WorldWideScience

Sample records for raised bed planting

  1. Foliar Spray of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Raised Bed Increases Yield of Transplanted Aman Rice over Conventional Method

    OpenAIRE

    M. H. M. Bhuyan; Mst. R. Ferdousi; Iqbal, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Bed planting with foliar nitrogen fertilizer application of rice production systems is very new, and research on it is still at introductory phase. Influence of foliar application of nitrogen fertilizer on growth and yield of transplanted aman rice and evaluation of water and fertilizer application efficiency of rice-fallow-rice cropping system were investigated under raised bed cultivation method. Results showed that foliar spray in bed planting method increased grain yield of transplanted a...

  2. Deep drip fumigation in totally impermeable film tarped raised-beds production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarping raised-beds with totally impermeable film (TIF) and applying fumigant to deeper depths may help strawberry growers to achieve pest control and emission reduction targets, but no field data are available to optimize these methods in the raised-bed production system. Under the support of Natio...

  3. Improving fumigant efficiency by deep application and totally impermeable film covering raised-beds for strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal California (CA) is the primary productive strawberry region where strawberry is mainly grown in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE). Over 55% of raised-bed production systems have fumigants applied directly through irrigation drip-tapes, which are buried near soil surface for soil-b...

  4. The application of quality control circle in neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application of quality control circle in raising compliance of the head of a bed in neurosurgery ICU nurses. Methods: The quality control circle was made up of 4 ICU nurses, determine the subject in order to improve the neurosurgery ICU nurses in raising compliance of the head of a bed, according to the QCC activity steps to formulate plans, including grasp the current situation, goal setting, through analysis, circle members develop strategy and plan implementation and review, finally compared the situation before and after neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed activities compliance. Results: After implementation of QCC, neurosurgery ICU nurses raised bed to 30 ~ 45 degrees. After activities, circle members in the team cooperation ability, cohesion, to accept new things ability, and innovative thinking ability and to raise the understanding of the relevant knowledge of the head of a bed has improved significantly. Conclusion: The application of quality management circle activity improves the neurosurgery ICU nurses effectively raise the compliance of the head of a bed, improve the comprehensive quality of the clinical nurses.

  5. Raised tone reveals ATP as a sympathetic neurotransmitter in the porcine mesenteric arterial bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatarat, Amjad; Dunn, William R; Ralevic, Vera

    2014-12-01

    The relative importance of ATP as a functional sympathetic neurotransmitter in blood vessels has been shown to be increased when the level of preexisting vascular tone or pressure is increased, in studies carried out in rat mesenteric arteries. The aim of the present study was to determine whether tone influences the involvement of ATP as a sympathetic cotransmitter with noradrenaline in another species. We used the porcine perfused mesenteric arterial bed and porcine mesenteric large, medium and small arteries mounted for isometric tension recording, because purinergic cotransmission can vary depending on the size of the blood vessel. In the perfused mesenteric bed at basal tone, sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses were abolished by prazosin, an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, but there was no significant effect of α,β-methylene ATP, a P2X receptor-desensitizing agent. Submaximal precontraction of the mesenteric arterial bed with U46619, a thromboxane A2 mimetic, augmented the sympathetic neurogenic vasocontractile responses; under these conditions, both α,β-methylene ATP and prazosin attenuated the neurogenic responses. In the mesenteric large, medium and small arteries, prazosin attenuated the sympathetic neurogenic contractile responses under conditions of both basal and U46619-raised tone. α,β-Methylene ATP was effective in all of these arteries only under conditions of U46619-induced tone, causing a similar inhibition in all arteries, but had no significant effect on sympathetic neurogenic contractions at basal tone. These data show that ATP is a cotransmitter with noradrenaline in porcine mesenteric arteries; the purinergic component was revealed under conditions of partial precontraction, which is more relevant to physiological conditions.

  6. Bypass flow and its role in leaching of raised beds under different land use types on an acid sulphate soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    A better understanding of leaching processes in raised beds is useful in assessing management options for acid sulphate soils. Field and laboratory studies were carried out to quantify the effects of soil physical properties and bypass flow on leaching processes of new, 1-year-old and 2-year-old rai

  7. Bypass flow and its role in leaching of raised beds under different land use types on an acid sulphate soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minh, L.Q.; Tuong, T.P.; Booltink, H.W.G.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.; Bouma, J.

    1997-01-01

    A better understanding of leaching processes in raised beds is useful in assessing management options for acid sulphate soils. Field and laboratory studies were carried out to quantify the effects of soil physical properties and bypass flow on leaching processes of new, 1-year-old and 2-year-old

  8. Effect of plastic tarps over raised-beds and potassium thiosulfate in furrows on chloropicrin emissions from drip fumigated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; McDonald, Jason A; Ajwa, Husein; Shem-Tov, Shachar; Sullivan, David A

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tarps are commonly used in raised bed strawberry production to minimize emissions of preplant soil fumigants and are left in place throughout the growing season as part of the standard cultural practices. Soil amendments with chemicals such as thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) can reduce fumigant emissions. A field study was conducted near Santa Maria, CA to determine the effects of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) over raised-beds and applying potassium thiosulfate (KTS) in furrows on reducing chloropicrin (CP) emissions from a strawberry field. Four fields (or treatments) were tested with 224 kg ha(-1) CP drip-applied threecm under the soil surface. The CP flux from bed tops and furrows and gas-phase concentrations under the tarps were monitored for five d. The CP emission flux and concentration under tarp were highest immediately following application. Diurnal temperature change affected CP concentration and emission fluxes (higher values during the day and lower at night). Slightly higher CP cumulative emission occurred using LDPE tarp (19%) compared to VIF (17%). Normalized flux (CP emission flux from the beds divided by CP concentration under the tarp) being estimated from field measurement was slightly higher for LDPE than VIF indicating different tarp permeability in the field. Because of extremely low emissions from the furrows (emission loss), KTS application to furrow treatments did not show further emission reductions than non-KTS treatments. This indicates that emission reduction should focus on the tarp above raised-beds when fumigant was drip-applied near bed-surface.

  9. Experiences with Rice Grown on Permanent Raised Beds:Effect of Crop Establishment Techniques on Water Use, Productivity, Profitability and Soil Physical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.NARESH; S.S.TOMAR; Dipender KUMAR; Samsher; Purushottam; S.P.SINGH; Ashish DWIVEDI; Vineet KUMAR

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, conventional rice production technologies have been leading to deterioration of soil health and declining farm profitability due to high inputs of water and labor. Conservation agriculture (CA) based resource-conserving technologies i.e. zero-tillage (ZT), raised-bed planting and direct-seeded rice (DSR) have shown promise as alternatives to conventional production technologies to overcome these problems. Present study was undertaken during 2009-2012 to establish an understanding of how permanent raised bed cropping system could be practiced to save water at the field application level to improve water productivity and also have the capability to enhance productivity, profitability and soil physical quality. The results showed that among different crop establishment techniques, conventional-tilled puddle transplanted rice (CT-TPR) required 14%-25% more water than other techniques. Compared with the CT-TPR system, zero till direct-seeded rice (ZT-DSR) consumed 6%-10%less water with almost equal system productivity and demonstrated higher water productivity. Wide raised beds saved about 15%-24% water and grain yield decrease of about 8%. Direct-seeded rice after ZT or reduced tillage or on unpuddled soil provided more net income than CT-TPR. The CT-TPR system had higher bulk density and penetration resistance due to compaction caused by the repeated wet tillage in rice. The steady-state infiltration rate and soil aggregation (> 0.25 mm) were higher under permanent beds and ZT and lower in the CT-TPR system. Under CT-TPR, soil aggregation was static across seasons, whereas it improved under no-till and permanent beds. Similarly, mean weight diameter of aggregates was higher under ZT and permanent beds and increased over time. The study reveals that to sustain the rice productivity, CA-based planting techniques can be more viable options. However, the long-term effects of these alternative technologies need to be studied under varying agro-ecologies in

  10. 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin emissions following simulated drip irrigation to raised beds under plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Luo, L; Xuan, R; Yates, S R

    2010-08-01

    Using laboratory soil chambers a nonscaled representation of an agricultural raised bed was constructed. For a sandy loam soil, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) were applied at 5 cm depth with an excess of water (simulated drip irrigation). Application was made under both high density polyethylene (HDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) covering the soil bed (the furrow was left uncovered). Soil gas distribution of the fumigants, together with emissions into the headspace above the bed, sidewall and furrow were determined over time. Total emissions from the HDPE treatment were cis 1,3-D 28%, trans 1,3-D 24%, and CP 8%. Due to its lower permeability, the values for VIF were 13%, 7%, and 1.5%, respectively. With HDPE, the majority (86-93%) of the emissions occurred from the bed, while for VIF the majority (92-99%) of the emissions was from the furrow. Compared to a range of literature values for shank injection, the use of drip application appears to offer a benefit in reducing 1,3-D and CP emissions. However, the most meaningful comparison is with our previous data for simulated shank injection where the same soil was covered (completely) with the same plastic films (1). In this comparison, only 1,3-D emissions under HDPE were lower with drip application; 1,3-D emissions under VIF and CP emissions under both films were greater with the drip application.

  11. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) plants: A performance benchmarking study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, J. A.; Beavers, H.; Bonk, D. [West Virginia University, College of Business and Economics, Division of Business Administration, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2004-03-31

    Data from a fluidized bed boiler survey distributed during the spring of 2000 to gather data for developing atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFCB) performance benchmarks are analyzed. The survey was sent to members of the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners; 35 surveys were usable for analysis. A total of 18 benchmarks were considered. While the results were not such as to permit a definitive set of conclusions, the survey was successful in providing practical information to assist plant owners, operators and developers to understand their operations and to assess potential solutions or to establish preventative maintenance programs. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Bubbling fluidized bed boiler for Vanaja power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormunen, R.; Haermae, P.; Vessonen, K.; Ketomaeki, A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    At the Vanaja Power Plant, on the outskirts of Haemeenlinna, there have been changes which reflect the central goals in IVO`s product development work. At Vanaja, efficiency is combined with environmental friendliness. In the early 1980s, the plant was modernized to produce district heat in addition to electricity. At that time, along with the new gas turbine at the plant, the main fuel, coal, while remaining the fuel for the old boilers, was replaced by natural gas. This year a new type of bubbling fluidized bed boiler enabling continuous use of peat and trial use of biofuels along with coal was introduced at the plant. In addition to the Nordic countries, this kind of technology is required in central eastern Europe, where modernization of ageing power plants is being planned to achieve the best possible solutions in respect of production and the environment. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites

  13. Stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils of tidal swamplands is influenced by the types and the amounts of organic matter application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Saidy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Farmers in tidal swamplands annually added organic matter (OM onto the raised beds to maintain organic matter contents and thereby maintain soil productivity of the raised beds. This experiment aimed to study the influence of the types and the amounts of OM on the stabilization of organic matter in the raised-bed soils. Four types of OM: rice straw, eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes, purun tikus  (Eleocharis dulcis and mixed  rice straw-eceng gondok were added to a 27-year raised bed soil with 4 different rates: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0  of maximum sorption capacity (Qmax, and the OM stabilization was quantified after 10 weeks of OM addition.  Results of this study showed with the exception of rice straw, OM addition to soil resulted in increases in the mineralization of soil OM thereby inducing priming effect. Addition of rice straw at rate of 0.5 of Qmax resulted in stabilization of 46% added OM, while only 30% and 37% of added OM was stabilized when OM was added to soils at rates of 1.0 and 2.0 Qmax, respectively.  This study showed that the stabilization of OM in raised bed soils were influenced by the chemical composition of OM and the amount of added OM.

  14. Fluid bed gasification pilot plant fuel feeding system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W.A.; Fonstad, T.; Pugsley, T.; Gerspacher, R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: wac132@mail.usask.ca; Wang Zhiguo (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: zhiguo.wang@src.sk.ca

    2009-07-01

    Fluidized bed gasification (FBG) is a method for thermally converting solid biomass to a gaseous product termed syngas, which can be used as fuel for heat or electricity generation. Accurate and consistent feeding of biomass fuel into biomass FBG converters is a continuing, challenge, and was the subject of experimentation at the University of Saskatchewan biomass FBG pilot plant. The 2-conveyor feeding system for this pilot plant was tested using meat and bone meal (MBM) as feedstock, by conveying the feedstock through the system, and measuring the output rate as the fuel was discharged. The relationship between average mass-flowrate (F{sub M}) and conveyor speed (S) for the complete feeding system was characterized to be F{sub M}=0.2188S-0.42 for the tests performed. Testing of the metering conveyor coupled to the injection conveyor showed that operating these conveyors at drive synchronized speeds, air pulsed into the injection hopper, and 50 slpm injection air, produced the most consistent feed output rate. Hot fluidized bed tests followed, which showed that plugging of the injection nozzle occurred as bed temperatures increased past 700C, resulting in loss of fuel flow. The pneumatic injection nozzle was subsequently removed, and the system was found to perform adequately with it absent. (orig.)

  15. Modern fluidized bed combustion in Ostrava-Karvina cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazac, V. [Energoprojekt Praha, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Novacek, A. [Moravskoslezske teplamy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia); Volny, J. [Templamy Karvina (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    The contemporary situation of our environment claims the sensitive approach to solving effective conversion of energy. Limited supplies of noble fuels and their prices evoke the need to use new combustion technologies of accessible fuels in given region without negative ecological influences. Energoproject participates in the preparation of the two projects in Ostrava-Karvin{acute a} black coal field in Czech Republic. The most effective usage of fuel energy is the combined of electricity and heat. If this physical principle is supported by a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) one obtains a high electricity/heat ratio integrated steam-gas cycle on the basis of solid fuel. Cogeneration plant Toebovice is the dominant source (600 MW{sub th}) of Ostrava district heating system (1100 MW{sub th}). The high utilization of the installed output and utilization of the clean, compact and efficient of the PFBC technology is the principal but not the single reason for the selection of the Toebovice power plant as the first cogeneration plant for installation of the PFBC in Czech Republic. The boiler will burn black coal from the neighboring coal basin.

  16. Free radical scavenging potential of in vitro raised and greenhouse acclimatized plants of Artemisia amygdalina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Rasool; B.A.Ganai; S.Akbar; A.N.Kamili

    2013-01-01

    AIM:Artemisia amygdalina Decne.(Asteraceae) is a critically endangered and endemic herb of Kashmir Himalayan sub-alpine region and Pakistan.Scientific research throughout the world has evidence to support the tremendous medicinal utility of the genus Artemisia.The natural resources of medicinal plants are being reduced day by day.This study provides the alternative way for medicinal resource utilization and conservation of A.amygdalina.METHODS:In vitro-raised plants and greenhouse acclimatized plants were obtained by culturing wild explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium.Plant extracts were obtained and subjected to different antioxidant assays:DPPH assay,riboflavin photo-oxidation assay,deoxy ribose assay,ferric thiocyanate assay,thiobarbituric acid assay,post mitochondrial supernatant assay and DNA damage on agarose gel.RESULTS:In vitro grown plants,as well as those acclimatized in the greenhouse reveals antioxidant activity against hydroxyl,superoxide,and lipid peroxyl radicals.CONCLUSION:This preliminary study revealed the free radical scavenging potential of tissue culture-raised plant extracts of A.amydalina.

  17. 薄垫料—外发酵养猪新技术及其对比试验%A New Raising Pig Method of Thin Mat-Outside Fermented Biological Fermentation Bed Technology and Its Appliance of Pig Raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋德贵; 辜澜涛; 俸祥仁

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades,zero emissions fermentation bed technology has been used to solve the excreta of pig from polluting the environment in pig industry at home and abroad. But,in application,there exist many problems,such as,high temperature of the fermentation bed,high cost and the production of harmful gas. By combining the advantages and disadvantages of the fermentation bed raising pig method with cement floor raising pig method,this paper devise a new raising-pig method-thin mat fermentation bed method, which is more suitable for the south areas. Compared with the former pig feeding mode in the following aspects,such as:costs of mat,incidence of disease,slaughtering rate,water consumption, growth increment in weight,feed amount and the feed/gain ratio,the results show that the new method is more environmental friendly in saving labor,provincial medicine and water,which is an ecological raising-pig method of low cost,low emission and no smell.%近几十年来,国内外养猪业纷纷采用零排放的生物发酵床技术来解决养殖过程中猪粪尿污染带来的环境问题.但是该技术存在诸多问题,如成本过高、发酵床发酵过程中温度过高以及产生毒害气体等.结合发酵床养猪方法与水泥地养猪方法的优缺点,本文设计一种更适合我国南方地区气候条件的无污染养猪法:薄垫料一外发酵养猪法,并将其与传统养猪模式进行对比实验,试验指标包括:垫料用量、垫料成本、发病率、出栏率、耗水量、体质量增量和料重比等,结果表明:该养猪法比传统的水泥地养猪法和传统发酵床养猪法环保、省工、省药、省水,达到低成本、低排放、无臭味生态养猪的效果.

  18. Formula for Determining Number of Basic Seedlings at Scattered-Planting with Seedling Dry-Raised on Plastic Trays in Double-Season Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiao-hua; CHEN Xiao-rong; YANG Fu-sun

    2006-01-01

    The tiller emergence in seedling nursery beds and field, and panicle formation in the field were investigated under scattered-planting with seedling dry-raised on plastic trays in double-season rice. A significant difference was noted in the non-synchronously-emerged tillers (the tillers that formed from latent buds and did not emerge following the normal tillering law on seedling nursery beds and recovered to grow after scattered-planting or transplanting) as well as the percentage of the available synchronously-emerged tillers between seedlings raised on plastic trays under dry-land conditions (DPT) and seedlings raised on nursery beds under wetland conditions (WB). The seedlings under DPT had some non-synchronously-emerged tillers, but those under WB had not. Therefore, the traditional formula for determining the number of rice seedlings was improved, and the formula for determining the number of basic seedlings under scattered planting with DPT in double-season rice was introduced. For early rice, it was X=YI{(1+t1r1)[1+(N-n-SN)Rr2]+(SN-3-t1)R2r5}, and for late rice, it was X=YI{(1+t1r1)[1+(N-n-SN)Rr2]+(N-n-SN-3)Rr2R1r3+(SN-3-t1)R2r5}. Where, X represents reasonable number of basic seedlings per unit area at scattered-planting; Y,number of fitting panicles per unit area; t1, total number of tillers per plant; r1, percentage of the total available tillers; N, total number of leaves of the main culm; n, total number of elongated internodes in the main culm; SN, seedling leaf ages at scattered-planting; R,percentage of the primary tillers emerged in available node-position; r2, percentage of the available primary tillers; R1, percentage of the secondary tillers in the field (except the secondary tillers of the seedlings); r3, percentage of the available secondary tillers; R2,percentage of the asynchronously-emerged tillers after scattered-planting; r5, percentage of the available non-synchronously-emerged tillers after scattered-planting.

  19. System for the Reduction of Substances in Reject Water from Reed-Bed Sludge Mineralization Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is a system for the reduction of substances in reject water from reed-bed sludge mineralization plants (also referred to as sludge dewatering reed-beds). The systems utilizes the composition of substances in reject water from reed-beds and that of sludge to reduce substance mass from...... within the container. The solution is then applied to the reed-beds, which dewaters, converts, and partially mineralize the sludge mixture. The reject water from the reed-beds is split where up to100% of the reject water is recirculated back to the mixed reactor and the remaining usually disposed...... the reject water via recirculation into a mixed reactor and back onto the reed-beds. The mixed rector consists of a container in which sludge (that is typically loaded directly on to reed-beds) is mixed with recirculated reject water from reed-beds. The sludge mixture has a definable hydraulic retention time...

  20. New environment-compatible heat-power plant Moabit with circulating fluidized-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bade, H.; Kuenisch, H.J.

    1987-06-09

    The authors report on the optimal utilisation of a city location for generating power and heat in a heat-power plant using circulating atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. Because fluidized-bed combustion eliminates the need for secondary flue gas scrubbing equipment, the construction is highly compact. Also, this type of plant produces no waste water, so there is no disposal problem. Taking all aspects into consideration, circulating fluidized-bed combustion is especially interesting for heat-power plants in municipal areas with electrical block outputs of between 100 and 200 MW.

  1. Dynamics of Solid Bed Dehydration in a Niger Delta Natural Gas Liquids Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akpabio, E.J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of a natural gas liquid solid bed dehydration plant in the Niger delta. The dehydration system of the plant is made of a 3-bed cycling unit placed upstream the cryogenic section of the plant to prevent hydrate formation (desired dew point of -1010C. The system comprised three (3 solid desiccant beds, which are packed with molecular sieves and alumina balls. Each bed had a maximum design capacity of 300million standard cubic feet per day. The dehydrator beds are configured to operate under a timed cycle, such that two (2 beds are always online while the third bed is undergoing regeneration. During the dehydration (drying cycle, the amount of moisture adsorbed by the molecular sieves, at different cross section of the tower varied with time. At the initial stage of the drying cycle, most of the moisture was adsorbed by the molecular sieves at the top of the bed, since the flow direction was from top to bottom. Thus, as the gas flowed through the bed, the molecular sieves at the bottom only adsorbed traces of water, which were not adsorbed at the top. This enabled the attainment of the required dew point or maximum parts per million (ppm of water in the gas. Based on this, it was noted that the topmost layer of the molecular sieves got saturated first and with continuous flow of gas through the bed, the saturated layer of the molecular sieves moved gradually, with time to the bottom of the bed. This resulted in the formation of a saturation gradient across the height of the bed. Critical examination of the dehydration, regeneration and cooling processes of the beds revealed that for effective and optimum results, dehydration was done for approximately 1200mins, regeneration 410mins and cooling 150mins while De-pressurization and re-pressurization took 20mins.

  2. Design and optimization of new simulated moving bed plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. S. Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The simulated moving bed (SMB technology has attracted considerable attention for its efficiency as a chromatographic adsorptive separation. It has been increasingly applied to the separation of binary mixtures with low separation factors, namely to separate isomers. Although quite a vast amount of information has been published concerning the simulation and design of operating conditions of existing SMB plants, fewer works have addressed the question of design and optimisation of geometric parameters and operating conditions of a new adsorber, especially when mass transfer resistances are significant. The present work extends an algorithm developed elsewhere to design SMB equipment and optimize its operating conditions and applies it to the case of fructose-glucose separation using a cation-exchange resin as stationary phase in order to obtain nearly pure fructose in the extract and glucose in the raffinate. The constraints were set as 99% purity for both products. The objective function was chosen to be the adsorbent productivity. The algorithm attempted to find the minimum column lengths for increasing throughputs, which met the required purity constraint. Then, the best construction parameters and operating conditions were chosen as those for which the adsorbent productivity was maximum. The effects of the safety margins applied on the velocity ratios in sections 1 and 4 were examined and a heuristic rule for optimum eluent flowrate was derived. The effect of the purity requirements was also investigated. Finally, the calculated optimal operating points, in terms of flowrate ratios in SMB sections 2 and 3, were analysed in the frame of the equilibrium theory. Sound coherence was verified, which confirmed the accuracy and adequacy of the extended algorithm for the design and optimisation of a SMB adsorber with strong mass transfer effects.

  3. Bed planting of wheat(Triticum aestivum L.)improves nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield compared to flat planting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Majeed; Atif; Muhmood; Abid; Niaz; Shahid; Javid; Zahid; Ashfaq; Ahmad; Syed; Shahid; Hussain; Shah; Asrar; Hussain; Shah

    2015-01-01

    Conventional flat planting is commonly used for growing wheat in Pakistan and the crop is irrigated by flood irrigation, but it leads to ineffective use of applied nitrogen owing to poor aeration and leaching and volatilization losses. The practice also results in greater crop lodging, lower water use efficiency, and crusting of the soil surface. In contrast, bed planting of wheat not only saves water but improves fertilizer use efficiency and grain yield. Three years of pooled data from the present study showed that wheat planting on beds and nitrogen application at 120 kg ha-1produced 15.06% higher grain yield than flat planting at the same nitrogen rate. Similarly, 25.04%, 15.02%, 14.59%, and 29.83% higher nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use, and agronomic and recovery efficiencies, respectively, were recorded for bed compared to flat planting. Wheat planting on beds with a nitrogen application of80 kg ha-1gave a yield similar to that of flat planting with 120 kg ha-1nitrogen. However,the economic return was 29% higher in bed planting as compared to flat planting, when nitrogen was applied at 120 kg ha-1.

  4. Bed planting of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. improves nitrogen use efficiency and grain yield compared to flat planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majeed 

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional flat planting is commonly used for growing wheat in Pakistan and the crop is irrigated by flood irrigation, but it leads to ineffective use of applied nitrogen owing to poor aeration and leaching and volatilization losses. The practice also results in greater crop lodging, lower water use efficiency, and crusting of the soil surface. In contrast, bed planting of wheat not only saves water but improves fertilizer use efficiency and grain yield. Three years of pooled data from the present study showed that wheat planting on beds and nitrogen application at 120 kg ha− 1 produced 15.06% higher grain yield than flat planting at the same nitrogen rate. Similarly, 25.04%, 15.02%, 14.59%, and 29.83% higher nitrogen uptake, nitrogen use, and agronomic and recovery efficiencies, respectively, were recorded for bed compared to flat planting. Wheat planting on beds with a nitrogen application of 80 kg ha− 1 gave a yield similar to that of flat planting with 120 kg ha− 1 nitrogen. However, the economic return was 29% higher in bed planting as compared to flat planting, when nitrogen was applied at 120 kg ha− 1.

  5. The economic impact of the proposed demonstration plant for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor design

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the history of the South African Pebble Bed Modular Reactor, a new design of nuclear power plant. It illustrates the serious delays in developing the design and the huge increases in cost of the technology.

  6. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [570 MWe plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The design, arrangement, thermodynamics, and economics of a 592 MW(e) (nominal gross) electric power generating plant equipped with a Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W) atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) boiler are described. Information is included on capital and operating costs, process systems, electrical systems, control and instrumentation, and environmental systems. This document represents a portion of an overall report describing the conceptual designs of two atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and balance of plants for the generation of electric power and the analysis and comparison of these conceptual designs to a conventional pulverized coal-fired electric power generation plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system.

  7. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [570 MWe plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The design, arrangement, thermodynamics, and economics of a 578 MW(e) (nominal gross) electric power generating plant equipped with a Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation (FWEC) atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) boiler are described. Information is included on capital and operating costs, process systems, electrical systems, control and instrumentation, and environmental systems. This document represents a portion of an overall report describing the conceptual designs of two atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and balance of plants for the generation of electric power and the analysis and comparison of these conceptual designs to a conventional pulverized coal-fired electric power generation plant equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system.

  8. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson-Robert, Olivier; Labrie, Geneviève; Chagnon, Madeleine; Fournier, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam). Performance development simulations performed on hive populations' show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  9. Planting of neonicotinoid-coated corn raises honey bee mortality and sets back colony development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Samson-Robert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide occurrences of honey bee colony losses have raised concerns about bee health and the sustainability of pollination-dependent crops. While multiple causal factors have been identified, seed coating with insecticides of the neonicotinoid family has been the focus of much discussion and research. Nonetheless, few studies have investigated the impacts of these insecticides under field conditions or in commercial beekeeping operations. Given that corn-seed coating constitutes the largest single use of neonicotinoid, our study compared honey bee mortality from commercial apiaries located in two different agricultural settings, i.e. corn-dominated areas and corn-free environments, during the corn planting season. Data was collected in 2012 and 2013 from 26 bee yards. Dead honey bees from five hives in each apiary were counted and collected, and samples were analyzed using a multi-residue LC-MS/MS method. Long-term effects on colony development were simulated based on a honey bee population dynamic model. Mortality survey showed that colonies located in a corn-dominated area had daily mortality counts 3.51 times those of colonies from corn crop-free sites. Chemical analyses revealed that honey bees were exposed to various agricultural pesticides during the corn planting season, but were primarily subjected to neonicotinoid compounds (54% of analysed samples contained clothianidin, and 31% contained both clothianidin and thiamethoxam. Performance development simulations performed on hive populations’ show that increased mortality during the corn planting season sets back colony development and bears contributions to collapse risk but, most of all, reduces the effectiveness and value of colonies for pollination services. Our results also have implications for the numerous large-scale and worldwide-cultivated crops that currently rely on pre-emptive use of neonicotinoid seed treatments.

  10. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 2. Conceptual balance of plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. This volume describes the conceptual balance-of-plant (BOP) design and was prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The major emphasis of the BOP study was a preliminary design of an overall plant to provide a basis for future studies.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of anthraquinone derivatives in rhizomes of tissue culture-raised Rheum emodi Wall. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sonia; Sharma, Nandini; Sharma, Upendra K; Singh, Narendra P; Bhushan, Shashi; Sharma, Madhu; Sinha, Arun K; Ahuja, Paramvir S

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents quantification of five anthraquinone derivatives (emodin glycoside, chrysophanol glycoside, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) in rhizomes of hardened micro-propagated Rheum emodi plants using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Aseptic shoot cultures were raised using rhizome buds. Shoot multiplication occurred in both agar gelled and liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 10.0 microM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 5.0 microM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Rooted plantlets obtained on plant growth regulator (PGR)-free medium were transferred to soil with 92% survival. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of five anthraquinone derivatives: emodin glycoside, chrysophanol glycoside, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion in rhizomes of tissue culture-raised plants. Only emodin glycoside (1) and chrysophanol glycoside (2) were present in 6-month-old hardened tissue cultured plants. In addition, the other three derivatives (emodin (3), chrysophanol (4) and physcion (5)) were also detected after 9 months.

  12. Ash problem at wood fired fluidized bed plants; Askproblem vid skogsbraensleeldning i fluidbaedd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Soeren; Nystroem, Olle; Axby, Fredrik [Sycon Energikonsult AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Andersson, Christer; Kling, Aasa [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    Several ash related problems occurs during conversion from fossil fuels to bio fuels. The most frequent and expensive problem is agglomeration of bed material (in fluidized beds) and fouling on superheating surfaces. The last problem leads to corrosion problem and decreased transfer of heat. This project is the first part of a proposed project focussed on fluidized bed combustion (FB), because FB have become the dominating technology for combustion of biofuels. The project includes this first update of what has been done by different research institutes since 1997 and results of questionnaire on operating problems to owners of fluidized bed plants. A couple of pilot studies and different thermodynamical studies of bed agglomeration with biofuel combustion have been done during the latest years. There are no published reports where the results from agglomeration tests in pilot scale are verified in full scale plants. No project was found which deals with the fouling problem in the cyclone in a circulating fluidized bed. The knowledge of the mechanisms of deposits growth on heat surfaces is incomplete and more research has to be done of what can prevent the deposit growth. Experience from full scale plants shows that the deposits on heat surfaces grows during a period and after that it falls of the heating surface. There is little knowledge of which ash and flue gas conditions that affects these conditions for bio fuel. The operational experience with wood fuels in circulating fluidized beds is that the main problem with bed material is in the inlet and outlet of the cyclone. A total desulfonated of the bed occurs only when there has been other disturbances or because of operator mistakes. There are a number of things which seem to influence on the deposit problems: (1) Boilers with long residence time have less problem than boilers with short residence time. (2) Fuel size. No plant owner have continuos analysis of the fuel size, but combustion with problem have a

  13. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  14. Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds

    OpenAIRE

    Fortnum, B. A.; Kasperbauer, M. J.; Decoteau, D. R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of different-colored polyethylene mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 eggs/plant, and grown in a greenhouse for 50 days over white, red, or black mulch. Soil temperature was kept constant among the mulch treatments by placing an ins...

  15. Largest fluidized bed power plant unit for power and district heat supply for Berlin (Part 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G.; Bade, H.; Bietz, K.H.; Jahn, P. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulating atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public.

  16. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration: evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  17. Plant traits in response to raising groundwater levels in wetland restoration : evidence from three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, P.M. van; Grootjans, A.P.; Sorrell, B.K.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Middleton, B.

    2006-01-01

    Question: Is raising groundwater tables successful as a wetland restoration strategy? Location: Kennemer dunes, The Netherlands; Moksloot dunes, The Netherlands and Bullock Creek fen, New Zealand. Methods: Generalizations were made by analysing soil dynamics and the responsiveness of integrative pla

  18. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  19. A Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Fluidized Bed and Its Application in Mutation of Plant Seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guang-Liang; WANG Zhen-Quan; HAN Er-Li; FU Ya-Bo; YANG Si-Ze; FAN Song-Hua; LI Chun-Ling; GU Wei-Chao; FENG Wen-Ran; ZHANG Gu-Ling; WANG Jiu-Li; Latif K.; ZHANG Shu-Gen

    2005-01-01

    @@ An atmospheric pressure plasma fluidized bed (APPFB) is designed to generate plasma using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with one liquid electrode. In the APPFB system, the physical properties of DBD discharge and its application in plant-seed mutating are studied fundamentally. The results show that the generated plasma is a typical glow discharge free from filament and arc plasma, and the macro-temperature of the plasma fluidized bed is nearly at room temperature. There are no obvious changes in the pimientos when their seeds are treated by APPFB, but great changes are found for coxcombs.

  20. Production of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto Rodriguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to verify the initial development of camu camu plants with different organic substrates in conventional nursery bedding microsprinkler irrigation and shade management Chromatine® mesh with 50% red light. We used genetic material from mother plants Germplasm Bank of INIA-camu camu Iquitos, seeds were germinated in decomposed sawdust and kept for a period of 40 days after subculturing was performed with 10 cm in height in different substrates according treatments in nursery beds with dimensions of 1.20 m wide x 10 m long with a depth of 30 cm. After conducting assessments of height (cm and basal diameter (mm for a period of 120 days, it was found that the substrate manure has become the substrate for greater efficiency in plant development camu camu substrate followed by humus worm.

  1. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  2. The influences of coal type on in-bed desulphurization in a PFBC demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miftahul Huda; Isao Mochida; Yozo Korai; Nobuhiro Misawa [Kyushu University, Fukuoka-ken (Japan). Institute for Material Chemistry and Engineering

    2006-09-15

    Desulphurization features of Blair Athol (BA), Witt Bank (WB), Nang Tong (NT) and Drayton (DT) coals were investigated in a 71 MW demonstration plant PFBC boiler operated at bed temperature of around 850{sup o}C, Ca/S molar ratios in feeds of above three, partial pressure of CO{sub 2} at combustion boiler outlet of around 0.9 kg/cm{sup 2} and boiler load of 50%, to clarify the influences of coal type on the in-bed desulphurization achievement. Bed materials (BM) and fly ashes (FA) were characterized to describe their roles in the desulphurization. SO{sub 2} emission in the stack was found 3, 2, 41 and 27 ppm in the respective combustion of BA, WB, NT and DT. The desulphurization efficiencies were determined by their Ca/S molar ratio of the fine sorbent formed by attrition. The ratios were 1.51, 2.98, 0.79, and 0.67 for BA, WB, NT and DT, respectively. Calcination in the bed increased the attrition rate of the sorbent to allow a better desulphurization in PFBC. However, the very high attrition rate yielded a large amount of unreacted sorbent which was entrained out from the bed, lowering the calcium utilization efficiency. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TISSUE CULTURE-RAISED BALLOTA NIGRA L. PLANTS GROWN EX VITRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowczyńska, Joanna; Grzegorczyk-KAROLAK, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.

  4. 猪舍不同发酵床垫料温室气体排放研究%Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bio-bed Pig Raising Units with Different Bedding Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏思雨; 李建辉; 刘姝彤; 郭海宁; 马晗; 尹微琴; 王小治; 封克

    2015-01-01

    为评价生态养猪过程中不同发酵床垫料组成对温室气体排放的影响,在南京六合发酵床养殖基地,设置3种不同垫料的发酵床处理,其垫料组成分别为木屑(S)、木屑+稻壳(SR)、木屑+稻壳+秸秆段(SRS)。在一个试验周期内,连续测定垫料中CO2、CH4及N2O等温室气体的排放,以及pH、含水率、铵态氮和硝态氮的动态变化,同时分析了三种垫料温室气体排放差异的机理。结果表明,垫料排放的温室气体以CO2和N2O为主,二者在三种温室气体二氧化碳排放当量中的占比高达99.3%~99.6%;三种垫料N2O的排放主要集中在猪出栏前一个月,占整个试验期间排放总量的61%~68%;在垫料中添加秸秆段(SRS)对CO2和N2O排放总量的影响不显著,但显著增加CH4的排放,其CH4排放总量分别是S和SR的2.30倍和2.46倍;SRS的二氧化碳排放当量亦高于S和SR,而S和SR的二氧化碳排放当量相差不大,三种处理间无显著性差异。%Bio-bed pig-raising is a new pig-raising technique, and is drawing increasing interests. However, the impact of this new system on greenhouse gas emissions is poorly understood. In this study, greenhouse gas(CO2, CH4 and N2O)emissions were monitored in pig units three bedding materials, including sawdust(S), sawdust + rice husk(SR)and sawdust + rice husk + straw(SRS), in Liuhe Bio-bed pig farms, Nanjing. The physical and chemical properties of bedding materials(pH, moisture, ammonium and nitrate)were also measured during the experimental period. Results showed that CO2 and N2O were the main greenhouse gases, both accounting for 99.3%~99.6%of the total greenhouse gas emissions. The emissions of N2O mainly occurred during the last one month of the feeding period, accounting for 61%~68%of the total N2O emission amount. The total CO2 and N2O emissions during the experimental period were not significantly different (P﹥0.05), while CH4

  5. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  6. Operating costs and plant options analysis for the Shamokin fluidized bed boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, M.G.; Dowdy, T.E.; Litman, R.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the operating costs and options to improve the Shamokin Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion Demonstration Plant located near Shamokin, Pennsylvania. The purpose of this study was to perform an operating cost analysis and compare the results with projected operating costs. An analysis was also made to identify possible cost savings options. Two base case scenarios were developed for this study: the first scenario assumed that the plant operated in a manner similar to operations during the extended test program; and the second scenario was concerned with two options. One option assumed upgrading the plant to achieve continuous full load operation, restarting, and used revised costs and revenues. The second assumed reconfiguring the plant for cogeneration.

  7. Pilot plant testing of IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehmat, A.; Mensinger, M.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Richardson, T.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is conducting a multi-year experimental program to develop and test, through pilot-scale operation, IGT`s two-stage fluidized-bed/cyclonic agglomerating combustor (AGGCOM). The AGGCOM process is based on combining the fluidized-bed agglomeration and gasification technology with the cyclonic combustion technology, both of which have been developed at IGT over many years. AGGCOM is a unique and extremely flexible combustor that can operate over a wide range of conditions in the fluidized-bed first stage from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-energy-content wastes. The ACCCOM combustor can easily and efficiently destroy solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes, while isolating solid inorganic contaminants within an essentially non-leachable glassy matrix, suitable for disposal in ordinary landfills. Fines elutriated from the first stage are captured by a high-efficiency cyclone and returned to the fluidized bed for ultimate incorporation into the agglomerates. Intense mixing in the second-stage cyclonic combustor ensures high destruction and removal efficiencies (DRE) for organic compounds that may be present in the feed material. This paper presents an overview of the experimental development of the AGGCOM process and progress made to date in designing, constructing, and operating the 6-ton/day AGGCOM pilot plant. Results of the bench-scale tests conducted to determine the operating conditions necessary to agglomerate a soil were presented at the 1991 Incineration Conference. On-site construction of the AGGCOM pilot plant was initiated in August 1992 and completed at the end of March 1993, with shakedown testing following immediately thereafter. The initial tests in the AGGCOM pilot plant will focus on the integrated operation of both stages of the combustor and will be conducted with ``clean`` topsoil.

  8. Industrial demonstration plant for the gasification of herb residue by fluidized bed two-stage process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xi; Shao, Ruyi; Wang, Fang; Dong, Pengwei; Yu, Jian; Xu, Guangwen

    2016-04-01

    A fluidized bed two-stage gasification process, consisting of a fluidized-bed (FB) pyrolyzer and a transport fluidized bed (TFB) gasifier, has been proposed to gasify biomass for fuel gas production with low tar content. On the basis of our previous fundamental study, an autothermal two-stage gasifier has been designed and built for gasify a kind of Chinese herb residue with a treating capacity of 600 kg/h. The testing data in the operational stable stage of the industrial demonstration plant showed that when keeping the reaction temperatures of pyrolyzer and gasifier respectively at about 700 °C and 850 °C, the heating value of fuel gas can reach 1200 kcal/Nm(3), and the tar content in the produced fuel gas was about 0.4 g/Nm(3). The results from this pilot industrial demonstration plant fully verified the feasibility and technical features of the proposed FB two-stage gasification process.

  9. Hydrotreating of used oil; Prediction of industrial trickle-bed operation from pilot-plant data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skala, D.U.; Saban, M.D.; Orlovie, M. (Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia). Tehnolosko-Metalurski Fakultet); Meyn, V.W.; Severin, D.K.; Rahimian, I.G.H. (German Inst. for Petroleum Research, 3392 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (DE)); Marjanovic, M.V. (Refinery Beograd, Pancevacki put 83, 11001 Beograd (YU))

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports on oil hydrotreating that was investigated in a pilot trickle-bed reactor (TBR) at 270-350{degrees} C, 5-7 MPa, and 1.1-4.6 liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) and with different hydrogen/oil ratios using a commercial Co-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), and metals removal were investigated by using a modified power- law kinetic model with a power term for LHSV. It was found that the HDS and HDO reactions can be described by pseudo- first-order kinetics. The removal of metals was found to be primarily due to the physical process of deposition on the catalyst bed. With the use of the kinetic data from a pilot plant, the simulation of an industrial TBR was performed. Simulated HDS and HDO, removal of metals, and prediction of catalyst deactivation agreed well with the industrial data for three charges of catalyst.

  10. 1974 conceptual design description of a bedded salt pilot plant in southeast New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    The policy of the United States Atomic Energy Commission is to take custody of all commercial high-level radioactive wastes and maintain control of them in perpetuity. This policy (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 50, Appendix F) requires that the high-level wastes from nuclear fuels reprocessing plants be solidified within five years after reprocessing and then shipped to a federal repository within ten years after reprocessing. Ultimate disposal sites and/or methods have not yet been selected and are not expected to be ready when waste deliveries begin about 1983. Therefore, the AEC plans to build an interim storage facility, called Retrievable Surface Storage Facility (RSSF), to store and isolate the waste from man and his environment until the suitability of the permanent repository is demonstrated and public acceptance has been established. Meantime, the AEC is proceeding with the study and development of an ultimate disposal method. Bedded salt is being considered for ultimate waste disposal, and work is in progress to develop a Bedded Salt Pilot Plant to demonstrate its acceptability. The pilot plant will permit in situ verification of laboratory work on the interaction of heat and radioactivity of the waste with the salt and surroundings. One concept of such a pilot facility is described.

