients was 9.13 years (range, 16 months to 44 years) and the male to female ratio was 3.55. The study is approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB), the ethical committee of Seoul St. Mary's Hospital. The IRB has exempted the informed consent from every patient in this study due to this is a retrospective chart review without revealing any patients' personal data. Our technique involved straightening of the bar in a supine position. The overall mean duration of pectus bar maintenance was 2.57 years (range, 4 months to 14 years). The mean duration was 2.02 years (range, 4 months to 7 years) for children under 12 years, 2.99 years (range, 7 months to 9 years) for teenagers aged 12-20 years, and 3.53 years (range, 3 months to 14 years) for adults over 20 years. Forty-eight patients (2.6%) underwent bar removal more than 5 years after bar insertion and 58 patients (3.2%) underwent bar removal earlier than initially planned. The most common adverse reaction after bar removal was wound seroma including infection (43 patients, 2.36%). Recurrence after bar removal occurred in nine patients (0.49%), and seven of these required redo repair (0.38%). Pectus bar removal is a safe and straightforward procedure with a

  12. INFLUENCING OF FRICTION IN HINGES FORCE SIZE OF BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOHOMAZ V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formulation of the problem. The size of critical force of bar on the traditional method of calculation is determined in supposition of ideal hinge in the place of fixing of bar. There are both a hinge resistance at the turn of bar ends and their moving in the real hinges. Thus, there is the necessity of influencing character determination of these hinge imperfections on the size of critical force. In the existent scientific labours is devoted the alike problems, influencing of friction in the hinges of bar fastening on the size of critical force was not taken into account. At determination of bars stability with no ideality of hinges friction in them it is possible to take into account by the eccentric appendix of loading or appendix of moment. However at such approach it is difficult enough to define the size of attached force or moment. Purpose. To set influencing of friction in the hinge of bar fastening on of his critical force size in sense of Euler, and also build dependences for determination of bar critical force taking into account mechanical descriptions of hinges materials. Conclusion. For the task of determination the size of bar critical force with the joint fastening on ends are got the dependences which take into account mechanical descriptions of material hinge. The received dependences allow to define more exact meaning of critical force for bars. The examples of calculation of whole bar and bar with undercuting in the middle are resulted that values of critical force, certain on a traditional method are overpriced.

  13. THE RELATION BETWEEN DYNAMICS AND STAR FORMATION IN BARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze optical and near-infrared data of a sample of 11 barred spiral galaxies, in order to establish a connection between star formation and bar/spiral dynamics. We find that 22 regions located in the bars and 20 regions in the spiral arms beyond the end of the bar present azimuthal color/age gradients that may be attributed to star formation triggering. Assuming a circular motion dynamic model, we compare the observed age gradient candidates with stellar population synthesis models. A link can then be established with the disk dynamics that allows us to obtain parameters like the pattern speed of the bar or spiral as well as the positions of resonance radii. We subsequently compare the derived pattern speeds with those expected from theoretical and observational results in the literature (e.g., bars ending near corotation). We find a tendency to overestimate bar pattern speeds derived from color gradients in the bar at small radii, away from corotation; this trend can be attributed to non-circular motions of the young stars born in the bar region. In spiral regions, we find that ∼50% of the color gradient candidates are 'inverse', i.e., with the direction of stellar aging contrary to that of rotation. The other half of the gradients found in spiral arms have stellar ages that increase in the same sense as rotation. Of the nine objects with gradients in both bars and spirals, six (67%) appear to have a bar and a spiral with similar Ω p , while three (33%) do not.

  14. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  15. On bar growth and decay during interannual net offshore migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, D.J.R.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Ranasinghe, R.; Roelvink, J.A.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple bar systems often show a cyclic net offshore directed migration with return periods on the order of years. Generally, a bar is generated near the shoreline, grows in height and width, while migrating offshore before finally decaying at the seaward limit of the surf zone. Based on a

  16. Objectivity in Grading: The Promise of Bar Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Haeran; Cowling, John

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a new technology to assure student anonymity and reduce bias hazards: identifying students by using bar codes. The limited finding suggests that the use of bar codes for assuring student anonymity could potentially cause students to perceive that grades are assigned more fairly and reassure teachers that they are…

  17. Sweet! Candy Bar Activity Teaches CAD, Math, and Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granlund, George

    2009-01-01

    By far, the tastiest technology learning activity that the author's students work on is the development of the design of a chocolate candy bar. This article describes how the author implemented the candy bar activity. The activity gives students an opportunity to design a product and to take it from concept through to production.

  18. 49 CFR 393.90 - Buses, standee line or bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buses, standee line or bar. 393.90 Section 393.90 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Miscellaneous Parts and Accessories § 393.90 Buses, standee line or bar. Except...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Welded Deformed Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafur H. Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement strength, ductility and bendability properties are important components in design of reinforced concrete members, as the strength of any member comes mainly from reinforcement. Strain compatibility and plastic behaviors are mainly depending on reinforcement ductility. In construction practice, often welding of the bars is required. Welding of reinforcement is an instant solution in many cases, whereas welding is not a routine connection process. Welding will cause deficiencies in reinforcement bars, metallurgical changes and re-crystallization of microstructure of particles. Weld metal toughness is extremely sensitive to the welding heat input that decreases both of its strength and ductility. For determining the effects of welding in reinforcement properties, 48 specimens were tested with 5 different bar diameters, divided into six groups. Investigated parameters were: properties of un-welded bars; strength, ductility and density of weld metal; strength and ductility reduction due to heat input for bundled bars and transverse bars; welding effect on bars’ bending properties; behavior of different joint types; properties of three weld groove shapes also the locations and types of failures sections. Results show that, strength and elongation of the welded bars decreased by (10-40% and (30-60% respectively. Cold bending of welded bars and groove welds shall be prevented.

  20. Alcohol Service Practices: A Survey of Bar and Restaurant Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can result from illegal sales to intoxicated patrons at bars and restaurants. We surveyed bar/restaurant managers about their practices in reducing illegal sales to intoxicated patrons. We found that managers were confident that they could refuse service to intoxicated customers but were less likely to have…

  1. Defining the formative discharge for alternate bars in alluvial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.; Carlin, M.; Tubino, M.; Adami, L.; Zolezzi, G.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the properties of alternate bars in long straight reaches of channelized streams subject to an unsteady, irregular flow regime. To this aim we propose a novel integration of a statistical approach with the analytical perturbation model of Tubino (1991) which predicts the evolution of bar properties (namely amplitude and wavelength) as consequence of a flood. The outcomes of our integrated modelling approach are probability distribution of the bar properties, which depend essentially on two ingredients: (i) the statistical properties of the flow regime (duration, frequency and magnitude of the flood events, and (ii) the reach-averaged hydro-geomorphic characteristics of the channel (bed material, channel gradient and width). This allows to define a "bar-forming" discharge value as the flow value which would reproduce the most likely bar properties in a river reach under unsteady flow. Alternate bars are often migrating downstream and growing or declining during flood events. The timescale of bar growth and migration is often comparable with the duration of the floods: consequently, bar properties such as height and wavelength do not respond instantaneously to discharge variations (i.e. quasi-equilibrium response) but may depend on previous flood events. Theoretical results are compared with observations in three Alpine, channelized gravel bed rivers with encouraging outcomes.png" class="documentimage" >

  2. STELLAR, GAS, AND DARK MATTER CONTENT OF BARRED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo, E-mail: b.cervantes@crya.unam.mx [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-01-20

    We select a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS-DR7) where galaxies are classified, through visual inspection, as hosting strong bars, weak bars, or as unbarred galaxies, and make use of H i mass and kinematic information from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey catalog, to study the stellar, atomic gas, and dark matter content of barred disk galaxies. We find, in agreement with previous studies, that the bar fraction increases with increasing stellar mass. A similar trend is found with total baryonic mass, although the dependence is not as strong as with stellar mass, due to the contribution of gas. The bar fraction shows a decrease with increasing gas mass fraction. This anticorrelation between the likelihood of a galaxy hosting a bar with the gas richness of the galaxy results from the inhibiting effect the gas has in the formation of bars. We also find that for massive galaxies with stellar masses larger than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, at fixed stellar mass, the bar fraction decreases with increasing global halo mass (i.e., halo mass measured up to a radius of the order of the H i disk extent).

  3. Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? KidsHealth / ... nutritivas: ¿Energía o mera exageración? The Buzz on Energy Foods Energy drinks and nutrition bars often make ...

  4. The X-Bar Theory of Phrase Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, Andras; Pullman, Geoffrey K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a formalization of the content of X-bar theory reveals very little substance in its claims. Six conditions that encapsulate X-bar theory are discussed: lexicality, succession, uniformity, maximality, centrality, and optionality. (50 references) (JL)

  5. Magnetic fields in barred galaxies I. The atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, R; Ehle, M; Harnett, J I; Haynes, R F; Shukurov, A M; Sokoloff, D D; Thierbach, M

    2002-01-01

    The total and polarized radio continuum emission of 20 barred galaxies was observed with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 3, 6, 18 and 22 cm and with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 6 cm and 13 cm. Maps at 30 arcsec angular resolution are presented here. Polarized emission (and therefore a large-scale regular magnetic field) was detected in 17 galaxies. Most galaxies of our sample are similar to non-barred galaxies with respect to the radio/far-infrared flux correlation and equipartition strength of the total magnetic field. Galaxies with highly elongated bars are not always radio-bright. We discuss the correlation of radio properties with the aspect ratio of the bar and other measures of the bar strength. We introduce a new measure of the bar strength, \\Lambda, related to the quadrupole moment of the bar's gravitational potential. The radio surface brightness I of the barred galaxies in our sample is correlated with \\Lambda, I \\propto \\Lambda^0.4+/-0.1, and thus is highest in galaxies with a lon...

  6. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  7. EXPLICIT LOWER BOUNDS FOR LINEAR FORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leppälä, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    bar Br vertical bar(mu r)} for all B-0,..., B-r is an element of Z(I), max{vertical bar B-1 vertical bar(mu 1),...,vertical bar Br vertical bar(mu r)} >= H-0, where the exponents mu(1),...,mu(r) are different when the given type II approximating sequences approximate some of the numbers theta(1...

  8. IMF-screws or arch bars as conservative treatment for mandibular condyle fractures: Quality of life aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; van Otterloo, J.J.D.M.; van der Ploeg, T.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arch bars as treatment for a fractured mandibular condyle are inconvenient to patients and lead to lowered quality of life (QOL). To overcome these inconveniences, IMF-screws (IMFS) to facilitate intermaxillary fixation during surgery have been developed. The purpose of the present study

  9. IMF-screws or arch bars as conservative treatment for mandibular condyle fractures: quality of life aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, B.; de Mol van Otterloo, J.J.; van der Ploeg, T.; Tuinzing, D.B.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arch bars as treatment for a fractured mandibular condyle are inconvenient to patients and lead to lowered quality of life (QOL). To overcome these inconveniences, IMF-screws (IMFS) to facilitate intermaxillary fixation during surgery have been developed. The purpose of the present study

  10. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la

  11. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  12. Study of the {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar and {lambda} parameters of a light-water reactor; Etude des parametres {rho}-bar, {beta}-bar et {lambda} d'une pile a eau legere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    The kinetic and perturbation equations are derived from the time-dependent transport equation. Kinetic equations depend only on the ratios a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar and b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, which are definite, while the reactivity {rho}-bar, the delayed neutron fraction ({beta}-bar and the generation time {lambda} are expressed in terms of an arbitrary function I. The 'static' definitions of these parameters, which reduce kinetic problems to a set of purely term dependent equations, introduce the effective fraction {beta}-bar. One way of determining experimentally the ratio b is presented; it consists in analysing the power transient after a rapid variation of the reactivity, caused by the implosion of an empty glass-bull. A simple interpretation is proposed. The apparatus can be transformed easily into a reactimeter. The value of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}-bar has been determined by averaging the reactivity effects of a copper sheet through out the reactor core. Experimental results: b = {beta}-bar/{lambda} = 129 s{sup -1} and {beta}-bar 795.10{sup -5}, have been determined on a light-water moderated, enriched-uranium fuelled reactor. The calculated values of the effectiveness of delayed neutrons {gamma} {beta}-bar/{beta} 1.23 and the generation time {lambda} 59.10{sup -6}s agrees fairly well with the experimental results. (author) [French] Les equations de la cinetique et de la perturbation sont deduites de la theorie du transport, par l'intermediaire de la 'notion' d'importance des neutrons. La cinetique ne depend que des rapports a = {rho}-bar/{beta}-bar et b = {beta}-bar/{lambda}, qui sont parfaitement definis; par contre, la reactivite {rho}-bar, la proportion de neutrons retardes {beta}-bar et le temps de generation des neutrons prompts {lambda} s'expriment a l'aide d'une meme fonction arbitraire I. Les definitions 'statiques' de ces parametres, qui permettent de rendre compte de la cinetique par des equations dependant purement du

  13. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  14. Anti-vibration bars for nuclear steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowda, B.V.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes anti-vibrations bars structurally supporting tubes carrying high-temperature coolant in a steam generator, the antivibration bars being disposed between adjacent rows of tubes and expanded from a rest state to an expanded state as pressure is applied to the interior of the anti-vibration bars, each of the anti-vibration bars being configured as a hollow member of a rectangular shape. The rectangular shape comprising a pair of opposing wall lengths and a pair of opposing wall widths, each of the wall lengths have a thickness greater than that of the wall widths to facilitate expansion of the opposing wall lengths away from each other and into contact respectively with tubes of adjacent rows, the wall lengths having sufficient rigidity to resist deformation as the bars are expanded to their expanded state so that the wall lengths make a line contact with their respective tubes

