WorldWideScience

Sample records for raised bed planting

  1. Raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated areas of punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Ali, A.; Akmal, N.; Yaqoob, S.; Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the determinants of adoption of raised bed planting of wheat in irrigated areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Wheat is an important staple food of Pakistan. It contributes 13 % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted by the Social Sciences Research Institute, Faisalabad in 2011-12 to assess the determinants of the adoption of the raised bed technology for wheat crop in irrigated Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted at three sites of the districts Faisalabad and Toba Tek Singh where the Water Management Research Institute, University of Faisalabad promoted the raised bed technology for wheat crop. A sample of 63 farmers was interviewed in detail to understand the whole system and the factors contributing to the adoption of the technology. The study revealed that adopters typically have a more favorable resource base and tend to variously outperform non-adopters. More access to education and other social indicators increases the chances to adopt new technologies by the farming community. However, the small farmers can also be benefited with the technology with proper education regarding the technology in the area with good social mobilization for the conservation of scarce and valuable farm resources. (author)

  2. Influence of various alternative bedding materials on pododermatitis in broilers raised in a built-up litter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are frequently raised on built-up litter systems, primarily bedded with pine wood chips (shavings) or sawdust. There is continuing interest in alternative bedding materials as pine products are often in short supply and prices rise accordingly. Alternative bedding mat...

  3. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  4. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  5. Stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils of tidal swamplands is influenced by the types and the amounts of organic matter application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Saidy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in tidal swamplands annually added organic matter (OM onto the raised beds to maintain organic matter contents and thereby maintain soil productivity of the raised beds. This experiment aimed to study the influence of the types and the amounts of OM on the stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils. Four types of OM: rice straw, eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes, purun tikus  (Eleocharis dulcis and mixed  rice straw-eceng gondok were added to a 27-year raised bed soil with 4 different rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0  of maximum sorption capacity (Qmax, and the OM stabilization was quantified after 10 weeks of OM addition.  Results of this study showed with the exception of rice straw, OM addition to soil resulted in increases in the mineralization of soil OM thereby inducing priming effect. Addition of rice straw at rate of 0.5 of Qmax resulted in stabilization of 46% added OM, while only 30% and 37% of added OM was stabilized when OM was added to soils at rates of 1.0 and 2.0 Qmax, respectively.  This study showed that the stabilization of OM in raised bed soils were influenced by the chemical composition of OM and the amount of added OM.

  6. Stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils of tidal swamplands is influenced by the types and the amounts of organic matter application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Saidy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in tidal swamplands annually added organic matter (OM onto the raised beds to maintain organic matter contents and thereby maintain soil productivity of the raised beds. This experiment aimed to study the influence of the types and the amounts of OM on the stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils. Four types of OM: rice straw, eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes, purun tikus  (Eleocharis dulcis and mixed  rice straw-eceng gondok were added to a 27-year raised bed soil with 4 different rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0  of maximum sorption capacity (Qmax, and the OM stabilization was quantified after 10 weeks of OM addition.  Results of this study showed with the exception of rice straw, OM addition to soil resulted in increases in the mineralization of soil OM thereby inducing priming effect. Addition of rice straw at rate of 0.5 of Qmax resulted in stabilization of 46% added OM, while only 30% and 37% of added OM was stabilized when OM was added to soils at rates of 1.0 and 2.0 Qmax, respectively.  This study showed that the stabilization of OM in raised bed soils were influenced by the chemical composition of OM and the amount of added OM.

  7. Biodenitrification of gaseous diffusion plant aqueous wastes: stirred bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 30 kilograms of nitrates per day are discarded in the raffinates (acid wastes) of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant's X-705 Uranium Recovery and Decontamination Facility. A biodenitrification process employing continuous-flow, stirred-bed reactors has been successfully used to remove nitrates from similar acid wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Laboratory studies have been made at Portsmouth to characterize the X-705 raffinates and to test the stirred-bed biodenitrification process on such raffinates. Raffinates which had been previously characterized were pumped through continuous-flow, stirred-bed, laboratory-scale reactors. Tests were conducted over a period of 146 days and involved variations in composition, mixing requirements, and the fate of several metal ions in the raffinates. Tests results show that 20 weight percent nitrates were reduced to a target nitrate effluent concentration of 100 μg/ml with a 99.64 percent efficiency. However, the average denitrification rate achieved was only 33% of that demonstrated with the Y-12 stirred-bed system. These low rates were probably due to the toxic effects of heavy metal ions on the denitrifying bacteria. Also, most of the uranium in the raffinate feed remained in the biomass and calcite, which collected in the reactor. This could cause criticality problems. For these reasons, it was decided not to make use of the stirred-bed bioreactor at Portsmouth. Instead, the biodenitrification installation now planned will use fluidized bed columns whose performance will be the subject of a subsequent report

  8. Bubbling fluidized bed boiler for Vanaja power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormunen, R.; Haermae, P.; Vessonen, K.; Ketomaeki, A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    At the Vanaja Power Plant, on the outskirts of Haemeenlinna, there have been changes which reflect the central goals in IVO`s product development work. At Vanaja, efficiency is combined with environmental friendliness. In the early 1980s, the plant was modernized to produce district heat in addition to electricity. At that time, along with the new gas turbine at the plant, the main fuel, coal, while remaining the fuel for the old boilers, was replaced by natural gas. This year a new type of bubbling fluidized bed boiler enabling continuous use of peat and trial use of biofuels along with coal was introduced at the plant. In addition to the Nordic countries, this kind of technology is required in central eastern Europe, where modernization of ageing power plants is being planned to achieve the best possible solutions in respect of production and the environment. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites

  9. Raising distillate selectivity and catalyst life time in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by using a novel dual-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavasoli, A.; Sadaghiani, K.; Khodadadi, A. A.; Mortazavi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In a novel dual bed reactor Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was studied by using two diff rent cobalt catalysts. An alkali-promoted cobalt catalyst was used in the first bed of a fixed-bed reactor followed by a Raiment promoted cobalt catalyst in the second bed. The activity, product selectivity and accelerated deactivation of the system were assessed and compared with a conventional single bed reactor system. The methane selectivity in the dual-bed reactor was about 18.9% less compared to that of the single-bed reactor. The C 5+ selectivity for the dual-bed reactor was 10.9% higher than that of the single-bed reactor. Accelerated deactivation of the catalysts in the dual-bed reactor was 42% lower than that of the single-bed reactor. It was revealed that the amount of catalysts activity recovery after regeneration at 400 d eg C in the dual-bed system is higher than that of the single-bed system

  10. Ion leakage from mixed beds in condensate polishing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venderbosch, H.W.; Overman, L.J.; Snel, A.

    1977-01-01

    In view to the interest for theoretical and practical factors, which influence the ion slip of mixed bed filters, these facts were studied in detail. It proved to be necessary that the slip shall be subdivided into kinetic - and elution slip. The kinetic slip is depending e.g. on the electrolyte concentration of the influenct condensate, as well as on the period of contact, however it does not depend on the regeneration condition; the elution slip however depends clearly on the regeneration condition. Incomplete regeneration of the exchangers, a too low excess of regenerant, incomplete separation of cation - and anion exchanger, and the contact of an exchanger layer with the wrong regenerant in the separation zone, during the internal regeneration are raising the slip. With tests on mixed bed filters, which have been well regenerated, (less than 0.1% Na in the cation exchanger) and by using filters with normal regenerated exchangers, (approx. 10% Na in the cation exchanger) the quality of the effluent was compared with values, which were expected from calculations. In order to decrease the elution leakage, the contamination of the exchangers, especially at NH 4 OH - mixed bed filters, must be limited to a very low percentage. Several possibilities to obtain this, will be discussed in the lecture. Special attention will be paid to the internal regeneration procedure. KEMA has developed a method, the so-called partial regeneration method, in order to operate internal regenerated mixed bed filters, which have been designed for the HOH cycle, also in the ammonia form, without the occurence of an undue slip of sodium or chloride. Not only extended running periods and lower operating- and regeneration costs are of advantage, but also the reducing of salt- and ammonia containing sewage were achieved. (orig.) [de

  11. Pilot plant of continuous ion-exchange in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, T.; Otero de Becerra, J.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Research and development on continuous ion-exchange processes has been a major item in hydrometallurgy. This new technology has been under development during the last 15 years in the leading countries at uranium hydrometallurgy. The fluidized bed multi-stage column technique is proven to be the most attractive one, and since 1977 several commercial plants have begun production, some of them with a throughput of 500 cubic meters of pregnant liquour per hour. J.E.N. undertook the study of this new technology for uranium recovery in the early 70's. In 1979 a pilot plant had been installed, based on previous laboratory and smaller pilot plant experience. The plant was designed following JEN's own technology and has been operating successfully at a flow rate of near 0.5 cubic meters per hour. The test runs and the main processing, engineering and operation features are described. At present a demonstation plant is under design, and this installation will provide the necessary know-how for the construction and operation of a commercial scale plant. (author)

  12. Materialistic Aspects of Raising Resource of Pressurized Water Reactors for Low-Power Nuclear Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, A.M.; Muratov, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    The opportunity of using ships reactors for low-power nuclear plants is considered. Some aspects of working constructional materials on cases of water-water reactors of ships nuclear units are considered. Advantages of raising resource of ships reactors are shown

  13. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle power plant with coal gasification: Second generation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, G.L.; Bressan, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the technical and economical background of a research and development program of a novel power generation scheme, which is based on coal gasification, pressurized fluid bed combustion and combined cycles. The participants in this program are: Foster Wheeler (project leader), Westinghouse, IGT and the USA Dept. of Energy. The paper describes the characteristics of the plant, the research program in course of implementation, the components of the pilot plant and the first results obtained

  14. Modern fluidized bed combustion in Ostrava-Karvina cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazac, V. [Energoprojekt Praha, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Novacek, A. [Moravskoslezske teplamy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Volny, J. [Templamy Karvina (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The contemporary situation of our environment claims the sensitive approach to solving effective conversion of energy. Limited supplies of noble fuels and their prices evoke the need to use new combustion technologies of accessible fuels in given region without negative ecological influences. Energoproject participates in the preparation of the two projects in Ostrava-Karvin{acute a} black coal field in Czech Republic. The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined of electricity and heat. If this physical principle is supported by a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) one obtains a high electricity/heat ratio integrated steam-gas cycle on the basis of solid fuel. Cogeneration plant Toebovice is the dominant source (600 MW{sub th}) of Ostrava district heating system (1100 MW{sub th}). The high utilization of the installed output and utilization of the clean, compact and efficient of the PFBC technology is the principal but not the single reason for the selection of the Toebovice power plant as the first cogeneration plant for installation of the PFBC in Czech Republic. The boiler will burn black coal from the neighboring coal basin.

  15. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...... of by sending it back to the head of a wastewater treatment plant. The system has proven to reduce the mass of nitrogen, COD, and water in the reject water, and can possibly reduce phosphorus and other substances. The overall effect is a reduction in the substance recycle within a wastewater treatment plant...

  16. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Asha Jyoti; Bansal, Yogendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English) and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit) is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  17. Phytochemical investigation of natural and in vitro raised Vṛddhadāruka plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Jyoti Bharati

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Argyreia nervosa commonly known as elephant creeper (English and Vṛddhadāruka (Sanskrit is a woody climber that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Seeds of this plant contain hallucinogens including ergot alkaloids and a naturally occurring lysergic acid amide. Traditionally the plant is used in the treatment of gonorrhea, strangury, chronic ulcers, diabetes, anemia and cerebral disorders. The plant is also used as appetitiser, brain tonic, cardiotonic, aphrodisiac. It possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal activities. Objective: To give an account of information on in vitro regeneration and phytochemical analysis of the plant. Materials and Methods: Nodal explants were selected for in vitro regeneration. Different aerial parts viz., seeds, natural and in vitro leaf, stem and callus were dried and extracted with different solvents and were subjected to various phytochemical analyses. Results: Different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine showed shoot and root initiation. The study of phytochemical screening of different extracts showed the presence of bioactive substances like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, etc. Conclusion: The study will provide an efficient in vitro protocol for micropropagation as an alternative method to conserve the plant and shows the presence of some important secondary metabolites in the nature grown and in vitro raised plants which can be useful for treatment of various diseases.

  18. Biosystem of seaweed beds coexisting with power plants; Denryoku hatsudensho to kyoseisuru moba no seitaikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    Recently, seaweed beds on the coasts of Japan are decreasing rapidly, and it has been demanded that they should be restored. As one of the restoring methods, plans are investigated to utilize coast structures near power plants and wave absorbing dykes, which are artificial seaweed beds with dense seaweed forests and offer favorable areas for living creatures, for the purpose of building new seaweed beds and marine pastures. For seaweed bed building projects, it is necessary to show the economical effect of seaweed beds. Recently, absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid dissolved in the sea has been attracting attention as a role of seaweed beds. Creation of Zostera beds is a difficult enterprise. The mound creation of the seaweed bed at Ikata, Aichi Prefecture, Japan is successful because there is a good seaweed bed in the periphery which can supply sufficient seeds (spores) to the bed. With the development of the seaweed bed, a concrete block rocky beach reef was developed which is provided with a function of dwelling places for shells and lobsters. The Fishery Ministry is promoting a large scale ocean pasture plan on the coast of Japan with the target period of the 21st century, and extension of seaweed bed areas is considered to be the major project. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  19. An Evaluation of Reed Bed Technology to Dewater Army Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    speculated that the plants produced "root exudations" that were active against pathogens , and that the plants specifically showed an affinity for cadmium, zinc...mineralize and for pathogens to be destroyed. This downtime makes multiple beds necessary. The USEPA also reports that the major advantage of the reed...employee to regulate the sludge applications. This employee would also visually assess the beds for possible problems such as weed or insect ( aphid

  20. Exergy analysis of a circulating fluidized bed boiler cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürtürk, Mert; Oztop, Hakan F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of energy and exergy for a cogeneration power plant have been performed. • This plant has circulating fluidized bed boiler. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of the boiler are obtained as 84.65% and 29.43%, respectively. • Exergy efficiency of the plant was calculated as 20%. - Abstract: In this study, energy and exergy analysis of a cogeneration power plant have been performed. The steam which is produced by the cogeneration power plant is used for salt production and most important part of the cogeneration power plant is the circulation fluidized bed boiler. Energy and exergy efficiency of the circulation fluidized bed boiler were found as 84.65% and 29.43%, respectively. Exergy destruction of the circulation fluidized bed boiler was calculated as 21789.39 kW and 85.89% of exergy destruction in the plant. The automation system of the cogeneration power plant is insufficient. Exergy efficiency of the plant was calculated as 20%. Also, some design parameters increasing energy losses were determined.

  1. Wear oxidation of evaporator coils in fluidised bed captive power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosal, S.K.; De, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion of pulverised coal or gas to form steam in thermal power plants is a common practice. Corrosion of water-wall, superheater and reheater tubes is the typical problem faced in these power plants. Modification of process conditions, redesigning of equipment and selection of more corrosion resistant materials are few methods which have been tried to combat corrosion to a certain extent. Restricted heat transfer efficiency is another problem associated with these power plants. In order to bring upon improvements, fluidized bed combustors are being used in some advanced thermal power plants at present because of excellent combustion and heat transfer efficiencies. Even with low grade coals, higher combustion efficiency could be achieved in these combustors due to excellent gas/solid chemical reactivity at relatively low reaction temperatures. Further improvements in in-bed heat transfer and bed temperature uniformity have been possible with the use of sand in bed. However, erosion, corrosion and combined erosion/corrosion are some of the major modes of material degradation associated with these fluidized bed combustors using sand. Recently in a captive power unit using bubbling fluidized bed combustors containing sand, evaporator coils made of carbon steel were seen to be severely affected by erosion corrosion. The directional nature of metal removal from the studs, tube OD and ultimately the rupture of the thinned tube wall confirmed the above observation. Microstructural examinations showed loss of carbon at certain places including those near the leaked/punctured regions at the prevailing bed temperature of 850 deg C. This paper describes the detailed investigations carried out on wear oxidation phenomenon occurred in a captive thermal power plant using advanced bubbling fluidized bed combustors. (author)

  2. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  3. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [570 MWe plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The design, arrangement, thermodynamics, and economics of a 592 MW(e) (nominal gross) electric power generating plant equipped with a Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) boiler are described. Information is included on capital and operating costs, process systems, electrical systems, control and instrumentation, and environmental systems. This document represents a portion of an overall report describing the conceptual designs of two atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and balance of plants for the generation of electric power and the analysis and comparison of these conceptual designs to a conventional pulverized coal-fired electric power generation plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system.

  4. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [570 MWe plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The design, arrangement, thermodynamics, and economics of a 578 MW(e) (nominal gross) electric power generating plant equipped with a Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC) atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) boiler are described. Information is included on capital and operating costs, process systems, electrical systems, control and instrumentation, and environmental systems. This document represents a portion of an overall report describing the conceptual designs of two atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and balance of plants for the generation of electric power and the analysis and comparison of these conceptual designs to a conventional pulverized coal-fired electric power generation plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system.

  5. Tetrafluoride uranium pilot plant in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A UF 4 pilot plant, in operation at IEA, using the moving bed process is reported. UO 3 obtained from the thermal decomposition of ADU is used as a starting material in this pilot plant. The type of equipment and the process are both described. Ammonia gas (NH 3 ) was used in the reduction operation and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid (HF) in the hydrofluorination step

  6. Conceptual designs of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, H.S.; Bezella, W.A.; Hamm, J.R.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of steam and air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concepts, along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. Conceptual designs for the three plants were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules developed for the study. Grassroots plants, located on a generic plant site were assumed. The designs incorporate technologies projected to be commercial in the 1990 time frame. Power outputs, heat rates, and costs are presented

  7. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  8. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies

  9. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  10. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative

  11. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  12. Enrichment of thallium in fly ashes in a Spanish circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant

    OpenAIRE

    López Antón, María Antonia; Spears, D. Alan; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Díaz, Luis; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of thallium in a 50 MW industrial circulating fluidized-bed combustion plant (CFBC), focusing on the distribution of this element among the bottom and fly ashes separated by the solid retention devices in the plant. The results show that thallium species are mainly retained in the solid by-products and are not emitted to air with flue gases in significant amounts, proving that this technology is a more effective means of preventing thallium emissions than pulv...

  13. Advanced circulating fluidised bed technology (CFB) for large-scale solid biomass fuel firing power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaentti, Timo; Zabetta, Edgardo Coda; Nuortimo, Kalle [Foster Wheeler Energia Oy, Varkaus (Finland)

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide the nations are taking initiatives to counteract global warming by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts to increase boiler efficiency and the use of biomass and other solid renewable fuels are well in line with these objectives. Circulating fluidised bed boilers (CFB) are ideal for efficient power generation, capable to fire a broad variety of solid biomass fuels from small CHP plants to large utility power plants. Relevant boiler references in commercial operation are made for Finland and Poland.

  14. Biological fluidized-bed treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, G.M.; Scheible, O.K.; Maiello, J.A.; Guarini, W.J.; Sutton, P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Bench- and pilot-scale biological treatability studies were performed as part of a comprehensive study for developing an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site. The bench-scale work, which included evaluations of activated sludge and fluidized-bed biological processes, indicated that a carbon-based fluidized-bed process was most appropriate. The process was then demonstrated on a pilot level at the site. The bench and pilot studies demonstrated significant reductions of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and all target organics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  15. Behavior of gasketless deep bed charcoal filters for radioiodine removal in LWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.G.; Deuber, H.; Furrer, J.; Gerlach, K.

    1981-01-01

    The removal efficiency of radioiodine filters can be affected by mechanical leakage, aging and poisoning, desorption of radioiodine originally removed by the activated carbon and also by the occurrence of penetrating iodine compounds. To provide high decontamination factors only the gasketless deep bed filter type seems to be appropriate. The experience gathered and the data given in this paper are based on the surveillance testing of radioiodine filters in all German nuclear power plants and on laboratory research work which has been done over years to evaluate the operating behavior of deep bed radioiodine filters and to prove their reliability

  16. Production of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to verify the initial development of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bedding microsprinkler irrigation and shade management Chromatine® mesh with 50% red light. We used genetic material from mother plants Germplasm Bank of INIA-camu camu Iquitos, seeds were germinated in decomposed sawdust and kept for a period of 40 days after subculturing was performed with 10 cm in height in different substrates according treatments in nursery beds with dimensions of 1.20 m wide x 10 m long with a depth of 30 cm. After conducting assessments of height (cm and basal diameter (mm for a period of 120 days, it was found that the substrate manure has become the substrate for greater efficiency in plant development camu camu substrate followed by humus worm.

  17. A multi-biofuel, fluidised-bed district heating plant in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    At the end of 1984, the city of Haessleholm in Sweden started up a 65 MW district heating plant which included a 14 MW solid fuel plant. The plant included a specially-designed fluidised-bed boiler, capable of burning all grades of solid fuel, including organic fuel of such low grade that no other boilers around Haessleholm could use it. By 1992, the district heating system served some 250 detached houses and 6,000 flats as well as several schools and industrial premises. The biofuel boiler provides almost 60% of the energy required. (UK)

  18. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  19. Operating experience and development of fluidized-bed denitrators for UNH at Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Minoru; Nakamichi, Hideya; Takeda, Seiichiro; Kubota, Kanya; Katoh, Shuji

    1983-01-01

    The fluidized bed denitrator for uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) at Tokai reprocessing plant has been operated since 1976. About 170 tons of spent fuel have been reprocessed, and the denitrator has encountered numerous operational problems during the period. This report deals with these technical problems and the associated countermeasures taken, including the dismantling and reconstruction of equipment and the improvement of operating method. The major problems encountered were as follows: (1) the crystallization of UNH on the UNH feeding line, (2) spray nozzle clogging and candle filter clogging, (3) particle growth, (4) plugging of the drawing-out line by nozzle caking, and (5) slugging in fluidized-bed denitration. The total quantity and quality of UO 3 products obtained so far at the plant are also briefly described together with some future R and D programs such as the improvement of UO 3 reactivity and the automation of denitrators. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Immobilised native plant cysteine proteases: packed-bed reactor for white wine protein stabilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Acciaro, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo; Esti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a feasibility study of using a continuous packed-bed reactor (PBR), containing immobilised native plant cysteine proteases, as a specific and mild alternative technique relative to the usual bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation. The operational parameters for a PBR containing immobilised bromelain (PBR-br) or immobilised papain (PBR-pa) were optimised using model wine fortified with synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA). The effectiveness of PBR-br, ...

  1. Development of Open Test-bed for Autonomous Operation in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seungmin; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants also recognize the need for automation. However, it is dangerous technology to have a significant impact on human society. In addition, due to the uncertain legal responsibility for autonomous operation, the application and development speed of nuclear energy related automation technology will be significantly decrease compared to other industries. It is argued that the application of AI and automation technology to power plants should not be prematurely applied or not based on the principle of applying proven technology since nuclear power plants are the highest level security operated facilities. As described above, the overall algorithm of the Test Bed is an autonomous operation algorithm (rulebased algorithm, learning-based algorithm, semiautonomous operation algorithm) to judge the entry condition of the procedure through condition monitoring and to enter the appropriate operating procedure. In order to make a test bed, the investigation for the heuristic part of the existing procedures and the heuristic part from the circumstance which is not specified in the procedure is needed. In the learning based and semi-autonomous operation algorithms, using MARS to extract its operating data and operational logs and try out various diagnostic algorithms as described above. Through the completion of these future tasks, the test bed which can compared with actual operators will be constructed and that it will be able to check its effectiveness by improving competitively with other research teams through the characteristics of shared platform.

  2. An introduction to constructed wetlands (reed beds) sustainable low cost wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The use of 'conventional' wastewater treatment technology (trickling filters and activated sludge) in developing countries has often been unsuccessful due to high cost, complex operating requirements and expensive maintenance procedures. Typical examples of such projects are wastewater plants in Islamabad and Karachi. Actually the conventional systems, such as trickling filters and activated sludge plants were developed to address the concerns about organic pollution of natural water bodies in western temperate climates, rather than the reduction of organic matter as well as pathogens which is often a priority in developing countries. Pakistan, being a developing country cannot and should not follow the western technology blindly but needs the use of a ppropriate technology . Appropriate technology is defined as a treatment system which meets the following criteria: Affordable: Total amount costs, including capital, operation, maintenance and depreciation are within the user's ability to pay. Operable: Operation of the system is possible with locally available labor and support. Reliable: Effluent quality requirements can be met consistently. Currently there are a limited number of appropriate technologies for small communities, which should be considered by a community and their designers. These include conventional and non-conventional systems such as stabilization ponds or lagoons, slow sand filters, land treatment systems, and wetlands (natural or constructed). The non-conventional systems often utilize 'ecological' treatment mechanism (such as aquatic systems or wetlands) and do not have the mechanical parts or energy requirements of conventional systems. Waste Stabilization Ponds are one such solution but sometimes are constrained by land availability, topography, and are not environment friendly. In such locations, natural or constructed wetlands (Reed Beds) could provide an alternative technology. It is what we call a LOW technology, rather than HI TECH

  3. Professional, legal, and ethical issues raised by behavioral screening for unescorted access to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, M.W.; Roiter, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    Potential professional, legal, and ethical liabilities are addressed concerning the overall process for unescorted access at nuclear power plants. The authors suggest means by which action can be taken to reduce liability on behalf of utilities, contractors, and behavioral evaluators. Three main points are discussed based on the authors' experience in conducting behavioral evaluations and defending those evaluations. The authors hope that the process of evaluation screening can become more professional and will be considered with the same quality controls as the selection of materials and the building of a nuclear power plant

  4. A technical pilot plant assessment of flue gas desulfurisation in a circulating fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, F.J.; Ollero, P. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental; Cabanillas, A.; Otero, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas y Medioambientales, (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurisation in a circulating fluidised bed absorber (CFBA) is quite a novel dry desulfurisation technology [6th International Conference on Circulating Fluidised Beds (1999) 601] that shows significant advantages in comparison with other dry technologies and that could also be competitive with the widely-used wet FGD technology. This experimental study analyses the performance of a flue gas treatment plant comprising a CFBA and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The most significant aspects considered in this study are: the effect of precollecting the fly ash, the effect of the SO{sub 2} inlet concentration, the effect of power plant load changes, the contribution of the final particulate control equipment to the overall SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and the impact of the desulfurisation unit on the ESP behaviour and its final dust emissions. In addition, the behaviour of the integrated CFBA-ESP system with respect to the main operating parameters was studied by means of a fractional factorial design of experiments. All this experimental work was carried out in a 3-MWe equivalent pilot plant that processes real gases withdrawn from the Los Barrios Power Plant. Processing a flue gas with up to 2000 ppm SO{sub 2} concentration, a sulfur removal of 95-97% with a lime utilisation of 75% was achieved. A simple regression model to evaluate the efficiency of the whole system is also proposed.(author)

  5. The industrial problems raised by the building of the new nuclear power plant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, P.; Hillairet, J.

    1975-01-01

    The decision made by France to build within 10 years a number of nuclear power plants of an importance unequalled in Europe and in the world has created for the industry involved in this gigantic enterprise problems of growth and adaptation of considerable magnitude. In a first part, the general analysis of needs reveals the breadth of the phenomenon the industry is facing with respect to its capacity of production. This original study, the first synthesis of this kind, could be the starting point of overall industrial planning at the national level. The second part, dealing more particularly with turbogenerator units, shows in its true perspective the magnitude of the material and how the equipment has developed. It recalls how the industrial problem has been approached in order to meet the need for expansion of one of the most important French electromechanical manufacturing plants [fr

  6. The raising of tsunami-wall based on tsunami evaluation at Onagawa nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jun; Hirata, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Onagawa nuclear power station (Onagawa NPS) is located on the Pacific coast of Tohoku district where several massive tsunamis had attacked in the past. Based on this natural condition, tsunami safety measures were planned and carried out since the planning of the unit 1. For example, we set appropriate site height for protecting important facilities from tsunamis. As a result, in the massive tsunami which was caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Tohoku Earthquake (3.11 earthquake) on March 11, 2011, all units of Onagawa NPS achieved the cold shutdown. After 3.11 earthquake, we revaluated tsunami considering latest knowledge. In the tsunami re-evaluation, we carried out documents investigation about all tsunami source factors and set the standard fault models which were thought to be appropriate as tsunami wave sources. As a result, the highest water level at the site front is evaluated as 23.1 m. Based on this examination result, we decided to raise the existing seawall (approximately 17 m) to 29 m in consideration of margin and so on. Because the space of the site was limited, we planned a combination of steel-pipe type vertical wall (L = 680 m) and embankment (L = 120 m) due to cement improved soil. (author)

  7. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described

  8. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.C. [POWER International, Inc., Coeur d`Alene, ID (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  9. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria.

  10. Deep geologic disposal of mixed waste in bedded salt: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, N.T.

    1993-01-01

    Mixed waste (i.e., waste that contains both chemically hazardous and radioactive components) poses a moral, political, and technical challenge to present and future generations. But an international consensus is emerging that harmful byproducts and residues can be permanently isolated from the biosphere in a safe and environmentally responsible manner by deep geologic disposal. To investigate and demonstrate such disposal for transuranic mixed waste, derived from defense-related activities, the US Department of Energy has prepared the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. This research and development facility was excavated approximately at the center of a 600 m thick sequence of salt (halite) beds, 655 m below the surface. Proof of the long-term tectonic and hydrological stability of the region is supplied by the fact that these salt beds have remained essentially undisturbed since they were deposited during the Late Permian age, approximately 225 million years ago. Plutonium-239, the main radioactive component of transuranic mixed waste, has a half-life of 24,500 years. Even ten half-lives of this isotope - amounting to about a quarter million years, the time during which its activity will decline to background level represent only 0.11 percent of the history of the repository medium. Therefore, deep geologic disposal of transuranic mixed waste in Permian bedded salt appears eminently feasible

  11. DOLOMITE DESULFURIZATION BEHAVIOR IN A BUBBLING FLUIDIZED BED PILOT PLANT FOR HIGH ASH COAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. F. Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract Although fluidized bed in situ desulphurization from coal combustion has been widely studied, there are aspects that remain under investigation. Additionally, few publications address Brazilian coal desulphurization via fluidized beds. This study used a 250 kWth bubbling fluidized bed pilot plant to analyze different aspects of the dolomite desulphurization of two Brazilian coals. Superficial velocities of 0.38 and 0.46 m/s, flue gas recycling, Ca/S molar ratios and elutriation were assessed. Results confirmed the influence of the Ca/S molar ratio and superficial velocity - SO2 conversion up to 60.5% was achieved for one coal type, and 70.9% was achieved for the other type. A recycling ratio of 54.6% could increase SO2 conversion up to 86.1%. Elutriation and collection of ashes and Ca-containing products did not present the same behavior because a lower wt. % of CaO was collected by the gas controlled mechanism compared to the ash.

  12. Raising lump coke formation capacity of semicoking briquets in the Deuben briquetting plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Trommer, D.; Schroeder, H.-W.; Dressler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes brown coal briquetting and coking experiments aimed at producing high quality lumpy coke suitable for heating, metallurgy and other industrial processes. The Deuben coking and gas plant produces low temperature carbonization briquets from coal with 13.2% ash content, 54.8% volatiles, 13.5% semicoking tar with the effect that coke produced from these briquets disintegrates completely into fines (0/15 mm grain size). The study centered on effects of briquetting and coking parameters including coal grain size, coal moisture, briquetting pressure, coking temperature, heating rate and application of sulfite liquor as binder. Graphs of briquetting and coking results are provided. The Deuben coal was shown to be suitable for producing lumpy coke (11.5 to over 20 MPa compression strength) from coal under the optimum briquetting parameters of 0/1 mm grain size, 11% coal moisture, briquetting temperature of 70 to 80 C and briquetting pressure over 120 MPa. Use of a binder was found to be advantageous but not necessary. The produced coke showed favorable combustion properties. 6 refs.