  11. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Arya

    Full Text Available NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR. In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria.

  12. Computational Identification Raises a Riddle for Distribution of Putative NACHT NTPases in the Genome of Early Green Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Preeti; Acharya, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    NACHT NTPases and AP-ATPases belongs to STAND (signal transduction ATPases with numerous domain) P-loop NTPase class, which are known to be involved in defense signaling pathways and apoptosis regulation. The AP-ATPases (also known as NB-ARC) and NACHT NTPases are widely spread throughout all kingdoms of life except in plants, where only AP-ATPases have been extensively studied in the scenario of plant defense response against pathogen invasion and in hypersensitive response (HR). In the present study, we have employed a genome-wide survey (using stringent computational analysis) of 67 diverse organisms viz., archaebacteria, cyanobacteria, fungi, animalia and plantae to revisit the evolutionary history of these two STAND P-loop NTPases. This analysis divulged the presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants (green algae and the lycophyte) which had not been previously reported. These NACHT NTPases were known to be involved in diverse functional activities such as transcription regulation in addition to the defense signaling cascades depending on the domain association. In Chalmydomonas reinhardtii, a green algae, WD40 repeats found to be at the carboxyl-terminus of NACHT NTPases suggest probable role in apoptosis regulation. Moreover, the genome of Selaginella moellendorffii, an extant lycophyte, intriguingly shows the considerable number of both AP-ATPases and NACHT NTPases in contrast to a large repertoire of AP-ATPases in plants and emerge as an important node in the evolutionary tree of life. The large complement of AP-ATPases overtakes the function of NACHT NTPases and plausible reason behind the absence of the later in the plant lineages. The presence of NACHT NTPases in the early green plants and phyletic patterns results from this study raises a quandary for the distribution of this STAND P-loop NTPase with the apparent horizontal gene transfer from cyanobacteria.

  13. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, G.C. [POWER International, Inc., Coeur d`Alene, ID (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  14. Response of some common annual bedding plants to three species of meloidogyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1994-12-01

    Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating >/=4.2 and >/=14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating Salvia splendens cv. Bonfire, and Vinca rosea cv. Little Bright Eye. Verbena x hybrida cv. Florist was heavily infected (gall rating >4.0 and >/=7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica.

  15. The Operator Training Simulator System for the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Trevor [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Pebble House, Centurion (South Africa)], E-mail: trevor.dudley@pbmr.co.za; Villiers, Piet de; Bouwer, Werner [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Pebble House, Centurion (South Africa); Luh, Robert [GSE Systems, Inc., 7133 Rutherford Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21244 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a First of a Kind Engineering with respect to the over 200 new innovations used in the design. The PBMR technical design is an inherited modified design from an earlier design such as the German 15 MWe AVR (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchs Reaktor) and the THTR-300 MWe Thorium High Temperature Reactor (THTR), which ran in Germany as a test and research facility for 20 years. This paper discusses the Operator Training Simulator System for the PBMR Demonstration Power Plant. The Operator Training Simulator System will be used for operator training and licensing of plant operators. Included in the discussion is an overview of the major elements of the Operator Training Simulator System, including some of the main functional areas.

  16. Remineralization of permeate water by calcite bed in the Daoura's plant (south of Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyoune, M. G.; Atbir, A.; Bari, H.; Hassnaoui, L.; Mongach, E.; Khadir, A.; Boukbir, L.; Bellajrou, R.; Elhadek, M.

    2017-04-01

    To face water shortage and to fight drought, the National office of Water and Electricity (ONEE) carried out a program aiming at constructing several desalination stations of seawater in the South of Morocco. However, the final product water after desalination (osmosis water) has turned out to be unbalanced and has an aggressive character. Therefore, a post-treatment of remineralization is necessary to recover the calco-carbonic equilibrium of water and to protect the distribution network from corrosion degradation. Thereby, our work aims to examine the performance of the remineralization used in Daoura plant by the calcite bed in the absence of carbon dioxide CO2 (without acidification), we have followed many parameters indicating the performance of this technique adopted such as pH, TAC (hydroxide, carbonate and bicarbonate content), Ca content, Langelier saturation index (LSI), Larson index (LR). The results obtained show that this technique adopted in Daoura plant brings to water back its entire calco-carbonic balance to measure up to the Moroccan standards of drinking water. Generally, the exploitation of the calcite bed technique for remineralization is simple, easy and it does not require any major efforts or precautions.

  17. Testing of downstream catalysts for tar destruction with a guard bed in a fluidised bed biomass gasifier at pilot plant scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aznar, M.P.; Frances, E.; Campos, I.J.; Martin, J.A.; Gil, J. [Saragossa Univ. (Spain). Dept. of Chemistry and Environment Engineering; Corella, J. [Complutense Univ. of Madrid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A new pilot plant for advanced gasification of biomass in a fast fluidised bed is now fully operative at University of Saragossa, Spain. It is a `3rd generation` pilot plant. It has been built up after having used two previous pilot plants for biomass gasification. The main characteristic of this pilot plant is that it has two catalytic reactors connected in series, downstream the biomass gasifier. Such reactors, of 4 cm i.d., are placed in a slip stream in a by-pass from the main gasifier exit gas. The gasification is made at atmospheric pressure, with flow rates of 3-50 kg/in, using steam + O{sub 2} mixtures as the gasifying agent. Several commercial Ni steam-reforming catalyst are being tested under a realistic raw gas composition. Tar eliminations or destructions higher than 99 % are easily achieved. (orig.) 2 refs.

  18. 养猪发酵床微生物宏基因组基本分析方法%Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Community in a Microbial Fermentation-bed for Pig Raising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 王阶平; 陈倩倩; 刘国红; 车建美; 陈德局; 郑雪芳; 葛慈斌

    2016-01-01

    养猪微生物发酵床分解猪粪、消除恶臭,将猪粪形成生物菌肥,实现了养猪污染的微生物治理和猪粪的资源化利用,微生物起到关键作用。然而,关于发酵床微生物群落的种类、数量、结构等方面系统研究鲜见报道。课题组采用高通量宏基因组学方法,系统地开展了微生物发酵床的微生物组研究,揭示不同空间、不同深度、不同发酵程度、不同垫料组成、不同季节发酵床中的微生物组成及其区系演替规律。本文就相关的宏基因组测序的样本采集、样本处理、测序原理、分析模型、数据统计、结果表述等分析流程和方法进行了归纳,阐明微生物组操作分类单元(OTU)鉴定,物种累积曲线,核心微生物组,种类丰度主成分分析,种类秩-多度曲线,物种组成丰度柱状图、热图、星图等分析的原理与方法,列举微生物组种类复杂度α-多样性分析、β-多样性分析、种类显著性差异 LEfSe 分析,冗余分析等实例,为深入研究发酵床微生物群落提供了完整的分析思路和范例。%The microbial community can decompose pig feces and eliminate funk odor in the microbial fermentation-bed for pig raising.Thus,the pig raising technology in the microbial fermentation-bed can not only achieve zero release of the pig raising pollutants,but also carry out resourceful utilization of the pig feces resources.Moreover, some key techniques in the microbial fermentation-bed for pig raising are directly or indirectly related to microorganisms.However,very few researches have been done on the microbial species,quantity,structure,and other aspects of the microbial fermentation-bed.Our group had comprehensively and systematically performed the microbiomics analysis of the microbial fermentation-bed to reveal its microbial community and the ecological succession in different space and depth with different fermenting degrees and

  19. Method of reducing CO in combustion plant, particularly in fluidized bed combustion plant. Verfahren zur Reduzierung von CO bei Verbrennungsanlagen, insbesondere bei Wirbelbettfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1989-05-10

    The invention describes a method of reducing the development of CO in combustion plant, particularly fluidised combustion plant, characterised in that the air is introduced in a heated condition at the points where increased CO concentrations are measured, the air being heated in tube bundles, these tube bundles being formed in such a manner as to cause an impact precipitative effect in the form of an impact precipitative arrangement at the proportioned fuel input of fluidised bed combustion plant.

  20. Upgrading of a wastewater treatment plant with a hybrid moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Falletti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater treatment plant of Porto Tolle (RO, Italy was originally projected for 2200 person equivalent (p.e. and it was made of a pumping station, an activated sludge oxidation tank (395 m3, a settler (315 m3, and two sludge drying beds. Other units were not yet in use in 2008: a fine screen, a sand and grit removal unit, a new settler (570 m3, a disinfection tank and a sludge thickener. Effective hydraulic load was 245% higher, organic load was 46% lower and nitrogen load was 39% higher than project values. Moreover, higher pollutant loads and more strict emission limits for nitrogen were expected. So the plant was upgraded: the old settler was divided into a sector of 180 m3 that was converted into a predenitrification tank, and a sector of 100 m3 that was converted into a hybrid MBBR tank filled with 50% AnoxKaldnesTM K3 carriers; the new settler was connected to the hybrid MBBR, and the other units were started. Biofilm growth was observed two months after plant restarting, its concentration reached 1.1 gTS/m2 (0.26 kgTS/m3, while activated sludge concentration was 2.0–2.8 kgTSS/m3 in all the period of study. The upgraded plant treats 1587 m3/d wastewater with 57 kgCOD/d, 23 kgBOD/d and 13.3 kgN/d, and has a significant residual capacity; the effluent respects all emission limits.

  1. Efficiency conventional anode beds versus deep vertical well beds for pipe cathodic protection in petrochemical plants; Eficiencia de leitos convencionais de anodos versus leitos em poco vertical profundo para protecao catodica de tubulacoes em plantas petroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller Filho, Francisco; Baria, Alexandre; Silva, Luciano Pereira da [Katodica Projetos Eletronicos e Servicos Ltda., Sao Caetano do Sul, RS (Brazil); Miocque, Andre [De Nora do Brasil Ltda., Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    This article discusses the efficiency obtained with cathodic protection system by using anode deep vertical bed, compared to the traditional systems (superficial horizontal beds), in petrochemical plants and other industries. The study focus project characteristics and differences and both systems installation.

  2. Hypothetical operation model for the multi-bed system of the Tritium plant based on the scheduling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Uk, E-mail: eslee@dongguk.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148-gil Kwahak-ro, Yusong-gu, Daejon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Euy Soo [Department of Chemical & Biochemical Engineering, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In-Beum [Department of Chemical Engineering and Graduate School of Engineering Mastership, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We introduce a mathematical model for the multi-bed storage system in the tritium plant. • We obtain details of operation by solving the model. • The model assesses diverse operation scenarios with respect to risk. - Abstract: In this paper, we describe our hypothetical operation model (HOM) for the multi-bed system of the storage and delivery system (SDS) of the ITER tritium plant. The multi-bed system consists of multiple getter beds (i.e., for batch operation) and buffer vessels (i.e., for continuous operation). Our newly developed HOM is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model and has been extensively investigated to optimize chemical and petrochemical production planning and scheduling. Our model determines the timing, duration, and size of tasks corresponding to each set of equipment. Further, inventory levels for each set of equipment are calculated. Our proposed model considers the operation of one cycle of one set of getter beds and is implemented and assessed as a case study problem.

  3. Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, R M; Edwards, C A; Subler, S; Metzger, J D

    2001-05-01

    This experiment was designed to characterize the physical, chemical and microbial properties of a standard commercial horticultural, greenhouse container, bedding plant medium (Metro-Mix 360), that had been substituted with a range of increasing concentrations (0%, 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% by volume) of pig manure vermicompost and to relate these properties to plant growth responses. The growth trials used tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), grown in the substituted media for 31 days under glasshouse conditions, with seedling growth recorded in 20 pots for each treatment. Half of the tomato seedlings (10 pots per treatment) were watered daily with liquid inorganic fertilizer while the other half received water only. The percentage total porosity, percentage air space, pH and ammonium concentrations of the container medium all decreased significantly, after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with equivalent amounts of pig manure vermicompost; whereas bulk density, container capacity, electrical conductivity, overall microbial activity and nitrate concentrations, all increased with increasing substitutions of vermicompost. The growth of tomato seedlings in the potting mixtures containing 100% pig manure vermicompost was reduced, possibly as a result of high soluble salt concentrations in the vermicompost and poorer porosity and aeration. The growth of tomato seedlings was greatest after substitution of Metro-Mix 360 with between 25% and 50% pig manure vermicompost, with more growth occurring in combinations of pig manure vermicompost treated regularly with a liquid fertilizer solution than in those with no fertilizer applied. Some of the growth enhancement in these mixtures seemed to be related to the combined effects of improved porosity, aeration and water retention in the medium and the high nitrate content of the substrate, which produced an increased uptake of nitrogen by the plant tissues, resulting in increased plant growth. When the tomato seedlings were

  4. Coal slurry solids/coal fluidized bed combustion by-product mixtures as plant growth media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, R.G.; Green, W.P.; Dreher, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Fine-textured, pyritic waste produced by coal cleaning is stored in slurry settling ponds that eventually require reclamation. Conventionally, reclamation involves covering the dewatered coal slurry solids (CSS) with 1.3 m of soil to allow plant growth and prevent acid generation by pyrite oxidation. This study was conducted to determine the feasiblity of a less costly reclamation approach that would eliminate the soil cover and allow direct seeding of plants into amended CSS materials. Potential acidity of the CSS would be neutralized by additions of fluidized-bed combustion by-product (FBCB), an alkaline by-product of coal combustion. The experiment involved two sources of CSS and FBCB materials from Illinois. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) were seeded in the greenhouse into pots containing mixtures of the materials. CSS-1 had a high CaCO3:FeS2 ratio and needed no FBCB added to compensate for its potential acidity. CSS-2 was mixed with the FBCB materials to neutralize potential acidity (labeled Mix A and B). Initial pH was 5.6, 8.8, and 9.2 for the CSS-1, Mix A, and Mix B materials, respectively. At the end of the 70-day experiment, pH was 5.9 for all mixtures. Tall fescue and sweet clover grew well in all the treatments, but birdsfoot trefoil had poor emergence and survival. Elevated tissue levels of B, Cd, and Se were found in some plants. Salinity, low moisture holding capacity, and potentially phytotoxic B may limit the efficacy of this reclamation method.

  5. Computerized simulation of the dynamic response of a coal-fired power plant with pressurized fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plackmeyer, J.

    1982-07-01

    The simple way of desulfurizing, the efficient combustion of coal, and low carbon monoxide flue gas content of a fluidized bed combustion installation were studied. The dynamic response of a pressurized fluidized bed should also be studied before any construction is started. The physical-mathematical models of all single components were developed and combined in a total computer program. Starting point was the planned pilot plant with gas turbine engine. Various modifications of the purely air cooled plant as well as the extension to a combined cycle with additional steam turbine were considered. Operating cases were simulated: starting up, increasing from partial load to full load and vice versa, shut down and breakdowns. Results show that all operating cases could be brought under control as well as breakdowns. The constructive precautions and correct plant practice are described.

  6. Technical notes for the conceptual design for an atmospheric fluidized-bed direct combustion power generating plant. [Comparison of AFB plant and pulverized coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-01

    The first part of this report presents a comparison of the conceptual designs of a large (570 MW(e)) pulverized coal (PC) steam generator equipped with a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system and two equivalent sized atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) steam generators including balance of plants for electric-power generation. The reader is cautioned that this portion of the report compares a zero generation AFB technology to pulverized coal technology which has been operationally and economically optimized for the past half-century. This comparison is intended to be indicative of whether further development of the AFB concept as a viable alternative to the PC/FGD concept for electric-power generation is merited. In the second part, the load-following capability of a once-through subcritical atmospheric fluidized bed boiler is analyzed. Digital computer simulation predictions of the plant's response to open loop step changes in firing rate, feedwater flow, governor valve, unit load demand, etc, are made. The predicted response of throttle pressure, steam temperature, unit load, etc, are compared to the response of a conventional coal-fired, once-through, subcritical unit. The load-following capability is assessed through this qualitative comparison. Additional model response predictions are also presented for which no test data are presently available.

  7. Powered Hammering Blade No-till Wheat Seeder for Permanent Raised Beds%动力甩刀式小麦固定垄免耕播种机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何进; 李洪文; 王庆杰; 张喜瑞; 李慧; 张东远

    2011-01-01

    针对我国西北绿洲农业区现有固定垄免耕播种机种类少,且在玉米秸秆地固定垄免耕播种小麦易堵塞、破坏垄形等问题,提出了动力甩刀碎、抛茬和刀刃型开沟器破茬结合防堵及双翼型犁铧修垄的方法.设计了动力甩刀破茬式小麦固定垄免耕播种机,并确定了L型甩刀、开沟器、双翼型犁铧等关键部件的参数.在玉米秸秆覆盖地试验结果表明,动力甩刀破茬式小麦固定垄免耕播种机能有效地解决秸秆堵塞问题,具有较强的防堵能力;该机在减少动土量的情况下,其产量与2BMF-5型固定垄免耕播种机基本持平,且修垄效果更好.%According to the problems of few available no-till seeders and residues-blocking and bed-damaging during the seeding of wheat in maize residues cover fields in permanent raised beds ( PRB) in northwest oasis farming areas,the new anti-blocking (residue-chopping and throwing by powered L-type hammering blade and residue-cutting by knife type opener) and bed renovation ( bed-reshaping by double-wing plough) ideas were put forward. The powered hammering blade no-till wheat seeder for PRB was designed. The key parameters for L-type hammering blade,opener and double-wing plough were determined. The experiment in maize residue cover fields showed that the seeder was effective in solving residues blocking. Compared with 2BMF-5 no-till wheat seeder,the spring wheat yield was similar and bed renovation effect was better with the decreased soil disturbance.

  8. Study on Controlling Epidemic in Cushions of Fermentation Bed about Raising Pigs%发酵床养猪垫料中病原防控的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to control the growth of mucor, parasites, Escherichia coli and S. aureus in cusions of fermentation bed,so selecting dozens of Chinese herbal medicines and chemical pharmaceuticals to start bacteriostasis experiment in vitro. The results showed that all hemical pharmaceuticals have different level controlling effects on one or severals of beneficial bacterials in cusions; Dandelion, Herbahouttuyniae, Herba Artemisiae Scopariae, Cortex Fraxini, Folium Isatidis,Herba Epimedii, Artemisia Annua, Andrographitis Paniculata, Solanum Nigrum, Macleaya Cordata, Euphorbia Humifusa have no controlling effects on beneficial bacterials in cusions, and but have certain controlling effects on Escherichia coli and S. aureus. Calcium propionate has no controlling effects on beneficial hacterials, but has significant controlling effects on mucor.Calcium Propionate and Cortex Pseudolaricis has no controlling effects on beneficial bacterials, so they will be anthelminthic drugs in cusons.%为了有效防控发酵床垫料中霉菌、寄生虫、大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌等的生长,选取了几十种中药及化学制剂进行了体外抑菌试验.结果表明,所有化学药物对垫料中一种或几种有益菌有不同程度的抑制效果;蒲公英、鱼腥草、茵陈、秦皮、大青叶、淫羊藿、青蒿、穿心莲、龙葵、博落回、地锦草对垫料中有益菌无抑制作用,对大肠杆菌及金黄色葡萄球菌有一定的抑制效果;丙酸钙对有益菌无抑制作用,对霉菌有明显的抑制效果;贯众与土荆皮对有益菌无抑制作用,可作为垫料中的驱虫药.

  9. Studies in an atmospheric bubbling fluidized-bed combustor of 10 MW power plant based on rice husk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ravi Inder [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, Punjab 141 006 (India); Mohapatra, S.K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India); Gangacharyulu, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Thapar University, Patiala, Punjab (India)

    2008-11-15

    In this paper an experience, environmental assessment, a model for exit gas composition, agglomeration problem and a model for solid population balance of 10 MW power plant at Jalkheri, Distt. Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India based on rice husk has been discussed. Three phase multistage mathematical model for exit gas composition of rice husk in fluidized bed has been derived. The model is based on three-phase theory of fluidization and material balance for shrinking rice husk particles and it is similar to model developed by Kunii and Levenspiel. The burning of rice husk is assumed to take place according to single film theory. The model has been used to predict the exit gas composition particularly O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}. The agglomeration problem of above plant which is main reason for defluidization of bed has also been discussed. SEM of ash agglomerates has been done. Ash samples taken from the above 10 MW power plant at Jalkheri has been quantitatively analyzed. Finally solid population model has been formed to calculate bed carbon load and carbon utilization efficiency. Above two models are experimentally correlated with the data collected from the above 10 MW power plant at Jalkheri, Distt. Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India which uses rice husk as a fuel input (at the time of study). All the results from the model for rice husk are coming with in permissible limits. (author)

  10. Energy, environmental and operation aspects of a SRF-fired fluidized bed waste-to-energy plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gisi, Sabino; Chiarelli, Agnese; Tagliente, Luca; Notarnicola, Michele

    2017-05-05

    A methodology based on the ISO 14031:2013 guideline has been developed and applied to a full-scale fluidized bed waste to energy plant (WtE) burning solid recovered fuel (SRF). With reference to 3years of operation, the data on energy and environmental performance, on raw materials consumptions such as sand and diesel fuel, accidental reasons of plant shutdown, have been acquired and analyzed. The obtained results have allowed to quantify the energy and environmental performance of the WtE plant under investigation by varying the amount and mixings of the inlet waste, available in form of thickened and fluff (similar to coriander) SRF. In terms of the energy performance, the fluidized bed technology applied to the SRF was able to guarantee an adequate production of electricity (satisfying the market demands), showing a relative flexibility with respect to the inlet waste. In terms of net energy production efficiency, the plant showed values in the range of 13.8-14.9% in line with similar installations. In terms of the environmental performance, the adoption of a cleaning system based on SNCR (Selective Non Catalitic Reduction)+semi-dry scrubbing+Fabric filter generated emissions usually well below the limits set by the EU Directive 2000/76/EC as well as the Italian Law 46/2014 (more restrictive) with reference to all the key parameters. In terms of the plant shutdown, the majority of problems focused on the combustion chamber and boiler due to the erosion of the refractory material of the furnace as well as to the breaking of the superheaters of the boiler. In contrast, the mechanical and electrical causes, along with those related to the control and instrumentation system, were of secondary importance. The sand bed de-fluidization was also among the leading causes of a frequent plant shutdown. In particular, results showed how although the SRF presents standard characteristics, the use of different mixtures may affect the number of plant shutdowns. The full

  11. Research of fluidized bed cement clinker sintering system by pilot plant; Ryudosho cement shosei gijutsu no kaihatsu. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, N.; Hashimoto, I.; Nakatsuka, M. [The Cement Association of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    While a cement manufacturing process generally performs sintering by using a rotary kiln, a development work has been carried out as a subsidy operation of the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy on a cement sintering technology using a fluidized bed consisted of two furnaces: a jet flow bed granulating furnace and a fluidized bed sintering furnace. This paper reports the results of tests and researches performed during fiscal 1995. A plant with a scale of 20 ton-a-day production started in 1993 after having gone through bench scale tests. The year 1995 conducted by August its performance evaluation, review of the operation method and the safety criteria, and generalization of the tests. A multi-stage cyclone system has been employed in the preheating equipment for cement material powder. A number of improvements have been realized in the aspects of construction and operation, such as stabilization of dust collecting efficiency by employing a high-efficiency type cyclone, and operation with reduced pressure variation. Based on these results, a construction had been progressed in parallel on a new plant upscaled to 200 ton-a-day production. The new plant was completed in December, 1995. 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Combined cycle power plant with circulating fluidized bed combustion. Final report; Kombikraftwerk mit zirkulierender Druckwirbelschicht-Feuerung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    In the frame of this study the concept of a combined cycle power plant with circulating fluidized bed combustion was investigated for the application of national brown coal. The aims of this study which is subsidised by the FMTR are the following: - evaluation of the experiences which have been made so far in the frame of developing circulating fluidized bed combustion; - reaching of reliable statements about the process technology, about technical risks as well as about the time frame and the costs; - developing a task for a possible realisation of a 150 MW{sub el}-pilot plant in the new Laender. The present study shows that combined cycle power plants which are fuelled by brown coal can be realised according to the principle of circulating fluidized bed combustion with a plant net efficiency of 45% for a power of 150 MW{sub el} (pilot plant) and a plant net efficiency clearly above 47% for a power of 500 MW{sub el} (reference power plant). The combination of this efficient combined cycle power plant technology with a simple brown coal gasification module, that is integrated into a combustion reactor will almost certainly lead to plant net efficiencies of 50% and more, especially for ZDSWF plants of the second generation. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen dieser Studie ist fuer den Einsatz einheimischer Braunkohle das Konzept eines Kombikraftwerkes auf der Basis der zirkulierenden Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung untersucht worden. Ziele dieser mit BMFT-Mitteln gefoerderten Studie sind: - die Bewertung der bisher im Rahmen der Entwicklung von Druckwirbelschichtfeuerungen gesammelten Erfahrungen, - die Gewinnung belastbarer Aussagen zum verfahrenstechnischen Konzept, zu technischen Risiken sowie zum Zeit- und Kostenrahmen sowie - die Ausarbeitung einer Aufgabenstellung fuer die moegliche Realisierung einer 150-MW{sub el}-Pilotanlage in den neuen Bundeslaendern. Die vorliegende Studie zeigt, dass mit Braunkohle befeuerte Kombikraftwerksanlagen nach dem Prinzip der

  13. Implementation of an Electric Vehicle Test Bed Controlled by a Virtual Power Plant for Contributing to Regulating Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Sacchetti, Dario; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    as a multifunctional grid-interactive EV, which a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) or a generic EV coordinator could use for testing different control strategies, such as EV contribution to regulating power reserves. The EV coordination is realized using the IEC 61850 modeling standard in the communication. Regulating power......With the increased focus on Electric Vehicles (EV) research and the potential benefits they bring for smart grid applications, there is a growing need for an evaluation platform connected to the electricity grid. This paper addresses the design of an EV test bed, which using real EV components...... and communication interfaces, is able to respond in real-time to smart grid control signals. The EV test bed is equipped with a Lithium-ion battery pack, a Battery Management System (BMS), a charger and a Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) unit for feeding power back to the grid. The designed solution serves...

  14. A pilot-plant study for destruction of PCBs in contaminated soils using fluidized bed combustion technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Dilip L; Anthony, Edward J; Wang, Jinsheng

    2007-08-01

    Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated soils and wastes using circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) technology was studied using a pilot plant and simulated waste material. The results show that the technology is effective and particularly promising for treatment of PCB-containing materials like the toxic sludge from a large contaminated site. Destruction of the toxics in the gas phase appears to be very fast, and over 99.9999% destruction and removal efficiency can be achieved in the temperature range 875-880 degrees C. Heat transfer in the fluidized bed also appears adequate. Toxic residues in treated soil can be reduced to very low levels. Rate-controlling factors of the decontamination process are analyzed, and key issues for determination of the process conditions are discussed.

  15. Badenian and Sarmatian beds in excavation pit for the hydroelectric power plant Brežice, Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Poljak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological prospection of partly accessible constructional pit for the hydroelectric power plant (HPP Brežice was performed. Paleontological content and sediment-petrographic characteristics of rocks were investigated. Neogene part of the succession consists of carbonate silt and siltstone with intercalations of carbonate and silicate sandstone, and polymict sandstone to conglomerate. Based on foraminifera, ostracods, molluscs and marine mammals, the Upper Badenian and Lower Sarmatian age of beds and boundary between them have been determined. The transition is characterized by a shorter break in sedimentation and environmental change. Fossil fids indicate that salinity and depth of sedimentary basin were oscilating in Sarmatian, but in general decreasing. Quaternary cover beds consist of gravelly, sandy and silty deposits of the Sava River.

  16. Production of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde in roots of tissue culture raised and acclimatized plants of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., an endangered shrub endemic to Southern India and evaluation of its performance vis-a-vis plants from natural habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, P; Rajasekaran, T; Nagarajan, S; Ravishankar, G A

    2004-01-01

    Axillary buds obtained from field grown plants of D. hamiltonii were used to initiate multiple shoots on Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with 2 mg L(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg L(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Profuse rooting was achieved when the actively growing shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Regenerated plants were grown successfully in the plains, in contrast to wild growth in high altitudes and rocky crevices of hilly regions. Roots of different sizes from one-year-old tissue culture raised field grown plants had the same profile of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde as that of wild plants. A maximum of 0.14% and 0.12% 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde was produced in roots of one year old tissue culture derived plants and greenhouse grown plants respectively.

  17. Gas Reactor International Cooperative program. Pebble bed reactor plant: screening evaluation. Volume 3. Appendix A. Equipment list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report consists of three volumes which describe the design concepts and screening evaluation for a 3000 MW(t) Pebble Bed Reactor Multiplex Plant (PBR-MX). The Multiplex plant produces both electricity and transportable chemical energy via the thermochemical pipeline (TCP). The evaluation was limited to a direct cycle plant which has the steam generators and steam reformers in the primary circuit. Volume 1 reports the overall plant and reactor system and was prepared by the General Electric Company. Core scoping studies were performed which evaluated the effects of annular and cylindrical core configurations, radial blanket zones, burnup, and ball heavy metal loadings. The reactor system, including the PCRV, was investigated for both the annular and cylindrical core configurations. Volume 3 is an Appendix containing the equipment list for the plant and was also prepared by United Engineers and Constructors, Inc. It tabulates the major components of the plant and describes each in terms of quantity, type, orientation, etc., to provide a basis for cost estimation.

  18. 绿洲灌区固定道耕作对土壤盐分动态的影响%Effects of permanent raised beds on soil salinity in oasis irrigation districts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓东; 马忠明

    2015-01-01

    Shortage of water resources and soil salinization threaten oasis agriculture ecosystem health and stability, which are the two big problems in sustainable agricultural development in arid oasis irrigation areas. While there is need to adopt new irrigation technologies in these regions, such actions could break up the balance of soil water and salt. This could eventually cause secondary soil salinization of farmlands that will in turn decrease farmland productivity. To develop new water-saving irrigation technologies, prevent secondary soil salinization and ensure sustainable agricultural development in irrigated arid oasis areas of Northwest China, it is important to resolve existing conflicts between the adoption of water-saving irrigation technology and the control of secondary soil salinization. Thus an experiment was conducted in spring wheat fields from 2005 to 2010 to monitor soil salinity characteristics under conventional tillage (CT), fresh raised-bed (FRB), permanent raised-bed (PRB) and zero-tillage in flat fields (ZT, control). The results showed that soil salt content increased from sowing to harvest under FRB by 83.3%in the 0-20 cm, 77.2%in the 20-40 cm, 47.6%in the 40-60 cm and 84.0%in the 60-100 cm soil layers. For the same layers under PRB treatment, soil salt content increased by 62.6%, 46.3%, 28.2%and 103.6%, respectively. Main salt accumulation zone under furrow irrigated FRB and PRB treatments was the 0-60 cm soil layer. However, main salt accumulation was the 100-160 cm soil layer under flood irrigated ZT and CT treatments while there was alternative soil desalination and accumulation in the 0-200 cm soil profile. Soil salt content in the 0-60 cm soil layer decreased with decreasing irrigation while it increased with decreasing irrigation in the 60-200 cm soil layer. Soil salinity in root-layer soil depth (0-200 cm) was significantly greater from first irrigation to harvest under PRB treatment than under FRB treatment. There was soil salt

  19. Soil CO2 efflux in a degraded raised bog is regulated by water table depth rather than recent plant assimilate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.H. Kritzler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the climatic and biological factors that regulate soil carbon dioxide (CO2 efflux is crucial in peatlands because they contain a large proportion of terrestrial carbon (C. We predicted that rainfall reduction would increase soil CO2 efflux, and that cessation of below-ground allocation of recent plant assimilate would reduce soil CO2 efflux. These predictions were tested in the field using rainfall shelters that allowed a maximum of 40 % of rainfall onto 2 × 2 m plots by diverting rainwater from the shelter roofs with guttering, and by girdling stems of the dominant plant, Calluna vulgaris, for two years. We also used 13CO2-pulse labelling of intact monoliths at ambient CO2 concentrations to trace recent assimilate from plant shoots to roots, bulk soil, leachate, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and soil CO2 efflux . Soil CO2 efflux in the sheltered plots increased in Year 1 but not in Year 2, and we found a positive relationship between soil CO2 efflux and water table depth. Our data indicate that lowering the water table below a critical threshold (15–20 cm affects soil CO2 efflux. Girdling of C. vulgaris shoots resulted in no measurable reduction in soil CO2 efflux, while only ~3 % of 13C fixed by shoots was recovered in soil CO2 efflux and DOC in the 20 days after labelling. Our findings show that below-ground allocation of recent assimilate from C. vulgaris plants > 6 years old has little impact on soil CO2 efflux.

  20. Soil CO2 efflux in a degraded raised bog is regulated by water table depth rather than recent plant assimilate

    OpenAIRE

    U.H. Kritzler; Artz, R. R. E.; Johnson, D.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the climatic and biological factors that regulate soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux is crucial in peatlands because they contain a large proportion of terrestrial carbon (C). We predicted that rainfall reduction would increase soil CO2 efflux, and that cessation of below-ground allocation of recent plant assimilate would reduce soil CO2 efflux. These predictions were tested in the field using rainfall shelters that allowed a maximum of 40 % of rainfall onto 2 × 2 m plots by diver...

  1. Performance of a six-port simulated moving-bed pilot plant for vapor-phase adsorption separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storti, G. (Univ. Degli Studi Di Padova (Italy)); Mazzotti, M.; Furlan, L.T.; Morbidelli, M.; Carra, S. (Politecnico Di Milano, (Italy))

    1992-11-01

    A simulated moving-bed (SMB) pilot plant, characterized by two unique features, the number of ports (6 instead of 24, as in most industrial applications) and the fluid phase (vapor rather than liquid), has been built and operated. Such a plant has proven capable to achieve complete separation for a mixture of m- and p-xylene using isopropylbenzene as desorbent and KY zeolites as adsorbent. The dynamic behavior of the unit has been investigated and compared with model predictions, both in terms of approach to cyclic steady state as well as of responses to typical inputs. The role of the key design parameters on the steady-state separation performance of the unit has been analyzed experimentally, demonstrating the consistency with the predictions of the Equilibrium Theory.

  2. In Vitro Mass Multiplication and Assessment of Genetic Stability of In Vitro Raised Artemisia absinthium L. Plants Using ISSR and SSAP Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigations were made attempting to develop a rapid, reliable, and reproducible in vitro regeneration protocol for Artemisia absinthium L., a medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. Out of several auxin-cytokinin combinations tested, Murashige and Skoog’s (MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mgL−1 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D and 0.5 mgL−1 kinetin (Kn was found to be the best for the callus induction. On the other hand, 4.5 mgL−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 0.5 mgL−1 1-α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA in the medium resulted in maximum shoot induction from the callus. Similarly, BAP and NAA at a concentration of 1.5 mgL−1 and 0.5 mgL−1, respectively, proved to be the best for the multiple shoot induction from nodal explants. Numerous shoots were obtained from nodal explants after third subculture. In vitro rooting was maximum on medium containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA at 0.5 mgL−1. The genetic stability of the in vitro raised plants of Artemisia absinthium was assessed using the intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR and sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP molecular markers. Both markers were able to detect the somaclonal variations in the callus regenerated plants, while no variation was detected in the plants regenerated from the nodal explants. SSAP has been found to be more useful in detection of variability as compared to ISSR molecular marker. The results of present study concluded that the direct regeneration protocol will be useful for the production of true to type plants of this medicinally important plant. This will go a long way in reducing the pressure on the natural populations for the secondary metabolite production, especially for extraction of essential oils.

  3. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  4. Environmental assessment of the atlas bio-energy waste wood fluidized bed gasification power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, M.I.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlas Bio-Energy Corporation is proposing to develop and operate a 3 MW power plant in Brooklyn, New York that will produce electricity by gasification of waste wood and combustion of the produced low-Btu gas in a conventional package steam boiler coupled to a steam-electric generator. The objectives of this project were to assist Atlas in addressing the environmental permit requirements for the proposed power plant and to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the project compared to more conventional small power plants. The project`s goal was to help promote the commercialization of biomass gasification as an environmentally acceptable and economically attractive alternative to conventional wood combustion. The specific components of this research included: (1) Development of a permitting strategy plan; (2) Characterization of New York City waste wood; (3) Characterization of fluidized bed gasifier/boiler emissions; (4) Performance of an environmental impact analysis; (5) Preparation of an economic evaluation; and (6) Discussion of operational and maintenance concerns. The project is being performed in two phases. Phase I, which is the subject of this report, involves the environmental permitting and environmental/economic assessment of the project. Pending NYSERDA participation, Phase II will include development and implementation of a demonstration program to evaluate the environmental and economic impacts of the full-scale gasification project.

  5. dsrAB-based analysis of sulphate-reducing bacteria in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Kristi; Taylor, Michael W; Turner, Susan J

    2014-08-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are important members of the sulphur cycle in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigate the diversity and activity of SRB within the developing and established biofilm of two moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) systems treating municipal wastewater in New Zealand. The larger of the two WWTPs (Moa Point) generates high levels of sulphide relative to the smaller Karori plant. Clone libraries of the dissimilatory (bi)sulphite reductase (dsrAB) genes and quantitative real-time PCR targeting dsrA transcripts were used to compare SRB communities between the two WWTPs. Desulfobulbus (35-53 % of total SRB sequences) and genera belonging to the family Desulfobacteraceae (27-41 %) dominated the SRB fraction of the developing biofilm on deployed plastic carriers at both sites, whereas Desulfovibrio and Desulfomicrobium were exclusively found at Moa Point. In contrast, the established biofilms from resident MBBR carriers were largely dominated by Desulfomonile tiedjei-like organisms (58-100 % of SRB sequences). The relative transcript abundance of dsrA genes (signifying active SRBs) increased with biofilm weight yet remained low overall, even in the mature biofilm stage. Our results indicate that although SRB are both present and active in the microbial community at both MBBR study sites, differences in the availability of sulphate may be contributing to the observed differences in sulphide production at these two plants.

  6. Combined incineration of industrial wastes with in-plant residues in fluidized-bed utility boilers--decision relevant factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragossnig, Arne M; Lorber, Karl E

    2005-10-01

    In Austria more than 50% of the high-calorific industrial residues and wastes generated are utilized for energy recovery in industrial utility boilers. This study investigated full-scale trials of combined incineration of in-plant residues with various industrial wastes. These trials were carried out in order to learn how the alternatively used fuel influences the incineration process itself as well as the quantity and quality of the various incineration products. The currently used fuel, which consisted of in-plant residues as well as externally acquired waste wood and the refuse-derived fuel (RDF) mixtures used during the full-scale trials are characterized in terms of material composition as well as chemical and physical parameters. An input-output mass balance for the incineration plant (two fluidized bed combustion units, 20 and 30 MW, respectively) has been established, based on the data collected during the full-scale incineration trials. Furthermore, pollutant concentrations in the off-gas as well as the solid incineration residue are reported. It is not only the pollutant content but also a variety of other internal as well as external factors that have to be considered if a company is to decide whether or not to thermally utilize specific waste types. Therefore a strengths and weaknesses profile for several types of waste and the specific industrial boiler is also presented.

  7. Bio-oil production via fast pyrolysis of biomass residues from cassava plants in a fluidised-bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattiya, Adisak

    2011-01-01

    Biomass residues from cassava plants, namely cassava stalk and cassava rhizome, were pyrolysed in a fluidised-bed reactor for production of bio-oil. The aims of this work were to investigate the yields and properties of pyrolysis products produced from both feedstocks as well as to identify the optimum pyrolysis temperature for obtaining the highest organic bio-oil yields. Results showed that the maximum yields of the liquid bio-oils derived from the stalk and rhizome were 62 wt.% and 65 wt.% on dry basis, respectively. The pyrolysis temperatures that gave highest bio-oil yields for both feedstocks were in the range of 475-510 °C. According to the analysis of the bio-oils properties, the bio-oil derived from cassava rhizome showed better quality than that derived from cassava stalk as the former had lower oxygen content, higher heating value and better storage stability.

  8. A preliminary study of the effects of plastic film-mulched raised beds on soil temperature and crop performance of early-sown short-season spring maize (Zea mays L. in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Dang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify a strategy for earlier sowing and harvesting of spring maize (Zea mays L. in an alternative maize–maize double cropping system, a 2-year field experiment was performed at Quzhou experimental station of China Agricultural University in 2014 and 2015. A short-season cultivar, Demeiya number 1 (KX7349, was used in the experiment. Soil temperature to 5 cm depth in the early crop growth stage, crop growth, crop yield, and water use of different treatments (plastic film-mulched raised bed (RF and flat field without plastic film mulching (CK in 2014; RF, plastic film-mulched flat field (FF, and CK in 2015 were measured or calculated and compared. Soil temperature in the film-mulched treatments was consistently higher than that in CK (1.6–3.5 °C in average during the early growth stage. Crops in plastic film-mulched treatments used 214 fewer growing-degree days (GDDs in 2014 and 262 fewer GDDs in 2015. In 2014, the RF treatment yielded 32.7% higher biomass than CK, although its 9.4% higher grain yield was not statistically significant. Also, RF used 17.9% less water and showed 33.1% higher water use efficiency (WUE than CK. In 2015, RF and FF showed 56.2% and 49.5% higher yield, 15.0% and 4.5% lower water use (ET, and 63.4% and 75.7% higher WUE, respectively, than CK. RF markedly increased soil temperature in the early crop season, accelerated crop growth, reduced ET, and greatly increased crop yield and WUE. Compared with FF, RF had no obvious effect on crop growth rate, although soil temperature during the period between sowing and stem elongation was slightly increased. However, RF resulted in lower ET and higher WUE than FF. Effects of RF on soil water dynamics as well as its cost-effectiveness remain topics for further study.