  15. A novel approach to bar adsorptive microextraction: Cork as extractor phase for determination of benzophenone, triclocarban and parabens in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Adriana Neves; da Silva, Ana Cristine; Simão, Vanessa; Merib, Josias; Carasek, Eduardo

    2015-08-12

    This study describes the use of cork as a new coating for bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) and its application in determining benzophenone, triclocarban and parabens in aqueous samples by HPLC-DAD. In this study bars with 7.5 and 15 mm of length were used. The extraction and liquid desorption steps for BAμE were optimized employing multivariate and univariate procedures. The desorption time and solvent used for liquid desorption were optimized by univariate and multivariate studies, respectively. For the extraction step the sample pH was optimized by univariate experiments while the parameters extraction time and ionic strength were evaluated using the Doehlert design. The optimum extraction conditions were sample pH 5.5, NaCl concentration 25% and extraction time 90 min. Liquid desorption was carried out for 30 min with 250 μL (bar length of 15 mm) or 100 μL (bar length of 7.5 mm) of ACN:MeOH (50:50, v/v). The quantification limits varied between 1.6 and 20 μg L(-1) (bar length of 15 mm) and 0.64 and 8 μg L(-1) (bar length of 7.5 mm). The linear correlation coefficients were higher than 0.98 for both bars. The method with 7.5 mm bar length showed recovery values between 65 and 123%. The bar-to-bar reproducibility and the repeatability were lower than 13% (n = 2) and 14% (n = 3), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Raised soluble P-selectin moderately accelerates atherosclerotic plaque progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Woollard

    Full Text Available Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin, a biomarker of inflammatory related pathologies including cardiovascular and peripheral vascular diseases, also has pro-atherosclerotic effects including the ability to increase leukocyte recruitment and modulate thrombotic responses in vivo. The current study explores its role in progressing atherosclerotic plaque disease. Apoe-/- mice placed on a high fat diet (HFD were given daily injections of recombinant dimeric murine P-selectin (22.5 µg/kg/day for 8 or 16 weeks. Saline or sE-selectin injections were used as negative controls. In order to assess the role of sP-selectin on atherothrombosis an experimental plaque remodelling murine model, with sm22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on a HFD in conjunction with delivery of diphtheria toxin to induce targeted vascular smooth muscle apoptosis, was used. These mice were similarly given daily injections of sP-selectin for 8 or 16 weeks. While plaque mass and aortic lipid content did not change with sP-selectin treatment in Apoe-/- or SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- mice on HFD, increased plasma MCP-1 and a higher plaque CD45 content in Apoe-/- HFD mice was observed. As well, a significant shift towards a more unstable plaque phenotype in the SM22α-hDTR Apoe-/- HFD mice, with increased macrophage accumulation and lower collagen content, leading to a lower plaque stability index, was observed. These results demonstrate that chronically raised sP-selectin favours progression of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque phenotype.

  17. Measurement and Interpretation of Moments in Inclusive Semileptonic Decays (bar B) → Xc (ell)-(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, Vera

    2011-01-01

    We present results for the moments of observed spectra in inclusive semileptonic B-meson decays to charm hadrons (bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν). Moments of the hadronic-mass and the combined mass-and-energy spectra for different minimum electron or muon momenta between 0.8 and 1.9 GeV/c are obtained from a sample of 232 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events, collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B-meson factory at SLAC. We also present a reevaluation of the moments of electron-energy spectra and partial decay fractions B((bar B) → X c e - (bar ν)) for minimum electron momenta between 0.6 and 1.5 GeV/c based on a sample of 51 x 10 6 Γ(4S) → B(bar B) events. The measurements are used for the extraction of the total decay fraction, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix element |V cb |, the quark masses m b and m c , and four heavy-quark QCD parameters in the framework of a Heavy-Quark Expansion (HQE). We find B((bar B) → X c (ell) - (bar ν)) = (10.64 ± 0.17 ± 0.06)% and |V cb | = (42.05 ± 0.45 ± 0.70) x 10 -3 .

  18. Measurements of σ(e+e- hadrons) and B(ψ →(3770) DD-bar, non-DD-bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, Gang

    2005-01-01

    We report measurements of the cross sections for inclusive hadronic event production in e + e - annihilation at the energies of 3.650, 3.6648, and 3.773 GeV and measurements of the branching fractions for ψ(3770) → D 0 D b ar 0 , D + D - , DD-bar, and for ψ(3770) → non-DD-bar. (author)

  19. A mathematical high bar-human body model for analysing and interpreting mechanical-energetic processes on the high bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arampatzis, A; Brüggemann, G P

    1998-12-01

    The aims of this study were: 1. To study the transfer of energy between the high bar and the gymnast. 2. To develop criteria from the utilisation of high bar elasticity and the utilisation of muscle capacity to assess the effectiveness of a movement solution. 3. To study the influence of varying segment movement upon release parameters. For these purposes a model of the human body attached to the high bar (high bar-human body model) was developed. The human body was modelled using a 15-segment body system. The joint-beam element method (superelement) was employed for modelling the high bar. A superelement consists of four rigid segments connected by joints (two Cardan joints and one rotational-translational joint) and springs (seven rotation springs and one tension-compression spring). The high bar was modelled using three superelements. The input data required for the high bar human body model were collected with video-kinematographic (50 Hz) and dynamometric (500 Hz) techniques. Masses and moments of inertia of the 15 segments were calculated using the data from the Zatsiorsky et al. (1984) model. There are two major phases characteristic of the giant swing prior to dismounts from the high bar. In the first phase the gymnast attempts to supply energy to the high bar-humanbody system through muscle activity and to store this energy in the high bar. The difference between the energy transferred to the high bar and the reduction in the total energy of the body could be adopted as a criterion for the utilisation of high bar elasticity. The energy previously transferred into the high bar is returned to the body during the second phase. An advantageous increase in total body energy at the end of the exercise could only be obtained through muscle energy supply. An index characterising the utilisation of muscle capacity was developed out of the difference between the increase in total body energy and the energy returned from the high bar. A delayed and initially slow but

  20. Incremental dynamic analysis of concrete moment resisting frames reinforced with shape memory composite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Adeel; Andrawes, Bassem

    2012-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars have been used in concrete structures as an alternative to conventional steel reinforcement, in order to overcome corrosion problems. However, due to the linear behavior of the commonly used reinforcing fibers, they are not considered in structures which require ductility and damping characteristics. The use of superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers with their nonlinear elastic behavior as reinforcement in the composite could potentially provide a solution for this problem. Small diameter SMA wires are coupled with polymer matrix to produce SMA–FRP composite, which is sought in this research as reinforcing bars. SMA–FRP bars are sought in this study to enhance the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resisting frames (MRFs) in terms of reducing their residual inter-story drifts while still maintaining the elastic characteristics associated with conventional FRP. Three story one bay and six story two bay RC MRF prototype structures are designed with steel, SMA–FRP and glass–FRP reinforcement. The incremental dynamic analysis technique is used to investigate the behaviors of the two frames with the three different reinforcement types under a suite of ground motion records. It is found that the frames with SMA–FRP composite reinforcement exhibit higher performance levels including lower residual inter-story drifts, high energy dissipation and thus lower damage, which are important for structures in highly seismic zones. (paper)

  1. Raised Anxiety Levels Among Outpatients Preparing to Undergo a Medical Imaging Procedure: Prevalence and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forshaw, Kristy L; Boyes, Allison W; Carey, Mariko L; Hall, Alix E; Symonds, Michael; Brown, Sandy; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W

    2018-04-01

    To examine the percentage of patients with raised state anxiety levels before undergoing a medical imaging procedure; their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry; and sociodemographic, health, and procedural characteristics associated with raised state anxiety levels. This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in the outpatient medical imaging department at a major public hospital in Australia, with institutional board approval. Adult outpatients undergoing a medical imaging procedure (CT, x-ray, MRI, ultrasound, angiography, or fluoroscopy) completed a preprocedural survey. Anxiety was measured by the short-form state scale of the six-item State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI: Y-6). The number and percentage of participants who reported raised anxiety levels (defined as a STAI: Y-6 score ≥ 33.16) and their attribution of procedural-related anxiety or worry were calculated. Characteristics associated with raised anxiety were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of the 548 (86%) patients who consented to participate, 488 (77%) completed all STAI: Y-6 items. Half of the participants (n = 240; 49%) experienced raised anxiety, and of these, 48% (n = 114) reported feeling most anxious or worried about the possible results. Female gender, imaging modality, medical condition, first time having the procedure, and lower patient-perceived health status were statistically significantly associated with raised anxiety levels. Raised anxiety is common before medical imaging procedures and is mostly attributed to the possible results. Providing increased psychological preparation, particularly to patients with circulatory conditions or neoplasms or those that do not know their medical condition, may help reduce preprocedural anxiety among these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p \\rightarrow \\bar{n}n$ Charge-Exchange Differential Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is a measurement of the differential cross-section of the $\\bar{p}$p $\\rightarrow$ $\\bar{n}$n charge-exchange reaction with a point-to-point precision of 1\\% in the forward direction, and an absolute normalization error of 3\\%. The high precision of the data should allow, inter alia, a determination of the $\\pi$NN coupling constant to better than 2\\%.\\\\ \\\\ The measurement will be done using the existing neutron and antineutron detectors built for experiment PS199 and liquid hydrogen target. In one week of running time, with a $\\bar{p}$ beam intensity of 3 $ 10 ^{5} $ $\\bar{p}$/sec, the reaction will be measured at a few $\\bar{p}$ momenta, in the range 500 to 900~MeV/c.

  3. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  4. [Perception over smoke-free policies amongst bar and restaurant representatives in central Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Tonatiuh; Gimeno, David; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Amick, Benjamin C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the perceptions and appreciations over smoke-free environments of restaurant and bar managers from four cities in central Mexico. Managers from 219 restaurants and bars from Mexico City, Colima, Cuernavaca and Toluca were surveyed about smoke-free environments opinions and implementation. Simultaneously, environmental nicotine was monitored. The majority of surveyed managers considered public places should be smoke-free, although more than half were concerned with potential economic loses. Implementation of smoke-free environments was more frequent in Mexico City (85.4%) than in the other cities (15.3% overall), with consequently lower environmental nicotine concentrations. Managers acknowledge the need to create smoke-free environments. Concerns over economic negative effects derived from the prohibition could explain, at least partially, the rejection of this sector towards the implementation of this type of policy.

  5. Feasibility and acceptability of a bar-based sexual risk reduction intervention for bar patrons in Tshwane, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Neo K; Kitleli, Naledi; Ngako, Kgalabi; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Nkosi, Sebenzile; Fritz, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a recognised risk factor for HIV infection. Alcohol serving establishments have been identified as appropriate venues in which to deliver HIV prevention interventions. This paper describes experiences and lessons learnt from implementing a combined HIV prevention intervention in bar settings in one city- and one township-based bar in Tshwane, South Africa. The intervention consisted of peer-led and brief intervention counselling sub-components. Thirty-nine bar patrons were recruited and trained, and delivered HIV and alcohol risk reduction activities to their peers as peer interventionists. At the same time, nine counsellors received training and visited the bars weekly to provide brief motivational interviewing counselling, advice, and referrals to the patrons of the bars. A responsible server sub-component that had also been planned was not delivered as it was not feasible to train the staff in the two participating bars. Over the eight-month period the counsellors were approached by and provided advice and counselling for alcohol and sexual risk-related problems to 111 bar patrons. The peer interventionists reported 1323 risk reduction interactions with their fellow bar patrons during the same period. The intervention was overall well received and suggests that bar patrons and servers can accept a myriad of intervention activities to reduce sexual risk behaviour within their drinking settings. However, HIV- and AIDS-related stigma hindered participation in certain intervention activities in some instances. The buy-in that we received from the relevant stakeholders (i.e. bar owners/managers and patrons, and the community at large) was an important contributor to the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention.

  6. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  7. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  8. Structural strength of core graphite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, K.; Futakawa, M.

    1987-01-01

    A HTR core consists of fuel, hot plenum, reflector and thermal barrier blocks. Each graphite block is supported by three thin cylindrical graphite bars called support post. Static and dynamic core loads are transmitted by the support posts to the thermal barrier blocks and a support plate. These posts are in contact with the blocks through hemispherical post seats to absorb the relative displacement caused by seismic force and the difference of thermal expansion of materials at the time of the start-up and shutdown of a reactor. The mixed fracture criterion of principal stress and modified Mohr-Coulomb's theory as well as the fracture criterion of principal stress based on elastic stress analysis was discussed in connection with the application to HTR graphite components. The buckling fracture of a support post was taken in consideration as one of the fracture modes. The effect that the length/diameter ratio of a post, small rotation and the curvature of post ends and seats exerted on the fracture strength was studied by using IG-110 graphite. Contacting stress analysis was carried out by using the structural analysis code 'COSMOS-7'. The experimental method, the analysis of buckling strength and the results are reported. The fracture of a support post is caused by the mixed mode of bending deformation, split fracture and shearing fracture. (Kako, I.)

  9. Tensile Strength of GFRP Reinforcing Bars with Hollow Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun You

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP has been proposed to replace steel as a reinforcing bar (rebar due to its high tensile strength and noncorrosive material properties. One obstacle in using FRP rebars is high price. Generally FRP is more expensive than conventional steel rebar. There are mainly two ways to reduce the cost. For example, one is making the price of each composition cost of FRP rebar (e.g., fibers, resin, etc. lower than steel rebar. Another is making an optimized design for cross section and reducing the material cost. The former approach is not easy because the steel price is very low in comparison with component materials of FRP. For the latter approach, the cost could be cut down by reducing the material cost. Therefore, an idea of making hollow section over the cross section of FRP rebar was proposed in this study by optimizing the cross section design with acceptable tensile performance in comparison with steel rebar. In this study, glass reinforced polymer (GFRP rebars with hollow section and 19 mm of outer diameter were manufactured and tested to evaluate the tensile performance in accordance with the hollowness ratio. From the test results, it was observed that the tensile strength decreased almost linearly with increase of hollowness ratio and the elastic modulus decreased nonlinearly.