  13. Vegetation and plant food reconstruction of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge, using modern analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Sandi R

    2007-08-01

    Vegetation and plant foods for hominins of lowermost Bed II, Olduvai Gorge were modeled by examining vegetation in modern habitats in northern Tanzania (Lake Manyara, Ngorongoro, Serengeti) that are analogous to the paleolandscape in terms of climate, land forms, and soil types, as indicated by previous paleoenvironmental studies of Olduvai. Plant species in the modern habitats were identified in a series of sample plots, and those known to be eaten by modern humans, chimpanzees, or baboons were considered potentially edible for early hominins. Within the 50-80 kyr deposition of lowermost Bed II, periods of drier climate were characterized by low lake stands and a broad eastern lacustrine plain containing a mosaic of springs, marsh, woodland, and edaphic grassland. Based on results of this study, plant food diversity in each of those habitats was relatively low, but the mosaic nature of the area meant that hominins could reach several different habitat types within short distances, with access to potential plant foods including marsh plants, grass grains, roots, shrub fruits, edible parts from palms, leafy herbaceous plants, and Acacia pods, flowers, and gum. Based on Manyara analogs, a greater variety of plant foods, such as tree fruits (e.g., Ficus, Trichilia) and the roots and fruits of shrubs (e.g., Cordia, Salvadora) would be expected further east along the rivers in the lacustrine terrace and alluvial fans. Interfluves of the alluvial fans were probably less wooded and offered relatively fewer varieties of plant foods, but there is sparse paleoenvironmental evidence for the character of Olduvai's alluvial fans, making the choice of appropriate modern analogs difficult. In the western side of the basin, based on modern analogs in the Serengeti, riverine habitats provided the greatest variety of edible plant food species (e.g., Acacia, Grewia, Justicia). If the interfluves were grassland, then a large variety of potentially edible grasses and forbs were present

  14. Changes of plant cover of the raised peat-bog Baligówka under the influence of human activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malec Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the work was to determine the scope and degree of the influence of exploitation on changes of plant cover of the raised peat-bog Baligówka, located in the Orawsko- Nowotarska Valley. The analysis was carried out based on 47 phytosociological surveys using the Braun-Blanquet method. Results of investigations allow to state that excessive drying and fires that took place on the examined object caused wastage of many precious species of plants, especially from the Oxycocco- Sphagnetea class. Their place occupied species belonging to other classes, such as Nardo-Callunetea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea. The basic cause of drying of the peat-bog and, in consequence, dying of peat formation species is intensified exploitation and connected with this drainage, carried out in the half of the 20th century. Unfortunately, local people up to now illegally have harvested the peat on the investigated object. Decrease in groundwater level leads to accelerated decay of peat, changes in physical and chemical properties of a substratum and, in consequence, changes in trophic values of habitat, what causes great changes in species composition of plant communities.

  15. Father's occupational exposure to radiation and the raised level of childhood leukemia near the Sellafield Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The first indications that childhood leukemia rates may be raised near the Sellafield nuclear plant in West Cumbria, England, came from largely anecdotal evidence in a television program Windscale: The Nuclear Laundry shown during 1983. During subsequent years, various epidemiological studies have investigated the claim in more detail. Geographical analyses of childhood leukemia incidence in the northern region and mortality in England and Wales using routinely available data made the first contribution. As a result, it was confirmed that leukemia rates in the area, particularly the neighboring village of Seascale, were high compared to other districts, although not totally extreme. Cohort studies of children born in Seascale or attending schools in Seascale were carried out to resolve some of the difficulties of interpretation of geographical analysis. Cohort studies indicated that the excess of leukemia was concentrated among children born in Seascale and was not found among those moving in after birth and suggested that any causal factors may be acting before birth or very early in life. A case-control study of leukemia (and lymphoma) among young people in West Cumbria has examined potentially important individual factors in detail. The study demonstrated a relationship between the raised incidence of leukemia in children and father's recorded external radiation dose during work at Sellafield before his child's conception. The association can effectively explain statistically the observed geographical excess

  16. Remineralization of permeate water by calcite bed in the Daoura's plant (south of Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyoune, M. G.; Atbir, A.; Bari, H.; Hassnaoui, L.; Mongach, E.; Khadir, A.; Boukbir, L.; Bellajrou, R.; Elhadek, M.

    2017-04-01

    To face water shortage and to fight drought, the National office of Water and Electricity (ONEE) carried out a program aiming at constructing several desalination stations of seawater in the South of Morocco. However, the final product water after desalination (osmosis water) has turned out to be unbalanced and has an aggressive character. Therefore, a post-treatment of remineralization is necessary to recover the calco-carbonic equilibrium of water and to protect the distribution network from corrosion degradation. Thereby, our work aims to examine the performance of the remineralization used in Daoura plant by the calcite bed in the absence of carbon dioxide CO2 (without acidification), we have followed many parameters indicating the performance of this technique adopted such as pH, TAC (hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate content), Ca content, Langelier saturation index (LSI), Larson index (LR). The results obtained show that this technique adopted in Daoura plant brings to water back its entire calco-carbonic balance to measure up to the Moroccan standards of drinking water. Generally, the exploitation of the calcite bed technique for remineralization is simple, easy and it does not require any major efforts or precautions.

  17. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  18. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M P; Frances, E; Campos, I J; Martin, J A; Gil, J [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  19. Thermal treatment of high-caloric waste in fluidized bed incineration plants in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragossnig, A.M.

    2001-05-01

    The importance of thermal treatment of waste and residues in Austria is expected to rise due to the current changes of the legal situation in waste management. Assessing the rank order of different thermal treatment processes for waste management it has been shown that - especially caused by the rising importance of the mechanical treatment step in the mechanical-biological residual waste treatment and the subsequent necessity of the thermal treatment of a high-caloric preprocessed waste stream - the importance of the fluidized bed technology will increase. The main advantages are the high existing capacities as well as the flexibility of this technology in regard of fuel properties and further on the fact of the lacking influence of the ash towards the quality of a product. This is true although the thermal treatment in fluidized bed incinerators requires some processing of the waste. This doctoral thesis also contains a thorough physical and chemical characterization of various waste fuels - especially those which have been used during full scale incineration experiments. This characterization includes a comparison with fossil fuel. The practical part contains the documentation and balancing of full scale incineration experiments. A comparison of a reference experiment with experiments when waste fuel has been thermally utilized showed that a significant increase of emissions to the atmosphere has not been observed. Based on the incineration experiments conclusions in regard of waste fuels as well as different categories of thermal treatment plants are being stated. Finally, a recommendation of the assignation of various waste streams to different categories of thermal treatment plants is being made. (author)

  20. Thermal and stability considerations for a supercritical water-cooled fast reactor during power-raising phase of plant startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Jiejin; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ikejiri, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes thermal analyses and linear stability analyses of the Supercritical Water-cooled Fast Reactor with 'two-path' flow scheme during the power-raising phase of plant startup. For thermal consideration, the same criterion of the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) as applied to the normal operating condition is used. For thermal-hydraulic stability consideration, the decay ratio of 0.5 is applied, which is taken from BWRs. Firstly, we calculated the flow rate distribution among the parallel flow paths from the reactor vessel inlet nozzles to the mixing plenum below the core using a system analysis code. The parallel flow paths consist of the seed fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow, the blanket fuel assemblies cooled by downward flow and the downcomer. Then, the MCSTs are estimated for various reactor powers and feedwater flow rates with system analyses. The decay ratios are estimated with linear stability analyses. The available range of the reactor power and feedwater flow rate to satisfy the thermal and stability criteria is obtained. (author)

  1. Fluidized-bed incineration plant equipped with waste heat boilers. Developed for mid-size municipalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Hitoshi

    1988-01-20

    A fluidized bed incineration plant with a waste heat boiler was installed to dispose wastes in Sakura City on March, 1987 and has waste disposing capacity of 120tons/d. Sands are fluidized in the furnace at 700-800/sup 0/C and wastes are burned completely for a short time. The waste heat boiler is used to utilize waste heat to send steam to aquiculturing farms and hot water to the community plaza and further supplies steam to two 90kW back pressure turbines for driving forced draft fan used for the incineration plant. Harmful gases in waste gas are removed by the harmful gas eliminator to lower HCl to 120ppm or less and K value of SOx to 9.0 or less and then cleaned gas is exhausted through the electostatic precipitator and the chimney. Dust and fly ash are transferred to a reservior through a superior seal tight air transportation system, pelletized and disposed for land fill. Bulk waste disposing capacity is 50 tons/d and harmful wastes, magnetic materials, unburnable and burnable wastes are classified and separated. Separated iron purity is 95% or more. (4 figs, 2 photos)

  2. Vasorelaxation induced by common edible tropical plant extracts in isolated rat aorta and mesenteric vascular bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnie, I; Salleh, M N; Mohamed, S; Head, R J; Abeywardena, M Y

    2004-06-01

    In this study, the vasodilatory actions of nine edible tropical plant extracts were investigated. Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato leaf), Piper betle (betel leaf), Anacardium occidentale (cashew leaf), Gynandropsis gynandra (maman leaf), Carica papaya (papaya leaf), and Mentha arvensis (mint leaf) extracts exhibited more than 50% relaxing effect on aortic ring preparations, while Piper betle and Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass stalk) showed comparable vasorelaxation on isolated perfused mesenteric artery preparation. The vascular effect on the aortic ring preparations were mainly endothelium-dependent, and mediated by nitric oxide (NO) as supported by the inhibition of action in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA), an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or by the removal of endothelium. In contrast, vasodilatory actions in resistance vessels (perfused mesenteric vascular beds) appear to involve several biochemical mediators, including NO, prostanoids, and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs). Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities varied among different extracts and found to be independent of vascular relaxation effects. This study demonstrates that many edible plants common in Asian diets to possess potential health benefits, affording protection at the vascular endothelium level.

  3. Performance evaluation and optimization of fluidized bed boiler in ethanol plant using irreversibility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Agung Pambudi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to evaluate the performance of a fluidized bed boiler in an ethanol production plant through exergy and irreversibility analysis. The study also includes the optimization of the pre-heater and the deaerator in order to improve the system efficiency. Operational data from the ethanol production plant was collected between 2015 and early 2016. The total exergy derived from the fuel was determined to be 7783 kJ/s, while the exergy efficiency of the system was found to be 26.19%, with 2214 kJ/s used in steam production, while 71.55% was lost to component irreversibility and waste heat from the pre-heater. The exergy efficiencies of individual components of the system such as the boiler, deaerator, and pre-heater were found to be 25.82%, 40.13%, and 2.617%, respectively, with the pre-heater having the lowest efficiency. Thus, the pre-heater has the highest potential to significantly improve the efficiency of the boiler system. The optimization of the pre-heater shows that a rise in temperature in the outlet of the pre-heater positively affects the exergy efficiency of the deaerator.

  4. Hypothetical operation model for the multi-bed system of the Tritium plant based on the scheduling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Uk, E-mail: eslee@dongguk.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148-gil Kwahak-ro, Yusong-gu, Daejon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Beum [Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Engineering Mastership, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We introduce a mathematical model for the multi-bed storage system in the tritium plant. • We obtain details of operation by solving the model. • The model assesses diverse operation scenarios with respect to risk. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe our hypothetical operation model (HOM) for the multi-bed system of the storage and delivery system (SDS) of the ITER tritium plant. The multi-bed system consists of multiple getter beds (i.e., for batch operation) and buffer vessels (i.e., for continuous operation). Our newly developed HOM is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model and has been extensively investigated to optimize chemical and petrochemical production planning and scheduling. Our model determines the timing, duration, and size of tasks corresponding to each set of equipment. Further, inventory levels for each set of equipment are calculated. Our proposed model considers the operation of one cycle of one set of getter beds and is implemented and assessed as a case study problem.

  5. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Surveys and studies of demonstration plant); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Surveys and studies were conducted concerning a demonstration plant for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In this fiscal year, a demonstration plant conceptual design was prepared for assuring smooth transition from a pilot plant to a commercial plant. The design followed the system employed at the Nakoso pilot plant for its gasification power generation. It was decided that the gasification furnace be of the air-blown (oxygen enriched) 2-stage entrained bed type, that the desulfurization system be of the dry type 2-stage fluidized bed type, the dedusting system be of the dry type granular bed type (moving bed type), that the combined cycle power facility be derived from the commercialized gas turbine, and that the cycle of the steam system agree with the integrated coal gasification combined cycle system now under discussion. Studies were made, which covered heat efficiency (generating end/sending end), heat/matter balance, process flow, gas turbine/steam system optimization, comparison in performance with a pilot plant with its dimensions increased, estimation of the performance of each of the facilities, estimation of the construction cost, calculation of the generation cost, environmental friendliness, operating characteristics, acceptable coal types, and the like. (NEDO)

  6. Immobilised native plant cysteine proteases: packed-bed reactor for white wine protein stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Acciaro, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo; Esti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    This research presents a feasibility study of using a continuous packed-bed reactor (PBR), containing immobilised native plant cysteine proteases, as a specific and mild alternative technique relative to the usual bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation. The operational parameters for a PBR containing immobilised bromelain (PBR-br) or immobilised papain (PBR-pa) were optimised using model wine fortified with synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA). The effectiveness of PBR-br, both in terms of hazing potential and total protein decrease, was significantly higher than PBR-pa, in all the seven unfined, white wines used. Among the wines tested, Sauvignon Blanc, given its total protein content as well as its very high intrinsic instability, was selected as a control wine to evaluate the effect of the treatment on wine as to its soluble protein profile, phenolic composition, mineral component, and sensory properties. The treatment in a PBR containing immobilised bromelain appeared effective in decreasing both wine hazing potential and total protein amount, while it did not significantly affect the phenol compounds, the mineral component nor the sensory quality of wine. The enzymatic treatment in PBR was shown to be a specific and mild technique for use as an alternative to bentonite fining for white wine protein stabilisation.

  7. Proposed chemical plant initiated accident scenarios in a sulphur-iodine cycle plant coupled to a pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.R.; Revankar, S.T.; Seker, V.; Downar, Th.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the sulphur-iodine (S-I) cycle nuclear hydrogen generation scheme the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the very high temperature nuclear reactor (VHTR). Thus, any accident which occurs in the chemical plant must feedback to the nuclear reactor. There are many different types of accidents which can occur in a chemical plant. These accidents include intra-reactor piping failure, inter-reactor piping failure, reaction chamber failure and heat exchanger failure. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, any of these accidents induce a loss-of-heat-sink accident in the nuclear reactor. In this paper, several chemical plant initiated accident scenarios are presented. The following accident scenarios are proposed: i) failure of the Bunsen chemical reactor; ii) product flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iii) reactant flow failure from either the H 2 SO 4 decomposition section or HI decomposition section; iv) rupture of a reaction chamber. Qualitative analysis of these accident scenarios indicates that each result in either partial or total loss of heat sink accidents for the nuclear reactor. These scenarios are reduced to two types: i) discharge rate limited accidents; ii) discontinuous reaction chamber accidents. A discharge rate limited rupture of the SO 3 decomposition section of the SI cycle is proposed and modelled. Since SO 3 decomposition occurs in the gaseous phase, critical flow out of the rupture is calculated assuming ideal gas behaviour. The accident scenario is modelled using a fully transient control volume model of the S-I cycle coupled to a THERMIX model of a 268 MW pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR-268) and a point kinetics model. The Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot source model for choked gas flows from a pressurised chamber was utilised as a discharge rate model. A discharge coefficient of 0.62 was assumed. Feedback due to the rupture is observed in the nuclear

  8. Energy, environmental and operation aspects of a SRF-fired fluidized bed waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Chiarelli, Agnese; Tagliente, Luca; Notarnicola, Michele

    2018-03-01

    A methodology based on the ISO 14031:2013 guideline has been developed and applied to a full-scale fluidized bed waste to energy plant (WtE) burning solid recovered fuel (SRF). With reference to 3years of operation, the data on energy and environmental performance, on raw materials consumptions such as sand and diesel fuel, accidental reasons of plant shutdown, have been acquired and analyzed. The obtained results have allowed to quantify the energy and environmental performance of the WtE plant under investigation by varying the amount and mixings of the inlet waste, available in form of thickened and fluff (similar to coriander) SRF. In terms of the energy performance, the fluidized bed technology applied to the SRF was able to guarantee an adequate production of electricity (satisfying the market demands), showing a relative flexibility with respect to the inlet waste. In terms of net energy production efficiency, the plant showed values in the range of 13.8-14.9% in line with similar installations. In terms of the environmental performance, the adoption of a cleaning system based on SNCR (Selective Non Catalitic Reduction)+semi-dry scrubbing+Fabric filter generated emissions usually well below the limits set by the EU Directive 2000/76/EC as well as the Italian Law 46/2014 (more restrictive) with reference to all the key parameters. In terms of the plant shutdown, the majority of problems focused on the combustion chamber and boiler due to the erosion of the refractory material of the furnace as well as to the breaking of the superheaters of the boiler. In contrast, the mechanical and electrical causes, along with those related to the control and instrumentation system, were of secondary importance. The sand bed de-fluidization was also among the leading causes of a frequent plant shutdown. In particular, results showed how although the SRF presents standard characteristics, the use of different mixtures may affect the number of plant shutdowns. The full

  9. Research of fluidized bed cement clinker sintering system by pilot plant; Ryudosho cement shosei gijutsu no kaihatsu. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, N; Hashimoto, I; Nakatsuka, M [The Cement Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    While a cement manufacturing process generally performs sintering by using a rotary kiln, a development work has been carried out as a subsidy operation of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy on a cement sintering technology using a fluidized bed consisted of two furnaces: a jet flow bed granulating furnace and a fluidized bed sintering furnace. This paper reports the results of tests and researches performed during fiscal 1995. A plant with a scale of 20 ton-a-day production started in 1993 after having gone through bench scale tests. The year 1995 conducted by August its performance evaluation, review of the operation method and the safety criteria, and generalization of the tests. A multi-stage cyclone system has been employed in the preheating equipment for cement material powder. A number of improvements have been realized in the aspects of construction and operation, such as stabilization of dust collecting efficiency by employing a high-efficiency type cyclone, and operation with reduced pressure variation. Based on these results, a construction had been progressed in parallel on a new plant upscaled to 200 ton-a-day production. The new plant was completed in December, 1995. 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Estimation of water consumption of tomato crops planted in rock wool bed in greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Senge, M.; Iwama, K.; Hashimoto, I.

    2002-01-01

    For estimating the crop water consumption, it is necessary to determine meteorological data in greenhouse from open field data and calculate potential evaporation. In this study, temperature, humidity, wind velocity and solar radiation were measured in greenhouse as well as in open field. Then, we compared the meteorological data of greenhouse with that of open field. Results of the comparison differed from the reference values of the Official Manual (1997). Humidity during heating period and wind velocity in the greenhouse cannot be evaluated from the steps of the Official Manual. We applied the original equation that was derived in this observation to calculate the potential evaporation in the greenhouse. It became apparent that the potential evaporation could be estimated using open field data. A portion of irrigated water was consumed by vegetation and remainder was discharged from rock wool bed. Mean daily water consumption during the measurement period was 2.50(mm/d), with a monthly maximum occurring in July with 3.54(mm/d). Discharged water amounted to 9% of irrigated water. Tomato's crop coeffieiency with rock wool cultivation was calculated by potential evaporation and water consumption. In this field, this value was smaller than those recorded in the Official Manual. The amount of irrigation was same in all segments of the greenhouse. However, water consumption was affected by incident energy. A portion of discharged water (5% of irrigation water in this greenhouse) could not be saved because there existed a differential volume need for some plants which consumed more water in relation to others

  11. Petrographic and X-ray diffraction analyses of selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrich, J.T.; Zeuch, D.H.

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 660 m underground in the Salado Formation which consists of thick, horizontally bedded pure and impure salt and thin, laterally continuous clay and anhydrite interbeds. The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to provide site-specific-two-phase flow and other related rock properties to support performance assessment modeling of the WIPP repository. Owing to their potentially significant role in the hydrologic response of the repository, the program initially focused on the anhydrite interbeds, and in particular, on Marker Bed 139 (MB 139), which lies approximately 1 m below the planned waste storage rooms. This report synthesizes petrographic and X-ray powder diffraction studies performed to support the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program. Experimental scoping activities in this area were performed in FY 1993 by three independent laboratories in order to: (1) quantify the mineral composition to support laboratory studies of hydrologic properties and facilitate correlation of transport properties with composition; (2) describe textures, including grain size; and (3) describe observed porosity. Samples from various depths were prepared from six 6-inch diameter cores which were obtained by drilling into the marker bed from the floor of two separate rooms. The petrographic analyses are augmented here with additional study of the original thin sections, and the pore structure observations are also examined in relation to an independent observational study of microcracks in Marker Bed 139 core samples performed in FY 1994 by the Geomechanics Department at Sandia National Laboratories

  12. Petrographic and X-ray diffraction analyses of selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrich, J.T.; Zeuch, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geomechanics Dept.

    1996-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is located 660 m underground in the Salado Formation which consists of thick, horizontally bedded pure and impure salt and thin, laterally continuous clay and anhydrite interbeds. The Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program was established to provide site-specific-two-phase flow and other related rock properties to support performance assessment modeling of the WIPP repository. Owing to their potentially significant role in the hydrologic response of the repository, the program initially focused on the anhydrite interbeds, and in particular, on Marker Bed 139 (MB 139), which lies approximately 1 m below the planned waste storage rooms. This report synthesizes petrographic and X-ray powder diffraction studies performed to support the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program. Experimental scoping activities in this area were performed in FY 1993 by three independent laboratories in order to: (1) quantify the mineral composition to support laboratory studies of hydrologic properties and facilitate correlation of transport properties with composition; (2) describe textures, including grain size; and (3) describe observed porosity. Samples from various depths were prepared from six 6-inch diameter cores which were obtained by drilling into the marker bed from the floor of two separate rooms. The petrographic analyses are augmented here with additional study of the original thin sections, and the pore structure observations are also examined in relation to an independent observational study of microcracks in Marker Bed 139 core samples performed in FY 1994 by the Geomechanics Department at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. Survey of radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants and examination of impacts from a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, C.P.; Militana, L.M.; Harvey, K.A.; Kinsey, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature survey that examined radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants. Literature references from both the US and foreign countries are presented. Emphasis is placed on references from the US because the radionuclide emissions from coal-fired power plants are related to radionuclide concentrations in the coal, which vary widely throughout the world. The radionuclides were identified and quantified for various existing power plants reported in the literature. Applicable radionuclide emissions criteria discovered in the literature search were then applied to a proposed circulating fluidized bed boiler power plant. Based upon the derived radionuclide emission rates applied to the proposed power plant, an air quality modeling analysis was performed. The estimated ambient concentrations were compared to the most relevant existing regulatory ambient levels for radionuclides

  14. FY 1996 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Investigational study of verification plant; 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, an investigational study of verification plant was made, and the FY 1996 results were summarized. In this fiscal year, the conceptual design was made of the Nakoso method based on the method of Nakoso pilot plant, the fixed bed method in which fixed bed gas refining facilities tested in Nakoso pilot plant were adopted, and the packed bed method. In the Nakoso method, 5 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier, dry two-stage fluidized bed for desulfurization and dry granular bed packed bed for dust removal. In the fixed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry fixed bed for gas refining. In the packed bed method, 2 cases were studied using the air blown two-stage entrained bed for gasifier and dry packed bed for gas refining. As to gas turbine facilities, 5 cases were studied in which GT output is 115MW - 215MW (output of combined cycle power generation: 220MW - 420MW). (NEDO)

  15. Operating experience and data on revolving type fluidized bed incineration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, J.

    1990-01-01

    In refuse incinerators operating by revolving fluidization (Revolving Type Fluidized Bed Incinerator) a broad range of wastes, from low caloric refuse of high moisture content to high caloric value material including a wide variety of plastics, can be incinerated at high efficiency because the unit is outstanding in terms of distribution of waste in the incinerator bed and uniformity of heat. In addition, its vigorous revolving fluidization action is very effective in pulverizing refuse, so even relatively strict emission standards can be met without fine pre-shredding. Residues are discharged in a clean, dry form free of putrescible material. Data on practical operation of the revolving fluidized bed incinerator are presented in this paper

  16. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.

    2009-01-01

    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large...... zooplankton. However, recovery of macrophytes is often delayed and use of artificial plant beds (APB) has been suggested as a tool to enhance zooplankton refuges, thereby reinforcing the shift to a clear-water state and, eventually, colonisation of natural plants. 2. To further evaluate the potential of APB...... in lake restoration, we followed the day–night habitat choices of zooplankton throughout summer in a clear and a turbid lake. Observations were made in the pelagic and littoral zones and in APB in the littoral representing three different plant densities (coverage 0%, 40% and 80%). 3. In the clear lake...

  17. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  18. Seismic monitoring of the Creys-Malville plant - Problems raised by the seismic behaviour of a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descleve, P.; Barrau, P.

    1988-01-01

    CREYS-MALVILLE reached full power in December 1986 and is presently the largest sodium cooled reactor in operation. Well established procedures of safety evaluation have been used for the design but for a large size reactor special attention must be paid to the effects of seismic disturbances. This paper describes the seismic protection and monitoring system of the plant, the core behaviour which is specific to fast reactors and the test performed to verify the analyses. Finally the seismic impact on the construction can be established as an indication for future plants. (author)

  19. Could artificial plant beds favour microcrustaceans during biomanipulation of eutrophic shallow lakes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balayla, David; Boll, Thomas; Trochine, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction of artificial plants may facilitate the transition from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes, particularly when plant establishment is delayed. We investigated the usefulness of artificial plants as a restoration tool in an experimental setup mimicking open submerged plant...

  20. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation

  1. Multinode analysis of small breaks for B and W's 177-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with raised loop arrangement and internals vent valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartin, L.R.; Hill, J.M.; Parks, C.E.

    1976-03-01

    Multinode analyses were conducted for several small breaks in the reactor coolant system of B and W's 177-fuel-assembly nuclear plants with a raised loop arrangement and internals vent valves. The multinode blowdown code CRAFT was used to evaluate the hydrodynamics and transient water inventories of the reactor coolant system. The FOAM code was used to compute a swell level history for the core, and THETAL-B was used to perform transient fuel pin thermal calculations. Curves showing parameters of interest are presented. The results of these analyses are acceptable within the guidelines set forth in the Final Acceptance Criteria

  2. Analysis of the implementation of a sand bed type filter for the venting of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas V, D.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J.

    2017-09-01

    The filtered venting of the containment has been adopted in European countries to mitigate the consequences derived from the excess pressure of the containment during a severe accident. When venting has taken place, the fission products are released directly into the environment, unless a filter is placed in the path of the same, so various types of filters are used to trap the fission products. The containment venting filters currently installed use different filtering technologies that involve more than one medium. Those who use water as the first stage of filtration are called wet systems, are equipped with additional stages to eliminate water drops and emissions of fine aerosols, and may even be equipped with an element that contains certain means of absorption for the gaseous iodine species filtration. Other designs, based on deep bed filtration as the main retention stage, called dry filters; use metal fiber, ceramic or sand filtration media to trap aerosols. The present work evaluates the hydraulic characteristics of the sand bed type filter designed by EDF as a candidate to be installed in the containment of the BWR Mark II (primary containment type of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant). The evaluation of the sand bed filter was performed using the OpenFOAM open source software package. Models of each zone of the filtering device were generated and by means of a series of parametric calculations of computational fluid mechanics, the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics of the device were obtained, such as pressure drops against mass flow and pressure fields and velocity under different operating conditions. On the other hand, the validation of the sand bed filter model was made when comparing the results of experimental tests carried out in a sand column of the PITEAS program (1985-1986) against the simulation in OpenFOAM. The results obtained are very close to those obtained experimentally. (Author)

  3. Fate of xenobiotic compounds and plants activity in reed bed sludge treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xijuan; Pauli, Udo; Rehfus, Stefan

    different plants: bulrush (Typha), reed (Phragmites australis) and reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) were planted into 12 containers with a size of 1m Х 1m X 1m which were builded with 20cm gravel and 50cm sludge to study the plants activity in sludge degradation process, 4 containers were left...

  4. A preliminary study of the effects of plastic film-mulched raised beds on soil temperature and crop performance of early-sown short-season spring maize (Zea mays L. in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify a strategy for earlier sowing and harvesting of spring maize (Zea mays L. in an alternative maize–maize double cropping system, a 2-year field experiment was performed at Quzhou experimental station of China Agricultural University in 2014 and 2015. A short-season cultivar, Demeiya number 1 (KX7349, was used in the experiment. Soil temperature to 5 cm depth in the early crop growth stage, crop growth, crop yield, and water use of different treatments (plastic film-mulched raised bed (RF and flat field without plastic film mulching (CK in 2014; RF, plastic film-mulched flat field (FF, and CK in 2015 were measured or calculated and compared. Soil temperature in the film-mulched treatments was consistently higher than that in CK (1.6–3.5 °C in average during the early growth stage. Crops in plastic film-mulched treatments used 214 fewer growing-degree days (GDDs in 2014 and 262 fewer GDDs in 2015. In 2014, the RF treatment yielded 32.7% higher biomass than CK, although its 9.4% higher grain yield was not statistically significant. Also, RF used 17.9% less water and showed 33.1% higher water use efficiency (WUE than CK. In 2015, RF and FF showed 56.2% and 49.5% higher yield, 15.0% and 4.5% lower water use (ET, and 63.4% and 75.7% higher WUE, respectively, than CK. RF markedly increased soil temperature in the early crop season, accelerated crop growth, reduced ET, and greatly increased crop yield and WUE. Compared with FF, RF had no obvious effect on crop growth rate, although soil temperature during the period between sowing and stem elongation was slightly increased. However, RF resulted in lower ET and higher WUE than FF. Effects of RF on soil water dynamics as well as its cost-effectiveness remain topics for further study.

  5. Comparative analysis of possibilities for raising the efficiency in thermal power plant by utilisation of waste heat energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijakovski Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to use flue gases waste heat for increasing the efficiency of thermal power plant (TPP explained in this work refers to lignite fired TPP-Bitola in Macedonia (3x233 MW installed electric capacity. Possibility to utilize low-temperature heat energy at the plant’s cold end is also considered in the analysis. Specific fuel consumption is used as an analysis and comparison parameter. Its reduction, compared to the basic power unit ranges between 0.4% and 3.4%. An analysis presenting economic feasibility of the low-temperature heat energy utilization concept for two different refrigerants used in the heat pump is also presented.

  6. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  7. Peatland Woody Plant Growth Responses to Warming and Elevated CO2 in a Southern-boreal Raised Bog Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. R.; Hanson, P. J.; Warren, J.; Ward, E. J.; Brice, D. J.; Graham, J.

    2017-12-01

    Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) is an in situ warming by elevated CO2 manipulation located in a high-carbon, spruce peatland in northern Minnesota. Warming treatments combined a 12-m diameter open topped chamber with internally recirculating warm air and soil deep heating to simulate a broad range of future warming treatments. Deep below ground soil warming rates are 0, +2.25, +4.5, +6.75, and +9 °C. Deep belowground warming was initiated in June 2014 followed by air warming in August 2015. In June 2016, elevated CO2 atmospheres (eCO2 at + 500 ppm) were added to half of the warming treatments in a regression design. Our objective was to track long-term vegetation responses to warming and eCO2. Annual tree growth is based on winter measurement of circumference of all Picea mariana and Larix laricina trees within each 113 m2 plot, automated dendrometers, terrestrial LIDAR scanning of tree heights and canopy volumes, and destructive allometry. Annual shrub growth is measured in late summer by destructive clipping in two 0.25 m2 sub-plots and separation of the current year tissues. During the first year of warming, tree basal area growth was reduced for Picea, but not Larix trees. Growth responses for the woody shrub vegetation remains highly variable with a trend towards increasing growth with warming. Elevated CO2 enhancements of growth are not yet evident in the data. Second-year results will also be reported. Long-term hypotheses for increased woody plant growth under warming include potential enhancements driven by increased nutrient availability from warming induced decomposition of surface peats.

  8. Study for Safeguards Challenges to the Most Probably First Indonesian Future Power Plant of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilowati, E.

