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Sample records for rainbowfish melanotaenia nigrans

  1. De novo transcriptome assembly and annotation for the desert rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida tatei) with comparison with candidate genes for future climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Katie; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Bernatchez, Louis; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-10-01

    Transcriptomics via RNA-seq has rapidly emerged as a powerful tool for ecological and evolutionary studies, enabling genome-scale studies of adaptation via regulation of global gene expression. Here we present a de novo transcriptome for the desert rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida tatei) based on individuals sampled in the Lake Eyre Basin, Australia's arid zone river system. Recently developed methods in RNA-seq and bioinformatics were used for sequencing, assembling and annotating a high-quality liver transcriptome suitable for studies of ecology and adaptation in desert rainbowfish. Transcript annotation in UniprotKB using BLASTx assigned unique protein matches to ~47% of 116,092 Trinity genes, while BLASTp assigned unique protein matches to ~35% of 62,792 predicted protein-coding regions. A full Trinotate annotation report is provided for predicted genes and their corresponding transcripts. Annotations were compared with previously identified genes for transcriptional regulation and heritable plasticity in future climates in the subtropical rainbowfish (M. duboulayi), finding ~57% of these candidate genes present in the desert rainbowfish transcriptome. We discuss the utility of transcriptomics methods for ecological studies of adaptation, while emphasising a range of methodological considerations for dealing with transcriptome datasets. This newly assembled transcriptome is expected to help elucidate mechanisms for adaptation to high temperatures and a variable climate in desert aquatic fauna. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the potential for trace organic contaminants commonly found in Australian rivers to induce vitellogenin in the native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and the introduced mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki)

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    Scott, Philip D. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Coleman, Heather M. [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Colville, Anne; Lim, Richard [School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, PO Box 123, Broadway, New South Wales, 2007 (Australia); Matthews, Benjamin [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); McDonald, James A. [School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, 2052 (Australia); Miranda, Ana [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Neale, Peta A. [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia); Nugegoda, Dayanthi [School of Applied Sciences, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, PO Box 71, Bundoora, Victoria, 3083 (Australia); Tremblay, Louis A. [Cawthron Institute, 98 Halifax St. East, Nelson 7042 (New Zealand); School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, PO Box 92019, Auckland, 1142 (New Zealand); Leusch, Frederic D.L., E-mail: f.leusch@griffith.edu.au [Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222 (Australia)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Mosquitofish and rainbowfish exposed in the lab to trace organic compounds. • Vitellogenin protein and mRNA monitored as biomarker of estrogenicity. • Minimal response in both species to environmentally relevant concentrations. • Native rainbowfish was slightly more sensitive than the invasive mosquitofish. • Results suggest that risk of estrogenic disruption in Australian rivers is low. - Abstract: In Australia, trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) and endocrine active compounds (EACs) have been detected in rivers impacted by sewage effluent, urban stormwater, agricultural and industrial inputs. It is unclear whether these chemicals are at concentrations that can elicit endocrine disruption in Australian fish species. In this study, native rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) and introduced invasive (but prevalent) mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were exposed to the individual compounds atrazine, estrone, bisphenol A, propylparaben and pyrimethanil, and mixtures of compounds including hormones and personal care products, industrial compounds, and pesticides at environmentally relevant concentrations. Vitellogenin (Vtg) protein and liver Vtg mRNA induction were used to assess the estrogenic potential of these compounds. Vtg expression was significantly affected in both species exposed to estrone at concentrations that leave little margin for safety (p < 0.001). Propylparaben caused a small but statistically significant 3× increase in Vtg protein levels (p = 0.035) in rainbowfish but at a concentration 40× higher than that measured in the environment, therefore propylparaben poses a low risk of inducing endocrine disruption in fish. Mixtures of pesticides and a mixture of hormones, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides induced a small but statistically significant increase in plasma Vtg in rainbowfish, but did not affect mosquitofish Vtg protein or mRNA expression. These results suggest that estrogenic activity represents a

  3. Humic acid decreases acute toxicity and ventilation frequency in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to acid mine drainage.

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    Holland, Aleicia; Duivenvoorden, Leo J; Kinnear, Susan H W

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global problem leading to the acidification of freshwaters, as well as contamination by heavy metals. The ability of humic substances (HS) such as humic acid (HA) to decrease toxicity of heavy metals is widely known, whereas limited studies have examined the ability of HS to decrease toxicity linked with multiple stressors such as those associated with AMD. This study investigated the ability of HA to decrease acute toxicity defined as morbidity and ventilation frequency (measured via the time elapsed for ten operculum movements) in eastern rainbowfish (Melanotaenia splendida splendida) exposed to the multiple stressors of AMD-driven heavy metal concentrations, together with low pH. Water from the Mount Morgan open pit (a now closed gold and copper mine site), located at Mount Morgan, Central Queensland, Australia, was used as the AMD source. Fish were exposed to zero per cent (pH 7.3), two per cent (pH 6.7), three per cent (pH 5.7) and four per cent (pH 4.6) AMD in the presence of 0, 10 and 20mg/L Aldrich Humic Acid (AHA) over 96h. HA was shown to significantly decrease the acute toxicity of AMD and its adverse effects on ventilation frequency. These results are important in showing that HA can influence toxicity of metal mixtures and low pH, thus indicating a potential role for HA in decreasing toxicity of multiple environmental stressors more widely, and possible value as a rehabilitation aid. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrated assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluent estrogenicity in the Upper Murray River, Australia, using the native Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis)

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    Vajda, Alan M.; Kumar, Anupama; Woods, Marianne; Williams, Mike; Doan, Hai; Tolsher, Peter; Kookana, Rai S.; Barber, Larry B.

    2016-01-01

    The contamination of major continental river systems by endocrine-active chemicals (EACs) derived from the discharge of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents can affect human and ecosystem health. As part of a long-term effort to develop a native fish model organism for assessment of endocrine disruption in Australia's largest watershed, the Murray-Darling River Basin, the present study evaluated endocrine disruption in adult males of the native Australian Murray rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) exposed to effluent from an activated sludge WWTP and water from the Murray River during a 28-d, continuous-flow, on-site experiment. Analysis of the WWTP effluent and river water detected estrone and 17β-estradiol at concentrations up to approximately 25 ng L−1. Anti-estrogenicity of effluent samples was detected in vitro using yeast-based bioassays (yeast estrogen screen) throughout the experiment, but estrogenicity was limited to the first week of the experiment. Histological evaluation of the testes indicated significant suppression of spermatogenesis by WWTP effluent after 28 d of exposure. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations and expression of vitellogenin messenger RNA in liver were not significantly affected by exposure to WWTP effluent. The combination of low contaminant concentrations in the WWTP effluent, limited endocrine disrupting effects in the Murray rainbowfish, and high in-stream dilution factors (>99%) suggest minimal endocrine disruption impacts on native Australian fish in the Murray River downstream from the WWTP outfall. 

  5. Effects of antiandrogenic progestins, chlormadinone and cyproterone acetate, and the estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and their mixtures: Transactivation with human and rainbowfish hormone receptors and transcriptional effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos

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    Siegenthaler, Patricia Franziska [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Bain, Peter [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Land and Water Flagship, PMB2, Glen Osmond, 5064 South Australia (Australia); Riva, Francesco [IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Environmental Biomarkers Unit, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Via La Masa 19, I-20156 Milan (Italy); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW), School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, Department of Environmental System Sciences, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Agonistic and antagonistic activity of CMA and CPA were assessed in vitro. • CMA and CPA showed different interaction with human and fish receptors. • No progestogenic but antiandrogenic and antiglucocorticoid activity occurred in fish. • CMA and CPA showed transcriptional changes in zebrafish embryos. • Binary mixtures of the progestins with EE2 were assessed in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Synthetic progestins act as endocrine disrupters in fish but their risk to the environment is not sufficiently known. Here, we focused on an unexplored antiandrogenic progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA), and the antiandrogenic progestin cyproterone acetate (CPA). The aim was to evaluate whether their in vitro interaction with human and rainbowfish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis) sex hormone receptors is similar. Furthermore, we investigated their activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleuthero-embryos. First, we studied agonistic and antagonistic activities of CMA, CPA, and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), in recombinant yeast expressing either the human progesterone (PGR), androgen (AR), or estrogen receptor. The same compounds were also investigated in vitro in a stable transfection cell system expressing rainbowfish nuclear steroid receptors. For human receptors, both progestins exhibited progestogenic, androgenic and antiestrogenic activity with no antiandrogenic or estrogenic activity. In contrast, interactions with rainbowfish receptors showed no progestogenic, but antiandrogenic, antiglucocorticoid, and some antiestrogenic activity. Thus, interaction with and transactivation of human and rainbowfish PGR and AR were distinctly different. Second, we analyzed transcriptional alterations in zebrafish eleuthero‐embryos at 96 and 144 h post fertilization after exposure to CPA, CMA, EE2, and binary mixtures of CMA and CPA with EE2, mimicking the use in oral contraceptives. CMA led to slight down-regulation of the ar transcript, while CPA down-regulated ar

  6. Environmental modulation of metabolic allometry in ornate rainbowfish Rhadinocentrus ornatus

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    Vaca, H. Fabian; White, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between the metabolic rate (MR) and body mass (M) of animals has been the source of controversy for over seven decades, with much of the focus on the value of the scaling exponent b, where MR is proportional to Mb. While it is well known that MR does not generally scale isometrically (i.e. b is seldom equal to 1), the value of b remains the subject of heated debate. In the present study, we examine the influence of an ecologically relevant abiotic variable, pH, on the metabolic allometry of an Australian freshwater fish, Rhadinocentrus ornatus. We show that the value of b is lower for rainbowfish acclimated to acidic (pH 5.0) conditions compared to rainbowfish acclimated to alkaline conditions (pH 8.5), but that acute exposure to altered pH does not alter the value of b. This significant effect of an abiotic variable on metabolic allometry supports a growing body of evidence that there is no universal value of b and demonstrates that experimental manipulations of metabolic allometry represent powerful, and as yet underused, tools to understand the factors that constrain and influence the allometry of metabolic rate. PMID:19776063

  7. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

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    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  8. The opportunistic feeding and reproduction strategies of the annual fish Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae inhabiting ephemeral habitats on southern Brazil

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    Cristina da Silva Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Most Rivulidae fishes are popularly known as annual fishes which live in ephemeral environments such as pools, that obligatorily dry out seasonally causing the death of adult individuals. They have unique biological characteristics such as small body size, early sexual maturation, continuous reproduction, an elaborated courtship behavior, and a great reproductive capacity among fishes. The rivulids are widely distributed in North, Central and South America. In this study, the diet and reproductive biology of Cynopoecilus melanotaenia was analyzed. A total of 263 specimens were collected and the analysis of 233 gastrointestinal contents revealed an invertivorous diet composed mainly of small crustaceans (Cladocera, Amphipoda, and Ostracoda and immature insects (Chaoboridae, Culicidae, Syrphidae, but mainly Chironomidae larvae. Lepidophagy on male's diet was also registered. Fecundity was estimated by analyzing 59 pairs of mature ovaries and ranged from 2 to 157 oocytes (mean, 19 ± 26[SD]. The species has fractional spawning, a strategy to increase the chance of survival to prolonged depletions. This study is the first to investigate the reproductive biology of C. melanotaenia. The results confirmed the opportunistic character of the rivulid C. melanotaenia and provided unreported reproductive information that may aid conservation of the species.

  9. Descrição morfológica dos ovários do peixe Melanotaenia boesemani em atividade reprodutiva

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    Marcella C. Radael

    Full Text Available Resumo: Estudou-se o tecido germinativo ovariano do peixe Melanotaenia boesemani. Por meio de análises morfológicas das gônadas, realizadas após a confecção de lâminas histológicas elaboradas em parafina e coradas com hematoxilina-eosina, foram descritos os tipos celulares encontrados e realizada a classificação do estádio de maturidade dos peixes. Macroscopicamente, foi identificado que a referida espécie possui ovário único, arredondado e, na fase observada, amarelado, localizado na parte látero-anterior da cavidade celomática. As fêmeas analisadas foram classificadas na escala de desenvolvimento gonadal como maduro/em reprodução. A presença de folículos vazios e marcas de desova nas lamelas ovulígeras mostrou-se evidente. Nos ovócitos vitelogênicos deste peixe, foi constatada a presença de filamentos de adesão ovocitária ancorados à zona pelúcida. Os ovários apresentaram aspecto morfológico geral semelhante ao de outros peixes teleósteos. Seu tipo de desova foi classificado como intermitente e o padrão de desenvolvimento de ovócitos, como assincrônico.

  10. YOLK CONSUMPTION DURING EMBRYONARY DEVELOPMENT OF SALMON-RED RAINBOWFISH, Glossolepis incisus. WEBER 1907 (Melanotaeniidae CONSUMO DE VITELO DURANTE O DESENVOLVIMENTO EMBRIONÁRIO DE MELANOTÊNIA-MAÇÃ, Glossolepis incisus, WEBER 1907 (Melanotaeniidae

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    Douglas Cruz Mattos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The consumption of yolk on development of embryos of the salmon-red rainbowfish (Glossolepis incisus was examined under controlled hatchery conditions. Naturally-fertilized eggs, obtained by natural spawning of cultured adults, were stocked into floating sieves in 40L flow-through aquaria at temperature of 28°C. A photoperiod of 16L: 8D was maintained. The embryos have a long period of hatching about 7 days at 28ºC, consuming almost all yolk during the early stages into the eggs. At hatching the newly-hatched larvae yolk-sac is reduced, but still present and the larvae are strongly swimmers and have a functional mouth, enteric peristaltic movement and anus opened suggesting an initial exogenous feeding stage. Differently to others species of tropical fishes that have a long time for the weaning, larvae of salmon-red rainbowfish are already for becoming first-feeding larvae in few hours after eclosion.

    KEY WORDS: Early development, ontogeny, ornamental fish.

    Avaliou-se o consumo do vitelo durante o desenvolvimento embrionário de melanotênia-maçã (Glossolepis incisus sob condições controladas de incubação. Os ovos foram obtidos por desovas naturais de matrizes em cativeiro e mantidos em peneiras em aquários de 40L, com fluxo contínuo de água por bombeamento, na temperatura de 28��C. O fotoperíodo mantido durante o experimento foi de 16L:8E. Os embriões demonstraram um longo período de incubação, em torno de sete dias, e consumiram quase todo o vitelo durante o período embrionário, ainda dentro dos ovos. Após a eclosão, a vesícula vitelínica das larvas recém-eclodidas é muito reduzida, mas ainda presente. As larvas recém-eclodidas apresentaram muita atividade natatória, uma boca funcional, movimentos peristálticos entéricos e ânus aberto sugerindo estar em

  11. PEMIJAHAN DAN PERKEMBANGAN EMBRIO IKAN PELANGI (Melanotaenia spp. ASAL SUNGAI SAWIAT, PAPUA

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    Bastiar Nur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ikan pelangi asal Sungai Sawiat, Papua merupakan ikan hias endemik yang belum diketahui data biologinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah telur yang dihasilkan, fertilitas dan daya tetas telur serta tahapan perkembangan embrio ikan pelangi asal Sungai Sawiat. Induk jantan dan betina ukuran 10–15 cm sebanyak 20 ekor, dipelihara dalam bak beton berukuran 2,5 x 2,5 x 1,0 m3 dengan sistem resirkulasi dan diberi pakan berupa cacing darah (bloodworm dengan frekuensi 3 kali sehari secara ad libitum. Dua ekor induk betina dan satu ekor induk jantan yang matang gonad dipijahkan dalam bak beton berukuran 1,0 x 1,0 x 0,75 m3 dan diberi tanaman air berupa eceng gondok sebagai pelindung serta media penempelan telur. Pengamatan ada tidaknya telur dilakukan setiap pagi dan sore hari selama 14 hari. Telur yang didapat dicatat baik fertile maupun infertile. Sebanyak 20 butir telur ditetaskan dalam basket plastik berukuran 13 x 10 x 5 cm dan selanjutnya diamati perkembangan embrionya dengan menggunakan mikroskop. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa jumlah telur yang dihasilkan sebanyak 436 butir per dua ekor induk betina (218 butir per ekor, fertilitas 77,06%; daya tetas telur 74,71%; dan telur menetas setelah 8.579 menit (142 jam 59 menit pada suhu air inkubasi 27,6 – 28,3oC. Rainbow fish species originated from Sawiat River of Papua is one of Indonesian endemic species which its biological data has not been catalogued properly. The objectives of this research were to know the number of eggs (fecundity, fertility and hatchability and also the stages of embryonic development of the fish. Total of 20 male and female broodstock around 10–15 cm in size, reared in concrete tank sized 2.5 x 2.5 x 1.0 m3 equipped with closed recirculating water system and fed with bloodworm  ad libitum 3 times daily. Two already matured females and one male were selected for natural breeding and then transferred to another concrete tank (1.0 x 1.0 x 0.75 m3 in size and equipped with water hyacinth as shelter and media for egg attachment. The released eggs were observed twice daily, in the morning and in the afternoon, during the 14 days of research. 20 fertilized eggs were incubated in a plastic basket (13 x 10 x 5 cm in size for preparation of embryonic development observation under binocular microscope. The result showed that the total egg produced by 2 females were 436 with fertility of 77.06%, and hatchability of 74.71%. Incubated eggs hatched after 8,579 minutes (142 hours and 59 minute at the temperature range of 27.6–28.3oC.

  12. Functional diversity of the lateral line system among populations of a native Australian freshwater fish.

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    Spiller, Lindsey; Grierson, Pauline F; Davies, Peter M; Hemmi, Jan; Collin, Shaun P; Kelley, Jennifer L

    2017-06-15

    Fishes use their mechanoreceptive lateral line system to sense nearby objects by detecting slight fluctuations in hydrodynamic motion within their immediate environment. Species of fish from different habitats often display specialisations of the lateral line system, in particular the distribution and abundance of neuromasts, but the lateral line can also exhibit considerable diversity within a species. Here, we provide the first investigation of the lateral line system of the Australian western rainbowfish ( Melanotaenia australis ), a species that occupies a diversity of freshwater habitats across semi-arid northwest Australia. We collected 155 individuals from eight populations and surveyed each habitat for environmental factors that may contribute to lateral line specialisation, including water flow, predation risk, habitat structure and prey availability. Scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent dye labelling were used to describe the lateral line system in M. australis , and to examine whether the abundance and arrangement of superficial neuromasts (SNs) varied within and among populations. We found that the SNs of M. australis were present in distinct body regions rather than lines. The abundance of SNs within each body region was highly variable, and also differed among populations and individuals. Variation in SN abundance among populations was best explained by habitat structure and the availability of invertebrate prey. Our finding that specific environmental factors explain among-population variation in a key sensory system suggests that the ability to acquire sensory information is specialised for the particular behavioural needs of the animal. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Substrate roughening improves swimming performance in two small-bodied riverine fishes: implications for culvert remediation and design

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    Rodgers, Essie M.; Heaslip, Breeana M.; Cramp, Rebecca L.; Riches, Marcus; Gordos, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Worldwide declines in riverine fish abundance and diversity have been linked to the fragmentation of aquatic habitats through the installation of instream structures (e.g. culverts, dams, weirs and barrages). Restoring riverine connectivity can be achieved by remediating structures impeding fish movements by, for example, replacing smooth substrates of pipe culverts with naturalistic substrates (i.e. river stones; culvert roughening). However, empirical evaluations of the efficacy of such remediation efforts are often lacking despite the high economic cost. We assessed the effectiveness of substrate roughening in improving fish swimming performance and linked this to estimates of upstream passage success. Critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) of two small-bodied fish, purple-spotted gudgeon (Mogurnda adspersa; 7.7–11.6 cm total length, BL) and crimson-spotted rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi; 4.2–8.7 cm BL) were examined. Swimming trials were conducted in a hydraulic flume fitted with either a smooth acrylic substrate (control) or a rough substrate with fixed river stones. Swimming performance was improved on the rough compared to the smooth substrate, with Mo. adspersa (Ucrit-smooth = 0.28 ± 0.0 m s−1, 2.89 ± 0.1 BL s−1, Ucrit-rough = 0.36 ± 0.02 m s−1, 3.66 ± 0.22 BL s−1, mean ± s.e) and Me. duboulayi (Ucrit-smooth = 0.46 ± 0.01 m s−1, 7.79 ± 0.33 BL s−1; Ucrit-rough = = 0.55 ± 0.03 m s−1, 9.83 ± 0.67 BL s−1, mean ± s.e.) both experiencing a 26% increase in relative Ucrit. Traversable water velocity models predicted maximum water speeds allowing successful upstream passage of both species to substantially increase following roughening remediation. Together these findings suggest culvert roughening may be a solution which allows hydraulic efficiency goals to be met, without compromising fish passage. PMID:28567285

  14. Isolation and characterization of hemolytic bacteria Fish disc and Neon Rainbow
    Isolamento e caracterização de bactérias hemolíticas de Acará Disco e Neon Arco-Íris

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; Bruno Correa Silva; Adolfo Jatobá; Walter Quadros Seiffert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the ability of potential pathogenic bacteria hemolytic mite Disco (Symphysodon discus) and Neon Rainbow (Melanotaenia praecox), and define which of the antibiotic Trimethoprim, Florfenicol, Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin, Bacitracin, Enrofloxacin, Tetracycline, and Furazolidone Clindamycin has better inhibitory effect in vitro, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Ery...

  15. A review of the Acanthocephala parasitising freshwater fishes in Australia.

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    Smales, L R; Adlard, R D; Elliot, A; Kelly, E; Lymbery, A J; Miller, T L; Shamsi, S

    2017-09-25

    The acanthocephalan fauna of Australian freshwater fishes was documented from field surveys, a literature survey and examination of specimens registered in Australian museums. From the 4030 fishes, representing 78 of the 354 Australian freshwater fish species (22%), examined for infection seven species of acanthocephalan were recovered. These species comprised five endemic species, three in endemic genera, two species in cosmopolitan genera, one species not fully identified and 1 putative exotic species recovered from eight species of fish. Of these Edmonsacanthus blairi from Melanotaenia splendida, was the only acanthocephalan found at a relatively high prevalence of 38·6%. These findings are indicative of a highly endemic and possibly depauperate acanthocephalan fauna. Species richness was higher in the tropical regions than the temperate regions of the country. Exotic acanthocephalan species have either not been introduced with their exotic hosts or have been unable to establish their life cycles in Australian conditions. Consequently, acanthocephalans have not yet invaded endemic Australian fish hosts.

  16. Isolation and characterization of hemolytic bacteria Fish disc and Neon RainbowIsolamento e caracterização de bactérias hemolíticas de Acará Disco e Neon Arco-Íris

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the ability of potential pathogenic bacteria hemolytic mite Disco (Symphysodon discus and Neon Rainbow (Melanotaenia praecox, and define which of the antibiotic Trimethoprim, Florfenicol, Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin, Bacitracin, Enrofloxacin, Tetracycline, and Furazolidone Clindamycin has better inhibitory effect in vitro, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin and Enrofloxacin. In an outbreak of ornamental fish deaths were isolated nine strains of Gram negative, hemolytic where 3 were identified, two as Vibrio cholerae and one as Citrobacter braakii. With these strains were performed antibiogram and was determined the minimum inhibitory concentration at two different temperatures (22 and 30 ° C. Antibiotics Enrofloxacin, Norfloxacin, florfenicol, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim showed the best results in vitro inhibition against the Vibrio cholerae, and Citrobacter braakii. The MIC increased in 30 ° C for erythromycin and enrofloxacin against pathogens, while for Florfenicol and norfloxacin the MIC was not influenced by temperature.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar, identificar e determinar a capacidade hemolítica de possíveis bactérias patogênicas do Acará Disco (Symphysodon discus e Neon Arco-íris (Melanotaenia praecox, e definir qual o antibiótico entre Trimetoprim, Florfenicol, Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina, Bacitracina, Enrofloxacina, Tetraciclina, Furazolidona e Clindamicina possui melhor efeito inibitório in vitro, e determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC para Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina e Enrofloxacina. Em um surto de mortalidade de peixes ornamentais foram isoladas nove cepas de bactérias Gram negativas, onde três hemolíticas foram identificadas, duas como Vibrio cholerae e uma como Citrobacter braakii. Com estas foram realizados antibiogramas

  17. Diet of four annual killifishes: an intra and interspecific comparison

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    Gabriel Laufer

    Full Text Available We examined the diet of 4 annual fishes, Austrolebias viarius, Austrolebias cheradophilus, Austrolebias luteoflammulatus and Cynopoecilus melanotaenia inhabiting temporal ponds of southeastern Uruguay, by analysis of stomach contents. Fishes were captured from fifty ephemeral ponds of Castillos Lagoon basin, in the region of the Humedales del Este. We identified 13099 individual prey items extracted from 669 stomachs of the four captured species. In the studied system, annual killifishes represents the most abundant and conspicuous top predators. Killifishes are generalist key predators at the ephemeral ponds of the studied system, consuming mostly aquatic items. Zooplancton represented the bulk of the diet in the four analyzed species, followed by eggs, algae and diatoms. Insects are the next group in prey number, as follows: Diptera larvae (especially Chironomidae and Cullicidae, Ephemeroptera (especially Betidae, and coleopteran larvae (especially Dytiscidae. Acari are also important prey in number. The four fish species differ in diet composition and in diet richness. A general pattern of differences in diet richness among killifish species and demographic groups could be related to variations in body sizes. As top predators annual killifishes are an important component of the temporal pond ecosystems. Understanding the natural history of this species and their communities is necessary in order to conserve them.

  18. Next-generation sequencing detects repetitive elements expansion in giant genomes of annual killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, G; Ríos, N; Gutiérrez, V

    2015-06-01

    Among Neotropical fish fauna, the South American killifish genus Austrolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) constitutes an excellent model to study the genomic evolutionary processes underlying speciation events. Recently, unusually large genome size has been described in 16 species of this genus, with an average DNA content of about 5.95 ± 0.45 pg per diploid cell (mean C-value of about 2.98 pg). In the present paper we explore the possible origin of this unparallel genomic increase by means of comparative analysis of the repetitive components using NGS (454-Roche) technology in the lowest and highest Rivulidae genomes. Here, we provide the first annotated Rivulidae-repeated sequences composition and their relative repetitive fraction in both genomes. Remarkably, the genomic proportion of the moderately repetitive DNA in Austrolebias charrua genome represents approximately twice (45%) of the repetitive components of the highly related rivulinae taxon Cynopoecilus melanotaenia (25%). Present work provides evidence about the impact of the repeat families that could be distinctly proliferated among sublineages within Rivulidae fish group, explaining the great genome size differences encompassing the differentiation and speciation events in this family.

  19. Parasites in Fresh Water Ornamental Fish (Cupang, Guppy and Rainbow Fish

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    M. Alifuddin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasite inventory on some fresh water ornamental fish was done by survey methode. Parasites found from cupang fish namely Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Dactylogyrus sp. and Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platyhelminthes, Acanthocephala and cystic form; in guppy fish Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platyhelminthes and Lerneae sp. (Crustasea; on rainbowg found Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platyhelminthes, Acanthocephala, Lerneae sp. (Krustasea and cystic form. Parasites found known as ecto, meso and endoparasites. From this study, there is correlation between parastes present with length fish. Key word : Fish water ornamental fish, fish parasites   ABSTRAK Inventarisi parasit telah dilakukan dengan metode survey pada ikan hias air tawar yakni, ikan cupang (Betta splendens Regan, ikan gapi (Poecilia reticulata Peters dan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia macculochi Ogilby. Pada ikan cupang ditemukan parasit Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Dactylogyrus sp. dan Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platy-helminthes, Acanthocephala dan kiste; pada ikan gapi ditemukan Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platyhelminthes dan Lerneae sp. (Krustasea; pada ikan rainbowg ditemukan parasit Trichodinid (Ciliophora, Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodaclylus sp. (Platyhelminthes, Acanthocephala, Lerneae sp. {Krustasea dan kista. Parasit yang ditemukan tergolong ekto, meso dan endoparasit. Dari penelitian ini terlihat adanya hubungan keberadaan parasit dengan ukuran panjang ikan. Kata kunci: Ikan hias air tawar, parasit ikan

  20. Fish Predation by Semi-Aquatic Spiders: A Global Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffeler, Martin; Pusey, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders – observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens – are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2–6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil). Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae), in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae), and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae). The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences). There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the ‘swimming’ huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae]) predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders’ body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders). Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance. PMID:24940885

  1. Fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders: a global pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nyffeler

    Full Text Available More than 80 incidences of fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders--observed at the fringes of shallow freshwater streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, and fens--are reviewed. We provide evidence that fish predation by semi-aquatic spiders is geographically widespread, occurring on all continents except Antarctica. Fish predation by spiders appears to be more common in warmer areas between 40° S and 40° N. The fish captured by spiders, usually ranging from 2-6 cm in length, are among the most common fish taxa occurring in their respective geographic area (e.g., mosquitofish [Gambusia spp.] in the southeastern USA, fish of the order Characiformes in the Neotropics, killifish [Aphyosemion spp.] in Central and West Africa, as well as Australian native fish of the genera Galaxias, Melanotaenia, and Pseudomugil. Naturally occurring fish predation has been witnessed in more than a dozen spider species from the superfamily Lycosoidea (families Pisauridae, Trechaleidae, and Lycosidae, in two species of the superfamily Ctenoidea (family Ctenidae, and in one species of the superfamily Corinnoidea (family Liocranidae. The majority of reports on fish predation by spiders referred to pisaurid spiders of the genera Dolomedes and Nilus (>75% of observed incidences. There is laboratory evidence that spiders from several more families (e.g., the water spider Argyroneta aquatica [Cybaeidae], the intertidal spider Desis marina [Desidae], and the 'swimming' huntsman spider Heteropoda natans [Sparassidae] predate fish as well. Our finding of such a large diversity of spider families being engaged in fish predation is novel. Semi-aquatic spiders captured fish whose body length exceeded the spiders' body length (the captured fish being, on average, 2.2 times as long as the spiders. Evidence suggests that fish prey might be an occasional prey item of substantial nutritional importance.