  10. A xylophone bar magnetometer for micro/pico satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Hervé; Niyonzima, Innocent; Rochus, Pierre; Rochus, Véronique

    2010-10-01

    The Belgian Institute of Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), "Centre Spatial de Liège" (CSL), "Laboratoire de Techniques Aéronautiques et Spatiales" (LTAS) of University of Liège, and the Microwave Laboratory of University of Louvain-La-Neuve (UCL) are collaborating in order to develop a miniature version of a xylophone bar magnetometer (XBM) using Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The device is based on a classical resonating xylophone bar. A sinusoidal current is supplied to the bar oscillating at the fundamental transverse resonant mode of the bar. When an external magnetic field is present, the resulting Lorentz force causes the bar to vibrate at its fundamental frequency with an amplitude directly proportional to the vertical component of the ambient magnetic field. In this paper we illustrate the working principles of the XBM and the challenges to reach the required sensitivity in space applications (measuring magnetic fields with an accuracy of approximately of 0.1 nT). The optimal dimensions of the MEMS XBM are discussed as well as the constraints on the current flowing through the bar. Analytical calculations as well as simulations with finite element methods have been used. Prototypes have been built in the Microwave Laboratory using silicon on insulator (SOI) and bulk micromachining processes. Several methods to accurately measure the displacement of the bar are proposed.

  11. Numerical Simulations of the Kolsky Compression Bar Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Kolsky compression bar, or split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), is an ex- perimental apparatus used to obtain the stress-strain response of material specimens at strain rates in the order of 10 2 to 10 4 1/s. Its operation and associated data re- duction are based on principles of one-dimensional wave propagation in rods. Second order effects such as indentation of the bars by the specimen and wave dispersion in the bars, however, can significantly affect aspects of the measured material response. Finite element models of the experimental apparatus were used here to demonstrate these two effects. A procedure proposed by Safa and Gary (2010) to account for bar indentation was also evaluated and shown to improve the estimation of the strain in the bars significantly. The use of pulse shapers was also shown to alleviate the effects of wave dispersion. Combining the two can lead to more reliable results in Kolsky compression bar testing.

  12. Analysis of pp and pp-bar elastic scattering amplitudes at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, E.; Kodama, T.; Kohara, A.K. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A careful analysis of high energies elastic scattering data at 7 TeV for pp, 1800 - 1950 GeV for pp-bar and 540 -541 GeV for pp-bar in terms of its amplitudes has been performed as natural extension of previous analysis for lower energies. The disentanglement of the real and imaginary parts is written consistently with constraints from dispersion relations for amplitudes and for slopes, and also satisfying the universal asymptotic behavior for large |t| values due to the three gluon Exchange process. Values for the imaginary and real slopes and for the total cross section at 7 TeV, 1800-1950 GeV and 540-541 GeV are presented, and the shape of the differential cross section at 14 TeV, with a dip/bump structure more marked and at a smaller values of |t| is predicted. It is predicted that future measurements at large |t| will be connected smoothly with the perturbative tail observed in the interval 5.5 to 14.2 GeV{sup 2} at lower energies and that a marked dip would be observed in pp-bar scattering near this tail range. It is stressed for the consistent description of elastic pp and pp-bar data and pointed out the importance of the future measurements in the Coulomb interference range and in the transition range to the perturbative tail where the perturbative and non-perturbative effects appears together. (author)

  13. Determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Hu, Mingzhu; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Ziming

    2015-01-01

    A novel, simple, and environmentally friendly pretreatment method, ionic liquid magnetic bar liquid-phase microextraction, was developed for the determination of sulfonamides in butter samples by high-performance liquid chromatography. The ionic liquid magnetic bar was prepared by inserting a stainless steel wire into the hollow of a hollow fiber and immobilizing ionic liquid in the micropores of the hollow fiber. In the extraction process, the ionic liquid magnetic bars were used to stir the mixture of sample and extraction solvent and enrich the sulfonamides in the mixture. After extraction, the analyte-adsorbed ionic liquid magnetic bars were readily isolated with a magnet from the extraction system. It is notable that the present method was environmentally friendly since water and only several microliters of ionic liquid were used in the whole extraction process. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized, including the type of ionic liquid, sample-to-extraction solvent ratio, the number of ionic liquid magnetic bars, extraction temperature, extraction time, salt concentration, stirring speed, pH of the extraction solvent, and desorption conditions. The recoveries were in the range of 73.25-103.85 % and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.84 %. The experiment results indicated that the present method was effective for the extraction of sulfonamides in high-fat content samples.

  14. High-resolution smile measurement and control of wavelength-locked QCW and CW laser diode bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Etai; Yanson, Dan; Klumel, Genady; Blonder, Moshe; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir

    2018-02-01

    High-power linewidth-narrowed applications of laser diode arrays demand high beam quality in the fast, or vertical, axis. This requires very high fast-axis collimation (FAC) quality with sub-mrad angular errors, especially where laser diode bars are wavelength-locked by a volume Bragg grating (VBG) to achieve high pumping efficiency in solid-state and fiber lasers. The micron-scale height deviation of emitters in a bar against the FAC lens causes the so-called smile effect with variable beam pointing errors and wavelength locking degradation. We report a bar smile imaging setup allowing FAC-free smile measurement in both QCW and CW modes. By Gaussian beam simulation, we establish optimum smile imaging conditions to obtain high resolution and accuracy with well-resolved emitter images. We then investigate the changes in the smile shape and magnitude under thermal stresses such as variable duty cycles in QCW mode and, ultimately, CW operation. Our smile measurement setup provides useful insights into the smile behavior and correlation between the bar collimation in QCW mode and operating conditions under CW pumping. With relaxed alignment tolerances afforded by our measurement setup, we can screen bars for smile compliance and potential VBG lockability prior to assembly, with benefits in both lower manufacturing costs and higher yield.

  15. Barbell-shaped stir bar sorptive extraction using dummy template molecularly imprinted polymer coatings for analysis of bisphenol A in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimei; Feng, Feng; Chen, Guolin; Liu, Zhimin; Xu, Zhigang

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the development of a novel dummy template molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-coated barbell-shaped stir bar. The MIP stir bar coatings were prepared by using 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)butane (BPB), 4,4'-dihydroxydiphenylmethane (BPF), 4-tert-butylphenol (PTBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) as dummy templates using a capillary in situ polymerization method. Uniform coatings can be prepared controllably. The method is simple, easy, and reproducible. The barbell-shaped stir bar was developed by using medical silicone tubes as wheels. The wheels could be removed and reinstalled when necessary; therefore, the barbell-shaped stir bar was easy to disassemble and reassemble. The novel MIP-coated stir bar showed good selectivity for the target analyte, bisphenol A (BPA). The established method is selective and sensitive with a lower detection limit for BPA of 0.003 μg/L. The dummy template MIP-coated stir bar is suitable for trace BPA analysis in real environmental water samples without template leakage. The novel stir bar can be used at least 100 times.

  16. Steel Bar corrosion monitoring based on encapsulated piezoelectric sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Tang, Tianyou

    2018-05-01

    The durability of reinforced concrete has a great impact on the structural bearing capacity, while the corrosion of steel bars is the main reason for the degradation of structural durability. In this paper, a new type of encapsulated cement based piezoelectric sensor is developed and its working performance is verified. The consistency of the finite element simulation and the experimental results shows the feasibility of monitoring the corrosion of steel bars using encapsulated piezoelectric sensors. The research results show that the corrosion conditions of the steel bars can be determined by the relative amplitude of the measured signal through the encapsulated piezoelectric sensor.

  17. {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} production in two-photon interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Lattery, M.; ONeill, J.J.; Patton, S.; Poling, R.; Riehle, T.; Savinov, V.; Smith, A. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Alam, M.S.; Athar, S.B.; Ling, Z.; Mahmood, A.H.; Severini, H.; Timm, S.; Wappler, F. [State University of New York at Albany, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Anastassov, A.; Blinov, S.; Duboscq, J.E.; Fujino, D.; Fulton, R.; Gan, K.K.; Hart, T.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Lee, J.; Spencer, M.B.; Sung, M.; Undrus, A.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, A.; Zoeller, M.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Nemati, B.; Richichi, S.J.; Ross, W.R.; Skubic, P.; Wood, M. [University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Bishai, M.; Fast, J.; Gerndt, E.; Hinson, J.W.; Menon, N.; Miller, D.H.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.; Yurko, M. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Gibbons, L.; Johnson, S.D.; Kwon, Y.; Roberts, S.; Thorndike, E.H. [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Jessop, C.P.; Lingel, K.; Marsiske, H.; Perl, M.L.; Schaffner, S.F.; Ugolini, D.; Wang, R.; Zhou, X. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94309 (United States); Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Korolkov, I.; Maravin, Y.; Narsky, I.; Shelkov, V.; Staeck, J.; Stroynowski, R.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J. [Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Artuso, M.; Efimov, A.; Frasconi, F.; Gao, M.; Goldberg, M.; He, D.; Kopp, S.; Moneti, G.C.; Mountain, R.; Mukhin, Y.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Xing, X. [Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States); Bartelt, J.; Csorna, S.E.; Jain, V.; Marka, S. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Freyberger, A.; Gibaut, D.; Godang, R.; Kinoshita, K.; Lai, I.C.; Pomianowski, P.; Schrenk, S.; and others

    1997-09-01

    Using the CLEO detector at the Cornell e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} storage ring CESR we study the two-photon production of {Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}, making the first observation of {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}}. We present the cross section for {gamma}{gamma}{r_arrow}{Lambda}{bar {Lambda}} as a function of the {gamma}{gamma} center of mass energy and compare it to that predicted by the quark-diquark model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Shock waves in P-bar target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.

  19. Shock waves in P-bar target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhijing; Anderson, K.

    1991-11-01

    The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed

  20. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bar Harbor, ME Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bar Harbor, Maine Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  2. Optimization of patterns of control bars using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D.M.; Ortiz S, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this work the RENOPBC system that is based on a recurrent multi state neural network, for the optimization of patterns of control bars in a cycle of balance of a boiling water reactor (BWR for their initials in English) is presented. The design of patterns of bars is based on the execution of operation thermal limits, to maintain criticizes the reactor and that the axial profile of power is adjusted to one predetermined along several steps of burnt. The patterns of control bars proposed by the system are comparable to those proposed by human experts with many hour-man of experience. These results are compared with those proposed by other techniques as genetic algorithms, colonies of ants and tabu search for the same operation cycle. As consequence it is appreciated that the proposed patterns of control bars, have bigger operation easiness that those proposed by the other techniques. (Author)

  3. Verification of Properties of Concrete Reinforcement Bars: Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ribbed steel bars used in Nigeria's structural concrete practice to relevant ... cases of structural failure have recently become frequent, especially ... Page 4 ..... Nwabuokei S.O.(2007) “The Nigerian Steel Industry: Delta Steel Company.

  4. Black silicon solar cells with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by maskless reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Four different methods to obtain blackened bus-bar strings were compared with respect to reflectance, and two of these methods (i.e., oxidized copper and etched solder) were used to fabricate functional allblack solar 9-cell panels. The black bus-bars (e.......g., by oxidized copper) have a reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of black silicon cells and blackened bus-bars results in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells without compromising efficiency....

  5. What is the peak stress in ceramic bar impacts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simha, C. Hari Manoj; Bless, S.J.; Bedford, A.

    2000-01-01

    The bar impact experiment has been extensively used to characterize the high strain rate properties of high strength ceramics. In particular, alumina AD-99.5 has been widely studied; both stress gauge and VISAR bar impact data are available for this material. We have performed plate-on-bar impact experiments using this material in some novel configurations. An interface was introduced in the target bar (by cutting it) in the zone where the material fails by axial splitting. Such experiments resulted in a dramatic drop in the peak stress measured in the experiment, when compared to experiments with no interface. We show that the damage kinetics in tension influence these measurements. Since the peak stress is dependent on the damage kinetics we conclude that the measurement cannot be correlated to some intrinsic strength of the ceramic

  6. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  7. $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Donghee

    2010-01-01

    At the COMPASS experiment $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles are produced with high statistics in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes of 160 GeV/c polarized muons. Since both, beam and target, are polarized, various studies on the $\\Lambda$ polarization are possible. We present results on the longitudinal polarization transfer from muons to $\\Lambda$ hyperons produced by scattering off an unpolarized isoscalar target and preliminary results on the transverse $\\Lambda$ polarization with a transversely polarized proton target. The $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization can be studied by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. The longitudinal spin transfers to $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ produced in the current fragmentation region exhibit different behaviours as a function of $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$. The $x_{Bj}$ and $x_{F}$ dependences of $\\Lambda$ polarization are compatible with zero, while $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ polarization tends to increase with $x_{F}$. Info...

  8. DIRC - a particle identification system for BaBar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoecker, A.

    1999-10-01

    The DIRC (an acronym for Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) is a novel type of Cherenkov imaging device that has been developed, built and installed as part of the BaBar detector at the asymmetric B-factory PEP-II at SLAC. The DIRC is based on total internal reflection of Cherenkov photons produced and guided within thin, rectangular quartz bars covering the barrel region of BaBar. The photon detector is an array of photomultiplier tubes covering the photon phase space at the backward end of the bars. In its first few months of operation the DIRC performance has been found to achieve the design requirements. This note presents results from cosmic ray data and an analysis of the first beam collision runs. (author)

  9. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  10. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF PRODUCTION OF THE MASS FUNCTION CAST BARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Krutilin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of scientifically grounded technical decisions, the whole set of which has enabled to create technological processes of production of high-quality cast bars of mass appointment is offered.