    2015-01-01

    In the near future Indonesia, the fourth most populous country, plans to build a small size power plant most probably a Pebble Bed Modular Reactor PBMR. This first nuclear power plant (NPP) is aimed to provide clear picture to the society in regard to performance and safety of nuclear power plant operation. Selection to the PBMR based on several factor including the combination of small size of the reactor and type of fuel allowing the use of passive safety systems, resulting in essential advantages in nuclear plant design and less dependence on plant operators for safety. In the light of safeguards perspective this typical reactor is also quite difference with previous light water reactor (LWR) design. From the fact that there are a small size large number of elements present in the reactor produced without individual serial numbers combine to on-line refueling same as the CANDU reactor, enforcing a new challenge to safeguards approach for this typical reactor. This paper discusses a bunch of safeguards measures have to be prepared by facility operator to support successfully international nuclear material and facility verification including elements of design relevant to safeguards need to be accomplished in consultation to the regulatory body, supplier or designer and the Agency/IAEA such as nuclear material balance area and key measurement point; possible diversion scenarios and safeguards strategy; and design features relevant to the IAEA equipment have to be installed at the reactor facility. It is deemed that result of discussion will alleviate and support the Agency approaching safeguards measure that may be applied to the purpose Indonesian first power plant of PBMR construction and operation. (author)

  9. Ecotoxicological bioassays of sediment leachates in a river bed flanked by decommissioned pesticide plants in Nantong City, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Wang, Fenghe; Wan, Jinzhong; He, Jian; Li, Qun; Qiang Chen; Gao, Jay; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2017-03-01

    Traditionally, the toxicity of river contaminants is analyzed chemically or physically through river bed sediments. The biotoxicity of polluted sediment leachates has not caught our attention. This study aims to overcome this deficiency through a battery of biotests which were conducted to monitor comprehensive toxicity of sediment leachates for the Yaogang River in East Jiangsu Province of China, which is in close proximity to former pesticide plants. The general physical and chemical parameters of major pollutants were analyzed from river bed sediments collected at five strategic locations. The ecotoxicity analyses undertaken include overall fish (adult zebrafish) acute toxicity, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay, and zebrafish embryo toxicity assay. Compared with the control group, sediment leachates increased the lethality, inhibited the embryos hatching and induced development abnormalities of zebrafish embryos, and inhibited the luminescence of V. fischeri. The results show that sediment leachates may assume various toxic effects, depending on the test organism. This diverse toxicity to aquatic organisms reflects their different sensitivity to sediment leachates. It is found clearly that V. fischeri was the organism which was characterized by the highest sensitivity to the sediment leachates. The complicated toxicity of leachates was not caused by one single factor but by multiple pollutants together. This indicates the need of estimations of sediment leachate not only taking into account chemical detection but also of applying the biotests to the problem. Thus, multigroup bioassays are necessary to realistically evaluate river ecological risks imposed by leachates.

  10. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  11. Development of a test bed for operator aid and advanced control concepts in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Doster, J.M.; Kim, K.D.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.; Khedro, T.; Sues, R.H.; Yacout, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    A great amount of research and development is currently under way in the utilization of artificial intelligence (AI), expert system, and control theory advances in nuclear power plants as a basis for operator aids and automatic control systems. This activity requires access to the measured dynamic responses of the plant to malfunction, operator- or automatic-control-initiated actions. This can be achieved by either simulating plant behavior or by using an actual plant. The advantage of utilizing an actual plant versus a simulator is that the true behavior is assured of both the power generation system and instrumentation. Clearly, the disadvantages of using an actual plant are availability due to licensing, economic, and risk constraints and inability to address accident conditions. In this work the authors have decided to employ a functional one-ninth scale model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The scaled PWR (SPWR) facility is a two-loop representation of a Westinghouse PWR utilizing freon as the working fluid and electric heater rods for the core. The heater rods are driven by a neutron kinetics model accounting for measured thermal core conditions. A control valve in the main steam line takes the place of the turbine generator. A range of normal operating and accident situations can be addressed. The SPWR comes close to offering all the advantages of both a simulator and an actual physical plant in regard to research and development on AI, expert system, and control theory applications. The SPWR is being employed in the development of an expert-system-based operator aid system. The current status of this project is described

  12. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    A record was summarized of the operation of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. As to the actual results of operation hours, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities which were collected from April 1991 to January 1993. Relating to the actual results of start-up/stop, the paper summarized the records of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities and safety environment facilities. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, generalization, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (desulfurization), gas refining facilities (dedusting), gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  13. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.

  14. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  15. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  16. Application of fluidized bed combustor for use of low grade and waste fuels in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wert, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    In a span of less that 15 years, CFB combustion technology has progressed from a concept to a demonstrated capability of providing clean, reliable energy from low-cost, low-grade fuels. In fact, one of the major advantages of CFB technology is its ability to burn fuels with high moisture, high ash and high sulfur levels, allowing the users the option of using inexpensive open-quotes opportunityclose quotes fuels. CFB technology has demonstrated reliable operation while burning low-grade, easily available fuels which other combustion technologies, preclude or cannot easily accommodate (such as peat, waste coals, sludges, municipal wastes and lignite). The CFB units can be designed to burn a wide range of different fuels, alone or in combination. This capability allows the user to take advantage of various fuel supplies to lower operating costs while still complying with ever increasing environmental regulations. This paper will review the evolution and experience of CFB technology and discuss the operating history of the first culm-fired (anthracite mine tailings) power plant. The development of opportunity-fueled power plants has been associated with the establishment of the Independent Power Industry in the United States. Traditional utilities have relied on premium fuels (oil, natural gas, coal and nuclear) due to availability and the ability to pass fuel costs through to consumers. With the development of privatized power plants, more emphasis has been placed on fixing fuel costs over the life of the plant to minimize investor risk. An analogy can be drawn between the growth of the Independent Power Industry in the United States over the last ten years with the need for capacity in many Developing Countries today

  17. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  18. Compost-based growing media: influence on growth and nutrient use of bedding plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigatti, Marco; Giorgioni, Maria Eva; Ciavatta, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    The agronomic performance and the mineral composition and trace element content in Begonia semperflorens "Bellavista F1", Mimulus "Magic x hybridus", Salvia splendens "maestro", and Tagete patula xerecta "Zenith Lemon Yellow", were tested by growing the plants on substrates of white peat and 25-50-75-100% green waste and sewage sludge (80%+20%v/v) compost (CP). A commercial peat medium of black and white peat (2:1v/v) was used as control. At flowering, the agronomic parameters were compared by ANOVA and plant nutritional status was compared by vector analysis. Substrate-species interactions (PBegonia grown in 25% CP, showed the highest dry weight (DW) and number of flowers. Other treatments were comparable to the control. Mimulus and Salvia showed the highest DW in the 25-50% CP. Mimulus, after a DW increase up to 50% CP, showed the steepest reduction as the CP increased further. Tagete showed no differences in DW up to 50% CP, or in flower number up to 25% CP, compared to the control. The additional increases of CP in the medium showed a DW decrease similar to that of Salvia. Vector analysis showed the use of compost mainly induced a decrease of P concentration in tissues, except for Begonia which remained unchanged. Plant tissues showed a general P reduction due to a dilution effect in the low compost mixtures (25-50%) and a deficiency in the higher CP mixtures. In contrast, an increase of Mg in the aboveground tissues of all species was detectable as compost usage increased, with the exception of Salvia which suffered a Mg deficiency. Vector analysis also highlighted a Ni and partial Fe deficiency in Tagete and Salvia.

  19. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 5 - Survey of demonstration plant); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    A survey was conducted of a demonstration plant for developing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. In fiscal 1994, based on the studies of pilot plant operation conducted up to the preceding fiscal year and on the studies of a demonstration plant (conceptual design of a demonstration plant), systems were examined for still higher performance and economical efficiency. For optimizing the heat source for pulverized coal drying air, an extracted air heat utilizing system was adopted, excellent in performance (approximately 0.5% improvement in absolute value) and in economical efficiency. For reducing the consumption of inert gas for the fluidized bed desulfurization facility, an approximately 30% reduction was found to be possible dependent on gas regeneration conditions in the regeneration tower. For performance improvement with the combined cycle equipment placed under a partial load, the generating-end efficiency was improved approximately 0.2% when only SGC (syngas cooler) was loaded 80% or less and kept at a constant pressure. Studies were also made about how to maintain a constant output with the equipment exposed to air temperature changes. (NEDO)

  20. KMT moving bed biofilm reactor (KMT MBBR) experience of a pilot plant in Spain. Proceso KMT de biomasa fija sobre lecho movil. Experiencias en planta piloto en Espaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Aranda, A.; Rodrigo Alonso, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    It describes the experiments carried out by INFILCO ESPAOLA, S.A. in a pilot plant using the KMT Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process involving a fixed biomass on a moveable bed. This is an innovative process for treating both industrial and urban waste waters with or without the elimination of nutrients. The experimental findings demonstrate the need for a minimum amount of space for the biologial reagent (in comparison with that required for active sludge EDARs). They also show the ease with which existing EDARs can be adapted with very little civil engineering work by increasing either the design capacity or the elimination of nutrients. 10 refs.

  1. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Summarization of the operation study); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu) - Sono 2. Unten kenkyu sokatsu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    The paper summarized the results of the following tests on a 40 t/d pilot plant which were conducted as the support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant: dry desulfurization test, dry dedusting test, high-temperature NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test). In the dry desulfurization test, tested were the operational automation and monitoring technology, performance of desulfurization, characteristics of load response, sulfur recovery, etc. In the dry dedusting test, tested were the filter medium/dust separation, powder level meter, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, characteristics of partial load/load response, improvement of filtration materials, test on characteristics of air conveyance, etc. In the high-temperature low-NOx gas combustion test (gas turbine element test), the following were conducted: examination of the test method of gas turbine materials, inspection/examination of the corrosion of gas turbine combustion test device, inspection/examination of the internal corrosion of the stationary blade for gas turbine deposit test, inspection/examination of gasification system. The results of these support studies were reflected one after another in the project on the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. (NEDO)

  2. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF6 by fluidized-bed processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF 6 and on purification of the UF 6 . Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF 2 were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO 3 and the direct fluorination of UO 3 to UF 6

  3. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF/sub 6/ by fluidized-bed processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF/sub 6/ and on purification of the UF/sub 6/. Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO/sub 3/) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF/sub 2/ were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO/sub 3/ and the direct fluorination of UO/sub 3/ to UF/sub 6/.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Pilot plant operation edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the operation achievements in fiscal 1993. The plant operation record in fiscal 1993 was as follows: 430 hours 27 minutes in the gasification furnace (ten gasification operations), 233 hours 51 minutes in the gas refining facility, 140 hours 31 minutes in the gas turbine facility (power generation amount of 746.8 MWh with nine actuations), 1,263 hours 09 minutes in the processing furnace in the safety environment facility, and 427 hours 22 minutes in the NOx removal equipment. Descriptions were given with detailed graphs on the actuation and shutdown record with respect to the run D2, the run D3 (1 and 2), the run D4, the run D5, the run D6, and the run D7 (1 through 4). The operation procedures were prepared for the plant startup and shutdown schedule, the generalization report, the gasification furnace facility, the gas refining facility (dry type desulfurizing facility), the gas refining facility (dry type dust removing facility), the gas turbine facility, the combustor testing facility with actual pressure and size, and the safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  5. Green and economical production of propionic acid by Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaohai; Chen, Fei; Xu, Hong; Wu, Bo; Li, Hui; Li, Sha; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2011-05-01

    Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium freudenreichii from molasses and waste propionibacterium cells was studied in plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB). With non-treated molasses as carbon source, 12.69 ± 0.40 g l(-1) of propionic acid was attained at 120 h in free-cell fermentation, whereas the PFB fermentation yielded 41.22 ± 2.06 g l(-1) at 120 h and faster cells growth was observed. In order to optimize the fermentation outcomes, fed-batch fermentation was performed with hydrolyzed molasses in PFB, giving 91.89 ± 4.59 g l(-1) of propionic acid at 254 h. Further studies were carried out using hydrolyzed waste propionibacterium cells as substitute nitrogen source, resulting in a propionic acid concentration of 79.81 ± 3.99 g l(-1) at 302 h. The present study suggests that the low-cost molasses and waste propionibacterium cells can be utilized for the green and economical production of propionic acid by P. freudenreichii. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated

  7. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T.; Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A.; Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  8. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are compiled. In fiscal 1995, 1328 hours and 3 minutes (8 gasification operations) was recorded with gasification furnace facility, 899 hours and 53 minutes with the gas clean-up facility, 831 hours and 27 minutes with the gas turbine facility (11 startups for the generation of 6657 MWh), and 1958 hours and 2 minutes with the treatment furnace and 1331 hours and 10 minutes with the denitration unit of the safety/environment-related facility. The details of starts and stops were described in graphs which covered Runs D13, D14-1, D14-2, E1, D15, and A14. Operating procedures were studied and compiled for the plant start/stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and the safety/environment-related facility. (NEDO)

  9. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 4. Operation of pilot plant; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    A record was summarized of the operation test study in FY 1992 of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation. The operating hour of gasifier facilities in FY 1992 was 635 hours 19 minutes, and the number of times of gasification operation was 9. The operating hour of letting gas through to gas refining facilities was 549 hours 14 minutes. The operating hour of gas turbine facilities was 310 hours 18 minutes, and the generated output was 1,366.2 MWh. The operating hour of treatment furnace of safety environment facilities was 1,401 hours 4 minutes, and that of the denitrification system was 621 hours 24 minutes. As to the actual results of the start-up/stop, the paper detailedly recorded those of RUNs 10, 11, 12, 13 and D1. Further, operation manuals were made for the schedule of plant start-up/stop, gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities and safety environment facilities. (NEDO)

  10. Fiscal 1994 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 4 - Pilot plant operation); 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 4. Pilot plant unten sosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for the establishment of the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation was operated for testing, and the results are put together. Operating hours recorded were 1347 hours and 7 minutes for the gasification furnace facility (7 gasification operations), 752 hours and 22 minutes for the gas clean-up facilities, 425 hours and 20 minutes for the gas turbine facility (6 startups for generating 2616.1 MWh), and 1852 hours for the treatment furnace and 1304 hours and 32 minutes for the denitration system in the safety/environment-related facility. Detailed graphs were drawn for the description of starts and stops in Run D8, Run D9 (1-3), Run D10, Run D11, and in Run D12. Operating procedures were studied and then compiled for the plant start-stop schedule, general guidelines, gasification furnace facility, gas clean-up facility (dry type desulfurization facility), gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), gas turbine facility, real-pressure natural-size combustor test facility, and for the safety/environment related facility. (NEDO)

  11. Optimal planting systems for cut gladiolus and stock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to elucidate the effect of different planting systems, videlicet (viz. flat, ridge, and raised bed system on growth, yield and quality of gladiolus and stock. Corms of ‘Rose Supreme’ and ‘White Prosperity’ gladiolus and seedlings of ‘Cheerful White’, ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’ stock were planted on different planting systems in individual experiments for each species. Gladiolus had similar good quality production irrespective of planting systems with numerical superiority of ridge planting, which produced longer stems with higher stem fresh weight, but delayed corm sprouting by ca. 1 d compared to raised bed or flat planting system. Among cultivars, ‘Rose Supreme’ produced higher number of florets per spike, taller stems with longer spikes, higher fresh weight of stems and higher number of cormels than ‘White Prosperity’. Stock plants grown on flat beds produced stems with greater stem length, leaf area and fresh weight of stems compared to ridge or raised bed planting systems. Plants grown on ridges produced the highest stem diameter, number of leaves per plant, total leaf chlorophyll contents, and number of flowers per spike. ‘Cheerful White’ and ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Double’ performed best by producing good quality stems in shorter period compared to ‘Lucinda Dark Rose Single’. In summary, gladiolus should be grown on ridges, while stock may be planted on flat beds for higher yields of better quality flowers.

  12. Propionic acid production in a plant fibrous-bed bioreactor with immobilized Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Dan; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2012-12-15

    A plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (PFB) was constructed for propionic acid production. Sugar cane bagasse was applied to the PFB as immobilizing material. Starting at a concentration of 80g/L of glucose, Propionibacterium freudenreichii CCTCC M207015 produced 41.20±2.03g/L of propionic acid at 108h in the PFB. The value was 21.07% higher than that produced by free cell fermentation. Intermittent and constant fed-batch fermentations were performed in the PFB to optimize the fermentation results. The highest propionic acid concentration obtained from constant fed-batch fermentation was 136.23±6.77g/L, which is 1.40 times higher than the highest concentration (97.00g/L) previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed that cells exhibited striking changes in morphology after PFB domestication. Compared with free cell fermentation, the fluxes of propionic acid synthesis and the pentose phosphate pathway in PFB fermentation increased by 84.65% and 227.62%, respectively. On the other hand, a decrease in succinic and acetic acid fluxes was also observed. The metabolic flux distributions of the two PFB fed-batch fermentation strategies also demonstrated that constant fed-batch fermentation is a more beneficial method for the immobilized production of propionic acid. The relevant key enzyme activities and metabolic flux variations of the batch cultures showed good consistency. These results suggest that the PFB was effective in high-concentration propionic acid production. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Theoretical and experimental investigation on adaptability of charcoal beds to containment filter venting in Italian nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caropreso, G.; Leonardi, A.; Perna, W.; Sgalambro, G.

    1989-01-01

    The work has been divided into three parts. The first one gives a description of the facilities under investigation during some selected accidental conditions, also described. The second part, which consists of an experimental work, tries to identify the behavior of charcoal beds in terms of pressure drop vs the aerosol mass loading and of aerosol retention efficiency. On the basis of the experimental findings, the prediction of the behavior of the real beds is carried out in the third part, as regards the pressure drop through the beds, related to the selected accident scenarios. In addition in this last part the results of a preliminary evaluation of the maximum decay power picked up by the beds without reaching the carbon self-ignition temperature have been reported

  14. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone Chris M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net. In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar sources, female An. gambiae appear to prefer a nearby human source of blood

  15. Organic Highbush Blueberry Production Systems Research – Management of Plant Nutrition, Irrigation Requirements, and Weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 0.4 ha planting of blueberry was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type (flat versus raised beds), weed management (sawdust mulch and hand-weed control; sawdust+compost mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and weed ...

  16. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  17. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...... requests from the Danish TSO are used as a proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the EV test bed power response. Test results have proven the capability to respond to frequent power control requests and they reveal the potential EV ability for contributing to regulating power reserves....

  18. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Dismantling study); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu) - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-01

    As a support study for the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant by a 200 t/d pilot plant, the dismantling study was made for gasifier facilities, desulfurization facilities, dedusting facilities at the existing 40 t/d testing facilities. In the results of the analysis of the specimens sampled from gasifier and peripheral facilities, the corrosion loss of thickness was great in carbon steel/low-alloy steel equipment, and the generation of intergranular corrosion/intergranular crack was recognized in stainless steel equipment. The loss of thickness caused by erosion was also recognized in carrier tubes, etc. As to the high-temperature dry desulfurization system, the damage was totally great, but the effect of taking measures for it was unclear because the loss of thickness by corrosion/abrasion had not been measured regularly. Relating to the high-temperature dry dedusting system, there used to be a lot of troubles from stress corrosion cracking and pitting corrosion, and the best measures for corrosion prevention were taken for each trouble. As to the Al thermal spraying, stabilized thermal treatment, shot-peening, etc., the excellent corrosion prevention effect was recognized on the austenite stainless steel. (NEDO)

  19. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Support study for the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu (Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu no shien kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-05-01

    For the purpose of supplying the data necessary for construction/operation/maintenance of system, gas turbine, etc. of the desulfurization/dust removal process to be adopted to a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, support study was made using the Yubari 40t/d test equipment, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the operation of the 40t/d gasification system, operation was stably continued, and also the system was able to feed gas to the wake device. In the high temperature dry desulfurization test, test was made on the following: structure of the sampling system of the continuous analyzer installed in the coal gas system and circulation gas system, load response corresponding control system, sequence control of the system for supplying reducing agent to SO{sub 2} reduction tower and the system for ash discharge, back washing of D-42 lift gas filter, etc. In the high temperature dry dust removal test, improvement in filtration material/dust separation performance, sequence control of the filtration material supply/discharge system, continuous dust densitometer, operational automation, etc. Through the tests, obtained were the results that are useful for the 200t/d plant. (NEDO)

  20. Reactor design and operation strategies for a large-scale packed-bed CLC power plant with coal syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Martelli, E; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; Lozza, G.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the design and operation strategies of dynamically operated packed-bed reactors (PBRs) of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) system included in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) for electric power generation with low CO2 emission from coal. The CLC reactors,

  1. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms

  2. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  3. Raising the bar (6)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Le Gallo, Julie; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2017-01-01

    Raising the bar (6). Spatial Economic Analysis. This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 12(4) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper addresses the question of whether 'jobs follow people' or 'people follow

  4. Raised intracranial pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is article presents an approach to raised intracranial pressure (ICP) constructed in a question-answer fashion. ..... Given that raised ICP is a serious and potentially life-threatening emergency, fast and reliable referral and transfer mechanisms should be established to ensure patients with this condition are effectively treated.

  5. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  6. Organic highbush blueberry production systems research – management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, weeds, and economic sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 0.4 ha planting was established in October 2006 to evaluate the effects of cultivar (Duke and Liberty), bed type ("flat ground" and raised beds), weed management [sawdust mulch and hand weed control; compost plus sawdust mulch with acetic acid, flaming, and hand control used as needed; and landsca...

  7. Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maloney, Stephen W; Heine, Robert L

    2005-01-01

    .... The bacteria are cultivated on granules of activated carbon contained in a fluidized bed. The demonstration equipment controlled the conditions to maintain favorable conditions for anaerobic bacteria through control of temperature, pH, and nutrients. Fuel grade ethanol was used as the substrate to maintain the bacterial population. The results show that this technique can be successful and less costly than the existing granular activated carbon adsorption process.

  8. A fluidized bed furnace fired with biomass waste to supply heat for a spray dryer in a plant producing floortiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyurtlu, I.; Andre, R.; Mendes, J.; Monteiro, A.; Cabrita, I. [Instituto Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Lisboa (Portugal)

    1993-12-31

    This project has been implemented at a factory producing floortiles for domestic use. The project consists of a fluidized bed combustion system burning coal or wood or a mixture of both to produce hot combustion gases to provide heat for spray drying process. The system was designed by INETI for a maximum output of 8 MW thermal energy and all the engineering calculations were carried out to dimension the furnace to provide this amount of heat. Shallow bed concept was used for complete burning of the biomass particles which contained volatiles up to 75% by weight. The sand bed was used as a flame stabilizer for the combustion of volatiles. The combustion of volatiles in the freeboard was mainly controlled by mixing ashes and other impurities. The combustion temperature had to be maintained in the range 700--800{degrees}C to achieve combustion efficiencies of 85% or more. The combustion efficiency (1) did not increase substantially above 90% of excess air although levels of up to 120% were used during combustion and (2) was found to increase through air staging in the order of 20 to 25%, by simply adding 45 to 55% of the air required to the freeboard zone. No SO{sub 2} was observed in flue gases when burning only biomass but there was some NO{sub x} formed and the level of conversion of fuel-N to NO{sub x} was found to be about 25--30%.

  9. A contribution to the solution of the problems raised by the application of the principle of protection optimization to nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourly, G.; Demerle, P.

    1975-01-01

    The radiological protection of populations and the environment rests on two main principles: the dose delivered to the individuals of the most exposed population group must remain below the dose limits set up by regulations; the doses must be kept as low as readly achievable social and economic considerations being taken into account. If the application of the former principle has now become routine work, the application of the latter one implying optimization calculus raises a number of difficult problems. In order to decide whether an exposure can be easily reduced, both the benefits of the reduction and its cost must be considered, which leads to undertake a differential analysis [fr

  10. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  11. Raising the Titanic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Romona

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which groups of students investigate engineering principles by writing a feasibility study to raise the luxury liner, Titanic. The problem statement and directions, and suggestions for problem solutions are included. (CW)

  12. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  13. Automation and control in industrial installations. Its application in pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washeries etc. Automatizacion y control en instalaciones industriales. Su aplicacion en centrales de lecho fluido a presion, lavaderos de carbon etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Tarifa, R. (ENDESA, Madrid (Spain))

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the automation and electronic control systems, based on the most advanced technologies on the market. The most recent techniques concerning industrial plant supervision and the processing of information obtained from the above mentioned systems are discussed. Intraplant communications between the control systems and the supervision computers as well as communications among cascade computers are described. These studies are applied to specific cases of pressurized fluidized bed plants, coal washing plants, coal yards, etc.

  14. Investigation: revelations about Three Mile Island disaster raise doubts over nuclear plant safety: a special facing south investigation by Sue Sturgis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgis, Sue

    2009-01-01

    A series of mishaps in a reactor at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear plant led to the 1979 meltdown of almost half the uranium fuel and uncontrolled releases of radiation into the air and surrounding Susquehanna River. It was the single worst disaster ever to befall the U.S. nuclear power industry. Health physics technician Randall Thompson's story about what he witnessed while monitoring radiation there after the incident is being publicly disclosed for the first time. It is supported by a growing body of evidence and it contradicts the U.S. government's contention that the TMI accident posed no threat to the public. Thompson and his wife, a nuclear health physicist who also worked at TMI in the disaster's wake, warn that the government's failure to acknowledge the full scope of the disaster is leading officials to underestimate the risks posed by a new generation of nuclear power plants.

  15. Interim report on core physics and fuel cycle analysis of the pebble bed reactor power plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1977-12-01

    Calculations were made to predict the performance of a pebble bed reactor operated in a mode to produce fissile fuel (high conversion or breeding). Both a one pebble design and a design involving large primary feed pebbles and small fertile pebbles were considered. A relatively short residence time of the primary pebbles loaded with 233 U fuel was found to be necessary to achieve a high breeding ratio, but this leads to relatively high fuel costs. A high fissile inventory is associated with a low C/Th ratio and a high thorium loading, causing the doubling time to be long, even though the breeding ratio is high, and the fuel cost of electrical product to be high. Production of 233 U fuel from 235 U feed was studied and performances of the converter and breeder reactor concepts were examined varying the key parameters

  16. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Performance of a Moving Bed Temperature-Swing (MBTSA Process for CO2 Capture in a Coal Fired Power Plant Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Mondino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a continuous moving-bed temperature-swing adsorption (MBTSA process for post-combustion CO2 capture in a coal-fired power plant context has been developed. Process simulations have been done using single component isotherms and measured gas diffusion parameters of an activated carbon adsorbent. While a simple process configuration with no gas re-circulation gives quite low capture rate and CO2 purity, 86% and 65%, respectively, more advanced process configurations where some of the captured gas is recirculated to the incoming flue gas drastically increase both the capture rate and CO2 purity, the best configuration reaching capture rate of 86% and CO2 purity of 98%. Further improvements can be achieved by using adsorbents with higher CO2/N2 selectivity and/or higher temperature of the regeneration section.

  17. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract no. 13460

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanochko, Ronald M; Corcoran, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling

  18. STUDY ON USING A TRICKLE-BED BIOREACTOR FOR REDUCING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT OPERATED BY PKN ORLEN S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kamiński

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies conducted by Ekoinwentyka sp. z o.o. concerning the possibility of using a trickle-bed bioreactor for reducing of volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted by PKN ORLEN S.A. wastewater treatment plant were presented and discussed. During the one-month trial, inlet and outlet concentrations of VOCs, H2S and NH3 were analysed and the efficiency of bio-purification process was determined on their basis. The obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the applied technology under the given conditions, simultaneously demonstrating the validity of conducting further technological analysis to derive the design assumptions of the bioreactor on the industrial scale.

  19. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  20. Raising the bar (7)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, Maria; Amaral, Pedro; Bhattacharjee, Arnab; Corrado, Luisa; Doran, Justin; Fingleton, Bernard; Fuerst, Franz; Garretsen, Harry; Igliori, Danilo; Gallo, Julie Le; McCann, Philip; Monastiriotis, Vassilis; Quatraro, Francesco; Yu, Jihai

    2018-01-01

    This editorial summarises the papers published in issue 13.1 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper adopts a scale neutral approach to investigate the spatial mechanisms that cause regional innovation and growth. The second paper claims

  1. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  2. [Design and application of medical electric leg-raising machine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jintang; Chen, Jinyuan; Zhao, Zixian; Lin, Jinfeng; Li, Juanhong; Zhong, Jingliang

    2017-08-01

    Passive leg raising is widely used in clinic, but it lacks of specialized mechanical raise equipment. It requires medical staff to raise leg by hand or requires a multi-functional bed to raise leg, which takes time and effort. Therefore we have developed a new medical electric leg-raising machine. The equipment has the following characteristics: simple structure, stable performance, easy operation, fast and effective, safe and comfortable. The height range of the lifter is 50-120 cm, the range of the angle of raising leg is 10degree angle-80degree angle, the maximum supporting weight is 40 kg. Because of raising the height of the lower limbs and making precise angle, this equipment can completely replace the traditional manner of lifting leg by hand with multi-functional bed to lift patients' leg and can reduce the physical exhaustion and time consumption of medical staff. It can change the settings at any time to meet the needs of the patient; can be applied to the testing of PLR and dynamically assessing the hemodynamics; can prevent deep vein thrombosis and some related complications of staying in bed; and the machine is easy to be cleaned and disinfected, which can effectively avoid hospital acquired infection and cross infection; and can also be applied to emergency rescue of various disasters and emergencies.

  3. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d gasifier equipment, the following were carried out: test on gasification of the coal proposed for pilot plant, test on changes in coal feed ratio, analysis of trace gas elements in coal, study of the fixed bed gas refining system, etc. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine, development of combustor which makes stable combustion in the low load region possible, development of low NOx combustor which controls the conversion of nitrogen compounds such as ammonia in coal gasification gas to NOx, development of combustor which makes the optimum and effective cooling possible by combining film cooling, impingement cooling, etc. In the study of simulation of the combined power generation total system, verification tests on the control mode switching function of the general load pressure control system, movement to meet anomaly of the control system, integrated cooperation control system, etc. (NEDO)

  4. Development of a method to extract and purify target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step: online hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography and countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Min; Ito, Yoichiro; Zhang, Hongyang; Wang, Yuerong; Guo, Xin; Hu, Ping

    2014-04-01

    Pure compounds extracted and purified from natural sources are crucial to lead discovery and drug screening. This study presents a novel two-dimensional hyphenation of expanded bed adsorption chromatography (EBAC) and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) for extraction and purification of target compounds from medicinal plants in a single step. The EBAC and HSCCC were hyphenated via a six-port injection valve as an interface. Fractionation of ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Rhizoma coptidis was performed on the hyphenated system to verify its efficacy. Two compounds were harvested from Salvia miltiorrhiza, one was 52.9 mg of salvianolic acid B with an over 95% purity and the other was 2.1 mg of rosmarinic acid with a 74% purity. Another two components were purified from Rhizoma coptidis, one was 4.6 mg of coptisine with a 98% purity and one was 4.1 mg of berberine with a 82% purity. The processing time was nearly 50% that of the multistep method. The results indicate that the present method is a rapid and green way to harvest targets from medicinal plants in a single step.

  5. Feasibility study - Lowered bed temperature in Fluidised Bed boilers for waste; Foerstudie - Saenkt baeddtemperatur i FB-pannor foer avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    Waste incineration generally serves two purposes; 1) dispose of waste and 2) generation of heat and power. In the process of power production from waste fuels, the steam temperatures in super heaters are generally limited by the severe fouling and corrosion that occurs at elevated material temperatures, caused by high concentrations of alkali metals and chloride in the flue gas and fly ash. The overall aim of a continuation of present project is to determine if a reduced temperature of the bed zone in a fluidized bed waste incinerator reduces the amount of alkali chlorides in the flue gas. If so, a reduced bed temperature might enable increased steam temperature in super heaters, or, at unchanged steam temperature, improve the lifespan of the super heaters. The results from the project are of interest for plant owners wishing to improve performance of existing plants. The results may also be used to modify the design of future plants by boiler manufacturers. The aim of present pre-study was to determine how far the bed temperature can be reduced in a waste fired fluidized bed boiler in Boraas while maintaining a stable operation with sufficient combustion temperature in the freeboard to fulfil the directives of waste incineration. A continuation of the project will be based on the results from present study. The work is based on experiments at the test boiler. During the present study, no other measurements were performed apart from some sampling of bed material and ashes at different modes of operation. The experiments show that it is possible to alter the air and recycled flue gas in such a manner that the bed temperature is reduced from about 870 deg C to 700 deg C at 100% load and normal fuel mixture, while fulfilling the directive of 850 deg C at 2 seconds. Within normal variations of the fuel properties, however, the bed temperature increases to somewhat above 700 deg C if the fuel turns dry, while it falls below 650 deg C when the fuel turns wet. With

  6. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  7. Fluid-bed methane proposed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    The first full scale plant for the production of methane from organic waste could be built in the next few years believes M.J. Nyns of the University of Louvain, Belgium, utilizing either expanded bed or fluidised bed systems, with more than one stage, in a continuous flow arrangement. Up to 8.0 m cubed gas/m cubed digester/day could be produced with residence times reduced to 34 hours.