  9. Integration of a Higher Plant Chamber into the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant: The Canadian Role in Advanced Life Support Test-Bed Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Geoffrey; Lawson, Jamie; Gidzinski, Danuta; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Peiro, Enrique; Godia, Francesc; Paille, Christel; Fossen, Arnaud; Lamaze, Brigitte; Lasseur, Christophe

    The European Space Agency's Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project has been conceived as a tool for developing the technology of future biological life support systems required for long-term human space exploration missions to the Moon or Mars. The main life support functions of MELiSSA are the recycling of waste (inedible plant biomass, human excrement), carbon dioxide and minerals and the production of food, fresh water and air revitalization. Based on the principle of an aquatic ecosystem, MELiSSA is comprised of four microbial compartments and a higher plant compartment integrated in a closed loop. Each compartment is studied, designed and demonstrated at laboratory scale before being scaled-up for subsequent integration into the MELISSA Pilot Plant (MPP) at the Universitat Aut`noma de Barcelona. Work related to higher plant cultivation systems, o which have been historically focussed at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility (CESRF), has included design of the HPC for the MPP, the metabolic characterization of MELiSSA candidate crops and the validation of theoretical gas exchange and nutrient dynamic models, The presented paper will review some of the recent data and HPC design work of CESRF conducted as part of Canada's involvement in the MELiSSA program and its partnership in the development of the MPP terrestrial demonstration test-bed.

  10. Elevated relative humidity increases the incidence of boron deficiency in bedding plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    High relative humidity (RH) can cause lower concentrations of B accumulating in plants. The common greenhouse practice of controlling excess temperatures by applying mist irrigation to youngplants (plugs) results in elevated RH levels. Reports of boron (B) deficiency have become more prevalent ove...

  11. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  12. The Thermal-Hydraulic model for the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) plant operator training simulator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudley, Trevor [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Die Anker Building, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)], E-mail: trevor.dudley@pbmr.co.za; Bouwer, Werner; Villiers, Piet de [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, Die Anker Building, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Wang Zen [GSE Systems, Inc., 7133 Rutherford Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21244 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This paper provides a discussion of the model development status and verification efforts for the Reactor Core Thermal-Hydraulic model developed for the full-scope plant Operator Training Simulator System of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Due to the First of a Kind Engineering nature and lack of reference plant data, model verification has mainly been focused on benchmarking the model configurations against test cases performed by PBMR design analysis codes, i.e. TINTE, VSOP and FLOWNEX. As a first step, due to the symmetrical physical nature of the PBMR core, a two-dimensional (2D) model configuration in radial and axial directions (axial-symmetry) was developed. The design was subsequently extended to a three-dimensional (3D) configuration. Through the use of cross-flow and cross-conduction links, three nearly identical 2D configurations were glued together to form this 3D model configuration. To date, the 3D configuration represents the most comprehensive model to simulate the PBMR core thermo-hydraulics. This paper concludes with the verification of thermodynamic and heat-transfer properties of two steady state (100% and 40% power) conditions between the 3D Reactor Core Thermal-Hydraulic model and the available FLOWNEX and TINTE design code analysis. The transient operations between these two power levels are also discussed.

  13. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

  14. KMT moving bed biofilm reactor (KMT MBBR) experience of a pilot plant in Spain. Proceso KMT de biomasa fija sobre lecho movil. Experiencias en planta piloto en Espaa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya Aranda, A.; Rodrigo Alonso, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    It describes the experiments carried out by INFILCO ESPAOLA, S.A. in a pilot plant using the KMT Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor process involving a fixed biomass on a moveable bed. This is an innovative process for treating both industrial and urban waste waters with or without the elimination of nutrients. The experimental findings demonstrate the need for a minimum amount of space for the biologial reagent (in comparison with that required for active sludge EDARs). They also show the ease with which existing EDARs can be adapted with very little civil engineering work by increasing either the design capacity or the elimination of nutrients. 10 refs.

  15. Growth of bedding plants in commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, G R; Metzger, J D

    2008-05-01

    Vermicompost has been promoted as a viable alternative container media component for the horticulture industry. The purpose of this research was to investigate the use of vermicompost at different points in the production cycle of tomato, marigold, pepper, and cornflower. The incorporation of vermicompost of pig manure origin into germination media up to 20% v/v enhanced shoot and root weight, leaf area, and shoot:root ratios of both tomato and French marigold seedlings; however amendment with vermicompost had little influence on pepper and cornflower seedling growth. Moreover there was no effect on the germination of seed of any species. When seedlings of tomato, French marigold, and cornflower were transplanted into 6-cell packs there was greater plant growth in media amended with vermicompost compared to the control media, and the greatest growth when vermicompost was amended into both the germination and transplant media. This effect was increased when seedlings in the transplant media were irrigated with water containing fertilizer.

  16. A high-rate secondary treatment based on a moving bed bioreactor and multimedia filters for small wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z; Rasmussen, V; Odegaard, H

    2003-01-01

    For small wastewater treatment plants (WWPTs), high-rate secondary treatment systems with good treatment efficiency and easy, stable, and robust operation are called for. In this paper an experimental study on a high rate secondary treatment based on moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and multimedia filters is presented. A high rate MBBR converts easily biodegradable SCOD in short HRT (0.5 h) directly after screening, then a Kaldnes-Filtralite-Sand (KFS) filter removes the particulate COD and detached biofilms at filtration rates of 10-20 m/h. The whole system gave effluent SS and COD less than 30 mg/L and 100 mg/L when total detention time is less than 1 h and small dosage of chemicals (iron and/or cationic polymer) is used. A new scenario of high rate secondary system with a primary Kaldnes coarse media filter in front of high rate MBBR and the KFS filter is proposed and discussed. This scenario with total HRT less than 2h is more suitable for high influent SS concentrations and may also be extended for nitrogen and phosphorous removal. Compared to conventional secondary treatment, the high rate secondary treatment will be using only 1/5-1/10 of the space, resulting in considerable savings for construction, energy and operation.

  17. A Study on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Characteristics from Anthracite Circulating Fluidized Bed Power Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seehyung Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea’s emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH4 and N2O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH4 emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N2O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come.

  18. A study on methane and nitrous oxide emissions characteristics from anthracite circulating fluidized bed power plant in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH₄ and N₂O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH₄ emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N₂O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come.

  19. Field application of a planted fixed bed reactor (PFR) for support media and rhizosphere investigation using undisturbed samples from full-scale constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, A B; Vasconcellos, G R; von Sperling, M; Kuschk, P; Kappelmeyer, U; Vasel, J L

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel method for investigations on undisturbed samples from full-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCW). The planted fixed bed reactor (PFR), developed at the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ), is a universal test unit for planted soil filters that reproduces the operational conditions of a constructed wetland (CW) system in laboratory scale. The present research proposes modifications on the PFR original configuration in order to allow its operation in field conditions. A mobile device to obtain undisturbed samples from real-scale HSSFCW was also developed. The experimental setting is presented with two possible operational configurations. The first allows the removal and replacement of undisturbed samples in the CW bed for laboratory investigations, guaranteeing sample integrity with a mobile device. The second allows the continuous operation of the PFR and undisturbed samples as a fraction of the support media, reproducing the same environmental conditions outside the real-scale system. Investigations on the hydrodynamics of the adapted PFR were carried out with saline tracer tests, validating the proposed adaptation. Six adapted PFR units were installed next to full-scale HSSFCW beds and fed with interstitial liquid pumped from two regions of planted and unplanted support media. Fourteen points were monitored along the system, covering carbon fractions, nitrogen and sulfate. The results indicate the method as a promising tool for investigations on CW support media, rhizosphere and open space for studies on CW modeling, respirometry, kinetic parameters, microbial communities, redox potential and plant influence on HSSFCW.

  20. Proposed replacement and operation of the anhydrous hydrogen fluoride supply and fluidized-bed chemical processing systems at Building 9212, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to replace the existing anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (AHF) supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems for the Weapons Grade Highly Enriched Uranium Chemical Recovery and Recycle Facility, Building 9212, which is located within the Y-12 Plant on DOE`s Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The proposed replacement system would be based upon modern design criteria and safety analyses. The replacement AHF supply and distribution system equipment would be located on the existing Dock 8/8A at Building 9212. Utilities would be extended to the dock to service the process equipment. The following process equipment modules would be prefabricated for installation at the modified dock: an AHF cylinder enclosure, an AHF supply manifold and vaporizer module, an AHF sump tank and transfer skid, and an AHF supply off-gas scrubber assembly module. The fluidized-bed reactor system would be constructed in an area adjacent to the existing system in Building 9212. The replacement equipment would consist of a new reduction fluidized-bed reactor, a hydrofluorination fluidized-bed reactor, and associated air emission control equipment. The no-action alternative, which is the continued operation of the existing AHF supply and fluidized-bed reactor systems, was also evaluated.

  1. Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevent, identify, and treat bed bug infestations using EPA’s step-by-step guides, based on IPM principles. Find pesticides approved for bed bug control, check out the information clearinghouse, and dispel bed bug myths.

  2. Efficiency of conventional anode beds versus vertical deep ground bed for cathodic protection of pipes in petrochemical plants - a practical experience; Eficiencia de leitos convencionais de anodos versus leitos em poco vertical profundo para protecao catodica de tubulacoes em plantas petroquimicas. Uma experiencia pratica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baria, Alexandre; Silva, Luciano Pereira da; Mueller Filho, Francisco [Katodica Projetos Eletronicos e Servicos Ltda., XX (Brazil); Miocque, Andre [De Nora do Brasil Ltda., XX (Brazil). Dept. de Protecao Catodica

    1998-07-01

    Efficiency obtained with vertical deep ground bed cathodic protection systems compared to traditional shallow vertical ground bed systems for Petrochemical and Industrial Plants pipelines corrosion protection is discussed. The characteristics and differences of design and installation for both kind of cathodic protection systems is focalized. (author)

  3. Effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity at run-of-river hydropower plants in gravel bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, Christine; Schobesberger, Johannes; Habersack, Helmut

    2017-08-01

    This study conducted scaled physical model tests of a run-of-river hydropower plant (RoR). The physical model represented an idealized gravel bed river with a width of 20 m, a slope of 0.005, a mean annual flow of 15 m3 s- 1 and a 1-year flood flow of 80 m3 s- 1. Substrate and bed load had a characteristic grain size dm of 56 mm. The model scale was 1:20. The study was designed to test the effects of weir height and reservoir widening on sediment continuity and flushing efficiency at low-head RoR plants. Three different weir heights and two reservoir widths were investigated to assess and quantify their influence. As long as equilibrium conditions had not been established in the reservoir the flushing efficiency was low and thus the sediment continuity was not met. The experiments revealed that both parameters had a significant effect regarding the time needed to reach equilibrium conditions. The equilibrium slope that established was independent of weir height. Weir height, however, determined the starting point from where the equilibrium slope was built up. Accordingly, an increase in weir height will increase the reservoir bed levels by the same amount. A large weir height leads to huge sedimentation volumes and thus to a lack of sediments and to river bed erosion downstream of the hydropower plant. It could also considerably increase the flood risk at the head of the reservoir. This calls for regular maintenance work to re-establish flood safety. The experimental results suggest new concepts of low weir heights and cross sectional reservoir widths in the design of low-head RoR plants to facilitate frequent and efficient flushings, to enhance sediment continuity, and to reduce maintenance and operational costs.

  4. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking wastewater treatment plant residual by an O3/ultraviolet fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Zhang, Wanhui; Yuan, Mengyang; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) represents a typical point source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the water environment and threatens the safety of drinking water in downstream regions. To enhance the removal of residual PAHs from bio-treated coking wastewater, a pilot-scale O3/ultraviolet (UV) fluidized bed reactor (O3/UV FBR) was designed and different operating factors including UV irradiation intensity, pH, initial concentration, contact time, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were investigated at an ozone level of 240 g h(-1) and 25 ± 3 °C. A health risk evaluation and cost analysis were also carried out under the continuous-flow mode. As far as we know, this is the first time an O3/UV FBR has been explored for PAHs treatment. The results indicated that between 41 and 75 % of 18 target PAHs were removed in O3/UV FBR due to synergistic effects of UV irradiation. Both increased reaction time and increased pH were beneficial for the removal of PAHs. The degradation of the target PAHs within 8 h can be well fitted by the pseudo-first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.920). The reaction rate was also positively correlated with the initial concentrations of PAHs. The health risk assessment showed that the total amount of carcinogenic substance exposure to surface water was reduced by 0.432 g day(-1). The economic analysis showed that the O3/UV FBR was able to remove 18 target PAHs at a cost of US$0.34 m(-3). These results suggest that O3/UV FBR is efficient in removing residuals from CWWTP, thus reducing the accumulation of persistent pollutant released to surface water.

  5. Evaluation of Irrigation Methods for Highbush Blueberry. I. Growth and Water Requirements of Young Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in a new field of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Elliott') to determine the effects of different irrigation methods on growth and water requirements of uncropped plants during the first 2 years after planting. The plants were grown on mulched, raised beds...

  6. 植物床-沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能%Algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 陈庆华; 张荣斌; 王为东; 魏宏斌; 尹澄清

    2012-01-01

    This case study corroborated the algae trapping function of plant-bed/ditch system through in si- tu field testing. Results showed that the system could effectively intercept and trap algae from source water. Un- der the driving of hydraulic gradients, about 35% source water flowed into the higher small ditch, and exuded through the root channel structure inside plant bed into the lower small ditch. The ehlorophyll-a (Chl-a) con- centration in the lower small ditch was significantly lower (P = 0. 0239) than that in the opposite higher small ditch. The decline percentage of Chl-a concentration amounted to 11.1% between both sides of plant bed. The Chl-a concentration dropped down by 27.0 % at the outlet of examined root channel purification zone with plant- bed/ditch system as structure form. According to rough estimation, this patch of root channel purification zone could trap algae fresh biomass of about 122 kg/d. Shijiuyang constructed wetland contains altogether 11 patches of root channel purification zones and provides 250 000 t/d purified raw water for the drinking water plant. The total trapped algae fresh biomass reached up to about 1 100 kg/d.%采用原位实验验证植物床.沟壕系统的藻类捕获功能。结果表明:该系统能够有效拦截和捕获源水藻类。在水力梯度驱动下,约35%源水进入高位小沟流经植物床内部根孔结构而汇至低位小沟。低位小沟内叶绿素a(Chl-a)浓度显著低于高位小沟(P=0.0239),其降低比例为11.1%。以植物床.沟壕系统为结构形式的根孔净化区其出水Chl-a浓度较源水整体下降了27.0%。估算该片根孔净化区捕获藻类鲜生物量约122kg/d。石臼漾湿地共含根孔净化区11片,按供水25万t/d计,估算捕获藻类鲜生物量约1100kg/d。

  7. Deal with price raise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The price raise in natural resources is inevitable. At present, building ceramic industry is facing the pressure brought by price raise in raw material. Marketing directors still hesitate whether the price of ceramic tiles should be raised. The crisis brought by social environment made the employees care-laden.

  8. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  9. Aquaculture Solids Management Using A Combination of Sand/Gravel or Unwoven Fabric Bed With Lolium perenne Lam as A Plant Biofilter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective This work is an evaluation of the efficiency of a sand-gravel or unwoven fabric bed system and Lolium perenne Lam as plant biofiltter in the reduction of solids and nutrients removal from aquaculture discharge water. Methods The first step consisted of the collection of wastewater in the tank and the distribution at three different hydraulic loading regimes (0.5, 1, 1.5L/hour) to the different experimental systems. The second step was to evaluate the performance of the different systems. The first system consisted of a bucket filled with a substrate of sand/gravel (20 cm in depth), on the bottom of which was a 80 mesh/inch2 of nylon (S1); the second was similar, but was planted with Lolium perenne lam (S2); the third was planted with a grass plate consisting of 7 layers of unwoven fabric planted with L. perenne (S3). Results The second system showed the best performance in reducing solids as well as in nutrients (TN, TP, and COD) reduction. The removal rates for TS, TN, and TP were negatively correlated with the loading regimes, with 0.5 L/hour being the most efficient and thus taken as the reference. Conclusions Solids management using a sand/gravel substrate as bed culture and Lolium perenne L. as plant biofilter has proved to be an efficient technique for solids reduction with low operating cost. This grass plays an important role in wastewater eco-treatment by absorbing dissolved pollutants (TAN) as nutrients for its growth.

  10. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Holland, John F.

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. These calculations allow evaluation of various features incorporated in conceptual models used for performance assessment. Material presented in this report supports the regulatory compliance re-certification, and therefore begins by replicating the calculations used in the initial compliance certification application. Calculations are then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: 1. Disposal room porosity, 2. Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and 3. Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the damage zone does not extend upward to MB 138, but does reach MB 139 below the repository. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 100 years. The anhydrite marker beds sustain states of stress that promote failure and substantial marker bed deformation into the room assures fractured anhydrite will sustain in the proximity of the disposal rooms.

  11. A Comparative Study of Raising Seedlings with Perennial Branches and Planting Seedlings of Fast-growing Pla-tane%速生法桐多年生枝干育苗与栽植小苗比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王淑利; 杨合廷

    2015-01-01

    开展了多年生速生法桐枝干育苗与栽植小苗试验.结果表明:速生法桐5~7年生、胸径4~9 cm枝干采用诱导生根技术育苗生根成活率达到91.1%,法桐小苗栽植成活率100%;法桐埋干育苗枝干胸径不宜低于5 cm,采用胸径5 cm以上枝干育苗较栽植小苗可显著提高投资效益,可以根据市场情况于栽植第2~3年出售;采用胸径9 cm以上多年生枝干育苗,2年时间即可培育出胸径10 cm以上大规格苗木,较栽植小苗缩短育苗周期3~4年时间.%An Experiment was conducted on raising seedlings with perennial branches and planting small seedlings of fast-growing platane. The results showed that the rooting and survival rate reached 91.1% when the seedlings were raised using the induced rooting technology with the branches of 5 ~ 7 years' old fast-growing platane having a diameter of 4 ~ 9 cm at breast height and the survival rate reached 100% when the seedlings were raised by planting the small seedlings of platane. For raising seedlings of platane by using perennial branches, the stem diameter at breast height should not be less than 5㎝. The investment benefit could be upgraded significantly when the seedlings were raised by using perennial branch-es with a stem diameter at breast height above 5㎝and the seedlings can be sold on the market 2 ~ 3 years after the planting according to the market situation. The large size seedlings with a stem diameter at breast height above 10 ㎝would be developed within 2 years time, 3 ~ 4 years earlier compared with that by planting small seedlings.

  12. Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    1995). Laboratory testing showed that the DNT could be converted to diaminotoluene (DAT) in the first step under anaero- bic conditions, and that the...column with an overall height of 22 ft (6.7 m) and a bed of GAC occupying approximately 11 ft (3.4 m) when expanded. Water was recirculated through the...problem in pilot- and full- scale systems. The influent water was heated prior to injection in the recirculation line via heat exchange with the

  13. Second-generation pressurized fluidized-bed combustion plant: Conceptual design and optimization of a second-generation PFB combustion plant. Phase 2, Annual report, October 1991--September 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Newby, R.; Rehmat, A.; Horazak, D.

    1992-10-01

    After many years of experimental testing and development work, coal-fired pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) combustion combined-cycle power plants are moving toward reality. Under the US Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program, a 70-MWe PFB combustion retrofit, utilizing a 1525{degrees}F gas turbine inlet temperature, has been built and operated as a demonstration plant at the American Electric Power Company`s Tidd Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. As PFB combustion technology moves closer and closer to commercialization, interest is turning toward the development of an even more efficient and more cost-effective PFB combustion plant. The targeted goals of this ``second-generation`` plant are a 45-percent efficiency and a cost of electricity (COE) that is at least 20 percent lower than the COE of a conventional pulverized-coal (PC)-fired plant with stack gas scrubbing. In addition, plant emissions should be within New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the plant should have high availability, be able to burn different ranks of coal, and incorporate modular construction technologies. In response to this need, a team of companies led by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC). The key components in the proposed second-generation plant are the carbonizer, CPFBC, ceramic cross-flow filter, and topping combustor. Unfortunately, none of these components has been operated at proposed plant operating conditions, and experimental tests must be conducted to explore/determine their performance throughout the proposed plant operating envelope. The major thrust of Phase 2 is to design, construct, test, and evaluate the performance of the key components of the proposed plant.

  14. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  15. First report of the fertile plant genus Umkomasia from Late Permian beds in India and its biostratigraphic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, S.; Singh, K.J.; Jha, N. [Birbal Sahni Institute for Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2008-07-15

    The genus Umkomasia Thomas, a female fructification of Dicroidium, is reported from Late Permian beds exposed in the Behra Rivulet near the village of Karaonda in the Tatapani-Ramkola Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India. This is the first record of this genus from the Late Permian, and from Indian Gondwana. Two species have been recognized: Umkomasia polycarpa Holmes and U. uniramia Axsmith, Taylor, Taylor and Cuneo. The find suggests that the genus Dicroidium appeared in the Late Permian before reaching its acme in the Middle-Upper Triassic.

  16. 人工湿地植物床-沟壕系统水质净化效果%Water Treatment Efficiency of Constructed Wetland Plant-Bed/Ditch Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪仲琼; 张荣斌; 陈庆华; 魏宏斌; 王为东

    2012-01-01

    Shijiuyang constructed wetland(SJY-CW) in Jiaxing City adopted plant-bed/ditch systems originated from the natural landscape as its major functioning unit.The constructed root channel technology(CRCT) is the core technique applied within the plant-bed/ditch systems.Monitoring results demonstrated that the wetland had the capability of improving water quality indexes by one rank grade according to the national environmental quality standards for surface water(GB 3838-2002).In order to optimize the water quality improvement function of plant-bed/ditch systems and CRCT,a pilot project in SJY-CW was constructed from May to October,2010.The project contained 16 independent experimental cells.Orthogonal test design was applied to probe into the effects of constructed root channel layers,plant species combination,and reinforced physical substrates on promoting the water quality amelioration efficiency of the plant-bed/ditch systems.Comprehensively considering water treatment effects,construction difficulty,and construction and maintenance cost,the recommended optimal ways are as follows.Plant straws were preferably paved under subsurface zones by two layers with a gap of 20-30 cm.The preferable plant combination was reed(Phragmites australis) plus wild rice(Zizania caduciflora).Calcite might be applied as alternative reinforced media in some suitable sites of plant-bed/ditch systems.Water treatment effects were compared between pilot project and the whole wetland area of SJY-CW.The results showed that the reinforced pilot project exhibited higher treatment efficiency for nutrients than SJY-CW itself.The removal rates of total nitrogen,total phosphorus,and ammonia nitrogen were increased by about 20%-40% in the pilot project.This suggested that SJY-CW could release its vast water treatment potential by means of increasing water flux through the subsurface root channel zones of plant beds.Therefore,some adjustment and control measures could be proposed to maintain the

  17. Pilot study of a fluidized-pellet-bed technique for simultaneous solid/liquid separation and sludge thickening in a sewage treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.C.; Jin, P.K.; Yuan, H.L.; Wan, E.R.; Tambo, N.

    2003-07-01

    A fluidized-pellet-bed separator with movable sludge hoppers was applied in pilot scale for the separation and thickening of activated sludge mixture liquid. Under the condition of suspension SS around 4000 mg/L, polymer (CJX103, cationic, MW 5x10{sup 6}) dose at a dry solid ratio of 0.003 and upward flow rate at 5.4 m/hr, the fluidized pellet bed performed solid/liquid separation and sludge thickening well. The SS concentration of the treated water was about 5 mg/L on average and the moisture content of the sludge after screening for 5 mm was less than 94% which is much lower than that after conventional settling and thickening and easy to be finally disposed. At higher upward flow rate of 7.2 m/hr. similar result could also be obtained but higher polymer dose (solid ratio of 0.004) was required. The morphological characteristics and density-size relationship of the granular particles formed in the fluidized pellet bed were also investigated by image analysis and settling velocity measurement of individual particles. The two-dimensional fractal dimension was evaluated to be 1.6-1.8, showing a good quasi-spherical morphology of the granular particles with their density much higher than the conventional flocs. The results of the pilot study indicate a possible way to innovate the conventional secondary settling and gravitational thickening processes for solid/liquid separation and sludge handling, especially for small scale wastewater treatment plants to reach the goal of space saving and higher treatment efficiency. (author)

  18. Pyrolysis of oil-plant wastes in a TGA and a fixed-bed reactor: Thermochemical behaviors, kinetics, and products characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Fan, Xiaotian; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Lin; Yao, Pikai; Yin, Hongchao; Song, Xigeng

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis characteristics of four distinct oil-plant wastes were investigated using TGA and fixed-bed reactor coupled with GC. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis behaviors were related to biomass species and heating rates. As the heating rate increased, TG and DTG curves shifted to the higher temperatures, and the comprehensive devolatilization index obviously increased. The remaining chars from TGA experiments were higher than those obtained from the fixed-bed experiments. The crack of tars at high temperatures enhanced the formation of non-condensable gases. During the pyrolysis, C-O and CO2 were the major gases. Chars FTIR showed that the functional groups of O-H, C-H(n), C=O, C-O, and C-C gradually disappeared from 400 °C on. The kinetic parameters were calculated by Coats-Redfern approach. The results manifested that the most appropriate pyrolysis mechanisms were the order reaction models. The existence of kinetic compensation effect was evident.

  19. The Shandong Shidao Bay 200 MWe High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Pebble-Bed Module (HTR-PM Demonstration Power Plant: An Engineering and Technological Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoyi Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After the first concrete was poured on December 9, 2012 at the Shidao Bay site in Rongcheng, Shandong Province, China, the construction of the reactor building for the world's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM demonstration power plant was completed in June, 2015. Installation of the main equipment then began, and the power plant is currently progressing well toward connecting to the grid at the end of 2017. The thermal power of a single HTR-PM reactor module is 250 MWth, the helium temperatures at the reactor core inlet/outlet are 250/750 °C, and a steam of 13.25 MPa/567 °C is produced at the steam generator outlet. Two HTR-PM reactor modules are connected to a steam turbine to form a 210 MWe nuclear power plant. Due to China's industrial capability, we were able to overcome great difficulties, manufacture first-of-a-kind equipment, and realize series major technological innovations. We have achieved successful results in many aspects, including planning and implementing R&D, establishing an industrial partnership, manufacturing equipment, fuel production, licensing, site preparation, and balancing safety and economics; these obtained experiences may also be referenced by the global nuclear community.

  20. Integration of concentrated solar power (CSP) and circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plants - final results of the COMBO-CFB project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suojanen, Suvi; Hakkarainen, Elina; Kettunen, Ari; Kapela, Jukka; Paldanius, Juha; Tuononen, Minttu; Selek, Istvan; Kovács, Jenö; Tähtinen, Matti

    2017-06-01

    Hybridization of solar energy together with another energy source is an option to provide heat and power reliably on demand. Hybridization allows decreasing combustion related fuel consumption and emissions, assuring stable grid connection and cutting costs of concentrated solar power technology due to shared power production equipment. The research project "Integration of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) and Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Power Plants" (COMBO-CFB) has been carried out to investigate the technical possibilities and limitations of the concept. The main focus was on the effect of CSP integration on combustion dynamics and on the joint power cycle, and on the interactions of subsystems. The research provides new valuable experimental data and knowhow about dynamic behaviour of CFB combustion under boundary conditions of the hybrid system. Limiting factors for maximum solar share in different hybridization schemes and suggestions for enhancing the performance of the hybrid system are derived.

  1. Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant U. S. Department Of Energy Office Of River Protection Submerged Bed Scrubber Condensate Disposition Project - Abstract # 13460

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanochko, Ronald M [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Corcoran, Connie [AEM Consulting, LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an off-gas treatment system secondary liquid waste stream [submerged bed scrubber (SBS) condensate], which is currently planned for recycle back to the WTP Low Activity Waste (LAW) melter. This SBS condensate waste stream is high in Tc-99, which is not efficiently captured in the vitrified glass matrix. A pre-conceptual engineering study was prepared in fiscal year 2012 to evaluate alternate flow paths for melter off-gas secondary liquid waste generated by the WTP LAW facility. This study evaluated alternatives for direct off-site disposal of this SBS without pre-treatment, which mitigates potential issues associated with recycling.

  2. Enhanced poly(γ-glutamic acid) fermentation by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 immobilized in an aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongqi; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhang, Dan; Tang, Bao; Lei, Peng; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong

    2014-03-01

    To enhance poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) production, a novel aerobic plant fibrous-bed bioreactor (APFB) was constructed for immobilized fermentation. Based on the analysis of the kinetics of immobilized-cell fermentation using the APFB and conventional free-cell fermentation, immobilized-cell fermentation exhibited more efficient PGA production. Furthermore, repeated fed-batch cultures for PGA production were conducted to evaluate the stability of the APFB system. Average final PGA concentration and productivity of 71.21±0.83g/L and 1.246±0.008g/L/h were respectively achieved by cells immobilized in bagasse during APFB, which was reused eight times over a period of 457±18h. Analysis of the membrane phospholipids and the key enzyme activities indicated that APFB-adapted cells had better productivity than original cells. Thus, this study demonstrated the significant potential of the APFB culture system in future industrial applications.

  3. Development of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for the Biomass Fired Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Sang Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH4, Nitrous oxide (N2O. The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF, RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH4 and N2O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH4 and N2O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH4 and N2O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9–1.9 kg/TJ and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9–5.3 kg/TJ within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N2O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.

  4. Development of methane and nitrous oxide emission factors for the biomass fired circulating fluidized bed combustion power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chang-Sang; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Lim, Ki-Kyo; Youk, Tae-Mi; Kim, Seung-Jin; Lee, Seul-Ki; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    This study makes use of this distinction to analyze the exhaust gas concentration and fuel of the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler that mainly uses wood biomass, and to develop the emission factors of Methane (CH(4)), Nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The fuels used as energy sources in the subject working sites are Wood Chip Fuel (WCF), RDF and Refused Plastic Fuel (RPF) of which heating values are 11.9 TJ/Gg, 17.1 TJ/Gg, and 31.2 TJ/Gg, respectively. The average concentrations of CH(4) and N(2)O were measured to be 2.78 ppm and 7.68 ppm, respectively. The analyzed values and data collected from the field survey were used to calculate the emission factor of CH(4) and N(2)O exhausted from the CFB boiler. As a result, the emission factors of CH(4) and N(2)O are 1.4 kg/TJ (0.9-1.9 kg/TJ) and 4.0 kg/TJ (2.9-5.3 kg/TJ) within a 95% confidence interval. Biomass combined with the combustion technology for the CFB boiler proved to be more effective in reducing the N(2)O emission, compared to the emission factor of the CFB boiler using fossil fuel.

  5. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 1. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-11-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The basis for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  6. Large fluidized bed combustion power plant unit for the supply of electricity and heat for Berlin. Pt. 2. Groesster Wirbelschicht-Kraftwerksblock zur Strom- und Fernwaermeversorgung fuer Berlin. T. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abroell, G. (ABB Kraftwerke AG, Mannheim (Germany)); Bade, H. (Berliner Kraft- und Licht (BEWAG)-AG, Berlin (Germany)); Bietz, K.H. (Lurgi GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Jahn, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany))

    1991-12-01

    The Berlin Power and Light Company (Bewag) has decided to install, on the inner city site of Moabit, for the supply of electricity and district heating, a new unit with circulation atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The plant will be designed for a thermal capacity of 240 MW. The bases for this decision, and also the technical implementation, will be made public. (orig.).

  7. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  8. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second pap

  9. Raising the Bar (3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, Paul; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    This editorial summarizes and comments on the papers published in issue 11(3) so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper proposes spatial and a-spatial indicators to describe the networks of airline companies around the world. The second

  10. Raising the bar (2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elhorst, P.; Abreu, M.; Amaral, P.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Corrado, L.; Fingleton, B.; Fuerst, F.; Garretsen, H.; Igliori, D.; Le Gallo, J.; McCann, P.; Monastiriotis, V.; Pryce, G.; Yu, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this editorial we summarise and comment on the papers published in issue 11.2 so as to raise the bar in applied spatial economic research and highlight new trends. The first paper analyses which regions in Europe were resilient to the great Recession and which ones were not. The second and the th

  11. Maize sugary enhancer1 (se1) is a presence-absence variant of a previously uncharacterized gene and development of educational videos to raise the profile of plant breeding and improve curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro von Mogel, Karl J.

    Carbohydrate metabolism is a biologically, economically, and culturally important process in crop plants. Humans have selected many crop species such as maize (Zea mays L.) in ways that have resulted in changes to carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and understanding the underlying genetics of this pathway is therefore exceedingly important. A previously uncharacterized starch metabolic pathway mutant, sugary enhancer1 (se1), is a recessive modifier of sugary1 (su1) sweet corn that increases the sugar content while maintaining an appealing creamy texture. This allele has been incorporated into many sweet corn varieties since its discovery in the 1970s, however, testing for the presence of this allele has been difficult. A genetic stock was developed that allowed the presence of se1 to be visually scored in segregating ears, which were used to genetically map se1 to the deletion of a single gene model located on the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 2. An analysis of homology found that this gene is specific to monocots, and the gene is expressed in the endosperm and developing leaf. The se1 allele increased water soluble polysaccharide (WSP) and decreased amylopectin in maize endosperm, but there was no overall effect on starch content in mature leaves due to se1. This discovery will lead to a greater understanding of starch metabolism, and the marker developed will assist in breeding. There is a present need for increased training for plant breeders to meet the growing needs of the human population. To raise the profile of plant breeding among young students, a series of videos called Fields of Study was developed. These feature interviews with plant breeders who talk about what they do as plant breeders and what they enjoy about their chosen profession. To help broaden the education of students in college biology courses, and assist with the training of plant breeders, a second video series, Pollination Methods was developed. Each video focuses on one or two

  12. Differences in the treatment efficiency of a cold-resistant floating bed plant receiving two types of low-pollution wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jingjing; Feng, Yanfang; Yu, Yingliang; He, Shiying; Xue, Lihong; Yang, Linzhang

    2016-05-01

    A floating bed system vegetated with Oenanthe javanica was adopted in this study to treat two types of low-pollution wastewater (LPW): polluted river water (PRW) and treated domestic wastewater (DW). The water was treated for 111 days during the low-temperature season. The results indicated that the total nitrogen (TN) removal rates were higher in the DW groups than in the PRW groups during the initial 30 days. This difference may stem from the different C/N ratio of the influent. As the water temperature rose above 15.5 °C after March 12, the purification capability of nitrogen in the DW groups was enhanced, and the removal rates of TN were 89.8 and 76.8 % in DW and the control 2 at 111 days. Conversely, the performance of total phosphorus (TP) removal was robust during the initial stage of the experiment, despite receiving domestic wastewater with a relatively high N/P ratio (16:1). The TP removal rates in DW were as high as 91.5 % compared to 78.9 % in PRW at 30 days. At the same time, the N/P ratios of plant tissue were higher in the DW groups compared to that in the PRW groups. Plant uptake played a significant role in nutrient removal in the PRW groups (52.5 % for TN, 68.2 % for TP), followed by sedimentation. In contrast, plant uptake only accounted for 25.3 % of TN removal and 24.1 % of TP removal in DW. The results provide engineering parameters for the future design of an ecological remediation technology for LPW purification.

  13. Studi Awal Desain LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas Plant Dari Coal Bed Methane (CBM Dengan Kapasitas Feed 40 MMSCFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini telah dilakukan perancangan Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Plant dari CBM degan kapasitas feed 40 MMSCFD dan waktu operasi 24 jam/hari dan 330 hari/tahun. Perancangan LNG plant dari CBM ini bertujuan untuk membantu usaha Negara dalam melakukan diversifikasi energi untuk mengatasi krisis energi. Salah satu contoh diversifikasi energi adalah mengganti bahan bakar pembangkit listrik High Speed Diesel (HSD menjadi LNG yang harganya relative lebih murah. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada simulasi dengan Aspen HYSYS, dimana terdapat batasan penelitian yakni gas alam yang dicairkan dengan cara didinginkan pada temperatur sekitar -161.3oC dan pada tekanan 1.06 bar. Tujuan pabrik LNG ini adalah Provinsi Bali hal ini dikarenakan elektrifikasi daerah tersebut cukup rendah. Dengan konsumsi minyak HSD yang tinggi tetapi elektrifikasi yang rendah maka diperlukan sumber energi alternatif untuk meningkatkan daya yang dihasilkan dan area distribusi sehingga tingkat elektrifikasi akan menjadi lebih tinggi. Pabrik LNG ini didirikan di Muara Enim, Sumatera Selatan pada tahun 2016. Penentuan lokasi pabrik berorientasi pada ketersediaan sumber bahan baku CBM. Menurut data DITJEN MIGAS Muara enim memiliki potensi CBM sebesar 0.5 TCF. Potensi sebesar ini dapat digunakan selama 60 tahun dengan kapasitas feed LNG plant sebesar 40 MMSCFD Proses pembuatan LNG dari gas alam ini menggunakan Proses On-Shore LNG menggunakan beberapa rangkaian proses yaitu : Unit Penghilang CO2 dan H2S : menggunakan Amine Cycle, Unit Dehidrasi : menggunakan molecular sieve, Unit Refrigeran dan Pencairan : menggunakan MCR Coldbox Sumber dana investasi berasal dari modal sendiri sebesar 20 % biaya investasi dan pinjaman jangka pendek sebesar 80 % biaya investasi dengan bunga sebesar 12 % per tahun. Dari analisa perhitungan ekonomi didapat hasil-hasil sebagai berikut : Investasi : 163,557 MUSD, Internal Rate of Return : 25.66 %, POT : 3.26 tahun, BEP : 58.86 %, NPV 10 year   :120

  14. Restoring lakes by using artificial plant beds: habitat selection of zooplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Majbritt Overgård; Risholt, Casper; Lauridsen, Torben L.;

    2009-01-01

    1. Return of large-bodied zooplankton populations is of key importance for creating a shift from a turbid to a clear-water state in shallow lakes after a nutrient loading reduction. In temperate lakes, recovery is promoted by submerged macrophytes which function as a daytime refuge for large...... in lake restoration, we followed the day–night habitat choices of zooplankton throughout summer in a clear and a turbid lake. Observations were made in the pelagic and littoral zones and in APB in the littoral representing three different plant densities (coverage 0%, 40% and 80%). 3. In the clear lake...... overall more equally distributed between the five habitats. Ceriodaphnia was proportionally more abundant in the APB during most of the season. Cyclopoids were more abundant in the high APB during day but were equally distributed between the five habitats during night. 4. In the turbid lake, however...

  15. Feasibility study - Lowered bed temperature in Fluidised Bed boilers for waste; Foerstudie - Saenkt baeddtemperatur i FB-pannor foer avfallsfoerbraenning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik

    2009-01-15

    Waste incineration generally serves two purposes; 1) dispose of waste and 2) generation of heat and power. In the process of power production from waste fuels, the steam temperatures in super heaters are generally limited by the severe fouling and corrosion that occurs at elevated material temperatures, caused by high concentrations of alkali metals and chloride in the flue gas and fly ash. The overall aim of a continuation of present project is to determine if a reduced temperature of the bed zone in a fluidized bed waste incinerator reduces the amount of alkali chlorides in the flue gas. If so, a reduced bed temperature might enable increased steam temperature in super heaters, or, at unchanged steam temperature, improve the lifespan of the super heaters. The results from the project are of interest for plant owners wishing to improve performance of existing plants. The results may also be used to modify the design of future plants by boiler manufacturers. The aim of present pre-study was to determine how far the bed temperature can be reduced in a waste fired fluidized bed boiler in Boraas while maintaining a stable operation with sufficient combustion temperature in the freeboard to fulfil the directives of waste incineration. A continuation of the project will be based on the results from present study. The work is based on experiments at the test boiler. During the present study, no other measurements were performed apart from some sampling of bed material and ashes at different modes of operation. The experiments show that it is possible to alter the air and recycled flue gas in such a manner that the bed temperature is reduced from about 870 deg C to 700 deg C at 100% load and normal fuel mixture, while fulfilling the directive of 850 deg C at 2 seconds. Within normal variations of the fuel properties, however, the bed temperature increases to somewhat above 700 deg C if the fuel turns dry, while it falls below 650 deg C when the fuel turns wet. With

  16. Sequential dynamic artificial neural network modeling of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant with fluidized bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Mo, Ce-Hui; He, Bao-Yan

    2015-10-01

    This study proposed a sequential modeling approach using an artificial neural network (ANN) to develop four independent models which were able to predict biotreatment effluent variables of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP). Suitable structure and transfer function of ANN were optimized by genetic algorithm. The sequential approach, which included two parts, an influent estimator and an effluent predictor, was used to develop dynamic models. The former parts of models estimated the variations of influent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N. The later parts of models predicted effluent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N using the estimated values and other parameters. The performance of these models was evaluated by statistical parameters (such as coefficient of determination (R (2) ), etc.). Obtained results indicated that the estimator developed dynamic models for influent COD (R (2)  = 0.871), volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.904), cyanide (R (2)  = 0.846), and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.777), while the predictor developed feasible models for effluent COD (R (2)  = 0.852) and cyanide (R (2)  = 0.844), with slightly worse models for effluent volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.752) and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.764). Thus, the proposed modeling processes can be used as a tool for the prediction of CWWTP performance.

  17. Anammox moving bed biofilm reactor pilot at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plants in Brooklyn, New York: start-up, biofilm population diversity and performance optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, M; Park, H; Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; Chandran, K

    2014-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection in conjunction with City College of New York assessed the application of the anammox process in the reject water treatment using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) located at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plant, in Brooklyn, NY. The single-stage nitritation/anammox MBBR was seeded with activated sludge and consequently was enriched with its own 'homegrown' anammox bacteria (AMX). Objectives of this study included collection of additional process kinetic and operating data and assessment of the effect of nitrogen loading rates on process performance. The initial target total inorganic nitrogen removal of 70% was limited by the low alkalinity concentration available in the influent reject water. Higher removals were achieved after supplementing the alkalinity by adding sodium hydroxide. Throughout startup and process optimization, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were used for monitoring the relevant species enriched in the biofilm and in the suspension. Maximum nitrogen removal rate was achieved by stimulating the growth of a thick biofilm on the carriers, and controlling the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the bulk flow and the nitrogen loading rates per surface area; all three appear to have contributed in suppressing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria activity while enriching AMX density within the biofilm.