  11. A modified split Hopkinson pressure bar for toughness tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, N.; Grunenwald, T.

    2006-08-01

    In order to characterize material toughness or to study crack arrest under dynamic loading conditions, a new testing device has been developed at CEA/Valduc. A new Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) has been modified: it is now composed of a single incident bar and a double transmitter bar. With this facility, a notched specimen can be loaded under three points bending conditions. Qualification tests with titanium and steel notched samples are presented. Data treatment software has been adapted to estimate the sample deflection as a function of time and treat the energy balance. These results are compared with classical Charpy experiments. Effect of various contact areas between specimen and bars are studied to point out their influence on obtained measurements. The advantage of a “knife” contact compared to a plane one is then clearly demonstrated. All results obtained with this new testing device are in good agreement and show a reduced scattering.

  12. Obtention control bars patterns for a BWR using Tabo search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, A.; Ortiz, J.J.; Alonso, G.; Morales, L.B.; Valle, E. del

    2004-01-01

    The obtained results when implementing the technique of tabu search, for to optimize patterns of control bars in a BWR type reactor, using the CM-PRESTO code are presented. The patterns of control bars were obtained for the designs of fuel reloads obtained in a previous work, using the same technique. The obtained results correspond to a cycle of 18 months using 112 fresh fuels enriched at the 3.53 of U-235. The used technique of tabu search, prohibits recently visited movements, in the position that correspond to the axial positions of the control bars, additionally the tiempo t abu matrix is used for to manage a size of variable tabu list and the objective function is punished with the frequency of the forbidden movements. The obtained patterns of control bars improve the longitude of the cycle with regard to the reference values and they complete the restrictions of safety. (Author)

  13. Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluem, P.

    1992-01-01

    Exclusive channels in bar pp annihilation at rest provide a powerful tool for studying the meson spectrum below the bar pp threshold. The mesons can be classified in SU(3) multiplets according to their quantum numbers. The states which do not fit into this classification are candidates for new forms of hadronic matter like glueballs, hybrids, and multi-quark states. Recent results on the search for exotic states in exclusive channels of bar pp annihilation at rest are discussed. No less important is the study of the annihilation mechanism. In particular, high-statistic measurements of bar pp annihilation at rest into two-meson final states are an excellent tool for studying quark dynamics. Examples of two-body reactions are presented. 24 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  14. RING STAR FORMATION RATES IN BARRED AND NONBARRED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grouchy, R. D.; Buta, R. J.; Salo, H.; Laurikainen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Nonbarred ringed galaxies are relatively normal galaxies showing bright rings of star formation in spite of lacking a strong bar. This morphology is interesting because it is generally accepted that a typical galactic disk ring forms when material collects near a resonance, set up by the pattern speed of a bar or bar-like perturbation. Our goal in this paper is to examine whether the star formation properties of rings are related to the strength of a bar or, in the absence of a bar, to the non-axisymmetric gravity potential in general. For this purpose, we obtained Hα emission line images and calculated the line fluxes and star formation rates (SFRs) for 16 nonbarred SA galaxies and four weakly barred SAB galaxies with rings. For comparison, we combine our new observations with a re-analysis of previously published data on five SA, seven SAB, and 15 SB galaxies with rings, three of which are duplicates from our sample. With these data, we examine what role a bar may play in the star formation process in rings. Compared to barred ringed galaxies, we find that the inner ring SFRs and Hα+[N II] equivalent widths in nonbarred ringed galaxies show a similar range and trend with absolute blue magnitude, revised Hubble type, and other parameters. On the whole, the star formation properties of inner rings, excluding the distribution of H II regions, are independent of the ring shapes and the bar strength in our small samples. We confirm that the deprojected axis ratios of inner rings correlate with maximum relative gravitational force Q g ; however, if we consider all rings, a better correlation is found when a local bar forcing at the radius of the ring, Q r , is used. Individual cases are described and other correlations are discussed. By studying the physical properties of these galaxies, we hope to gain a better understanding of their placement in the scheme of the Hubble sequence and how they formed rings without the driving force of a bar.

  15. The Contribution of Io-Raised Tides to Europa's Diurnally-Varying Surface Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Hurford, Terry A,; Manga, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Europa's icy surface records a rich history of geologic activity, Several features appear to be tectonic in origin and may have formed in response to Europa's daily-varying tidal stress [I]. Strike-slip faults and arcuate features called cycloids have both been linked to the patterns of stress change caused by eccentricity and obliquity [2J[3]. In fact, as Europa's obliquity has not been directly measured, observed tectonic patterns arc currently the best indicators of a theoretically supported [4] non-negligible obliquity. The diurnal tidal stress due to eccentricity is calculated by subtracting the average (or static) tidal shape of Europa generated by Jupiter's gravitational field from the instantaneous shape, which varies as Europa moves through its eccentric orbit [5]. In other words, it is the change of shape away from average that generates tidal stress. One might expect tidal contributions from the other large moons of Jupiter to be negligible given their size and the height of the tides they raise on Europa versus Jupiter's mass and the height of the tide it raises on Europa, However, what matters for tidally-induced stress is not how large the lo-raised bulge is compared to the Jupiter-raised bulge but rather the differences bet\\Veen the instantaneous and static bulges in each case. For example, when Europa is at apocenter, Jupiter raises a tide 30m lower than its static tide. At the same time, 10 raises a tide about 0.5m higher than its static tide. Hence, the change in Io's tidal distortion is about 2% of the change in the Jovian distortion when Europa is at apocenter

  16. PECULIAR FEATURES PERTAINING TO STRIP FORMATION FROM BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes results of calculations and presents experimental substantiation of the dependence of a strip width being rolled out of a 10-mm diameter bar on its final thickness. It has been shown that the formation technology of thin steel strips out of a round bar makes it possible without any difficulties to obtain rolled products with the given cross-section dimensions due to proper selection of single drafting.

  17. Measurement of the absolute branching fraction of D-vertical bar -> (K)over-bar(0)e(vertical bar) nu(e) via (K)over-bar(0) -> pi(0)pi(0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettonin, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Caleaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; De Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Dou, Z. L.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Fedorov, O.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, L.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, X. Z.; Huang, Y.; Huang, Z. L.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolc, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kupse, A.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, Q. Y.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Y. B.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y. M.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, H. R.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrie, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. L.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, Q. N.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuangig, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing 2.93 fb(-1) data collected at the center-of-mass energy root s = 3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we measure the absolute branching fraction of the semileptonic decay D+ -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e) to be B(D (+) -> (K) over bar (0)e(+)nu(e)) = (8.59 +/- 0.14 +/- 0.21)% using (K)

  18. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  19. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  20. Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Bertrand M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees. (EV)

  1. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  2. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  3. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  4. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  5. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  6. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  7. KLM's boric acid reclamation system (BARS). An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96-97 percent. BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. Within the scope of the project, a variety of contaminated process stream and mixed radwaste sources have been evaluated at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station. The design of an advanced prototype BARS as an optimized process alternative was the result of KLM's initial Phase 1 SBIR program with the DOE in 1984 and 1985

  8. Treatment of concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Stutz, U.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operations Department (HDB) of the Karlsruhe Research Center operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to decontaminate radioactive residues for unrestricted release in order to minimize the volume of waste products suitable for repository storage. In the case of about 120 concrete bars from the dismantling of hot cells, we reduce the volume of radioactive waste by sawing off the most contaminated parts of the bar. If there are no insertions such as cables or ventilation systems, the rest of the bar is sandblasted and its activity manually measured to ensure compliance with the release criteria. Otherwise, the bar is minced into small pieces by a power shovel. Afterwards, the rubble is filled into drums and its activity is measured by the clearance measurement facility. If the rubble and the sandblasted bars do not exceed the activity limit specified by the release criteria, the material is disposed of without further regulations for unrestricted use. Those parts of the bars which can not be released must be stored in special containers suitable for the KONRAD final disposal. Using this method, about 70 % of the total mass can be released. (author)

  9. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  10. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow......-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt...

  11. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  12. : Nuclear Spirals and Mass Accretion to Supermassive Black Holes in Weakly-Barred Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woong-Tae; Elmegreen, Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Disk galaxies, especially barred-spiral galaxies, abound with rings and spirals in their nuclear regions. Nuclear spirals existing even in weakly barred galaxies are thought to channel gas inflows to supermassive black holes residing at the centers. We use high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations to study the properties of nuclear gas spirals driven by weak bar-like or oval potentials. The amplitude of the spirals increases toward the center by a geometric effect, readily developing into shocks at small radii even for very weak potentials. The shape of the spirals and shocks depends rather sensitively on the background shear. When shear is low, the nuclear spirals are loosely wound and the shocks are almost straight, resulting in large mass inflows toward the center. When shear is high, on the other hand, the spirals are tightly wound and the shocks are oblique, forming a circumnuclear disk through which gas flows inward at a relatively lower rate. The induced mass inflow rates are enough to power black hole accretion in various types of Seyfert galaxies.

  13. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  14. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c\\bar c)$ with a W or a Z in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS searches for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c\\bar c$ pair, produced in association with a $W$ or $Z$ boson. The analyzed data correspond to $36.1\\,\\text{fb}^{-1}$ of $13\\,\\text{TeV}$ proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18\\ \\text{(stat.)}^{+0.21}_{-0.19}\\ \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c\\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio of $2.7\\,\\text{pb}$.

  15. Associated production of $H(b\\bar b, c \\bar c)$ with a $W$ or a $Z$ Boson in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jason; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Results are presented from the ATLAS search for Standard Model Higgs bosons decaying to a $b\\bar b$ or $c \\bar c$ pair, produced in association with $W$ or $Z$ bosons. The analyzed data correspond to 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of 13 TeV proton-proton collision data collected in Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The combination of Run 1 and Run 2 data in the $b\\bar b$ channel yields a ratio of the measured production rate to the SM prediction equal to $0.90 \\pm 0.18 \\text{(stat.)} ^{+0.21}_{-0.19} \\text{(syst.)}$. The observed significance of $3.6\\sigma$ provides evidence for the direct $Hbb$ Yukawa coupling. A similar search for $c \\bar c$ decays results in an upper limit on the production cross section times branching ratio.

  16. Amplification at λ ∼ 2.8 A on Xe(L),(2s-bar2p-bar) double-vacancy states produced by 248 nm excitation of Xe clusters in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Alex B; Song Xiangyang; Zhang Ping; Dasgupta, Arati; Davis, Jack; Kepple, Paul C; Dai Yang; Boyer, Keith; Rhodes, Charles K

    2005-01-01

    Xe(L),(2s-bar2p-bar) double-vacancy states undergo strong amplification in relativistic self-trapped plasma channels on 3d → 2p transitions in the λ = 2.78-2.81 A region. The 2 P 3/2 → 2 S 1/2 component at λ ≅ 2.786 A exhibits saturated amplification demonstrated by both (1) the observation of spectral hole-burning in the spontaneous emission profile and (2) the correlated enhancement of 3p → 2s cascade transitions ( 2 S 1/2 → 2 P j ; j = 1/2, 3/2) at λ = 2.558 and λ = 2.600 A. The condition of saturation places a lower limit of ∼10 17 W cm -2 on the intensity of the x-ray beam produced by the amplification in the channel. The anomalous strength of the amplification signalled by the saturation mirrors the equivalently anomalous behaviour observed for all 3d → 2p transitions corresponding to 2p-bar) single-vacancy Xe q+ arrays (q = 31, 32, 34, 35, 36) that exhibit gain. The conspicuous absence of amplification involving states with (2p-bar) 2 double-vacancy configurations suggests the operation of a selective interaction that enhances the production of 2s-bar2p-bar states. Overall, the generation of double-vacancy states of this genre demonstrates that an excitation rate approaching ∼1 W/atom for ionic species is achievable in self-trapped plasma channels

  17. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Berné, O.; Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L.; Keller, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s −1 and an age of ≃10 5 years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ 1 Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  18. THE ORION H ii REGION AND THE ORION BAR IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, F.; Tielens, A. G. G. M. [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Berné, O. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Adams, J. D.; Herter, T. L. [Astronomy Department, 202 Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Keller, L. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We present mid-infrared photometry of the Orion bar obtained with the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) on board SOFIA at 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 31.5, and 37.1 μ m. By complementing this observation with archival FORCAST and Herschel /PACS images, we are able to construct a complete infrared spectral energy distribution of the Huygens region in the Orion nebula. Comparing the infrared images with gas tracers, we find that PACS maps trace the molecular cloud, while the FORCAST data trace the photodissociation region (PDR) and the H ii region. Analysis of the energetics of the region reveal that the PDR extends for 0.28 pc along the line of sight and that the bar is inclined at an angle of 4°. The infrared and submillimeter images reveal that the Orion bar represents a swept-up shell with a thickness of 0.1 pc. The mass of the shell implies a shock velocity of ≃3 km s{sup −1} and an age of ≃10{sup 5} years for the H ii region. Our analysis shows that the UV and infrared dust opacities in the H ii region and the PDR are a factor 5 to 10 lower than in the diffuse interstellar medium. In the ionized gas, Ly α photons are a major source of dust heating at distances larger than ≃0.06 pc from θ {sup 1} Ori C. Dust temperatures can be explained if the size of the grains is between 0.1 and 1 μ m. We derive the photoelectric heating efficiency of the atomic gas in the Orion bar. The results are in good qualitative agreement with models and the quantitative differences indicate a decreased polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in this region.