  8. Studi Awal Desain LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Dari Coal Bed Methane (CBM Dengan Kapasitas Feed 40 MMSCFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan perancangan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Plant dari CBM degan kapasitas feed 40 MMSCFD dan waktu operasi 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun. Perancangan LNG plant dari CBM ini bertujuan untuk membantu usaha Negara dalam melakukan diversifikasi energi untuk mengatasi krisis energi. Salah satu contoh diversifikasi energi adalah mengganti bahan bakar pembangkit listrik High Speed Diesel (HSD menjadi LNG yang harganya relative lebih murah. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada simulasi dengan Aspen HYSYS, dimana terdapat batasan penelitian yakni gas alam yang dicairkan dengan cara didinginkan pada temperatur sekitar -161.3oC dan pada tekanan 1.06 bar. Tujuan pabrik LNG ini adalah Provinsi Bali hal ini dikarenakan elektrifikasi daerah tersebut cukup rendah. Dengan konsumsi minyak HSD yang tinggi tetapi elektrifikasi yang rendah maka diperlukan sumber energi alternatif untuk meningkatkan daya yang dihasilkan dan area distribusi sehingga tingkat elektrifikasi akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Pabrik LNG ini didirikan di Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan pada tahun 2016. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berorientasi pada ketersediaan sumber bahan baku CBM. Menurut data DITJEN MIGAS Muara enim memiliki potensi CBM sebesar 0.5 TCF. Potensi sebesar ini dapat digunakan selama 60 tahun dengan kapasitas feed LNG plant sebesar 40 MMSCFD Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam ini menggunakan Proses On-Shore LNG menggunakan beberapa rangkaian proses yaitu : Unit Penghilang CO2 dan H2S : menggunakan Amine Cycle, Unit Dehidrasi : menggunakan molecular sieve, Unit Refrigeran dan Pencairan : menggunakan MCR Coldbox Sumber dana investasi berasal dari modal sendiri sebesar 20 % biaya investasi dan pinjaman jangka pendek sebesar 80 % biaya investasi dengan bunga sebesar 12 % per tahun. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat hasil-hasil sebagai berikut : Investasi : 163,557 MUSD, Internal Rate of Return : 25.66 %, POT : 3.26 tahun, BEP : 58.86 %, NPV 10 year   :120

  9. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  10. Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant U. S. Department of Energy Office of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M. [Washington River Protection Solutions, P.O. Box 850, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix [1]. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility [2]. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling. This study [2] concluded that SBS direct disposal is a viable option to the WTP baseline. The results show: - Off-site transportation and disposal of the SBS condensate is achievable and cost effective. - Reduction of approximately 4,325 vitrified WTP Low Activity Waste canisters could be realized. - Positive WTP operational impacts; minimal WTP construction impacts are realized. - Reduction of mass flow from the LAW Facility to the Pretreatment Facility by 66%. - Improved Double Shell Tank (DST) space management is a benefit. (authors)

  11. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract

  12. About the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood in fluidized bed reactor for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants; Zur Vergasung von Rest- und Abfallholz in Wirbelschichtreaktoren fuer dezentrale Energieversorgungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, H.

    2005-10-20

    This dissertation examines the thermochemical conversion (gasification) of untreated scrap and waste wood in combustible gases for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants of low output (1 to 10 MW fuel power). A general section goes into the basics of the energetic utilization of solid biomass, the subprocesses of thermochemical conversion being described in more detail. Special attention is given to the processes and state of the art of biomass gasification in decentralized plants. A theoretical section analyzes the gasification models for solid biomass presented in the literature. Based on this analysis, a simplified kinetic model is derived for the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood with air in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. It includes a fluid mechanic analysis of the fluidized bed based on HILLIGARDT, an empirical pyrolysis model and a global kinetic approach to the main chemical reaction taken from the literature. An experimental section describes the tests of the gasification of forest scrap wood in a semi-industrial fluidized bed gasification test plant with 150 kW fuel power and presents the significant test results. The gasification model derived is applied to check the test plant's standard settings and compare them with measured values. Furthermore, the model is employed to explain basic reaction paths and zones and to perform concluding parameter simulations. (orig.)

  13. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  14. Macroeconomic Conditions and Capital Raising

    OpenAIRE

    Isil Erel; Brandon Julio; Woojin Kim; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    Do macroeconomic conditions affect firms' abilities to raise capital? If so, how do they affect the manner in which the capital is raised? We address these questions using a large sample of publicly-traded debt issues, seasoned equity offers, bank loans and private placements of equity and debt. Our results suggest that a borrower's credit quality significantly affects its ability to raise capital during macroeconomic downturns. For noninvestment-grade borrowers, capital raising tends to be p...

  15. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  16. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves

  17. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia – The impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated – two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides and for 40 K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ( 210 Pb and 40 K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, 226 Ra and 228 Ra. A part of 226 Ra input activity, unlike 228 Ra, was undetectable in the solid

  18. 1 The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The Effect of Camber Bed Drainage Landforms on Soil. Nutrient Distribution and Grain Yield of Maize on the Vertisols ... The Vertisols of the Accra Plains of Ghana are water logged after significant rainfall ... Excess application of 15-15-15 NPK and sulphate of ammonia fertilizers (150% .... beds, before planting and nutrient.

  19. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  20. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, fabrication/installation work, etc. were made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. Construction work of a pilot plant of coal gasification power generation was at its peak in April 1990, and installation/piping work for each facility/equipment was carried out. In May, transportation/installation of gas turbine and generator were started. In June, installation of equipment of the 66kV special high voltage switching station was conducted, and the initial power receiving of 6.9kV was conducted. In August, inspection before use was made of the main piping of the gasifier equipment, gas refining equipment and gas turbine equipment. In December, trial unit operation of each equipment and interlock test were carried out. 'The integrated plant protection interlock test' was made from January 21 to February 21, 1991, and the favorable results were obtained. On February 28, a ceremony to celebrate the completion of all facilities of pilot plant was made. In March, drying of gasifier and initial firing by light oil were conducted, and all the work was completed on March 25. (NEDO)

  1. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  2. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study; 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Yoso kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study was made for a pilot plant of 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification power generation, and the FY 1990 results were summarized. In the study by the gasification test on 2t/d furnace, gasification test was conducted for the OM coal newly selected as a coal proposed for the expansion of coal kind. As a result, the pulverized coal/char of OM coal have almost good handling property and showed favorable gasification performance. In the study of large gas turbine combustor for demonstrative machine, with the aim of developing a combustor that makes stable combustion also in the low load region possible, fabrication of the accessory equipment of combustor (choke mechanism, measuring use duct and heat insulating plate) was made for the actual-pressure/actual-size combustion test. In the study by simulation of the total system of combined cycle power generation, etc., the following were conducted: verification of characteristics of the integrated control (state of the ordinary operation, state of the mock load control, etc.), load dump simulation (state of the bleed cooperation, state of the bleed separation (state of the air booster operation, etc.)), etc. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1996 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 1 - Studies of dismantling and surveys of techniques); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Kaitai kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    For the establishment of technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle, studies were made for the dismantling of the 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant and surveys were conducted of overseas technologies. In the gasification furnace facility, 40 devices were selected, and dismantled, from the locations corresponding to the factors of damage expected to occur involving important equipment. Although no significant damage was detected in the gasification pressure vessel, peripheral walls, or the like, malfunctions due to corrosion or abrasion were discovered in some pipes and members. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (desulfurization facility), damage due to heat stress or corrosion was detected in the regeneration tower inner cyclone, regeneration tower filter flexible tubes, and in circulation gas cooler cooling tubes. In the dry type gas clean-up facility (dedusting facility), damage was found in the dust collector gas seal valve, dust collector filter materials cut valve, and in the separator A/B. In the gas turbine facility, no abnormality was discovered but for some damage in some initial stage static vanes. (NEDO)

  4. Soroepidemiologia da doença de Newcastle em plantéis de avestruzes dos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo Serologic occurrence of Newcastle disease in ostriches raised in Bahia and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Muniz Barretto Fernandes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sorológicos em Avestruzes (Struthio camelus são ferramentas úteis para analisar os riscos relacionados à Doença de Newcastle nesses plantéis e à avicultura nacional. No presente estudo, amostras de sangue foram obtidas de avestruzes de ambos os sexos, de diferentes faixas etárias e sem apresentação de sintomatologia clínica, criadas nos Estados da Bahia e de São Paulo com o objetivo de avaliar a presença de anticorpos contra o vírus da Doença de Newcastle por meio de ELISA indireto. Foram testadas 339 amostras provenientes do Estado da Bahia e 105 amostras do Estado de São Paulo. Apesar de os proprietários afirmarem que não foi utilizada vacina em seus animais, foi verificada positividade na Bahia de 17,9% e de 4,7% em São Paulo, em avestruzes, sugerindo contato com vírus vacinal ou de campo.Serological studies in ostriches (Struthio camelus are important tools to assess the risk of Newcastle disease in these herds and to the national poultry industry. In the present study blood samples were obtained from male and female ostriches without symptoms of the disease, raised in Bahia and São Paulo in order to evaluate the presence of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus using an indirect ELISA. There were collected 339 samples in Bahia and 105 samples in São Paulo. Although the owners guarantee that animals were not vaccinated, it was verified the presence 17,9% positives in Bahia and 4,7% in São Paulo, suggesting contact with vaccinal or field strain.

  5. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  6. Gypsum as a bedding source for broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three trials examined the feasibility of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a bedding material for raising broilers. Gypsum was used alone, under or on top of pine shavings and pine bark. Test materials were placed as bedding in pens to simulate commercial broiler production through three growout cy...

  7. Implications of Lessons Learned From Tobacco Control for Tanning Bed Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Tanning beds used according to the manufacturer’s instructions expose the user to health risks, including melanoma and other skin cancers. Applying the MPOWER model (monitor, protect, offer alternatives, warn, enforce, and raise taxes), which has been used in tobacco control, to tanning bed reform could reduce the number of people at risk of diseases associated with tanning bed use. Among the tactics available to government are restricting the use of tanning beds by people under age 18 and those with fair skin, increasing the price of tanning bed services through taxation, licensing tanning bed operators, and banning unsupervised tanning bed operations. PMID:23449282

  8. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  9. Effect of Planting Patterns' and Plant Population on Some of Morphological Traits, Harvest Index and Conservable Grain Yield of Sweet Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrolah Alhossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sweet corn is one of the most important crops in Iran and due to its short period of growth, it has been an important position after wheat and barley in khorasane Razavi Province. In this study two methods of planting (one raised bed and furrow planting and 3 plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plant/ha was evaluated on some of Morphological Traits, harvest index and conservable grain yield of sweet Corn(Chase and KSC403su Varieties in Torbat-e-Heidarie in saline (4.060ds/m condition on 2009. The experimental design was factorial based on RCBC with 4 replications. The result of ANOVA showed significant differences between Anthesis silking interval (ASI, tassel length, plant height, ear height, stem diameter, harvest index, and conservable grain yield of sweet corn varieties that effected by planting methods. the highest harvest index was belonged to Chase in 75000 Plant/ha on one raised bed planting method with 31.75% and the lowest mean was belonged to KSC403su in 85000 Plant/ha on furrow planting method with 14.93%. In addition the highest grain yield was belonged to chase variety at 75000 plant/ha and furrow planting method with 11.912 ton/ha, while the lowest grain yield was belonged to KSC403su variety at 85000 plant/ha and raised bed planting (3.610 ton/ha. The Chase variety was better than KSC403su Due to its canopy and photo period is shorter than KSC403su. The superiority of Chase variety can be related to better distribution of leaves, highest harvest index, conservable grain yield and plant arrangement in the row.

  10. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  11. Fluidised bed cereal cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Simon Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Man has been cooking food for thousands of years for a number of reasons: to improve flavour and palatability, sterilise, increase digestibility, improve texture and colour. Increasingly more advanced techniques are employed today in food production plants to engineer foods with many different properties. With this in mind manufacturers are constantly seeking to improve processing techniques and apply new or different technologies (such as microwaves, RF and extrusion) to develop foods with new properties (like puffed texture starches) and to increase process efficiencies (energy efficiency, water reduction). This thesis reports on work undertaken to demonstrate the potential to achieve high temperature starch conversion of whole wheat grains in a fluidised bed, thereby reducing the amount of water required and processing time. Specifically, wheat from the farm at 14% water content is cooked in a fluidised bed. The fluidised bed heats the wheat quickly by convective heating. In addition, energy can be delivered directly to the grain by microwave heating during fluidisation. Degree of starch conversion is determined by measuring the reduction in size of endotherm of reaction as observed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The fluidising gas, processing temperature and starting moisture content were varied in order to investigate their effect on the cooking process. A mathematical model based on energy and species concentration equations was developed to help understand the internal grain processes. The model coupled the thermal energy equation with water diffusion. The effect of water evaporation was represented as a thermal sink in the energy equation. Popular kinetic models from literature were adapted to predict the degree of starch conversion. The model gives solutions consistent with experimental data and physical intuition. A commercial computational fluid dynamics package was used to study simple airflow and particle tracks in the fluidisation column. A

  12. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  13. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc, Cl, F, and SO 4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form

  14. Analysis of the implementation of a sand bed type filter for the venting of a nuclear power plant; Analisis de la implementacion de un filtro tipo lecho de arena para el venteo de una central nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas V, D.; Sainz M, E.; Ortiz V, J., E-mail: delfy.cu@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The filtered venting of the containment has been adopted in European countries to mitigate the consequences derived from the excess pressure of the containment during a severe accident. When venting has taken place, the fission products are released directly into the environment, unless a filter is placed in the path of the same, so various types of filters are used to trap the fission products. The containment venting filters currently installed use different filtering technologies that involve more than one medium. Those who use water as the first stage of filtration are called wet systems, are equipped with additional stages to eliminate water drops and emissions of fine aerosols, and may even be equipped with an element that contains certain means of absorption for the gaseous iodine species filtration. Other designs, based on deep bed filtration as the main retention stage, called dry filters; use metal fiber, ceramic or sand filtration media to trap aerosols. The present work evaluates the hydraulic characteristics of the sand bed type filter designed by EDF as a candidate to be installed in the containment of the BWR Mark II (primary containment type of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant). The evaluation of the sand bed filter was performed using the OpenFOAM open source software package. Models of each zone of the filtering device were generated and by means of a series of parametric calculations of computational fluid mechanics, the relevant hydrodynamic characteristics of the device were obtained, such as pressure drops against mass flow and pressure fields and velocity under different operating conditions. On the other hand, the validation of the sand bed filter model was made when comparing the results of experimental tests carried out in a sand column of the PITEAS program (1985-1986) against the simulation in OpenFOAM. The results obtained are very close to those obtained experimentally. (Author)

  15. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Summary of tests and researches on pilot plant operation; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant unten shiken kenkyu no gaiyo hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    Tests and researches have been carried out on operation of a 200-t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant built with an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. The current fiscal year has performed the test operation on the pilot plant as a whole by using the coal D in continuation from the previous fiscal year. For the gasification furnace facilities, an air variation test was conducted for charging coal into the gasification furnace by using recovered oxygen, wherein satisfactory control was verified on oxygen concentration in the air supplied into the gasification furnace. In the gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing facilities), the total sulfur concentration at 300 to 650 ppm in the gas produced from the coal gasification furnace was refined to 30 to 100 ppm, having achieved the initial target value. The gas refining facilities (dry dust collecting facilities) have achieved satisfactory result that the entrance dust concentration at 66 to 270 mg/Nm{sup 3} was reduced to the exit dust concentration at 1 to 3 mg/Nm{sup 3}. With respect to the gas turbine facilities, the planned values of output and thermal efficiency were satisfied, having derived good performance characteristics. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 2. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant; 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 2. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and the FY 1989 results were summarized. As to the gasifier equipment, fabrication of a considerable number of the main equipment was finished. And, the equipment was sent into the coal gasification power plant and the installation work was done. Concerning gas refining facilities, fabrication of most of the components of the dry desulfurization system was finished, and further, fabrication of part of the piping prefabrication, disk and part of the disk fitting instrument was finished. The partial equipment of the dry dust removal system was also fabricated. About gas turbine facilities, the drawings necessary for each of the equipment fabricated/installed in this fiscal year were made, and at the same time a part of the technical data prepared so far was reviewed according to the progress of design. As to safety environmental facilities, installation work was done of gas treatment furnace, gas cooling system, buffer tank, desulfurizing tower, etc. Besides, design/technical study were made of the total control system, equipment of the indoor switching station, etc. (NEDO)

  17. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  18. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to clay seam G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2007-01-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to

  19. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  20. The impact of a tributary that carries high amounts of bed-load on the deposition of sediment downstream of a run-of river plant; Die Auswirkungen eines Geschiebe fuehrenden Zubringers auf die Verlandungssituation im Unterwasser eines Laufkraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Josef; Sindelar, Christine; Feldbacher, Rupert; Knoblauch, Helmut [TU Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft

    2011-07-01

    For guaranteeing a sustainable sediment management on a chain of run-of river plants in the Salzach valley in Austria nearly annual flushings have been performed. The sediments that are removed out of the reservoirs tend to deposit immediately downstream of the dams mainly at the outlet of the turbines due to widening or reduced slope. During the physical model tests, which were performed for the hydro power plant St. Veit, it could be observed that the boundary conditions were obviously wrong because in the prototype much more sediment was settled as in the model. A downstream located tributary was found responsible because of its dumping of high amounts of bed load into the river Salzach. This led to a backwater flow respectively reduced shear stresses. Further model tests resulted in a successful solution which mitigates the situation substantially. (orig.)

  1. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  2. Bedding Improves Yellow-Poplar Growth on Fragipan Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-poplar can be grown on soils that have a shallow fragipan--but unless such sites are bedded, growth is likely to be extremely poor. In a Tennessee study, bedding increased height of planted yellow-poplar over 5 years, but fertilizer did not. Because of the cost of bedding and the availability of nonfragipan sites, it would ordinarily be better not to plant...

  3. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Practice Hospital Bed Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... It depends on the complexity of the bed." Safety Tips CDRH offers the following safety tips for ...

  4. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  5. Advances in fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) has advanced into industrial cogeneration and utility-scale electric generation. During the 1980's AFBC became the dominant technology in the United States for power generation systems fired with solid fuels. Development of pressurized fluidized bed combustion/gasification (PFB/G) has grown rapidly from small bench-scale rigs to large pilot and demonstration plants. AFBC as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized combustion systems generating 80 MWe have started up two years ago. The major driving forces behind development of fluidized bed technologies are all the time strictening emission control regulations, need for fuel flexibility, repowering of older power plants and need for higher efficiency in electricity generation. Independent power producers (IPP) and cogenerators were the first ones in the United States who accepted AFBC for wide commercial use. Their role will be dominant in the markets of the 1990's also. Developers of AFBC systems are working on designs that reduce investment costs, decrease emissions and offer even higher reliability and availability in utility-scale applications while developers of PFBC/G work on designs that increase plant efficiencies, allow modular construction, decrease emissions further and reduce the cost of generating power. This paper presents technological background, commercial status, boiler performance, emissions and future developments for both AFBC and PFBC/G systems

  6. Raising the Bar for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jal; Doctor, Joe

    2013-01-01

    The past year has seen the emergence of a broad consensus on raising the standards for entering the teaching profession. The NEA, AFT, and Council of Chief State School Officers all have said they want higher entry standards. Such an exam would be modeled after other professions and is a potential game changer. If sufficiently rigorous, the exam…

  7. Fund Raising: An International Feast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Valorie; Marshall, Gene

    The procedure for planning an international dinner to raise funds and publicize foreign language study is described. The project, which netted several hundred dollars for a high school in North Dakota, involves careful planning over a period of months. Publicity and facilities are discussed, and the various culinary and other jobs to be…

  8. Implications of Lessons Learned From Tobacco Control for Tanning Bed Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Craig; Makin, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Tanning beds used according to the manufacturer?s instructions expose the user to health risks, including melanoma and other skin cancers. Applying the MPOWER model (monitor, protect, offer alternatives, warn, enforce, and raise taxes), which has been used in tobacco control, to tanning bed reform could reduce the number of people at risk of diseases associated with tanning bed use. Among the tactics available to government are restricting the use of tanning beds by people under age 18 and th...

  9. Fiscal 1995 achievement report. Development of entrained bed coal gasification power plant (Part 3 - Pilot plant operational test - 2/2); 1995 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The 200 tons/day entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant constructed for establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle was subjected to operational tests, and the fiscal 1995 results are detailed. During Runs D13, D14, E1, D15, and A14 in the operational test of the gas clean-up facility (dry type dedusting facility), 10 troubles occurred, including damage of the separator screen, leak in the seal valve, and leak of the expansion gas, and measures were taken to deal with each of the troubles. The results of the gas turbine facility operational test were satisfactory, without any trouble worth discussion. In the operational test of the safety/environment-related facility, it was found that the produced gas was stably incinerated and that denitration performance during gas turbine operation roughly achieved the intended level. In the operational test of electric and control facilities, an overall test was conducted, inspection was made of the indoor switching facility, etc., and 13 improvements were made, which included the alteration of the high ANN setting in the water tank for slag, the alteration of the mill exit temperature setting for enabling the use of Taiheiyo coal, and proper methods for carrying out high-load operation. (NEDO)

  10. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 1/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and drawings of fabrication/installation in the FY 1989 were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: layout of the total system and the yard, gasifier facilities (assembly drawing of the pressure part of gasifier, drawing of machinery arrangement of gasifier facilities, system diagram of raw coal receiving device, system diagram of pulverized coal feed equipment, system diagram of char feed equipment, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry desulfurizer (assembly drawing of desulfurizing agent carrying filter, assembly drawing of regeneration tower filter, structural drawing of SO{sub 2} reduction tower filter, assembly drawing of start-up heater, etc.), gas refining facilities - dry dust removal system (assembly drawing of No.1 dust separation filter, installation drawing of elevator, etc.), gas turbine facilities (cross section of gas turbine, front view of gas turbine, structural cross section of gas turbogenerator, etc.), actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of test stand, structural drawing of exhaust temperature reduction device, assembly/sectioned drawing of low-pressure air compressor, etc.) (NEDO)

  11. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gas turbine facilities, the following were conducted: tests 1 and 2 on light-oil firing characteristics, test on coal gas ignition, tests on fuel change/gas firing, test on fuel change. And, 12 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, tests on hot air device/air heating device and tests 1-3 on light-oil firing were carried out, and 7 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of safety environment facilities, tests were made of RUN 3-6, RUN 7 (1 and 2), RUN 8 (1-4) and RUN 9 (1-3), and 20 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of electric/control facilities, items of improvement were reported of gasifier facilities, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual pressure/actual size combustor testing facilities, safety environment facilities and total control facilities. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Adjustment of the operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken chosei hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    The adjustment was made of the operation test of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the results were reported. As to the adjustment of the operation test of gasifier facilities, the light-oil firing test and tests of RUN 1-9 were conducted, and the paper reported cases of 49-item troubles, the causes, measures against them, improvement of facilities, etc. For slagging, operation conditions, improvement of various facilities, etc. were studied. Relating to the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry desulfurization facilities), the following were carried out: test on empty column gas circulation, test on desulfurizer circulation characteristics, test on SO2 reduction tower, test on warming-up characteristics, tests 1-3 on initial performance, tests on change in gas turbine fuel and loads. And, 21 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. Concerning the adjustment of the operation test of gas refining facilities (dry dedusting facilities), the following were conducted: test on non-load sequence, test on confirmation prior to letting gas through, tests 1-3 on initial performance, test on dedusting characteristics. And, 22 cases of troubles, the causes and measures against them were reported. (NEDO)

  13. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (1/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (1/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. At RUN 10, conducted were the confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier in the coal-fired high load operation and coal-fired constant load operation, and slagging survey. At RUN 11, the evaluation made after the work for prevention of slagging, and confirmation of the quantity of state of gasifier at a load of 80% heat input. At RUN 12, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and test on the high load stable operation. At RUN 13, the evaluation of the measures taken against slagging, and large combustor response/total pressure control response tests. At RUN D1, test on the change of coal kind from A coal to D coal, and test on the initial adjusting operation of D coal. In the trial operation of these, the following were generated and the preventive measures were studied: impossibility of circulation of desulfurizing agent in gas refining facilities (dry desulfurizing system), bolt fracture of gas refining facilities (separator of dedusting facilities). (NEDO)

  14. FY 1989 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1989 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout scheme drawing, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, outline drawing of operation control panel, operator console of the integrated load pressure control system, operator console of the integrated sequential control system, central control panel, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of cooler control panel of the main transformer, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the equipment cooling water pipe system, diagram of the fire-extinguishing water pipe system, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, common facilities, etc. (NEDO)

  15. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Operation test of pilot plant (2/2); 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant unten shiken hen (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The study of operation test was made of the 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant that was constructed with the aim of establishing technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, and the details of the FY 1992 results were summarized. As to the test of gas turbine facilities, at RUN 10, the scheduled test on coal gas mixed combustion continuous operation/coal gas fired operation was not carried out because of the worsening of the state of gasifier operation. The operation was just made for a short time. At RUN 11, it was confirmed that the motion of equipment in the bleeding system was good at the time of the bleeding cooperation test and there was no anomaly also in the state of gas turbine operation. At RUN 12, it was confirmed that the motion of load/pressure control functions was normal in the state of GT load of about 5MW. At RUN 13, it was confirmed that the control function of GT governor was confirmed in the total pressure control test. As a result of the operation test of these, items of improvement were extracted for actual pressure/actual size combustor facilities, safety environment facilities and electric/control facilities. The measures taken for each item were studied. (NEDO)

  16. FY 1990 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 3. Fabrication/installation of pilot plant (Fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures - 2/2); 1990 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 3. Pilot plant seisaku suetsuke hen (Seisaku suetsukezu oyobi seisaku suetsuke shashin) (2/2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the fabrication, installation work, etc. were conducted of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, and fabrication/installation drawings and fabrication/installation pictures were summarized. In fabrication/installation drawings, drawings of the following were included: actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment (structural drawing of exhaust temperature reducing device, structural drawing of hot air device, system diagram of piping, etc.), safety environmental equipment (total system diagram, layout of electric room equipment, layout of control equipment room, etc.), total control system (structural drawing of the total control system, front view of auxiliary panel of safety environment equipment, etc.), 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities (layout of equipment of indoor switching station facilities, outline drawing of the main transformer, outline drawing of gas circuit breaker, etc.), common facilities (total layout, diagram of the nitrogen gas pipe system, system diagram of utility equipment, etc.) In pictures of fabrication/installation, pictures of the following were included: state of the construction work, gasifier equipment, gas refining facilities, gas turbine facilities, actual-pressure/actual-size combustor test equipment, safety environmental equipment, total control system, 66kV/6.9kV indoor switching station facilities, common facilities. (NEDO)

  17. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  18. Remembering Irving I. Gottesman: Twin Research Colleague and Friend Extraordinaire/Research Studies: Face-Lift Technique Comparison in Identical Twins; Raising Preterm Twins; Fetal Behavior in Dichorionic Twin Pregnancies; Co-Bedding and Stress Reduction in Twins/Public Interest: Identical Co-Twins' Same Day Delivery; Teaching Twins in Bosnia; Twin Auctioneers; Sister, the Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-12-01

    Dr Irving I. Gottesman, a colleague, friend, and long-time member of the International Society of Twin Studies passed away on June 29, 2016. His contributions to twin research and some personal reflections are presented to honor both the man and the memory. This tribute is followed by short reviews of twin research concerning differences between cosmetic surgical techniques, the rearing of preterm twins, behavioral observations of dichorionic fetal twins, and the outcomes of co-bedding twins with reference to stress reduction. Interesting and informative articles in the media describe identical co-twins who delivered infants on the same day, educational policies regarding twins in Bosnia and the United Kingdom, unusual practices of twin auctioneers, and a theatrical production, Sister, featuring identical twins in the leading roles.

  19. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  20. MIT pebble bed reactor project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadak, Andrew C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The conceptual design of the MIT modular pebble bed reactor is described. This reactor plant is a 250 Mwth, 120 Mwe indirect cycle plant that is designed to be deployed in the near term using demonstrated helium system components. The primary system is a conventional pebble bed reactor with a dynamic central column with an outlet temperature of 900 C providing helium to an intermediate helium to helium heat exchanger (IHX). The outlet of the IHX is input to a three shaft horizontal Brayton Cycle power conversion system. The design constraint used in sizing the plant is based on a factory modularity principle which allows the plant to be assembled 'Lego' style instead of constructed piece by piece. This principle employs space frames which contain the power conversion system that permits the Lego-like modules to be shipped by truck or train to sites. This paper also describes the research that has been conducted at MIT since 1998 on fuel modeling, silver leakage from coated fuel particles, dynamic simulation, MCNP reactor physics modeling and air ingress analysis.

  1. MIT pebble bed reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadak, Andrew C.

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual design of the MIT modular pebble bed reactor is described. This reactor plant is a 250 Mwth, 120 Mwe indirect cycle plant that is designed to be deployed in the near term using demonstrated helium system components. The primary system is a conventional pebble bed reactor with a dynamic central column with an outlet temperature of 900 C providing helium to an intermediate helium to helium heat exchanger (IHX). The outlet of the IHX is input to a three shaft horizontal Brayton Cycle power conversion system. The design constraint used in sizing the plant is based on a factory modularity principle which allows the plant to be assembled 'Lego' style instead of constructed piece by piece. This principle employs space frames which contain the power conversion system that permits the Lego-like modules to be shipped by truck or train to sites. This paper also describes the research that has been conducted at MIT since 1998 on fuel modeling, silver leakage from coated fuel particles, dynamic simulation, MCNP reactor physics modeling and air ingress analysis

  2. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 2. Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 2. Dai 3 hen kenkyu unten seika to sono hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 3: Results of the study operation and the evaluation, the following were summarized on gasifier: gasification performance of 200 t/d furnace, operation ability of the bituminous coal supply system, stability of char recovery, deposition of slag and char in furnace, discharge characteristics of molten slag, operation characteristics, etc. The following on gas refining facilities: dry desulfurizer, dust remover, new gas refining equipment (fixed bed dust removal/desulfurization system, packed bed desulfuriztion/dust removal system), etc. The following on gas turbine facilities: 12.5 MW gas turbine, large gas turbine, large gas turbine combustor, etc. Additionally, the paper summarized the control system and total function, operation characteristics of the whole pilot plant, relations of environmental preservation, study of the effective slag utilization, collection/study of unfavorable conditions/troubles and matters for the reflection, etc. (NEDO)

  3. FY 1992 report on the results of the development of an entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/Technical survey; 1992 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, element study of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant was made, and the FY 1992 results were summarized. In the gasification test using a 2 t/d furnace equipment, study was made of the extraction of subjects on the operation, performance of gasification, slagging characteristics and characteristics of flux addition. In the study of slag utilization technology, chemical analysis, test on fine aggregate and test on fine particle were carried out to study applicability of the slag discharged from the entrained bed coal gasification power plant to various materials. In the study of a large gas turbine combustor for the demonstrative machine, the demonstrative machine use large gas turbine combustor testing equipment was installed at actual pressure/actual size combustion testing facilities in the pilot plant and further the test use combustor was integrated into them. By using them, the real gas combustion test was made using the adjusted coal for evaluation of combustion performance of the test use combustor. In the simulation study of the total pilot plant system, the comparative study was made between the data on the test using the actual machine and the results of the simulation. (NEDO)

  4. Crescimento do morangueiro: influência da cultivar e da posição da planta no canteiro Strawberry growth: effect of cultivar and plant position in the bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Samuel Strassburger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de cultivares de morangueiro em sistema de cultivo orgânico, observando a influência da posição da planta no canteiro sobre a produção acumulada e a partição de massa seca entre os órgãos aéreos das plantas. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de dois fatores experimentais: cultivar ('Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real' e a posição das plantas no canteiro (Central e Bordadura. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas divididas e quatro repetições. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior produção de massa seca dos órgãos aéreos das plantas (62,3; 27,5 e 88,0g planta-1 para folha, coroa e frutos, respectivamente e, juntamente com a 'Aromas', maior produtividade (64,2 e 59,1Mg ha-1, respectivamente. A cultivar 'Aromas' apresentou a maior contribuição proporcional dos frutos para a composição do total de massa seca da planta (60,6% e o maior índice de colheita (88%. A posição das plantas não influenciou o crescimento e a produtividade, indicando ausência de efeito de bordadura para as cultivares 'Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real'.The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth of strawberry cultivars growing in organic crop system observing the influence of plant position in the bed on accumulated dry matter production and its partitioning among the aboveground plant organs. The experiment was conducted in Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. The treatments were compose by the combination of two experimental factors: cultivar ('Aromas', 'Albion', 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' and plant position in the bed (Central and Border. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with split-plots and four replications. 'Camarosa' cultivar presented highest dry mass

  5. Fluidised bed combustion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion systems that facilitates the maintenance of the depth of the bed are described. A discharge pipe projects upwardly into the bed so that bed material can flow into its upper end and escape downwardly. The end of the pipe is surrounded by an enclosure and air is discharged into the enclosure so that material will enter the pipe from within the enclosure and have been cooled in the enclosure by the air discharged into it. The walls of the enclosure may themselves be cooled

  6. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  7. Williston Reservoir raising - environmental overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This preliminary environmental overview report was prepared by B.C. Hydro in June 1987 and revised in July 1988 as an initial assessment of a possible 1.5 m (5 ft.) raise in the Williston Reservoir maximum normal level. The enviromental overview study and the associated engineering and property studies were undertaken to provide information for a decision on whether to initiate more detailed studies. Overview studies are based mainly on available reports, mapping and field data, supplemented by limited site reconnaissance and, in this case, input from key agencies and groups. The lack of adequate mapping of areas which could be affected by reservoir raising did not permit definitive conclusion to be reached. This mapping will be done over the next year to complete the overview assessment. This document covers the impact assessment of socio-economic factors, forestry, reservoir clearing, heritage, recreation, aquatic resources, and wilflife. Further studies in each of these areas are also included. 54 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Does bedding promote pine survival and growth on ditched wet sands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph A. Klawitter

    1970-01-01

    Results from a study of prepared beds for planting slash pine on a wet sandy flat in Florida were inconclusive. Early growth was improved, but survival was not; and differences between a bedded site and an unbedded site were slight.