  18. Dry NO/sub x/ separation, preferably for fluidized bed combustion plant. Trockentechnische NO/sub x/-Abscheidung vorzugsweise fuer Wirbelbett-Feuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-05-14

    The main patent application P 3534228.5 describes how, preferably in fluidized bed combustion plant, porous free-flying bodies are added in the gas flow above the flames in a boiler, where these free-flying bodies form a regular contact mist wall in the waste gas and, provided with means of reduction, cause NO/sub x/ reduction. Surprisingly, it has now been found that the desired effect can be considerably improved if the porous free-flying bodies contain means of absorption and/or reduction and/or are immersed in these, depending on the SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ loading of the stack gas. It is advantageous if the free-flying bodies for NO/sub x/ reduction are soaked and/or surrounded by ammonium salts. For SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ separation, the free-flying bodies are soaked in and/or surrounded by lime hydrate and ammonium salts.

  19. Investigation of a sewage-integrated technology combining an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and an electrochemical reactor in a pilot-scale plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Yan; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Xudong; Zeng, Ciyuan; Li, Liang

    2011-09-15

    A sewage-integrated treatment system (SITS) for the treatment of municipal wastewater, consisting of an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor to remove soluble organic matter and an electrochemical (EC) reactor to oxidize the NH(3)-N, was evaluated. The performance of the EGSB reactor was monitored for 12 months in a pilot-scale plant. Iron shavings were added to the EGSB reactor on the sixtieth day to improve the removal efficiency of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total phosphorus (TP). After the iron shavings were added, the effluent COD, SS and TP decreased from 104 to 46 mg L(-1), 21 to 8.6 mg L(-1) and 3.62 to 1.36 mg L(-1), respectively. Moreover, in the EC reactor, which was equipped with IrO(2)/Ti anodes, the NH(3)-N and total nitrogen (TN) concentrations decreased from 25 to 12 mg L(-1) and 29 to 15 mg L(-1), respectively. The NH(3)-N was directly oxidized to N(2), resulting in no secondary pollution. The results demonstrated the possibility of removing carbon and nutrients in a SITS with high efficiency. The system runs efficiently and with a flexible operation, making it suitable for low-strength wastewater. The results and parameters presented here can provide references for the practical project.

  20. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  1. Industrial Membrane Filtration and Short-bed Fractal Separation Systems for Separating Monomers from Heterogeneous Plant Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearney, M; Kochergin, V; Hess, R; Foust, T; Herbst, R; Mann, N

    2005-03-31

    Large-scale displacement of petroleum will come from low-cost cellulosic feedstocks such as straw and corn stover crop residues. This project has taken a step toward making this projection a reality by reducing capital and energy costs, the two largest cost factors associated with converting cellulosic biomass to chemicals and fuels. The technology exists for using acid or enzyme hydrolysis processes to convert biomass feedstock (i.e., waste cellulose such as straw, corn stover, and wood) into their base monomeric sugar building blocks, which can, in turn, be processed into chemicals and fuels using a number of innovative fermentation technologies. However, while these processes are technically possible, practical and economic barriers make these processes only marginally feasible or not feasible at all. These barriers are due in part to the complexity and large fixed and recurring capital costs of unit operations including filtration, chromatographic separation, and ion exchange. This project was designed to help remove these barriers by developing and implementing new purification and separation technologies that will reduce the capital costs of the purification and chromatographic separation units by 50% to 70%. The technologies fundamental to these improvements are: (a) highly efficient clarification and purification systems that use screening and membrane filtration to eliminate suspended solids and colloidal material from feed streams and (b) fractal technology based chromatographic separation and ion exchange systems that can substitute for conventional systems but at much smaller size and cost. A non-hazardous ''raw sugar beet juice'' stream (75 to 100 gal/min) was used for prototype testing of these technologies. This raw beet juice stream from the Amalgamated Sugar LLC plant in Twin Falls, Idaho contained abrasive materials and membrane foulants. Its characteristics were representative of an industrial-scale heterogeneous plant extract

  2. Investigation of dynamic load changes of a combined cycle power plant with circulating pressurized fluidized bed using a simulation model; Untersuchungen zum dynamischen Lastaenderungsverhalten eines Kombi-Kraftwerks mit zirkulierender Druckwirbelschicht mit Hilfe eines Simulationsmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockamp, S.; Krumm, W.

    2001-07-01

    Fluidized bed combustion technology offers high efficient power plants with low emissions using coal, biomass or waste as fuel input. Mathematical models support the optimisation and design of power plants. The mathematical fluidized bed system model developed at the Institut fuer Energietechnik, Universitaet Siegen, allows the simulation of steady state or dynamic process operation behaviour. This model is used for detailed examining of the overall combined cycle power plant and the interactions between the single components gas turbine, furnace and water-/steam cycle. The described simulation model presented in this paper is applied for the determination of the transient operation behaviour of a combined cycle power plant based on pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion. The effects of a step function load change on the temperature profile, the emissions and on process reaction of water/steam cycle and on gas turbine is analysed and discussed in detail at different component outlets. (orig.) [German] Das Kombi-Kraftwerk mit zirkulierender Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung stellt ein effizientes und emissionsarmes Konzept dar. Neben den wirbelschichtinhaerenten Eigenschaften wie geringerer Schadstoffbildung durch niedrige Feuerraumtemperaturen und der integrierten Schadstoffreduktion durch die Zugabe von Zuschlagstoffen verspricht die druckaufgeladenen Variante aufgrund der hohen Querschnittsbelastung eine kompakte Bauart sowie einen fuer die Verstromung von Kohlen hohen Wirkungsgrad. Kohle kann mit diesem Verfahren direkt innerhalb eines Gasturbinenprozesses genutzt werden. Mit Hilfe der mathematischen Modellbildung koennen die dynamischen Auswirkungen auf das Gesamtsystem Kombi-Kraftwerk untersucht werden. (orig.)

  3. About the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood in fluidized bed reactor for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants; Zur Vergasung von Rest- und Abfallholz in Wirbelschichtreaktoren fuer dezentrale Energieversorgungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepper, H.

    2005-10-20

    This dissertation examines the thermochemical conversion (gasification) of untreated scrap and waste wood in combustible gases for use in decentralized gas engine-cogeneration plants of low output (1 to 10 MW fuel power). A general section goes into the basics of the energetic utilization of solid biomass, the subprocesses of thermochemical conversion being described in more detail. Special attention is given to the processes and state of the art of biomass gasification in decentralized plants. A theoretical section analyzes the gasification models for solid biomass presented in the literature. Based on this analysis, a simplified kinetic model is derived for the gasification of untreated scrap and waste wood with air in bubbling fluidized bed reactors. It includes a fluid mechanic analysis of the fluidized bed based on HILLIGARDT, an empirical pyrolysis model and a global kinetic approach to the main chemical reaction taken from the literature. An experimental section describes the tests of the gasification of forest scrap wood in a semi-industrial fluidized bed gasification test plant with 150 kW fuel power and presents the significant test results. The gasification model derived is applied to check the test plant's standard settings and compare them with measured values. Furthermore, the model is employed to explain basic reaction paths and zones and to perform concluding parameter simulations. (orig.)

  4. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  5. 电袋复合除尘技术在火电厂增效改造中的应用%Application of Electrical Bag Composite Precipitating Technology in Effect-Raising and Reform of Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余伟权; 修海明; 陈奎续; 张殿平; 袁力

    2015-01-01

    随着人们对环境保护的要求越来越高,大部分电除尘器都面临技术改造,很多地方政府、电力企业甚至提出“超低排放”“近零排放”“达到燃机排放标准”的要求,除尘技术面临新一轮的挑战。文章以珠海电厂电除尘器改造为例,介绍了电袋复合除尘技术实现超低排放的特点和优势,提出电袋复合除尘器将成为燃煤电厂电除尘器增效改造、实现超低排放的首选技术。%Along with the more and more demand on environmental protection by the people, the most of electrical pre-cipitators are confronted with the technical reform. Many local governments and electric power enterprises bring forward the demand on “extra-low emission”, “near zero emission” and “achieving the burning machine emission standards”, the precipitat-ing technology is faced with a new chalenge. By taking the electrical precipitator reform in Zhuhai Power Plant as an example, the paper presents the characteristics and advantages of extra-low emission realized by electrical bag composite precipitating technology; puts forward that the electrical bag composite precipitator would become the ifrst selective technology in the effect-raising and reform and extra-low emission of electrical precipitators in coal-ifred power plants.

  6. Raising the continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian H.; Davies, D. Rhodri

    2017-02-01

    that the removal of 40 km of the amphibole-garnet-pyroxenite root would have raised the average level of the continental crust by ∼3 km. The emergence of the continental crust was an essential precursor to the rise of oxygen, which started some 200 Myr later.

  7. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  8. Acute psychiatric beds: distribution and staffing in NSW and ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, S

    1995-06-01

    This study examined the availability and staffing of acute psychiatry beds in NSW and ACT. "Gazetted" acute psychiatry hospitals (which take compulsory admissions under mental health law) were polled directly for bed numbers, occupancy and staffing for the year 1990-1991. The NSW Department of Health provided beds numbers for non-gazetted and private hospitals. Four analyses sequentially reallocated beds according to the origin of patients to estimate acute bed availability and use by regional populations. Socio-demographic determinants of acute admission rates were measured. Acute "gazetted" beds averaged 13.2 per 100,000 population but ranged from 6.9 to 49.1 per 100,000 when cross-regional flows were considered. "Non-gazetted" beds raised the provision to 15.5 per 100,000 and private beds raised provision further to 24.5 per 100,000. Inner metropolitan provision was higher than rural or provincial provision. The only determinant of the admission rate to gazetted beds was the number of available beds. Bed availability did not affect either bed occupancy or referral of patients to remote hospitals. Nursing staffing of gazetted units was reasonably uniform, although smaller units had significantly more nurses per bed. Medical staffing was highly variable and appears determined by staff availability. The average provision of acute psychiatric beds approximates lowest levels seen in international models for psychiatric services. Average occupancy rates suggest that there is not an overall shortfall of acute psychiatric beds, but uneven bed distribution creates barriers to access. Referral of patients to remote hospitals is not related to actual bed provision in the regions, but appears to reflect attitudes to ensuring local care. Recommendations about current de facto standards are made. Current average nursing and medical staffing standards are reported.

  9. Effect of Combined Plant-Rope Ecological Floating Beds on Improvement of Eutrophic Water Quality%植物-生物绳组合生态浮床对富营养化水体的净化效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚娟; 刘存歧; 王军霞; 孙磊; 李洪波; 吴亦红

    2012-01-01

    在白洋淀富营养化水体构筑蕹菜(Ipomoea aquatica)浮床-生物绳组合系统一段时间后,带回实验室做静态分析,研究生物绳对微生物富集后对富营养化水体的改善效果.结果表明,蕹菜浮床、蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床、蕹菜,麻绳组合浮床对水中TN、NH4+-N、TP和DIP均有较好的去除效果,蕹菜浮床对水中TN、NH4+-N、TP和DIP的去除率为39.09%、44.55%、63.68%和53.70%,而蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床、蕹菜-麻绳组合浮床的去除率分别为49.46%、67.79%、54.72%、50.62%和60.43%、70.05%、71.70%、64.20%,可见组合式浮床比蕹菜浮床的氮磷去除能力更强,而且以蕹菜-麻绳组合浮床的净化效果最好.其中,蕹菜浮床、蕹菜-聚苯乙烯纤维绳组合浮床和蕹菜—麻绳组合浮床的植物去氮贡献率分别为36.13%、32.15%和27.11%,去磷贡献率分别为71.85%、87.07%和74.34%,表明浮床中植物吸收只去除了系统中一部分N,微生物的脱氮途径占主导作用;而对P的去除,本试验结果显示植物吸收起主要作用.可见,该组合生态浮床是改善富营养化水体的有效方法.%Recently, lake eutrophication has become a serious concern and its causes and controls have attracted growing attention worldwide. In the experiments described here, we have used Ipomoea aquatica as an experimental plant for use with ecological floating beds. Three kinds of combined ecological floating bed systems were constructed by hanging two kinds of rope (hemp and PST) below the beds, and their effectiveness for improving water quality was investigated. The results showed that the plant ecological floating bed, plant-PST- rope combined bed, and plant-hemp-rope combined bed provided significant removal effects on TN, NH/-N, TP and DIP. Removal efficiencies were 39.09% , 49.46% and 60.43% , 44. 55% , 67.79% and 70.05% , 63. 68% , 54. 72% and 71. 70% , and 53. 70% , 50. 62

  10. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000581.htm Bed rest during pregnancy To use the sharing features on ... few days or weeks. This is called bed rest. Bed rest used to be recommended routinely for ...

  11. Pressurized fluidized-bed power stations. Combined cycle power plants with fluidized-bed combustion, with particular regard to emissions; Druckwirbelschicht-Kraftwerke. Kombikraftwerke mit Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung - Entwicklung fuer Braunkohle unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Emissionsverhaltens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupnik, R.W.

    1999-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to find whether this technology is suited for lignite. The state of the art of the pressurized fluidized bed technology for coal is presented. The planning of the experimental programme is explained, including unresolved problems of thermal calculation, raw lignite transport characteristics, and emissions. Emissions of atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion of coal and lignite are compared, and the results of a theoretical investigation of the potential performance are presented. Recommendations are made for further studies, and an outlook is given to future 'second generation' concepts with higher efficiencies resulting from higher gas turbine inlet temperatures. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit berichtet ueber die Entwicklung der Kombikraftwerkstechnik mit Druckwirbelschichttechnik. Nachdem die bisherigen Aktivitaeten weltweit fast ausschliesslich fuer den Einsatz von Steinkohle betrieben wurden, bestand die Aufgabenstellung in der Erarbeitung von ersten grundlegenden Ergebnissen, aufgrund derer zu beurteilen war, ob die Druckwirbelschichttechnik fuer den Einsatz von Braunkohle geeignet ist. Kapitel 2 stellt den Stand der Technik der Druckwirbelschichtverbrennung fuer Steinkohle dar. In Kapitel 3 wird die Planung des Versuchsprogramms erlaeutert, die sich an den offenen Fragestellungen zu den waermetechnischen Rechnungen, zum Foerderverhalten von Rohbraunkohle und zum Emissionsverhalten orientierte. In der Diskussion der Ergebnisse in Kapitel 4 erfolgt eine Einordnung und Bewertung der ermittelten Emissionswerte im Vergleich zur Wirbelschichtverbrennung unter atmosphaerischen und druckaufgeladenen Bedingungen von Stein- und Braunkohle. In Kapitel 5 schliesslich werden die Ergebnisse einer durchgefuehrten theoretischen Untersuchung zur Ermittlung des Wirkungsgradpotentials dargestellt. Ferner werden Empfehlungen fuer ergaenzende, weiterfuehrende Untersuchungen gegeben. Fuer die langfristige potentielle

  12. ELT and Consciousness-Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim Saif

    2012-01-01

    The paper highlights the concept of consciousness-raising. It relates it to different aspects of ELT such as explicit teaching, language awareness, language acquisition and practice. How these terms are related to the concept of consciousness-raising within the English Language teaching. Its main aim is to help learners to notice for themselves…

  13. Patterns of International Capital Raisings

    OpenAIRE

    Gozzi, Juan Carlos; Levine, Ross; Schmukler, Sergio L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents several new patterns associated with firms issuing securities in foreign markets that motivate the need for and help guide future research. Besides noting that these international capital raisings grew almost four-fold from 1991 to 2005, accounting for 35 percent of all capital raised through security issuances, the paper has three main findings. First, a large and gro...

  14. Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Holford, M.

    2014-01-01

    Raising Awareness in Science Education for Women (RAISE-W) is a 501c non profit corporation whose mission is to aid in increasing and retaining the number of women - especially underrepresented females - engaged in scientific teaching and research. Initiated by a Protein Chemist and an Astronomer, our ultimate goal has been to develop informational tools and create innovative outreach programs for women across all STEM fields. At present RAISE-W is recruiting women at the undergraduate, graduate, and early career stages to participate in a unique, 1-year, executive coaching program modeled after those used in the business sector.

  15. Endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other chemicals of concern in surface water, wastewater-treatment plant effluent, and bed sediment, and biological characteristics in selected streams, Minnesota-design, methods, and data, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Langer, Susan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Foreman, William T.; Gray, James L.; ReVello, Rhiannon C.; Martinovic, Dalma; Woodruff, Olivia R.; Keefe, Steffanie H.; Brown, Greg K.; Taylor, Howard E.; Ferrer, Imma; Thurman, E. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the study design, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for an integrated chemical and biological study of selected streams or lakes that receive wastewater-treatment plant effluent in Minnesota. This study was a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Cloud State University, the University of St. Thomas, and the University of Colorado. The objective of the study was to identify distribution patterns of endocrine active chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and other organic and inorganic chemicals of concern indicative of wastewater effluent, and to identify biological characteristics of estrogenicity and fish responses in the same streams. The U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed water, bed-sediment, and quality-assurance samples, and measured or recorded streamflow once at each sampling location from September through November 2009. Sampling locations included surface water and wastewater-treatment plant effluent. Twenty-five wastewater-treatment plants were selected to include continuous flow and periodic release facilities with differing processing steps (activated sludge or trickling filters) and plant design flows ranging from 0.002 to 10.9 cubic meters per second (0.04 to 251 million gallons per day) throughout Minnesota in varying land-use settings. Water samples were collected from the treated effluent of the 25 wastewater-treatment plants and at one point upstream from and one point downstream from wastewater-treatment plant effluent discharges. Bed-sediment samples also were collected at each of the stream or lake locations. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pharmaceuticals, phytoestrogens and pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and other neutral organic chemicals, carboxylic acids, and steroidal hormones. A subset (25 samples) of the bed-sediment samples were analyzed for carbon, wastewater-indicator chemicals, and steroidal hormones; the

  16. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline

  17. Adaptation to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process in the waste water treatment plant in Tafalla and Olite, Navarra, Spain; Adaptacion al proceso KMT de Biomasa Fija sobre Lecho Movil en la EDAR de Tafalla y Olite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortacans, J. A.; Rodrigo, J. C.; Garcia Gamuza, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the remodeling carried out on the Tafalla and Olite waste water treatment plant in 2000to enable it to cope with a larger flow and load without having to construct new treatment lines. This was made possible by adapting the existing conventional active sludge process to the KMT Fixed Biomass on Moving Bed process. The article also shows how the final two-stage design was verified by means of pilot plant trials. These experiments tested the technical viability of installing a first high-load reactor prior to the existing primary decantation as a way of dealing with the seasonal effluents from the wine-cellars in the region and of obtaining partial nitrification in the last biological tank of the second stage during the rest of the year. (Author) 7 refs.

  18. Viability study for application of combined reheater cycle (CRC) to fluidized bed combustion plants; Estudio de Viabilidad para la Aplicacion del Ciclo de Recalentamiento Combinado (CRC) a Plantas de Combustion de Lecho Fuido Atmosferico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Basically, the project try to analyze the application viability of a first reheating in steam cycles of little power plants, useful mainly for biomass and wastes, in our case with coal blends; and a second reheating of the steam in conventional and fluidized bed combustion plants. Using in both cases the thermic energy of the exhaust gases from one gas turbine. The advantages of the CRC cycle are: (1) Reduction of the moisture in the turbine, increasing the energy efficiency and blade protection. (2) To take advantage of the waste gas energy from the gas turbine in optimum way. (3) Great operation flexibility under good efficiency results. In general, the system can use the synergy between gas, coal and waste energies with the highest global efficiency. (Author)

  19. Raising Public Awareness of Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Behrends, Ehrhard; Rodrigues, José Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This collective book aims to encourage and inspire actions directed towards raising public awareness of the importance of mathematical sciences for our contemporary society in a cultural and historical perspective. Mathematical societies, in Europe and around the world, can find ideas, blueprints and suggestions for activities - including concerted actions with other international organizations - directed towards raising public awareness of science, technology and other fields where mathematics plays a strong role. The material is divided into four parts: * National experiences * Exhibitions /

  20. Development of a fluidized bed calcination process for aluminum nitrate wastes in a two-foot-square pilot plant calciner. Part I. Equipment development and initial process studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B P; Grimmett, E S; Buckham, J A

    1962-06-20

    A two-foot-square fluidized bed calciner was designed and operated to convert aqueous, highly radioactive wastes into granular solids. The calciner exceeded its designed feed capacity of calcining, at a bed temperature of 400/sup 0/C, 100 liters per hour of aluminum nitrate solution simulating wastes from the reprocessing of spent aluminum-uranium alloy reactor fuel. Heat was supplied to the calciner by circulating NaK with an electromagnetic pump, at temperatures up to 1400/sup 0/F, through a tubular heat exchanger placed directly in the fluidized bed of solids. The results of ten runs are presented and discussed. Equipment development progressed to the point where a continuous, trouble-free, operating period of 43 days was attained. Several properties of the alumina product were routinely measured, and some of the effects of the calciner operating variables on these properties were determined. The production of both amorphous and alpha crystalline material was found to be possible; the crystalline nature of the product had a profound effect on product properties and off-gas loading.

  1. Structural evaluation of WIPP disposal room raised to Clay Seam G.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Holland, John F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-01

    An error was discovered in the ALGEBBRA script used to calculate the disturbed rock zone around the disposal room and the shear failure zone in the anhydrite layers in the original version. To correct the error, a memorandum of correction was submitted according to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Quality Assurance program. The recommended course of action was to correct the error, to repeat the post-process, and to rewrite Section 7.4, 7.5, 8, and Appendix B in the original report. The sections and appendix revised by the post-process using the corrected ALGEBRA scripts are provided in this revision. The original report summarizes a series of structural calculations that examine effects of raising the WIPP repository horizon from the original design level upward 2.43 meters. Calculations were then repeated for grid changes appropriate for the new horizon raised to Clay Seam G. Results are presented in three main areas: (1) Disposal room porosity, (2) Disturbed rock zone characteristics, and (3) Anhydrite marker bed failure. No change to the porosity surface for the compliance re-certification application is necessary to account for raising the repository horizon, because the new porosity surface is essentially identical. The disturbed rock zone evolution and devolution are charted in terms of a stress invariant criterion over the regulatory period. This model shows that the propagation of the DRZ into the surrounding rock salt does not penetrate through MB 139 in the case of both the original horizon and the raised room. Damaged salt would be expected to heal in nominally 150 years. The shear failure does not occur in either the upper or lower anhydrite layers at the moment of excavation, but appears above and below the middle of the pillar one day after the excavation. The damaged anhydrite is not expected to heal as the salt in the DRZ is expected to.

  2. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  3. 煤层气发电厂预处理系统及控制%Coal-bed Methane Power Plant Pretreatment System and Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德悦

    2015-01-01

    主要介绍煤层气发电流程中的气体预处理系统及其控制系统 ,包括预处理系统的作业流程、主要设备功能、控制系统、技术参数等 ,并对其进行了详细分析和讨论.%This paper mainly introduces a gas pretreatment process of coal-bed methane power generation system and its control sys-tem ,including the pretreatment system's working process ,main equipment ,control system and technical parameters ,etc .

  4. Planting geometry to optimize growth and productivity in faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Bhatt, B P; Sundaram, P K; Gupta, A K; Singh, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) responses to alteration of its ambient environment leads to certain modification in the crop phenology, yield attributes and economic yield. To know the extent and pattern of response by faba bean to alterations, a two year field experimentation was carried out with two crop establishment methods (i) flatbed planting (ii) raised bed planting, four planting geometry (i) 30 x 20 cm(ii) 30 x 30 cm (iii) 30 x 45 cm and (iv) 45X45cm and three seeding depth. All the treatment (two crop establishment methods, four planting geometry and three seeding depth) were combined together consisting twenty four treatments, were organized in factorial experiment in complete randomized block design (CRBD) with three replications. Data were recorded on growth and development; yield attributes and yield. Soil analysis was done and finally statistical tool were applied to come in to valid conclusion. Raised bed planting proves superior over flatbed in case of seed yield. Square planting architect with 30 cm apart prove better (3690.9 kg ha(-1)) than other tested planting geometry. Seeding at 10 cm depth showed, significant improvement in seed yield per plant and per ha over other two tested seeding depth. Phosphorus availability was significantly higher in raised bed planting (36.9 kg ha(-1)). However, available K (kg ha(-1)) was significantly influenced by planting geometry and seeding depth. It was maximum (155.2 kg ha(-1)) with 30 x 45 cm plant geometry, proved significantly higher than 30 x 20 cm and 30 x 30 cm and at par with 45 x 45 cm planting.

  5. Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Bed Bugs URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Bed Bugs - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Bed Bugs and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs have long been a pest – feeding on blood, causing itchy bites and generally irritating their human hosts. They are successful hitchhikers, and can move from an infested site to furniture, bedding, baggage, boxes, and clothing.

  7. Introduction to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that there are ways to control bed bugs. Getting good, solid information is the first step in both prevention and control. While there is no chemical quick fix, there are effective strategies to control bed bugs involving both non-chemical and chemical methods. Bed bugs can be hard to find and ...

  8. Treatment of sediments from soil washing plants. Investigation of the suitability of a gas/solids fluidized bed bioreactor for the decontamination; Bodenwaschanlagen-Sedimente behandeln. Untersuchungen der Eignung des Gas/Feststoff-Wirbelschicht-Bioreaktors zur Dekontaminierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behns, W.; Haida, H. [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Apparate- und Umwelttechnik; Friedrich, C. [Allgaier-Werke, Uhingen (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    This article deals with the possibility of microbiological decontamination of sediments from soil washing plants in gas/solids fluidized bed bioreactors. The sediments are pressed to granulates. The pollutants which are removed are mineral oil hydrocarbons. The degradation results of this process are presented, the process seems to be an alternative to common waste treatment processes. (SR) [Deutsch] Die mikrobiologische Dekontaminierung sandiger Boeden in einem Gas/Feststoff-Wirbelschicht-Bioreaktor ist eine erfolgversprechende Alternative zu anderen biologischen Reinigungsverfahren. Die biologische Dekontaminierung von Schlufffraktionen oder von Bodenwaschanlagensedimenten (BWS) ist deutlich schwieriger. In der Literatur werden vor allem Verfahren unter Einsatz von Suspensionsreaktoren verwendet, um fuer Feinkorn-Fraktionen eine biologische Reinigung zu ermoeglichen. Hier soll ueber Untersuchungen berichtet werden, mit denen die Eignung des Gas/Feststoff-Wirbelschicht-Bioreaktors fuer die Dekontaminierung derartiger Boeden ueberprueft werden sollte. (orig.)

  9. Research on the utilization of circulating fluidized bed combustion ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, P.; Weis, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH, Berlin (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01

    Power plant residues from the Moabit, Berlin, Power Plant, which is currently under construction (circulating fluidized bed), must be utilized in accordance with the notice of consent. In order to meet this condition, extensive investigations are being carried out during the design and planning stage. In addition to preliminary tests in a fluidized bed pilot plant, representative circulating fluidized bed ash testing experience has been accumulated in a major test in an operating plant. The paper presents the results of the first physical construction material investigations together with possible solutions for applications at the Berlin West site. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Crescimento do morangueiro: influência da cultivar e da posição da planta no canteiro Strawberry growth: effect of cultivar and plant position in the bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Samuel Strassburger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento de cultivares de morangueiro em sistema de cultivo orgânico, observando a influência da posição da planta no canteiro sobre a produção acumulada e a partição de massa seca entre os órgãos aéreos das plantas. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de dois fatores experimentais: cultivar ('Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real' e a posição das plantas no canteiro (Central e Bordadura. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com parcelas divididas e quatro repetições. A cultivar 'Camarosa' apresentou maior produção de massa seca dos órgãos aéreos das plantas (62,3; 27,5 e 88,0g planta-1 para folha, coroa e frutos, respectivamente e, juntamente com a 'Aromas', maior produtividade (64,2 e 59,1Mg ha-1, respectivamente. A cultivar 'Aromas' apresentou a maior contribuição proporcional dos frutos para a composição do total de massa seca da planta (60,6% e o maior índice de colheita (88%. A posição das plantas não influenciou o crescimento e a produtividade, indicando ausência de efeito de bordadura para as cultivares 'Albion', 'Aromas', 'Camarosa' e 'Camino Real'.The aim of this research was to evaluate the growth of strawberry cultivars growing in organic crop system observing the influence of plant position in the bed on accumulated dry matter production and its partitioning among the aboveground plant organs. The experiment was conducted in Embrapa Clima Temperado, Estação Experimental Cascata, Pelotas, RS. The treatments were compose by the combination of two experimental factors: cultivar ('Aromas', 'Albion', 'Camarosa' and 'Camino Real' and plant position in the bed (Central and Border. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with split-plots and four replications. 'Camarosa' cultivar presented highest dry mass

  11. Polyhouse cultivation of invitro raised elite Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: An assessment of biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyhouse cultivated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants, initially raised from synthetic seeds, were assessed for biochemical and photosynthetic characteristics and compared with their mother plant. Synthetic seeds were produced using nodal segments containing single axillary buds excised from in vitr...

  12. Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Collaborative Strategy on Bed Bugs was developed by the Federal Bed Bug Workgroup to clarify the federal role in bed bug control and highlight ways that government, community, academia and private industry can work together on bed bug issues.

  13. Application of CaO-Based Bed Material for Dual Fluidized Bed Steam Biomass Gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppatz, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Kreuzeder, A.; Soukup, G.; Hofbauer, H.

    Gasification of biomass is a suitable option for decentralized energy supply based on renewable sources in the range of up to 50 MW fuel input. The paper presents the dual fluidized bed (DFB) steam gasification process, which is applied to generate high quality and nitrogen-free product gas. Essential part of the DFB process is the bed material used in the fluidized reactors, which has significant impact on the product gas quality. By the use of catalytically active bed materials the performance of the overall process is increased, since the bed material favors reactions of the steam gasification. In particular, tar reforming reactions are favored. Within the paper, the pilot plant based on the DFB process with 100kW fuel input at Vienna University of Technology, Austria is presented. Actual investigations with focus on CaO-based bed materials (limestone) as well as with natural olivine as bed material were carried out at the pilot plant. The application of CaO-based bed material shows mainly decreased tar content in the product gas in contrast to experiments with olivine as bed material. The paper presents the results of steam gasification experiments with limestone and olivine, whereby the product gas composition as well as the tar content and the tar composition are outlined.

  14. Romania's flag raised at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    A ceremony was held for the raising of the Romanian flag alongside the flags of CERN’s 21 other Member States.   The Romanian flag is raised alongside the flags of CERN’s other Member States, in the presence of the Romanian President, CERN’s Director-General, the President of the CERN Council and a large Romanian delegation. (Image: Maximilien Brice/ Sophia Bennett/CERN) On Monday, 5 September, the Romanian flag was raised in front of CERN for the first time, marking the country’s accession to Membership of the Organization. The blue, yellow and red flag joined those of the other 21 Member States of CERN in a ceremony attended by the President of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, the Romanian Minister for Education and Scientific Research, Mircea Dumitru, and several other members of the President’s office, the government and academia in Romania. The country officially became a CERN Member State on 17 July 2016, after 25 years of collaboration between the...

  15. Study on Algae Inhibitory Effects by Three Floating-Bed Plant Systems in Eutrophic Water%3种浮床植物系统对富营养化水体中藻类的抑制效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周真明; 梅玉龙; 叶青; 沈春花; 赵志领

    2011-01-01

    以叶绿素a、藻类密度表征水体藻类含量,通过静态试验,研究风车草(Cyperus alterni folius)、菖蒲(Acorus clamus)和富贵竹(Dracaena sanderiana)3种浮床植物系统对富营养化水体中藻类的抑制效果.结果表明:风车草、菖蒲和富贵竹对叶绿素a的平均抑制率分别为42.6%,36.7%和18.7%,对藻类密度的平均抑制率分别为45.4%,39.9%和23.3%;3种浮床植物系统对叶绿素a、藻类密度的抑制效果与空白对照组对比存在显著差异(P<0.05).风车草对蓝藻、绿藻、硅藻和铜绿微囊藻的平均抑制率分别40.1%,24.8%,32.3%和29.8%;而菖蒲则分别为38.2%,34.2%,30.1%和27.6%.%Using chlorophyll-a and algae density to quantify algae, the algae inhibitory effects by floating-bed plant systems of Cyperus alternifolius, Acorus calamus and Dracaena sanderiana in eutrophic water were investigated through static experiment.Results show that the average inhibitory rates of chlorophyll-a by three plants are 42.6%, 36.7% and 18.7% respectively, and the average inhibitory rates of algae density are 45.4%, 39.9% and 23.3% respectively.The algae inhibitory effects of the floating-bed systems in chlorophyll-a and algae density are significantly different (P<0.05) for three plants and the blank control The average inhibitory rates of cyanophyta, green algae, diatom and Microcystis aeruginosa by Cyperus alternifolius are 40.1%, 24.8 %, 32.3 % and 29.8 % respectively, and these by Acorus calamus are 38.2%, 34.2%, 30.1% and 27.6% respectively.

  16. Reformation and Summarization for Capacity Enlargement of Gasification Plant with Wet Gas Flow Bed%湿法气流床气化装置扩能改造小结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱春鹏; 张光瑞; 任军哲; 徐宏伟; 罗进成; 马浚杰

    2014-01-01

    针对湿法气流床气化装置因工艺配置和关键设备的设计缺陷而长期低负荷运行的问题,提出了制浆系统、气化系统和灰水系统的扩能改造措施。结果表明,扩能改造完成后,装置整体运行平稳,产能提高了20%以上。%In allusion to problem that the gasification plant with wet gas flow bed was operated in the long term under low load due to the design de-fects of process configuration and key equipment, measures for enlarging capacity and reformation were proposed for slurry preparation system, gasification system and grey water system. Result indicates that after capacity enlargement and reformation finished, plant runs placidly as a whole, production capaci-ty is increased by more than 20%.

  17. Alternatives for Raising Living Standards

    OpenAIRE

    William Scarth

    1999-01-01

    Given the fundamental goal of raising living standards in the longer term, much attention is paid to policies that can be expected to increase national saving. With respect to private saving, the mechanism is tax reform - a lower tax on interest income. The basic problem with this approach is that, for a given size of government, some other tax or transfer must be adjusted to finance the interest-tax cut. This fact may make it difficult to ensure that those with only labour income will share ...

  18. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.

  19. The Sixth CHIME Raises Curtain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai; Yifeng; Liu; Jinliang

    2006-01-01

      The Sixth China Harbin Interna tional Manufacturer Expo (CHIME), co-organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products (CCCME), the People's Government of Heilongjiang Province, the People's Government of Harbin Municipal Government, raises curtain in Harbin International Exhibition Center on May 29,2006. This CHIME was undertaken by CCPIT Heilongjiang Branch and CCPIT Harbin Branch, Heilongjiang Daily Press Group, Harbin Zhongxin Weiye Exhibition Co., Ltd. The Expo lasts three days and closes on May 31.……

  20. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailler, R; Gasperi, J; Coquet, Y; Buleté, A; Vulliet, E; Deshayes, S; Zedek, S; Mirande-Bret, C; Eudes, V; Bressy, A; Caupos, E; Moilleron, R; Chebbo, G; Rocher, V

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m(3)/d - Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n=11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n=62) and other emerging pollutants (n=57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90-100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38-45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21-48%), DOC (13-44%) and UV-254 (22-48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO2(-). For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (>60%) or very high (>80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n=22/32), i.e. atenolol (92

  1. Removal of a wide range of emerging pollutants from wastewater treatment plant discharges by micro-grain activated carbon in fluidized bed as tertiary treatment at large pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mailler, R., E-mail: romain.mailler@siaap.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Gasperi, J., E-mail: gasperi@u-pec.fr [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); Coquet, Y. [SAUR, Direction de la Recherche et du Développement, 1 rue Antoine Lavoisier, 78064 Guyancourt (France); Buleté, A.; Vulliet, E. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR5280 CNRS, Université Lyon 1, ENS-Lyon, 5 rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne (France); Deshayes, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); LCPP (Laboratoire Central de la Préfecture de Police), 39 bis rue de Dantzig, 75015 Paris (France); Zedek, S. [LEESU (UMR MA 102, Université Paris-Est, AgroParisTech), Université Paris-Est Créteil, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil Cedex (France); and others

    2016-01-15

    Among the solutions to reduce micropollutant discharges into the aquatic environment, activated carbon adsorption is a promising technique and a large scale pilot has been tested at the Seine Centre (240,000 m{sup 3}/d — Paris, France) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). While most of available works studied fixed bed or contact reactors with a separated separation step, this study assesses a new type of tertiary treatment based on a fluidized bed containing a high mass of activated carbon, continuously renewed. For the first time in the literature, micro-grain activated carbon (μGAC) was studied. The aims were (1) to determine the performances of fluidized bed operating with μCAG on both emerging micropollutants and conventional wastewater quality parameters, and (2) to compare its efficiency and applicability to wastewater to former results obtained with PAC. Thus, conventional wastewater quality parameters (n = 11), pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs; n = 62) and other emerging pollutants (n = 57) have been monitored in μGAC configuration during 13 campaigns. A significant correlation has been established between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), PPHs and UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV-254) removals. This confirms that UV-254 could be used as a tertiary treatment performance indicator to monitor the process. This parameter allowed identifying that the removals of UV-254 and DOC reach a plateau from a μGAC retention time (SRT) of 90–100 days. The μGAC configuration substantially improves the overall quality of the WWTP discharges by reducing biological (38–45%) and chemical oxygen demands (21–48%), DOC (13–44%) and UV-254 (22–48%). In addition, total suspended solids (TSS) are retained by the μGAC bed and a biological activity (nitratation) leads to a total elimination of NO{sub 2}{sup −}. For micropollutants, PPHs have a good affinity for μGAC and high (> 60%) or very high (> 80%) removals are observed for most of the quantified compounds (n = 22

  2. Leito de drenagem: sistema natural para redução de volume de lodo de estação de tratamento de água Draining beds: natural system for sludge volume reduction in the water treatment plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali Laguna Achon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available As Estações de Tratamento de Água (ETAs tem funcionamento semelhante a uma indústria e podem em diversas etapas gerar resíduos que, na maioria das ETAs, são lançados nos corpos d’água sem tratamento. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o desempenho de Leitos de Drenagem, para o desaguamento de lodo, provenientes de ETAs de ciclo completo que empregam sulfato de alumínio e cloreto de polialumínio (PACl, como coagulantes. Analisou-se as características, a drenagem e secagem dos amostras de lodo e característica do drenado. Os Leitos de Drenagem mostraram-se eficientes para desaguamento e redução de volume de lodo de ETA, de forma natural, sem consumo de energia ou adição de produtos químicos. Obteve-se, aos sete dias, reduções da ordem de 87 % em volume para os lodos de PACl e 83 % para o lodo de Sulfato de Alumínio e teor de sólidos totais 28% e 31% respectivamente.In this work the performance of Draining Beds for sludge dewatering was assessed. The sludge was provided from full cycle Water Treatment Plants (WTPs that employ aluminum sulfate and polyaluminium chloride (PACl as coagulants. The characteristics, drainage and drying of samples of sludge and characteristic of drained were analysed. The Draining Beds were shown to be efficient for dewatering and sludge volume reduction in the WTP, in a natural way, without energy consumption or adding of chemical products. On the seventh day, it was possible to obtain reduction around 87% in volume for PACl sludge and 83% for the aluminum sulfate sludge and total solids content of 28 and 31% respectively.

  3. [Comparison of PAHs distribution in stabilized sludge by sludge drying bed and reed bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yu-Bo; Sun, Hong-Jie; Ran, Chun-Qiu; Li, Jin-Feng; Xie, Yao

    2013-03-01

    The difference in the removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in planted and unplanted sludge drying bed was investigated. Pilot-scale sludge drying bed and reed bed had the same size of 3.0 m x 1.0 m x 1.3 m (L x W x H), and the bed height consisted of a 65 cm media layer and a 65 cm super height. Both beds had a ventilation pipe which was mounted on the drainage pipes. The experiment lasted for three years, and the first two years was the sludge loading period, and the third year was the natural stabilization period. In the first two years, a total thickness of 8.4 m of sludge was loaded and the average sludge loading rate was 41.3 kg x (m2 x a)(-1). After the three-year stabilization, the contents of the sixteen PAHs decreased with time in both the sludge drying bed and the reed bed. The total PAHs contents in the surface, middle and bottom sludge layers in the sludge drying bed were 4.161, 3.543 and 3.118 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 26.91%, 37.77% and 45.23% of removal; and the values in the reed bed were 2.722, 1.648 and 1.218 mg x kg(-1) (DW), corresponding to 52.18%, 71.05% and 78.60% of removal. The average PAHs removal in the reed bed was 29.86% higher than that in the sludge drying bed. In the stabilized sludge, the removal of low-molecular-weight PAHs predominated. The results suggested that reed played a positive role in the removal of PAHs.

  4. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  5. DEVELOPMENT POTENTIALS AND RESEARCH NEEDS IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lothar Reh

    2003-01-01

    First a report about present status of circulating fluidized bed reactors for coal and multi-fuel combustion in power plants is given. Thereafter the development potentials and research needs for further improvement of CFB combustors operating with finely grained bed materials are discussed and recommendations for direction of further research and development work are presented.

  6. 利用植物复合床技术处理工业污水%Treatment of industrial wastewater with plant composite bed technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱倩倩; 何先湧; 胡章立; 徐宏

    2012-01-01

    选取风车草、蝴蝶兰、吊兰、小纸莎、菖蒲、香根草6种植物作为人工湿地植物,砾石、活性炭、河沙、砾石+河沙、活性炭+河沙、活性炭+砾石共6种填料作为人工湿地填料,进行不同植物和不同填料组合处理某胶水厂洗釜过程产生的工业废水能力的实验研究.结果表明,在相同的进水水质和水力负荷条件下,从经济成本角度考虑,蝴蝶兰与活性炭+河沙组合较好,对CODCr、氨氮的去除率分别达到95%、99%,出水水质符合DB44/26—2001广东省地方标准水污染物排放限制标准一级标准.该技术处理效果好,操作简单,易维护,适合推广.%This work aimed at research on treatment of high concentration industrial wastewater using the combination method of different plant and padding.Cyperus alternifolius,moth orchid,chlorophytum comosum,small papyrus,calamus and chrysopogon zizanioides were chosen as wetland plants.And several kinds of paddings were utilized as filter media in the system,including gravel,activated carbon,river sand,mixture of gravel and river sand,mixture of activated carbon and river sand as well as the mixture of gravel and activated carbon.The results showed that economically the combination of moth orchid and mixture of activated carbon and river sand was the best one under the same experimental condition,and its average CODCr removal efficiency and NH+4-N removal efficiency were 95% and 99% respectively,which meet the first class standard of DB44/26—2001.

  7. Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John McGlone

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The broad aim of this study was to determine whether bedding level in the transport trailer influenced pig performance and welfare. Specifically, the objective was to define the bedding requirements of pigs during transportation in commercial settings during cold and mild weather. Animals (n = 112,078 pigs on 572 trailers used were raised in commercial finishing sites and transported in trailers to commercial processing plants. Dead on arrival (DOA, non-ambulatory (NA, and total dead and down (D&D data were collected and skin surface temperatures of the pigs were measured by infrared thermography. Data were collected during winter (Experiment 1 and fall/spring (Experiment 2. Total D&D percent showed no interaction between bedding level and outside air temperature in any experiments. Average skin surface temperature during unloading increased with outside air temperature linearly in both experiments (P < 0.01. In conclusion, over-use of bedding may be economically inefficient. Pig skin surface temperature could be a useful measure of pig welfare during or after transport.

  8. Combustion gas from biomass - innovative plant concepts on the basis of circulating fluidized bed gasification; Brenngas aus Biomasse - innovative Anlagenkonzepte auf Basis der Zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtvergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greil, C.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The contribution describes the applications of the Lurgi-ZWS gas generator. There are three main fields of application: Direct feeding of combustion gas, e.g. into a rotary kiln, as a substitute for coal or oil, without either dust filtering or gas purification. - Feeding of the combustion gas into the steam generator of a coal power plant after dust filtering and, if necessar, filtering of NH{sub 3} or H{sub 2}S. - Combustion in a gas turbine or gas engine after gas purification according to specifications. The applications are described for several exemplary projects. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Im folgenden wird ueber die Anwendung des Lurgi-ZWS-Gaserzeugers berichtet. Nach heutiger Sicht stehen drei Anwendungsgebiete im Vordergrund: - direkte Einspeisung des Brenngases in z.B. einen Zementdrehrohrofen zur Substitution von Kohle oder Oel, ohne Entstaubung und Gasreinigung. - Einspeisung des Brenngases nach Entstaubung und gegebenenfalls Entfernung weiterer Komponenten wie NH{sub 3} oder H{sub 2}S in den Dampferzeuger eines Kohlekraftwerkes - Einsatz des Brenngases in einer Gasturbine oder Gasmotor nach spezifikationsgerechter Gasreinigung. Die aufgefuehrten Einsatzmoeglichkeiten werden am Beispiel von Projekten beschrieben. (orig./SR)

  9. Purification performances of common reed beds based on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-11-30

    Nov 30, 2013 ... wastewater treatment facilities must be built immediately. .... wastewater from the second septic tank was used to test the reed bed's ... The small treatment plant was built ..... constructed wetlands systems for wastewater.

  10. Co-gasification of biomass and plastics: pyrolysis kinetics studies, experiments on 100 kW dual fluidized bed pilot plant and development of thermodynamic equilibrium model and balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narobe, M; Golob, J; Klinar, D; Francetič, V; Likozar, B

    2014-06-01

    Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) of volatilization reaction kinetics for 50 wt.% mixtures of plastics (PE) and biomass (wood pellets) as well as for 100 wt.% plastics was conducted to predict decomposition times at 850°C and 900°C using iso-conversional model method. For mixtures, agreement with residence time of dual fluidized bed (DFB) reactor, treated as continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR), was obtained at large conversions. Mono-gasification of plastics and its co-gasification with biomass were performed in DFB pilot plant, using olivine as heterogeneous catalyst and heat transfer agent. It was found that co-gasification led to successful thermochemical conversion of plastics as opposed to mono-gasification. Unknown flow rates were determined applying nonlinear regression to energy and mass balances acknowledging combustion fuel, air, steam, feedstock, but also exiting char, tar, steam and other components in DFB gasification unit. Water-gas shift equilibrium and methanol synthesis requirements were incorporated into gasification model, based on measurements.

  11. Capture market share, raise prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. Two principles in medical economics central to the Affordable Care Act (ACA were dealt blows by recently published studies. The first principle is the belief that economies of scale will result in lower prices. The theory is that larger insurers will have lower prices because they are more administratively efficient. The second principle is that provider-owned health plans, usually hospitals, will reduce premiums. The theory is that by controlling doctors over charging health plans in a fee-for-service model will lower prices. The first study published in Technology Science found that the largest insurer in each of the states served by HealthCare.gov raised their prices in 2015 by an average of over 10 per cent compared to smaller competitors in the same market (1. Those steeper price hikes for monthly premiums did not seem warranted by the level of health claims which did not significantly differ as a percentage of premiums ...

  12. Advanced control system for temperature control in the pressurized fluid bed of Escatron Thermal Plant Power; Sistema de Control Avanzado para Control de la Temperatura del Lecho Fluido a Presion de la Central Termica de Escatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the P. F-B. C a small problem appears, particularly in Escatron the bed temperature gradient is very high. Such gradient very occasionally reaches 50 degree centigree in a same plane. With the reduction of bed difference of temperature, the average bed temperature could be increased with the result steam cycle benefit, at the same time combustion gases would go at a higher temperature to the gas turbine, increasing therefore its performance. The SCAP system will allow to face the resolution of the injection of combustible problem and in this manner achieve the homogenization of bed temperature in Escatron PFBC Thermal Power Station. (Author)

  13. Tapered bed bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  14. Bed Bugs FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed bugs have been found in five-star hotels and resorts and their presence is not determined ... sleep. These areas include apartments, shelters, rooming houses, hotels, cruise ships, buses, trains, and dorm rooms. They ...

  15. Moving-bed sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, R.E.; Gupta, R.P.; Chuck, T.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this program is to develop mixed-metal oxide sorbent formulations that are suitable for moving-bed, high-temperature, desulfurization of coal gas. Work continues on zinc titanates formulations and Z-sorb III sorbent.

  16. Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Its purpose is to help states, communities, and consumers in efforts to prevent and control bed bug infestations. Currently includes only reviewed material from federal/state/local government agencies, extension services, and universities.

  17. Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    How to deal with bed bugs in one printable page. Ten tips include ensuring correct insect identification, reducing clutter, understand integrated pest management, using mattress and box spring encasements, and heat treatment.

  18. Coal Bed Methane Produced Water Quality and Its Impact on Soil and Plant: A Review%煤层气采出水水质及其对土壤和植物影响研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔岩山; 琚宜文

    2011-01-01

    煤层气是优质的能源和化工原料.但在其开采过程中,排出的大量煤层气采出水对土壤和植物的影响以及其相应的评价与修复是一个非常重要的环境问题.文章从煤层气采出水中的元素种类及其形态变化、有机污染物含量变化等方面综述了不同区域煤层气采出水水质状况.在此基础上,分析了煤层气采出水灌溉土壤对土壤和植物的影响.主要包括土壤pH变化;一些元素及离子可能导致土壤发生盐化和钠质化作用及其影响因素;植物生物量和物种多样性的变化及优势种的改变等.针对不同区域煤层气采出水的相关水质状况以及其对土壤及植物的影响,提出了相应的控制修复措施.最后,提出了未来该领域需要加强研究的方面,以期为未来合理、安全地利用煤层气采出水提供相关参考.%Coal bed methane (CBM) is high quality energy and chemical raw material. However, in the mining process, the impact of a large number of CBM produced water on soil and plants is one of the most important environmental issues. Concentration and speciation of elements as well as concentration of organic pollutants in CBM produced water were reviewed, based on which the plant and soil response to irrigation by CBM produced water were also analyzed, including soil pH, soil salinization and sodification, plant mass and species diversity. The related remediation technologies and research in the field were also discussed, which would provide valuable reference information on safe utilization of CBM produced water.

  19. Nitrogen removal in a combined system: vertical vegetated bed over horizontal flow sand bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantawanichkul, S; Neamkam, P; Shutes, R B

    2001-01-01

    Pig farm wastewater creates various problems in many areas throughout Thailand. Constructed wetland systems are an appropriate, low cost treatment option for tropical countries such as Thailand. In this study, a combined system (a vertical flow bed planted with Cyperus flabelliformis over a horizontal flow sand bed without plants) was used to treat settled pig farm wastewater. This system is suitable for using in farms where land is limited. The average COD and nitrogen loading rate of the vegetated vertical flow bed were 105 g/m2 x d and 11 g/m2 x d respectively. The wastewater was fed intermittently at intervals of 4 hours with a hydraulic loading rate of 3.7 cm/d. The recirculation of the effluent increased total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency from 71% to 85%. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal efficiencies were 95% and 98%. Nitrification was significant in vertical flow Cyperus bed, and the concentration of nitrate increased by a factor of 140. The horizontal flow sand bed enhanced COD removal and nitrate reduction was 60%. Plant uptake of nitrogen was 1.1 g N/m2 x d or dry biomass production was 2.8 kg/m2 over 100 days.

  20. First test results of the pilot plant for the pressure loaded vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals. A pilot plant for 5 t/h dry coal and till 6 bar dryer pressure; Erste Testergebnisse von der Versuchsanlage zur Druckaufgeladenen Dampfwirbelschicht-Trocknung (DDWT) von Braunkohlen. Versuchsanlage fuer 5 t/h Trockenkohle und bis 6 bar Trocknerdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsche, T.; Thannhaeuser, L.; Hoehne, O.; Martin, J.S. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Apart from other promising possibilities for the improvement of the efficiency of fossil fuelled power stations such as the improvement of the steam parameters and optimization of the equipment technology the preliminary drying of coal possesses a very high potential. This results from a more effective combustion of the dried coal in the power station boiler and from the energetic use of the condensation enthalpy of the coal water vapour during processing the power station. Especially, if the vapour steam is on a high level of pressure, the applied evaporation enthalpy completely can be led back into the power station process. Thereby, improvements of the net efficiency of power stations of about 4 to 5 % are attainable. Starting from October 2008, Vattenfall Europe AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) established a pilot plant for a vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals at the site Schwarze Pumpe. The plant is laid out for a dryer performance of 5 t/h dry brown coal. This plant enables tests with a dryer system pressure between 1 and 6 bar. After start-up in the third quarter 2008, the operation of the pilot plant begun. Extensive tests of the plant and components were accomplished, and the procedure proof for DDWT of Lausitz brown coals was furnished. So far, up to 4 t/h dry coal were produced with the accomplished test campaigns. A dryer system pressure of up to 4.5 bar started. The target is to transfer the results and experiences from the test operation into planning and construction of a 250 MW{sub e}l Oxyfuel demonstration power station with upstream coal pressure drying process which is established by Vattenfall Europe AG at the location Jaenschwalde until 2015.

  1. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Cozzi, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jantzen, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  2. Control Difuso Adaptivo y su Aplicación a una Planta Piloto de Secado por Lecho Fluidizado Adaptive Fuzzy Control with an Application to a Fluidized Dryer Bed Pilot Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Velásquez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se muestra el diseño e implementación de un controlador difuso proporcional-prealimentado con Mecanismo de Adaptación (CDPP-MA para regular la temperatura en el interior del de un secador por lecho fluidizado. El algoritmo del controlador difuso se programa en el “Script” de Intouch, mientras que para diseñar y configurar los diferentes parámetros del controlador difuso se utiliza el software Matlab. Las pruebas se llevaron a cabo en una Planta Piloto e incluyeron cambios en la referencia del controlador y la aplicación de perturbaciones al sistema. El controlador presenta buen desempeño, tanto en el seguimiento de la referencia como en la atenuación de las perturbaciones. Los resultados indican que el controlador implementado es una alternativa factible de ser usado en el control de procesos no lineales o fuertemente perturbados.This work presents the design and implementation of a feed-forward proportional fuzzy controller with an adaptation mechanism (CDPP-MA. This controller was designed for temperature feedback control in a fluidized bed reactor. The fuzzy controller algorithm is programmed in Intouch’s Script language. Matlab software was used for the design and configuration of the fuzzy controller’s parameters. Experimental tests were carried out in a pilot plant and included changes of reference of the controller and applications of disturbances to the system. Excellent performance was obtained with the controller, both in following the reference and in attenuation of the disturbances. The results show the implemented controller to be a feasible alternative to for use in control of highly non-linear or strongly disturbed processes

  3. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised...

  4. Numerical simulation of nuclear pebble bed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shams, A., E-mail: shams@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Roelofs, F., E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Komen, E.M.J., E-mail: komen@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Petten (Netherlands); Baglietto, E., E-mail: emiliob@MIT.EDU [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Numerical simulations of a single face cubic centred pebble bed are performed. • Wide range of turbulence modelling techniques are used to perform these calculations. • The methods include 1-DNS, 1-LES, 3-Hybrid (RANS/LES) and 3-RANS models, respectively. • The obtained results are extensively compared to provide guidelines for such flow regimes. • These guidelines are used to perform reference LES for a limited sized random pebble bed. - Abstract: High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) are being considered all over the world. An HTR uses helium gas as a coolant, while the moderator function is taken up by graphite. The fuel is embedded in the graphite moderator. A particular inherent safety advantage of HTR designs is that the graphite can withstand very high temperatures, that the fuel inside will stay inside the graphite pebble and cannot escape to the surroundings even in the event of loss of cooling. Generally, the core can be designed using a graphite pebble bed. Some experimental and demonstration reactors have been operated using a pebble bed design. The test reactors have shown safe and efficient operation, however questions have been raised about possible occurrence of local hot spots in the pebble bed which may affect the pebble integrity. Analysis of the fuel integrity requires detailed evaluation of local heat transport phenomena in a pebble bed, and since such phenomena cannot easily be modelled experimentally, numerical simulations are a useful tool. As a part of a European project, named Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative Nuclear Systems (THINS), a benchmarking quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a well-defined pebble bed configuration has been performed. This q-DNS will serve as a reference database in order to evaluate the prediction capabilities of different turbulence modelling approaches. A wide range of numerical simulations based on different available turbulence modelling approaches are performed and compared with

  5. Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m³ of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m³ was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m³ in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O₃/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD

  6. in Spouted Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases.

  7. Influence of artificial ecological floating beds on river hydraulic characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶磊; 钱进; 敖燕辉

    2014-01-01

    The artificial ecological floating bed is widely used in rivers and lakes to repair and purify polluted water. However, the water flow pattern and the water level distribution are significantly changed by the floating beds, and the influence on the water flow is different from that of aquatic plants. In this paper, based on the continuous porous media model, a moveable two-layer combination model is built to describe the floating bed. The influences of the floating beds on the water flow characteristics are studied by numerical simulations and experiments using an experimental water channel. The variations of the water level distribution are discussed under conditions of different flow velocities ( v=0.1 m/s, 0.2 m/s, 0.30 m/s, 0.4 m/s), floating bed coverage rates (20%, 40%, 60%) and arrangement positions away from the channel wall ( D=0 m, 0.1 m, 0.2 m). The results indicate that the flow velocity increases under the floating beds, and the water level rises significantly under high flow velocity conditions in the upstream region and the floating bed region. In addition, the average rising water level value (ARWLV) increases significantly with the increase of the floating bed coverage rate, and the arrangement position of floating beds in the river can also greatly influence the water level distribution under a high-flow velocity condition (v³0.2 m/s) .

  8. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  9. 28 CFR 902.2 - Raising disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising disputes. 902.2 Section 902.2 Judicial Administration NATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION AND PRIVACY COMPACT COUNCIL DISPUTE ADJUDICATION PROCEDURES § 902.2 Raising disputes. (a) Cognizable disputes may be based upon: (1) A claim that the...

  10. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  11. Grimethorpe experimental pressurized fluidized-bed combustor: in future energy concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The experimental pressurized fluidized bed combustor project at Grimethorpe, UK, is described. The design of the combustor, which is a pressure vessel containing a furnace, which contains the fluidized bed is discussed. Details of the process, the steam water circuit, the fuel system and method of feeding coal, ash removal during the process, the water treatment plant and plant control are given.

  12. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  13. Fluidized bed combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1985-03-25

    The chamber is confined in a pressure vessel. The lower part of the chamber has tilted parallel gutters up to the height of the fluidized bed. The slope of the gutter walls is 5 degrees-15 degrees and the top area of the gutters is 1.3 to 3 times larger than their bottom.

  14. Bed Bug Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the truth about bed bugs, such as how easy they are to see with the naked eye, their preferred habitat, whether they transmit diseases, their public health effects, and whether pesticides are the best way to deal with an infestation.

  15. Surviving Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pregnancy — and your bed rest start a family tree that you can share with your child someday firm up your baby-name choices; use books and websites for ideas organize photo albums read anything — ... people (friends and family) whom you know will probably give gifts build ...

  16. New Developments in Spinning Fluidised Bed Incineration Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, the sewage treatment plants in the UK produce about 25 million tons of sewage sludge each year at a concentration of 4% solids. New regulations forbid sea dumping and in the near future new incinerators will be required to dispose of about 5 million tons per year. Bubbling fluidised bed incinerators are widely used to burn sewage sludge at a typical consumption rate of about 0.02kg(dry)·s-1·m2, and it follows that over 300 conventional fluidised bed incinerators of 3m diameter could be required to cope with the increased demand.At Sheffield University Waste Incineration Centre (SUWIC) research work is being carried out to develop a novel spinning fluidised bed incinerator. The key factor to note is that when air flows up through a bed of near mono-sized particles, it fluidises when the pressure drop across the bed is equal to the weight of the bed. Normally, the weight of the bed is determined by gravity. However, if the bed is contained by a cylindrical air distributor 'plate' that is rotating rapidly about its axis, then the effective weight of the bed can be increased dramatically. The airflow passing through the bed can be increased proportionally to the "g" level produced by the rotation and it follows that the process has been intensified. In exploratory tests with a spinning fluidised bed we have achieved combustion intensities with coal combustion as high as 100MW/m3. A problem with burning coal is that it was difficult to remove the heat and rotating water seals had to be used to transfer cooling water into the bed. In the case of sewage and other sludges, this problem does not exist since the flue gases can remove the small amount of heat released. The rotating fluidised bed sludge incinerator is a novel device, which is very compact. It is able to solve the turndown problem encountered with conventional fluidised beds by simply changing the rotation speed. Bearing in mind that a centrifugal sludge de-watering unit is already used

  17. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin-long; Meng, Jun; Li, Gui-ping; Luan, Zhao-kun; Tang, Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. The physicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bed filtration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemical forces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the microflocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and the experimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoretical prediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that the regulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of the physicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate the interaction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  18. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000427.htm Bathing a patient in bed To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For ...

  19. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  20. Modelling and calculation of combined-cycle power plants with pressurized fluidized bed and with upstream or downstream gas turbines at full load and part load; Modellierung und Berechnung von Kombikraftwerken mit Druckwirbelschicht und vor- sowie nachgeschalteten Gasturbinen bei Voll- und Teillast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faatz, R.

    1997-12-31

    Owing to their high efficiency, low pollutant emissions and good performance when fuelled with coal, pressurized fluidized-bed combustors have come to play and important role. The performance of processes with pressurized fluidized beds can be enhanced significantly by combining them with gas turbines fuelled with natural gas or coal gas. The report describes several variants of combined cycle processes with pressurized fluidized beds and with gas turbines connected upstream or downstream. The main components, i.e. gas turbine, pressurized fluidized bed, steam turbine and steam cycle are simulated by computer models. For the power plant variants, full-load calculations were carried out to determine the potential efficiency; for the components like gas turbine and pressurized fluidized bed, also part-load calculations were made. It was found that efficiencies of 45-49 % are possible with the investigated variants. Optimisation of the process parameters, efficiencies up to 51.4 % will be possible especially in the range of transition to supercritical steam parameters. (orig.) 68 figs., 14 tabs. [Deutsch] Die Druckwirbelschichtfeuerung hat wegen ihres hohen Wirkungsgrades, ihrer niedrigen Schadstoffemissionen und ihrer Eignung fuer den Brennstoff Kohle eine grosse Bedeutung erlangt. Durch geschickte Kombination mit erdgas- oder kohlegasgefeuerten Gasturbinen laesst sich der Wirkungsgrad von Prozessen mit Druckwirbelschicht betraechtlich steigern. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt verschiedene Schaltungsvarianten von Kombiprozessen mit Druckwirbelschicht, bei denen die Gasturbinen der Wirbelschicht sowohl vorgeschaltet als auch nachgeschaltet sind. Die Hauptkomponenten der Prozesse wie Gasturbine, Druckwirbelschicht, Dampfturbine und Dampfkreislauf werden durch Rechnermodelle simuliert. Fuer die Kraftwerksvarianten wurden Vollastrechnungen zur Ermittlung des Wirkungsgradpotentials, fuer die einzelnen Komponenten wie Gasturbine und Druckwirbelschicht auch

  1. Concepts of Emission Reduction in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amon Purgar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A status report on fluidized bed technology in Austria is under preparation, in response to the Fluidized Bed Conversion multi-lateral technology initiative of the International Energy Agency. This status report focuses on the current operation of fluidized bed combustors. Combustors have been installed in the following industrial sectors: pulp and paper, biomass heat and power plants, waste-to-energy plants, and communal sewage sludge treatment plants. There are also some small demonstration plants. These plants all have in common that they treat renewable fuel types. In many cases, only bio-fuels are treated. Besides the ability to burn a wide range of low-grade and difficult fuels, fluidized bed combustors have the advantages of low NOX emissions and the possibility of in-process capture of SO2. Various emission reduction concepts for fluidized bed combustors that are typical for their industrial sector are discussed. The discussion of these concepts focuses on NOX, SO2 and dust.

  2. Parenting Skills: Tips for Raising Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen. By ... teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a ...

  3. Raise the Floor When Remodeling Science Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation's Schools, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A new remodeling idea adopts the concept of raised floor covering gas, water, electrical, and drain lines. The accessible floor has removable panels set into an adjustable support frame 24 inches above a concrete subfloor. (Author)

  4. Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163751.html Could Parkinson's Disease Raise Stroke Risk? Or is the link the other way ... link between Parkinson's disease and the risk for stroke. However, the study can't prove that one ...

  5. 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_161206.html 'The Pill' May Raise Depression Risk Study also ties hormonal patches, IUDs to ... may have a slightly higher risk of developing depression -- and teenagers may be most vulnerable, a large ...

  6. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-06-08

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained.

  7. Virtual Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    project is to develop a benchmark system for evaluating models for predicting the characteristics of ocean wind waves. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES A...transformation-scale models (i.e. models which treat the physics of waves propagating from offshore areas into the coastline). Each phase is further divided...to be assembled within the virtual test bed. Wind fields for running these tests will be obtained from Oceanweather, Inc. from a separate ONR

  8. Fundamental research into the utilization of circulating fluidized bed ash. Grundlagenuntersuchungen zur Verwertung von zirkulierenden Wirbelschichtaschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, P.; Weis, P. (EAB Energie-Anlagen Berlin GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01

    Power plant residues from the Moabit Power Plant, which is currently under construction (circulating fluidized bed), must be utilized in accordance with the notice of consent. In order to meet this condition, extensive investigations are being carried out even during the design- and planning stage. In addition to preliminary tests in a fluidized bed pilot plant, representative circulating fluidized bed ash testing experience has been accumulated in a major test in an operating plant. The paper presents the results of the first physical construction material investigations together with possible solutions for applications at the Berlin West site. (orig.).

  9. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Griggs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2011. Around 344 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with the majority of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated/ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice shelf thickness was determined where a floating tongue exists, in particular in the north. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings near the ice sheet margin and 2.5 km in the interior. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±6 m to about ±200 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new data sets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes most marked. We use the new bed and surface DEMs to calculate the hydraulic potential for subglacial flow and present the large scale pattern of water routing. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land/ice mask would raise eustatic sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  10. Bed Utilisation in an Irish Regional Paediatric Unit A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Paediatric Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol (PAEP)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ó hAiseadha, Coilín

    2016-05-01

    Increasing demand for limited healthcare resources raises questions about appropriate use of inpatient beds. In the first paediatric bed utilisation study at a regional university centre in Ireland, we conducted a cross-sectional study to audit the utilisation of inpatient beds at the Regional Paediatric Unit (RPU) in University Hospital Limerick (UHL), Limerick, Ireland and also examined hospital activity data, to make recommendations for optimal use of inpatient resources.

  11. Skeletal Amorphous Nickel Based Alloy Catalysts and Magnetically Stabilized Bed Hydrogenation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Enze

    2004-01-01

    Looking toward 21 century, smaller, cleaner and more energy-efficient technology will be an important trend in the development of chemical industry. In light of the new process requirements,a number of technology breakthroughs have occurred. One of these discoveries, the magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), has been proven a powerful process for intensification. Since its initial research in the late 1980's at Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (RIPP), the MSB technology and related catalytic material have matured rapidly through an intensive research and engineering program, primarily focused on its scaling-up.In this paper, we report the discovery of a novel skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy and its use in magnetically stabilized bed (MSB). Amorphous alloys are new kinds of catalytic materials with short-range order but long-range disorder structure. In comparison with Raney Ni, the skeletal amorphous nickel-based alloy has an increasingly higher activity in the hydrogenation of reactive groups and compounds including nitro, nitrile, olefin, acetylene, aromatics, etc. Up to now, the amorphous nickel based alloy catalysts, SRNA series catalyst, one with high Ni ratio have been commercially manufactured more than four year. The new SRNA catalyst has been successfully implemented for hydrogenation applications in slurry reactor at Balin Petrochemical, SINOPEC.SRNA catalyst with further improvement in catalytic activity and stability raise its relative stability to 2~4 times of that of conventional catalyst. In the course of the long-cycle operation of SRNA-4 the excellent catalyst activity and stability can bring about such advantage as low reaction temperature, good selectivity and low catalyst resumption.Magnetically stabilized bed (MSB), a fluidized bed of magnetizable particles by applying a spatially uniform and time-invariant magnetic field oriented axially relative to the fluidizing fluid flow, had many advantages such as the low pressure drop and

  12. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up.

  13. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  14. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  15. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  16. Racing for the Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    No one knows when the people ofMacheng City began to employthe marriage custom of racingfor the bed, once a custom unique to theTujia ethnic minority. It is said that at the end of awedding, bride and bridegroom enter thebridal chamber together and race for thebed. The one who is the first to sit on thebed will be the master of the new familyIt sounds unreasonable, but quite anumber of people believe in it.Therefore, on the wedding night, manybrides and bridegrooms try their best to

  17. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  18. Modeling biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qi

    In this thesis, the modeling of biomass gasification in circulating fluidized beds was studied. The hydrodynamics of a circulating fluidized bed operating on biomass particles were first investigated, both experimentally and numerically. Then a comprehensive mathematical model was presented to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation plant. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to test its response to several gasifier operating conditions. The model was validated using the experimental results obtained from the plant and two other circulating fluidized bed biomass gasifiers (CFBBGs). Finally, an ASPEN PLUS simulation model of biomass gasification was presented based on minimization of the Gibbs free energy of the reaction system at chemical equilibrium. Hydrodynamics plays a crucial role in defining the performance of gas-solid circulating fluidized beds (CFBs). A 2-dimensional mathematical model was developed considering the hydrodynamic behavior of CFB gasifiers. In the modeling, the CFB riser was divided into two regions: a dense region at the bottom and a dilute region at the top of the riser. Kunii and Levenspiel (1991)'s model was adopted to express the vertical solids distribution with some other assumptions. Radial distributions of bed voidage were taken into account in the upper zone by using Zhang et al. (1991)'s correlation. For model validation purposes, a cold model CFB was employed, in which sawdust was transported with air as the fluidizing agent. A comprehensive mathematical model was developed to predict the overall performance of a 1.2 MWe biomass gasification and power generation demonstration plant in China. Hydrodynamics as well as chemical reaction kinetics were considered. The fluidized bed riser was divided into two distinct sections: (a) a dense region at the bottom of the bed where biomass undergoes mainly heterogeneous reactions and (b) a dilute region at the top where most of homogeneous

  19. Fixed bed gasification of solid biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haavisto, I. [Condens Oy, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Fixed bed biomass gasifiers are feasible in the effect range of 100 kW -10 MW. Co-current gasification is available only up to 1 MW for technical reasons. Counter-current gasifiers have been used in Finland and Sweden for 10 years in gasification heating plants, which are a combination of a gasifier and an oil boiler. The plants have proved to have a wide control range, flexible and uncomplicated unmanned operation and an excellent reliability. Counter-current gasifiers can be applied for new heating plants or for converting existing oil and natural gas boilers into using solid fuels. There is a new process development underway, aiming at motor use of the producer gas. The development work involves a new, more flexible cocurrent gasifier and a cleaning step for the counter-current producer gas. (orig.)

  20. Raising venture capital in the biopharma industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytes, Lev J

    2002-11-15

    Raising venture capital (VC) is both an art and a science. Future entrepreneurs should carefully consider the various issues of VC financing that have a strong impact on the success of their business. In addition to attracting the best venture capital firms, these issues include such subtle but important points as the timing of financing (especially of the first round), external support sources, desirable qualities of a VC firm, amount to be raised, establishing a productive interface between the founders and the venture capitalists, and most importantly the effects of well-executed VC funding on hiring senior executives and scientific leaders.

  1. Raising a gender non-conforming child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisnowski, Deborah L

    2011-10-01

    This article overviews the challenges parents face raising gender non-conforming children. The author is the mother of a fifteen year old gender non-conforming (GNC) child and co-founder of Stepping Stones Support Group which organizes support programs for families of GNC. The article discusses social challenges, educational challenges and internal conflicts the author has experienced while raising her child. The author also discusses the process of founding Stepping Stones and the importance having support has played in her and her child's life.

  2. Fluidized bed gasification of industrial solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Umberto; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluates the technical feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification of three solid recovered fuels (SRFs), obtained as co-products of a recycling process. The SRFs were pelletized and fed to a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor, operated in gasification and co-gasification mode. The tests were carried out under conditions of thermal and chemical steady state, with a bed of olivine particles and at different values of equivalence ratio. The results provide a complete syngas characterization, in terms of its heating value and composition (including tars, particulates, and acid/basic pollutants) and of the chemical and physical characterization of bed material and entrained fines collected at the cyclone outlet. The feasibility of the fluidized bed gasification process of the different SRFs was evaluated with the support of a material and substance flow analysis, and a feedstock energy analysis. The results confirm the flexibility of fluidized bed reactor, which makes it one of the preferable technologies for the gasification of different kind of wastes, even in co-gasification mode. The fluidized bed gasification process of the tested SRFs appears technically feasible, yielding a syngas of valuable quality for energy applications in an appropriate plant configuration.

  3. Fluidized bed combustion of pesticide-manufacture liquid wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAŠA MILETIĆ

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial liquid wastes can be in the form of solutions, suspensions, sludges, scums or waste oil and have organic properties. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a fluidized bed as a clean technology for burning liquid waste from a pesticide production plant. The combustion of liquid waste mixtures, obtained from realistic samples, was investigated in a pilot scale fluidized bed with quartz sand particles of 0.63–1.25 mm in diameter and 2610 kg/m3 in density at 800–950 °C. To ensure complete combustion of liquid waste and additional fuel, the combustion chamber was supplied with excess air and the U/UmF (at ambient temperature was in between 1.1 and 2.3. In the fluidized bed chamber, liquid waste, additional liquid fuel and air can be brought into intense contact sufficient to permit combustion in bed without backfire problems. The experimental results show that the fluidized bed furnace offers excellent thermal uniformity and temperature control. The results of the combustion tests showed that degradation of liquid wastes can be successfully realized in a fluidized bed with no harmful gaseous emissions by ensuring that the temperatures of both the bed and the freeboard are not lower than 900 °C.

  4. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  5. Physicochemical interaction and its influence on deep bed filtration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-long; MENG Jun; LI GUI-ping; LUAN Zhao-kun; TANG Hong-xiao

    2004-01-01

    The capillary model was used to analyze the hydraulic conditions in the deep bed filtration process. Thephysicochemical interaction forces between the filter media and suspended particles and their influence on deep bedfiltration process were also studied theoretically. Through the comparison of the hydraulic and physicochemicalforces, the key influencing factors on the filtration process were proposed and investigated. Pilot study of the micro-flocculation deep bed filtration was carried out in the No. 9 Potable Water Treatment Plant of Beijing, and theexperimental results of hydraulic head loss, particle distribution and entrapment were presented. The theoreticalprediction was reasonably consistent with the experimental results under different conditions, which indicated that theregulation and control of micro-flocculation and deep bed filtration could be realized by the evaluation of thephysicochemical interactions. Further theoretical and experimental research should be carried out to investigate theinteraction mechanism and its application in the deep bed filtration and other cases.

  6. Pragmatics, Awareness Raising, and the Cooperative Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Neil

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, pedagogical pragmatics has sought to improve the effectiveness with which learners express and interpret meaning, through awareness-raising activities that draw on authentic materials and break away from simplistic explanations of form-function correspondences. By and large, these efforts have been informed by an inductive…

  7. PROCEDURE FOR LOCALLY RAISING THE GROUND ARTIFICIALLY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Abstract of corresponding document: WO 8909251 (A1) The present invention relates to a procedure for locally raising the ground artificially, wherein an equivalent quantity of the calcite (CaCO3) present in the porous underground limestone formations is converted into gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by inje

  8. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  9. Raising Happy Kids on a Reasonable Budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia C.

    This guide shows parents how to cut expenses and save on the cost of raising a family. Chapter 1 offers many ways to stretch food dollars and discusses buying in bulk, eating out, using coupons, buying wholesale, and gardening. Cost-cutting clothing ideas covered in chapter 2 include buying at secondhand stores and consignment shops, outlet…

  10. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  11. Flo: Raising Family Awareness about Electricity Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrubsole, P.A.; Lavrysen, T.; Janse, M.D.; Weda, J.

    2012-01-01

    In this case study, we designed a family game to explore whether this could be an effective and fun approach for raising the awareness of family members towards their energy use and, in the long run, to provide an effective tool for affecting their habits regarding sustainable behavior. The design o

  12. Raising Environmental Awareness among Miners in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Ezatollah

    2013-01-01

    Generation of waste is inevitable but controllable in minerals industry. The aim of this research is to find ways for raising environmental awareness among miners. Miners' attitude towards environmental mining has been investigated. A survey has been done collecting mine managers' point of view coupled with current trend on mine waste management…

  13. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  14. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  15. RAISING BRAND AWARENEES THROUGH INTERNET MARKETING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Išoraitė

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the opinions of different authors on brand awareness raising. It also describes and analyzes the concept of internet marketing, the implementation. The analysis of the most urgent and the most effective online marketing tools brand awareness. Article analysis website; internet advertising; social networks; search engine optimization.

  16. Fund-Raising as a Persuasive Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Robert C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes two successful fund-raising campaigns conducted by the new Dean of the College of Communication at the University of Texas, Austin. Describes strategies used as a novice fund-raiser with no help from a development officer. Suggests that the Aristotelian principles will serve anyone well if he or she is willing to give it the time and…

  17. Children Seem to Know Raising: Raising and Intervention in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jinsun

    2012-01-01

    English-speaking children exhibit difficulty in their comprehension of raising patterns, such as (1), in which the NP the boy is semantically linked to the VP in the embedded clause, but is syntactically realized as the subject of the matrix clause. (1) Raising pattern: [s "The boy" seems to the girl [s _ to be happy

  18. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  19. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  20. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, J. L.; Griggs, J. A.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Gogineni, S. P.; Howat, I.; Mouginot, J.; Paden, J.; Palmer, S.; Rignot, E.; Steinhage, D.

    2013-03-01

    We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM) over the entire island including across the glaciated-ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  1. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  2. Amino acid geochronology of raised beaches in south west Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D. Q.; Sykes, G. A.; Reeves (nee Henry), Alayne; Miller, G. H.; Andrews, J. T.; Brew, J. S.; Hare, P. E.

    Based on (1) the epimerization of L:isoleucine to D:alloisoleucine ( {D}/{L} ratios) in Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, L. littoralis, L. saxatilis, Littorina species and Nucella lapillus from raised beaches in south west Britain, (2) statistical analysis of the {D}/{L} ratios, and (3) lithostratigraphic and geomorphic evaluation, three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are proposed. The {D}/{L} ratios for all the species measured are converted to a Patella vulgata standard. The three ( {D}/{L}) Stages are: (1) The Minchin Hole ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.175 ± 0.014, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. (2) A provisionally defined, but as yet, unamed ( {D}/{L}) Stage, because of the current unavailability of a suitable stratotype, with {D}/{L} ratios of 0.135 ± 0.014 (3) The Pennard ( {D}/{L}) Stage, {D}/{L} ratios 0.105 ± 0.016, defined at a stratotype in Minchin Hole Cave, Gower, Wales. Two geochronological models of the three high sea-level events representing the {D}/{L} Stages are constrained by uranium-series age determinations on stalagmite interbedded with marine beds in Minchin Hole and Bacon Hole Caves, Gower, Wales. A potential 'fixed point' in model evaluation is an age determination which is equivalent to Oxygen Isotope Sub-stage 5e (122 ka). The two models are:

  3. Domestic wastewater treatment using tidal-flow cinder bed with Cyperus alternifolius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S.Y.; Tsang, Y.F.; Chua, H. [Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China). Dept. for Civil & Structural Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A lab-scale vertical flow cinder bed was set up to treat domestic wastewater. Cinder, which is a common coal waste from electricity generation, was used as the filter medium in the six vertical flow column beds in this study. Three of the six columns were planted with umbrella grass (Cyperus alternifolius) to mimic a wetland system and to investigate the effects of plant on the pollutant removal efficiencies of the column bed systems. The six column beds were divided into three groups, operating with different durations of wet and dry periods. Group 2 column beds, with 4 hours wet periods and 4 hours dry periods, showed the highest carbonaceous removal. Similar ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were demonstrated in column beds of group 2 and in column beds of group 3 (6 hours wet periods and 2 hours dry periods). Phosphorus removal efficiencies were not significantly different in all groups of column bed. No significant differences in pollutant removal were observed between planted and unplanted column beds in this study (p > 0.05).

  4. Integrated approach in fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruyet, B.; Gautrin, M. [CERCHAR, Mazingarbe (France)

    1998-12-31

    Atmospheric fluidized bed technology for combustion is frequently found in different advanced power and steam generation systems, because the fluidization provides operating conditions which are favourable for pollutant control and also offers the possibility to utilise a wide range of fuels. The main objective of the study was to contribute to the development of a methodology for an easier global approach of the implementation of atmospheric fluidized bed reactors and upstream elements associated with taking into account the characteristics of fuels and sorbents, the requirements on gaseous pollutants and on solid by-products utilisation. Previous tests done in CERCHAR`s facilities were scrutinised, additional tests at laboratory and pilot level were carried out, some industrial plants were considered. Several fuels were considered (brown coals, coals, slurry,...), with a special attention to Gottelborn reference coal and Rheinbraun lignite. Experimental results and tentative conclusions viz. fuel characterization, batch fluidization set-up, 1 MW atmospheric fluidized bed pilot, ash utilisation/disposal, methodology and management of preliminary testing are presented. 12 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  6. Bed Bug Laws and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    21 states have some level of regulation with regard to bed bugs. Most of these requirements focus on hotels and landlords or other property managers. The Department of Housing and Urban Development has guidance on controlling bed bugs in public housing.

  7. Head raising analysis and case revaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ager Gondra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that Basque relative clause construction follows the Head Raising Analysis: the CP of the relative clause is a complement to the external D and the Head of the relative clause, base-generated inside the TP, moves to the specifier position of the CP. This analysis predicts that the raised DPwill show a TP-internal Case. However, this is not the case, and the DP manifests the Case associated with the main clause. In order to address these Case inconsistencies, Precariousness Condition is proposed. This condition states that a DCase valued u-feature is precarious until it is sent to Spell-Out and therefore, the value is visible for further targeting by a c-commanding Probe.  Evidence for this multiple Agree operation comes from a DP long distance extraction.

  8. Characterization of the pneumatic behavior of a novel spouted bed apparatus with two adjustable gas inlets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryczka, O.; Heinrich, S.; Miteva, V.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Jacob, M.; Mörl, L.

    2008-01-01

    Recently the importance of spouted bed technology has significantly increased in the context of drying processes as well as granulation, agglomeration or coating processes. Within this work the fluid dynamics of a novel spouted bed plant with two adjustable gas inlets is investigated. By analysis of

  9. Leaf transport in mimic mangrove forests and seagrass beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillis, L.G.; Bouma, T.J.; Kiswara, W.; Ziegler, A.D.; Herman, P.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mangrove forests and seagrass beds are thought to exchange particulate organic material, especially in the form of leaves. However, relatively little is known about the trapping capacity of mangrove above-ground roots and seagrass plants for leaf segments. We aimed to identify the major factors

  10. Nutrients removal using moving beds with aeration cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Martin, A.; Foresti, E.; Garcia-Encina, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are based on the biomass growth over a media that moves into the reactor due to aeration, mechanical agitation or recirculation. These reactors have been gaining popularity and they are employed in hundreds of plants everywhere with different treatment purposes (organic matter removal, nitrification/denitrification), both for urban and industrial wastewater. (Author)

  11. Using Reed Bed for Sewage Treatment in Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yanming; Zhou Xiangyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction The reed has fine biological characteristics and is able to grow in various unfavorable conditions. When the sewage flows through the reed bed, there occurs selfpurification. Since the reed as a paper-making material does not get into the food chain, it is a fine green plant to treat waste water.

  12. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Acute illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs--seven states, 2003--2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is a wingless, reddish-brown insect that requires blood meals from humans, other mammals, or birds to survive. Bed bugs are not considered to be disease vectors, but they can reduce quality of life by causing anxiety, discomfort, and sleeplessness. Bed bug populations and infestations are increasing in the United States and internationally. Bed bug infestations often are treated with insecticides, but insecticide resistance is a problem, and excessive use of insecticides or use of insecticides contrary to label directions can raise the potential for human toxicity. To assess the frequency of illness from insecticides used to control bed bugs, relevant cases from 2003-2010 were sought from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides program and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH). Cases were identified in seven states: California, Florida, Michigan, North Carolina, New York, Texas, and Washington. A total of 111 illnesses associated with bed bug-related insecticide use were identified; although 90 (81%) were low severity, one fatality occurred. Pyrethroids, pyrethrins, or both were implicated in 99 (89%) of the cases, including the fatality. The most common factors contributing to illness were excessive insecticide application, failure to wash or change pesticide-treated bedding, and inadequate notification of pesticide application. Although few cases of illnesses associated with insecticides used to control bed bugs have been reported, recommendations to prevent this problem from escalating include educating the public about effective bed bug management.

  14. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  15. Experimental comparison on heat transfer-enhancing component of metal hydride bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun-goo, E-mail: hgkang@nfri.re.kr; Chung, Dong-you; Oh, Yun Hee; Chang, Min Ho; Yun, Sei-Hun

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Two small ZrCo metal hydride beds were developed. • Copper foam or fin as heat transfer-enhancing component are experimentally compared. • Copper foam bed is more efficient for uniform and rapid heating of metal hydride. • Copper foam bed is more efficient in removal of reaction heat during absorption. - Abstract: Metal hydride bed will be one of the key components for safe handling of tritium in fusion fuel cycle. In case of normal or emergency shutdown of fuel cycle, metal hydride bed installed in storage and delivery system (SDS) of tritium plant will absorb tritium gas in the system as soon as possible. Supply of hydrogen isotope gas to fueling system of fusion reactor will start from the metal hydride beds. Rapid delivery, rapid recovery including rapid heating and cooling are key issues. For better performance of metal hydride bed, various forms of heat transfer enhancing component or design can be applied. This study aims to help the selection of heat transfer enhancing component. Two small ZrCo beds with copper foam and copper fin were developed and experimented with hydrogen gas. Recovery and delivery performance, heating and cooling performance are compared. Experimental results show metal hydride bed with copper foam has improved performance. Uniform heating of metal hydride during desorption and removal of reaction heat during absorption are more efficient with copper foam bed than copper fin bed.

  16. CIRCULATING MOVING BED COMBUSTION PROOF OF CONCEPT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jukkola, Glen

    2010-06-30

    Circulating Moving Bed (CMB) combustion technology has its roots in traditional circulating fluidized bed technology and involves a novel method of solid fuel combustion and heat transfer. CMB technology represents a step change in improved performance and cost relative to conventional PC and FBC boilers. The CMB heat exchanger preheats the energy cycle working fluid, steam or air, to the high temperature levels required in systems for advanced power generation. Unique features of the CMB are the reduction of the heat transfer surfaces by about 60% as a result of the enhanced heat transfer rates, flexibility of operation, and about 30% lower cost over existing technology. The CMB Phase I project ran from July 2001 through March 2003. Its objective was to continue development of the CMB technology with a series of proof of concept tests. The tests were conducted at a scale that provided design data for scale up to a demonstration plant. These objectives were met by conducting a series of experiments in ALSTOM Power’s Multi-use Test Facility (MTF). The MTF was modified to operate under CMB conditions of commercial interest. The objective of the tests were to evaluate gas-to-solids heat transfer in the upper furnace, assess agglomeration in the high temperature CMB bubbling bed, and evaluate solids-to-tube heat transfer in the moving bed heat exchanger. The Phase I program results showed that there are still some significant technical uncertainties that needed to be resolved before the technology can be confidently scaled up for a successful demonstration plant design. Work remained in three primary areas: • scale up of gas to solid heat transfer • high temperature finned surface design • the overall requirements of mechanical and process design. The CMB Phase II workscope built upon the results of Phase I and specifically addressed the remaining technical uncertainties. It included a scaled MTF heat transfer test to provide the necessary data to scale up gas

  17. 水雍菜浮床养殖模式下黄颡鱼肠道菌群结构分析%Intestinal microbial communities of yellow catfish (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) in pond with Ipomoea aquatica forsk planted on artificial floating beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石焱; 马徐发; 吴志新; 任雨薇; 陈孝煊

    2016-01-01

    The removal capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus by I pomoea aquatica Forsk planted on artificial floating beds were emphatically studied,and the microflora structure in the yellow catfish (P seudobagrus fulvidraco )intestine were analyzed by using high-through sequencing technique.The re-sults showed that ammonia nitrogen,total nitrogen and total phosphorus can be removed by the I .aquatica Forsk planted on artificial floating beds,with high removal efficiency.There were some differences in the intestinal bacteria diversity between the experimental (with artificial floating beds)and control (without artificial floating beds)groups.But the bacterial composition of different groups did not significantly vary from each other,and the predominant species were similar in all groups.At the begin-ning period,Proteobacteria was dominant (88.56%)in the yellow catfish intestine,and at the ending pe-riod,the dominant bacterial community in the control group were Firmicutes (48.4%),Fusobacteria (32.52%)and Proteobacteria (14.56%),whereas in the experimental group,the core microbiota com-posed of Proteobacteria (36.72%),Firmicutes (21.89%),Fusobacteria (17.48%)and Bacteroidetes (1 1.48%).This study provided a more comprehensive understanding that I .aquatica Forsk planted on artificial floating beds can change the flora structure of the yellow catfish intestine.%通过大规模养殖试验,研究人工浮床水培水雍菜对鱼塘养殖废水中氮磷的去除能力,并采用高通量测序方法研究养殖前后和不同处理组黄颡鱼肠道的微生物菌群结构,并分析了它们之间的相关性。结果表明:人工浮床水培水雍菜对鱼塘养殖废水中氨氮、总氮和总磷有良好的去除作用。养殖前后黄颡鱼肠道细菌多样性有明显差异;不同处理组之间的黄颡鱼肠道细菌种类多样性存在一定的差异,但优势菌群的组成并没有明显的结构差异,优势菌种的构成相似。在养殖前期

  18. Monitoring the use of artificial log pile otter holts using hair analysis from bedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowell D.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen, approximately ten year old log pile holts (LPH in mid-Wales, UK, were dismantled prior to reconstruction and any bedding from couches removed for analysis. The plant material making up the bedding was identified and animal guard hairs contained within it were determined to species. The bedding material simply consisted of opportunistically available material with little evident selection. Hairs of cow and sheep were clearly brought in with the bedding but it is suggested that hairs of otter, badger, fox, dog, cat, American mink and polecat indicate use of the LPH by the species concerned. A possible pine marten record is also considered.

  19. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  20. Raising and lowering operators for quantum billiards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYUSH KUMAR MANDWAL; SUDHIR R JAIN

    2017-09-01

    For planar integrable billiards, the eigenstates can be classified with respect to a quantity determined by the quantum numbers. Given the quantum numbers as $m$, $n$, the index which represents a class is $c = m$ mod $kn$ for a natural number, $k$. We show here that the entire tower of states can be generated from an initially given state by the application of the operators introduced here. Thus, these operators play the same role for billiards as raising and lowering operators in angular momentum algebra.

  1. Raising medium function of environmental engineering by usinglife rubbish to produce carpet turf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Abundant material with low cost was utilized to raise medium function of producing carpet tutfby life rubbish. The results showed that the material used could strikingly raise water retentiveness and ventilating of medium. Through the determination of the effect of each growth index of several turfgrass, emergence density, plant height, root growth and individual plant's net primary production were all positively related to the materials amount mixed, showing that the mixture of material could promote turfgrass growth, further proving that the material used raised medium function of producing carpet turf by life rubbish and made most use of life rubbish resources. It provided a scientific base is for application of environmental engineering by using life rubbish to producecarpet turf. So the study had both important theoretic meaning and applied value.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ,

    1980-04-01

    The pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology exchange workshop was held June 5 and 6, 1979, at The Meadowlands Hilton Hotel, Secaucus, New Jersey. Eleven papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. The papers include reviews of the US DOE and EPRI programs in this area and papers by Swedish, West German, British and American organizations. The British papers concern the joint program of the USA, UK and FRG at Leatherhead. The key factor in several papers is the use of fluidized bed combustors, gas turbines, and steam turbines in combined-cycle power plants. One paper examines several combined-cycle alternatives. (LTN)

  3. Fuel gas production from renewable biomass in a circulating fluidized bed as a bases for zero-CO{sub 2} power generation in a combined-cycle power plant; Brenngaserzeugung aus nachwachsenden Biomassen in der zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht als Grundlage fuer eine CO{sub 2}-neutrale Stromerzeugung in einem GUD Kraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, J.; Loeffler, J.; Hirschfelder, H. [Lurgi Energie und Umwelt GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    A pilot circulating fluidized bed plant in the range of 1.7 MW{sub th} has been operated successfully with fossil fuels, residues, wood bark and wood chips, reet grass and sorghum pellets. Depending on the specifications for product gas and fuel quality, air, oxygen-enriched air or oxygen/steam mixtures are used as gasification agents in the gas generator. (orig) [Deutsch] In einer ZWS-Pilotanlage mit ca. 1.7 MW thermischer Leistung wurden bisher ausser fossilen und Abfallbrennstoffen auch Rindenabfaelle, Holzschnitzel, Schilfgras und Sorghumpellets erfolgreich zur Brenngaserzeugung eingesetzt. Entsprechend den Anforderungen an das Produktgas und der Brennstoffqualitaet wird Luft, sauerstoffangereicherte Luft oder Sauerstoff/Dampfgemische als Vergasungsmittel im ZWS-Gaserzeuger eingesetzt. (orig)

  4. Raising children in America: Korean parents' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H; Dancy, B L; Lee, J

    2013-08-01

    This qualitative description study was designed to describe Korean American parents' perceptions of challenges and difficulties they encounter while raising their children in the USA. A convenience sampling of 21 parents of adolescents aged 11-14 years recruited from the Midwest Korean American community participated in the study. Data were collected using in-depth, face-to-face interviews, which took place in agreed-upon, convenient locations. All interviews were audiotaped and transcribed in Korean and the transcripts were translated into English. Qualitative content analysis revealed that the main stresses that parents encountered while raising their children in the USA were inability to advocate for children, feeling uneasy and insecure about incompatible American culture, ambivalence towards children's ethnic identities, and feeling alienated. In relation to these stresses, parents often felt inadequate, ashamed, guilty, regretful and powerless. The findings demonstrated the importance of understanding parents' feelings that are deeply embedded in the conflicted parent-child relationships and their perceptions of being parents in the USA. The present study highlights the need for and importance of providing intervention programmes for parents, particularly programmes that would empower parents, strengthen parent-child relationships and address ways to integrate two very different cultures while upholding ethnic identity and pride.

  5. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  6. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... temperatures are necessary for successful heat treatment. Black plastic bags in the sun might work to kill bed ... Place the used bag in a tightly sealed plastic bag and in an outside garbage bin. 10. Turn ...

  7. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  8. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-04-15

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  9. Print a Bed Bug Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business card-sized lists of tips for prevention of bed bug infestations, one for general use around home, the other for travelers. Print a single card or a page of cards for distribution.

  10. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple test method for determining the torsion strength of a single bed joint between two bricks and presents results from testing using this test method. The setup for the torsion test is well defined, require minimal preparation of the test specimen and the test can...... be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  11. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...... mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...

  12. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  13. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  14. The effect of different methods of seed bed preparation on greenhouse cucumber yield and yield components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Momeni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of different methods of seed bed preparation on yield of greenhouse cucumber, a two-year long experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with four replications in Jiroft from 2004. Different methods of seed bed preparation were as follows: 1 ridge with 20 cm height and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows with 40 cm distance, 2 furrow with 20 cm depth and 50 cm width and 2 plant rows inside, with 40 cm distance, and 3 planting on flat area with 40 cm distance. The results showed that the effect of planting bed on yield of greenhouse cucumber was significant. Furrow and flat area increased yield significantly, compared to the ridge treatment. Analysis of yield components such as plant height, number of pickling fruits, number of leaves, photosynthetic area and number of flowers showed that they are all correlated with fruit yield. The number of pickling fruits was significantly more in furrow and flat area than in ridge treatment. The height of cucumber plants on flat bed was significantly higher than that of the other treatments. The number of leaves and photosynthetic area of plants on flat bed were significantly greater than those in the other treatments. The least dead plants due to fungi disease were observed in ridge treatment. In view of yield and its components under the condition of this experiment, it can be concluded that flat area and furrow treatments are better than ridge treatment.

  15. Bed bugs in healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Safdar, Nasia; Beier, John C; Doggett, Stephen L

    2012-11-01

    Infestations caused by bed bugs have resurfaced during the past decade across all continents. Even though bed bugs primarily cause skin manifestations in humans, a major stigma is placed upon people or institutions found to carry them. It is important for healthcare facilities to be prepared for this pest by implementing policies, carefully selecting materials used for hospital furniture, and educating providers on early identification and control.

  16. Bedømmelsens kompleksitet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Schmidt

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available I artiklen sammenholdes hverdagens bedømmelser af mennesker med de bedømmelser, der sker ved eksaminer. Der er forskelle på grund af det retlige grundlag, men også ligheder. Konkrete erfaringer med klage- og ankesager gennem 8 år fra faget psykologi på landsplan opsummeres. Nogle få praktiske løsninger beskrives.

  17. Fertigation management of potted plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The horticultural crops considered in this chapter are characterised by the fact that the plants are grown in a restricted volume, like pots, containers, plastic trays or compressed peat blocks. In the market these crops are recognized as potted plants, bedding plants and container grown nursery sto

  18. Dual Fluidized Bed Biomass Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-30

    The dual fluidized bed reactor is a recirculating system in which one half of the unit operates as a steam pyrolysis device for biomass. The pyrolysis occurs by introducing biomass and steam to a hot fluidized bed of inert material such as coarse sand. Syngas is produced during the pyrolysis and exits the top of the reactor with the steam. A crossover arm, fed by gravity, moves sand and char from the pyrolyzer to the second fluidized bed. This sand bed uses blown air to combust the char. The exit stream from this side of the reactor is carbon dioxide, water and ash. There is a second gravity fed crossover arm to return sand to the pyrolysis side. The recirculating action of the sand and the char is the key to the operation of the dual fluidized bed reactor. The objective of the project was to design and construct a dual fluidized bed prototype reactor from literature information and in discussion with established experts in the field. That would be appropriate in scale and operation to measure the relative performance of the gasification of biomass and low ranked coals to produce a high quality synthesis gas with no dilution from nitrogen or combustion products.

  19. International Perspectives on Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbin-MacNab, Megan L; Yancura, Loriena A

    2017-01-01

    Globally, it is common for grandparents to serve as surrogate parents to their grandchildren, often in response to family crises and other challenges such as poverty, disease epidemics, and migration. Despite the global nature of this intergenerational caregiving arrangement, there have been few contextually focused examinations of how grandparents' surrogate parenting roles are enacted across countries and cultures. This analytic review addresses this issue by exploring demographic and cultural contexts, needs and experiences, and formal and informal supports for grandparents raising grandchildren in four diverse countries: China, New Zealand, Romania, and South Africa. We conclude our analysis by discussing key contextual factors, and their associated interrelationships, from which future research may elucidate how cultural, historical, and sociopolitical factors uniquely shape grandparents' experiences. We also make recommendations for contextually informed policies and practice.

  20. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  1. Parametric analysis of a packed bed thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Fernández, Iñigo; Loroño, Iñaki; Faik, Abdessamad; Uriz, Irantzu; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; D'Aguanno, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Even if the packed bed thermal energy storage concept has been introduced as a promising technology in the concentrated solar power field in the last years, its full deployment in commercial plants presents a clear improvement potential. In order to overcome the under-development of this storage technology, this work attempts to show the great capabilities of packed bed heat storage units after a successful design and operational parametric optimization procedure. The obtained results show that a correct design of this type of facilities together with a successful operation method, allow to increase significantly the storage capacity reaching an overall efficiency higher than 80 %. The design guideline obtained as a result of this work could open new objectives and applications for the packed bed storage technology as it represents a cost-effective and highly performing storage alternative.

  2. Metallic species derived from fluidized bed coal combustion. [59 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natusch, D.F.S.; Taylor, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of fly ash generated by the combustion of Montana Rosebud coal in an experimental 18 inch fluidized bed combustor were collected. The use of a heated cascade impactor permitted collection of size fractionated material that avoided condensation of volatile gases on the particles. Elemental concentration trends were determined as a function of size and temperature and the results compared to published reports for conventional power plants. The behavior of trace metals appears to be substantially different in the two systems due to lower operating temperatures and the addition of limestone to the fluidized bed. Corrosion of the impactor plates was observed at the highest temperature and lowest limestone feed rate sampled during the study. Data from the elemental concentration and leaching studies suggest that corrosion is most likely due to reactions involving sodium sulfate. However, it is concluded that corrosion is less of a potential problem in fluidized-bed systems than in conventional coal-fired systems.

  3. Nitrogen Chemistry in Fluidized Bed Combustion of Coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker Degn

    The present Ph.D thesis describes an experimental and theoretical investigation of the formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides (NOx and N2O) in fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of coal. A review of the current knowledge of nitrogen chemistry in FBC is presented. The review covers both laboratory...... and reduction by homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. The data for the estimation of kinetics of the heterogeneous reactions were measured by one of the partners in the project for char and bed material sampled from a pressurized FBC pilot plant burning Kiveton Park coal. Experimental data from the pilot...... identified. Laboratory measurements showed that 50 % of the fuel-N stays in the char after devolatilization and in the model it is assumed that this is oxidized to NO during char combustion. A significant amount of NO, 10-18 % of the fuel-N, was formed by oxidation of NH3 catalyzed by bed material...

  4. Gravity Drainage of Activated Sludge on Reed Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Dominiak, Dominik Marek; Keiding, Kristian;

    Activated sludge is a by-product from waste water treatment plants, and the water content in the sludge is high (> 90%). Among several methods to remove the water, sludge drying reed beds are often used to dewater the sludge by drainage. There is, however, no well-defined criterion for design...... has therefore been developed to measure relevant quality parameters: specific cake resistance, settling velocity and cake compressibility. It has been found that activated sludge form highly compressible cake even at the low compressive pressures obtained during drainage. Numerical simulation shows...... that the compressibility has a high influence on the drainage process especially during the start-up phases where the volumetric load on the sludge bed is critical. The load has to be low in order to ensure that the drainage properties of the bed are not destroyed. The data also shows that transport of activated sludge...

  5. Sustainable generation of bioenergy in fluidized bed boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar

    2010-07-01

    further reducing the emission levels. Beside that the paper will also informs about the experience gained in several reference plants with various fuels, including the world's first fluidized bed boiler to burn poultry litter and one of the world's most efficient power plants to exclusively burn biomass, demonstrating that fluidized bed boilers are the most sustainable technology for generating bioenergy. (Author)

  6. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  7. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  8. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  9. Lits fluidisés pour l'industrie chimique. Extrapolation et amélioration des catalyseurs. Première partie : Etudes et modèles. Enseignements issus des pilotes Fluidized Beds in Chemical Industry. Scale Up and Catalysts Improvement. First Part: Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botton R.

    2006-12-01

    est intitulée Études théoriques, réalités expérimentales, suggestions . Les bulles des lits fluidisés ont fait l'objet de très nombreux travaux, dont les résultats sont très souvent explicités sous la forme de modèles mécanistiques à un paramètre qui est le diamètre des bulles. Pour confronter ces modèles à l'expérience, une relation est établie entre le diamètre des bulles et la vitesse minimum de fluidisation de comportement. Des suggestions sont alors faites pour améliorer les modèles, et l'on propose des conclusions générales sur les lits fluidisés. The firsts catalytic fluidized beds appear near 1942 in petroleum industry and near 1960 in chemical industry. We only consider very high performances chemical fluidized bed reactors (> 99%. In the past, they were developed through the use of very expensive pilot plants of about 0. 5 m diameter and 10 in high. We will demonstrate that direct scale up from laboratory data is possible. This possibility gives also a simple method to improve catalysts used into operating units and opens fluidized bed technique to products that need only low production. Presentation is made with three articles:- In the first, Studies, Models, Learning from Pilot Plants : after a description of the major scale-up problems, studies to solve then are summarized. Then scale-up works of two processes with the use of about 0. 5 m diameter pilot plant are given. From the results it is deduced the possible performances of a catalytic fluidized bed and how to operate to obtain then. - In the second*, Scale up with Only Laboratory Data , it is experimentally demonstrated that the information's scale-up can be obtained in a laboratory. A strategy to obtain them is suggested. An another result of theses experimental studies is that all physical properties of catalytic fluidized bed depends of only one parameter. It is called comportment incipient fluidization velocity . - In the third*, Theoretical Studies, Experimental

  10. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of filling fraction of pebble bed in pebble bed HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao, E-mail: haochen.heu@163.com [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Fu, Li; Jiong, Guo; Lidong, Wang [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology (INET), Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, Key Laboratory of Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An analysis approach is proposed to conduct SAU analysis of filling fraction of pebble bed core. • The contribution of uncertainty in filling fraction to key parameters of pebble bed core is quantified. • The primary drivers of the uncertainty in the key parameters are identified by sensitivity analysis. • Mechanism of effect of uncertainty in the filling fraction to key parameters is studied in depth. - Abstract: The filling fraction of pebble bed in each small region has some uncertainty, which will contribute to the total uncertainty in the key parameters of pebble bed core, such as power peak, axial offset, k{sub eff} and so on. In fact, the heavy metal content and graphite content of the corresponding region will change synchronously due to the perturbation of filling fraction but the ratio of atomic number density of moderator to the fuel (carbon–uranium) is still constant. To investigate these effects, the Chinese demonstration plant HTR-PM was selected as the research object and the VSOP code and CUSA package were used to conduct detailed analysis of the influence of the uncertainty in the filling fraction on the HTR-PM output variables of interest, based on the propagation of input uncertainties by using statistical sampling method to calculate uncertainty and sensitivity information from the simulation results. At the same time, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of uranium loading had also been conducted for comparative analysis to study the mechanism of effect of uncertainty in the filling fraction to key parameters, and therefore only the heavy metal content of the corresponding region changes in the presence of perturbation of uranium loading. Finally, the propagated uncertainty in the power peak, axial offset and k{sub eff} of HTR-PM core was obtained and the primary drivers of the uncertainty in the key parameters were identified by sensitivity analysis.

  11. High gradient magnetic separation versus expanded bed adsorption: a first principle comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbuch, Jürgen; Matthiesen, D.B.; Hobley, Timothy John

    2001-01-01

    A robust new adsorptive separation technique specifically designed for direct product capture from crude bioprocess feedstreams is introduced and compared with the current bench mark technique, expanded bed adsorption. The method employs product adsorption onto sub-micron sized non...... system exhibited substantially enhanced productivity over expanded bed adsorption when operated at processing velocities greater than 48 m h(-1). Use of the bacitracin- linked magnetic supports for a single cycle of batch adsorption and subsequent capture by high gradient magnetic separation...... at a processing rate of 12 m h(-1) resulted in a 2.2-fold higher productivity relative to expanded bed adsorption, while an increase in adsorbent collection rate to 72 m h(-1) raised the productivity to 10.7 times that of expanded bed adsorption. When the number of batch adsorption cycles was then increased...

  12. Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of raised body mass indices and the association with high blood ... an association between raised body mass index (BMI) and high blood pressure (BP) ... Subjects: The study sample comprised 382 participants, of whom 286 were ...

  13. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, Raymond E.; Heller, Thomas J.; Bush, Stuart A.

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association's NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  14. Measurements of heat transfer and operating experience at the Wolfsburg power plant with a circulating fluidized bed furnace; Messungen zum Waermeuebergang und Betriebserfahrungen im Kraftwerk Wolfsburg mit zirkulierender Wirbelschichtfeuerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, W. [VW Kraftwerke GmbH, Wolfsburg (Germany); Kaeferstein, P. [VW Kraftwerke GmbH, Wolfsburg (Germany); Rummel, A.. [Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik (Germany); Moerl, P. [Technische Univ. Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Apparate- und Umwelttechnik (Germany)

    1992-12-31

    In order to obtain a deeper insight into the configurations developing upon the combustion of hard coal in an industrial circulating fluidized bed, an extensive process analysis was made. The determination of the heat transfer coefficient in the entire range of the steam generator was an essential part of this investigation. The exact calculation of the evaporator turns out to be difficult, as this part is distributed on the furnace, the second pass heating surfaces and the external heat exchanger. Within the scope of the lecture, the determination method as well as its results is presented. Furthermore, a report is made on latest methods for the improvement of the fuel burn-out and on the reduction of the lime consumption, which have resulted from experiments with the modification of combustion-technological parameters such as air ratio, combustion chamber temperatures for various types of coal. To conclude with, a computer-aided databank for the evaluation of various types of coals is being presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zum Zwecke einer tieferen Einsicht in die Zusammenhaenge bei der Verbrennung von Steinkohle in einer industriell betriebenen zirkulierenden Wirbelschicht wurde eine umfassende Prozessanalyse durchgefuehrt. Ein wesentlicher Bestandteil dieser Untersuchung war die Ermittlung des Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten im gesamten Bereich des Dampferzeugers. Da sich z.B. der Verdampferteil sowohl in der Brennkammer, in den nachschaltheizflaechen als auch im Fliessbettkuehler befindet, gestaltet sich die exakte Berechnung als sehr kompliziert. Im Rahmen dieses Vortrages werden sowohl die Methodik der Ermittlung als auch deren Ergebnisse vorgestellt. Ausserdem wird sowohl ueber neuere Ansaetze zur Verbesserung des Ausbrandes als auch ueber die Reduzierung des Kalkverbrauches berichtet, die sich aus Ergebnissen von Versuchen unter Aenderung von feuerungstechnischen Parametern wie Luftverhaeltnis, Brennkammertemperaturen und auch verschiedener Kohlen ergeben haben

  15. 29 CFR 780.125 - Raising of poultry in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of poultry in general. 780.125 Section 780.125... General Scope of Agriculture Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.125 Raising of poultry in general. (a) The term “poultry” includes domesticated fowl and game birds. Ducks...

  16. RAISED BOGS ON THE NORTH-EAST OF EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. YURKOVSKAYA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeastern Europe 2 types of raised bogs are distinguished: coastal (Southern White Sea raised hogs and continental (Pechora-Onega raised bogs. They have been compared as to their flora, prevailing syntaxa, characteristics of their complexes, structure of mire massifs and composition of peat deposits.

  17. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility. (DLC)

  18. Circulating fluidized bed coal-saving optimization control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tengfei; Li, Dewei; Xi, Yugeng; Zhou, Wu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Automation; Ministry of Education, Shanghai (China). Key Lab. of System Control and Information Processing; Yin, Debin [Shanghai Xinhua Control Technology (Group) Co., Ltd., Shanghai (China)

    2013-07-01

    The circulating fluidized bed boiler is widely used in thermal power plants. With the proposal of energy-saving emission reduction, how to reduce coal consumption while ensure the output steam quality at the same time has become an important topic. This paper combines the technology of RTO (real-time optimization) and zone control in DMC (dynamic matrix control) to achieve this goal. The proposed method adds the coal consumption into the objective function of DMC controller and the operation point of the boiler is permitted to change within a zone which can be set according to the actual requirements of the circulating fluidized bed boiler. The zone control in DMC provides the freedom to reduce the coal consumption and achieves the economic optimal target. Compared to the simple use of constrained DMC control, the proposed method is verified to be remarkable coal-saving by the case study of a 150 t/h boiler of a power plant in Sichuan.

  19. Bed load transport in a very steep mountain stream (Riedbach, Switzerland): Measurement and prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes M.; Rickenmann, Dieter; Turowski, Jens M.; Schmid, Bastian; Kirchner, James W.

    2016-12-01

    Compared to lower-gradient channels, steep mountain streams typically have rougher beds and shallower flow depths, making macro-scale flow resistance (due to, e.g., immobile boulders and irregular bedforms) more important as controls on sediment transport. The marked differences in hydraulics, flow resistance, and grain mobility between steep and lower-gradient streams raise the question of whether the same equations can predict bed load transport rates across wide ranges of channel gradients. We studied a steep, glacier-fed mountain stream (Riedbach, Ct. Valais, Switzerland) that provides a natural experiment for exploring how stream gradients affect bed load transport rates. The streambed gradient increases over a 1 km stream reach by roughly one order of magnitude (from 3% to 38%), while flow discharge and width remain approximately constant. Sediment transport rates were determined in the 3% reach using Bunte bed load traps and in the 38% reach using the Swiss plate geophone system. Despite a ten-fold increase in bed gradient, bed load transport rates did not increase substantially. Observed transport rates for these two very different bed gradients could be predicted reasonably well by using a flow resistance partitioning approach to account for increasing bed roughness (D84 changes from 0.17 m to 0.91 m) within a fractional bed load transport equation. This suggests that sediment transport behavior across this large range of steep slopes agrees with patterns established in previous studies for both lower-gradient and steep reaches, and confirms the applicability of the flow resistance and bed load transport equations at very steep slopes.

  20. Experimental Study on a New Dual-Layer Granular Bed Filter for Removing Particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-hua; ZHOU Jiang-hua

    2007-01-01

    A new dual-layer granular bed filter for hot gas cleanup was invented and studied experimentally. Fine sand, 0.5-1 mm grain size and about 1350 kg/m3 bulk density, was used as the lower layer of the filter. Expanded perlite particles, 2-5 mm grain size and about 70 kg/m3 bulk density, was used for the upper layer of the filter in this study. It was confirmed that the sizes and densities of these two media matched well; the binary media remained in complete segregation during regeneration by fluidization. Test results show that the filtration of the expanded perlite particle layer was characterized as "deep bed filtration." Filtration of the fine sand layer was "surface cake filtration." The expanded perlite particle layer contributed about 90% to the bed dust capacity, but only about 20% to the total bed pressure drop, which increased the bed dust capacity ten fold compared to a single-layer bed of the same sand and the same total bed pressure drop. The dust cake on the surface of the fine sand layer raised the collection efficiencies to over 99.99%.

  1. Perfectionism in schools raising medical manpower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Abuhanoglu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to examine the perfectionist traits of the students studying at faculty of medicine, school of nursing and vocational school of health services within a university in Ankara which raises medical manpower. Method: To measure the students' perfectionist traits, and ldquo;Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and rdquo; was put account. In the scope of the research, perfectionist traits of 436 students (175 students from faculty of medicine, 122 students from school of nursing and 129 students from vocational school of health services were evaluated. This study was realized between from 25 st April to 31st May 2013. Results: Significant differences in statistical terms were found between variables regarded as dependent variables (self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others and independent variables such as school type, gender, family income, educational background of father, number of siblings and residence of family. Additionally, in consequence of the covariation analysis, the results proved that school type affects the sub-dimensions of perfectionism which are self-perfectionism, perfectionism towards others and perfectionism determined by others in a substantive way, statistically (respectively; F=8,307 p <001; F=3,783 p=,024; F=5,713 p=,004 . Conclusion: All in all, the interpretation can be made that bringing about required changes in the curriculum may be useful in order to have an optimal teamwork eliminating the negative effects of perfectionism in health services [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(5.000: 421-431

  2. Stability of agronomic and yield related traits of Jatropha curcas accessions raised from cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nurul Hidayah Che; Yaakob, Zahira; Ratnam, Wickneswari

    2016-11-01

    Monitoring stability of agronomic and yield related traits is important for prediction of crop yields. This study was a latter study for the evaluation of 295 J. curcas individuals representing 21 accessions from eight countries at Biodiesel Research Station of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Pilah planted in December 2012. In this study, 183 J. curcas individuals were selected randomly from the population and their growth performance evaluated from December 2013 to December 2014. All the individual plants were raised from cuttings. The yield related data were recorded periodically and performance of each accession was analyzed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS) 9.4. Five traits which were number of fruits per plant (NFPP), number of fruits per inflorescence (NFPI), hundred seed weight (g) (HSW), number of seeds per plant (NSPP) and yield per plant (g) (YPP) showed significant differences among the accessions after two years of planting. Maximum values for each trait were 208 cm for plant height (PH), 31 for number of branches per plant (BPP), 115 for number of inflorescence per plant (NIPP), 582 for NFPP, 7 for NFPI, 307 for number of flowers per inflorescence (NFI), 17 for number of female flowers per inflorescence (NFFPI), 91.6 g for HSW, 1647.1 for NSPP and 927.6 g for YPP. Most of the plants which had performed well in the first year were among the best performers in the second year.

  3. Fluidised bed technology – Applications and R&D in Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    North, BC

    2007-06-28

    Full Text Available Bed area : 25 m2 Plant purpose : A 10 MW plant for the combustion of duff coal at greater than 98 % burnout to provide hot gases for drying slag. Subsequently also used for organic waste incineration. Project duration : 1988 to 1989 Current...

  4. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start w...

  5. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  6. How to Find Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find and correctly identify an infestation early before it becomes widespread. Look for rusty or reddish stains and pinpoint dark spots on bed sheets or mattresses, and search for bugs near the piping, seams and tags of the mattress and box spring.

  7. State of the art of pressurized fluidized bed combustion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) to clarify the development status of the pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) and to place in perspective the problems which are yet to be solved before commercialization of the concept is practical. This report, in essence, supersedes the interim report published in 1979, Assessment of the State of the Art of Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion Systems. A brief overview of the PFBC concept is included citing potential advantages and disadvantages relative to atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) and conventional pulverized coal plants. A survey of existing and developing PFBC experimental facilities is presented in some detail which includes the major accomplishments at the respective facilities. Recent data on plant emissions, turbine/gas cleanup systems, and overall efficiency are provided. Findings of several design studies are also discussed. The results of recent gas turbine and cascade tests have been encouraging although the full assessment of the accomplishments have not been made. The delay in construction of the Grimethorpe plant causes further delay in proof-testing full-size, rotating turbomachinery. Several parameters are recommended for further assessment in design studies including: (1) effect of turbine life on cost of power; and (2) effect of reduced gas turbine inlet temperature and pressure on cost of power.

  8. Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in fluidized beds for renewable energy development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alauddin, Zainal Alimuddin Bin Zainal; Lahijani, Pooya [School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    A literature review on gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in various types of fluidized bed gasifiers is presented. The effect of several process parameters such as catalytic bed material, bed temperature and gasifying agent on the performance of the gasifier and quality of the producer gas is discussed. Based on the priorities of researchers, the optimum values of various desired outputs in the gasification process including improved producer gas composition, enhanced LHV, less tar and char content, high gas yield and enhanced carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency have been reported. The characteristics and performance of different fluidized bed gasifiers were assessed and the obtained results from the literature have been extensively reviewed. Survey of literature revealed that several industrial biomass gasification plants using fluidized beds are currently conducting in various countries. However, more research and development of technology should be devoted to this field to enhance the economical feasibility of this process for future exploitations. (author)

  9. Requiem for an eastern Pacific seagrass bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Few papers concerning seagrasses of the eastern Pacific have been published. This paper presents the first ecological data on the seagrass, Ruppia maritima, from a non-lagoonal setting in the eastern Pacific. A 5000 m2 patch formed by R. maritima, at Playa Iguanita, Bahía Culebra, Pacific coast of Costa Rica was studied. Plant density and leaf length of R. maritima were determined along two transects on different dates. Above and below ground biomass were calculated along one transect. Plant density ranged from 1590 to 8630 individuals m(-2) along the two transects, with means of 5990 +/- 1636 and 6100 +/- 1876 plants m(-2) for transect 1 and 2, respectively. Longest leaf length per plant varied between 0.5 and 23.0 cm. Leaf biomass (LB) ranged from 10 to 97 gm(-2), and root-rhizome biomass (RB) from 31 to 411 gm(-2), resulting in RB:LB ratios of 3.07 to 15.27. Total biomass at Bahía Culebra was lower than at tropical lagoons on the Pacific coast of Mexico, but higher than in the Gulf of Mexico. The below ground: above ground biomass ratio was much higher at Bahía Culebra than at other sites on the Pacific coast of Mexico and the Gulf of Mexico. Another seagrass present at Bahía Culebra was Halophila baillonii, with low densities on the deepest section of the patch. At least 44 invertebrate species associated with the seagrass bed have also been identified. The patch at Playa Iguanita and other sites within Bahía Culebra, as well as their associated organisms, disappeared after a severe storm in June 1996. No seagrasses have been found in the area or in any other location on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica since then.

  10. Impact of different discharge patterns on bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time: a simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhecheng

    2011-01-01

    Beds are one of the most important resources in a healthcare system. How to manage beds efficiently is an important indicator of the efficiency of the healthcare system. Bed management is challenging to many healthcare service providers in many aspects. In recent years, population growth and aging society impose extra pressure on bed requirement. There are usually two key performance indicators of a bed management system: bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time. In this paper, different discharge patterns and their impacts on the bed occupancy rate and bed waiting time are studied. A discrete event simulation model is constructed to evaluate the existing discharge pattern in a Singapore regional hospital using actual hospital admission and discharge transaction data. Then different discharge patterns are tested in the same context. Simulation results show that a proper discharge pattern significantly smoothes the fluctuation of bed occupancy rate and reduce the bed waiting time.

  11. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, V.; Weast, T. E.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of using fluidized bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in applications with potential for waste heat recovery was investigated. Of the candidate applications screened, cement plant rotary kilns and steel plant electric arc furnaces were identified, via the chosen selection criteria, as having the best potential for successful use of FBHX/TES system. A computer model of the FBHX/TES systems was developed and the technical feasibility of the two selected applications was verified. Economic and tradeoff evaluations in progress for final optimization of the systems and selection of the most promising system for further concept validation are described.

  12. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moving a patient in bed ... takes at least 2 people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can ... A slide sheet is the best way to prevent friction. If you do not have one, you ...

  13. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  14. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  15. Bed Bug Guidance for School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    School nurses are often called upon to provide vital information to students, parents, teachers, and administrators. These tips on identifying, managing and preventing bed bugs will help you to effectively respond if bed bugs appear in your school.

  16. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  17. Chinese Bedding Technology Standard under Drafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    National Home Textile Standardization Technology Committee(NHTSTC)set up its Bedding Branch Committee. This will promote the work of Chinese bedding technology standardization and a symbol that China step up to meet the

  18. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  19. Topping combustor status for second-generation pressurized fluidized bed cycle application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domeracki, W.F.; Dowdy, T.E. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States). Power Generation Business Unit; Bachovchin, D.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center

    1997-01-01

    Second-generation Pressurized Fluidized (PFB) combined cycle employ topping combustion to raise the turbine inlet temperature for enhanced cycle efficiency. This concept creates special combustion system requirements that are very different from requirements of conventional gas turbine systems. The topping combustor provides the means for achieving state-of-the-art turbine inlet temperatures and is the main contributor to enhanced plant performance. The objective of this program is to develop a topping combustor that provides low emissions, and is a durable, efficient device exhibiting stable combustion and manageable wall temperature. The combustor will be required to burn a low-Btu syngas under normal coal-fired conditions. However, for start-up and/or carbonizer outage, it may be necessary to fire a clean fuel, such as oil or natural gas. Prior testing has shown the Westinghouse Multi-Annular Swirl Burner (MASB) to have excellent potential for this application. Metal wall temperatures can be maintained at acceptable levels, even though most cooling is done by 1,600 F vitiated air. Good pattern factors and combustion efficiencies have been obtained. Additionally, low conversion rates of fuel bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} have been demonstrated. This paper presents an update of the status of an ongoing topping combustor development and test program for application to Second-Generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combined Cycles (PFBCC). The program is sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) and will first be applied commercially into the Clean Coal Technology Round V Four Rivers Energy Modernization Project. Phase 1 of the program involved a conceptual and economic study (Robertson et al., 1988); Phase 2 addresses design and subscale testing of components; and Phase 3 will cover pilot plant testing of components integrated into one system.

  20. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio possibile (anzi, necessario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Franceschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazioniSOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Il fund raising: inquadramento concettuale - 3. (segue Strategie, strumenti e tecniche di fund raising - 4. Il fund raising come fattore di potenziale sviluppo delle organizzazioni non profit - 5. Enti religiosi e fund raising: un binomio che necessita di essere consolidato (e potenziato - 6. Peculiarità dell’azione di fund raising degli enti religiosi - 7. Fund raising e aspetti economici e gestionali degli enti religiosi - 8. Considerazioni conclusive.Abstract:Religious organizations and fundraising: a possible combination (indeed necessary Fund-raising activities represent the principal livelihood and sources of growth and development for non-profit organisations. Fund-raising is, also, an increasingly important part of religious organizations life. Almost each of them engages in some kind of fund-raising activity, with the purpose of generating income to sustain the organization’s programs and activities. The present study analyzes the relationship between religious organizations and fund-raising activities: a correlation that always existed, but now calls for consolidation and improvement in order to allow religious organizations to achieve economic sustainability. Therefore, religious organizations should develop competency and capacity to design and implement fund-raising activities, through appropriate policies, tools and methodologies. In this perspective, the author examines all the facets of fund-raising activities related to the religious organizations sector and, more in general, the possible applications of business administration principles to the management of religious bodies (so-called “church management”.Parole chiave: enti religiosi; fund raising; sostenibilità economica; management

  1. Entrapment of bed bugs by leaf trichomes inspires microfabrication of biomimetic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyndler, Megan W; Haynes, Kenneth F; Potter, Michael F; Corn, Robert M; Loudon, Catherine

    2013-06-06

    Resurgence in bed bug infestations and widespread pesticide resistance have greatly renewed interest in the development of more sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to manage bed bugs. Historically, in Eastern Europe, bed bugs were entrapped by leaves from bean plants, which were then destroyed; this purely physical entrapment was related to microscopic hooked hairs (trichomes) on the leaf surfaces. Using scanning electron microscopy and videography, we documented the capture mechanism: the physical impaling of bed bug feet (tarsi) by these trichomes. This is distinct from a Velcro-like mechanism of non-piercing entanglement, which only momentarily holds the bug without sustained capture. Struggling, trapped bed bugs are impaled by trichomes on several legs and are unable to free themselves. Only specific, mechanically vulnerable locations on the bug tarsi are pierced by the trichomes, which are located at effective heights and orientations for bed bug entrapment despite a lack of any evolutionary association. Using bean leaves as templates, we microfabricated surfaces indistinguishable in geometry from the real leaves, including the trichomes, using polymers with material properties similar to plant cell walls. These synthetic surfaces snag the bed bugs temporarily but do not hinder their locomotion as effectively as real leaves.

  2. Defluidization in fluidized bed gasifiers using high-alkali content fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narayan, Vikas; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2016-01-01

    major concern in thermal conversion of biomass encountered in fluidized beds is bed agglomeration, which may result in de-fluidization, leading to unscheduled downtime and additional costs. Biomass fuels, especially herbaceous plants, often contain significant amounts of silicon, potassium...... using strawas a fuel. It was seen that in sand þ KCl agglomerates, the sand particles were bound by KCl melts. Onlyvery limited chemical reaction was observed between KCl and the sand particles and no presence of silicate melts in the agglomerates. For sand þ K2CO3 mixtures and for LTCFB bed material...

  3. Characteristics of fluidized-packed beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, J. D.; Mecham, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    Study of fluidized-packed bed includes investigation of heat transfer, solids-gas mixing, and elutriation characteristics. A fluidized-packed bed is a system involving the fluidization of small particles in the voids of a packed bed of larger nonfluidized particles.

  4. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  5. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  6. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  8. 21 CFR 880.6070 - Bed board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed board. 880.6070 Section 880.6070 Food and... GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6070 Bed board. (a) Identification. A bed board is a device intended for medical purposes that consists...

  9. Bed agglomeration in biomass fueled CFB-boilers; Sintring av baeddmaterial vid biobraensleeldning i CFB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zintl, F. [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-02-01

    In fluidized-bed boilers fired with solid fuels operational problems caused by spontaneous defluidization are sometimes observed. This bed agglomeration can be caused by sintering phenomena where fuel components and/or bed material may be involved. In serious cases the problems can lead to expensive operation breaks. The objective in this project was to show whether this type of operational problems can be minimized by choice of other than conventional bed materials. The study was carried out as model experiments in a larger laboratory scale. In a fluidized bed fired with propane a number of both well known and more unusual bed materials were tried out. The choice of bed materials included some common sands (silver and quartz sand) and, as possible alternatives, olivine sand, zirconium sand, calcined dolomite and the synthetic materials sintered magnesite (MgO) and mullite (alumina silicate). The model experiments were started at about 700 deg C and the temperature then raised until an irreversible bed agglomeration was observed, or to a maximum of 1100 deg C. The most promising results were obtained with calcined dolomite, being an active bed material. With this material no irreversible agglomerations were observed at all. The expensive synthetic materials sintered magnesite and mullite and the zirconium sand turned out as the next best. Olivine sand, on the other hand, showed a clear sensitivity to physical agglomeration and some sensitivity also towards sintering. The common sand types based on silicon oxide clearly showed the worst results. 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab 12 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  10. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Kuehlbarkeit von Schuettbetten. Fluten heisser, trockener Schuettungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)

    2013-07-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  11. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  12. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  13. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqiang Liu(Institute of High Energy Physics); Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are describe...

  14. Screening for a raised rectal temperature in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, R.J.; O'Dempsey, T J; Greenwood, B. M.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare rectal and axillary temperature measurements in African children. Altogether 573 sick children were seen in an outpatient setting in rural West Africa. Rectal and axillary temperatures were measured and the parent or guardian was asked if they thought that the child had a raised body temperature. Normal ranges were defined from an age matched population of 203 healthy children. A raised axillary temperature predicted a raised rectal temperature wi...

  15. Packed bed heat storage: Continuum mechanics model and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knödler, Philipp; Dreißigacker, Volker; Zunft, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are key elements for various types of new power plant concepts. As possible cost-effective storage inventory option, packed beds of miscellaneous material come into consideration. However, high technical risks arise due to thermal expansion and shrinking of the packed bed's particles during cyclic thermal operation, possibly leading to material failure. Therefore, suitable tools for designing the heat storage system are mandatory. While particle discrete models offer detailed simulation results, the computing time for large scale applications is inefficient. In contrast, continuous models offer time-efficient simulation results but are in need of effective packed bed parameters. This work focuses on providing insight into some basic methods and tools on how to obtain such parameters and on how they are implemented into a continuum model. In this context, a particle discrete model as well as a test rig for carrying out uniaxial compression tests (UCT) is introduced. Performing of experimental validation tests indicate good agreement with simulated UCT results. In this process, effective parameters required for a continuous packed bed model were identified and used for continuum simulation. This approach is validated by comparing the simulated results with experimental data from another test rig. The presented method significantly simplifies subsequent design studies.

  16. Delineation of the distinctive nature of Tertiary coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.C.; Moore, T.A.; Demchuk, T.D. [Victoria University, Wellington (New Zealand). Research School of Earth Sciences

    1995-11-01

    Together with changes in floral character three aspects of coal character appear to vary sequentially with time and are distinctive in the Tertiary: (1) proportions and thickness of vitrain banding, (2) coal bed thickness and (3) proportions of carbonized material. Data from the literature showed that only Tertiary coals contain significant proportions of coal devoid of vitrain bands. Tertiary coals are the thickest recorded coal beds and contain low percentages of carbonised material compared to older coals. Palaeocene coal beds are similar to Cretaceous coals in that they tend to be thinner and contain higher proportions of carbonised material than younger Tertiary coals. The absence of vitrain bands in some Tertiary coal beds is thought to result from the floras dominated by angiosperms, which are relatively easily degraded as compared to gymnosperms. The thickness of Tertiary coals may be related to an increase in biomass production from the Carboniferous through to the Tertiary. Also, with less lignin in plants, earlier degradation of biomass may have facilitated nutrient recycling which led to greater biomass production. Increased biomass production may have also diluted the carbonised materials present in some Tertiary peats, leading to lower proportions in the coal. Other possible causes for decreased carbonised carbon content are discussed. It is not clear which of these mechanisms may have affected carbonised material in peat and coal but it is clear that lignin type and content has had an important role in determining peat and coal character since the Paleozoic. 154 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Accounting Research of Nitrogen Oxide's Pollution Discharging Coefficient of Typical Circulating Fluidized Bed in Thermal Power Plant in Suzhou%苏州热电厂典型循环流化床氮氧化物排污系数核算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘松华; 周静

    2014-01-01

    According to the current production status of thermal power plant's typical circulating fluidized bed in Suzhou and the situation of nitrogen oxide's discharge in 2013 ,the article uses the field measurement meth‐od to calculate the nitrogen oxide's pollution discharging coefficient of cogeneration industry in this area .In addition ,the article compares the coefficient with the recommended data from "The First National Census of Pollution Sources-the Handbook of Pollution Discharging Coefficient of Industrial Pollution Source" and analyzes the reason for the difference .%根据2013年苏州地区热电厂典型循环流化床企业生产现状及氮氧化物排放情况,采用实测法核算了该地区热电联产行业的氮氧化物排污系数,并将所得系数与《第一次全国污染源普查工业污染源产排污系数手册》推荐数据进行了对比,分析了差异原因。

  19. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows: (i improvement of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii development of an intelligent control technique, and (iii development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  20. Key technologies of drilling process with raise boring method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqiang Liu; Yiping Meng

    2015-01-01

    This study presents the concept of shaft constructed by raise boring in underground mines, and the idea of inverse construction can be extended to other fields of underground engineering. The conventional raise boring methods, such as the wood support method, the hanging cage method, the creeping cage method, and the deep-hole blasting method, are analyzed and compared. In addition, the raise boring machines are classified into different types and the characteristics of each type are described. The components of a raise boring machine including the drill rig, the drill string and the auxiliary system are also presented. Based on the analysis of the raise boring method, the rock mechanics problems during the raise boring process are put forward, including rock fragmentation, removal of cuttings, shaft wall stability, and borehole deviation control. Finally, the development trends of raise boring technology are described as follows:(i) improve-ment of rock-breaking modes to raise drilling efficiency, (ii) development of an intelligent control tech-nique, and (iii) development of technology and equipment for nonlinear raise boring.

  1. Effects of landscape fabrics on pest control in a raised-bed trough system for strawberry production without fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape fabrics are geotextiles that have been used to control weeds. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of landscape fabrics for the control of nematodes and fungal pathogens for strawberry fruit production. Four different commercially available landscape fabrics were us...

  2. Research for fluidized bed granulation technology of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids%菊花莲子植物固体饮料流化床制粒工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙敏玲; 汪涛; 陈理; 向飞军

    2013-01-01

    目的 优化一步制粒工艺以制备菊花莲子固体饮料.方法 对方中中药水煎提取、浓缩得到一定密度的流浸膏,以目测流化床中颗粒的流动性为考察指标,通过单因素和正交试验,考察辅料种类、添加量、物料温度、供液转速对制粒工艺的影响.结果 最佳的工艺条件为供液转速5 r/min,物料温度45℃,异麦芽酮糖醇添加量为流浸膏固形物的35%,辅料为麦芽糊精:白砂糖粉(2:1).结论 按优选的处方和工艺制得的固体饮料,含糖量低,流动性较好,工艺稳定.%Objective To optimize the one step granulation preparation method of Chrysanthemum and Lotus Plant Beverage Solids.Methods The liquidity was used as indexes, the type and dosage of excipient, material temperature, liquid velocity were investigated by the single factor and orthogonal experiment of a certain density of liquid extract.Results The optimal process conditions: liquid velocity was 5 r/min, temperature was 45℃, the dosage of isomalt was 35% of dry solids, excipient was malt dextrin-white sugar powder (2:1).Conclusion This technique is reasonable and feasible.The product has low sugar content, good fluidity and process stability.

  3. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  4. Chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN LaiHong; ZHENG Min; XIAO Jun; ZHANG Hui; XIAO Rui

    2007-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion is the indirect combustion by use of oxygen carrier.It can be used for CO2 capture in power generating processes. In this paper,chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds with inherent separation of CO2 is proposed. It consists of a high velocity fluidized bed as an air reactor in which oxygen carrier is oxidized, a cyclone, and a bubbling fluidized bed as a fuel reactor in which oxygen carrier is reduced by direct and indirect reactions with coal. The air reactor is connected to the fuel reactor through the cyclone. To raise the high carbon conversion efficiency and separate oxygen carrier particle from ash, coal slurry instead of coal particle is introduced into the bottom of the bubbling fluidized bed. Coal gasification and the reduction of oxygen carrier with the water gas take place simultaneously in the fuel reactor. The flue gas from the fuel reactor is CO2 and water. Almost pure CO2 could be obtained after the condensation of water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then returned back to the air reactor, where it is oxidized with air. Thermodyanmics analysis indicates that NiO/Ni oxygen carrier is the optimal one for chemical looping combustion of coal.Simulation of the processes for chemical looping combustion of coal, including coal gasification and reduction of oxygen carrier, is carried out with Aspen Plus software. The effects of air reactor temperature, fuel reactor temperature, and ratio of water to coal on the composition of fuel gas, recirculation of oxygen carrier particles, etc., are discussed. Some useful results are achieved. The suitable temperature of air reactor should be between 1050-1150Cand the optimal temperature of the fuel reactor be between 900-950℃.

  5. Chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Chemical looping combustion is the indirect combustion by use of oxygen carrier. It can be used for CO2 capture in power generating processes. In this paper, chemical looping combustion of coal in interconnected fluidized beds with inherent separation of CO2 is proposed. It consists of a high velocity fluidized bed as an air reactor in which oxygen carrier is oxidized, a cyclone, and a bubbling fluidized bed as a fuel reactor in which oxygen carrier is reduced by direct and indirect reactions with coal. The air reactor is connected to the fuel reactor through the cyclone. To raise the high carbon conversion efficiency and separate oxygen carrier particle from ash, coal slurry instead of coal particle is introduced into the bottom of the bubbling fluidized bed. Coal gasification and the reduction of oxygen carrier with the water gas take place simultaneously in the fuel reactor. The flue gas from the fuel reactor is CO2 and water. Almost pure CO2 could be obtained after the con- densation of water. The reduced oxygen carrier is then returned back to the air reactor, where it is oxidized with air. Thermodyanmics analysis indicates that NiO/Ni oxygen carrier is the optimal one for chemical looping combustion of coal. Simulation of the processes for chemical looping combustion of coal, including coal gasification and reduction of oxygen carrier, is carried out with Aspen Plus software. The effects of air reactor temperature, fuel reactor temperature, and ratio of water to coal on the composition of fuel gas, recirculation of oxygen carrier par- ticles, etc., are discussed. Some useful results are achieved. The suitable tem- perature of air reactor should be between 1050―1150℃and the optimal temperature of the fuel reactor be between 900―950℃.

  6. State of the art and the future fuel portfolio of fluidized bed combustion systems; Status und kuenftiges Brennstoffportfolio bei Wirbelschichtfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szentannai, Pal; Friebert, Arpad; Winter, Franz [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrens-, Umwelttechnik und technische Biowissenschaften

    2008-07-01

    Coal, biomass and substitute fuels energetically can be used efficiently and with low pollution in fluidized bed plants. In comparison to biomass there are significant differences between the circulating and stationary fluidized bed technology. The stationary fluidised bed is fed predominantly with biomasses and residual substances. Coal usually is the basis fuel in the circulating fluidised bed. Biomass and residual substances frequently are course-fired. The state of the art is the employment of a broad fuel mixture in small and large fluidized-bed combustion systems. Future developments present an increased use of sewage sludge, fluidized bed combustion systems with wood as a basis fuel, utilization of household waste and the gas production.

  7. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Tabbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of astronauts' visual changes have raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings include globe flattening with hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, it is hypothesized that, in predisposed individuals, hypertension in the brain may follow cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight. This possible mechanism of ocular changes may also apply to analogous cases of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) or pseudotumor cerebri on Earth patients. Head-down t ilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. Previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) but the conditions of bed rest varied among experiments, making it difficult to compare data and draw conclusions. For these reasons, vision evaluation of bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies since 2010, in an attempt to monitor vision health in subjects subjected to bed rest. Vision monitoring is thus currently performed in all NASA-conducted bed rest campaigns

  8. The biosafety of X-ray in bed; A biosseguranca dos raios-X no leito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, A.S.; Vinco, Y.C.; Machado, C.P., E-mail: yasmin_claise@hotmail.com [Unigrancapital, Cidade Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work aims to raise awareness on biosafety that the professional radiology needs to develop, for their own protection as well as the patient in bed during the examination of the X-ray. Assess why the use of many artifacts and discuss their safe use, the conditions necessary for operating activities that employ radioactive and radiological techniques are adopted for the benefit of society. Taking also into account the protection of workers, the public, and the patient environment. This study aims to evaluate the knowledge of technical professionals working in the field-performing x -rays in bed, currently academic course in radiology technologist. The results obtained show that 67 % of technicians, technologists’ future, use the personal protective equipment, and 25 % sometimes and never use 8 %, 92 %. Answered that in the period that is being performed on X -ray examination bed, but there are others bedridden in the same environment, with 88 % of patients in bed in bed not receive personal protective equipment nor collective protection equipment. Thus, we conclude that most technicians have cognition existing risks, so the individual protection measures are being carried out, but not by all. What still leaves to be desired is the protection of the patient in bed. These professionals need to be encouraged to study, so that we have trained professionals and holders of knowledge, enabling the improvement in labor and protection of professional and patient. (author)

  9. Equilibrium bed-concentration of nonuniform sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge of the equilibrium bed-concentration is vital to mathematical modeling of the river-bed deformation associated with suspended load but previous investigations only dealt with the reference concentration of uniform sediment because of difficulties in observation of the bed-concentration. This work is a first attempt to develop a theoretical formula for the equilibrium bed-concentration of any fraction of nonuniform sediment defined at the bed-surface. The formula is based on a stochastic-mechanistic model for the exchange of nonuniform sediment near the bed, and described as a function of incipient motion probability, non-ceasing probability, pick-up probability, and the ratio of the average single-step continuous motion time to static time. Comparison of bed-concentration calculated from the proposed formula with the measured data showed satisfactory agreement, indicating the present formula can be used for solving the differential equation governing the motion of suspended load.

  10. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-06-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  11. Waste Water Treatment-Bed of Coal Fly Ash for Dyes and Pigments Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Farman Ali Shah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The highly porous power plant waste ashes have been utilized to treat toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. An attempt has been made for the first time in Pakistan, to generate an effective and economically sound treatment facility for the toxic effluent of a dyes manufacturing plant. This is an indigenous bed which could replace expensive treatment facilities, such as reverse osmosis (RO, granulated activated carbon (GAC bed, etc. The treatment efficiency was improved by coupling coagulants with fly ash adsorbent bed. The ash was collected from coal fired boilers of power plant at Lakhra Power Generation Company, Jamshoro, Pakistan. The use of this ash resolved the disposal and environmental issues by treating wastewater of chemical, dyes and pigment industry. The treatment bed comprised of briquettes of coal fly ash coupled with commercial coagulant ferrous sulfate-lime reduced COD, color, turbidity and TSS of effluent remarkably. An adsorption capacity and chemical behavior of fly ash bed was also studied. In coagulation treatment, coagulant FeSO4-lime influenced reduction of COD, color, turbidity and TSS by 32%, 48%, 50% and 51%, respectively. The CFAB coupled with coagulant, resulted an excessive removal of color, TSS, COD, and turbidity by 88%, 92%, 67% and89%, respectively.

  12. Halophyte filter beds for treatment of saline wastewater from aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J M; Quintã, R; Papadimitriou, S; Norman, L; Rigby, M; Thomas, D N; Le Vay, L

    2012-10-15

    The expansion of aquaculture and the recent development of more intensive land-based marine farms require efficient and cost-effective systems for treatment of highly nutrient-rich saline wastewater. Constructed wetlands with halophytic plants offer the potential for waste-stream treatment combined with production of valuable secondary plant crops. Pilot wetland filter beds, constructed in triplicate and planted with the saltmarsh plant Salicornia europaea, were evaluated over 88 days under commercial operating conditions on a marine fish and shrimp farm. Nitrogen waste was primarily in the form of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (TDIN) and was removed by 98.2 ± 2.2% under ambient loadings of 109-383 μmol l(-1). There was a linear relationship between TDIN uptake and loading over the range of inputs tested. At peak loadings of up to 8185 ± 590 μmol l(-1) (equivalent to 600 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)), the filter beds removed between 30 and 58% (250 mmol N m(-2) d(-1)) of influent TDIN. Influent dissolved inorganic phosphorus levels ranged from 34 to 90 μmol l(-1), with 36-89% reduction under routine operations. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) loadings were lower (11-144 μmol l(-1)), and between 23 and 69% of influent DON was removed during routine operation, with no significant removal of DON under high TDIN loading. Over the 88-day study, cumulative nitrogen removal was 1.28 mol m(-2), of which 1.09 mol m(-2) was retained in plant tissue, with plant uptake ranging from 2.4 to 27.0 mmol N g(-1) dry weight d(-1). The results demonstrate the effectiveness of N and P removal from wastewater from land-based intensive marine aquaculture farms by constructed wetlands planted with S. europaea.

  13. Phonological Consciousness Raising Tasks for the ESP Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlacci, Peter

    A discussion of pronunciation instruction in English for business communication focuses on raising learners' awareness of how English is spoken by various language groups around the world. It is argued that phonological consciousness-raising is an effective approach for limiting breakdowns in communication. The approach assumes that developing…

  14. 47 CFR 25.282 - Orbit raising maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Orbit raising maneuvers. 25.282 Section 25.282... Technical Operations § 25.282 Orbit raising maneuvers. A space station authorized to operate in the geostationary satellite orbit under this part is also authorized to transmit in connection with...

  15. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  16. Consciousness-raising Activities in Communicative Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiaoxia

    2011-01-01

    This study is based mainly on the theories of grammatical instruction in communicative methodologies. In review of the related theories,this paper presents the methodologies,and designs three consciousness-raising tasks to verify the effectiveness of consciousness-raising instruction.

  17. 组合型生态浮床中有机物及氮的去除转化%Transformation and removal of organic matter and nitrogen by integrated ecological floating bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国芳; 汪祥静; 吴磊; 李先宁

    2012-01-01

    通过设置水生植物浮床A、植物介质浮床B及植物介质河蚌浮床(组合型生态浮床)C等3个不同层次配置的浮床,考察了同样的运行条件下,各浮床出水中不同形态的有机物及氮的质量浓度变化,分析了浮床中各配置对有机物及氮的去除转化规律,同时研究了三角帆蚌对人工介质微生物富集特性的影响.结果表明:人工介质对溶解性的有机物及氮起到了明显的去除作用,三角帆蚌通过滤食消化促进了有机颗粒物的可溶化和无机化,对氮形态的转化起到了重要作用,从而提高了组合型生态浮床对氮的去除效果;三角帆蚌的引入增强了单位人工介质上微生物的TTC-脱氢酶活性与硝化细菌密度,从另一角度阐明了三角帆蚌对有机物及氮去除转化促进的特性.%Three kinds of floating beds of aquatic plants floating bed A, aquatic plants with artificial medium floating bed B and integrated ecological floating bed C with aquatic plants, artificial medium and a-quatic animals were established. The concentrations of organic matter and nitrogen with different forms in the beds were investigated, and the contaminant removal characteristic by different units was also analyzed. The influence of Hyriopsis cumingii on the microorganism enrichment character of artificial medium was discussed. The results show that artificial medium has obvious efficiency for removing deliquescent organic matter and nitrogen. The Hyriopsis cumingii promotes the solubilization and mineralization of par-ticulate organic matters by filtration and digestion to realize nitrogen transformation with improved nitrogen removal rate. The Hyriopsis cumingii can increase TTC-dehydrogenase activity of microorganism on artificial medium and raise the nitrifying bacteria density, which illuminates that organic matters and nitrogen removal can be improved by Hyriopsis cumingii.

  18. Rock-bed thermocline storage: A numerical analysis of granular bed behavior and interaction with storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassine, Nahia; Donzé, Frédéric-Victor; Bruch, Arnaud; Harthong, Barthélemy

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) systems are central elements of various types of power plants operated using renewable energy sources. Packed bed TES can be considered as a cost-effective solution in concentrated solar power plants (CSP). Such a device is made up of a tank filled with a granular bed through which heat-transfer fluid circulates. However, in such devices, the tank might be subjected to catastrophic failure induced by a mechanical phenomenon known as thermal ratcheting. Thermal stresses are accumulated during cycles of loading and unloading until the failure happens. This paper aims at studying the evolution of tank wall stresses over granular bed thermal cycles, taking into account both thermal and mechanical loads, with a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM). Simulations were performed to study two different thermal configurations: (i) the tank is heated homogenously along its height or (ii) with a vertical gradient of temperature. Then, the resulting loading stresses applied on the tank are compared as well the response of the internal granular material.

  19. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 7: Metal vapor Rankine topping-steam bottoming cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, P. B.

    1976-01-01

    Adding a metal vapor Rankine topper to a steam cycle was studied as a way to increase the mean temperature at which heat is added to the cycle to raise the efficiency of an electric power plant. Potassium and cesium topping fluids were considered. Pressurized fluidized bed or pressurized (with an integrated low-Btu gasifier) boilers were assumed. Included in the cycles was a pressurizing gas turbine with its associated recuperator, and a gas economizer and feedwater heater. One of the ternary systems studied shows plant efficiency of 42.3% with a plant capitalization of $66.7/kW and a cost of electricity of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh).

  20. Hospital Bed Type, the Electronic Medical Record, and Safe Bed Elevation in the Intensive Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Zachary W; Duquaine, Damon; Ohkuma, Rika; Schneider, Eric B; Whitman, Glenn J R

    2016-01-01

    In mechanically ventilated patients, head of bed (HOB) elevation above 30° decreases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. The research team studied (a) compliance with proper HOB elevation in their cardiac surgical intensive care unit, (b) the accuracy of HOB angles recorded in the electronic medical record (EMR), and (c) the effect of bed type on (a) and (b). Nurses were polled to discover how HOB angles were measured in practice. HOB angles were compliant in 80% of observations. Compliance was more frequent in beds with side-of-bed angle indicators (SBI) than beds with under-bed angle indicators (UBI; 88% vs 77%, P = .04). Charting in the EMR was accurate in 50% of SBI bed observations but only 20% of UBI bed observations (P bed type. Bedside indicators are underutilized. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  2. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  3. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  4. Prevalência da imunodeficiência severa combinada em cavalos da raça Árabe em plantéis de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Prevalence of the severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Teixeira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram genotipados 205 cavalos da raça Árabe, criados nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo, via DNA por meio de PCR, para determinação da presença do gene mutante SCID. Os resultados mostraram 98,5% de animais normais (202/205 e 1,5% de portadores (3/205. Pela análise da genealogia dos portadores identificados pode-se, ainda, confirmar a participação de um garanhão anteriormente identificado como provável disseminador da doença.In the present study, 205 Arabian horses raised in Minas Gerais and São Paulo states, Brazil, were genotyped using the PCR technique. The results showed 98.5% of normals (202/205 and 1.5% of SCID carriers (3/205. Checking the pedigrees of the three carriers was possible to confirm the participation of one stallion first identified as the possible disease disseminator.

  5. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  6. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  7. Investigation of the structure of debris beds formed from fuel rods fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Duc-Hanh; Fichot, Florian; Topin, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.topin@irsn.fr

    2017-03-15

    This paper is a study of debris beds that can form in the core of a nuclear power plant under severe accident conditions. Such beds are formed of fragments of pellets and cladding remnants, as observed in the TMI-2 core. Many important issues are related with the morphology of those debris beds: are they coolable in case of water injection and how does molten corium progress through them if they are not coolable? The answers to those questions depend on the structure of the debris bed: porosity, number and arrangement of particles. In order to obtain relevant information, a numerical simulation of the formation of the debris bed is proposed. It relies on a granular approach of the type called “Contact Dynamics” to simulate the collapse of debris and their accumulation. Two different schemes of fuel pellet fragmentation are considered and simulations for different degrees of fragmentation of the pellets are performed. The results show that the number of axial cracks on fuel pellets strongly influences the final porosity of the debris bed. Porosities vary between 31% (less coolable cases) and 45% (similar to TMI-2 observations), with a most probable configuration around 41%. The specific surface of the bed is also evaluated. In the last part, a simple model is used to estimate the impact of the variation in geometry of the numeric debris beds on their flow properties. We show that the permeability and passability can vary respectively with a range of 30% and 15% depending on the number of fragment per pellet. The other benefits of the approach are finally discussed. Among them, the possibility to print 3D samples from the calculated images of debris beds appears as a promising perspective to perform experiments with realistic debris beds.

  8. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...... inspiration to researchers on how to possibly build their own customized systems....

  9. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  10. Sand Bed Morphodynamics under Standing Waves and Vegetated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B. J.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Littoral processes such as sediment transport, wave attenuation, and boundary layer development are governed by the presence of bathymetric features, which include large-scale sand bars upon which smaller-scale sand ripples are superimposed, as well as the presence of submarine vegetation. Numerous studies on sand ripples and bars have aided to elucidate the dynamics in oscillatory flows; however, the effect of vegetation on the system is less understood. Recent laboratory studies have focused on quantifying wave attenuation by emergent vegetation as a natural method to mitigate storm surges. The emergent vegetation, while promising for coastal protection, alters sediment transport rates directly by the physical presence of the plants near the bed and indirectly from reduction in near-bed shear stresses due to attenuated wave energy. The experimental work herein focuses on the area near the deeply submerged vegetated canopy limit (current work has a ratio of mean still water depth to plant height, H/h, = 7.9) to minimize the effect on the surface waves and discern the direct impact vegetation has on sand bed morphodynamics. Experiments were conducted in the large wave tank (49-m long by 1.83-m wide by 1.22-m deep) in the Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory at the University of Illinois in which a high reflection wave forcing was used over a uniform sand bed with a 0.25-mm median sediment diameter in which staggered and uniform arrangements of idealized vegetation (i.e., 6.35-mm diameter rigid wooden cylinders) were positioned along the bed (e.g., at predetermined sand bar troughs and over an entire sand bar). The resulting bathymetric evolution from the vegetated case experiments were compared to the base case of no vegetation using two optical methods: a high-resolution laser displacement sensor for three-dimensional surveys and digitized profiles via high-definition panoramic images of the entire test section. The experimental findings illustrate the profound

  11. Transformation products of clindamycin in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Gordon Tze Hoong; Escola Casas, Monica; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    treatment plants in removing clindamycin. Recently, it has been discovered that attached biofilm reactors, e.g., moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) obtain a higher removal of pharmaceuticals than conventional sludge wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, this study investigated the capability of MBBRs...... applied in the effluent of conventional wastewater treatment plants to remove clindamycin. First, a batch experiment was executed with a high initial concentration of clindamycin to identify the transformation products. It was shown that clindamycin can be removed from wastewater by MBBR and the treatment......Clindamycin is widely prescribed for its ability to treat a number of common bacterial infections. Thus, clindamycin enters wastewater via human excretion or disposal of unused medication and widespread detection of pharmaceuticals in rivers proves the insufficiency of conventional wastewater...

  12. Technical evaluation: pressurized fluidized-bed combustion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S A; Vogel, G J; Gehl, S M; Hanway, Jr, J E; Henry, R F; Parker, K M; Smyk, E B; Swift, W M; Podolski, W F

    1982-04-01

    The technology of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion, particularly in its application to a coal-burning combined-cycle plant, is evaluated by examining the technical status of advanced-concept plant components - boiler system (combustor, air-handling and air-injection equipment, and heat exchangers); solids handling, injection, and ejection system; hot-gas cleanup equipment; instrumentation/control system; and the gas turbine - along with materials of plant construction. Environmental performance as well as energy efficiency are examined, and economic considerations are reviewed briefly. The evaluation concludes with a broad survey of the principal related research and development programs in the United States and other countries, a foreview of the most likely technological developments, and a summary of unresolved technical issues and problems.

  13. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  14. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions. PMID:28400816

  15. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Male, 62. Bipolar disorder. Bordeline personality disorder. - Bed bug infestation. Psychiatry. Unusual clinical course. In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. We present a case, based on a coroner's investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs.

  16. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  17. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  18. Heat flux distribution on circulating fluidized bed boiler water wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The future of circulating fluidized bed (CFB)combustion technology is in raising the steam parameters to supercritical levels.Understanding the heat flux distribution on the water wall is one of the most important issues in the design and operation of supercritical pressure CFB boilers.In the present paper,the finite element analysis (FEA) method is adopted to predict the heat transfer coefficient as well as the heat flux of the membrane wall and the results are validated by direct measurement of the temperature around the tube.Studies on the horizontal heat flux distribution were conducted in three CFB boilers with different furnace size,tube dimension and water temperature.The results are useful in supercritical pressure CFB boiler design.

  19. Functional diversity, succession, and human-mediated disturbances in raised bog vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Czapiewska, Natalia; Zajdler, Mateusz; Tyborski, Jarosław; Jagodziński, Andrzej M

    2016-08-15

    Raised and transitional bogs are one of the most threatened types of ecosystem, due to high specialisation of biota, associated with adaptations to severe environmental conditions. The aim of the study was to characterize the relationships between functional diversity (reflecting ecosystem-shaping processes) of raised bog plant communities and successional gradients (expressed as tree dimensions) and to show how impacts of former clear cuts may alter these relationships in two raised bogs in 'Bory Tucholskie' National Park (N Poland). Herbaceous layers of the plant communities were examined by floristic relevés (25m(2)) on systematically established transects. We also assessed patterns of tree ring widths. There were no relationships between vegetation functional diversity components and successional progress: only functional dispersion was negatively, but weakly, correlated with median DBH. Lack of these relationships may be connected with lack of prevalence of habitat filtering and low level of competition over all the successional phases. Former clear cuts, indicated by peaks of tree ring width, influenced the growth of trees in the bogs studied. In the bog with more intensive clear cuts we found more species with higher trophic requirements, which may indicate nutrient influx. However, we did not observe differences in vegetation patterns, functional traits or functional diversity indices between the two bogs studied. We also did not find an influence of clear cut intensity on relationships between functional diversity indices and successional progress. Thus, we found that alteration of the ecosystems studied by neighbourhood clear cuts did not affect the bogs strongly, as the vegetation was resilient to these impacts. Knowledge of vegetation resilience after clear cuts may be crucial for conservation planning in raised bog ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joe; Lasseter, Robert; Schenkman, Ben; Stevens, John; Klapp, Dave; Volkommer, Harry; Linton, Ed; Hurtado, Hector; Roy, Jean

    2009-06-18

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1) a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2) an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3) a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources. These techniques were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations,and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resychronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults. The results from these tests are expected to lead to additional testing of enhancements to the basic techniques at the test bed to improve the business case for microgrid technologies, as well to field

  1. Government grant control of development of stock-raising

    OpenAIRE

    SAMOYLIK YU.V.

    2012-01-01

    Directions of improvement of mechanism of government grant control of development of stock-raising are offered on the basis of the educed tendencies and conformities to law in the existent system of sponsorship of industry.

  2. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  3. Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain Jobs Linked to Raised Risk of Rheumatoid Arthritis Risk was doubled among men who did electrical ... 2017 THURSDAY, Aug. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Rheumatoid arthritis, a painful disease in which a person's immune ...

  4. Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160651.html Early Virus Raises Asthma Risk in Certain Kids: Study Infants ... Topics Asthma in Children Genetic Testing Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us ...

  5. Raising Social Competencies in a Skill Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenski, Charlotte M.; Kaufman, Alan G.

    1976-01-01

    Horizon House, a psycho-social rehabilitation center in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has developed a Clerical Preparatory Program which has simultaneously raised achievement levels in the areas of social competency and job skill proficiencies for its clients. (LH)

  6. Raising capital: the role of sovereign wealth funds

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article describes what sovereign wealth funds do, where their funding comes from, and what drives their investment strategies. It also highlights some of the policy issues that their activities raise.

  7. Review Raises Questions about Herbal Meds for Heart Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163808.html Review Raises Questions About Herbal Meds for Heart Problems ... popular among people with heart disease, a new review suggests. "Physicians should improve their knowledge of herbal ...

  8. 29 CFR 780.615 - Raising of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to engage in the raising of livestock as a prerequisite for the exemption of an employee employed in the operations described in section 13(b) (13). Engagement by the farmer in one or more of the other...

  9. Heartburn Drugs May Raise Risk of Stomach Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jan. 5 in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , aren't the first to raise such concerns. ... led by Dr. Thomas MacDonald, a professor of pharmacology at the University of Dundee in Scotland. They ...

  10. Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Could Diet in Pregnancy Raise Child's Odds for ADHD? Study underscores importance of good prenatal nutrition To ... during pregnancy could influence a child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a new study warns. Researchers found that ...

  11. Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164428.html Obesity in Early Pregnancy May Raise Child's Risk of ... researchers said. "This means more severe grades of obesity correspond to increasingly higher risk," said study co- ...

  12. Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 166931.html Popular Heartburn Meds Don't Raise Alzheimer's Risk: Study New research debunks other studies suggesting ... drugs may increase the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in people aged 75 and older. PPIs ...

  13. Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163536.html Air Pollution May Raise Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Study ... Feb. 10, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High levels of air pollution may increase some Hispanic children's risk of type ...

  14. Rapid Acquisition Imaging Spectrograph (RAISE) Renewal Proposal Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The optical design of RAISE is based on a new class of UV/EUV imaging spectrometers that use  only two reflections to provide quasi-stigmatic performance...

  15. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  16. C. elegans BED domain transcription factor BED-3 controls lineage-specific cell proliferation during organogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takao; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    The control of cell division is critical to organogenesis, but how this control is achieved is not fully understood. We found that mutations in bed-3, encoding a BED Zn-finger domain transcription factor, confer a phenotype where a specific set of cell divisions during vulval organogenesis is lost. Unlike general cell cycle regulators in Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of bed-3 is restricted to specific lineages. Transcriptional reporters suggest that bed-3 is expressed in a limited numb...

  17. Gasification of sawdust in pressurised internally circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, R.; Lindblom, M. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-12-31

    A test plant for pressurised gasification of biofuels in a internally circulating fluidized bed has been built at the department of Chemical Engineering II at the University of Lund. The design performance is set to maximum 20 bar and 1 050 deg C at a thermal input of 100 kW or a maximum fuel input of 18 kg/in. The primary task is to study pressurised gasification of biofuels in relation to process requirements of the IGCC concept (integrated gasification combined cycle processes), which includes studies in different areas of hot gas clean-up in reducing atmosphere for gas turbine applications. (orig.)

  18. NUCLA Circulating Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Demonstration Project. Annual report, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This Annual Report on Colorado-Ute Electric Association`s NUCLA Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Demonstration Program covers the period from February 1987 through December 1988. The outline for presentation in this report includes a summary of unit operations along with individual sections covering progress in study plan areas that commenced during this reporting period. These include cold-mode shakedown and calibration, plant commercial performance statistics, unit start-up (cold), coal and limestone preparation and handling, ash handling system performance and operating experience, tubular air heater, baghouse operation and performance, materials monitoring, and reliability monitoring. During this reporting period, the coal-mode shakedown and calibration plan was completed. (VC)

  19. Vowel Raising in Nkpor Dialect: A Pattern of Sound Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbah, Evelyn Ezinwanne

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a pattern of phonological change known as vowel raising in the Nkpor dialect of the Igbo language. Using a corpus of conversational Nkpor speech collected from the respondents through tape-recording, we presented data from an authority analysis of the vowels and auditory data of vowel raising. The data support three main claims. First, the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ is elided. It claims that in a word consisting of two root verbs, the initial verb root contains any consonant and any vowel, and the second verb root contains the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and a mid front vowel /e/, then, the voiced palatal nasal is elided. Second, after the elision, the mid vowel /e/ of the second verb is raised to a high front vowel /i/ or /ɪ/, agreeing with the vowel harmony rule. Third, Nkpor dialect goes beyond the raising of only vowels of the second verb. It further raises vowels of the first verb which are not high. The much more rapid loss of the voiced palatal nasal /ɲ/ and the consequent raising of the vowels are plausibly attributed to rapid speech, especially in construction and some sociolinguistic factors.

  20. Fluidized-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudjoi, A.; Heinolainen, A.; Hippinen, I.; Lu, Y. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1998-12-31

    Hybrid combined cycle processes have been presented as possibilities for power generation in the future. In the processes based on partial gasification of coal, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed char) contain unburned fuel, which is burned either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. Pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) combustion of gasification residues were studied experimentally by Helsinki University of Technology. The gasification residues, i.e. cyclone fines and bed chars, came from pilot scale PFB gasification tests of bituminous coals. The combustion efficiency was high in cyclone fines combustion. The calcium sulphide oxidised effectively to calcium sulphate in the combustion of cyclone fines. In bed char combustion the residual sulphide contents in solids after combustion were still relatively high. In general, sulphur dioxide emissions in residue combustion were low. The recarbonation of calcium oxide was observed in bed char combustion. Fuel-N conversion to NO{sub x} during bed char combustion and in most of the test runs with cyclone fines was higher than in bituminous coal combustion. In bed char combustion the conversion was significantly higher than in cyclone fines combustion. NO{sub x} emissions increased with increasing excess air for both residues, as was expected. In bed char combustion the highest NO{sub x} emissions were measured at higher pressure. Calculated mass reactivity values of equal particle size of all bed chars studied had similar trends with burnout. The biggest particles had the lowest reactivity values throughout the combustion, while reactivity for finer particles was at considerably higher level and sharply increases with burnout. In the constant combustion conditions used in the tests, no significant differences were observed in rate-controlling mechanisms for bed char fractions studied. 25 refs., 13 figs., 15 tab.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  2. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ETO, J.; LASSETER, R.; SCHENKMAN, B.; STEVENS, J.; KLAPP, D.; VOLKOMMER, H.; LINTON, E.; HURTADO, H.; ROY, J.

    2010-06-08

    The objective of the CERTS Microgrid Test Bed project was to enhance the ease of integrating energy sources into a microgrid. The project accomplished this objective by developing and demonstrating three advanced techniques, collectively referred to as the CERTS Microgrid concept, that significantly reduce the level of custom field engineering needed to operate microgrids consisting of generating sources less than 100kW. The techniques comprising the CERTS Microgrid concept are: 1 a method for effecting automatic and seamless transitions between grid-connected and islanded modes of operation, islanding the microgrid's load from a disturbance, thereby maintaining a higher level of service, without impacting the integrity of the utility's electrical power grid; 2 an approach to electrical protection within a limited source microgrid that does not depend on high fault currents; and 3 a method for microgrid control that achieves voltage and frequency stability under islanded conditions without requiring high-speed communications between sources.

  3. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  4. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-03-18

    Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc.) through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases) towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance) with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  5. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  6. Physician-patient communication in single-bedded versus four-bedded hospital rooms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glind, I. van de; Dulmen, S. van; Goossensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether physician-patient communication in multi-bedded rooms differs from communication in single rooms during ward rounds. Methods: Ward rounds in single bedded patient rooms and ward rounds in four bedded rooms were audiotaped and analyzed with an adapted version of MIARS.

  7. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  8. Control of nitrogen oxides in pressurised bed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.J.; Kelsall, G.J. (British Coal Corp., Stoke Orchard (UK). Coal Research Establishment)

    1990-01-01

    This study assesses the effects of a wide range of operating parameters on NO {sub x} formation and evaluates techniques for reduction of NO {sub x} emissions from pressurised fluidised bed combustion (PFBC) systems. The level of excess air is shown to be the dominant parameter, although fluidisation conditions may also be important, as may the bed temperature. In terms of the overall PFBC combined cycle, staging at the bed surface gives the best results, since some 65% reduction in NO{sub x} levels can be achieved without adverse effects on the off-gas temperature or combustor performance. Studies of the use of ammonia injection have been undertaken in parallel with the staged combustion trials. The effectiveness of this technique is strongly dependent on injection location, on gas temperature and on the composition of the gas/solid streams. The implications for a commercial plant are that while staged combustion may be effective for full-load conditions, at part-load ammonia injection may be a better technique for NO{sub x} control.

  9. Comparison of surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in sandy field beds covered with four different plastic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li-Tse; Thomas, John E; Allen, L Hartwell; Vu, Joseph C; Dickson, Donald W

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a field study at a Florida field site on surface emissions and subsurface distribution of cis-and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) in raised beds injected with Telone C35 with four replications. A total of 16 beds were applied with Telone C35 by chisel injection and covered with four different plastic films, 4 beds for each film. Each bed was installed with five 20-cm long soil pore air probes and a surface air collection pan at arbitrarily locations along the length of each bed for sampling soil pore air and surface air, respectively, for analysis of the three biologically active compounds, cis- and trans-1,3-D and CP. We found that average concentrations of the three compounds at 20-cm depth among the beds covered with four different plastic films generally were not statistically different. Among the four beds covered with the same plastic film, average concentrations of the three compounds were statistically different only in the four metallic PE covered beds at 5 and 24 hours after injection. Volatilization rates of the three compounds among the beds covered with four different plastic films, with the exception of CP at 48 hours after injection, were not statistically different. It appeared that initial upward diffusion and volatilization flux were influenced by solar radiation. Initial subsurface concentrations of the three compounds and volatilization flux, especially cis-1,3-D, were greater in the beds on the east side of the field than that in the beds on the west side of the field. Whether or not difference in initial subsurface concentrations of the compounds between east side beds and west side beds may influence fumigant efficacy remains to be determined.

  10. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Adsorbent Packed Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Suguru

    The effective thermal conductivity of adsorbent packed beds of granular zeolite 13X and granular silica gel A in the presence of stagnant steam or air was measured under different conditions of the adsorbent bed temperature, particle size and filler-gas pressure. The measured effective thermal conductivity showed to become smaller with decreasing particle size or decreasing pressure, but it was nearly independent of the bed temperature. When steam was the filler-gas, the rise in the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent particles due to steam adsorption led to the increase in the effective thermal conductivity of the bed, and this effect was not negligible at high steam pressure for the bed of large particle size. It was found that both the predictions of the effective thermal conductivity by the Hayashi et al.'s model and the Bauer-Schlünder model generally agreed well with the measurements, by considering the particle thermal conductivity rise due to steam adsorption. The thermal conductivity of a consolidated bed of granular zeolite 13X was also measured, and it was found to be much larger than that of the packed bed especially at lower pressure. The above prediction models underestimated the effective thermal conductivity of the consolidated bed.

  11. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...

  12. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  13. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described

  14. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  15. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  16. Nonlinear dynamical characteristics of bed load motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI; Yuchuan; XU; Haijue; XU; Dong

    2006-01-01

    Bed forms of various kinds that evolve naturally on the bottom of sandy coasts and rivers are a result of the kinematics of bed load transport. Based on the group motion of particles in the bed load within the bottom layer, a study on the nonlinear dynamics of bed load transport is presented in this paper. It is found that some development stages, such as the initiation, the equilibrium sediment transport, and the transition from a smooth bed to sand dunes, can be accounted for by different states in the nonlinear system of the bed load transport. It is verified by comparison with experimental data reported by Laboratoire Nationae D'Hydraulique, Chatou, France, that the evolution from a smooth bed to sand dunes is determined by mutation in the bed load transport. This paper presents results that may offer theoretical explanations to the experimental observations. It is also an attempt to apply the state-of-the-art nonlinear science to the classical sediment transport mechanics.

  17. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  18. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  19. Bed bugs: clinical relevance and control options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Stephen L; Dwyer, Dominic E; Peñas, Pablo F; Russell, Richard C

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, bed bugs of the species Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus have undergone a worldwide resurgence. These bed bugs are blood-sucking insects that readily bite humans. Cutaneous reactions may occur and can start out as small macular lesions that can develop into distinctive wheals of around 5 cm in diameter, which are accompanied by intense itching. Occasionally, bullous eruptions may result. If bed bugs are numerous, the patient can present with widespread urticaria or eythematous rashes. Often, bites occur in lines along the limbs. Over 40 pathogens have been detected in bed bugs, but there is no definitive evidence that they transmit any disease-causing organisms to humans. Anemia may result when bed bugs are numerous, and their allergens can trigger asthmatic reactions. The misuse of chemicals and other technologies for controlling bed bugs has the potential to have a deleterious impact on human health, while the insect itself can be the cause of significant psychological trauma. The control of bed bugs is challenging and should encompass a multidisciplinary approach utilizing nonchemical means of control and the judicious use of insecticides. For accommodation providers, risk management procedures should be implemented to reduce the potential of bed bug infestations.

  20. Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaylor, Mary Beth; Wenning, Paul; Eddy, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the resurgence of bed bugs in the U.S. has occurred at an alarming rate. Assumptions have been made that socioeconomic status is not associated with the prevalence of bed bug infestations. Little information is available at the local level, however, about the prevalence of bed bugs in private homes. The authors' pilot study aimed to identify prevalence, knowledge, and concern about bed bugs in one higher income village in Ohio utilizing survey methodology. Responses from 96 individuals who completed the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Concern About Bed Bugs survey were utilized for analysis. The majority of the sample respondents were white and 95% reported that they owned their residence. Only 6% knew someone with bed bugs. Additionally, 52% reported they were somewhat concerned about bed bugs. About 46% reported that they had changed their behavior. For a higher income area, the prevalence was dissimilar to the rate reported in the general public (about 20%). This suggests that bed bugs may be an environmental issue effecting low-income populations disproportionately. Further research is needed in areas of differing socioeconomic levels.

  1. Hipparions of the Laetolil Beds, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Laetolil Beds in Tanzania, 20-30 miles south of Olduvai Gorge, have been extensively sampled by parties under the leadership of Mrs. Dr. Mary D. Leakey, who very kindly sent me Hipparion material collected in 1974, 1975, and 1976. In a restudy of proboscidean material from these beds described b

  2. International Standardization of Bed Rest Standard Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation gives an overview of the standardization of bed rest measures. The International Countermeasures Working Group attempted to define and agree internationally on standard measurements for spaceflight based bed rest studies. The group identified the experts amongst several stakeholder agencys. It included information on exercise, muscle, neurological, psychological, bone and cardiovascular measures.

  3. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. Geomorphological implications of engineering bed sediments by lotic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzner, Bernhard

    2012-07-01

    Recent developments in zoogeomorphology in combination with the increasing interest of ecologists in ecosystem engineering by organisms initiated considerable research on the impact of running water (i.e., lotic) animals (and other organisms) on fluvial bed sediments and the transport of solids. This research provided multiple evidence from field and laboratory observations and experiments that many species among mammals, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, mollusks, and worms engineer bed sediments of running waters with diverse mechanistic "tools", thereby perturbing or consolidating the sediments in many types of running waters across continents, seasons, habitat types, particle sizes, and discharge levels (baseflow vs. flood). Furthermore, many animals modify the bed-sediment engineering by plants (algae, larger macrophytes, riparian vegetation). Modeling effects of bioturbating lotic animals across species and relatively simple environmental conditions (in mesocosms) provided highly significant results (P-range: abundance in combination with physical variables, such as baseflow shear stress or gravel size, explained between ~ 70 and ~ 90% of the variability in sediment responses such as the overall baseflow sediment transport and, as a result of the baseflow sediment-surface engineering by the animals, the flood-induced gravel or sand transport. Confronting these seemingly encouraging experimental results with real world conditions, however, illustrates considerable problems to unravel the complexity of biotic and physical factors that vary temporally and interfere/interact non-linearly in a patchy pattern in small parts of real river beds, where baseflow bed-sediment engineering by lotic animals prevents or fosters mass erosion during subsequent floods. Despite these complications, these problems must be solved, as bioturbators such as crayfish and bioconsolidators such as silk-spinning caddisflies may locally modify (i) rates of transport of fluvial

  5. Identification of hazards in non-nuclear power plants. Volume II. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, R.W.

    1979-08-01

    This study extends the Phase I study to also include a hazards evaluation for two new emerging coal power plant technologies: coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed and pressurized fluidized bed power generating systems. The study also considers the sensitivity of the hazards ranking for all the non-nuclear power plants to the effects of population density, mode of plant operation, technical changes, location and environmental (temperature) effects. Information is provided under the following section headings: background; environmental and public health concerns associated with fluidized-bed combustion power plants; description of a conceptual atmospheric fluidized-bed power plant; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion combined cycle (PFBCC) power plant; hazard ranking and risk assessment for non-nuclear power plants; and, hazards sensitivity analysis.

  6. Simultaneous dioxin and mercury collection in a filter bed reactor; Process concepts and test results. Simultane Dioxin- und Quecksilberabscheidung im Filterschichtreaktor; Verfahrenskonzepte und Versuchsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Glinka, U. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)); Ruther, G. (Deutsche Babcock Anlagen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    In the process chain dealt with in this paper, which uses a combined SCR reactor and filter bed reactor where the most far-reaching catalytic destruction of NO[sub x] and dioxins is obtained, the filter bed reactor was operated as a pilot plant using an inexpensive additive with multiple recycling. (orig.)

  7. Peering inside the granular bed: illuminating feedbacks between bed-load transport and bed-structure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssais, M.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Martin, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The threshold of motion is perhaps the most important quantity to determine for understanding rates of bed load transport, however it is a moving target. Decades of research show that it changes in space and in time within a river, and is highly variable among different systems; however, these differences are not mechanistically understood. Recent researchers have proposed that the critical Shields stress is strongly dependent on the local configuration of the sediment bed [Frey and Church, 2011]. Critical Shields stress has been observed to change following sediment-transporting flood events in natural rivers [e.g., Turowski et al., 2011], while small-scale laboratory experiments have produced declining bed load transport rates associated with slow bed compaction [Charru et al., 2004]. However, no direct measurements have been made of the evolving bed structure under bed load transport, so the connection between granular controls and the threshold of motion remains uncertain. A perspective we adopt is that granular effects determine the critical Shields stress, while the fluid supplies a distribution of driving stresses. In order to isolate the granular effect, we undertake laminar bed load transport experiments using plastic beads sheared by a viscous oil in a small, annular flume. The fluid and beads are refractive index matched, and the fluid impregnated with a fluorescing powder. When illuminated with a planar laser sheet, we are able to image slices of the granular bed while also tracking the overlying sediment transport. We present the first results showing how bed load transport influences granular packing, and how changes in packing influence the threshold of motion to feed back on bed load transport rates. This effect may account for much of the variability observed in the threshold of motion in natural streams, and by extension offers a plausible explanation for hysteresis in bed load transport rates observed during floods. Charru, F., H. Mouilleron, and

  8. Parametric analysis of a high temperature packed bed thermal storage design for a solar gas turbine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klein, P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of a high temperature Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system will allow for high solar shares in Solar Gas Turbine (SGT) plants. In this research a pressurised storage solution is proposed that utilises a packed bed of alumina spheres...

  9. Thermal waste utilisation by means of rotating fluidised beds. Thermische Abfallverwertung mit rotierender Wirbelschicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitzerow, H.G. (Hoelter-ABT GmbH, Gladbeck (Germany))

    1994-10-01

    The legal requirement of material and thermal waste utilisation prior to disposal opens up a wide field of application for the rotating fluidised-bed technique. The advantages of this method are its applicability to processing plants for different types of waste and the large range of possible plant capacity from 0.8 MW upwards. The article presents a special variation of the process and gives application examples. (orig.)

  10. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Crane

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  11. Incipient motion of gravel and coal beds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subhasish Dey; Uddaraju V Raju

    2002-10-01

    An experimental study on incipient motion of gravel and coal beds under unidirectional steady-uniform flow is presented. Experiments were carried out in a flume with various sizes of gravel and coal samples. The critical bed shear stresses for the experimental runs determined using side-wall correction show considerable disagreement with the standard curves. The characteristic parameters affecting the incipient motion of particles in rough-turbulent regime, identified based on physical reasoning and dimensional analysis, are the Shields parameter, particle Froude number, non-dimensional particle diameter and non-dimensional flow depth. Equations of critical bed shear stress for the initial movement of gravel and coal beds were obtained using experimental data. The method of application of critical bed shear stress equations is also mentioned.

  12. Bed bugs: they are back! The role of the school nurse in bed bug management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciscione, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Recently there has been a resurgence of bed bugs in all facets of our society. Bed bugs have even been found in schools, causing unnecessary exclusion of students and unfounded hysteria. School nurses are again called upon to be front-line sources of information to quell the hysteria and confusion related to this unsavory condition. By arming themselves with the best evidence regarding proper identification of bed bugs and their bites and information about integrated prevention measures to control transmission of infestations, school nurses can contribute to the control and management of bed bugs and aid in the overall battle against this "new and improved" invasion of the bed bugs.

  13. Experimental results from a pilot plant for converting acid whey to potentially useful food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, R.W.; Marvin, C.; Julkowski, K.

    1978-01-01

    The pilot plant used a fluidized bed with lactase immobilized on aluminia as well as ultrafiltration and demineralization equipment. Conversion of lactose to its consitiuent monosaccharides was up to 84%, vs. 65% on a bench scale. Advantages of the fluidized bed reactor are its freedom from plugging, its lower pressure loss, and its adaptability to frequent cleaning, compared to a fixed bed.

  14. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  15. Reduced bed temperature at thermo-chemical conversion of difficult fuels; Saenkt baeddtemperatur vid termokemisk omvandling av svaara braenslen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklasson, Fredrik; Haraldsson, Conny; Johansson, Andreas; Claesson, Frida; Baefver, Linda; Ryde, Daniel

    2010-05-15

    This work investigates the prospect of reducing the concentrations of alkali chlorides in the flue gas by lowering the temperature in the bottom zone of a fluidized bed (FB) furnace below the often used 850 deg C. The directive of a retention time of at least two seconds above 850 deg C is fulfilled by the raise of the flue gas temperature that follows the combustion of unburned gases at the point of injection of secondary and tertiary air, above the bottom bed zone. The aim of the present experiments is to determine the dependency between the temperature and the amount of alkali metals leaving the bottom bed for some selected waste and biomass fuels. The results are intended for plant owners as well as boiler manufacturers. The experiments were performed in an FB-reactor, which was externally heated to specific temperatures between 550 and 850 deg C. The reactor is made of a quartz glass tube with an inner diameter of 60 mm and a length of 1.2 m. The fluidized bed rests upon a porous plate of sintered quartz. The bed material used was 180 gram purified sea sand with particle sizes between 0.1 and 0.3 mm. The fluidizing gas was a mixture of nitrogen and air, introduced in the bottom of the reactor by mass flow controllers. At the outlet of the reactor, the flue gas was divided between conventional gas analyzers and an ICP-MS instrument. The gas flow to the ICP-MS instrument was cooled before a slip stream was sucked out via a capillary to a nebulizer from which the sample gas was led to the ICP-MS instrument. The function of the nebulizer is normally to form an aerosol of liquids, but here it was used solely as a pump. In addition, a known flow of krypton was added into the nebulizer to be used as an internal standard. The novel technique to measure the amount of alkali metals on-line from a batch fired FB-reactor has been shown to work in practice and to provide interesting results, which so far is qualitative only. Further development and calibration work is

  16. Fixed bed gasification for production of industrial fuel gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of technical and economic evaluations of six commercially available, fixed-bed coal gasification processes for the production of industrial fuel gas. The study was performed for DOE and is intended to assist industrial companies in exploring the feasibility of producing gaseous fuels for both retrofit and new industrial plant situations. The report includes a technical analysis of the physical configuration, performance capabilities, and commercial experiments to-date for both air-blown and oxygen-blown fixed bed gasifiers. The product gas from these gasifiers is analyzed economically for three different degrees of cleanliness: (1) hot raw gas, (2) dust-, tar-, and oil-free gas, and (3) dust-, tar-, oil-free and desulfurized gas. The evaluations indicate that low-Btu gases produced from fixed bed gasifiers constitute one of the most logical short-term solutions for helping ease the shortage of natural gas for industrial fuel applications because the technology is well-proven and has been utilized on a commercial scale for several decades both in this country and overseas; time from initiation of design to commercial operation is about two years; the technology is not complicated to construct, operate, or maintain; and a reliable supply of product gas can be generated on-site. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed bed gasification technology are listed. The cost of the low Btu gas is estimated at $2 to $4 per MM Btu depending on gas purity, cost of coal ($20 to $50 per ton) and a number of specified assumptions with respect to financing, reliability, etc. (LTN)

  17. Innovative Bed Load Measurement System for Large Alpine Gravel-Bed Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, H.; Habersack, H. M.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the work is to figure out the bed load transport processes using direct and surrogate measurement methods for the free flowing reach of the Drau River and its most important tributary Isel River, both large Alpine gravel-bed rivers, situated in the south western part of Austria. There are some techniques for bed load measurements in natural streams; we used collecting moving particles and indirectly determining transport intensity at the study sites. Former measurements in the study reach were performed also using mobile bed load samplers and fixed bed load samplers. Individually they all are adequate bed load measurement instruments - used in combination they are complementing one another, whereas each applied separately leads to specific deficits. The investigation payed special attention on results out of the geophone installations, whereas steel plate vibrations (the plates are mounted on top of concrete structures even with the river bed surface) caused by bed load particles with a diameter larger than about 20 mm are inducing a signal into the geophones. The signal above a defined threshold voltage than is recorded in a computer system as the sum of impacts during one minute intervals. The spatio-temporal distribution of the transported bed load material, its amount and the transport processes itself could be figured out for the first time out of continuous data collection since 2006 for large alpine gravel-bed rivers. Before building up the gauging stations there were no continuous recordings of bed load transport processes in large alpine rivers over their entire cross section, hence the investigation promises a better process understanding and the possibility to determine bed load transport rates and a rough approximation of the grain size distributions of the transported bed load material under different flow conditions. A relation between detected geophone records, the flow discharge and direct bed load sampling methods (Large Helley Smith

  18. Triage of Patients Consulted for ICU Admission During Times of ICU-Bed Shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Jose; Blaak, Christa; Yeh, Angela; Fonseca, Xavier; Helm, Tanya; Butala, Ashvin; Morante, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    Background The demand for specialized medical services such as critical care often exceeds availability, thus rationing of intensive care unit (ICU) beds commonly leads to difficult triage decisions. Many factors can play a role in the decision to admit a patient to the ICU, including severity of illness and the need for specific treatments limited to these units. Although triage decisions would be based solely on patient and institutional level factors, it is likely that intensivists make different decisions when there are fewer ICU beds available. The objective of this study is to evaluate the characteristics of patients referred for ICU admission during times of limited beds availability. Methods A single center, prospective, observational study was conducted among consecutive patients in whom an evaluation for ICU admission was requested during times of ICU overcrowding, which comprised the months of April and May 2014. Results A total of 95 patients were evaluated for possible ICU admission during the study period. Their mean APACHE-II score was 16.8 (median 16, range 3 - 36). Sixty-four patients (67.4%) were accepted to ICU, 18 patients (18.9%) were triaged to SDU, and 13 patients (13.7%) were admitted to hospital wards. ICU had no beds available 24 times (39.3%) during the study period, and in 39 opportunities (63.9%) only one bed was available. Twenty-four patients (25.3%) were evaluated when there were no available beds, and eight of those patients (33%) were admitted to ICU. A total of 17 patients (17.9%) died in the hospital, and 15 (23.4%) expired in ICU. Conclusion ICU beds are a scarce resource for which demand periodically exceeds supply, raising concerns about mechanisms for resource allocation during times of limited beds availability. At our institution, triage decisions were not related to the number of available beds in ICU, age, or gender. A linear correlation was observed between severity of illness, expressed by APACHE-II scores, and the

  19. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Bonk, D. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  20. On different regime relations between bed load transport and bed topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Ma, H.; Fu, X.; Duan, J. G.

    2016-12-01

    Bed load transport is determined by the effective part of the total shear stress subtracting the form drag that arises from bed topography. Wang et al. (2004) quantified the overall topographic roughness of the channel bed with the parameter Sp and claimed that the increasing Sp corresponds with increasing flow resistance and decreasing bed load transport rate due to increasing form drag and decreasing skin friction. However, the flume experiments for non-uniform sediment transport on steep slope at the University of Arizona show opposite results that bed load transport increases with Sp. We investigate the physical reason of the contrasting results for the full understanding of the different regimes between bed load transport and bed topography. We develop the energy conveyance equation for water flow and bed load transport and apply it to the development of the equilibrium relation between bed load transport and energy dissipation due to the form drag. The energy theory for bed load transport shows that since our flume experiments achieved the equilibrium transport state with water and sediment circulating supplying, the bed topography Sp is determined by the flow and sediment grain size, and the bed load transport is positively related to the energy dissipation rate which is thus positively related to Sp. However, in the field experiment of Wang et al. (2004), at first, the referenced Sp is determined by the most recent significant flood whereas the bed load transport is always below the transport capacity with insufficient sediment supply. After one-time sediment feed, the bed load transport rapidly varies from ephemeral full capacity state to sediment starving state. In this process, the removal of relative fine sediment results in the rapid increment of Sp from the instant equilibrium state to the referenced Sp whereas the coarsen bed leads to decrement of bed load transport. Eventually, the sediment starving state results in the increasing Sp and decreasing

  1. Innovations in wastewater treatment: the moving bed biofilm process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegaard, Hallvard

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) and presents applications of wastewater treatment processes in which this reactor is used. The MBBR processes have been extensively used for BOD/COD-removal, as well as for nitrification and denitrification in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. This paper focuses on the municipal applications. The most frequent process combinations are presented and discussed. Basic design data obtained through research, as well as data from practical operation of various plants, are presented. It is demonstrated that the MBBR may be used in an extremely compact high-rate process (treatment. Most European plants require P-removal and performance data from plants combining MBBR and chemical precipitation is presented. Likewise, data from plants in Italy and Switzerland that are implementing nitrification in addition to secondary treatment are presented. The results from three Norwegian plants that are using the so-called combined denitrification MBBR process are discussed. Nitrification rates as high as 1.2 g NH4-N/m2 d at complete nitrification were demonstrated in practical operation at low temperatures (11 degrees C), while denitrification rates were as high as 3.5g NO3-Nequiv./m2.d. Depending on the extent of pretreatment, the total HRT of the MBBR for N-removal will be in the range of 3 to 5 h.

  2. Performance evaluation of existing wedgewater and vacuum-assisted bed dewatering systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B.J.; Cardenas, R.R.; Gee, C.S.; Bandy, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Many Army wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) use conventional sand drying beds to dewater sludge. However, sand-drying is slow, and requires a large land area commitment and manual sludge removal. Outdoor sand-drying beds are vulnerable to weather conditions and operational problems associated with sand-media and underdrain clogging. Successful new technologies for sludge treatment in small-scale WWTPs include wedgewater beds (WBs), vacuum-assisted beds (VABs) and reed-bed systems. As operator of over 100 small WWTPs, the Army has an interest in such cost effective and technically efficient sludge-dewatering systems. This study compiled operational data from commercial WWTPs with existing WBs and VABs to evaluate their potential for Army use. Generally. WBs were found to be easier to operate and maintain than VABs. WBs also showed fewer media-and underdrain-clogging problems when high-pressure hoses were used to clean the media, and when tiles were kept free from damage. VABs were preferred by smaller plants that required a lower target solids rate. Most problems with both systems were associated with poor media cleaning, front-end loader damage, and engineering errors.

  3. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasseter, R. H.; Eto, J. H.; Schenkman, B.; Stevens, J.; Volkmmer, H.; Klapp, D.; Linton, E.; Hurtado, H.; Roy, J.

    2010-06-08

    CERTS Microgrid concept captures the emerging potential of distributed generation using a system approach. CERTS views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a 'microgrid'. The sources can operate in parallel to the grid or can operate in island, providing UPS services. The system can disconnect from the utility during large events (i.e. faults, voltage collapses), but may also intentionally disconnect when the quality of power from the grid falls below certain standards. CERTS Microgrid concepts were demonstrated at a full-scale test bed built near Columbus, Ohio and operated by American Electric Power. The testing fully confirmed earlier research that had been conducted initially through analytical simulations, then through laboratory emulations, and finally through factory acceptance testing of individual microgrid components. The islanding and resynchronization method met all Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 1547 and power quality requirements. The electrical protection system was able to distinguish between normal and faulted operation. The controls were found to be robust under all conditions, including difficult motor starts and high impedance faults.

  4. Mix bed type desalting device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Shuichi; Shiozawa, Yoshihiro; Kazama, Seiichi

    1998-12-18

    The present invention provides a condensate desalting device of a BWR type reactor capable of preventing degradation of ion exchange resins by water containing oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide thereby keeping reactor water at high purity. Namely, a mixed bed type desalting device comprises a desalting tower for removing impurities in water by ion exchange resins and a regeneration device for cleaning/regenerating the ion exchange resins. Means for loading iron cruds into water is disposed in the desalting tower. With such a constitution, oxidative materials such as hydrogen peroxide react with the iron cruds thereby enabling to suppress oxidative reaction during ion exchange. Since passage or cleaning/regeneration of water is conducted while loading the iron cruds between ion exchange resin particles and on the surface layer of an ion exchange resin layer by using the above-mentioned reaction, degradation of ion exchange performance of the ion exchange resins by hydrogen peroxide can be prevented upon condensate cleaning operation or resin cleaning/regeneration. As a result, degradation of quality of reactor water can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  5. Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs. PMID:28383033

  6. Modeling nitrate removal in a denitrification bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghane, Ehsan; Fausey, Norman R; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-15

    Denitrification beds are promoted to reduce nitrate load in agricultural subsurface drainage water to alleviate the adverse environmental effects associated with nitrate pollution of surface water. In this system, drainage water flows through a trench filled with a carbon media where nitrate is transformed into nitrogen gas under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to model a denitrification bed treating drainage water and evaluate its adverse greenhouse gas emissions. Field experiments were conducted at an existing denitrification bed. Evaluations showed very low greenhouse gas emissions (mean N2O emission of 0.12 μg N m(-2) min(-1)) from the denitrification bed surface. Field experiments indicated that nitrate removal rate was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant of 7.2 mg N L(-1). We developed a novel denitrification bed model based on the governing equations for water flow and nitrate removal kinetics. The model evaluation statistics showed satisfactory prediction of bed outflow nitrate concentration during subsurface drainage flow. The model can be used to design denitrification beds with efficient nitrate removal which in turn leads to enhanced drainage water quality.

  7. Factors Associated With Infant Bed-Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heere, Megan; Moughan, Beth; Alfonsi, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Aronoff, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Bed-sharing is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for newborn bed-sharing. Methods: Postpartum mothers from a university maternity service were contacted by phone to complete a survey. Demographic and environmental data were collected; newborn bed-sharing and sleep environment were self-reported. Results: A total of 1261 mothers completed surveys; bed-sharing was reported by 79 mothers (6.3%). Multivariate logistic regression identified referral to a nurse (odds ratio [OR] = 10; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.5-30) and sleep location “other” than a crib, bassinet, or Pack and Play (OR = 7.1; 95% CI = 1.9-25.9) as factors associated with an increased risk of bed-sharing; formula feeding (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.20-0.77) and crib sleeping (OR = 0.49; 95% CI = 0.26-0.86) reduced this risk. Conclusion: Infants with no identifiable places to sleep, significant health issues, and who are breastfed are more likely to bed-share. Interventional studies should be directed at these factors. PMID:28229101

  8. The Pathogenesis of Raised Intraocular Pressure in Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneke, Alexander Jan; Lim, K Sheng; Stanford, Miles

    2016-01-01

    To analyze current understanding of the factors that contribute to raised intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with uveitis. A pubmed literature review was carried out using words including "uveitic glaucoma", "IOP AND uveitis", "ocular hypertension AND uveitis", "inflammation AND glaucoma", "aqueous dynamics" AND "glaucoma/uveitis". Of the two studies looking at the aqueous dynamics in experimentally induced uveitis, both found aqueous flow decreased acutely, and one found that uveoscleral outflow increased. This is likely to reflect the types of uveitis that present acutely with hypotony. A study examining patients with Fuch's heterochromic cyclitis found no difference in aqueous flow or uveoscleral outflow. No studies have examined aqueous dynamics in types of uveitis that present with acutely raised IOP. Levels of prostaglandins rise in acute uveitis, which has been shown to increase uveoscleral and trabecular outflow, without affecting aqueous flow. Studies have demonstrated that raised levels of trabecular protein reduce trabecular outflow. Steroid treatment, inflammatory cells, free radicals and enzymes are also likely to contribute to the development of raised pressure. When considering the impact of the pathogenesis of raised pressure in uveitis on its treatment, prostaglandins may provide good intraocular pressure control, but there are concerns regarding their theoretical ability to worsen the inflammatory response in uveitis. Studies have not conclusively proven this to be the case. Surgical success rates vary, but trabeculectomy plus an antimetabolite, deep sclerectomy plus an antimetabolite, and Ahmed valve surgery have been used. Uveitic glaucoma is caused by a number of different diseases, some of which present with acute hypotony, others with acutely raised IOP, and others which demonstrate an increase in IOP over time. Further studies should be carried out to examine the differing pathogenesis in these types of diseases, and to establish the

  9. Heat and Mass Transfer Enforcement of Vibrating Fluidized Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChuZhide; YangJunhong; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad,elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed.the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer,it also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed,analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  10. Genomics and the Instrinsic Value of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question wheth

  11. Genomics and the Instrinsic Value of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question wheth

  12. Genomics and the Instrinsic Value of Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    In discussions on genetic engineering and plant breeding, the intrinsic value of plants and crops is used as an argument against this technology. This paper focuses on the new field of plant genomics, which, according to some, is almost the same as genetic engineering. This raises the question

  13. Pyrolysis and gasification of biomass in a two-stage bluid bed gasification unit; Pyrolyse og forgasning af biomasse i en to-trins fluid bed forgasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M.W.; Henriksen, U. [Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (Denmark); Houmoeller, S. [dk-TEKNIK (Denmark)

    1997-07-01

    A new two-stage atmospheric bubbling fluid bed pyrolysis and gasification unit has been developed to convert straw and wood into a gas to be combusted in engines used for combined heat and power production. The unit combines the known two-stage process based on the fixed bed principle developed at the Department of Energy Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark, with the more compact and easy-to-scale fluid bed technique. The advantages of this combined concept is a relatively simple and easy to scale plant able to convert a wide range of fuels and producing a clean gas with extremely low tar content. Even straw can be converted which is of great importance in Denmark. The first stage, the pyrolysis unit, has been tested extensively as a means of pre-treating the biomass before co-combusting straw with fossil fuels in power plant boilers and it can eliminate the traditional corrosion problems on the boilers. The fluid bed pyrolysis unit converts the biomass into two fractions: A gas fraction to be combusted in the power plant boiler and a solids fraction, containing the major part of alkali and chlorine, to be converted otherwise. The gas fraction contains up to 75 percent of the energy of the input biomass. The idea is to avoid feeding the harmful components as potassium, sodium and chlorine present in the biomass into the boiler, as these components can cause corrosion damages to the super heater, but still supply the boiler with most of the biomass energy. This paper presents the concluded work on the co-combustion unit and the first results on the two-stage fluid bed pyrolysis and gasification unit. (EG)

  14. Free running droplets on packed powder beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitby, Catherine P.; Bian, Xun; Sedev, Rossen

    2013-06-01

    We observed that water drops placed on horizontal beds of fine molybdenite particles move freely over the bed surface for about 1 second. The drops collect an irregular coating of unevenly distributed particles as they bounce and roll. We manipulated the distance that the drops travel, and hence the area of the droplet surface coated with particles, by varying the water surface tension and the kinetic energy of the initial droplet impact on the bed surface. Our results highlight the role of contact angle hysteresis in particle encapsulation of liquid drops.

  15. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)

  16. Modelling the bed characteristics in fluidised-beds for top-spray coating processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike Vanderroost; Frederik Ronsse; Koen Dewettinck; Jan G.Pieters

    2012-01-01

    A particle sub-model describing the bed characteristics of a bubbling fluidised bed is presented.Atomisation air,applied at high pressures via a nozzle positioned above the bed for s pray formation,is incorporated in the model since its presence has a profound influence on the bed characteristics,though the spray itself is not yet considered.A particle sub-model is developed using well-known empirical relations for particle drag force,bubble growth and velocity and particle distribution above the fluidised-bed surface.Simple but effective assumptions and abstractions were made concerning bubble distribution,particle ejection at the bed surface and the behaviour of atomisation air flow upon impacting the surface of a bubbling fluidised bed.The model was shown to be capable of predicting the fluidised bed characteristics in terms of bed heights,voidage distributions and solids volume fractions with good accuracy in less than 5 min of calculation time on a regular desktop PC.It is therefore suitable for incorporation into general process control models aimed at dynamic control for process efficiency and product quality in top-spray fluidised bed coating processes.

  17. Passive acoustic monitoring of bed load discharge in a large gravel bed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geay, T.; Belleudy, P.; Gervaise, C.; Habersack, H.; Aigner, J.; Kreisler, A.; Seitz, H.; Laronne, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    Surrogate technologies to monitor bed load discharge have been developed to supplement and ultimately take over traditional direct methods. Our research deals with passive acoustic monitoring of bed load flux using a hydrophone continuously deployed near a river bed. This passive acoustic technology senses any acoustic waves propagated in the river environment and particularly the sound due to interparticle collisions emitted during bed load movement. A data set has been acquired in the large Alpine gravel-bedded Drau River. Analysis of the short-term frequency response of acoustic signals allows us to determine the origin of recorded noises and to consider their frequency variations. Results are compared with ancillary field data of water depth and bed load transport inferred from the signals of a geophone array. Hydrophone and geophone signals are well correlated. Thanks to the large network of deployed geophones, analysis of the spatial resolution of hydrophone measurements shows that the sensor is sensitive to bed load motion not only locally but over distances of 5-10 m (10-20% of river width). Our results are promising in terms of the potential use of hydrophones for monitoring bed load transport in large gravel bed rivers: acoustic signals represent a large river bed area, rather than being local; hydrophones can be installed in large floods; they can be deployed at a low cost and provide continuous monitoring at high temporal resolution.

  18. Paediatric burn unit in Portugal: Beds needed using a bed-day approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João V; Viana, João; Amarante, José; Freitas, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high burden of children with burns, there is not a paediatric burn unit (PBU) in Portugal. We aimed to estimate the Portuguese health care providing needs on paediatric burns. We performed a nation-wide retrospective study, between 2009 and 2013, among less than 16 years-old inpatients with burns that met the transfer criteria to a burn unit in Portugal. A bed-day approach was used, targeting an occupancy rate of 70-75%, and possible locations were studied. The primary outcome was the number of beds needed, and secondary outcomes were the overload and revenue for each possible number of beds in a PBU. A total of 1155 children met the transfer criteria to a burn unit, representing a total of 17,371 bed-days. Occupancy rates of 11-bed, 12-bed, 13-bed and 14-bed PBU were, respectively, 79.7%, 75.3%, 71.0% and 66.8%. The 13-bed PBU scenario would represent an overload of 523 bed-days, revenue of more than 5 million Euros and a ratio of 1 PBU bed per 123,409 children. Using a groundbreaking approach, the optimal number of PBU beds needed in Portugal is 13. However, as half of the patients who met burn transfer criteria are not transferred, this bed number might be overestimated if this pattern maintains, despite the underestimation with our method approach. If a PBU is to be created the preferable location is Porto. Cost-effectiveness studies should be performed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulfur plant start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, Hank; Grigson, Susan [Ortloff Engineers Ltd. (United States)

    2002-02-01

    The authors discuss an Ortloff sulfur plant design concept using the Claus reaction that differs from accepted 'industry practice': cold reactor bed start-up. The process is designed to eliminate catalyst sulfation, heat damage and furnace overheating in sulfur recovery units. (UK)

  20. Aquatic Plants Aid Sewage Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1985-01-01

    Method of wastewater treatment combines micro-organisms and aquatic plant roots in filter bed. Treatment occurs as liquid flows up through system. Micro-organisms, attached themselves to rocky base material of filter, act in several steps to decompose organic matter in wastewater. Vascular aquatic plants (typically, reeds, rushes, cattails, or water hyacinths) absorb nitrogen, phosphorus, other nutrients, and heavy metals from water through finely divided roots.

  1. Hydrological instability of a Baltic raised bog during the last 1000 years in northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Galka, Mariusz; Pawlyta, Jacek; Lamentowicz, Lukasz; Goslar, Tomasz; Miotk-Szpiganowicz, Grażyna; Mitchell, Edward A. D.

    2010-05-01

    Our aim was to reconstruct the palaeohydrological of a Baltic raised bog located in northern Poland over the last 1000 years. We used several proxies: testate amoebae, plant macrofossils, pollen and carbon stable isotopes to reconstruct the bog surface wetness. We analysed two replicated monoliths collected from the same bog at high temporal resolution. We obtained a reliable chronology for both monoliths based on radiocarbon and lead 210 dating. We compared the inferred water table depth changes obtained from the quantitative reconstruction based on the testate amoebae transfer function with inference from plant remains and carbon isotopic composition of Sphagnum stems for both monoliths. Our data provide new insight on human impact on the hydrology of Baltic raised bogs and the sensitivity of these peatlands to various disturbances. We show an increasing hydrological instability of the studied peatland concomitant with the gradually increasing human impact over the landscape since the Medieval Period. However, climatic change also played an important role during the Little Ice Age period that overlapped with the anthropogenic disturbance. This palaeoenvironmental data provides useful baseline data for peatland management and restoration in Northern Poland and more generally illustrate the value of high-resolution multiproxy studies as tool for both palaeoenvironmental studies and current management.

  2. Deep Bed Iodine Sorbent Testing FY 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Tony Watson

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear fission results in the production of fission products (FPs) and activation products that increasingly interfere with the fission process as their concentrations increase. Some of these fission and activation products tend to evolve in gaseous species during used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Analyses have shown that I129, due to its radioactivity, high potential mobility in the environment, and high longevity (half life of 15.7 million years), can require control efficiencies of up to 1,000x or higher to meet regulatory emission limits. Deep-bed iodine sorption testing has been done to evaluate the performance of solid sorbents for capturing iodine in off-gas streams from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The objectives of the FY 2011 deep bed iodine sorbent testing are: (1) Evaluate sorbents for iodine capture under various conditions of gas compositions and operating temperature (determine sorption efficiencies, capacities, and mass transfer zone depths); and (2) Generate data for dynamic iodine sorption modeling. Three tests performed this fiscal year on silver zeolite light phase (AgZ-LP) sorbent are reported here. Additional tests are still in progress and can be reported in a revision of this report or a future report. Testing was somewhat delayed and limited this year due to initial activities to address some questions of prior testing, and due to a period of maintenance for the on-line GC. Each test consisted of (a) flowing a synthetic blend of gases designed to be similar to an aqueous dissolver off-gas stream over the sorbent contained in three separate bed segments in series, (b) measuring each bed inlet and outlet gas concentrations of iodine and methyl iodide (the two surrogates of iodine gas species considered most representative of iodine species expected in dissolver off-gas), (c) operating for a long enough time to achieve breakthrough of the iodine species from at least one (preferably the first two) bed segments, and (d) post-test purging

  3. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  4. Cognate Awareness--Raising in Late Childhood: Teachable and Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joanna L.; Horst, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    This study is part of a larger investigation of the usefulness of instruction designed to raise cross-linguistic awareness in young Francophone learners of English in Quebec. In the research reported here, the focus is on cognates. Since previous research shows that learners typically fail to recognise many helpful similarities between words in a…

  5. The Rhetoric of the Women's Liberation Movement: Consciousness-Raising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Linda Sternberg; Roberts, Anne

    Consciousness-raising as a prime rhetorical strategy of the women's liberation movement is examined. One goal of the women's liberation movement is to persuade women that they live in a state of oppression and, bringing them to this realization, to provide them with the means of breaking out of their psychological bondage. The…

  6. Raising the Standard: A 15-Year Retrospective, 1987-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Detroit, MI.

    This report describes the past 15 years of work by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) to raise the standards for teacher quality. The NBPTS identified five core propositions that describe the knowledge, skills, and dispositions characterizing accomplished teaching. It created professional standards for K-12 teachers,…

  7. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  8. 29 CFR 780.126 - Contract arrangements for raising poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contract arrangements for raising poultry. 780.126 Section 780.126 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL...

  9. The Voices of Latino Families Raising Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Marie Tejero; Valle-Riestra, Diana Martinez; Arguelles, Maria Elena

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined the perceptions of 16 Latino families regarding their views and experiences raising a child with special needs and their involvement in their child's schooling. Families talked about treating their child like a "normal child" regardless of the child's unique needs, but they also stated that their level of involvement was…

  10. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren: An Exploration of Their Experiences and Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan; Softas-Nall, Basilia; Miller, Jill

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to provide an in-depth understanding of the experiences and emotions of grandmothers raising their grandchildren. The grandmothers' stories revealed common themes of anger, frustration, loss, hurt, and depression. A key finding was that grandmothers who did not report depression had positive and helpful…

  11. Environmental Awareness Raising through Universities--City Authorities' Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelest, Ksenia D.; Ionov, Victor V.; Tikhomirov, Leonid Y.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to the environmental awareness raising as a key issue of education for sustainable development. Youth Environmental Volunteers Movement in the area of coastal oil response operations in St. Petersburg is presented in this paper as a successful initiative in the field of environmental awareness through universities and city…

  12. Educators' Degrees Earned on Internet Raise Fraud Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the degrees earned by a dozen educators on the Internet have raised fraud issues. Small firms known as "credential evaluators" help states and school districts detect educators who present phony or flimsy academic credentials from overseas institutions--a safeguard that is becoming more important with the growth of…

  13. Raised dopamine metabolites in a case of malignant paraganglioma.

    OpenAIRE

    Florkowski, C M; Fairlamb, D. J.; Freeth, M G; Taylor, S.A.; A. Taylor; Weinkove, C.; Jacobs, A. G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the case of a malignant retroperitoneal paraganglioma with extensive metastases. The patient presented with a supraclavicular mass and an absence of hypertension. Exclusively raised dopamine metabolites were detected which may be a marker of a malignant process and account for the lack of hypertension.

  14. haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZE J I

    MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA. *EZE, J. I. ... SUMMARY. The haematological profile of pigs raised under intensive management system in South- ... Monogastric (both swine and poultry), has made a ... pig production has played a significant role in meat ... adversely affect the health or welfare of.

  15. Raised Parental Expectations towards Higher Education and the Double Bind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Remy Yi Siang

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the participation of students from low socio-economic status (SES) families and communities in Australian higher education. One means of achieving this, as purported by the Australian Government and various universities, is through the raising of family aspirations or expectations. In this paper, I explore the…

  16. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  17. Lymphoma associated bone marrow necrosis with raised anticardiolipin antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P T; Sivakumaran, M; Casey, M C; Liddicoat, A; Wood, J K

    1998-05-01

    A case of high grade B cell lymphoma presented with bone marrow necrosis, followed by development of extensive marrow fibrosis, the evolution of which was documented by serial magnetic resonance imaging and bone marrow trephine histology. A markedly raised anticardiolipin antibody titre at diagnosis suggests that lymphoma associated antiphospholipid syndrome may have contributed to the aetiology of the bone marrow necrosis.

  18. Analysis of Market Performance of Farm-Raised Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A multi-stage sampling technique was employed in the capital cities of the six States in South – Western Nigeria due to their level of catfish consumption by ... Farm – raised catfish (Clarias gariepinus) marketing was found to be efficient at both ...

  19. RAISE: a Product Supporting Industrial Use of Formal Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Pedersen, J. Storbank; Prehn, Søren

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of RAISE, a product consisting of a method for developing software, an associated formal specification language and tools supporting the method and the language. The method is based on the notion of stepwise refinement and offers the possibility of formal verification...

  20. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…