  19. A Study of B→c$\\bar{c}$γK in the BaBar Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulsom, Brian Gregory [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-04-01

    The BABAR Collaboration is a high energy physics experiment located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The primary goal of the experiment is to study charge and parity violation in the B-meson sector, however the copious production of B mesons decaying to other final states allows for a wide-ranging physics program. In particular, one can access the charmonium system via colour-suppressed b → c decays of the type B → c$\\bar{c}$K. This thesis presents a study of B →c$\\bar{c}$γK decays where c$\\bar{c}$ includes J/Ψ and Ψ(2S), and K includes K±, KS0 and K*(892). The particular emphasis is on a search for the radiative decays X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ. The X(3872) state is a recently-discovered resonance of undetermined quark composition, speculatively a conventional charmonium state or exotic four-quark di-meson molecule. This research is also sensitive to the well-known radiative charmonium decays B → χc1,2K, which are used as verification for the analysis technique. This dissertation sets the best B → χc1K branching fraction measurements to date, and sees the first evidence for factorization-suppressed B0 → χc2}K*0 decay at a level of 3.6σ. It also provides evidence for X(3872) → J/Ψγ and X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ with 3.6σ and 3.3σ significance, respectively. The product of branching fractions β(B± → X(3872)K±) • β(X(3872) → J/Ψγ) = (2.8 ± 0.8(stat.) ± 0.2(syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and β(B{± → X(3872)K±) → β(X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ) = (9.5 ± 2.7(stat.) ± 0.9(syst.)) x 10-6 are measured. These results improve upon previous X(3872) → J/Ψγ measurements, and represent the first evidence for X(3872) → Ψ(2S)γ.

  20. The d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a pion cloud model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnin, J.; Christiansen, H.R.

    1999-03-01

    We study the d-bar - u-bar asymmetry of the proton in a model approach in which hadronic fluctuations of the nucleon are generated through gluon splitting and recombination mechanisms. Within this framework, it is shown that the d -u asymmetry of the proton is consistently described by including only nucleon fluctuations to |πN> and |πΔ> bound states. Predictions of the model closely agree with the recent experimental data of the E-866/Nu Sea Collaboration. (author)

  1. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-06-16

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts.

  2. Setting the bar: Standards for ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Tallis, Heather; Reyers, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Progress in ecosystem service science has been rapid, and there is now a healthy appetite among key public and private sector decision makers for this science. However, changing policy and management is a long-term project, one that raises a number of specific practical challenges. One impediment to broad adoption of ecosystem service information is the lack of standards that define terminology, acceptable data and methods, and reporting requirements. Ecosystem service standards should be tailored to specific use contexts, such as national income and wealth accounts, corporate sustainability reporting, land-use planning, and environmental impact assessments. Many standard-setting organizations already exist, and the research community will make the most headway toward rapid uptake of ecosystem service science by working directly with these organizations. Progress has been made in aligning with existing organizations in areas such as product certification and sustainability reporting, but a major challenge remains in mainstreaming ecosystem service information into core public and private use contexts, such as agricultural and energy subsidy design, national income accounts, and corporate accounts. PMID:26082540

  3. Chest Wall Constriction after the Nuss Procedure Identified from Chest Radiograph and Multislice Computed Tomography Shortly after Removal of the Bar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Pei-Yeh; Zeng, Qi; Wong, Kin-Sun; Wang, Chao-Jan; Chang, Chee-Jen

    2016-01-01

    This study radiographically examined the changes in the chest walls of patients with pectus excavatum (PE) after Nuss bar removal, to define the deformation caused by the bar and stabilizer. In the first part of the study, we compared the changes in chest radiographs of patients with PE to a preoperation PE control group. In the second part, we used multislice computed tomography (CT) scans to provide three-dimensional reconstructions with which to evaluate the changes to the thoracic wall. Part 1 From June 2006 to August 2011, 1,125 patients with PE who had posteroanterior chest radiographs taken before undergoing the Nuss procedure at four hospitals were enrolled as a preoperative control group. At the same time, 203 patients who had the bar removed were enrolled as the study group. The maximum dimensions of the outer boundary of the first to ninth rib pairs (R1-R9, rib pair width), chest height, and chest width were measured. Part 2 Thirty-one consecutive patients with PE (20 males and 11 females) who underwent Nuss bar removal were evaluated 7 to 30 days after operation. During this period, a further 34 patients with PE who had undergone CT imaging before bar insertion were evaluated and compared with the postoperative group. Part 1 The width of the lower ribs (R4-R9) after bar removal was significantly less than in the age-matched controls. The ribs adjacent to the bar (R5-R7) showed the greatest restriction. The width of the upper ribs (R1-R3) 2 to 3 years after bar placement did not differ significantly from the controls. Patients who were operated on after 10 years of age had less of a restrictive effect. Three years of bar placement resulted in more restriction than a 2-year period, particularly in patients younger than 10 years old. Part 2: A significant constriction of the chest wall was observed in 13 patients after removal of the Nuss bar. Constriction at ribs 5 to 8 was found to be present adjacent to the site of bar insertion. However

  4. The high-bar and low-bar back-squats: A biomechanical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassbrook, Daniel J; Brown, Scott R; Helms, Eric R; Duncan, J Scott; Storey, Adam G

    2017-02-08

    No prior study has compared the joint angle and ground reaction force (Fv) differences between the high-bar back-squat (HBBS) and low-bar back-squat (LBBS) above 90% 1RM. Six male powerlifters (height: 179.2 ± 7.8 cm; bodyweight: 87.1 ± 8.0 kg; age: 27.3 ± 4.2 years) of international level, six male Olympic weightlifters (height: 176.7 ± 7.7 cm; bodyweight: 83.1 ± 13 kg; age: 25.3 ± 3.1 years) of national level, and six recreationally trained male athletes (height: 181.9 ± 8.7 cm; bodyweight: 87.9 ± 15.3 kg; age: 27.7 ± 3.8 years) performed the LBBS, HBBS, and both LBBS and HBBS (respectively) up to and including 100% 1RM. Small to moderate (d = 0.2-0.5) effect size differences were observed between the powerlifters and Olympic weightlifters in joint angles and Fv, although none were statistically significant. However, significant joint angle results were observed between the experienced powerlifters/weightlifters and the recreationally trained group. Our findings suggest that practitioners seeking to place emphasis on the stronger hip musculature should consider the LBBS. Also, when the goal is to lift the greatest load possible, the LBBS may be preferable. Conversely, the HBBS is more suited to replicate movements that exhibit a more upright torso position, such as the snatch and clean, or to place more emphasis on the associated musculature of the knee joint.

  5. Thermal and hydrodynamic variability within a gravel bar of an Alpine stream and its link to hyporheic carbon cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boodoo, Kyle; Schelker, Jakob; Fasching, Christina; Ulseth, Amber; Battin, Tom

    2015-04-01

    In-stream bodies of fluvial sediment such as gravel bars (GB), form an active interface between streamwater and the adjacent groundwater body. The hydrodynamic exchange, that is, the varying contributions of different water sources to this mixing zone, control the GB physical and biogeochemical conditions, including water temperature, as well as nutrient and carbon availability, likely impacting carbon turnover. We present high frequency data for hydraulic head and water temperature in addition to event based measurements of electric conductivity, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and composition within a GB of an Alpine cold water stream (Oberer Seebach, Austria) for a range of different flow conditions. The highest vertical temperature differences and hydraulic head variability occurred at the head and shoulder - largest raised area perpendicular to surface water flow (downwelling) and tail (upwelling) of the gravel bar. At baseflow, high spatial variability of temperature (up to 4° C difference among sites within the same horizontal plane) and hydraulic head was observed within the GB. In contrast, floods resulted in markedly lower overall hyporheic zone temperatures (average 2° C difference among sites within the same horizontal plane) and spatial hydraulic head variability, compared to baseflow conditions. Similarly, the relative difference between surface water and GB nutrient and DOC concentrations and the overall spatial variability within the GB decreased with increasing surface water discharge. For example, at baseflow surface water average DOC and nitrate (NO3) concentrations were 1.40 mgL-1and 810 μgL-1respectively, and 1.97 mgL-1 and 779 μgL-1 respectively at intermediate flow. Meanwhile, DOC and NO3 concentrations in the GB ranged from 1.40 - 3.60 mgL-1 and 150 - 950 μgL-1respectively during baseflow and 1.48 -2.25 mgL-1 and 560 -840 μgL-1 respectively during moderate flows. Furthermore, DOC and NH4 concentrations

  6. 75 FR 39663 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-351-825] Stainless Steel Bar From... duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. The review covers one producer/exporter of the... antidumping duty order on certain stainless steel bar from Brazil. See Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil...

  7. Potential trophic cascades triggered by the barred owl range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Samantha R.; Noon, Barry R.; Wiens, David; Ripple, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the barred owl (Strix varia) has expanded its range into the Pacific Northwest of the United States resulting in pronounced effects on the demography and behavior of the northern spotted owl (S. occidentalis caurina). The range expansion has brought together historically allopatric species, creating the potential for significant changes in the avian predator community with possible cascading effects on food-web dynamics. The adverse effects of the barred owl on the behavior and demography of the northern spotted owl are well-documented, but little is known about the immediate and long-term effects changes in the predator community may have on native species composition and ecosystem processes. Based on northern spotted owl and barred owl selection for diet and habitat resources, there is a potential for trophic cascades within the region's predator and prey communities, differing responses by their shared and unique prey species, and possible direct and indirect effects on ecosystem processes. We explored the possible ecological consequences of the barred owl range expansion to wildlife communities of the Pacific Northwest based on the theoretical underpinnings of predator–prey relationships, interspecific competition, intraguild predation, and potential cascading trophic interactions. Negative effects on fitness of northern spotted owls because of interspecific competition with barred owls are strong selection forces that may contribute to the regional extinction of the northern spotted owl. In addition, we posit that shared prey species and those uniquely consumed by barred owls, along with other competing native predators, may experience changes in behavior, abundance, and distribution as a result of increased rates of predation by rapidly expanding populations of barred owls.

  8. Developments and trends in fruit bar production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego, C E; Salgado, N; Botero, C A

    2014-01-01

    Fruits serve as a source of energy, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. One of the barriers in increasing fruit and vegetables consumption is time required to prepare them. Overall, fruit bars have a far greater nutritional value than the fresh fruits because all nutrients are concentrated and, therefore, would be a convenience food assortment to benefit from the health benefits of fruits. The consumers prefer fruit bars that are more tasted followed by proper textural features that could be obtained by establishing the equilibrium of ingredients, the proper choosing of manufacturing stages and the control of the product final moisture content. Fruit bar preparations may include a mixture of pulps, fresh or dried fruit, sugar, binders, and a variety of minor ingredients. Additionally to the conventional steps of manufacturing (pulping, homogenizing, heating, concentrating, and drying) there have been proposed the use of gelled fruit matrices, dried gels or sponges, and extruders as new trends for processing fruit bars. Different single-type dehydration or combined methods include, in order of increasing process time, air-infrared, vacuum and vacuum-microwave drying convective-solar drying, convective drying, and freeze drying are also suggested as alternative to solar traditional drying stage. The dehydration methods that use vacuum exhibited not only higher retention of antioxidants but also better color, texture, and rehydration capacity. Antioxidant activity resulting from the presence of phenolic compounds in the bars is well established. Besides this, fruit bars are also important sources of carbohydrates and minerals. Given the wide range of bioactive factors in fresh fruits that are preserved in fruit bars, it is plausible that their uptake consumption have a positive effect in reducing the risk of many diseases.

  9. Design of extended length submerged traveling screen and submerged bar screen fish guidance equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardy, D.; Lindstrom, M.; Fechner, D.

    1991-01-01

    The hydropower projects on the Snake and lower Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest are unique because these rivers are also the spawning grounds for migratory salmon. The salmon swim upstream from the ocean, lay their eggs, and die. The newly hatched fingerlings must then make their way past the hydroelectric dams to the ocean. Two separate bypass systems are needed, one to pass the adult fish going upstream, and one to pass the fingerlings going downstream. This paper addresses the design considerations for two of the components of the downstream migrant fish passage facilities, the extended Submerged Traveling Screen and Submerged Bar Screen

  10. Sediment accumulation owing to backwater effect in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Kubo, Sumiko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Egashira, Shinji

    2017-11-01

    We examined channel bars at two sites in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River, which flows into Lake Tonle Sap, Cambodia, to identify sediment transport and accumulation processes during monsoon-related flood events and to investigate how sediment transport capacity changes as a result of enhanced backwater effect of the lake. Channel bars in the lower reach of the Stung Sen River that emerge in the dry season were classified into type A (lateral bars), type B (point bars), type C (concave-bank benches) and type D (diagonal and island bars, or fluvial dunes) based on Nagumo et al.'s previous study. Type B, type C, and type D channel bars were at our study sites of SEN-01 and SEN-02, about 83 and 77 km from the river mouth respectively. Computation of water surface profiles showed that sediment transport capacity of the Stung Sen River decreased abruptly after the peak flow stage because of the backwater effect from Lake Tonle Sap during the decreasing flow stage. Our observations suggest that alternating layers of sand and silt to clay layers accumulate to form type C channel bars, corresponding to changes in sediment transport capacity controlled by backwater effects from Lake Tonle Sap and by changes in flow depths and associated slackwater systems. The accumulation of alternating silt and sand layers of type B channel bars results from lateral sediment transportation that is accelerated with an increase of secondary flow, whereas development of type D channel bars is related to bedload mobility.