  9. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0 degree, ±45 degrees relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole

  10. Field and laboratory investigations of coring-induced damage in core recovered from Marker Bed 139 at the waste isolation pilot plant underground facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, D.J.; Zeuch, D.H.; Morin, K.; Hardy, R.; Tormey, T.V.

    1995-09-01

    A combined laboratory and field investigation was carried out to determine the extent of coring-induced damage done to samples cored from Marker Bed 139 at the WIPP site. Coring-induced damage, if present, has the potential to significantly change the properties of the material used for laboratory testing relative to the in situ material properties, resulting in misleading conclusions. In particular, connected, crack-like damage could make the permeability of cored samples orders of magnitude greater than the in situ permeabilities. Our approach compared in situ velocity and resistivity measurements with laboratory measurements of the same properties. Differences between in situ and laboratory results could be attributed to differences in the porosity due to cracks. The question of the origin of the changes could not be answered directly from the results of the measurements. Pre-existing cracks, held closed by the in situ stress, could open when the core was cut free, or new cracks could be generated by coring-induced damage. We used core from closely spaced boreholes at three orientations (0{degree}, {plus_minus}45{degrees} relative to vertical) to address the origin of cracks. The absolute orientation of pre-existing cracks would be constant, independent of the borehole orientation. In contrast, cracks induced by coring were expected to show an orientation dependent on that of the source borehole.

  11. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  12. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailler, R., E-mail: romain.mailler@siaap.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Gasperi, J., E-mail: gasperi@u-pec.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Coquet, Y. [SAUR, Direction de la Recherche et du Développement, 1 rue Antoine Lavoisier, 78064 Guyancourt (France); Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 CNRS, Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Deshayes, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); LCPP (Laboratoire Central de la Préfecture de Police), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Zedek, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m{sup 3}/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO{sub 2}{sup −}. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22

  13. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailler, R.; Gasperi, J.; Coquet, Y.; Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E.; Deshayes, S.; Zedek, S.

    2016-01-01

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m"3/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO_2"−. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22/32), i

  14. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In

    2016-01-01

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation

  15. Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler system part II: Simulation of a boiler system operating in a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Il; Choi, Sang Min; Yang, Jong In [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    A case of dynamic performance simulation model of a CFB boiler is presented in this study. The dynamic system of a CFB boiler in an operating power plant and the transient behavior of sub-models is described in the accompanying paper, Part I. The current paper, Part II, describes the model extension for the CFB boiler system in a power plant. The open loop model in Paper I was expanded by applying a set of PID (Proportional-integral-differential) control loops. In the control loop, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate of the main steam, the drum water level and the oxygen level at the stack were controlled. Dynamic performance was simulated to check the response of the closed control loop. Finally, performance of the total boiler system for a range of operation load of the power plant was simulated, where the parameters were calculated and control variables were maintained at the set values by PID control. Dynamic performance of a boiler at a selected load variation case was simulated and compared with actual measurements and their transient response characteristics were discussed. The simulation can also directly produce useful operation parameters, which are not measurable, but could be used for engineering evaluation.

  16. Fluidized bed incineration of transuranic contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A 9 kg/hr pilot scale fluidized bed incinerator is now being used for burning various types of radioactive waste at Rocky Flats Plant. General solid combustible waste containing halogenated materials is burned in a fluidized bed of sodium carbonate for in situ neutralization of thermally generated acidic gases. A variety of other production related materials has been burned in the incinerator, including ion exchange resin, tributyl phosphate solutions, and air filters. Successful operation of the pilot plant incinerator has led to the design and construction of a production site unit to burn 82 kg/hr of plant generated waste. Residues from incinerator operations will be processed into glass buttons utilizing a vitrification plant now under development

  17. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  18. Leito de drenagem: sistema natural para redução de volume de lodo de estação de tratamento de água Draining beds: natural system for sludge volume reduction in the water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali Laguna Achon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs tem funcionamento semelhante a uma indústria e podem em diversas etapas gerar resíduos que, na maioria das ETAs, são lançados nos corpos d’água sem tratamento. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de Leitos de Drenagem, para o desaguamento de lodo, provenientes de ETAs de ciclo completo que empregam sulfato de alumínio e cloreto de polialumínio (PACl, como coagulantes. Analisou-se as características, a drenagem e secagem dos amostras de lodo e característica do drenado. Os Leitos de Drenagem mostraram-se eficientes para desaguamento e redução de volume de lodo de ETA, de forma natural, sem consumo de energia ou adição de produtos químicos. Obteve-se, aos sete dias, reduções da ordem de 87 % em volume para os lodos de PACl e 83 % para o lodo de Sulfato de Alumínio e teor de sólidos totais 28% e 31% respectivamente.In this work the performance of Draining Beds for sludge dewatering was assessed. The sludge was provided from full cycle Water Treatment Plants (WTPs that employ aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl as coagulants. The characteristics, drainage and drying of samples of sludge and characteristic of drained were analysed. The Draining Beds were shown to be efficient for dewatering and sludge volume reduction in the WTP, in a natural way, without energy consumption or adding of chemical products. On the seventh day, it was possible to obtain reduction around 87% in volume for PACl sludge and 83% for the aluminum sulfate sludge and total solids content of 28 and 31% respectively.

  19. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations

  20. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  1. Characterization of Porteresia coarctata beds along the Goa coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Bhosale, S.H.; Charulata, S.

    Porteresia coarctata, forms an important constituent in the plant succession leading to formation of mangrove communities along the estuaries in India. Major beds along the Mandovi estuary of Goa were monitored for their various ecological...

  2. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Europe. Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not ... Health – Division of Parasitic Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  3. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  4. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  5. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.

    2013-01-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  6. Effect of various drying bed on thermodynamic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study thermodynamic parameter and energy consumption in drying of two plant dill and mint in three bed drying including fix, semi fix and fluid with using a hot air drying was investigated. Experimental was conducted in three bed drying including fix, semi fix and fluid and four levels temperature (30, 40, 50 and 60 °C. Maximum energy consumption in dill drying at 40 °C and fluid bed to be 16.41 MJ and minimum energy consumption at 30 °C and fix bed to be 2.77 MJ. Also minimum energy consumption in mint drying at 60 °C and fix bed to be 3.64 MJ and maximum energy consumption at 40 °C and fluid bed to be 28.65 MJ. The highest energy, drying and thermal efficiency for both mint and dill was achieved at 60 °C on the fixed bed, whereas the lowest efficiency was at 40 °C and on the fluidized bed. Also the highest power and specific heat consumption for both mint and dill was achieved at 40 °C on the fluid bed, whereas the lowest efficiency was at 30 °C and on the fluidized bed.

  7. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  8. Combustion gas from biomass - innovative plant concepts on the basis of circulating fluidized bed gasification; Brenngas aus Biomasse - innovative Anlagenkonzepte auf Basis der Zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The contribution describes the applications of the Lurgi-ZWS gas generator. There are three main fields of application: Direct feeding of combustion gas, e.g. into a rotary kiln, as a substitute for coal or oil, without either dust filtering or gas purification. - Feeding of the combustion gas into the steam generator of a coal power plant after dust filtering and, if necessar, filtering of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. - Combustion in a gas turbine or gas engine after gas purification according to specifications. The applications are described for several exemplary projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird ueber die Anwendung des Lurgi-ZWS-Gaserzeugers berichtet. Nach heutiger Sicht stehen drei Anwendungsgebiete im Vordergrund: - direkte Einspeisung des Brenngases in z.B. einen Zementdrehrohrofen zur Substitution von Kohle oder Oel, ohne Entstaubung und Gasreinigung. - Einspeisung des Brenngases nach Entstaubung und gegebenenfalls Entfernung weiterer Komponenten wie NH{sub 3} oder H{sub 2}S in den Dampferzeuger eines Kohlekraftwerkes - Einsatz des Brenngases in einer Gasturbine oder Gasmotor nach spezifikationsgerechter Gasreinigung. Die aufgefuehrten Einsatzmoeglichkeiten werden am Beispiel von Projekten beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  9. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Performance of Sandy Dry Beds for sludge dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muzaini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sludge produced by the Jahra treatment plant was assessed. The assessment was directed at determining the performance of sand drying beds. The assessment of quality of the sludge produced was based on the standards for land application of sewage sludge. Analyses were carried out for trace heavy metals and bacteria. The results of analyses showed that the sludge produced was high in organic matter and sand content but low in heavy metals. The collected data indicated that the sand drying beds at the Jahra treatment plant are at present inadequate to handle the projected sludge production. The investigation showed that the sand drying beds are fully used and the plant will require 3-4 times the capacity of the existing drying beds when the plant becomes fully operational. In addition, these sand drying beds are subjected to uncontrollable conditions such as temperature, rainfall and sludge drainage rate. Thus, sand drying beds have become less popular as a dewatering system. This paper evaluates the performance of the existing sand drying beds and suggests the most appropriate technology to alleviate the above mentioned problems. (author)

  11. Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization using Ca(OH)2 in a fluidized bed reactor with bed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Oak; Roh, Hak Jae; Oh, Chang Sup; Kim, Yong Ha

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of present work is to reduce sulfur dioxide emission from power plant for the environment protection. The fluidized bed (FB) was used as the reactor with bed materials in a new semi-dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency (>98%). Fine powder of Ca(OH) 2 as sorbent and water were continuously fed separately to the bed reactor where bed materials (2 mm glass beads) were fluidized vigorously with flue gas (flow 720 Nm 3 / hr) using bench scale plant of stainless steel column. We have investigated different effects of water injection flow rate, Ca/ S molar ratio and weight of bed materials on SO 2 removal. The increments in the Ca/ S molar ratio and water injection flow rate have been resulted higher desulfurization efficiency with certain disadvantages such as higher sorbent cost and lower temperature of the treated flue gas, respectively. (author)

  12. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future fusion power plants. A thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds is mandatory for understanding the behaviour of pebble beds, and thus the overall blanket, under fusion environment conditions. The mechanical behaviour of pebble beds is typically explored with uni-axial, bi-axial and tri-axial compression experiments. The latter two types of experiment are particularly revealing since they contain explicitly, beyond a compression behaviour of the bed, information on the conditions for pebble flow, i.e. macroscopic relocation, in the pebble bed. (orig.)

  13. Pebble-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohnert, G.; Mueller-Frank, U.; Heil, J.

    1976-01-01

    A pebble-bed nuclear reactor of large power rating comprises a container having a funnel-shaped bottom forming a pebble run-out having a centrally positioned outlet. A bed of downwardly-flowing substantially spherical nuclear fuel pebbles is positioned in the container and forms a reactive nuclear core maintained by feeding unused pebbles to the bed's top surface while used or burned-out pebbles run out and discharge through the outlet. A substantially conical body with its apex pointing upwardly and its periphery spaced from the periphery of the container spreads the bottom of the bed outwardly to provide an annular flow down the funnel-shaped bottom forming the runout, to the discharge outlet. This provides a largely constant downward velocity of the spheres throughout the diameter of the bed throughout a substantial portion of the down travel, so that all spheres reach about the same burned-out condition when they leave the core, after a single pass through the core area

  14. Fluidised bed heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.E.; Healey, E.M.; Roberts, A.G.

    1974-01-01

    Problems that have arisen during the initial stages of development of fluidised bed boilers in which heat transfer surfaces are immersed in fluidised solids are discussed. The very high heat transfer coefficients that are obtained under these conditions can be exploited to reduce the total heat transfer surface to a fraction of that in normal boilers. However, with the high heat flux levels involved, tube stressing becomes more important and it is advantageous to use smaller diameter tubes. One of the initial problems was that the pumping power absorbed by the fluidised bed appeared to be high. The relative influence of the fluidising velocity (and the corresponding bed area), tube diameter, tube spacing, heat transfer coefficient and bed temperature on pumping power and overall cost was determined. This showed the importance of close tube packing and research was undertaken to see if this would adversely affect the heat transfer coefficient. Pressure operation also reduces the pumping power. Fouling and corrosion tests in beds burning coal suggest that higher temperatures could be reached reliably and cost studies show that, provided the better refractory metals are used, the cost of achieving higher temperatures is not unduly high. It now remains to demonstrate at large scale that the proposed systems are viable and that the methods incorporated to overcome start up and part lead running problems are satisfactory. The promising role of these heat transfer techniques in other applications is briefly discussed

  15. Dryout heat flux experiments with deep heterogeneous particle bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.; Holmstroem, S.; Miettinen, J.; Lestinen, V.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Pankakoski, P.; Sjoevall, H.

    2006-01-01

    A test facility has been constructed at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) to simulate as accurately as possible the ex-vessel core particle bed in the conditions of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The STYX particle bed reproduces the anticipated depth of the bed and the size range of particles having irregular shape. The bed is immersed in water, creating top flooding conditions, and internally heated by an array of electrical resistance heating elements. Dryout tests have been successfully conducted at 0.1-0.7 MPa pressure for both uniformly mixed and stratified bed geometries. In all tests, including the stratified ones, the dry zone first formed near the bottom of the bed. The measured dryout heat fluxes increased with increasing pressure, from 232 kW/m 2 at near atmospheric pressure to 451 kW/m 2 at 0.7 MPa pressure. The data show some scatter even for the uniform bed. The tests with the stratified bed indicate a clear reduction of critical power due to the presence of a layer of small particles on top of the uniform bed. Comparison of data with various critical power (dryout heat flux) correlations for porous media shows that the most important parameter in the models is the effective particle diameter. Adiabatic debris bed flow resistance measurements were conducted to determine the most representative particle diameter. This diameter is close, but not equal, to the particle number-weighted average diameter of the bed material. With it, uniform bed data can be calculated to within an accuracy of 3-28% using Lipinski's 0-D model. In the stratified bed experiments, it appears that the top layer was partially fluidized, hence the measured critical power was significantly higher than calculated. Future experiments are being planned with denser top layer material to eliminate non-prototypic fluidization

  16. FY 1991 report on the results of the development of the entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element study/investigational study of technology/study of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power system; 1991 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen, sekitan gaska fukugo hatsuden system kento hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    For the purpose of establishing the technology of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power generation, the following were conducted: element study of a 200t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant, survey of technology of the coal gasification power generation, study of the practical scale IGCC, etc. The FY 1991 results were summarized. In the gasification test using 2t/d furnace equipment, evaluation test on the test coal for pilot plant was made. In the study of gas turbine combustor for demonstration machine use, measuring duct was fabricated for measurement of combustion gas temperature/pressure, etc. In the simulational study of the total system of combined cycle power generation, review/modification of part of the simulation model and detailing of the model were conducted by comparison with the data on pilot plant operation. In the technology study, joint technology conferences were held for discussions between Japan and Australia, Japan and the U.S., and Japan and Canada. As to the practical scale IGCC, the initially planned output capacity and thermal efficiency were studied based on the knowledge/information obtained through the R and D on the 200t/d pilot plant. (NEDO)

  17. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish...

  18. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research and technology survey edition; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    With an objective of establishing a coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D works have been carried out on elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. In the research on the slag utilization technology, discussions were given on the applicability of slag discharged from a 200 t/d pilot plant to fine aggregate for concrete. In the research on a large gas turbine combustor for a demonstration plant, the test conditions were discussed and the reliability of the combustor was analyzed to conduct an actual gas combustion test using the coal D in continuation from the test in the previous fiscal year. In the research on the simulation of a composite power generation system, the simulation models were reviewed and corrected. Load variation simulations were carried out on every operation mode to have conducted comparison with and discussion on the actual plant data. In order to clarify the slagging phenomenon in the 200 t/d pilot plant, a characteristics test was performed by using a 2 t/d furnace. As a result, the combustor ash load and the dynamic pressure in the axial direction in the throat section were presumed to be the large factors for the occurrence of slagging. (NEDO)

  20. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  1. Influence of operating pressure on the biological hydrogen methanation in trickle-bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Timo; Lindner, Jonas; Bär, Katharina; Mörs, Friedemann; Graf, Frank; Lemmer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of pressures up to 9bar absolute on the productivity of trickle-bed reactors for biological methanation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide, experiments were carried out in a continuously operated experimental plant with three identical reactors. The pressure increase promises a longer residence time and improved mass transfer of H 2 due to higher gas partial pressures. The study covers effects of different pressures on important parameters like gas hourly space velocity, methane formation rate, conversion rates and product gas quality. The methane content of 64.13±3.81vol-% at 1.5bar could be increased up to 86.51±0.49vol-% by raising the pressure to 9bar. Methane formation rates of up to 4.28±0.26m 3 m -3 d -1 were achieved. Thus, pressure increase could significantly improve reactor performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of bed-furrow intervention in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A.

    2015-01-01

    The successful implementation of bed- furrow, a resource conservation intervention (RCI), for rice-wheat cropping system has become the prime goal for researchers and cultivators by developing bed- seeded crops in South Asia. The paper reviews the output, need, methods, merits, demerits and constraints for adopting bed-furrow RCI in Pakistan. The potential of this intervention and the issues of adopting permanent raised beds have also explored in the study. The application of Bed-furrow is only limited to few hectares for field demonstrations and research in Pakistan. The findings of research reveal substantial enhancement in output and profitability by including residue straw mulching on bed-furrow. The strategies that enhance the adoption, merits and output of bed- furrow for Pakistan in particular are as follows: i) selection of rice germ-plasm in aerobic circumstances gives improved output, ii) Provision of accurate and efficient seed and fertilizer at economical cost by improving the design etc. of four wheel tractors, iii) The scope and use of bed-furrow should be further enhanced by taking onboard all the state holders including farmers, agronomist, engineers, machine operators and manufacturers. Data collection and monitoring should be properly carried out for its sustainable usage within the region of South Asia and iv) to enhance the areas of farms where bed-furrow is suitable for their growing cops, soil and topographic conditions, thus offers economic profit and output/productivity. The participation and consultation of all the stake holders including farmers, researchers, equipment operator is utmost important to manage hurdles for acquiring potential benefits, productivity and sustainability of bed- furrow intervention. (author)

  3. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  4. A uranium bed with ceramic body for tritium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khapov, A.S.; Grishechkin, S.K.; Kiselev, V.G. [' All Russia Research Institute of Automatics' - FSUE VNIIA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    It is widely recognized that ceramic coatings provide an attractive solution to lower tritium permeation in structural materials. Alumina based ceramic coatings have the highest permeation reduction factor for hydrogen. For this reason an attempt was made to apply crack-free low porous ceramics as a structural material of a bed body for tritium storage in a setup used for hydrogenating neutron tube targets at VNIIA. The present article introduces the design of the bed. This bed possesses essentially a lower hydrogen permeation factor than traditionally beds with stainless steel body. Bed heating in order to recover hydrogen from the bed is suggested to be implemented by high frequency induction means. Inductive heating allows decreasing the time necessary for tritium release from the bed as well as power consumption. Both of these factors mean less thermal power release into glove box where a setup for tritium handling is installed and thus causes fewer problems with pressure regulations inside the glove box. Inductive heating allows raising tritium sorbent material temperature up to melting point. The latter allows achieving nearly full tritium recovery.

  5. Fluidized bed calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheely, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    A unique way to convert radioactive scrap into useful nuclear fuel products was developed for the Department of Energy at Hanford. An advanced, fluidized bed calciner is used to convert metallic nitrate scrap or waste solutions into benign, solid and gaseous products. There are broad potential applications of this concept beyond those in the nuclear industry

  6. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  7. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  8. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  9. The Logic of the RAISE Specification Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, Chris; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the logic of the RAISE Specification Language, RSL. It explains the particular logic chosen for RAISE, and motivates this choice as suitable for a wide spectrum language to be used for designs as well as initial specifications, and supporting imperative and concurrent...

  10. The College President's Role in Fund Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael T.

    The role of the college president as one of the chief actors in academic fund raising is examined against the background of today's period of financial caution and increased competition for philanthropic support. The paper first provides an overview of the state of the art of fund raising and some ways in which college and universities have…

  11. Achievement report for fiscal 1994 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 1. Element research edition and technology survey edition; 1994 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 1. Youso kenkyu hen, gijutsu chosa hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    With an objective of establishing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, R and D has been carried out on the elementary technologies. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1994. In the research on the large gas turbine combustor for the demonstration plant, combustion tests were carried out by using the actual gas from the designed coal (coal D). In addition, the minimum gas flow rate test, fuel calory change test, and fuel switching test were performed from the viewpoint of evaluating the low load stability. Furthermore, in order to evaluate the combustion performance of the tested combustor, such tests were conducted as the combustor pressure loss characteristics test, bypass valve flow rate characteristics test, light oil ignition and light oil combustion test, and tests on the characteristics to switch from light oil to coal gas and the coal gas combustion characteristics. Evaluations were given on the NOx conversion rate, CO, THC, combustion efficiency, metal temperatures, pattern factors, pressure loss, internal pressure variation, and vibration stress. In the simulation research of the composite power generation system, the simulation models were varied according to the actual plant requirements in association with the progress of the tests on the pilot plant. The results of the simulations were reflected to the general load pressure control equipment. (NEDO)

  12. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  13. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that... minimum biobased content is 12 percent and shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in..., and silk are not qualifying biobased feedstocks for the purpose of determining the biobased content of...

  14. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  15. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  16. Fluidized bed incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized-bed incineration facility is being designed for installation at the Rocky Flats Plant to demonstrate a process for the combustion of transuranic waste. The unit capacity will be about 82 kg/hr of combustible waste. The combustion process will utilize in situ neutralization of acid gases generated in the process. The equipment design is based on data generated on a pilot unit and represents a scale-up of nine. Title I engineering is at least 70 percent complete

  17. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  18. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... to be careful in how you select a company. Related Information Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs - highlights ...

  19. Thermal denitrification of evaporators concentrates in reactor with fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugnot, C.

    1993-11-01

    As part of the treatments of liquid wastes coming from the Marcoule reprocessing plant, the study of a thermal denitrification process for evaporator concentrates has been chosen by the CEA/CEN Cadarache: the fluidized-bed calcination. This work presents the study of a calcination pilot-plant for wastes with a very high sodium nitrate content. After a reactional analysis carried out in a thermobalance on samples which are representative of the fluidized-bed compounds, the perfecting of many of the plant parameters - such as the solution injection system - was carried out on a scale-model at first. Then, it was verified on the pilot-plant, and some experiments have been carried out. A mathematical model for the particle growth inside the fluidized-bed is proposed. (author). 179 refs., 65 figs., 23 tabs

  20. Transforming the food-water-energy-land-economic nexus of plasticulture production through compact bed geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Nathan; Shukla, Sanjay; Hochmuth, George; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael; Ozores-Hampton, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Raised-bed plasticulture, an intensive production system used around the world for growing high-value crops (e.g., fresh market vegetables), faces a water-food nexus that is actually a food-water-energy-land-economic nexus. Plasticulture represents a multibillion dollar facet of the United States crop production value annually and must become more efficient to be able to produce more on less land, reduce water demands, decrease impacts on surrounding environments, and be economically-competitive. Taller and narrower futuristic beds were designed with the goal of making plasticulture more sustainable by reducing input requirements and associated wastes (e.g., water, nutrients, pesticides, costs, plastics, energy), facilitating usage of modern technologies (e.g., drip-based fumigation), improving adaptability to a changing climate (e.g., flood protection), and increasing yield per unit area. Compact low-input beds were analyzed against conventional beds for the plasticulture production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an economically-important crop, using a systems approach involving field measurements, vadose-zone modeling (HYDRUS), and production analysis. Three compact bed geometries, 61 cm (width) × 25 cm (height), 45 cm × 30 cm, 41 cm × 30 cm, were designed and evaluated against a conventional 76 cm × 20 cm bed. A two-season field study was conducted for tomato in the ecologically-sensitive and productive Everglades region of Florida. Compact beds did not statistically impact yield and were found to reduce: 1) production costs by 150-450/ha; 2) leaching losses by up to 5% (1 cm/ha water, 0.33 kg/ha total nitrogen, 0.05 kg/ha total phosphorus); 3) fumigant by up to 47% (48 kg/ha); 4) plasticulture's carbon footprint by up to 10% (1711 kg CO2-eq/ha) and plastic waste stream by up to 13% (27 kg/ha); 5) flood risks and disease pressure by increasing field's soil water storage capacity by up to 33% (≈1 cm); and 6) field runoff by 0.48-1.40 cm (51-76%) based on

  1. Handling and raising analysis in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafer, J.-F.

    1981-01-01

    Cranes pose a safety problem essentially due to their concentration on nuclear power station work sites. A study is made of the various devices for preventing the occurence of collisions: electromechanical contacts, optical and phonic signals and microprocessors [fr

  2. Combustion of uraniferous lignites in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, G.; Gasos, P.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper a description of the continuous fluid bed combustion pilot plant unit, installed in the Junta de Energia Nuclear facilities, is presented. Besides, this paper deals with some of the studies carried out in the pilot plant aimed at the recovery of uranium from lignites, high in sulfur and ashes, coming from Calaf basin (Barcelona). These studies include the recovery of the heating value of these lignites and the reduction of environmental effect of SO 2 . Based on these studies an application exercise is presented. 9 references, 5 figures, 5 tables

  3. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  4. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  5. The biosafety of X-ray in bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.S.; Vinco, Y.C.; Machado, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to raise awareness on biosafety that the professional radiology needs to develop, for their own protection as well as the patient in bed during the examination of the X-ray. Assess why the use of many artifacts and discuss their safe use, the conditions necessary for operating activities that employ radioactive and radiological techniques are adopted for the benefit of society. Taking also into account the protection of workers, the public, and the patient environment. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of technical professionals working in the field-performing x -rays in bed, currently academic course in radiology technologist. The results obtained show that 67 % of technicians, technologists’ future, use the personal protective equipment, and 25 % sometimes and never use 8 %, 92 %. Answered that in the period that is being performed on X -ray examination bed, but there are others bedridden in the same environment, with 88 % of patients in bed in bed not receive personal protective equipment nor collective protection equipment. Thus, we conclude that most technicians have cognition existing risks, so the individual protection measures are being carried out, but not by all. What still leaves to be desired is the protection of the patient in bed. These professionals need to be encouraged to study, so that we have trained professionals and holders of knowledge, enabling the improvement in labor and protection of professional and patient. (author)

  6. Feasibility of Using Rice Hulls as Bedding for Laboratory Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Elizabeth T; Kass, Philip H; Evans, Kristin D

    2016-01-01

    Factors that are considered when selecting laboratory mouse bedding include animal health and comfort, cost, effects on personnel, and bioactive properties. Corncob is economical and facilitates low intracage ammonia but has undesirable influences on some endocrine studies. Rice hulls are an economical material that has not been well characterized as a bedding substrate. In this pilot study, we compared various aspects of bedding performance of rice hulls and other materials. On a per-volume basis, rice hulls were less absorbent than was corncob bedding. Rice hulls had higher odds than did corncob or reclaimed wood pulp of having moisture present at the bedding surface. The results of the absorbency tests coupled with the results of preliminary monitoring of intracage ammonia raised concern about the ability of rice hulls to control ammonia levels sufficiently in cages with high occupancy. However, ammonia was negligible when cages contained 5 young adult female mice. The relative expression of 3 cytochrome p450 genes was compared among mice housed on rice hulls, corncob, reclaimed wood pulp, or pine shavings. The expression of Cyp1a2 was 1.7 times higher in the livers of mice housed on rice hulls than on pine shavings, but other differences were not statistically significant. This study provides information on the merits of rice hulls as laboratory mouse bedding. Their relatively poor moisture control is a major disadvantage that might preclude their widespread use.

  7. Agglomeration of bed material: Influence on efficiency of biofuel fluidized bed boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabov Georgy A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful design and operation of a fluidized bed combustor requires the ability to control and mitigate ash-related problems. The main ash-related problem of biomass filing boiler is agglomeration. The fluidized bed boiler with steam capacity of 66 t/h (4 MPa, 440 °C was started up at the Arkhangelsk Paper-Pi dp-Plant in 2001. This boiler was manufactured by the Russian companies "Energosofin" and "Belenergomash" and installed instead of the existing boiler with mechanical grate. Some constructional elements and steam drum of existing boiler remained unchanged. The primary air fan was installed past the common air fan, which supply part of the air into 24 secondary airports. First operating period shows that the bed material is expanded and then operator should increase the primary air rate, and the boiler efficiency dramatically decreases. Tills paper presents some results of our investigations of fuel, bed and fly ash chemical compositions and other characteristics. Special experiments were carried out to optimize the bed drain flow rate. The influence of secondly air supply improvement on mixing with the main flow and boiler efficiency are given.

  8. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  9. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  10. Infant's bed climate and bedding in the Japanese home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura Ikeda, Rie; Fukai, Kiyoko; Okamoto Mizuno, Kazue

    2012-06-01

    to assess the bed climate of infants in their homes in Japan. descriptive, exploratory, non-experimental research design. the data were collected at the participants' homes under normal circumstances. nineteen healthy infants between the ages of two and five months. Their mothers, who joined a parenting class organised by a maternity clinic in Okayama, Japan, consented to participate in this study. we visited the infants' homes and interviewed their mothers concerning the types and use of bedding. The temperature and relative humidity of the bed climate at the back and foot of the bedding, and in the room were measured every minute for four consecutive days. Differences among the bed climates measured during three seasons (spring, summer, and autumn) were assessed by one-way analysis of variance. The bed temperature was higher for infants than for adults. No significant difference in temperature was noted among the three seasons. The bed temperature was about 36.0°C when waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children or adult were used. The average relative humidity of the bed climate at the back was highest in summer, followed by that in spring and autumn; the differences were significant. The use of waterproof sheets and futon mattresses for children in summer increased the relative humidity to 80% or more. The use of infant beds, sunoko drainboards, and cotton futon mattresses in summer was effective in reducing the bed humidity. these results suggest that nurse-midwives should advise the parents on comfortable bed climates for their infants, as well as how to select and use bedding for them. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  12. Experimental study and large eddy simulation of effect of terrain slope on marginal burning in shrub fuel beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangyang Zhou; Shankar Mahalingam; David Weise

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a combined study of laboratory scale fire spread experiments and a three-dimensional large eddy simulation (LES) to analyze the effect of terrain slope on marginal burning behavior in live chaparral shrub fuel beds. Line fire was initiated in single species fuel beds of four common chaparral plants under various fuel bed configurations and ambient...

  13. The effect of patient migration in bed on torso elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggermann, Neal; Kotowski, Susan; Davis, Kermit; VanGilder, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Elevating the hospital head of bed (HOB) to at least 30° is recommended practice to reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. However, this common practice prescribes the position of the bed and not of the patient, which could be significantly different. The aim of this research was to determine the relationship between patient migration in bed and anatomic torso angle. Ten healthy participants were positioned in a hospital bed that was raised from flat to 30° and 45° HOB elevations. Prior to bed movement, participants were aligned to different locations along the length of the bed to represent different amounts of migration. A motion capture system was used to measure torso angle and migration toward the foot of the bed. The relationship between torso angle and migration was estimated by linear regression. Patient migration resulted in lower torso angles for both 30° and 45° HOB articulations. A migration of 10 cm resulted in a loss of 9.1° and 13.0° of torso angle for HOB articulations of 30° and 45°, respectively (for 30° articulations: (Equation is included in full-text article.)= -0.91, R = .96; for 45° articulations: (Equation is included in full-text article.)= -1.30, R = .98). Migration toward the foot of the bed flattens the torso. To maintain a torso angle that is likely to protect against VAP, healthcare providers need to manage both HOB angle and migration. Protocols and equipment that minimize patient migration will help support effective clinical practice. Future research on patient migration, as it relates to VAP or other outcomes, should measure patient torso angle to allow accurate translation of the results to care practice.