  11. Low-temperature growth of (2 1-bar 1-bar 0) ZnO nanofilm on NaCl (0 0 1) surface by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanofilm of the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) surface was prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. The nanofilm was prepared on NaCl (0 0 1) surface at 200 o C to produce nearly pure (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO texture and the orientation relationship was determined and the interface discussed. Transmission electron microscopy lattice images were used to find the interface formed between ZnO nanocrystals. The ZnO nanocrystals coalesced to form a straight (0 1 -bar 1 -bar 2) interface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO surface showed only a near-band-edge UV emission peak.

  12. Unstoppable brane-flux decay of (D6)-bar branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsson, UniversityH. [Institutionen för Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala Universitet, Uppsala (Sweden); Gautason, F.F. [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Riet, T. Van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.University Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2017-03-27

    We investigate p (D6)-bar branes inside a flux throat that carries K×M D6 charges with K the 3-form flux quantum and M the Romans mass. In such a setup brane-flux annihilation can proceed through the nucleation of KK5 branes. We find that within the calculable supergravity regime where g{sub s}p is large, the (D6)-bar branes annihilate immediately against the fluxes despite the existence of a metastable state at small p/M in the probe approximation. The crucial property that causes this naive conflict with effective field theory is a singularity in the 3-form flux, which we cut off at string scale. Our result explains the absence of regular solutions at finite temperature and suggests there should be a smooth time-dependent solution. We also discuss the qualitative differences between (D6)-bar branes and (D3)-bar branes, which makes it a priori not obvious to conclude the same instability for (D3)-bar branes.

  13. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  14. 700 bar hydrogen cylinder design, testing and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight and high pressure cylinders for compressed hydrogen storage are essential components for fuel cell vehicles. Storage volume and mass are two key considerations. Current on-board hydrogen storage systems are based on a maximum pressure of 350 bar. While 350 bar systems are excellent solutions for many applications, some situations required higher storage densities due to space restrictions. As a result significant research and development work has been expended by cylinder manufacturers, systems providers, testing agencies and automotive manufacturers to develop 700 bar systems to reduce storage volume. Dynetek Industries Ltd has proactively developed a range of 700 bar storage cylinders based on a seamless aluminum liner over wrapped with a carbon fiber composite. This paper presents the challenges and processes involved in the design, testing and certification of the Dynetek Industries Ltd 700 bar cylinder. The paper also provides reasoning for further volume and mass optimization of compressed hydrogen cylinders by incorporating realistic cylinder usage parameters into standards. In particular the overly conservative fill life requirement for cylinders will be examined. (author)

  15. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  16. Measuring and test equipment control through bar-code technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, J.D.; Carr, C.C.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, the use, tracking, and documentation of measuring and test equipment (M ampersand TE) has become a major issue. New regulations are forcing companies to develop new policies for providing use history, traceability, and accountability of M ampersand TE. This paper discusses how the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company and located at the Hanford site in Rich- land, Washington, overcame these obstacles by using a computerized system exercising bar-code technology. A data base was developed to identify M ampersand TE containing 33 separate fields, such as manufacturer, model, range, bar-code number, and other pertinent information. A bar-code label was attached to each piece of M ampersand TE. A second data base was created to identify the employee using the M ampersand TE. The fields contained pertinent user information such as name, location, and payroll number. Each employee's payroll number was bar coded and attached to the back of their identification badge. A computer program was developed to automate certain tasks previously performed and tracked by hand. Bar-code technology was combined with this computer program to control the input and distribution of information, eliminate common mistakes, electronically store information, and reduce the time required to check out the M ampersand TE for use

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STATUS OF K YIELDS πν(bar ν)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KETTELL, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    The experimental program for the study of the rare kaon decays, K → πν(bar ν) is summarized. A review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus of the world-wide kaon program is the two golden modes: K + → π + ν(bar ν) and K L o ν(bar ν). The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K + → π + ν(bar ν) events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe ∼10 Standard Model events, and the CKM experiment should observe ∼100 SM events by the end of this decade. Limits on the neutral analog K L o → =π o ν(bar ν) have been set by KTeV and within the next couple of years will be pushed by E391a. Measurements of the branching ratio should be made within the next 10 years by KOPIO, with a goal of ∼50 events, and at the JHF, with a goal of up to 1000 events

  18. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  19. IMF-screws or arch bars as conservative treatment for mandibular condyle fractures: Quality of life aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, B; de Mol van Otterloo, J J; van der Ploeg, T; Tuinzing, D B; Forouzanfar, T

    2015-09-01

    Arch bars as treatment for a fractured mandibular condyle are inconvenient to patients and lead to lowered quality of life (QOL). To overcome these inconveniences, IMF-screws (IMFS) to facilitate intermaxillary fixation during surgery have been developed. The purpose of the present study is to investigate and compare QOL for patients treated for a fractured mandibular condyle with either IMFS or arch bars. This research trial was conducted from 2010 to 2014 as part of an earlier prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical trial in which the use of IMFS was compared to the use of arch bars in the treatment of mandibular condylar fractures. In total, 50 patients were included: 30 (60%) male patients and 20 (40%) female patients (mean age: 31.8 years, standard deviation [SD] = 13.9 years, range = 18-64 years). A total of 24 (48%) patients were allocated in the IMFS group, and 26 (52%) patients were assigned to the arch-bars control group. Significant results were observed in the subscales social isolation, possibility to eat and vary diet, influence on sleep, and satisfaction with the given treatment, all in favour of IMFS. In conclusion, using IMFS as a method for conservative treatment of condylar fractures led to a higher QOL during the 6-week period of fracture healing. In comparison to arch bars, patients treated with IMFS experienced less social isolation, had fewer problems with eating, and express the feeling they are able to continue their normal diet. Furthermore it seems that the use of IMFS has a lower negative impact on social and financial aspects of the patient. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Reduction of CO2 Emissions by Application of High-Strength Reinforcing Bars to Three Different Structural Systems in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Cho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC industry consume approximately 23% of the national energy annually, and are considered among the highest energy consuming industries. Recently, several studies have focused on establishing strategies to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide in the AEC industry by utilisation of low-carbon materials, material reuse, recycling and minimal usage; selection of an optimal structural system and structural optimisation; and optimisation of construction operations. While several studies examined material selection and replacement in concrete, there is a paucity of studies investigating the replacement and implementation of high-strength re-bars to lower the carbon dioxide emissions in buildings. To fill this research gap, the purpose of this study involves calculating the emissions of carbon dioxide by applying high-strength reinforcement bars in three different types of buildings. The input–output analysis method was adopted to compute the emissions of carbon dioxide by using the yield strength and size. This study showed that the application of the high-strength re-bars is beneficial in reducing the input amount of materials, although the quantity of reinforcing bars on the development and splice increased. Furthermore, the application of high-strength deformed bars is also advantageous as a means of carbon dioxide reduction in the studied structural systems. In this study, the CO2 emissions of three different structural systems indicated that implementing SD500 re-bars is the most effective method to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  1. A search for bar νe appearance from stopped π+ and μ+ decay at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikawa, B.K.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports on a recent search for bar ν e appearance from stopped π + → μ + ν μ and μ + → e + ν e bar ν μ decay made by the LAMPF experiment E645. The appearance of bar ν e may occur from bar ν μ → bar ν e , ν e → bar ν eL , or ν μ → bar ν eL oscillations. Appearance may also occur from rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay, which is allowed by a multiplicative lepton charge conservation law. The neutrino energies range from E ν = 0 to 52.8MeV. The neutrino detector, which is located 26.1 meters from the neutrino source, consists of a segmented liquid scintillator and proportional drift tube central detector surrounded by both active and passive shielding. The central detector detects bar ν e through the bar ν e p → ne + Charge Current (CC) reaction, which is signaled by the direct detection of the final state positron and neutron. The hydrogen-rich liquid scintillators act as free proton targets for the bar ν e p CC reaction. The neutrons are detected through radiative neutron capture on gadolinium. He finds no evidence for bar ν e appearance in the first year of running. New limits on the bar ν μ , ν e , ν μ yields bar ν e oscillation parameters and the rare μ + → e + bar ν e ν μ decay branching ratio are presented

  2. Three-body charmful baryonic B decays B-bar→D(D*)NN-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Haiyang; Yang Kweichou

    2002-01-01

    We study the charmful three-body baryonic B decays B-bar→D ( * ) NN-bar: the color-allowed modes B-bar 0 →D ( * )+ np-bar and the color-suppressed ones B-bar 0 →D ( * )0 pp-bar. While the D* + /D + production ratio is predicted to be of order 3, it is found that D 0 pp-bar has a similar rate as D* 0 pp-bar. It is pointed out that B-bar 0 →D(D*)NN-bar are dominated by the nucleon vector current or by vector meson intermediate states, whereas B-bar 0 →D 0 pp-bar proceeds mainly via the exchange of the axial-vector intermediate state a 1 (1260). The study of the NN-bar invariant mass distribution in general indicates a threshold baryon pair production; that is, a recoil charmed meson accompanied by a low mass baryon pair except that the spectrum of D 0 pp-bar has a hump at large pp-bar invariant mass m pp-bar ∼3.0 GeV

  3. Impact of the Lok-bar for High-precision Radiotherapy with Tomotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Makoto; Monzen, Hajime; Tamura, Mikoto; Kubo, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hanaoka, Kohei; Okumura, Masahiko; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2018-05-01

    Patient immobilization systems are used to establish a reproducible patient position relative to the couch. In this study, the impact of conventional lok-bars for CT-simulation (CIVCO-bar) and treatment (iBEAM-bar) were compared with a novel lok-bar (mHM-bar) in tomotherapy. Verification was obtained as follows: i. artifacts in CT images; ii. dose attenuation rate of lok-bar, compared to without lok-bar; and iii. dose differences between the calculated and measured absorbed doses. With the CIVCO-bar, there were obvious metal artifacts, while there were nearly no artifacts with the mHM-bar. The mean dose attenuation rates with the mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar were 1.31% and 2.28%, and the mean dose difference was 1.55% and 1.66% for mHM-bar and iBEAM-bar. Using the mHM-bar reduced artifacts on the CT image and improved dose attenuation are obtained. The lok-bar needs to be inserted as a structure set in treatment planning with tomotherapy. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  4. The revenue raising capabilities of a VAT system in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NT Azaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to elaborate on the revenue-raising capabilities (economic efficiency and viability of a value-added tax (VAT system, particularly in developing countries.  The analysis concentrates on the effect of a VAT on tax revenues raised, and the main objective is to determine whether a VAT system generates greater benefits than previously utilised sales taxes, i.e. pre-existing sales taxes (PEST. Using a panel data regression analysis, our results indicate that while all countries gain revenue from the presence of VAT, it is significantly more in developed countries, although the dummy VAT variable interacted with trace openness enters positively for the lower- and upper middle-income groups.  This proves the importance of trade for VAT revenues, but also that VAT combined with interaction variables is conducive to higher tax revenues.

  5. Influence of the weighing bar position in vessel on measurement of cement’s particle size distribution by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sihombing, R. O.; Simanjuntak, A.; Hanum, F.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a new simple and cost-effective method to determine the particle size distribution both settling and floating particle. In this method, the density change in a suspension due to particle migration is measured by weighing buoyancy against a weighing-bar hung in the suspension, and then the particle size distribution is calculated using the length of the bar and the time-course change in the mass of the bar. The apparatus of this method consists of a weighing-bar and an analytical balance with a hook for under-floor weighing. The weighing bar is used to detect the density change in suspension. In this study we investigate the influences of position of weighing bar in vessel on settling particle size distribution measurements of cement by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method. The vessel used in this experiment is graduated cylinder with the diameter of 65 mm and the position of weighing bar is in center and off center of vessel. The diameter of weighing bar in this experiment is 10 mm, and the kerosene is used as a dispersion liquids. The results obtained show that the positions of weighing bar in vessel have no significant effect on determination the cement’s particle size distribution by using buoyancy weighing-bar method, and the results obtained are comparable to those measured by using settling balance method.

  6. A new photometric model of the Galactic bar using red clump giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liang; Mao, Shude; Nataf, David; Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Gould, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of the luminosity density distribution of the Galactic bar using number counts of red clump giants from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) III survey. The data were recently published by Nataf et al. for 9019 fields towards the bulge and have 2.94 × 106 RC stars over a viewing area of 90.25 deg^2. The data include the number counts, mean distance modulus (μ), dispersion in μ and full error matrix, from which we fit the data with several triaxial parametric models. We use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to explore the parameter space and find that the best-fitting model is the E3 model, with the distance to the GC 8.13 kpc, the ratio of semimajor and semiminor bar axis scalelengths in the Galactic plane x0, y0 and vertical bar scalelength z0 x0: y0: z0 ≈ 1.00: 0.43: 0.40 (close to being prolate). The scalelength of the stellar density profile along the bar's major axis is ˜0.67 kpc and has an angle of 29.4°, slightly larger than the value obtained from a similar study based on OGLE-II data. The number of estimated RC stars within the field of view is 2.78 × 106, which is systematically lower than the observed value. We subtract the smooth parametric model from the observed counts and find that the residuals are consistent with the presence of an X-shaped structure in the Galactic Centre, the excess to the estimated mass content is ˜5.8 per cent. We estimate that the total mass of the bar is ˜1.8 × 1010 M⊙. Our results can be used as a key ingredient to construct new density models of the Milky Way and will have implications on the predictions of the optical depth to gravitational microlensing and the patterns of hydrodynamical gas flow in the Milky Way.

  7. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  8. The BaBar instrumented flux return performance: lessons learned

    CERN Document Server

    Anulli, F; Baldini, R; Band, H R; Bionta, R; Brau, J E; Brigljevic, V; Buzzo, A; Calcaterra, A; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Crosetti, G; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Eichenbaum, A; Fabozzi, F; Falciai, D; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Finocchiaro, G; Forti, F; Frey, R; Gatto, C; Graug; Iakovlev, N I; Iwasaki, M; Johnson, J R; Lange, D J; Lista, L; Lo Vetere, M; Lü, C; Macri, M; Messner, R; Moore, T B; Morganti, S; Neal, H; Neri, N; Palano, A; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piredda, G; Robutti, E; Roodman, A; Santroni, A; Sciacca, C; Sinev, N B; Soha, A; Strom, D; Tosi, S; Vavra, J; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A

    2002-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has operated an instrumented flux return (IFR) system covering over 2000 m sup 2 with resistive plate chambers (RPCs) for nearly 3 years. The chambers are constructed of bakelite sheets separated by 2 mm. The inner surfaces are coated with linseed oil. This system provides muon and neutral hadron detection for BaBar. Installation and commissioning were completed in 1998, and operation began mid-year 1999. While initial performance of the system reached design, over time, a significant fraction of the RPCs demonstrated significant degradation, marked by increased currents and reduced efficiency. A coordinated effort of investigations have identified many of the elements responsible for the degradation. This article presents our current understanding of the aging process of the BaBar RPCs along with the action plan to combat performance degradation of the IFR system.

  9. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Raw-Vegan Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumer interest in healthier food products is driven by a variety of factors including growing awareness of the link between diet and health, the desire to age ‘gracefully’ by maintaining good health, greater convenience in meeting nutritional needs and preventing chronic diseases. In raw food diet, food is consumed predominantly or exclusively as uncooked and unprocessed raw food; the main components of the diet are fruits, nuts, seeds, and sprouted grains and beans. The aim of this study was to obtain two raw-vegan bars using dry raw materials and to establish the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the products. Raw-vegan bars were formulated using fruits and seeds (cranberries, figs, raisins, raspberries, cashew, chia seeds, etc. and binding agents (honey. Raw-vegan bars stands out among fast foods due to their balanced nutritional content and convenience.  

  10. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Gaëlle

    2011-01-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope...... been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order......, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation...

  11. Evaluation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.

    1985-08-01

    This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the assumption of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the Watts Bar T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER

  12. Comparison of Failure Process of Bended Beams Reinforced with Steel Bars and GFRP Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszyńska, Maria; Błyszko, Jarosław; Olczyk, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    load were tested. Both types of beams were designed to have the same bearing capacity. Beams reinforced with GFRP rebar exhibited much bigger cracking than traditionally reinforced bars. The width of cracks appearing in beams reinforced with GFRP bars was equal or greater than limit values (0.4 mm) even though the ratio of moment of resistance and cracking moment was greater than 3. The composite rebar exhibits many significant advantages over steel rebar, but its rather low Young’s modulus comparing to steel causes exceeded deflection and cracking of bended concrete elements.

  13. Search for $t\\bar{t}H$ production in the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ channel

    CERN Document Server

    David, Claire; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A search for the Standard Model Higgs boson produced in association with top-quark pair, $t\\bar{t}H$, and targeting the $H \\rightarrow b\\bar{b}$ decay mode is presented. The analysis uses 36.1 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015 and 2016. Events must contain either one or two electrons or muons from the top-quark decays and are further categorized according to the multiplicities of jets and jets containing a b-hadron (b-jets). Two-stage multivariate techniques are used to discriminate between signal and the dominant background $t\\bar{t}$ + jets. The ratio of the measured $t\\bar{t}H$ signal cross-section to the Standard Model expectation is found to be $\\mu = 0.84^{+0.64}_{-0.61}$. A value of μ greater than 2.0 is excluded at 95% confidence level. The expected upper limit is $\\mu$ < 1.2 in the absence of a $t\\bar{t}H$ signal.

  14. Megascale rhythmic shoreline forms on a beach with multiple bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study, carried out in 2003 and 2006 at the Lubiatowo Coastal ResearchStation (Poland, located on the non-tidal southern Baltic coast(tidal range < 0.06 m, focused on larger rhythmic forms (mega-cusps withwavelengths in the interval 500 m > Lc > 20 m. Statistical analyses of detailed shoreline configurations were performed mostly with the Discrete Wavelet Transformmethod (DWT. The beach is composed of fine sand with grain diameter D50 ≈ 0.22 mm, which produces 4 longshore sandbars and a gently sloping seabed with β = 0.015. The analysis confirms the key role of bars in hydro- and morphodynamic surf zone processes.The hypothesis was therefore set up that, in a surf zone with multiple bars, the bars and mega-scale shoreline rhythmic forms form one integrated physical system; experimental evidence to substantiate this hypothesis was also sought.In such a system not only do self-regulation processes include swash zone phenomena, they also incorporate processes in offshore surf zone locations.The longshore dimensions of large cusps are thus related to the distances between periodically active large bed forms (bars. The spatial dimension of bar system activity (number of active bars depends, at a given time scale, on the associated hydrodynamic conditions. It was assumed that such a time scale could include either the development and duration of a storm, or a period of stable, yet distinct waves, capable of remodelling the beach configuration.The indentation to wavelength ratio of mega-cusps for the studied non-tidal dissipative environment may be one order of magnitude greater than for mesotidal, reflective beaches.

  15. Prompt photon cross section measurement in bar pp collisions at √s =1.8 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Baden, A.R.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; DiBitonto, D.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jensen, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.; Kephart, R.; Kesten, P.; Keup, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The first prompt photon measurement from the CDF experiment at the Fermilab p bar p Collider is presented. Two independent methods are used to measure the cross section: one for high transverse momentum (P T ) and one for lower P T . Comparisons to various theoretical calculations are shown. The cross section agrees qualitatively with QCD calculations but has a steeper slope at low P T

  16. The Almost Periodic Rigidity of Crystallographic Bar-Joint Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Badri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A crystallographic bar-joint framework, C in Rd, is shown to be almost periodically infinitesimally rigid if and only if it is strictly periodically infinitesimally rigid and the rigid unit mode (RUM spectrum, Ω (C, is a singleton. Moreover, the almost periodic infinitesimal flexes of C are characterised in terms of a matrix-valued function, ΦC(z, on the d-torus, Td, determined by a full rank translation symmetry group and an associated motif of joints and bars.

  17. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

  18. Symmetry Perspectives on Some Auxetic Body-Bar Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Fowler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Scalar mobility counting rules and their symmetry extensions are reviewed for finite frameworks and also for infinite periodic frameworks of the bar-and-joint, body-joint and body-bar types. A recently published symmetry criterion for the existence of equiauxetic character of an infinite framework is applied to two long known but apparently little studied hinged-hexagon frameworks, and is shown to detect auxetic behaviour in both. In contrast, for double-link frameworks based on triangular and square tessellations, other affine deformations can mix with the isotropic expansion mode.

  19. Spectroscopy of snake states using a graphene Hall bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanović, S. P., E-mail: slavisa.milovanovic@gmail.com; Ramezani Masir, M., E-mail: mrmphys@gmail.com; Peeters, F. M., E-mail: francois.peeters@ua.ac.be [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)

    2013-12-02

    An approach to observe snake states in a graphene Hall bar containing a pn-junction is proposed. The magnetic field dependence of the bend resistance in a ballistic graphene Hall bar structure containing a tilted pn-junction oscillates as a function of applied magnetic field. We show that each oscillation is due to a specific snake state that moves along the pn-interface. Furthermore, depending on the value of the magnetic field and applied potential, we can control the lead in which the electrons will end up and hence control the response of the system.

  20. Black silicon with black bus-bar strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Tang, Peter Torben; Mizushima, Io

    2016-01-01

    We present the combination of black silicon texturing and blackened bus-bar strings as a potential method for obtaining all-black solar panels, while using conventional, front-contacted solar cells. Black silicon was realized by mask-less reactive ion etching resulting in total, average reflectance...... below 0.5% across a 156x156 mm2 silicon wafer. Black bus-bars were realized by oxidized copper resulting in reflectance below 3% in the entire visible wavelength range. The combination of these two technologies may result in aesthetic, all-black panels based on conventional, front-contacted solar cells...

  1. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaissi, A Al; Ghachem, M Ben; Nassib, N; Chehida, F Ben [Hospital d' Enfants, Service d' orthopedie infantile, Tunis (Tunisia); Kozlowski, K [Department of Medical Imaging, Sydney (Australia)

    2005-06-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  2. Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (with a posterior midline unsegmented bar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaissi, A. Al; Ghachem, M. Ben; Nassib, N.; Chehida, F. Ben; Kozlowski, K.

    2005-01-01

    Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SSS) is characterised by malsegmentation of the thoracic spine and carpal/tarsal fusions. A unilateral or bilateral unsegmented bar may be present in the thoracic spine. Presenting clinical signs are congenital scoliosis early in life, and shortening of the trunk with scoliosis and/or lordosis in older children. We report a 13-year-old girl with SSS and a midline unsegmented bar running along the spinal processes of T3 to L2 and extending into the posterior vertebral elements. (orig.)

  3. Application bar-code system for solid radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. H.; Kim, T. K.; Kang, I. S.; Cho, H. S.; Son, J. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Solid radioactive wastes are generated from the post-irradiated fuel examination facility, the irradiated material examination facility, the research reactor, and the laboratories at KAERI. A bar-code system for a solid radioactive waste management of a research organization became necessary while developing the RAWMIS(Radioactive Waste Management Integration System) which it can generate personal history management for efficient management of a waste, documents, all kinds of statistics. This paper introduces an input and output application program design to do to database with data in the results and a stream process of a treatment that analyzed the waste occurrence present situation and data by bar-code system.

  4. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-02-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit "bandwagon effects": reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations.

  5. Bandwagon effects and error bars in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2007-01-01

    We study historical records of experiments on particle masses, lifetimes, and widths, both for signs of expectation bias, and to compare actual errors with reported error bars. We show that significant numbers of particle properties exhibit 'bandwagon effects': reported values show trends and clustering as a function of the year of publication, rather than random scatter about the mean. While the total amount of clustering is significant, it is also fairly small; most individual particle properties do not display obvious clustering. When differences between experiments are compared with the reported error bars, the deviations do not follow a normal distribution, but instead follow an exponential distribution for up to ten standard deviations

  6. Composite Higgs Models and the tt-bar H Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, A.; Chala, M.; Santiago, J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its suppressed couplings to Standard Model particles, a composite Higgs with mass m H = 125 GeV and a moderate degree of compositeness can be consistent with current Higgs searches, including a sizable enhancement in the H → γγ channel. Heavy resonances common to many composite Higgs models can mediate new Higgs production mechanisms. In particular, the tt-bar H channel can be accessible at the LHC in these models through the exchange of colored vector and fermion resonances. In this case, the tt-bar H channel is not a direct measure of the top Yukawa coupling. (authors)

  7. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  8. Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into account. The implications of ...

  9. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  10. VOWEL RAISING IN AKAN REDUPLICATION Kwesi Adomako1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current paper, we provide an alternative analysis to this overgeneralized claim by providing data from the Twi (Asante) dialect to argue for the presence and productivity of the raising of both the low and the mid vowels within diverse phonological contexts. In these contexts, the stem/base-final low vowel /a/ in the CVa.

  11. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  12. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with short-term...

  13. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  14. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  15. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  16. Raising Quality and Achievement. A College Guide to Benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jane

    This booklet introduces the principles and practices of benchmarking as a way of raising quality and achievement at further education colleges in Britain. Section 1 defines the concept of benchmarking. Section 2 explains what benchmarking is not and the steps that should be taken before benchmarking is initiated. The following aspects and…

  17. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  18. Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

    Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

  19. Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement. Item Number 39-0464

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement (RSRA) project is to build capacity at the state, district, school, and classroom levels to improve student achievement to meet the goals of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. This checklist highlights some of the opportunities and support…

  20. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  1. Raising the bar for the care of seriously ill patients: results of a national survey to define essential palliative care competencies for medical students and residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G; Chittenden, Eva H; Sullivan, Amy M; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S; Morrison, Laura J; Carey, Elise C; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the United States, to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Proposed competencies were derived from existing hospice and palliative medicine fellowship competencies and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a Web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate = 72%, 71/98). Using predefined cutoff criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community.