  14. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  15. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  16. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on developing entrained bed coal gasification power plant. Part 5. Survey and research edition for demonstration plant; 1993 nendo seika hokokusho. Funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden plant kaihatsu - Sono 5. Jissho plant ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    With an objective of developing the coal gasification composite power generation technology, surveys and researches have been carried out on a demonstration plant. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1993. Based on the achievements having been obtained by the previous fiscal year, the current fiscal year has discussed the method for evaluating the up-scaling, and performed a conceptual design of the demonstration plant. In discussing the demonstration plant in the current fiscal year, identification was made on the basic performance characteristics as the IGCC (atmospheric temperature characteristics, coal type change characteristics, partial load characteristics, methods for plant actuation and shutdown, and utility use amount), and selections were conducted on different systems to be adopted in the demonstration plant, both based on the approximate thermal material balance having been derived in the previous fiscal year. The results of the discussions were summarized as the steam cycle discussion, performance discussion by coal types, partial load characteristics, atmospheric temperature characteristics, secondary air temperature characteristics, discussions to enhance efficiency and reliability in association with the up-scaling, discussions on the utility facilities, discussions on the protection interlock, and forecast on the entire performance according to the approximate thermal material balance. (NEDO)

  17. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Farman Ali Shah; Aziza Aftab; Noorullah Soomro; Mir Shah Nawaz; Kambiz Vafai

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling c...

  18. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  19. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  20. Nuclear space power systems for orbit raising and maneuvering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Sullivan, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to recent studies which have shown that direct thrust nuclear rockets for routine orbit raising and near-earth space tug missions are probably not cost-effective. The need for additional trade-off studies and comparisons of direct-thrust nuclear systems with chemical systems to clarify the role of nuclear rockets in missions requiring rapid orbit maneuvering is stressed. Attention is confined here to nuclear electric propulsion considerations. Low-mass nuclear power plants are constructed to optimize nuclear electric propulsion systems. Electric power levels from 100 kilowatts to as much as several megawatts are desirable. The goals for the power plant specific mass are 20-30 kg/kW at the lower powers to 2-4 kg/kW at the higher powers

  1. Management bedding : vrijloopstal met composterende bedding van houtsnippers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de H.C.; Wiersma, M.; Galama, P.J.; Szanto, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    In de vrijloopstal liggen de koeien meestal op een organische bedding en scheiden daar mest (feces en urine) uit. Om de bedding voldoende droog en schoon te houden wordt er regelmatig nieuw strooisel aangevoerd en wordt de toplaag bewerkt. Op basis van onderzoek- en praktijkervaringen tot nu toe

  2. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  3. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  4. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  5. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  6. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  7. Waste isolation facility description: bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    The waste isolation facility is designed to receive and store three basic types of solidified wastes: high-level wastes, intermediate level high-gamma transuranic waste, and low-gamma transuranic wastes. The facility under consideration in this report is designed for bedded salt at a depth of approximately 1800 ft. The present design for the facility includes an area which would be used initially as a pilot facility to test the viability of the concept, and a larger facility which would constitute the final storage area. The total storage area in the pilot facility is planned to be 77 acres and in the fuel facility 1601 acres. Other areas for shaft operations and access would raise the overall size of the total facility to slightly less than 2,000 acres. The following subjects are discussed in detail: surface facilities, shaft design and characteristics, design and construction of the underground waste isolation facility, ventilation systems, and design requirements and criteria. (LK)

  8. Waste isolation facility description: bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-09-01

    The waste isolation facility is designed to receive and store three basic types of solidified wastes: high-level wastes, intermediate level high-gamma transuranic waste, and low-gamma transuranic wastes. The facility under consideration in this report is designed for bedded salt at a depth of approximately 1800 ft. The present design for the facility includes an area which would be used initially as a pilot facility to test the viability of the concept, and a larger facility which would constitute the final storage area. The total storage area in the pilot facility is planned to be 77 acres and in the fuel facility 1601 acres. Other areas for shaft operations and access would raise the overall size of the total facility to slightly less than 2,000 acres. The following subjects are discussed in detail: surface facilities, shaft design and characteristics, design and construction of the underground waste isolation facility, ventilation systems, and design requirements and criteria

  9. Carbon dioxide emission from raised bog surface after peat extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turbiak Janusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on CO2 emission from a raised bog after completion of peat extraction was performed in 2011–2013. CO2 emissions were determined by the chamber method. Twenty years after the termination of peat extraction, the bog surface was almost entirely devoid of plants. CO2 emission from the bog varied depending on temperature and water conditions and was 418 mg·m−2·h−1 on average during the research period. CO2 losses on the raised bog were on average 19.7 Mg·ha−1·year−1 during the research period which corresponded to a carbon loss of 5.37 Mg·ha−1·year−1 or mineralisation of 9.6 Mg·ha−1·year−1 of organic mass of 56% carbon content. It is possible to reduce organic mass losses and CO2 emission to the atmosphere from the bog surface after peat extraction has been terminated by reconstruction of initial water conditions, i.e. retaining a high ground water level and restoration of aquatic plant communities.

  10. Comparison of antibacterial activity of parent plant of Tylophora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Valued Acer Customer

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... raised plant and its callus. Key words: Tylophora indica, in vitro raised plant and callus, antibacterial activity. .... Callusing was initiated from the cut ends of the explants after 25 days of ..... Glossary of Indian Medicinal. Plants,.

  11. Development of Chinese HTR-PM pebble bed equivalent conductivity test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Cheng; Yang, Xingtuan; Jiang, Shengyao [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Inst. of Nuclear and New Energy Technology

    2016-01-15

    The first two 250-MWt high-temperature reactor pebble bed modules (HTR-PM) have been installing at the Shidaowan plant in Shandong Province, China. The values of the effective thermal conductivity of the pebble bed core are essential parameters for the design. For their determination, Tsinghua University in China has proposed a full-scale heat transfer experiment to conduct comprehensive thermal transfer tests in packed pebble bed and to determine the effective thermal conductivity.

  12. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  13. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  14. Fluidised bed combustion: a new route to power and heat from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, H D [Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-02-01

    The functioning of fluidized-bed firings and their advantages with regard to SO/sub 2/ emissions are described. The principle of design of a fluidized-bed boiler and a gas/steam turbine power plant with fluidized-bed firing under pressure is outlined. The application and their economics in heat and power generation and marketing potential of fluidized-bed firings and their economics in heat and power generation is pointed out. The construction of waste-fired incinerators has already become possible, but there is still a lot of development work to be done until fluidized-bed firings can be used in central heatings, combined-cycle power plants, and large power plants.

  15. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  16. Do Firms Go Public to Raise Capital?

    OpenAIRE

    Woojin Kim; Michael Weisbach

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers the question of whether raising capital is an important reason why firms go public. Using a sample of 16,958 initial public offerings from 38 countries between 1990 and 2003, we consider differences between firms that sell new, primary shares to the public, and existing secondary shares that previously belonged to insiders. Our results suggest that the sale of primary shares is correlated with a number of factors associated with the firm's demand for capital. In particula...

  17. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian

    and operation of reed beds and the efficiencies are often lower than predicted. One reason is that the sludge quality varies from plant to plant and even within plants from time to time. No good method exists for measuring the sludge quality with respect to drainage characteristics. A new experimental method...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows......Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...

  18. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... with Bed Bug Problems Discover. Accessibility EPA Administrator Budget & Performance Contracting Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot ...

  19. Process and technological wastes compaction through a fluidized bed incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiroy, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The various fluidized bed systems (dense or circulating) are reviewed and the advantages of the circulation fluidized bed are highlighted (excellent combustion performance, clean combustion, large operating range, poly-functionality with regards to waste type, ...). Applications to contaminated graphite (with the problem of ash management) and to plant process wastes (ion exchangers, technological wastes, aqueous effluents); study of the neutralization and chlorine emission

  20. Characterization of the pneumatic behavior of a novel spouted bed apparatus with two adjustable gas inlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryczka, O.; Heinrich, S.; Miteva, V.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Jacob, M.; Morl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the importance of spouted bed technology has significantly increased in the context of drying processes as well as granulation, agglomeration or coating processes. Within this work the fluid dynamics of a novel spouted bed plant with two adjustable gas inlets is investigated. By analysis of

  1. Oxidation of ethene in a wall-cooled packed-bed reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, E.P.S.; Borman, P.C.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1994-01-01

    The selective oxidation of ethene over a silver on α-alumina catalyst was studied in a pilot plant with a wall-cooled tubular packed bed reactor. Gas and solid temperatures in the catalyst bed were measured at different axial and radial positions as well as concentrations at different axial

  2. Monitoring and performance analysis of AGR boilers during commissioning and power raising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagdy, M.; Harrison, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The installed boiler plant, for two 1300 MW AGR stations, is comprehensively instrumented for boiler control, performance assessment and component monitoring to ensure the integrity and safe operation of the plant during normal and faulty operating conditions. Plant instrumentation and computer systems installed at site for vibration analysis during the engineering runs and data acquisition during the power raising stage have been described. The results, from early rig investigations and the vibration testing during the unfueled engineering runs, indicate that the behaviour of the plant within the practical range of operating conditions is free from vibration problems. Also the analysis of the steady state thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the boiler plant during the power raising phase confirms the methods and computer models used for the boiler design. (author)

  3. Anaerobic Treatment Of Percolate From Faecal Sludge Drying Beds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite percolate samples, from sludge drying beds of a pilot co-composting plant in Kumasi, Ghana, were characterised and subjected to laboratory scale anaerobic treatment. Two categories of percolate samples were investigated; samples seeded with anaerobic sludge and samples without seeding. The average ...

  4. Gas fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardelli, H. da C.

    1976-03-01

    The equations of motion for both gas and particles in a gas fluidised system are stablished through general assumptions which are generally accepted on physical grounds. The resulting model is used to study the velocity fields of each phase in the case of an isolated bubble rising close to the flat distributor plate. A well posed problem results for the solution of Laplace's equation of the potential flow of the particles when consideration is given to the presence of the distributor as a boundary condition. The corresponding stream functions are also obtained which enable the drawing of the motion patterns using numerical techniques. The following two dimensional cases are analysed: S/b=1; S/b=1,5; S/b=2,5; S/b=5 and the limiting case S/b→αinfinite. The results for the interphase exchange between bubbles and particulate phases are applied to a gas fluidised bed reactor and its effect on the chemical conversion is studied for the simplest cases of piston flow and perfect mixing in the particulate phase [pt

  5. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  6. Chaotic hydrodynamics of fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Stappen, M.L.M. [Unit Process and Systems Engineering, Advanced Manufacturing Technology Group, Unilever Research Laboratorium, Vlaardingen (Netherlands)

    1996-12-31

    The major goals of this thesis are: (1) to develop and evaluate an analysis method based on techniques from non-linear chaos theory to characterize the nonlinear hydrodynamics of gas-solids fluidized beds quantitatively; and (2) to determine the dependence of the chaotic invariants on the operating conditions and investigate how the chaos analysis method can be profitably applied to improve scale-up and design of gas-solids fluidized bed reactors. Chaos theory is introduced in chapter 2 with emphasis on analysis techniques for (experimental) time series, known from literature at the start of this work (1990-1991). In chapter 3, the testing of existing and newly developed techniques on both model and fluidized bed data is described. This leads to the development of the chaos analysis method to analyze measured pressure fluctuations time series of a fluidized bed. Following, in chapter 4, this method is tested and all choices for the parameters are evaluated. The influence of the experimental parameters and external disturbances on the measurements and analysis results is discussed and quantified. The result is a chaos measurement and analysis protocol, which is further used in this work. In chapter 5, the applications to fluidized beds are discussed. It is shown that the entropy is a good measure for the characterization of the dynamical behavior of gas-solids bubbling/slugging fluidized beds. Entropy is applied to characterize the influence of the operating conditions, to assess regime transitions and to analyze dimensionless similar beds of different scale. Quantitative design correlations that relate entropy to the operating parameters (including the bed diameter) are described. Finally, it is discussed how the results of this work might be used in scaling up the chaotic dynamics of fluidized beds. The overall conclusions and outlook from this work are presented in chapter 6. 182 refs.

  7. Bed retained products in swept fixed bed (SFB) coal hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastral, A.M.; Perez-Surio, M.J. [CSIC, Zaragosa (Spain). Inst. de Carboquimica

    1997-12-31

    The hydropyrolysis of a low rank coal in a swept fixed bed (SFB) reactor is carried out by fixing the hydrogen pressure (40 kg/cm{sup 2}), the hydrogen flow (2 l/min) and the residence time (10 min) at increasing temperatures (400 C, 500 C and 600 C) and coal bed heights (h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h and 3h). It is shown that the percentages of tars and char directly depend on the coal bed height and that there is not only a quantitative dependence, but also the height of the coal bed is very important and plays a relevant role on the nature of the conversion products. (orig.)

  8. Bed diameter effects and incipient slugging in gas fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, P.K.

    1986-01-01

    The coalescence and growth of bubble swarms formed at the distributor of a fluidized bed gives rise to lateral as well as vertical distributions of bubble properties. However, existing models employ average bubble properties obtained largely from semi-empirical considerations. In a recent Paper, the author developed a bubble growth model based on a population balance approach. Analytical expressions were derived for the bubble characteristic distributions and averages. However, the model, developed for unconstrained growth, did not take into account the effect of the bed diameter and the possibility of slugging. In this Paper, the model is extended to take these aspects into account. A slugging criterion is also developed which is expected to be valid for the regime where incipient slugging depends on the bed height as well as the region where bed height does not significantly affect minimum slugging conditions

  9. Live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Önk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine live weight and body measurements of male and female native ducks raised in different raising systems. One hundred and twenty native ducks (60 males, 60 females were used in the study. The ducks were raised in deep litter floor and cage systems. Live weight and body values were measured every two weeks, until they were 56 days old. Three-parameter logistic regression and Gompertz model were used to determine growth model of male and female ducks. Interactions of time-raising system and time-sex were statistically significant in terms of live weight. At the end of eight weeks, live weights of ducks raised in deep litter floor were higher than ducks raised in cage system. In addition, live weights of male ducks were higher than female ducks. Consequently, deep litter floor is more appropriate for live weight in native ducks. Accuracy rate of Three-parameter Logistic and Gompertz models for estimation of growth in ducks was between 0.91-0.95 and similar results were obtained from both models. The Gompertz model is appropriate for the data structure of this study because it contains fewer iterations than the Three-Parameter Logistic model.

  10. Competition between Sphagnum magellanicum and Eriophorum angustifolium as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Klees, H.; Berendse, F.

    2002-01-01

    The competition between peat mosses (Sphagnum) and vascular plants as affected by raised CO2 and increased N deposition was studied in a glasshouse experiment by exposing peat monoliths with monocultures and mixtures of Sphagnummagellanicum and Eriophorumangustifolium to ambient (350 ppmv) or raised

  11. Using multiple bed load measurements: Toward the identification of bed dilation and contraction in gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, G. A.; Roy, A. G.

    2012-02-01

    This study examines bed load transport processes in a small gravel-bed river (Béard Creek, Québec) using three complementary methods: bed elevation changes between successive floods, bed activity surveys using tags inserted into the bed, and bed load transport rates from bed load traps. The analysis of 20 flood events capable of mobilizing bed material led to the identification of divergent results among the methods. In particular, bed elevation changes were not consistent with the bed activity surveys. In many cases, bed elevation changes were significant (1 to 2 times the D50) even if the bed surface had not been activated during the flood, leading to the identification of processes of bed dilation and contraction that occurred over 10% to 40% of the bed surface. These dynamics of the river bed prevent accurate derivation of bed load transport rates from topographic changes, especially for low magnitude floods. This paper discusses the mechanisms that could explain the dilation and contraction of particles within the bed and their implications in fluvial dynamics. Bed contraction seems to be the result of the winnowing of the fine sediments under very low gravel transport. Bed dilation seems to occur on patches of the bed at the threshold of motion where various processes such as fine sediment infiltration lead to the maintenance of a larger sediment framework volume. Both processes are also influenced by flood history and the initial local bed state and in turn may have a significant impact on sediment transport and morphological changes in gravel-bed rivers.

  12. Linear quantum optical bare raising operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jennifer C. J.; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Jeffers, John

    2017-11-01

    We propose a simple implementation of the bare raising operator on coherent states via conditional measurement, which succeeds with high probability and fidelity. This operation works well not only on states with a Poissonian photon number distribution but also for a much wider class of states. As a part of this scheme, we highlight an experimentally testable effect in which a single photon is induced through a highly reflecting beamsplitter by a large amplitude coherent state, with probability 1/e(≈ 37 % ) in the limit of large coherent state amplitude.

  13. Fluid bed dryer and Aeropep solidification system. Amendment 1 to topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented on interfaces between the aerojet fluid bed dryer and the liquid radwaste system, plant ventilation system, and radioactive solid waste handling system for BWR and PWR type reactors. (U.S.)

  14. Microwave-assisted synthesis of geopolymers from fluidised bed gasifier bottom ash

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluidised bed gasification (FBG) is a clean coal technology suitable for power and fuel generation from low grade coals. However, the resulting bottom ash presents some disposal challenges to the power plants and the environment. The production...

  15. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  16. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Directory Planning, Budget and Results Jobs and Internships Headquarters Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Bed ... you hire an expert, be sure it’s a company with a good reputation and request that it ...

  17. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  18. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  19. Dissolved oxygen control in a coupled fluidized bed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Melcer, H.

    1988-01-01

    The biological fluidized bed process is a modification of more conventional fixed film processes, such as the trickling filter, in which wastewater is passed upward through a bed of granular support medium, typically sand, at a sufficient velocity to expand or fluidize the medium. The granular medium provides a large surface area for the establishment of a biological film. The fluidized bed process was selected to investigate the treatment of coking plant wastewaters in view of the significant advantages offered in terms of reduced reactor volumes that result from the high biomass concentration maintained on the support medium. The technical feasibility of treating coal distillation condensates was evaluated during a 3-year study at Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC). The feed to the pilot scale test system consisted of effluent from fixed and free leg ammonia stills at the by-product coke plant of Dofasco Inc. in Hamilton, Ontario. The pilot plant consisted of two fluidized bed reactors in series, coupled to provide carbon oxidation, nitrification and denitrification in the predenitrification operating mode. The anoxic denitrification reactor was 115 mm in diameter and the oxygenic nitrification reactor, 290 mm in diameter. The bed heights and reactor volumes were adjustable by relocation of the position of the sand/biomass wasting valve. The experimental objective of this research was to determine those operating conditions required to maintain stable nitrification and complete denitrification under both steady state and dynamic operating conditions. Details regarding operating, sampling and analytic procedures have been presented elsewhere. A specific operating problem existed relating to the control of the dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxygenic fluidized bed reactor, the solution of which forms the basis of the paper

  20. Dispersion of Bed Load Particles

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAI, Kenji

    1987-01-01

    The motion of bed load particles is so irregular that they disperse remarkably with time.In this study, some flume tests using painted tracer particles were carried out, in which thedispersive property of tracers changed variously with sediment feed rate.In analysing this process, a stochastic simulation model is proposed where it is discussedabout the degree of exposure of individual particle near the bed surface and about the variationof its pick up rate. The exponential distribution of ste...

  1. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available for clean coal technology thrust COMMISSIONED PLANTS Slagment Hot Gas Generator Client : Slagment Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98% burnout to provide hot gases for the drying...

  2. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with the...

  3. Mathematical model for solid fuel combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostikj, Zvonimir; Noshpal, Aleksandar

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model for computation of the combustion process of solid fuel in fluidized bed is presented in this work. Only the combustor part of the plant (the fluidized bed and the free board) is treated with this model. In that manner, all principal, physical presumption and improvements (upon which this model is based) are given. Finally, the results of the numerical realisation of the mathematical model for combustion of minced straw as well as the results of the experimental investigation of a concrete physical model are presented. (author)

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  5. Fluidized bed gasification of selected South African coals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, AD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available that due to the good heat and mass transfer properties of fluidised beds, coal with ash contents up to 70% can be utilised. The CSIR’s research and development work resulted in the installation of five bubbling fluidised bed combustors (BFBCs) between... 1989 and 1999. Other companies, such as Babcock and Scientific Design, also installed a number of BFBC plants during this time. It was realised during the development of BFBC technology that due to the low lateral dispersion coefficient of coal...

  6. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particle flow of ceramic breeder pebble beds in bi-axial compression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermsmeyer, S.; Reimann, J.

    2002-01-01

    Pebble beds of Tritium breeding ceramic material are investigated within the framework of developing solid breeder blankets for future nuclear fusion power plants. For the thermo-mechanical characterisation of such pebble beds, bed compression experiments are the standard tools. New bi-axial compression experiments on 20 and 30 mm high pebble beds show pebble flow effects much more pronounced than in previous 10 mm beds. Owing to the greater bed height, conditions are reached where the bed fails in cross direction and unhindered flow of the pebbles occurs. The paper presents measurements for the orthosilicate and metatitanate breeder materials that are envisaged to be used in a solid breeder blanket. The data are compared with calculations made with a Drucker-Prager soil model within the finite-element code ABAQUS, calibrated with data from other experiments. It is investigated empirically whether internal bed friction angles can be determined from pebble beds of the considered heights, which would simplify, and broaden the data base for, the calibration of the Drucker-Prager pebble bed models

  8. {sup 137}Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: klas.rosen@mv.slu.se; Vinichuk, M. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Ecology, Zhytomyr State Technological University, 103 Cherniakhovsky Str., 10005 Zhytomyr (Ukraine); Johanson, K.J. [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Ulls vag 17, Box 7014, SE-75007, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2009-07-15

    The vertical distribution of {sup 137}Cs activity in peat soil profiles and {sup 137}Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of {sup 137}Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m{sup -2}. In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of {sup 137}Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site {sup 137}Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr{sup -1} at the open bog site and the migration centre of {sup 137}Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr{sup -1} and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg{sup -1} DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq{sup -1} DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. {sup 137}Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1} DM at the low pine site.

  9. 137Cs in a raised bog in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Vinichuk, M.; Johanson, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The vertical distribution of 137 Cs activity in peat soil profiles and 137 Cs activity concentration in plants of various species was studied in samples collected at two sites on a raised bog in central Sweden. One site (open bog) was in an area with no trees and only a few sparsely growing plant species, while the other (low pine) was less than 100 m from the open bog site and had slowly growing Scots pine, a field layer dominated by some ericaceous plants and ground well-covered by plants. The plant samples were collected in 2004-2007 and were compared with samples collected in 1989 from the same open bog and low pine sites. Ground deposition of 137 Cs in 2005 was similar at both sites, 23 000 Bq m -2 . In the open bog peat profile it seems to be an upward transport of caesium since a clear peak of 137 Cs activity was found in the uppermost 1-4 cm of Sphagnum layers, whereas at the low pine site 137 Cs was mainly found in deeper (10-12 cm) layers. The migration rate was 0.57 cm yr -1 at the open bog site and the migration centre of 137 Cs was at a depth of 10.7, while the rate at the low pine site was 0.78 cm yr -1 and the migration centre was at 14.9 cm. Heather (Calluna vulgaris) was the plant species with the highest 137 Cs activity concentrations at both sites, 43.5 k Bq -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 20.4 in 2004-2007 on open bog and 22.3 k Bq kg -1 DM in 1989 decreasing to 11.2 k Bq -1 DM by the period 2004-2007 on the low pine site. 137 Cs transfer factors in plants varied between 0.88 and 1.35 on the open bog and between 0.48 and 0.69 m 2 kg -1 DM at the low pine site.

  10. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  11. Accumulation of Arsenic and Mercury in Different Bio-bed Padding Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Tian-yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the accumulation and distribution of As, Hg in different bio-bed padding materials while implementing bio-bed raising method, three kinds of bio-bed padding materials were well designed, which consisted of sawdust(S, sawdust + rice husk(SR and sawdust + rice husk + straw(SRS. For a year and a half, the contents of As, Hg at different depth were measured when four groups of fattening pig breeding had finished to analyze the accumulation and distribution of As, Hg in different bio-bed padding materials, which could provide a theoretical basis for follow-up application of bio-bed padding materials in agriculture. The results showed that, the accumulation of As and Hg, at different levels, occurred during four pig-raising cycles. When 4 groups of fattening pig breeding finished, the largest accumulation of As and Hg occurred in SRS bio-beds, respectively reached 1921.7 mg per sty and 21.1 mg per sty. The As and Hg contents of S, SR,SRS were 2.921, 2.190, 2.621 mg·kg-1 and 0.048, 0.036, 0.042 mg·kg-1, respectively, which met the China's Organic Fertilizer Agriculture Standards(NY 525-2012, and Farmland Environmental Quality Evaluation Standards For Edible Agricultural Products(HJ/T 332-2006.

  12. Report on the results of the R and D of a 200 t/d entrained bed coal gasification pilot plant. Summary - Part 1. Volume 1: Outline of the R and D/Volume 2: Outline of the details of execution of the R and D/Investigational study of verification plant; 1986- 200t/nichi funryusho sekitan gaska hatsuden pilot plant no kenkyu seika hokokusho (Matome). Sono 1. Dai 1 hen kenkyu kaihatsu no gaiyo, Dai 2 hen kenkyu kaihatsu jisshi keii no gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    A project was finished which had been carried out for 11 years since 1986 for technology of the entrained bed coal gasification power generation technology using a 200 t/d coal gasification combined cycle power generation pilot plant, and it was comprehensively summed up. In Volume 1: Outline of the R and D, the following were summarized: object and background, details of selection of the basic system, objectives and subjects of the R and D, developmental items of 200 t/d pilot plant, outline of pilot plant, place of execution of the R and D and system of the R and D, response to procedures for approval from government offices, etc. In Volume 2: Outline of the details of execution of the R and D, state of design/manufacture/construction, state of operational study, state of dismantling study, important notice at the time of design of pilot plant and the evaluation, outline of the execution of element study, outline of the details of the studies made public overseas. In Investigational study of verification plant, the basic viewpoint of conceptual design, conditions for conceptual design/basic design, outline of the results of the study every fiscal year, finally obtained results of the conceptual design, points to be considered in the design of verification plant, etc. (NEDO)

  13. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  14. Fluid bed porosity equation for an inverse fluidized bed bioreactor with particles growing biofilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Diaz, K. E.; Limas-Ballesteros, R.

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Bed Bioreactor performance is strongly affected by bed void fraction or bed porosity fluctuations. Particle size enlargement due to biofilm growth is an important factor that is involved in these variations and until now there are no mathematical equations that consider biofilm growth. In this work a mathematical equation is proposed to calculate bed void fraction in an inverse fluid bed bioreactor. (Author)

  15. Mathematic modelling of a fixed-bed gasifier as component of a plant for decentral biomass utilisation; Mathematische Modellierung eines Festbettvergasers als Bestandteil einer Anlage zur dezentralen Nutzung von Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funk, G.; Krumm, W. [Siegen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energie- und Umweltverfahrenstechnik

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional nonstationary model that describes processes taking place during gasification in a fixed bed. For didactic purposes the process is split up into and described in terms of the partial models ''chemical reaction'', ''drying'', ''heat transfer'' and ''mass flow''. [German] Es wird ein zweidimensionales, instationaeres Modell zur Beschreibung der Vorgaenge bei der Vergasung im Festbett vorgestellt. Dabei werden zylinderfoermige Reaktoren betrachtet. Zur Beschreibung wird der Gesamtvorgang in die Teilmodelle 'chemische Reaktion', 'Trocknung', 'Waermeuebertragung' und 'Massefluss' unterteilt. Die einzelnen Teilmodelle werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  16. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  17. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  18. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J; Loeffler, J; Hirschfelder, H [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  19. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  20. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  1. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  2. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  3. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... A fully-coupled 1D mobile-bed model (CAR-. ICHAR) was introduced ...... for sediment trap, water level sensor, tail gate operated by lever arm at .... materials were brought back to upstream to feed the same through sediment ...

  4. The ESKOM pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    An audit has been made of the design, construction, safety, economics and marketability of the ESKOM pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). In this paper that audit is briefly summarized. The principal conclusions of the audit are as follows. The design is sound. It is a logical development of the designs proposed for other, modern, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. More than 80% of the cost of constructing and commissioning a series of PBMRs would be spent in South Africa. The PBMR is much safer than existing nuclear power reactors and for many practical purposes it may be treated as a conventional chemical plant. The PBMR is economically competitive with thermal power stations. There is a substantial global market for the PBMR. (author)

  5. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  6. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  7. Poisonous plants: a guide for parents & childcare providers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dauncey, Elizabeth A

    2010-01-01

    .... Thomas' Hospital, London. Helpful descriptions and more than 230 photographs will assist you in identifying 132 of the most poisonous plants and plant groups likely to be encountered as pot plants, in flower beds...

  8. 29 CFR 780.616 - Operations included in raising livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations included in raising livestock. 780.616 Section... Employment in Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.616 Operations included in raising livestock. Raising livestock includes such...

  9. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  10. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.126 Contract arrangements for raising poultry. Feed dealers and processors sometimes enter into contractual...

  11. The Campus Green: Fund Raising in Higher Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittingham, Barbara E.; Pezzullo, Thomas R.

    This digest summarizes issues raised in a research report on fund raising in higher education. The following questions are addressed: What are the changes and trends since the early days of educational fund raising? What are the implications? What is known about spending? What is known about donor behavior? What are the major ethical issues? What…

  12. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  13. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  14. Lits fluidisés pour l'industrie chimique. Extrapolation et amélioration des catalyseurs. Première partie : Etudes et modèles. Enseignements issus des pilotes Fluidized Beds in Chemical Industry. Scale Up and Catalysts Improvement. First Part: Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton R.

    2006-12-01

    est intitulée Études théoriques, réalités expérimentales, suggestions . Les bulles des lits fluidisés ont fait l'objet de très nombreux travaux, dont les résultats sont très souvent explicités sous la forme de modèles mécanistiques à un paramètre qui est le diamètre des bulles. Pour confronter ces modèles à l'expérience, une relation est établie entre le diamètre des bulles et la vitesse minimum de fluidisation de comportement. Des suggestions sont alors faites pour améliorer les modèles, et l'on propose des conclusions générales sur les lits fluidisés. The firsts catalytic fluidized beds appear near 1942 in petroleum industry and near 1960 in chemical industry. We only consider very high performances chemical fluidized bed reactors (> 99%. In the past, they were developed through the use of very expensive pilot plants of about 0. 5 m diameter and 10 in high. We will demonstrate that direct scale up from laboratory data is possible. This possibility gives also a simple method to improve catalysts used into operating units and opens fluidized bed technique to products that need only low production. Presentation is made with three articles:- In the first, Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants : after a description of the major scale-up problems, studies to solve then are summarized. Then scale-up works of two processes with the use of about 0. 5 m diameter pilot plant are given. From the results it is deduced the possible performances of a catalytic fluidized bed and how to operate to obtain then. - In the second*, Scale up with Only Laboratory Data , it is experimentally demonstrated that the information's scale-up can be obtained in a laboratory. A strategy to obtain them is suggested. An another result of theses experimental studies is that all physical properties of catalytic fluidized bed depends of only one parameter. It is called comportment incipient fluidization velocity . - In the third*, Theoretical Studies, Experimental

  15. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility

  16. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  17. Incineration of Sludge in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Song Chyang; Yu-Chi Wang

    2017-01-01

    For sludge disposal, incineration is considered to be better than direct burial because of regulations and space limitations in Taiwan. Additionally, burial after incineration can effectively prolong the lifespan of a landfill. Therefore, it is the most satisfactory method for treating sludge at present. Of the various incineration technologies, the fluidized bed incinerator is a suitable choice due to its fuel flexibility. In this work, sludge generated from industrial plants was treated in ...

  18. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult bed-wetting: A concern? My 24-year-old husband has started to wet the bed at ... of Privacy Practices Notice of Nondiscrimination Manage Cookies Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  19. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  20. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rest or hide in hampers, bed frames, even furniture); Failing to treat adjacent areas where bed bugs ... to work (some pesticides, such as desiccators or growth regulators, may be very effective but take some ...

  1. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  2. Tritium inventory measurements by 'in-bed' gas flowing calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, M.; Okuno, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish the 'in-bed' tritium accounting technology for the ITER scale tritium storage system, a gas flowing calorimetry has been studied using a scaled ZrCo bed (25 g tritium capacity). The basic calorimetric characteristics, steady state temperature raise of He gas stream flowing through a secondary coil line fixed in the ZrCo tritide, was measured and correlated with the stored tritium inventory. The results shows that about 4 degrees raise of He stream temperature can be detected for each gram of tritium storage. The sensitivity of this calorimetry is about 0.05 g of tritium, calculated by 0.2 degrees of temperature sensor error. The accuracy is better than 0.25 g of tritium on 25 g storage, evaluated by 2 times of standard deviation from the repeat measurements. This accuracy of < 1% on full storage capacity is satisfied the target accountability to measure ± 1 gram of tritium on 100 g storage for ITER. 13 refs., 7 figs

  3. Fluidised bed technology – Applications and R&D in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2007-06-28

    Full Text Available Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98 % burnout to provide hot gases for drying slag. Subsequently also used for organic waste incineration. Project duration : 1988 to 1989 Current...

  4. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  5. Fluidized bed dry dense medium coal beneficiation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, Brian C

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available medium beneficiation using a fluidized bed was investigated. Bed materials of sand, magnetite and ilmenite were used in a laboratory sized cylindrical fluidized bed. The materials were individually tested, as were mixes of sand and heavy minerals. Coal...

  6. Toward raising the higher level of radiological nursing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ono, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The role and purpose of nursing in the radiological field are discussed with essentials of radiological nursing for raising its higher level and needed fundamental education. The discussion is from the thought that, at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011), general medical staff including nurses are rather insufficient of radiological knowledge like the exposure, radiation effect and risk. In the medical radiological field, nurses are expected to play roles of arranging the circumstance for patient's ease like explanation about health effect/risk, appropriate nursing of them after radiological diagnosis, radiation protection of nurses themselves, and of environment. At such an emergency as the Accident, care for the acutely exposed victims, their decontamination and responding to patient's concern are necessary. At the later phase, also needed are nursing of victims undergoing health management done by authorities and of radiological workers concerned as well as the third item above. Therefore, fundamentals of radiological knowledge such as physics, exposure, health effects, protection, contamination, legal rules and risk communication are required in the education of nurses. Otherwise, this education can be conducted as a part of safety security and physical assessment. The Accident also gives us the importance of radiological risk communication with its victims. (T.T.)

  7. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  8. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  9. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, an overview on common research-oriented software products for SDR development, namely GNU Radio, Iris, and ASGARD, will be provided, including how to practically start the software development of simple applications. Finally, best practices and examples of all the software platforms will be provided, giving...... they are up and running in generating results. With this chapter we would like to provide a tutorial guide, based on direct experience, on how to enter in the world of test bed-based research, providing both insight on the issues encountered in every day development, and practical solutions. Finally...

  10. Long Duration Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest Studies: Safety Considerations Regarding Vision Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Visual symptoms reported in astronauts returning from long duration missions in low Earth orbit, including hyperopic shift, choroidal folds, globe flattening and papilledema, are thought to be related to fluid shifts within the body due to microgravity exposure. Because of this possible relation to fluid shifts, safety considerations have been raised regarding the ocular health of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest subjects. HDT is a widely used ground ]based analog that simulates physiological changes of spaceflight, including fluid shifts. Thus, vision monitoring has been performed in bed rest subjects in order to evaluate the safety of HDT with respect to vision health. Here we report ocular outcomes in 9 healthy subjects (age range: 27-48 years; Male/Female ratio: 8/1) completing bed rest Campaign 11, an integrated, multidisciplinary 70-day 6 degrees HDT bed rest study. Vision examinations were performed on a weekly basis, and consisted of office-based (2 pre- and 2 post-bed rest) and in-bed testing. The experimental design was a repeated measures design, with measurements for both eyes taken for each subject at each planned time point. Findings for the following tests were all reported as normal in each testing session for every subject: modified Amsler grid, red dot test, confrontational visual fields, color vision and fundus photography. Overall, no statistically significant differences were observed for any of the measures, except for both near and far visual acuity, which increased during the course of the study. This difference is not considered clinically relevant as may result from the effect of learning. Intraocular pressure results suggest a small increase at the beginning of the bed rest phase (p=0.059) and lesser increase at post-bed rest with respect to baseline (p=0.046). These preliminary results provide the basis for further analyses that will include correlations between intraocular pressure change pre- and post-bed rest, and optical coherence

  11. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  12. Production of renewable energy from biomass and waste materials using fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Rashid, M.; Looi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Malaysian industries generate substantial amount of biomass and waste materials such as wastes from agricultural and wood based industries, sludge waste from waste-water treatment plants and solid waste from municipals. Incinerating these waste materials not only produces renewable energy, but also solving their disposal problems. Fluidized bed combustors are widely used for incinerating these biomass materials. The significant advantages of fluidized bed incineration include simple design, efficient, and ability to reduce air pollution emissions. This paper discusses the opportunities and challenges of producing the green energy from biomass materials using the fluidized bed technologies. (Author)

  13. Steam and sodium leak simulation in a fluidized-bed steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaux, W.G.; Keeton, A.R.; Keairns, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    A fluidized-bed steam generator for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor enhances plant availability and minimizes the probability of a water/sodium reaction. An experimental test program was conceived to assess design criteria and fluidized-bed operation under conditions of water, steam, and sodium leaks. Sodium, steam, and water were leaked into helium-fluidized beds of metal and ceramic particles at 900 F. Test results show the effects of leaks on the heat transfer coefficient, quality of fluidization, leak detection, and cleanup procedures

  14. Test plan: Sealing of the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ), including Marker Bed 139 (MB139) and the overlying halite, below the repository horizon, at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahrens, E.H.

    1992-05-01

    This test plan describes activities intended to demonstrate equipment and techniques for producing, injecting, and evaluating microfine cementitious grout. The grout will be injected in fractured rock located below the repository horizon at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). These data are intended to support the development of the Alcove Gas Barrier System (AGBS), the design of upcoming, large-scale seal tests, and ongoing laboratory evaluations of grouting efficacy. Degradation of the grout will be studied in experiments conducted in parallel with the underground grouting experiment

  15. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  16. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  17. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  18. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  19. Status and threats on seagrass beds using GIS in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Cao Van; Thao, Nguyen Van; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Ve, Nguyen Dac; Tien, Dam Duc

    2012-10-01

    Seagrasses, marine flowering plants, are widely distributed along temperate and tropical coastlines of the world. Seagrasses have key ecological roles in coastal ecosystems and can form extensive meadows supporting high biodiversity. Till now, fourteen seagrass species belonging to four families were found in Vietnam: Halophila beccarii, H. decipiens, H. ovalis, H. minor, Thalassia hemprichii, Enhalus acoroides, Ruppia maritima, Halodule pinifolia, H. uninervis, Syringodium isoetifolium, Cymadocea rotundata, C. serrulata and Thalassodendron ciliatum. A total area of seagrass beds in Vietnam is estimated to be approximately 17000 ha by satellite images and GIS technology. In recent years, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds in Vietnam have been serious decreased compared with those 10-15 years ago. The decline level depended on the impacts by the natural process, the economical activities and the conservation awareness of local people. Thus, it is different at each coastal area. Generally speaking, the distribution areas and densities of seagrass beds were decreased by more than 50%. Seagrasses on tidal flats in some areas such as Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Phu Quoc seem to be nearly lost. The distribution areas of seagrass beds in 2009 at Tam Giang-Cau Hai lagoon and Cua Dai estuary was decreased by 50-70% of those in early 1990s.

  20. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  1. Raising with long boreholes in Uranium Mines, Hamr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubista, A.; Svoboda, M.; Mohyla, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The technology is described of raising with long boreholes which was used in uranium mines for breaking 15 raises to the end of 1983. Also described is the method of computing the needed charge. The described technology has the following advantages as compared with usual driving methods: 1. it secures greater work safety, 2. it allows driving atypical profiles, 3. smooth breaking secures good stability and longer life of raises, 4. allows higher productivity, 5. reduces capital costs. (Ha)

  2. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  3. The biosafety of X-ray in bed; A biosseguranca dos raios-X no leito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.S.; Vinco, Y.C.; Machado, C.P., E-mail: yasmin_claise@hotmail.com [Unigrancapital, Cidade Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to raise awareness on biosafety that the professional radiology needs to develop, for their own protection as well as the patient in bed during the examination of the X-ray. Assess why the use of many artifacts and discuss their safe use, the conditions necessary for operating activities that employ radioactive and radiological techniques are adopted for the benefit of society. Taking also into account the protection of workers, the public, and the patient environment. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of technical professionals working in the field-performing x -rays in bed, currently academic course in radiology technologist. The results obtained show that 67 % of technicians, technologists’ future, use the personal protective equipment, and 25 % sometimes and never use 8 %, 92 %. Answered that in the period that is being performed on X -ray examination bed, but there are others bedridden in the same environment, with 88 % of patients in bed in bed not receive personal protective equipment nor collective protection equipment. Thus, we conclude that most technicians have cognition existing risks, so the individual protection measures are being carried out, but not by all. What still leaves to be desired is the protection of the patient in bed. These professionals need to be encouraged to study, so that we have trained professionals and holders of knowledge, enabling the improvement in labor and protection of professional and patient. (author)

  4. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  5. Optimized Core Design and Fuel Management of a Pebble-Bed Type Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) has been selected by the international Generation IV research initiative as one of the six most promising nuclear reactor concepts that are expected to enter service in the second half of the 21st century. The VHTR is characterized by a high plant efficiency and a high fuel discharge burnup level. More specifically, the (pebble-bed type) High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is known for its inherently safe characteristics, coming from a negative temperature reactivity feedback, a low power density and a large thermal inertia of the core. The core of a pebble-bed reactor consists of graphite spheres (pebbles) that form a randomly packed porous bed, which is cooled by high pressure helium. The pebbles contain thousands of fuel particles, which are coated with several pyrocarbon and silicon carbon layers that are designed to contain the fission products that are formed during operation of the reactor. The inherent safety concept has been demonstrated in small pebble-bed reactors in practice, but an increase in the reactor size and power is required for cost-effective power production. An increase of the power density in order to increase the helium coolant outlet temperature is attractive with regard to the efficiency and possible process heat applications. However, this increase leads in general to higher fuel temperatures, which could lead to a consequent increase of the fuel coating failure probability. This thesis deals with the pebble-bed type VHTR that aims at an increased coolant outlet temperature of 1000 degrees C and beyond. For the simulation of the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic behavior of the reactor the DALTON-THERMIX coupled code system has been developed and has been validated against experiments performed in the AVR and HTR-10 reactors. An analysis of the 400 MWth Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design shows that the inherent safety concept that has been demonstrated in practice in the smaller AVR and HTR-10

  6. The Bulgarian coal and the fluid bed technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, M.; Georgiev, J.; Lebedov, K.; Petrov, N.

    2000-01-01

    Because of low-quality of the most of Bulgarian coal and more rigorous ecological restrictions for decreasing of greenhouse gases the fluidized bed technology is the most appropriate combustion technology. A study with a pilot plant aiming to establish the values of technological parameters in view to maintain stable process of fluidized bed combustion at the specific burning characteristics of the Bulgarian coal was carried out. Coal of different quality and particle size production of 'Marbas' LTD mines were used. Series of experiments with batches of strictly determined content were carried out at minimal, average and maximal load. The technological factors as: layer's aerodynamics, layer's height, fuel's quantity and quantity of inert material were changed at each batch. The ecological factors were optimized considering coal's quality, plant's parameters, limestone's dosing and layer's aerodynamics. A regressive model for optimization of technological and ecological factors was created. An average coefficient of performance was achieved, resp. 82.27 % at combustion of coal from mines 'Maritsa-West' and 90 % from mine 'Lev'. A coefficient of sulfur oxides' capture 70 % was obtained at coal with sulfur content 3.1-3.9 %. In conclusion the fluidized bed technology is very suitable for combustion's characteristics of the Bulgarian coal

  7. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-06-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  8. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  9. Consideration of emergency source terms for pebble-bed high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Liu; Jun, Zhao; Jiejuan, Tong; Jianzhu, Cao

    2009-01-01

    Being the last barrier in the nuclear power plant defense-in-depth strategy, emergency planning (EP) is an integrated project. One of the key elements in this process is emergency source terms selection. Emergency Source terms for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) have been introduced in many technical documents, and advanced NPP emergency planning is attracting attention recently. Commercial practices of advanced NPP are undergoing in the world, pebble-bed high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) power plant is under construction in China which is considered as a representative of advanced NPP. The paper tries to find some pieces of suggestion from our investigation. The discussion of advanced NPP EP will be summarized first, and then the characteristics of pebble-bed HTGR relating to EP will be described. Finally, PSA insights on emergency source terms selection and current pebble-bed HTGR emergency source terms suggestions are proposed

  10. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  11. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  12. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  13. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.F.A.; Aftab, A.; Soomro, N.; Nawaz, M.S.; Vafai, K.

    2015-01-01

    The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO), granulated activated carbon (GAC) bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO/sun 4/-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32 percentage, 48 percentage, 50 percentage and 51 percentage, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88 percentage, 92 percentage, 67 percentage and 89 percentage, respectively. (author)

  14. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of livestock. 780.615 Section 780.615 Labor... Agriculture and Livestock Auction Operations Under the Section 13(b)(13) Exemption Requirements for Exemption § 780.615 Raising of livestock. Livestock auction operations are within the 13(b)(13) exemption only...

  15. Pulverized coal vs. circulating fluidized bed: An economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As the power industry looks to the 1990s for expanded steam generation capacity, boiler owners will continue on their long-standing assignment to evaluate and select the best, lowest cost alternative to meet their energy needs. For coal-fired plants, this evaluation process includes pulverized coal-fired boilers (PC) and circulating fluidized bed boilers (CFB). The cost difference between these products is site specific and depends on several variables, including: Boiler size, pressure, and temperature; Operating variables, such as the cost for fuel, auxiliary power, SO 2 reagent, and ash disposal; Capital cost; and Financial variables, such as evaluation period and interest rate. This paper provides a technical and economic comparison between a pulverized coal-fired boiler and circulating fluidized bed boiler

  16. Surrogate mothers: aboriginal grandmothers raising grandchildren in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand the experiences of Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers when raising their grandchildren. Adopting a phenomenological approach, interviews were conducted with 15 Taiwanese aboriginal grandmothers who served as primary caregiver to a grandchild or grandchildren. Data were analyzed using Giorgi's phenomenological method. Four themes emerged from the data analysis, reflecting the parenting experience of grandmothers: using aged bodies to do energetic work: represented the physical effects of raising grandchildren; conflicting emotions: reflected the psychological effects of raising grandchildren; lifelong and privative obligation: described the cultural and societal beliefs of raising grandchildren; and coping strategies for raising grandchildren outlined methods the grandmothers used to cope with parenting their grandchildren. The results of this study offers insights into surrogate parenting within an underresearched group in Taiwan and will enable health care providers to be more aware of the physical, emotional, and social effects of the role of grandparent parenting.

  17. Investigation of the structure of debris beds formed from fuel rods fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Fichot, Florian; Topin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.topin@irsn.fr

    2017-03-15

    This paper is a study of debris beds that can form in the core of a nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions. Such beds are formed of fragments of pellets and cladding remnants, as observed in the TMI-2 core. Many important issues are related with the morphology of those debris beds: are they coolable in case of water injection and how does molten corium progress through them if they are not coolable? The answers to those questions depend on the structure of the debris bed: porosity, number and arrangement of particles. In order to obtain relevant information, a numerical simulation of the formation of the debris bed is proposed. It relies on a granular approach of the type called “Contact Dynamics” to simulate the collapse of debris and their accumulation. Two different schemes of fuel pellet fragmentation are considered and simulations for different degrees of fragmentation of the pellets are performed. The results show that the number of axial cracks on fuel pellets strongly influences the final porosity of the debris bed. Porosities vary between 31% (less coolable cases) and 45% (similar to TMI-2 observations), with a most probable configuration around 41%. The specific surface of the bed is also evaluated. In the last part, a simple model is used to estimate the impact of the variation in geometry of the numeric debris beds on their flow properties. We show that the permeability and passability can vary respectively with a range of 30% and 15% depending on the number of fragment per pellet. The other benefits of the approach are finally discussed. Among them, the possibility to print 3D samples from the calculated images of debris beds appears as a promising perspective to perform experiments with realistic debris beds.

  18. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Grens, J.Z.; Ryerson, F.J.; Hoenig, C.L.; Bazan, F.; Peters, P.E.; Smith, R.; Campbell, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  19. On partial fluidization in rotating fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a rotating fluidized bed, unlike in a conventional fluidized bed, the granules are fluidized layer by layer from the (inner) free surface outward at increasing radius as the gas velocity is increased. This is a very significant and interesting phenomenon and is extremely important in the design of these fluidized beds. The phenomenon was first suggested in a theoretical analysis and recently verified experimentally in the authors' laboratory. However, in the first paper, the equations presented are too cumbersome and the influence of bed thickness is not clearly stated. In this note the authors present simplified equations, based on that paper, for the pressure drop and the minimum fluidizing velocities in a rotating fluidized bed. Experimental data are also shown and compared with the theoretical model, and the effect of bed thickness is shown. Furthermore, an explanation for the observation of a maximum in the pressure drop vs. velocity curve instead of the plateau derived by Chen is proposed

  20. Role of hydraulic retention time and granular medium in microbial removal in tertiary treatment reed beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Joan; Vivar, Joan; Aromir, Maria; Mujeriego, Rafael

    2003-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the role of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular medium in faecal coliform (FC) and somatic coliphage (SC) removal in tertiary reed beds. Experiments were carried out in a pilot plant with four parallel reed beds (horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands), each one containing a different type of granular medium. This pilot plant is located in a wastewater treatment plant in Montcada i Reixac, near Barcelona, in northeastern Spain. The microbial inactivation ratios obtained in the different beds are compared as a function of three selected HRTs. Secondary effluent from the wastewater treatment plant was used as the influent of the pilot system. The microbial inactivation ratio ranged between 0.1 and 2.7 log-units for FC and from 0.5 to 1.7 log-units for SC in beds with coarser granular material (5-25mm), while it ranged between 0.7 and 3.4 log-units for FC and from 0.9 to 2.6 log-units for SC in the bed with finer material (2-13mm). HRT and granular medium are both key factors in microbial removal in the tertiary reed beds. The microbial inactivation ratio rises as the HRT increases until it reaches a saturation value (in general at an HRT of 3 days). The value of the microbial inactivation ratio at the saturation level depends on the granular medium contained in the bed. The specific surface area necessary to reach 2-3 log-units of FC and SC is approximately 3m(2)/person-equivalent.

  1. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  2. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  3. Fluidized Bed Reactor as Solid State Fermenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaiah, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reactors such as tray, packed bed, rotating drum can be used for solid-state fermentation. In this paper the possibility of fluidized bed reactor as solid-state fermenter is considered. The design parameters, which affect the performances are identified and discussed. This information, in general can be used in the design and the development of an efficient fluidized bed solid-state fermenter. However, the objective here is to develop fluidized bed solid-state fermenter for palm kernel cake conversion into enriched animal and poultry feed.

  4. Fungi solubilisation of low rank coal: performances of stirred tank, fluidised bed and packed bed reactors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coal biosolubilisation was investigated in stirred tank reactor, fluidised bed and fixed bed bioreactors with a view to highlight the advantages and shortcomings of each of these reactor configurations. The stirred aerated bioreactor and fluidised...

  5. Visualization of bed material movement in a simulated fluidized bed heat exchanger by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru; Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Matsubayashi, Masahito

    1999-01-01

    The bulk movement of fluidized bed material was visualized by neutron radiography by introducing tracers into the bed materials. The simulated fluidized bed consisted of aluminum plates, and the bed material was sand of 99.7% SiO 2 (mean diameter: 0.218 mm, density: 2555 kg/m 3 ). Both materials were almost transparent to neutrons. Then the sand was colored by the contamination of the sand coated by CdSO 4 . Tracer particles of about 2 mm diameter were made by the B 4 C, bonded by the vinyl resin. The tracer was about ten times as large as the particle of fluidized bed material, but the traceability was enough to observe the bed-material bulk movement owing to the large effective viscosity of the fluidized bed. The visualized images indicated that the bubbles and/or wakes were important mechanism of the behavior of the fluidized bed movement

  6. Investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Jonathan O; Fitzsimons, Edward J; Griffiths, William Jh; Tsochatzis, Emmanouil; Thomas, D Wayne

    2018-05-01

    Serum ferritin level is one of the most commonly requested investigations in both primary and secondary care. Whilst low serum ferritin levels invariably indicate reduced iron stores, raised serum ferritin levels can be due to multiple different aetiologies, including iron overload, inflammation, liver or renal disease, malignancy, and the recently described metabolic syndrome. A key test in the further investigation of an unexpected raised serum ferritin is the serum transferrin saturation. This guideline reviews the investigation and management of a raised serum ferritin level. The investigation and management of genetic haemochromatosis is not dealt with however and is the subject of a separate guideline. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Prevalência da imunodeficiência severa combinada em cavalos da raça Árabe em plantéis de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Prevalence of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Teixeira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram genotipados 205 cavalos da raça Árabe, criados nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, via DNA por meio de PCR, para determinação da presença do gene mutante SCID. Os resultados mostraram 98,5% de animais normais (202/205 e 1,5% de portadores (3/205. Pela análise da genealogia dos portadores identificados pode-se, ainda, confirmar a participação de um garanhão anteriormente identificado como provável disseminador da doença.In the present study, 205 Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, were genotyped using the PCR technique. The results showed 98.5% of normals (202/205 and 1.5% of SCID carriers (3/205. Checking the pedigrees of the three carriers was possible to confirm the participation of one stallion first identified as the possible disease disseminator.

  8. Safety culture issues raised in the SAR of the INPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, B

    1997-09-01

    The following aspects of safety culture promotion at Ignalina NPP are discussed: performance objectives and expectations; current applicable Lithuanian standards; current plant practice; validation of plant function; assessment of plant function and non-compliances.

  9. Safety culture issues raised in the SAR of the INPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, B.

    1997-01-01

    The following aspects of safety culture promotion at Ignalina NPP are discussed: performance objectives and expectations; current applicable Lithuanian standards; current plant practice; validation of plant function; assessment of plant function and non-compliances

  10. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  11. Debridement and wound bed preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falabella, Anna F

    2006-01-01

    Debridement can play a vital role in wound bed preparation and the removal of barriers that impair wound healing. In accordance with the TIME principles, debridement can help remove nonviable tissue, control inflammation or infection, decrease excess moisture, and stimulate a nonadvancing wound edge. There are many types of debridement, each with a set of advantages and disadvantages that must be clearly understood by the healthcare team. Failure to use the correct debridement method for a given type of wound may lead to further delays in healing, increase patient suffering, and unnecessarily increase the cost of care. This review article discusses the various methods of debridement, describes currently available debriding agents, evaluates the clinical data regarding their efficacy and safety, and describes strategies for the management of problematic nonhealing wounds.

  12. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  13. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED PARTIAL GASIFICATION MODULE (PGM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation is working under DOE contract No. DE-FC26-00NT40972 to develop a partial gasification module (PGM) that represents a critical element of several potential coal-fired Vision 21 plants. When utilized for electrical power generation, these plants will operate with efficiencies greater than 60% while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The new process partially gasifies coal at elevated pressure producing a coal-derived syngas and a char residue. The syngas can be used to fuel the most advanced power producing equipment such as solid oxide fuel cells or gas turbines or processed to produce clean liquid fuels or chemicals for industrial users. The char residue is not wasted; it can also be used to generate electricity by fueling boilers that drive the most advanced ultra-supercritical pressure steam turbines. The unique aspect of the process is that it utilizes a pressurized circulating fluidized bed partial gasifier and does not attempt to consume the coal in a single step. To convert all the coal to syngas in a single step requires extremely high temperatures ((approx)2500 to 2800F) that melt and vaporize the coal and essentially drive all coal ash contaminants into the syngas. Since these contaminants can be corrosive to power generating equipment, the syngas must be cooled to near room temperature to enable a series of chemical processes to clean the syngas. Foster Wheeler's process operates at much lower temperatures that control/minimize the release of contaminants; this eliminates/minimizes the need for the expensive, complicated syngas heat exchangers and chemical cleanup systems typical of high temperature gasification. By performing the gasification in a circulating bed, a significant amount of syngas can still be produced despite the reduced temperature and the circulating bed allows easy scale up to large size plants. Rather than air, it can also operate with oxygen to facilitate

  15. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  16. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  17. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  18. Federal Tax Issues Raised by International Study Abroad Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Bertrand M., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Identifies and describes tax issues raised by study abroad programs and suggests steps that a college or university can take to minimize or eliminate adverse U.S. and foreign tax exposure to both itself and its employees. (EV)

  19. HAPPINESS ORIENTATIONS AMONG ADOLESCENTS RAISED IN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisti Anggraeny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Researcher takes particular interest to discover the respondents’ orientation towards happiness based on where the respondent was raised. The study involves 467 senior high school students with ages ranging from 14-17 years old. The data is analyzed using an adapted society psychological approach. The results shows that adolescents raised in rural areas are consider the family to be a factor that contributes to their happiness. Second, achievement is also a factor that leads to happiness. However for the category, to love and be loved, adolescents growing in urban areas place this as a factor that leads to happiness. Similar with spirituality, friends and leisure time are factors that make adolescents raised in urban areas to become happy. Nevertheless, the results of cross tabulation with Pearson chi square test scoring demonstrates that no correlations exist between adolescent happiness raised from urban or rural areas.

  20. Evaluation of the use of snowplowable raised pavement markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of snowplowable raised pavement markers (RPM) installed on the RPM system in Kentucky. The durability evaluation dealt wit the marker housing. : The data show that continued...

  1. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  2. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  3. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  4. Supersensitive gastrin assay using antibodies raised against a cholecystokinin homolog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F; Ericsson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Peptide hormones may occur in particularly low amounts in samples from small animals. Hence, in a rat microdialysis study conventional immunoassays were not sufficiently sensitive to measure gastrin in the dialysis samples. We therefore exploited the observation that antibodies raised against...... that obtained with the most avid conventional gastrin antibodies. The results may encourage similar approaches for other peptides using homologue-raised antibodies when supersensitivity is required....

  5. Raised Plasma Aldosterone and Natriuretic Peptides in Atrial Fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Ulrik; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Soeby-Rasmussen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    at follow-up, total duration of AF disease, ongoing medication, and the LVEF as explanatory variables showed that only ongoing treatment with diuretics was significantly associated (likelihood ratio test, p = 0.0057) with a raised log-transformed plasma aldosterone, although present AF at follow......-transformed plasma Nt-proANP. Likewise, present AF at follow-up (p = 0.0008) as well as age (p raised levels of Nt-proANP and Nt...

  6. THE EXCEPTION OF UNCONSTITUTIONALITY RAISED BEFORE AN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen HURUBÃ; Luminita GABURA

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the paper work is to determine whether the Constitutional Court of Romania could be notified by international tribunals in relation to cases tried under Romanian law. On 5 March 2013 the Constitutional Court of Romania decided, for the first time, on a case concerning an exception of unconstitutionality raised before an international tribunal of commercial arbitration. The exception of unconstitutionality of a Government Emergency Ordinance was raised in an arbitration case pe...

  7. Bedømmelsesformer inden for AMU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    Sigtet med denne rapport om bedømmelse i AMU-regi er dels at indsamle dokumentation fra praksiserfaringer baseret på udvalgte TUP-projekter, og dels at beskrive national og international forskning på bedømmelses- og evalueringsområdet. Denne indsamling og beskrivelse vil lægge op til en diskussio...

  8. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  9. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  10. Multiphase flow in spout fluidized bed granulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijtenen, van M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Spout fluidized beds are frequently used for the production of granules or particles through granulation, which are widely applied, for example, in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, food and fertilizers (M¨orl et al. 2007). Spout fluidized beds have a number of advantageous properties,

  11. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  12. Uranium bed oxidation vacuum process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeland, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Deuterium and tritium gases are occluded in uranium powder for release into neutron generator tubes. The uranium powder is contained in stainless steel bottles, termed ''beds.'' If these beds become damaged, the gases must be removed and the uranium oxidized in order not to be flammable before shipment to ERDA disposal grounds. This paper describes the system and methods designed for the controlled degassing and oxidation process. The system utilizes sputter-ion, cryo-sorption and bellows pumps for removing the gases from the heated source bed. Removing the tritium gas is complicated by the shielding effect of helium-3, a byproduct of tritium decay. This effect is minimized by incremental pressure changes, or ''batch'' processing. To prevent runaway exothermic reaction, oxidation of the uranium bed is also done incrementally, or by ''batch'' processing, rather than by continuous flow. The paper discusses in detail the helium-3 shielding effect, leak checks that must be made during processing, bed oxidation, degree of gas depletion, purity of gases sorbed from beds, radioactivity of beds, bed disposal and system renovation

  13. Effects of Fluidization Velocity and Bed Particle Size on Bed Defluidization during Biomass Combustion in FB boilers; Effekten av fluidiseringshastighet och kornstorlek paa agglomereringsrisk vid biobraensleeldning i FB-pannor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Morgan; Oehman, Marcus [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Applied Physics and Electronics; Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Studies on the effect of bed particle size and fluidization velocity on the agglomeration/defluidization risk during biomass combustion in BFB/CFB plants have not previously been published. Therefore, the objective of this project has been to determine the influence of these two parameters on the risk for agglomeration in typical biofuel fired fluidized beds. The study has also resulted in information on how variations in the coating characteristics of the bed particles are depending on the fuel ash content and the particle size of the bed material. Furthermore, the conditions at large scale commercial plants have been surveyed with respect to the choice of bed material, fluidization velocity, bed sand consumption etc. Bed materials have been sampled from seven full-scale boilers, four CFB and three BFB. The samples have been sieved to achieve sieve curves, analyzed with respect to the coating characteristics, and studied by experiments in a bench-scale fluidized bed. It could be concluded from the analyses that there are no significant differences in the coating thickness or the coating composition between fine and coarse particles in the bed samples. The bench-scale agglomeration experiments showed that increased fluidization velocity results in bed agglomeration at a higher temperature. This effect was stronger at relatively low fluidization velocities. The fluidization velocity has probably no significant effect on the risk for agglomeration at normal gas velocities in a commercial CFB boiler. Though, it could have an influence on the agglomeration in for example the recycling part of a CFB, where the gas velocity is relatively low. Also in BFB-boilers the fluidization velocity is often low enough to have a significant effect on the risk for agglomeration. By the experiments in this project it has not been possible to determine if the bed particle size has an influence on the agglomeration. Further studies with modified methods are required to find out if the

  14. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  15. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R; Lindblom, M [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  16. Product removal and solids transport from fluidized-bed calciners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Munger, D.H.

    1978-09-01

    Methods of removing the solid product from pilot-plant and production fluidized-bed calciners, and transporting product to underground storage vaults are reported here. Testing of dense-phase solids transport systems in test loops during development of a 15-cm-diam. and 30-cm-diam. calciner are described. A lean-phase solid transport system is used with the Waste Calcining Facility. The results of some recent tests done in a lean-phase transport system connected to the 30-cm-diam. calciner are included in this report

  17. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  18. Measurement of the bed material of gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.; ,

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of the physical properties of a gravel-bed river is important in the calculation of sediment transport and physical habitat values for aquatic animals. These properties are not always easy to measure. One recent report on flushing of fines from the Klamath River did not contain information on one location because the grain size distribution of the armour could not be measured on a dry river bar. The grain size distribution could have been measured using a barrel sampler and converting the measurements to the same as would have been measured if a dry bar existed at the site. In another recent paper the porosity was calculated from an average value relation from the literature. The results of that paper may be sensitive to the actual value of porosity. Using the bulk density sampling technique based on a water displacement process presented in this paper the porosity could have been calculated from the measured bulk density. The principle topics of this paper are the measurement of the size distribution of the armour, and measurement of the porosity of the substrate. The 'standard' method of sampling of the armour is to do a Wolman-type count of the armour on a dry section of the river bed. When a dry bar does not exist the armour in an area of the wet streambed is to sample and the measurements transformed analytically to the same type of results that would have been obtained from the standard Wolman procedure. A comparison of the results for the San Miguel River in Colorado shows significant differences in the median size of the armour. The method use to determine the porosity is not 'high-tech' and there is a need improve knowledge of the porosity because of the importance of porosity in the aquatic ecosystem. The technique is to measure the in-situ volume of a substrate sample by measuring the volume of a frame over the substrate and then repeated the volume measurement after the sample is obtained from within the frame. The difference in the

  19. Cooling of a polyethylene tunnel type greenhouse by means of a rock bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurklu, Ahmet; Bilgin, Sefai [Akdeniz Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Mechanisation, Antalya (Turkey)

    2004-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to cool a 15 m{sup 2} ground area plastic-tunnel-type greenhouse by the use of a rock bed. An identical greenhouse with no rock bed was also erected for control purposes. Two rock-bed canals, each with the dimensions of 3 x l.25 x 0.75 m, were dug in the soil of the experimental greenhouse. After the canals were filled with the rocks and insulated, the top surface was covered by a soil layer of thickness enough for the root development depth of the plants. Air was pushed through the rock bed by a centrifugal fan with a 1100 m{sup 3}/h flow rate. Energy stored in the rock bed during the day was dumped outside the greenhouse at night using the cooler outside air. The results of the measurements showed that the rock-bed system maintained air temperature 14 deg C lower at maximum in the experimental greenhouse than the control one. The temperature difference seemed to increase with increasing solar radiation and outside air temperature. Relative humidity during the day remained at about 40% in the experimental greenhouse and was always higher than that in the control one. The coefficient of performance (COP) of the rock-bed system was higher than 3 in general, and it was observed that this value increased with decreasing rock-bed temperature. The average solar collection efficiency was 38%. The rock-bed system seems to have a significant potential for cooling applications in greenhouses. (Author)

  20. Fluidized bed and pulverized coal combustion residues for secondary pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoori, N.; Diawara, H.; Wang, L.

    2009-01-01

    The United States produced nearly 125 million tons of coal combustion products in 2006. These by-products include fly ash, flue gas desulphurization materials, bottom ash, boiler slag, and other power plant by-products. The expense associated with waste disposal, lack of disposal sites, and significant environmental damage linked with the disposal of coal combustion residues have encouraged innovative utilization strategies such as the fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit. This paper presented the results of a laboratory investigation that examined the properties of composites developed with different proportions of pre-conditioned FBC spent bed, pulverized coal combustion fly ash, natural fine aggregate, and Portland cement. The purpose of the study was to examine the extent to which the by-product composites could replace currently used materials in secondary roads. The paper presented the research objectives and experimental programs, including matrix constituent and proportions; mixture proportions; and mixing, curing, sampling, and testing. The discussion of results centered around compressive strength and expansion by internal sulfate attack. It was concluded that with proper proportioning, by-products of pulverized and fluidized bed combustion promote binding of sand particles and provide adequate strength under various curing and moisture conditions 4 refs., 6 tabs.

  1. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  2. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Siebers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  3. Does bedding affect the airway and allergy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, R W; Crane, J

    2011-04-01

    Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  4. An experimental simulation study of debris quenching in a radially stratified porous bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Nayak, A.K.; Stepanyan, A.

    2004-01-01

    During a severe accident condition in a nuclear power plant, the core melt can fail the reactor vessel and relocate into the containment basement. In some accident management schemes, the vessel cavity is flooded with water. For these a particulate debris bed is likely to form on the cavity floor due to melt break-up in water. . In this situation, the coolability of debris bed on the containment floor is a crucial issue. This is because the debris bed still generates the decay heat and if it is uncoolable, it can eventually remelt and react with concrete basement generating a lot of noncondensable gases and pressurising the containment. Hence, it is important to cool the debris bed as an accident management programme. The main parameters affecting the coolability of the debris bed are its porosity which is a function of the size and shape of the particles which constitute the debris bed, the operating condition such as water flooding from the top or bottom of debris bed, water temperature and non-condensable gas generated during bed-concrete interactions. It is found from previous studies that the debris bed has a non-uniform particle distribution or a porosity stratification. This can happen both in radial and axial plane. For example, the bed can have a lower porosity at the centre and higher porosity at the periphery. It is of interest to investigate the quenching phenomena in such configurations so as to find an effective means of quenching the heat generating bed. While most of the previous investigations mainly concentrate on quenching of a homogenous or axially stratified particulate bed with volumetric heat generation, there are almost no studies on the above phenomena in a radially stratified porous bed. So the objective of this paper is to investigate the quenching phenomena in a radially stratified bed. To simulate the phenomena, we conducted experiments in an experimental facility named as POMECO (POrous MEdia COolability). The facility has a square

  5. Biological reduction of nitrate wastewater using fluidized-bed bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.F. Jr.; Hancher, C.W.; Patton, B.D.; Kowalchuk, M.

    1981-01-01

    There are a number of nitrate-containing wastewater sources, as concentrated as 30 wt % NO 3 - and as large as 2000 m 3 /d, in the nuclear fuel cycle as well as in many commercial processes such as fertilizer production, paper manufacturing, and metal finishing. These nitrate-containing wastewater sources can be successfully biologically denitrified to meet discharge standards in the range of 10 to 20 gN(NO 3 - )/m 3 by the use of a fluidized-bed bioreactor. The major strain of denitrification bacteria is Pseudomonas which was derived from garden soil. In the fluidized-bed bioreactor the bacteria are allowed to attach to 0.25 to 0.50-mm-diam coal particles, which are fluidized by the upward flow of influent wastewater. Maintaining the bacteria-to-coal weight ratio at approximately 1:10 results in a bioreactor bacteria loading of greater than 20,000 g/m 3 . A description is given of the results of two biodenitrification R and D pilot plant programs based on the use of fluidized bioreactors capable of operating at nitrate levels up to 7000 g/m 3 and achieving denitrification rates as high as 80 gN(NO 3 - )/d per liter of empty bioreactor volume. The first of these pilot plant programs consisted of two 0.2-m-diam bioreactors, each with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 208 liters, operating in series. The second pilot plant was used to determine the diameter dependence of the reactors by using a 0.5-m-diam reactor with a height of 6.3 m and a volume of 1200 liters. These pilot plants operated for a period of six months and two months respectively, while using both a synthetic waste and the actual waste from a gaseous diffusion plant operated by Goodyear Atomic Corporation

  6. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  8. Experimental investigation on the changes in bed properties of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental investigation on the changes in bed properties of a downdraft ... pressure measurements, physical observation, sampling of bed particles, bed agitation, etc. The generated producer gas was cleaned and cooled in downstream ...

  9. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  10. Bedding and Fertilization Influence on Slash Pine Development in the Florida Sandhills

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Baker

    1973-01-01

    A field study on the infertile and droughty Lakeland sands of west Florida indicated that bedding or fertilization (134 kg P /ha as ordinary superphosphate and 90 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) or both increased early growth of planted slash pine ( Engelm.). Throughout the 6-year study, best growth was obtained when the treatments were...

  11. Improvement of Combustion Characteristics in Fluidized Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.S.; El Sourougy, M.R.; Faik, M.

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation is directed towards the experimental study of the effect of a new design of the bed temperature on the overall thermal efficiency and heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation in gaseous fuel-fluidized bed combustion system. The experiments are performed on a water-cooled fluidized bed model furnace with cylindrical cross-section of 0.25 m diameter and its height is 0.60 m. the fluidising medium used is sand particles with average diameter 1.5 mm. The bed temperature is varied between 700 degree C and 1100 degree C. Measurements f carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and oxygen concentrations are carried out by using water-cooled sampling probe, and infrared and paramagnetic analyzers. The results obtained show that the bed temperature, the total heat transfer to the wall and the bed combustion efficiency increase with the decrease of the air-fuel ratio. It is also found that 91% of the total heat transfer is in the fluidising part of the bed and most of this heat is transferred by convection from hot sand particles to the wall. Two empirical formulae for the calculation of the wall heat transfer coefficient and the particle convective heat transfer coefficient are proposed. A verification of the proposed empirical formulae is made by comparing the calculated values with the experimental results.

  12. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  13. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  14. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  15. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  16. The Tore Supra Lower Hybrid Test Bed : improvements and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, L.; Achard, J.; Beaumont, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within the CIMES project framework in Tore Supra, a klystron TH2103C (3.7 GHz) is under development at THALES ELECTRON DEVICES. It differs from the previous klystrons used in Tore Supra generator mainly in that it has no modulating anode, the RF output power will reach 700 kW CW, by raising the High Voltage value to 76 kV and a beam current up to 23 A. The Tore Supra test bed is a dedicated facility used for high power tests on RF components or on RF transmitters. It has been improved to integrate the TH2103C klystron and a specific 100 kV solide state switch which control the beam current. Since April 2005, the integration of the first tube (without modulating anode) and the 100 kV switch has been completed in the Test Bed and has allowed the modifications and tests of the interfaces and security system for the devices. Improvements were also made on the cooling loop flow to dissipate a power of 1750 kW CW. With these devices, the RF power routinely available in the Lower Hybrid Test Bed is 400 kW CW. With the development of the TH2103C, detailed studies and tests on RF components which will be used up to 750 kW CW on match load or 700 kW on VSWR = 1.4, are necessary to evaluate their performances and thermal behaviour. The test a crucial component, the recombiner, which adds the RF powers coming from the two RF outputs of the TH2103C and inject the resulted power into one WR284 waveguide to a test load or to the plasma, was completed. Two tests have been performed : a thermal study with 400 kW during 1000 s, and RF pulsed tests on short cuts to increase the value of the electric field inside the component. The experiments and calculations (ANSYS and HFSS codes) validate the use of this device with the TH2103C. A module made with two different Beryllium Oxide RF windows, has been under test. The losses on each window are measured by calorimetric measurements and evaluated by computation with HFSS and ANSYS code. The results are compared. In this paper, the

  17. The regeneration test of the secondary loop condensate polishing mixed bed resin in Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Meijing; Dong Liming

    1995-12-01

    There are four condensate polishing mixed beds in the water chemical treatment plant of Qinshan NPP. 2125 kg of D001-TR type cation exchange resin, 2000 kg of D201-TR type anion exchange resin, and 375 kg of S-TR type inert resin are filled into each mixed bed. The bed height of resin is 1.2 m and the volume is about 2.7 m 3 . In order to regenerate the exhausted resin out of the bed, the pre-designed condensate polishing mixed bed regeneration process was used to regenerate the first exhausted resin. After the resin was scrubbed and separated, cation resin and anion resin were respectively regenerated, rinsed to resume the exchange capability of the resin. The regenerated mixed bed is able to keep higher efficiency for condensate polishing. The outlet water quality and the resin service-life are able to meet the design requirements or more favorable than that. During the test, some main cations and anions in the blow-off water at each procedure were analyzed. The analyzed results were used to make pre-designed regeneration process better. The test results proved that pre-designed process is reasonable and effective. (6 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.)

  18. Nitrogen Chemistry in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn

    and reduction by homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. The data for the estimation of kinetics of the heterogeneous reactions were measured by one of the partners in the project for char and bed material sampled from a pressurized FBC pilot plant burning Kiveton Park coal. Experimental data from the pilot...... plant were used for model verification. The simulations of the NO emission during staged combustion and NH3 injection for NO reduction were in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. A parametric study of the influence of operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-N to NO showed......, the gas interchange coefficient, the bubble size and the bubble rise velocity. The most important combustion parameters were the rate of CO and CH4 combustion and the fraction of CO produced from char combustion. By using a rate of production analysis, the important reactions in the NO model were...

  19. Transformation products of clindamycin in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong; Escola Casas, Monica; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater...... treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study investigated the capability of MBBRs...... process converts clindamycin into the, possibly persistent, products clindamycin sulfoxide and N-desmethyl clindamycin as well as 3 other mono-oxygenated products. Subsequently, the removal kinetics of clindamycin and the formation of the two identified products were investigated in batch experiments...

  20. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  1. Mathematical modelling of sewage sludge incineration in a bubbling fluidised bed with special consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao Bin; Sharifi, Vida; Swithenbank, Jim

    2008-11-01

    Fluidised bed combustor (FBC) is one of the key technologies for sewage sludge incineration. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for the simulation of a large-scale sewage sludge incineration plant. The model assumes the bed consisting of a fast-gas phase, an emulsion phase and a fuel particle phase with specific consideration for thermally-thick fuel particles. The model further improves over previous works by taking into account throughflow inside the bubbles as well as the floating and random movement of the fuel particles inside the bed. Validation against both previous lab-scale experiments and operational data of a large-scale industrial plant was made. Calculation results indicate that combustion split between the bed and the freeboard can range from 60/40 to 90/10 depending on the fuel particle distribution across the bed height under the specific conditions. The bed performance is heavily affected by the variation in sludge moisture level. The response time to variation in feeding rate is different for different parameters, from 6 min for outlet H2O, 10 min for O2, to 34 min for bed temperature.

  2. Fluidized-bed calcination of simulated commercial high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeby, W.A.

    1975-11-01

    Work is in progress at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to verify process flowsheets for converting simulated commercial high-level liquid wastes to granular solids using the fluidized-bed calcination process. Primary emphasis in the series of runs reported was to define flowsheets for calcining simulated Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) waste and to evaluate product properties significant to calcination, solids storage, or post treatment. Pilot-plant studies using simulated high-level acid wastes representative of those to be produced by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS) are also included. Combined AGNS high-level and intermediate-level waste (0.26 M Na in blend) was successfully calcined when powdered iron was added (to result in a Na/Fe mole ratio of 1.0) to the feed to prevent particle agglomeration due to sodium nitrate. Long-term runs (approximately 100 hours) showed that calcination of the combined waste is practical. Concentrated AGNS waste containing sodium at concentrations less than 0.2 M were calcined successfully; concentrated waste containing 1.13 M Na calcined successfully when powdered iron was added to the feed to suppress sodium nitrate formation. Calcination of dilute AGNS waste by conventional fluid-bed techniques was unsuccessful due to the inability to control bed particle size--both particle size and bed level decreased. Fluid-bed solidification of AGNS dilute waste at conditions in which most of the calcined solids left the calciner vessel with the off-gas was successful. In such a concept, the steady-state composition of the bed material would be approximately 22 wt percent calcined solids deposited on inert particles. Calcination of simulated NFS acid waste indicated that solidification by the fluid-bed process is feasible

  3. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  4. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  5. Evaluation of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner for dairy cattle bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietto, R L; Hinckley, L S; Fox, L K; Andrew, S M

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner on sawdust bedding pH, dry matter (DM), environmental pathogen counts, and environmental bacterial counts on teat ends of lactating dairy cows. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were paired based on parity, days in milk, milk yield, and milk somatic cell count, and were negative for the presence of an intramammary pathogen. Within each pair, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments with 3-wk periods in a crossover design. Treatment groups consisted of 9 freestalls per group bedded with either untreated sawdust or sawdust with a clay-based acidic bedding conditioner, added at 3- to 4-d intervals over each 21-d period. Bedding and teat ends were aseptically sampled on d 0, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 21 for determination of environmental bacterial counts. At the same time points, bedding was sampled for DM and pH determination. The bacteria identified in the bedding material were total gram-negative bacteria, Streptococcus spp., and coliform bacteria. The bacteria identified on the teat ends were Streptococcus spp., coliform bacteria, and Klebsiella spp. Teat end score, milk somatic cell count, and intramammary pathogen presence were measured weekly. Bedding and teat cleanliness, environmental high and low temperatures, and dew point data were collected daily. The bedding conditioner reduced the pH, but not the DM, of the sawdust bedding compared with untreated sawdust. Overall environmental bacterial counts in bedding were lower for treated sawdust. Total bacterial counts in bedding and on teat ends increased with time over both periods. Compared with untreated sawdust, the treated bedding had lower counts of total gram-negative bacteria and streptococci, but not coliform counts. Teat end bacterial counts were lower for cows bedded on treated sawdust for streptococci, coliforms, and Klebsiella spp. compared with cows bedded on untreated sawdust. The clay-based acidic bedding conditioner

  6. Method of working thick beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giezynski, A; Bialasik, A; Krawiec, A; Wylenzek, A

    1981-12-30

    The patented method of working thick coal beds in layers consists of creating in the collapsed rocks or from the fill material a bearing rock plate by strengthening these rocks with a hardening composition made of wastes of raw material, resin and water injected into the rock through wells. The difference in the suggestion is that through boreholes drilled in the lower part of the rock roofing on a previously calculated network, a solution is regularly injected which consists of dust wastes obtained in electric filters during production of clinker from mineral raw material in a quantity of 60-70% by volume, wastes of open-hearth production in a quantity of 15-20% and natural sand in a quantity of 15-20%, and water in a quantity of 35-55% of the volume of mineral components. In the second variant, the injected compostion contains: wastes from production of clinker 55-57%, open-hearth wastes 20-23%, natural sand 12-14%, asbestos fine particles 7-8% and water 38-45% of the volume of mineral components. In addition, the difference is that in the boreholes drilled in the coal block directly under the roofing, a composition is injected which consists of natural sand and catalyst in the form of powder and individually supplied liquid synthetic resin in a quantity of 3-5% by weight in relation to the sand. The hardening time with normal temperature is 1-1.5 h, after which strength is reached of 80 kg-f/cm/sup 2/.

  7. Reducing the risk of ventilator-acquired pneumonia through head of bed elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Libby

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that placing critically ill ventilated patients in a semirecumbent position minimizes the likelihood of nosocomial pneumonia. This pilot study explores whether the incidence of ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) can be reduced by elevating the head of the bed to 45 degrees. The design is quantitative in nature, using a randomized controlled trial. The method involves adult ventilated patients being randomly assigned to one of two positions, i.e. 45 degrees raised head of bed (treatment group) or 25 degrees raised head of bed (control group). Data collection relied upon the diagnosis of clinically suspected and microbiologically confirmed pneumonia defined by the Consensus Conference on VAP. Thirty patients were included in the study--17 in the treatment group and 13 in the control group. Results showed that 29% (five) in the treatment group and 54% (seven) in the control group contracted VAP (P VAP in the patients nursed at 45 degrees. However, because of the sample size this difference did not reach statistical significance.

  8. An overview of the rangelands atmosphere hydrosphere biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Michiaki; Asanuma, Jun; Tsujimura, Maki; Mariko, Shigeru; Lu, Minjiao; Kimura, Fujio; Azzaya, Dolgorsuren; Adyasuren, Tsokhio

    2007-01-01

    SummaryIntensive observations, analysis and modeling within the framework of the rangelands atmosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interaction study experiment in northeastern Asia (RAISE) project, have allowed investigations into the hydrologic cycle in the ecotone of forest-steppe, and its relation to atmosphere and ecosystem in the eastern part of Mongolia. In this region, changes in the climate have been reported and a market oriented economy was introduced recently, but their impact on the natural environment is still not well understood. In this RAISE special issue, the outcome is presented of the studies carried out by six groups within RAISE, namely: (1) Land-atmosphere interaction analysis, (2) ecosystem analysis and modeling, (3) hydrologic cycle analysis, (4) climatic modeling, (5) hydrologic modeling, and (6) integration. The results are organized in five relevant categories comprising (i) hydrologic cycle including precipitation, groundwater, and surface water, (ii) hydrologic cycle and ecosystem, (iii) surface-atmosphere interaction, (iv) effect of grazing activities on soils, plant ecosystem and surface fluxes, and (v) future prediction. Comparison with studies on rangelands in other parts of the world, and some future directions of studies still needed in this region are also summarized.

  9. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, Nick; Watson, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  10. Fluidized-bed firing of washery wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Yu M; Gavrik, M V

    1978-01-01

    Tailings containing SiO2 (56.76%), A12O3 (25.63%), Fe2O3 (10.22%) plus CaO, MgO and SOat3 were fluidized at 1.7-2.0 m/s. This gives a uniform pressure of 6 kg-f/m2 at bed heights of 100 mm, though this is higher in the upper layers where the fine material tends to concentrate. The resistance of the bed is directly proportional to its height. Minimum oxygen, maximum carbon dioxide and maximum temperature are found in the section 250-300 mm above the grid (bed height 500 mm); in the upper zone of the bed, some decrease in temperature and carbon dioxide, and increase in oxygen are associated with the ingress of air through the discharge chute. Waste heat should be utilised to help to cover costs of desulphurising stack gases.

  11. Medications to Treat Bed-Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggest that depression plays a role in the cause of bed-wetting. This type of drug is thought to work one of several ways: by changing the child's sleep and wakening pattern by affecting the time ...

  12. Bed Bug Clearinghouse by Type of Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    This information is to help states, communities, and consumers prevent and control bed bug infestations. These brochures, fact sheets, manuals, posters, checklists, videos, and more provide guidance such as hotel room inspection and pesticide safety.

  13. Bed Bugs are Public Health Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a joint statement on the public health impacts of bed bugs, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites (external parasites). EPA also has a pesticide registration notice on this topic.

  14. The effect of vibration on bed voidage behaviors in fluidized beds with large particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jin

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vibration parameters, operating conditions and material properties on bed voidage were investigated using an optical fiber probe approach in a vibrating fluidized bed with a diameter of 148 mm. Variables studied included frequency (0-282 s-1, amplitude (0 mm-1 mm, bed height (0.1 m-0.4 m as well as four kinds of particles (belonging to Geldart's B and D groups. The axial and radial voidage distribution with vibration is compared with that without vibration, which shows vibration can aid in the fluidization behaviors of particles. For a larger vibration amplitude, the vibration seriously affects bed voidage. The vibration energy can damp out for particle layers with increasing the bed height. According to analysis of experimental data, an empirical correlation for predicting bed voidage, giving good agreement with the experimental data and a deviation within ±15%, was proposed.

  15. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-03-22

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m{sup 2}, polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements

  16. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al 2 O 3 particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m 2 , polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements in

  17. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  18. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-10-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  19. Fluid bed dryer and Aeropep solidification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Performance measurements were made on the model of the Fluidized-bed Calciner developed by Aerojet Liquid Rocket Co. The measurements were made over the period August 11-19, 1975, at the Sacramento location of the calciner. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the performance of the ALRC Fluidized Bed Concentrator for the processing of simulated waste containing realistic concentrations and chemical forms of radioiodine. (auth)

  20. Hydrodynamics of circulating and bubbling fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gidaspow, D.P.; Tsuo, Y.P.; Ding, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a review of modeling of the hydrodynamics of fluidization of bubbling beds showed that inviscid two-fluid models were able to predict a great deal of the behavior of bubbling beds because the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is the drag between the particles and the fluid. The formation, the growth and the bursting of bubbles were predicted. Predicted wall-to-bed heat transfer coefficients and velocity profiles of jets agreed with measurements. Time average porosity distributions agreed with measurements done using gamma-ray densitometers without the use of any adjustable parameters. However, inviscid models could not correctly predict rates of erosion around tubes immersed into fluidized beds. To correctly model such behavior, granular stresses involving solids viscosity were added into the computer model. This viscosity arises due to random collision of particles. Several models fro this viscosity were investigated and the results compared to measurements of solids distributions in two-dimensional beds and to particle velocities reported in the literature. While in the case of bubbling beds the solids viscosity plays the role of a correction, modeling of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) without a viscosity is not possible. Recent experimental data obtained at IIT and at IGT show that in CFB the solids viscous dissipation is responsible for as much as half of the pressure drop. From such measurement, solids viscosities were computed. These were used in the two fluid hydrodynamic model, to predict radial solids distributions and solids velocities which matched the experimental distributions. Most important, the model predicted cluster formation and transient internal circulation which is responsible for the favorable characteristics of CFBs, such as good wall-to-bed heat transfer. Video tape movies of computations compared favorably with high speed movies of the experiments

  1. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  2. Options for meeting the ecological Reserve for a raised Clanwilliam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A recent evaluation of the potential raising of Clanwilliam Dam included an assessment of whether the operation of the dam would meet the flow quality and quantity requirements for the protection of the downstream river and its estuary, taking Olifants/Doring River basin-level considerations into account. The implications of ...

  3. With Dwindling Resources, Colleges Recalibrate Fund-Raising Staffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    After several years of aggressive hiring, some college fund-raising operations are now cutting back as both revenue and investment income fall. The regrouping could slow growth plans on many campuses at a time when the need for private support has never been greater. Often the colleges cutting employees are laying off back-office staff members and…

  4. VOWEL RAISING IN AKAN REDUPLICATION Kwesi Adomako1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this current paper, we provide an alternative analysis to this overgeneralized claim by providing data from the Twi (Asante) dialect to argue for the presence and productivity of the raising of both the low and the mid vowels within diverse phonological contexts. In these contexts, the stem/base-final low vowel /a/ in the CVa.

  5. Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consciousness-raising about grammar in the second-language classroom: Utilising authentic samples of learner-learner interaction in a task-based oral activity. ... More recent studies argue that linguistic support must not be omitted from language teaching programmes within a task-based, communicative approach (Swain, ...

  6. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS... geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with short-term...

  7. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  8. Babbitt's Brothers & Sisters: Raising Ethical Issues in Business Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Jeanne W.

    A college-level course in business literature is an ideal place to raise and discuss ethical issues. To be successful, a teacher of this course must engage student interest, help the students articulate and understand their own ethical attitudes, clarify the stance and artistry of the author, and refine student responses to ethical questions. When…

  9. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  10. Raising Quality and Achievement. A College Guide to Benchmarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Jane

    This booklet introduces the principles and practices of benchmarking as a way of raising quality and achievement at further education colleges in Britain. Section 1 defines the concept of benchmarking. Section 2 explains what benchmarking is not and the steps that should be taken before benchmarking is initiated. The following aspects and…

  11. Social partners divided over government plan to raise retirement age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2009-01-01

    The social partners have given a divided response to the Dutch cabinet’s plans to raise the retirement age - first to 66 years in 2020 and then to 67 years in 2025. This also applies to the age at which company pension schemes will be paid out. The trade unions argue that poorly paid workers who

  12. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  13. Raising Emotionally Intelligent Teenagers: Parenting with Love, Laughter, and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.; Friedlander, Brian S.

    Based on the formula of love, laughter, limits, and linkages, this book presents practical, parent-tested ways parents can help their adolescent children become emotionally intelligent. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1 concerns parent preparation for raising an emotionally intelligent teenager, discusses the importance of parenting by…

  14. Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement. Item Number 39-0464

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The primary goal of the American Federation of Teachers' (AFT) Redesigning Schools to Raise Achievement (RSRA) project is to build capacity at the state, district, school, and classroom levels to improve student achievement to meet the goals of the 2001 No Child Left Behind Act. This checklist highlights some of the opportunities and support…

  15. Metaphorical Perceptions of the Concepts "Teaching Profession" and "Raising Students"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezen, Sevim; Aykutlu, Isil; Secken, Nilgun; Bayrak, Celai

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Study: This study aims to reveal, via metaphors, pre-service biology teachers' perceptions of "teaching profession" and "raising students." Research Methods: In accordance with the aim of the study, phenomenology, one of the qualitative paradigm patterns, is used. The study group consists of 80 pre-service biology…

  16. The Physiology of Bed Rest. Chapter 39

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Schneider, Victor S.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1996-01-01

    Prolonged rest in bed has been utilized by physicians and other health-care workers to immobilize and confine patients for rehabilitation and restoration of health since time immemorial. The sitting or horizontal position is sought by the body to relieve the strain of the upright or vertical postures, for example during syncopal situations, bone fractures, muscle injuries, fatigue, and probably also to reduce energy expenditure. Most health-care personnel are aware that adaptive responses occurring during bed rest proceed concomitantly with the healing process; signs and symptoms associated with the former should be differentiated from those of the latter. Not all illnesses and infirmities benefit from prolonged bed rest. Considerations in prescribing bed rest for patients-including duration, body position, mode and duration of exercise, light-dark cycles, temperature, and humidity-have not been investigated adequately. More recently, adaptive physiological responses have been measured in normal, healthy subjects in the horizontal or slightly head-down postures during prolonged bed rest as analogs for the adaptive responses of astronauts exposed to the microgravity environment of outer and bed-rest research.

  17. How dynamic are ice-stream beds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Damon; Bingham, Robert G.; King, Edward C.; Smith, Andrew M.; Brisbourne, Alex M.; Spagnolo, Matteo; Graham, Alastair G. C.; Hogg, Anna E.; Vaughan, David G.

    2018-05-01

    Projections of sea-level rise contributions from West Antarctica's dynamically thinning ice streams contain high uncertainty because some of the key processes involved are extremely challenging to observe. An especially poorly observed parameter is sub-decadal stability of ice-stream beds, which may be important for subglacial traction, till continuity and landform development. Only two previous studies have made repeated geophysical measurements of ice-stream beds at the same locations in different years, but both studies were limited in spatial extent. Here, we present the results from repeat radar measurements of the bed of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, conducted 3-6 years apart, along a cumulative ˜ 60 km of profiles. Analysis of the correlation of bed picks between repeat surveys shows that 90 % of the bed displays no significant change despite the glacier increasing in speed by up to 40 % over the last decade. We attribute the negligible detection of morphological change at the bed of Pine Island Glacier to the ubiquitous presence of a deforming till layer, wherein sediment transport is in steady state, such that sediment is transported along the basal interface without inducing morphological change to the radar-sounded basal interface. Given the precision of our measurements, the upper limit of subglacial erosion observed here is 500 mm a-1, far exceeding erosion rates reported for glacial settings from proglacial sediment yields, but substantially below subglacial erosion rates of 1.0 m a-1 previously reported from repeat geophysical surveys in West Antarctica.

  18. Fluidized bed volume reduction of diverse radwastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, J.N.; McConnell, J.W.; Waddoups, D.A.; Gray, M.F.; Harwood, L.E.; Clayton, N.J.; Drown, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for a fluidized bed radwaste volume reduction system are claimed. Low level radioactive wastes, combustible solids, ion exchange resins and filter sludges, and liquids, emanating from a reactor facility are introduced separately through an integrated waste influent system into a common fluidized bed vessel where volume reduction either through incineration or calcination occurs. Addition of a substance to the ion exchange resin before incineration inhibits the formation of low-melting point materials which tend to form clinkers in the bed. Solid particles are scrubbed or otherwise removed from the gaseous effluent of the vessel in an off-gas system, before the cooled and cleaned off-gas is released to the atmosphere. Iodine is chemically or physically removed from the off-gas. Otherwise, the only egress materials from the volume reduction system are containerized dry solids and tramp material. The bed material used during each mode may be circulated, cleaned, stored and exchanged from within the bed vessel by use of a bed material handling system. An instrumentation and control system provides operator information, monitors performance characteristics, implements start up and shut down procedures, and initiates alarms and emergency procedures during abnormal conditions

  19. Regional Variation in Neonatal Intensive Care Admissions and the Relationship to Bed Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Wade N; Wasserman, Jared R; Goodman, David C

    2018-01-01

    To characterize geographic variation in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission rates across the entire birth cohort and evaluate the relationship between regional bed supply and NICU admission rates. This was a population-based, cross-sectional study. 2013 US birth certificate and 2012 American Hospital Association data were used to assign newborns and NICU beds to neonatal intensive care regions. Descriptive statistics of admission rates were calculated across neonatal intensive care regions. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between bed supply and individual odds of admission, with adjustment for maternal and newborn characteristics. Among 3 304 364 study newborns, the NICU admission rate was 7.2 per 100 births and varied across regions for all birth weight categories. IQRs in admission rates were 84.5-93.2 per 100 births for 500-1499 g, 35.3-46.1 for 1500-2499 g, and 3.5-5.5 for ≥2500 g. Adjusted odds of admission for newborns of very low birth weight were unrelated to regional bed supply; however, newborns ≥2500 g in regions with the highest NICU bed supply were significantly more likely to be admitted to a NICU than those in regions with the lowest (aOR 1.20 [1.03-1.40]). There is persistent underuse of NICU care for newborns of very low birth weight that is not associated with regional bed supply. Among larger newborns, we find evidence of supply-sensitive care, raising concerns about the potential overuse of expensive and unnecessary care. Rather than improving access to needed care, NICU expansion may instead further deregionalize neonatal care, exacerbating underuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. WTP Pretreatment Facility Potential Design Deficiencies--Sliding Bed and Sliding Bed Erosion Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-05-06

    This assessment is based on readily available literature and discusses both Newtonian and non-Newtonian slurries with respect to sliding beds and erosion due to sliding beds. This report does not quantify the size of the sliding beds or erosion rates due to sliding beds, but only assesses if they could be present. This assessment addresses process pipelines in the Pretreatment (PT) facility and the high level waste (HLW) transfer lines leaving the PT facility to the HLW vitrification facility concentrate receipt vessel.