  2. Raising the Bar for the Care of Seriously Ill Patients: Results of a National Survey to Define Essential Palliative Care Competencies for Medical Students and Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Kristen G.; Chittenden, Eva H.; Sullivan, Amy M.; Periyakoil, Vyjeyanth S.; Morrison, Laura J.; Carey, Elise C.; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra; Block, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Given the shortage of palliative care specialists in the U.S., to ensure quality of care for patients with serious, life-threatening illness, generalist-level palliative care competencies need to be defined and taught. The purpose of this study was to define essential competencies for medical students and internal medicine and family medicine (IM/FM) residents through a national survey of palliative care experts. Method Proposed competencies were derived from existing Hospice and Palliative Medicine fellowship competencies, and revised to be developmentally appropriate for students and residents. In spring 2012, the authors administered a web-based, national cross-sectional survey of palliative care educational experts to assess ratings and rankings of proposed competencies and competency domains. Results The authors identified 18 comprehensive palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents, respectively. Over 95% of survey respondents judged the competencies as comprehensive and developmentally appropriate (survey response rate=72%, 71/98). Using predefined cut-off criteria, experts identified 7 medical student and 13 IM/FM resident competencies as essential. Communication and pain/symptom management were rated as the most critical domains. Conclusions This national survey of palliative care experts defines comprehensive and essential palliative care competencies for medical students and IM/FM residents that are specific, measurable, and can be used to report educational outcomes; provide a sequence for palliative care curricula in undergraduate and graduate medical education; and highlight the importance of educating medical trainees in communication and pain management. Next steps include seeking input and endorsement from stakeholders in the broader medical education community. PMID:24979171

  3. Raising the camp living bar : a Shell Canada and Fort MacKay First Nation joint venture results in a unique housing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2006-11-15

    Shell Canada and the Fort MacKay First Nation have joined forces to construct the Buena Vista Hotel, a staff accommodation project for Shell, Chevron, and Western project managers and supervisors. The hotel will provide a higher level of comfort than current housing available to employees in the Athabasca region, and it is hoped that the project will help to attract more employees. Under the arrangement, Shell and its partners will have exclusive access to the hotel for the first 10 years, and there is a commitment from Fort MacKay First Nation to purchase the hotel outright within a certain period. To oversee the hotel's construction, the First Nations band formed a construction company and partnered with the Milk Creek Group. The hotel is currently being constructed in Saskatchewan and will be trucked to Fort MacKay in 279 modules. The 12 by 28 foot units are fully appointed with carpets, millwork, painted walls and granite countertops. After being trucked to Alberta, the modules will be assembled and stacked along central hallways built on-site. A Vancouver-based architect designed the overall concept for the hotel, and aimed to blend the project into its environment wherever possible by leaving buffers of trees. Many of the rooms will have beautiful views of the river. It was concluded that Aboriginal involvement has been a crucial factor in the hotel's development. 1 fig.

  4. Raising the Bar: Aligning and Elevating Teacher Preparation and the Teaching Profession. A Report of the American Federation of Teachers Teacher Preparation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers Teacher Preparation Task Force was established to examine the research on what works and what does not work in the field of teacher preparation as a basis for making policy recommendations. Just as important, the task force considered how best to implement such policy recommendations in a way that takes into…

  5. Implications for new physics from B-bar 0->π0π0 and B-bar 0->K-bar 0K0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jianfeng; Gao Yuanning; Huang Chaoshang; Wu Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the B-bar 0 ->π 0 π 0 puzzle in three kinds of models beyond the standard model (SM). It is shown that the minimal flavor violation (MFV) models, the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), and the two Higgs doublet models (2HDM) I and II cannot give an explanation of the B-bar 0 ->π 0 π 0 puzzle within 1σ experimental bounds and the model III 2HDM can explain the puzzle without a conflict with other experimental measurements. If the constraint on C 8g from b->sg is not imposed, for all kinds of insertions considered there are regions of parameter space, where the scalar quark mass is larger (much larger) than the gluino mass in the case of LR or RL (LL or RR), in which the puzzle can be resolved within 1σ experimental bounds

  6. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitt, Michael J.; Morgan, Sarah L.; Lopez-Ben, Robert; Steelman, Rebecca E.; Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria; Fineberg, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  7. Association of the presence of bone bars on radiographs and low bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitt, Michael J. [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Morgan, Sarah L. [Schools of Health Professions, Medicine, and Dentistry, Departments of Nutrition Sciences and Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lopez-Ben, Robert [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Steelman, Rebecca E. [University of Alabama, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Nunnally, Nancy; Burroughs, Leandria [UAB Osteoporosis Prevention and Treatment Clinic, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Fineberg, Naomi [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Bone bars (BB) are struts of normal trabecular bone that cross the medullary portions of the metaphysis and diaphysis at right angles to the long axis of the shaft. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether the presence of bone bars (BB) identified on radiographs of the proximal femurs and tibia, predict lower bone mineral density (BMD) as evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck. A total of 134 sequential DXA patients underwent radiography of the pelvis, hips, and both knees. The radiographs were evaluated for the presence of BB by two musculoskeletal radiologists who were blinded to DXA results. A t test was used to evaluate the relationship of BB to BMD and a Chi-square test was used to determine if BB were equally distributed among the categories of normal BMD, low bone mass (osteopenia), and osteoporosis. BB were associated with lower BMD at all measured sites. BB at the intertrochanteric and proximal tibial sites were the most predictive of low BMD while supraacetabular and distal femur BB were less predictive. Osteoporosis or osteopenia is seen in 60-91% of those with BB depending on the side and reader. It is only seen in about 40% of those without BB. We conclude that the presence of BB suggest decreased BMD and when correlated with other clinical information, might support further evaluation of BMD. (orig.)

  8. An alternative analysis of the LSND neutrino oscillation search data on bar νμ→ bar νe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.E.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of data from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) sets bounds on neutrino oscillations in the appearance channel bar ν μ → bar ν e by searching for the signature of the reaction bar ν e p→e + n: an e + followed by a 2.2 MeV γ ray from neutron capture. Five e ± -γ coincidences are observed in time with the LAMPF beam, with an estimated background of 6.2 events. The 90% confidence limits obtained in this analysis are Δm 2 2 for sin 2 2θ=1, and sin 2 2θ -3 for Δm 2 approx-gt 20 eV 2 . The possible signal at the edge of the detector's sensitivity is mentioned

  9. The B → D* vertical bar ν form factor at zero recoil and the determination of vertical bar Vcb vertical bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, J.N.; Hashimoto, S.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Ryan, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We summarize our lattice QCD study of the form factor at zero recoil in the decay B → D* vertical bar ν. After careful consideration of all sources of systematic uncertainty, we find, h A 1 (1) 0.913 +24+17 -17-30 , where the first uncertainty is from statistics and fitting while the second combined uncertainty is from all other systematic effects

  10. Near threshold enhancement of the p p-bar mass spectrum in J/Psi decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Sibirtsev; J. Haidenbauer; S. Krewald; Ulf-G. Meissner; A.W. Thomas

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nature of the near-threshold enhancement in the p (bar p) invariant mass spectrum of the reaction J/Ψ → γ p (bar p) reported recently by the BES Collaboration. Using the Juelich N (bar N) model we show that the mass dependence of the p (bar p) spectrum close to the threshold can be reproduced by the S-wave p (bar p) final state interaction in the isospin I=1 state within the Watson-Migdal approach. However, because of our poor knowledge of the N (bar N) interaction near threshold and of the J/Ψ → γ p (bar p) reaction mechanism and in view of the controversial situation in the decay J/Ψ → π 0 p (bar p), where no obvious signs of a p (bar p) final state interaction are seen, explanations other than final state interactions cannot be ruled out at the present stage

  11. Near threshold enhancement of the p p-bar mass spectrum in J/Psi decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Sibirtsev; J. Haidenbauer; S. Krewald; Ulf-G. Meissner; A.W. Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the nature of the near-threshold enhancement in the p {bar p} invariant mass spectrum of the reaction J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reported recently by the BES Collaboration. Using the Juelich N {bar N} model we show that the mass dependence of the p {bar p} spectrum close to the threshold can be reproduced by the S-wave p {bar p} final state interaction in the isospin I=1 state within the Watson-Migdal approach. However, because of our poor knowledge of the N {bar N} interaction near threshold and of the J/{Psi} {yields} {gamma} p {bar p} reaction mechanism and in view of the controversial situation in the decay J/{Psi} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} p {bar p}, where no obvious signs of a p {bar p} final state interaction are seen, explanations other than final state interactions cannot be ruled out at the present stage.

  12. Relationships between drinking onset, alcohol use intensity, and nighttime risk behaviors in a college bar district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Dennis L; O'Mara, Ryan; Tobler, Amy L; Wagenaar, Alexander C; Clapp, John D

    2009-01-01

    To identify antecedents of risk behavior events in college bar patrons. In this nighttime field study, self-report data and alcohol intoxication readings were collected from patrons immediately upon exiting bars (n = 618). Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed positive associations between age of drinking onset and both alcohol use intensity in the past year and recent bar-going frequency. In turn, alcohol use intensity in the past year was positively associated with bar-going frequency and intoxication at bar exit. An association between drinking onset and bar-going frequency was mediated by alcohol use intensity in the past year. Discernable paths from age of drinking onset to monthly bar-going frequency and intoxication level after leaving a bar can be identified. The results highlight the critical role of drinking onset in development of college student alcohol abuse. Research is needed to determine whether college bars are environmental pathogens mediating between genetic risk factors and patron risk behavior.

  13. Different functional modes of BAR domain proteins in formation and plasticity of mammalian postsynapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Michael M; Qualmann, Britta

    2015-09-01

    A plethora of cell biological processes involve modulations of cellular membranes. By using extended lipid-binding interfaces, some proteins have the power to shape membranes by attaching to them. Among such membrane shapers, the superfamily of Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain proteins has recently taken center stage. Extensive structural work on BAR domains has revealed a common curved fold that can serve as an extended membrane-binding interface to modulate membrane topologies and has allowed the grouping of the BAR domain superfamily into subfamilies with structurally slightly distinct BAR domain subtypes (N-BAR, BAR, F-BAR and I-BAR). Most BAR superfamily members are expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Neurons are elaborately shaped and highly compartmentalized cells. Therefore, analyses of synapse formation and of postsynaptic reorganization processes (synaptic plasticity) - a basis for learning and memory formation - has unveiled important physiological functions of BAR domain superfamily members. These recent advances, furthermore, have revealed that the functions of BAR domain proteins include different aspects. These functions are influenced by the often complex domain organization of BAR domain proteins. In this Commentary, we review these recent insights and propose to classify BAR domain protein functions into (1) membrane shaping, (2) physical integration, (3) action through signaling components, and (4) suppression of other BAR domain functions. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Model-Independent Lower Bounds for $b \\to d$ Penguin Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert; Fleischer, Robert; Recksiegel, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    For the exploration of flavour physics, b -> d penguin processes are an important aspect, with the prominent example of \\bar B^0_d -> K^0 \\bar K^0. We recently derived lower bounds for the CP-averaged branching ratio of this channel in the Standard Model; they were found to be very close to the corresponding experimental upper limits, thereby suggesting that \\bar B^0_d -> K^0 \\bar K^0 should soon be observed. In fact, the BaBar collaboration subsequently announced the first signals of this transition. Here we point out that it is also possible to derive lower bounds for \\bar B -> \\rho \\gamma decays, which are again surprisingly close to the current experimental upper limits. We show that these bounds are realizations of a general bound that holds within the Standard Model for b -> d penguin processes, allowing further applications to decays of the kind B^\\pm -> K^{(\\ast)\\pm} K^{(\\ast)} and B^\\pm -> \\pi^\\pm \\ell^+ \\ell^-, \\rho^\\pm \\ell^+ \\ell^-.

  15. CP odd observables for the t t-bar system produced at p p-bar and pp colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Ma, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Some CP odd observables are proposed to test CP invariance in the t t-bar system proceeded at p p-bar and pp colliders. As CP violation can appear both in the production and in the decays of the top quarks, it is important to separate the effects from each other by using different observables. These will be discussed and some comments on using the observables for pp colliders are also made. Numerical results for these observables are given together with their sensitivity to the new CP violating interactions. 17 refs, 1 fig

  16. Present state of Tevatron lower temperature operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, B.L.

    1996-09-01

    Fermilab continues to work on raising the particle energy of the Tevatron by lowering magnet temperatures using cold vapor compressors. In 1995, another two rounds of power tests were completed. These power tests, although showing significant improvement over the initial tests of 1993-94, have led to the conclusion that 1000 GeV operation cannot be attained without replacing/rearranging magnets with lower quench currents before the next Collider Run in 1999. Development of more cold compressor control strategies also continues

  17. The Costliest Tax of all: Raising Revenue through Corporate Tax Hikes can be Counter-Productive for the Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergete Ferede

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising taxes can come at a serious cost. Not just to the taxpayer, of course, but to the economy. Every tax hike naturally leads people or companies to reallocate resources in ways that are less productive, resulting in a loss of income-generating opportunities. At a certain point, raising taxes becomes manifestly counterproductive, with the revenue lost due to the negative economic effects outweighing any tax gains. In cases like that, a government would actually raise more money by lowering taxes, broadening the tax base, than it does by increasing taxes. In fact, an analysis of the tax-base elasticities of the provinces, using data from 1972 to 2010, reveals that this very phenomenon is what occurred in Saskatchewan, which raised corporate taxes to a point where it began to backfire, sabotaging the government’s goal of raising more revenue. It also occurred in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, P.E.I., and Nova Scotia. In all these provinces, tax increases on corporate earnings actually ended up yielding less for the provinces than the provincial governments would have collected had they instead lowered corporate income taxes. In five other provinces, governments undermined their own provincial economies over the same period, raising corporate taxes when they would have been better off actually cutting the corporate income tax, and making up the difference with a revenue-neutral sales tax. Alberta, Ontario, British Columbia, Manitoba and Quebec all paid dearly for the decision to hit corporations with higher taxes, by sacrificing what could have been significant welfare gains had they sought to raise the same amount of revenue through higher sales taxes (or in the case of Alberta, a new sales tax. Quebec, at least, has lower tax-base elasticity than the others, however, possibly due to its unique cultural and linguistic characteristics, which may make it somewhat less likely for people and investors to leave the province. The

  18. Phenological Characteristics of the Barred Chicken in Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between May and June 2011, the growth performance and phenological characteristics of local barred chicken of the Western Highland Cameroon was carried out in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang. The data on body weight, body measurements and carcass characteristics were collected on ...

  19. Using a Spreadsheet Scroll Bar to Solve Equilibrium Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviolo, Andres

    2012-01-01

    A simple, conceptual method is described for using the spreadsheet scroll bar to find the composition of a system at chemical equilibrium. Simulation of any kind of chemical equilibrium can be carried out using this method, and the effects of different disturbances can be predicted. This simulation, which can be used in general chemistry…

  20. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh; Bray, Hubert L.

    2015-01-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter