Sample records for rain-induced spring wheat

  1. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  2. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  3. Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat

    ‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  4. Study on Somaclonal Variation of Spring Wheat

    JIANG Shu-mei; HU Shang-lian; LI Wen-xiong


    Somaclonal variation of calli and regenerated plants of spring wheat ware detected by using technique RAPD in the study. Calli at different culture stages and regenerated plants derived from young spikes and immature embryos were used as materials. Molecular variation could be reflected from electrophoresis patternof RAPD fragments at different culture stage in calli, and in regenerated plants derived from different explants, even no phenotype variations were found. Somaclonal variation in calli and in regenerated plants appeared regularly: A higher frequency of variation in hybrids F2 was detected than that of the cultivar that is stable genetically. High variation frequency of RAPD fragments appeared in calli when cultured 75 days. The identical variations of RAPD fragments were observed in calli and in the regenerated plants induced from different genotype or explants. The variation frequency detected is higher in regenerated plants than that of in calli. RAPD could be applied easily and simply to determine variation in level of DNA at each stage cultured in vitro.

  5. 76 FR 44574 - Antidumping Duty Investigation and Countervailing Duty Investigation of Hard Red Spring Wheat...


    ... imports from Canada of hard red spring wheat before a North American Free Trade Agreement (``NAFTA... Red Spring Wheat From Canada: Notice of Court Decision and Amended Revocation of Countervailing and... Border Protection (``CBP'') to liquidate all unliquidated entries of hard red spring wheat from Canada...

  6. Spring wheat gliadins: Have they changed in 100 years?

    There have been many hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released in North Dakota during the last 100 years. These cultivars have been improved for various characteristics such as, adaptation to weather conditions, high yield, and good milling and baking quality. The objectives of this study wer...

  7. Release of ‘UI Platinum’ hard white spring wheat

    ‘UI Platinum’ (Reg. No. CV------, PI 672533) hard white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2014. UI Platinum was derived from the cross ‘Blanca Grande’ x ‘Jerome’ and tested under experimental numbers A01178S, IDO694, and I...

  8. Relative Efficacy of Liquid Nitrogen Fertilizers in Dryland Spring Wheat

    Olga S. Walsh


    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at three locations in North Central and Western Montana (total of 6 site-years to evaluate the relative efficacy of three liquid nitrogen (N fertilizer sources, urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, 32-0-0, liquid urea (LU, 21-0-0, and High NRGN (HNRGN, 27-0-0-1S, in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In addition to at-seeding urea application at 90 kg N ha−1 to all treatments (except for the unfertilized check plot, the liquid fertilizers were applied utilizing an all-terrain vehicle- (ATV- mounted stream-bar equipped sprayer at a rate of 45 kg N ha−1 at Feekes 5 growth stage (early tillering. Three dilution ratios of fertilizer to water were accessed: 100/0 (undiluted, 66/33, and 33/66. The effects of N source and the dilution ratio (fertilizer/water on N uptake (NUp, N use efficiency (NUE, spring wheat grain yield (GY, grain protein (GP content, and protein yield (PY were assessed. The dilution ratios had no effect on GY, GP, PY, NUp, and NUE at any of the site-years in this study. Taking into account agronomic and economic factors, LU can be recommended as the most suitable liquid N fertilizer source for spring wheat cropping systems of the Northern Great Plains.

  9. Investigation on Pasting Characteristics of Spring-sown Chinese Bread Wheats

    ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu


    Forty-seven spring wheat Triticumaestivum cultivars and advanced lines from spring-sown spring wheat regions, at twelve locations in 1998 and 1999, were used to investigate pasting properties of Chinese spring wheats. Starch pasting properties were closely associated with noodle quality. Significant differences were observed for all pasting characteristics. Samples collected from Harbin, Shenyang, Beijing, Bameng, Yongning, and Urumqi had better pasting quality than those from other locations. Genotype, environment, and genotype by environment interaction had large effects on all pasting characteristics. Significant correlations among pasting characteristics were observed and peak viscosity was considered the most important pasting characteristics.

  10. Share of anthropophytes in the crop sequence: winter wheat – maize – spring wheat depending on tillage system

    Tomasz R. Sekutowski


    Full Text Available An experiment, conducted over the period 2008–2010, evaluated the effect of tillage system on the occurrence and species composition of anthropophytes in winter wheat, maize and spring wheat. Regardless of crop plant and tillage system, anthropophytes (73.9%, represented by archaeophytes and kenophytes, were the main component of the flora in the crops studied, whereas apophytes accounted for the remaining 26.1%. Most archaeophytes (13 species were found in the spring wheat crop under no-tillage, while their lowest number (6 species occurred in the spring wheat crop under conventional tillage. The only kenophyte, Conyza canadensis, was found to occur in the spring wheat and maize crops in the no-tillage system. The following taxa were dominant species among archeophytes: Geranium pusillum, Anthemis arvensis, and Viola arvensis (regardless of tillage system and crop plant, Anthemis arvensis (in spring wheat – conventional tillage, Echinochloa crus-galli and Setaria glauca (in maize – reduced tillage and no-tillage, Chenopodium album (in maize – no-tillage as well as Apera spica-venti, Anthemis arvensis and Papaver rhoeas (in winter wheat – no-tillage.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Anther Extrusion in Spring and Winter Wheat

    Quddoos H. Muqaddasi


    Full Text Available Hybrid wheat breeding is gaining prominence worldwide because it ensures higher and more static yield than conventionally bred varieties. The cleistogamous floral architecture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. impedes anthers inside the floret, making it largely an inbreeder. For hybrid seed production, high anther extrusion is needed to promote cross pollination and to ensure a high level of pollen availability for the seed plant. This study, therefore, aimed at the genetic dissection of anther extrusion (AE in panels of spring (SP, and winter wheat (WP accessions by genome wide association studies (GWAS. We performed GWAS to identify the SNP markers potentially linked with AE in each panel separately. Phenotypic data were collected for 3 years for each panel. The average levels of Pearson's correlation (r among all years and their best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs within both panels were high (r(SP = 0.75, P < 0.0001;r(WP = 0.72, P < 0.0001. Genotypic data (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied included 12,066 and 12,191 SNP markers for SP and WP, respectively. Both genotypes and environment influenced the magnitude of AE. In total, 23 significant (|log10(P| > 3.0 marker trait associations (MTAs were detected (SP = 11; WP = 12. Anther extrusion behaved as a complex trait with significant markers having either favorable or unfavorable additive effects and imparting minor to moderate levels of phenotypic variance (R2(SP = 9.75−14.24%; R2 (WP = 9.44−16.98%. All mapped significant markers as well as the markers within their significant linkage disequilibrium (r2 ≥ 0.30 regions were blasted against wheat genome assembly (IWGSC1+popseq to find the corresponding genes and their high confidence descriptions were retrieved. These genes and their orthologs in Hordeum vulgare, Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor revealed syntenic genomic regions potentially involved in flowering-related traits. Moreover, the

  12. Crop diversification, tillage, and management system influences on spring wheat yield and soil water use

    Depleted soil quality, decreased water availability, and increased weed competition constrain spring wheat production in the northern Great Plains. Integrated crop management systems are necessary for improved crop productivity. We conducted a field experiment from 2004-2010 comparing productivity...

  13. Analysis on Main Traits of Spring Wheat Landraces in Tibet

    Jishan XIANG; Xiaogang MA; Peiyuan MU; Lihua CHEN; Hongjun XU


    In this study, 9 main traits of 774 spring wheat landraces in Tibet were investigated and analyzed. The results show that spring wheat landraces in Tibet have high plant height (with an average of 126.1 cm) and long growth period (with an average of 135.2 d), with an average spike length of 9.5 cm, average effective tiller number per plant of 5.9, average spikelet number per spike of 19.9, average kernel number per spikelet of 3.5, average spikelet number per spike of 51.8, aver- age kernel weight per spike of 2.0 g, and average 1 000-grain weight of 38.1 g. Specifically, kernel number per spikelet of 2 landraces is larger than 6.0, spikelet number per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 100, kernel weight per spike of 2 landraces is larger than 4.0 g, 1 000-grain weight of 11 tandraces is larger than 50 g. There is abundant genetic diversity in those traits except in growth period, and the coefficient variation of 9 traits is in a decreasing order of effective tiller number per plant 〉 kernel weight per spike 〉 kernel number per spike 〉 spike length 〉 kernel number per spikelet 〉 1 000-grain weight 〉 plant height 〉 spikelet number per spike 〉 growth period. There is different relevance among different traits. Growth period is extremely significantly positively related to yield traits; grain number traits are extremely significantly positively relative to plant height and spike length, but ex- tremely significantly negatively relative to effective tiller number per plant; kernel number per spike is extremely significantly positively relative to kernel weight per spike, but extremely significantly negatively related to 1 000-grain weight; 1 000-grain weight is extremely significantly positively related to kernel weight per spike. Based on principal component analysis, these 9 traits could be included by 5 principal com- ponents (grain number, grain weight, spike length, tiller number and growth period). According to the comprehensive evaluation

  14. Crop Sequence Influences on Sustainable Spring Wheat Production in the Northern Great Plains

    Joseph M. Krupinsky


    Full Text Available Cropping systems in American agriculture are highly successful since World War II, but have become highly specialized, standardized, and simplified to meet the demands of an industrialized food system. Minimal attention has been given to the efficient exploitation of crop diversity and the synergistic and/or antagonistic relationships of crops in crop sequences. Objectives of our research were to determine if previous crop sequences have long-term benefits and/or drawbacks on spring wheat seed yield, seed N concentration, and seed precipitation-use efficiency in the semiarid northern Great Plains, USA. Research was conducted 6 km southwest of Mandan, ND using a 10 × 10 crop matrix technique as a research tool to evaluate multiple crop sequence effects on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L. production in 2004 and 2005. Spring wheat production risks can be mitigated when second year crop residue was dry pea (Pisium sativum L. averaged over all first year crop residues. When compared to spring wheat as second year crop residue in the dry year of 2004, dry pea as the second year residue crop resulted in a 30% spring wheat seed yield increase. Sustainable cropping systems need to use precipitation efficiently for crop production, especially during below average precipitation years like 2004. Precipitation use efficiency average over all treatments, during the below average precipitation year was 23% greater than the above average precipitation year of 2005. Diversifying crops in cropping systems improves production efficiencies and resilience of agricultural systems.

  15. Differences between organically grown varieties of spring wheat, in response to weed competition and yield

    Feledyn-Szewczyk Beata


    Full Text Available When growing wheat, one of the non-chemical methods of weed regulation is to choose wheat varieties which have a high ability to compete with weeds. The first aim of the research was the estimation of the relationships between the morphological features and canopy parameters of six spring wheat varieties. The second aim was the estimation of the varieties’ competitive ability against weeds. The third aim was the estimation of the grain yield of the six varieties. The experiment was carried out in the 2011–2013 time period, on fields which had been organically managed since 1994. Different features affected the weed infestation levels of the spring wheat varieties. For Bombona, negative correlations between the number of weeds and the height, dry matter of wheat, and wheat density, were proved. For Brawura, Hewilla, and Żura, the height, number of tillers, and dry matter of wheat were the main factors influencing weed abundance. A strong negative correlation between the number of weeds and the dry matter of wheat was found for Parabola. Cluster analysis indicated that Bombona and Brawura were the most competitive against weeds, while Monsun and Parabola were characterized as being the least competitive against weeds. Weed number significantly affected the grain yield of spring wheat (r = −0.418. The grain yield was positively correlated with the number of tillers (r = 0.459 and ears (r = 0.355, and the height (r = 0.534 and wheat dry matter (r = 0.411. Bombona and Brawura were the lowest yielding varieties (3.03 and 3.20 t · ha−1, respectively, whereas the highest yield was achieved by Żura (3.82 t · ha−1, on average.

  16. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)


    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  17. The Relationship Between Temperature & Sunshine and Spring-Sown Wheat Quality

    CAO Guang-cai; LI Meng; WU Dong-bing; SUN Qun; QIANG Xiao-lin; CHEN He-qin; DONG Mei; KOU Hao; WANG Jian-lin; HOU Li-bai


    In order to study the relationship between temperature&sunshine and spring-sown wheat qua lity,a spring-sown experiment with 3 wheat varieties was conducted in Rikaze,Lasa,Linzhi,Beijing and Shenyang from 1998 to 2001.The results indicated that significant difference on some quality characteristics of experimental wheat varieties were observed from different locations and different years.The results also showed:protein content was positively correlated with wet gluten content,falling number,the average day temperature and sunshine hours from heading to maturation;and negatively correlated with the growing days and the average diurnal temperature difference from sowing to maturation;wet gluten content was positively correlated with the average day temperature and sunshine hours during the same period.Sedimentation value and falling number were positively correlated with the average sunshine hours from sowing to maturation.The basic way of wheat production in Tibet was as follows:mainly developing medium gluten wheat varieties,suitably planting weak gluten wheat varieties,introducing some inland excellent varieties.

  18. Genetics of end-use quality differences between a modern and historical spring wheat

    The goal of this project was to determine the genetic basis for quality differences between a modern semidwarf spring wheat cultivar ‘McNeal’ and a historically important standard height cultivar ‘Thatcher’. McNeal is higher yielding with lower grain protein than Thatcher, yet has stronger gluten p...

  19. Combined impact of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date on spring wheat phenology in Northern China

    Xiao, Dengpan; Tao, Fulu; Shen, Yanjun; Qi, Yongqing


    Distinct climate changes since the end of the 1980s have led to clear responses in crop phenology in many parts of the world. This study investigated the trends in the dates of spring wheat phenology in relation to mean temperature for different growth stages. It also analyzed the impacts of climate change, cultivar shift, and sowing date adjustments on phenological events/phases of spring wheat in northern China (NC). The results showed that significant changes have occurred in spring wheat phenology in NC due to climate warming in the past 30 years. Specifically, the dates of anthesis and maturity of spring wheat advanced on average by 1.8 and 1.7 day (10 yr)-1. Moreover, while the vegetative growth period (VGP) shortened at most stations, the reproductive growth period (RGP) prolonged slightly at half of the investigated stations. As a result, the whole growth period (WGP) of spring wheat shortened at most stations. The findings from the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model simulated results for six representative stations further suggested that temperature rise generally shortened the spring wheat growth period in NC. Although the warming trend shortened the lengths of VGP, RGP, and WGP, the shift of new cultivars with high accumulated temperature requirements, to some extent, mitigated and adapted to the ongoing climate change. Furthermore, shifts in sowing date exerted significant impacts on the phenology of spring wheat. Generally, an advanced sowing date was able to lower the rise in mean temperature during the different growth stages (i.e., VGP, RGP, and WGP) of spring wheat. As a result, the lengths of the growth stages should be prolonged. Both measures (cultivar shift and sowing date adjustments) could be vital adaptation strategies of spring wheat to a warming climate, with potentially beneficial effects in terms of productivity.

  20. Fusarium head blight resistance QTL in the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137

    Curt A McCartney


    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a very important disease of wheat globally. Damage caused by F. graminearum includes reduced grain yield, reduced grain functional quality, and results in the presence of the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in Fusarium-damaged kernels. The development of FHB resistant wheat cultivars is an important component of integrated management. The objective of this study was to identify QTL for FHB resistance in a recombinant inbred line (RIL population of the spring wheat cross Kenyon/86ISMN 2137. Kenyon is a Canadian spring wheat, while 86ISMN 2137 is an unrelated spring wheat. The RIL population was evaluated for FHB resistance in six FHB nurseries. Nine additive effect QTL for FHB resistance were identified, six from Kenyon and three from 86ISMN 2137. Rht8 and Ppd-D1a co-located with two FHB resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2DS. A major QTL for FHB resistance from Kenyon (QFhb.crc-7D was identified on chromosome 7D. The QTL QFhb.crc-2D.4 from Kenyon mapped to the same region as a FHB resistance QTL from Wuhan-1 on chromosome arm 2DL. This result was unexpected since Kenyon does not share common ancestry with Wuhan-1. Other FHB resistance QTL on chromosomes 4A, 4D, and 5B also mapped to known locations of FHB resistance. Four digenic epistatic interactions were detected for FHB resistance, which involved eight QTL. None of these QTL were significant based upon additive effect QTL analysis. This study provides insight into the genetic basis of native FHB resistance in Canadian spring wheat.


    Mohamed Mergoum


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. flour represents one of the primary sources of calories and proteins for the human diet. The increase in the wheat yield without losing its baking and milling quality is an important breeding objective. The use of QTL analysis is an expedient methodology to help breeders to face this multifaceted challenge. Here, a population of 129 recombinant inbred lines (RILs developed from a cross between ‘Steele-ND’ cultivar and ‘ND 735’ advanced line was used to evaluate several yield and quality traits and map the genomic regions controlling these traits. The phenotypic data were collected from field experiments conducted at four North Dakota (ND, USA environments. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits, with RILs outperforming the most adapted parent and commercial cultivars. Using a linkage map of 392 markers, composite interval mapping identified a total of 13 environment-specific QTLs, all explaining large phenotypic variations (R2=16-44%. The genotypic values of these “reserve” alleles were directly used as criteria of selection in breeding programs.

  2. Study on the Change of GAs,ABA Level and ABA/GAs Ratio in the Embryos of Spring Wheat and Winter Wheat During Vernalization

    MiGuohua; LiWenxong


    Spring wheat(cv.7742)and winter wheat (cv.Nongda 015) were vernalized by seed chilling,and the changes of GAs,ABA content and GAs/ABA ration in embryo wer investigated.The differences between cultivars,treatments and variety-treatment inleractions were significant for both GAs and ABA.The level of GAs and ABA as well as GAs/ABA ratio were hardly changed by seed chilling in spriug wheat Howerve,in winter wheat,the GAs content decreased much less compared with ABA that reduced sharply after chilling.It showed that the GAs/ABA ratio in winter wheat was increased remarkably(4.55 times)than in spring wheat.It was suggested that the absolute GAs Ievel was independent of the vernalization effect because there was a higher GAs Level before and after seed chilling in winter wheat when compared with spring wheat,One of the vemalization effects was the decline of ABA level that led to the increase of GAs/ABA ratio.

  3. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    Osman, A.M.


    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  4. Towards an improved variety assortment for the Dutch organic sector : case studies on onion and spring wheat

    Osman, A.M.


    Key words: organic farming; principles of organic agriculture; food production chain; plant breeding; genetic correlation; plant traits; farmers’ preferences; variety testing; Value for Cultivation and Use; EU seed legislation; onion; Allium cepa; spring wheat; Triticum aestivum; baking qualit

  5. Winter soil warming exacerbates the impacts of spring low temperature stress on wheat

    Li, Xiangnan; Jiang, D.; Liu, Fulai


    The increase in global mean air temperature is likely to affect the soil temperatures in agricultural areas. This study aims to study the effects of winter soil warming on the responses of wheat to low temperature stress in spring. Wheat plants were grown under either normal or increased soil...... temperature by 2.5 °C for 82 days in winter. The physiological and yield responses of the plants to a 2-day low temperature stress (4/2 °C in the day/night) at jointing stage were investigated. After exposing to low spring temperature, the plants that had experienced winter soil warming showed lower leaf...... and root water potential, lower oxygen scavenging capacity and poor photosynthetic performance as compared with the plants grown under normal soil temperature during winter. WL plants had significantly lower sugar content in shoot than the CL plants, which might have contributed to their higher...

  6. Molecular markers as a complementary tool in risk assessments: quantifying interspecific gene flow from triticale to spring wheat and durum wheat.

    Kavanagh, Vanessa B; Hills, Melissa J; Goyal, Aakash; Randhawa, Harpinder S; Topinka, A Keith; Eudes, Francois; Hall, Linda M


    Triticale is being considered as a bioindustrial crop in Canada using genetic modification. Because related spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (T. durum) may exhibit synchronous flowering and grow in proximity, determination of interspecific gene flow when triticale is the pollen donor is necessary to evaluate potential risk. Pollen-mediated gene flow risk assessments generally rely on phenotypic markers to detect hybridization but DNA markers could be powerful and less ambiguous in quantifying rare interspecific gene flow. Six cultivars representing four species [spring wheat, durum wheat, triticale and rye (Secale cereale)] were screened with 235 spring wheat and 27 rye SSR markers to evaluate transferability and polymorphism. Fifty-five polymorphic markers were used in conjunction with morphological characterization to quantify interspecific gene flow from a blue aleurone (BA) triticale line to two spring wheat cultivars (AC Barrie and AC Crystal) and one durum wheat cultivar (AC Avonlea). Approximately 1.9 Million seeds from small plot experiments were visually screened in comparison with known hybrid seed. In total 2031 putative hybrids were identified and 448 germinated. Morphological analysis of putative hybrid plants identified five hybrids while molecular analysis identified 11 hybrids and two were common to both. Combined, 14 hybrids were confirmed: 10 spring wheat × triticale (0.0008 % of harvested seed): seven AC Barrie × BA triticale (0.001 %) and three AC Crystal × BA triticale (0.0005 %); and four durum wheat × triticale (0.0006 %). The occurrence of rare hybrids does not present a substantial risk to the development of GM triticale.

  7. Cessation of tillering in spring wheat in relation to light interception and red:far-red ratio

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.; Andrieu, B.; Struik, P.C.


    ¿ Background and Aims The production of axillary shoots (tillering) in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) depends on intraspecific competition. The mechanisms that underlie this competition are complex, but light within the wheat canopy plays a key role. The main objectives of this paper are to

  8. Variation of free asparagine concentration and association with quality parameters for hard red spring wheat grown in North Dakota

    Free asparagine in wheat is known to be a precursor for the formation of acrylamide which is unacceptable to consumers due to its potential risks to human health. This research was performed to determine variation of free asparagine concentration (FAC) in hard red spring (HRS) wheat grown in North ...

  9. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten protein

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and disease resistance. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms of...

  10. Reproductive Allocation Patterns in Different Density Populations of Spring Wheat

    Jing Liu; Gen-Xuan Wang; Liang Wei; Chun-Ming Wang


    The effects of Increased intraspecific competition on size hierarchies (size inequality) and reproductive allocation were investigated in populations of the annual plant, spdng wheat (Triticum aestivum). A series of densities (100, 300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2) along a gradient of competition intensity were designed in this experiment. The results showed that average shoot biomass decreased with increased density. Reproductive allocation was negatively correlated to Gini coefficient (R2=0.927), which suggested that reproductive allocation is inclined to decrease as size inequality increases. These results suggest that both vegetative and reproductive structures were significantly affected by intensive competition. However, results also indicated that there were different relationships between plant size and reproductive allocation pattern in different densities. In the lowest density population, lacking competition (100 plants/m2), individual reproductive allocation was size independent but, in high density populations (300, 1 000, 3 000 and 10 000 plants/m2), where competition occurred, individual reproductive allocation was size dependent: the small proportion of larger individuals were winners In competition and got higher reproductive allocation (lower marginal reproductive allocation; MRA), and the larger proportion of smaller individuals were suppressed and got lower reproductive allocation (higher MRA). In conclusion, our results support the prediction that elevated intraspecific competition would result in higher levels of size inequality and decreased reproductive allocation (with a negative relationship between them). However, deeper analysis indicated that these frequency- and size-dependent reproductive strategies were not evolutionarily stable strategies.

  11. Refrigerated dough quality: effect of environment and genotypes of hard red spring wheat.

    Simsek, S; Whitney, K L; Ohm, J B; Anderson, J; Mergoum, M


    Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan percentages in the flours ranged from 0.97 to 1.54. Xylanase activity of the flour was measured and ranged from 0.20 to 0.84 mU/g. An important factor in the suitability for refrigerated dough is the syruping during storage. A large amount of variability in dough syruping was observed among the varieties and locations when the extent of dough syruping was measured over a period of 10 d. The mean dough syruping on day 10 ranged from 2.05% to 14.83%. Despite the significant interaction effect of genotype and environment, 2 varieties, Glenn and Oklee, had lower dough syrup formation with greater stability across growing locations and storage days than other varieties. Practical Application: Refrigerated dough production is one of the fastest growing segments of the ready-to-use food industry. Well-formulated and processed refrigerated doughs are practical to consume and should stay fresh during extended periods of storage; thus, maintenance of dough quality during refrigeration is critical. This study was designed to perform the research on genotypic and environmental effects on variations in dough syruping during refrigeration storage of doughs from hard red spring wheats.

  12. Response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. quality traits and yield to sowing date.

    Mukhtar Ahmed

    Full Text Available The unpredictability and large fluctuation of the climatic conditions in rainfed regions do affect spring wheat yield and grain quality. These variations offer the opportunity for the production of better quality wheat. The effect of variable years, locations and sowing managements on wheat grain yield and quality was studied through field experiments using three genotypes, three locations for two years under rainfed conditions. The two studied years as contrasting years at three locations and sowing dates depicted variability in temperature and water stress during grain filling which resulted considerable change in grain yield and quality. Delayed sowing, years (2009-10 and location (Talagang with high temperature and water stress resulted increased proline, and grain quality traits i.e. grain protein (GP and grain ash (GA than optimum conditions (during 2008-09, at Islamabad and early sowing. However, opposite trend was observed for dry gluten (DG, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, SPAD content and grain yield irrespective of genotypes. The influence of variable climatic conditions was dominant in determining the quality traits and inverse relationship was observed among some quality traits and grain yield. It may be concluded that by selecting suitable locations and different sowing managements for subjecting the crop to desirable environmental conditions (temperature and water quality traits of wheat crop could be modified.

  13. Physiological response cascade of spring wheat to soil warming and drought

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Rasmussen, Søren Kjærsgaard;


    Climate change is affecting wheat production in Northern Europe; in particular, drought and soil warming during anthesis may cause significant yield losses of the crop. In a search for genotypes tolerant to these stresses, the physiological responses of three spring wheat cultivars to increased...... soil temperature (3°C above normal) (H), drought (D) and their combination (HD) were investigated. The plants were grown in pots in a climate-controlled greenhouse. Stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (A), leaf water potential (Ψl), and relative water content (RWC) were measured during...... the treatment period. The responses of these variables to soil drying (for both D and HD) were described by a linear–plateau model, indicating the soil water thresholds at which the variables started to decrease in relation to the control plants. The H treatment alone hardly affected the variables, whereas both...

  14. The Effect of Zinc Fertilizer Application on Grain Yield of Different Zinc-Efficient Spring and Winter Wheat Cultivars

    M. Malian


    Full Text Available These field trials were carried out to investigate the effect of various zinc (Zn fertilizer application treatments on grain yield of some spring (Isfahan and Neishabour and winter wheat cultivars (Mashhad and Jolge-e-Rokh with different Zn efficiency during 2009-2010 growth seasons. Five Zn fertilizer treatments were applied including: no added Zn (control, soil application of Zn-sulfate, and foliar spray of Zn-sulfate, Omex1, and Omex2. Omex1 and Omex2 contained 4 and 17% Zn, respectively. Foliar spray was performed at the anthesis stage. Both spring and winter wheat genotypes significantly differed in grain yield. The results showed that wheat genotypes largely varied in their grain yield response to different Zn application treatments. Some spring (Sholeh in Isfahan and winter (Sabalan in Jolg-e-Rokh wheat genotypes had greater response to Zn fertilization so that Zn addition increased grain yield of Sholeh by 48% and Sabalan by 17% as compared with no added Zn control. In contrast, Zn addition had no effect on grain yield of some other genotypes. Yield response of wheat genotypes to Zn application treatments significantly varied upon location. According to the results obtained from this study, the efficacy of Zn fertilizer treatments on grain yield of wheat is dependent on the genotype and location. Therefore, this concern should be considered in fertilizer recommendation programs that a specific Zn fertilizer treatment may not be recommended for all wheat cultivars and locations.

  15. Fertilization Management for Improving Quality Properties of Spring Wheat in Northeast China

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZHANG Qiu-ying; JIN Jian; WANG Guang-hua; S J Herbert


    Fertilization management to improve quality properties of spring wheat cultivars has received little research attention in Northeast China. In this study, the effects of different fertilization management regimes on the quality properties of spring wheat cultivar New Kehan 9 (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated for two years. The results showed that fertilization consistently increased wheat yield, and the highest yield was obtained with addition of N, P and NPK fertilizers. The NPK treatment resulted in 50% more yield than the unfertilized plot. The average increases in protein content from NPK and NP at seeding + N at anthesis over no fertilization and NP fertilizers at seeding were 2.7% and 0.90% respectively. The highest protein yields were achieved in NPK and NPK + N treatments, and the lowest protein yield was observed in the no fertilizer treatment due to both low protein content and grain yield. Fertilization increased gliadins content, but decreased glutenins content, thus the gliadins/glutenins ratios were higher in the fertilization treatments. The most obvious effect of fertilization on kernel quality was the significant increase of hardness percentage. Although the dough rheological properties were not strongly changed by fertilization, dry gluten and wet gluten were significantly increased, and the highest bread volume and bread score were found in the NPK treatment in both years. The application of 3% urea at anthesis, or applying 45 kg ha-1 of potassium sulphate at seeding, with urea and diammonium phosphate as basal applications, significantly increased protein yield and improved quality properties of this wheat cultivar.

  16. Relationship between Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Grain Yield in Spring Wheat Cultivated under Different Water Regimes


    In C3 plants, carbon isotope discrimination (△) has been proposed as an indirect selection criterion for grain yield. Reported correlations between △ and grain yield however, differ highly according to the analyzed organ or tissue, the stage of sampling, and the environment and water regime. In a first experiment carried out in spring wheat during two consecutive seasons in the dry conditions of northwest Mexico (Ciudad Obregon, Sonora), different water treatments were applied,corresponding to the main water regimes available to spring wheat worldwide, and the relationships between △ values of different organs and grain yield were examined. Under terminal (post-anthesis) water stress, grain yield was positively associated with △ in grain at maturity and in leaf at anthesis, confirming results previously obtained under Mediterranean environments. Under early (pre-anthesis) water stress and residual moisture stress, the association between grain △ and yield was weaker and highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing. No correlation was found between △ and grain yield under optimal irrigation. The relationship between △ and grain yield was also studied during two consecutive seasons in 20 bread wheat cultivars in the Ningxia region (Northern China), characterized by winter drought(pre-anthesis water stress). Wheat was grown under rainfed conditions in two locations (Guyuan and Pengyang) and under irrigated conditions in another two (Yinchuan and Huinong). In Huinong, the crop was also exposed to salt stress.Highly significant positive associations were found between leaf and grain △ and grain yields across the environments.The relationship between △ and yield within environments highly depended on the quantity of water stored in the soil at sowing, the quantity and distribution of rainfall during the growth cycle, the presence of salt in the soil, and the occurrence of irrigation before anthesis. These two experiments

  17. Influence of soil amendments made from digestate on soil physics and the growth of spring wheat

    Dietrich, Nils; Knoop, Christine; Raab, Thomas; Krümmelbein, Julia


    Every year 13 million tons of organic wastes accumulate in Germany. These wastes are a potential alternative for the production of energy in biogas plants, especially because the financial subventions for the cultivation of renewable resources for energy production were omitted in 2014. The production of energy from biomass and organic wastes in biogas plants results in the accumulation of digestate and therefore causes the need for a sustainable strategy of the utilization of these residues. Within the scope of the BMBF-funded project 'VeNGA - Investigations for recovery and nutrient use as well as soil and plant-related effects of digestate from waste fermentation' the application of processed digestate as soil amendments is examined. Therefore we tested four different mechanical treatment processes (rolled pellets, pressed pellets, shredded compost and sieved compost) to produce soil amendments from digestate with regard to their impact on soil physics, soil chemistry and the interactions between plants and soil. Pot experiments with soil amendments were performed in the greenhouse experiment with spring wheat and in field trials with millet, mustard and forage rye. After the first year of the experiment, preliminary results indicate a positive effect of the sieved compost and the rolled pellets on biomass yield of spring wheat as compared to the other variations. First results from the Investigation on soil physics show that rolled pellets have a positive effect on the soil properties by influencing size and distribution of pores resulting in an increased water holding capacity. Further ongoing enhancements of the physical and chemical properties of the soil amendments indicate promising results regarding the ecological effects by increased root growth of spring wheat.

  18. Low crop plant population densities promote pollen-mediated gene flow in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Willenborg, Christian J; Brûlé-Babel, Anita L; Van Acker, Rene C


    Transgenic wheat is currently being field tested with the intent of eventual commercialization. The development of wheat genotypes with novel traits has raised concerns regarding the presence of volunteer wheat populations and the role they may play in facilitating transgene movement. Here, we report the results of a field experiment that investigated the potential of spring wheat plant population density and crop height to minimize gene flow from a herbicide-resistant (HR) volunteer population to a non-HR crop. Pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) between the HR volunteer wheat population and four conventional spring wheat genotypes varying in height was assessed over a range of plant population densities. Natural hybridization events between the two cultivars were detected by phenotypically scoring plants in F(1) populations followed by verification with Mendelian segregation ratios in the F(1:2) families. PMGF was strongly associated with crop yield components, but showed no association with flowering synchrony. Maximum observed PMGF was always less than 0.6%, regardless of crop height and density. The frequency of PMGF in spring wheat decreased exponentially with increasing plant population density, but showed no dependence on either crop genotype or height. However, increasing plant densities beyond the recommended planting rate of 300 cropped wheat plants m(-2) provided no obvious benefit to reducing PMGF. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate a critical plant density of 175-200 cropped wheat plants m(-2) below which PMGF frequencies rise exponentially with decreasing plant density. These results will be useful in the development of mechanistic models and best management practices that collectively facilitate the coexistence of transgenic and nontransgenic wheat crops.

  19. Short Response of Spring Wheat to Tillage, Residue Management and Split Nitrogen Application in a Rice-Wheat System

    Khalid Usman; Ejaz Ahmad Khan; Fazal Yazdan; Niamatullah Khan; Abdur Rashid; Saleem Ud Din


    A ifeld experiment was conducted to study the impact of tillage, crop residue management and nitrogen (N) splitting on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield over 2 yr (2010-2012) in a rice (Oryza sativa L.)-wheat system in northwestern Pakistan. The experiment was conducted as split plot arranged in randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Treatments comprised six tillage and residue managements:zero tillage straw retained (ZTsr), zero tillage straw burnt (ZTsb), reduced tillage straw incorporated (RTsi), reduced tillage straw burnt (RTsb), conventional tillage straw incorporated (CTsi), and conventional tillage straw burnt (CTsb) as main plots and N (200 kg ha-1) was applied as split form viz., control (no nitrogen&no splitting, N0S0);2 splits of total N, half at sowing and half at the 1st irrigation (i.e., 20 d after sowing (DAS)) (NS1);3 splits of total N, 1/3 at sowing, 1/3 at the 1st irrigation, and 1/3 at the 2nd irrigation (NS2);4 splits of total N, 1/4 at sowing, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation (45 DAS), and 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation (70 DAS) (NS3);and 4 splits of total N, 1/4 at the 1st irrigation, 1/4 at the 2nd irrigation, 1/4 at the 3rd irrigation, and 1/4 at the 4th irrigation (95DAS) (NS4) as sub plots. The results showed that the most pikes m-2, grains/spike, 1 000-grain weight, grain yield, and N use efifciency (NUE) were obtained at zero tillage, straw retained and 4 splits application of total N (i.e., at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing). The results indicated that ZTsr with application of 200 kg N ha-1 in 4 equal splits viz. at sowing 20, 45 and 70 d after sowing is an appropriate strategy that enhanced wheat yield (7 436-7 634 kg ha-1) and N efifciency (28.6-29.5 kg kg-1) in rice-wheat system.

  20. Proteomic and genetic analysis of wheat endosperm albumins and globulins using deletion lines of cultivar Chinese Spring

    Merlino, Marielle; Bousbata, Sabrina; Svensson, Birte;


    Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... the composition and genetics of a complex tissue, such as the wheat endosperm.......Albumins and globulins from the endosperm of Triticum aestivum L. cv Chinese Spring (CS) were analysed to establish a proteome reference map for this standard wheat cultivar. Approximately, 1,145 Coomassie-stained spots were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), 410 of which were...... in endosperm proteins due to chromosomal deletions. This differential analysis of spots allowed structural or regulatory genes, encoding 211 proteins, to be located on segments of the 21 wheat chromosomes. In addition, variance analysis of quantitative variations in spot volume showed that the expression...

  1. Chlorophyll content of spring wheat flag leaves grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and other environmental stresses within the 'ESPACE-wheat' project

    Ommen, O.E.; Donnelly, A.; Vanhoutvin, S.; Oijen, van M.; Manderscheid, R.


    Spring wheat cv. Minaret was grown in open-top chambers at four sites across Europe. The effect of different treatments (CO2 enrichment, O3 fumigation, drought stress and temperature) on the chlorophyll content of the flag leaf was investigated using the MINOLTA SPAD-502 meter. Under optimum growth

  2. Improving wheat simulation capabilities in Australia from a cropping systems perspective: Water and nitrogen effects on spring wheat in a semi-arid environment.

    Meinke, H.; Hammer, G.L.; Keulen, van H.; Rabbinge, R.; Keating, B.A.


    Systems approaches can help to evaluate and improve the agronomic and economic viability of nitrogen application in the frequently water-limited environments. This requires a sound understanding of crop physiological processes and well tested simulation models. Thus, this experiment on spring wheat

  3. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh


    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  4. Suitability of spring wheat varieties for the production of best quality pizza.

    Tehseen, Saima; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Pasha, Imran; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Saeed, Farhan


    The selection of appropriate wheat cultivars is an imperative issue in product development and realization. The nutritional profiling of plants and their cultivars along with their suitability for development of specific products is of considerable interests for multi-national food chains. In this project, Pizza-Hut Pakistan provided funds for the selection of suitable newly developed Pakistani spring variety for pizza production. In this regard, the recent varieties were selected and evaluated for nutritional and functional properties for pizza production. Additionally, emphasis has been paid to assess all varieties for their physico-chemical attributes, rheological parameters and mineral content. Furthermore, pizza prepared from respective flour samples were further evaluated for sensory attributes Results showed that Anmool, Abadgar, Imdad, SKD-1, Shafaq and Moomal have higher values for protein, gluten content, pelshenke value and SDS sedimentation and these were relatively better in studied parameters as compared to other varieties although which were considered best for good quality pizza production. TD-1 got significantly highest score for flavor of pizza and lowest score was observed from wheat variety Kiran. Moreover, it is concluded from current study that all wheat varieties except TJ-83 and Kiran exhibited better results for flavor.

  5. Comparison of CRD, APU, and state models for Iowa corn and soybeans and North Dakota barley and spring wheat

    French, V.


    A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.

  6. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I


    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture.




    Full Text Available Organic farmers have become more interested in the marginally grown (neglected cultivars, as spring forms of the hulled wheat varieties (eincorn, emmer wheat, spelta wheat or intermediate forms of the soft wheat. 173 land races from the gene bank at the RI in Praha-Ruzyně were grown on the organic certified parcel and evaluated in 2008. The trial aimed to evaluate the conditions of the competitiveness to weeds, tolerance to diseases, assimilation of the sun shine and establishment of the yield. The results show that all the evaluated material inclines to the competitiveness to weeds. This ability is, nevertheless, reduced because of the inclination to the lodging (all the cultivars have long weak stalks. Eincorn and emmer wheat are resistant to mildew and brown rust, spelta wheat is less resistant cultivar and the intermediate cultivars incline to disease attack very much. Eincorn and emmer wheat have short and dense spikes, spelta wheat has long and sparse spikes. Perspective materials have been found in the study and trials. We are going to focus on a possible increase of the resistance to lodging, choice of the resistant cultivars to funga diseases and increase of the spike productivity.

  8. Effect of flour polymeric proteins on dough thermal properties and breadmaking characteristics for hard red spring wheat genotypes

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of variation of flour polymeric proteins on rheological properties of dough under continuous mixing and thermal treatment for hard red spring (HRS) wheat genotypes grown in North Dakota, USA. Flour polymeric proteins were analyzed by size exclus...

  9. Traits in Spring Wheat Cultivars Associated with Yield Loss Caused by a Heat Stress Episode after Anthesis

    Vignjevic, Marija; Wang, Xiao; Olesen, Jørgen E


    Heat stress resulting from climate change and more frequent weather extremes is expected to negatively affect wheat yield. We evaluated the response of different spring wheat cultivars to a post-anthesis high temperature episode and studied the relationship between different traits associated...... during grain filling. There is in particular a need to model how heat and other stresses, including interacting effects of heat and drought, affect duration of GLA after flowering and how this affects source–sink relations during grain filling....... with heat tolerance. Fifteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were grown in pots under semifield conditions, and heat stress (35/26 °C) and control treatments (20/12 °C) were applied in growth chambers for 5 days starting 14 days after flowering. The heat stress treatment reduced final yield...

  10. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Campbell Kim


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are ideally suited for the construction of high-resolution genetic maps, studying population evolutionary history and performing genome-wide association mapping experiments. Here, we used a genome-wide set of 1536 SNPs to study linkage disequilibrium (LD and population structure in a panel of 478 spring and winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum from 17 populations across the United States and Mexico. Results Most of the wheat oligo pool assay (OPA SNPs that were polymorphic within the complete set of 478 cultivars were also polymorphic in all subpopulations. Higher levels of genetic differentiation were observed among wheat lines within populations than among populations. A total of nine genetically distinct clusters were identified, suggesting that some of the pre-defined populations shared significant proportion of genetic ancestry. Estimates of population structure (FST at individual loci showed a high level of heterogeneity across the genome. In addition, seven genomic regions with elevated FST were detected between the spring and winter wheat populations. Some of these regions overlapped with previously mapped flowering time QTL. Across all populations, the highest extent of significant LD was observed in the wheat D-genome, followed by lower LD in the A- and B-genomes. The differences in the extent of LD among populations and genomes were mostly driven by differences in long-range LD ( > 10 cM. Conclusions Genome- and population-specific patterns of genetic differentiation and LD were discovered in the populations of wheat cultivars from different geographic regions. Our study demonstrated that the estimates of population structure between spring and winter wheat lines can identify genomic regions harboring candidate genes involved in the regulation of growth habit. Variation in LD suggests that breeding and selection had a different impact on each wheat genome both within and

  11. Evaluation of the Doraiswamy-Thompson winter wheat crop calendar model incorporating a modified spring restart sequence

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W.; Smika, D. (Principal Investigator)


    The Robertson phenology was used to provide growth stage information to a wheat stress indicator mode. A stress indicator model demands two acurate predictions from a crop calendar: date of spring growth initiation; and crop calendar stage at growth initiation. Several approaches for restarting the Robertson phenology model at spring growth initiation were studied. Although best results were obtained with a solar thermal unit method, an alternate approach which indicates soil temperature as the controlling parameter for spring growth initiation was selected and tested. The modified model (Doraiswamy-Thompson) is compared to LACIE-Robertson model predictions.




    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%.

  13. Postulation of Leaf Rust Resistance Genes in Seven Chinese Spring Wheat Cultivars

    SHI Li-hong; ZHANG Na; HU Ya-ya; WEI Xue-jun; YANG Wen-xiang; LIU Da-qun


    To detect the leaf rust resistance genes in the 7 Chinese spring wheat clultivars Shenmian 99025, Shenmia 99042, Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 1167 and Shenmian 962, Thatcher, Thatcher backgrounded near-isogenic lines and 15 pathotypes of P. triticina were used for gene postulate at the seedling stage, and 9 of the 15 pathotypes were used in the field tests. Molecular markers closely linked to, or co-segregated with resistance genes Lr1, Lr9, Lr10, Lr19, Lr20, Lr21, Lr24, Lr26, Lr28, Lr29, Lr32, Lr34, Lr35, Lr37, Lr38, and Lr47 were screened to assist detection of the resistance genes. As results, 4 known resistance genes, including Lr1, Lr9, Lr26, and Lr34, and other unknown resistance genes were postulated singly or in combination in the tested cultivars. Shenmian 85, Shenmian 91, Shenmian 96, Shenmian 962, Shenmian 1167, and Shenmian 99042 are potentially useful for wheat production and breeding programs. The result suggested that combining gene postulation, molecular markers and pedigrees is effective and more accuracy method to know the resistance genes in cultivars.

  14. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang


    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  15. The water factor in harvest-sprouting of hard red spring wheat

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)


    Sprouting in unthreshed, ripe, hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is induced by rain, but sprouting does not necessarily occur because the crop is wetted. The spike and grain water conditions conducive to sprouting were determined in a series of laboratory experiments. Sprouting did not occur in field growing wheat wetted to 110% water concentration until the spike water concentration was reduced to 12% and maintained at this concentration for 2 days before wetting. When cut at growth stage 11.3, Feekes scale, Saratovskaya 20 (USSR) sprouted after 4 days drying, Olaf and Alex between 7 and 15 days drying and Columbus, recognized for its resistance to harvest time sprouting, after more than 15 days drying. Sprouting potential was enhanced after 4 wetting drying cycles in which any wetted interval was too brief to permit sufficient water imbibition to initiate sprouting. At harvest ripeness, grain water concentration exceeded spike water concentration by 0.7 percentage units. Following 6 months storage, 20% of the kernels in 300 spike bundles (simulating windrows) sprouted within 28 hrs after initiation of wetting to saturation (150% water concentration). Ninety percent sprouting occurred within 8 days in bundles maintained at 75% water concentration and higher, but less sprouting occurred in bundles dried to 50% water concentration before resaturation.

  16. Genotype and environmental variation in phenolic content, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity of hard spring wheat.

    Mpofu, Archie; Sapirstein, Harry D; Beta, Trust


    The health-promoting effects of whole-grain wheat likely derive from phenolic compounds and other antioxidants that also make wheat a potential source of functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of genotype and growing environment on the phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of alcohol-soluble extracts from commercial wheat cultivars. Total phenolic contents (TPCs), antioxidant activities (AOAs), and concentrations of six phenolic acids were measured in six red- and white-grained hard spring wheat genotypes grown at four diverse locations in Western Canada during the 2003 crop year. There were significant differences among genotypes and environments for TPC, AOA, and concentrations of all the phenolic acids measured. The predominant indicators of antioxidant potential, i.e., TPC, AOA, and ferulic acid (FA) concentration were highly intercorrelated (r > 0.72). For these indices, the Canada Western (CW) Red Spring wheat cultivars Neepawa and AC Elsa had the highest levels, whereas an analogous CW hard white spring wheat cultivar, AC Snowbird, had the lowest levels. Grain color did not appear to be a factor in the expression of antioxidant-related parameters. For both TPC and AOA, as well as for vanillic acid, syringic acid, and ferulic acid, environmental effects were considerably larger than genotype effects. Neither growing temperature nor rainfall from anthesis to maturity appeared to be related to the environmental variation that was observed. Genotype x environment interaction was small for all parameters compared with genotype and location effects and was significant only for TPC. Genotype variation for antioxidant properties indicates that it would be possible to select for these quantitative traits in a breeding program. However, the significant environmental variation observed would delay and/or complicate this process.

  17. Effect of pentosans addition on pasting properties of flours of eight hard white spring wheat cultivars.

    Arif, Saqib; Ali, Tahira Mohsin; Ul Afzal, Qurat; Ahmed, Mubarik; Siddiqui, Asim Jamal; Hasnain, Abid


    The effects of water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable pentosans (WUP) on pasting properties in flours of eight different hard white spring wheat (HWSW) cultivars was studied. WEP and WUP isolated from a hard wheat flour were added to each of the cultivars at 1% and 2% level. The results indicated that WEP exhibited a pronounced effect on pasting properties as compared to WUP and variety. Univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate sources of variation. The variety significantly (P < 0.001) influenced all the pasting parameters. WUP caused significant (P < 0.001) variation in paste viscosities (except breakdown). WEP influenced more pronouncedly the hot paste, cold paste, breakdown and setback viscosities with F values-221.802, 214.286, 98.073 and 120.159, respectively. Variety-by-WEP interaction exhibited significant (P < 0.01) influence on pasting time, peak, hot paste and cold paste viscosities. Whereas, variety-by-WUP interaction only significantly (P < 0.001) influenced the pasting- time and -temperature. Duncan's test was used to analyze the significant difference (P < 0.05) within the variety. The results revealed that WUP did not induce significant (P < 0.05) influence on all the pasting parameters, whereas, WEP influenced significantly (P < 0.05) the paste viscosities of some of the varieties. It was also found that the addition of WEP remarkably reduced the setback, hot paste, cold paste viscosities and increased the breakdown viscosity in all cultivar flours. The effect of WEP was greater at higher level of supplementation on paste viscosities.

  18. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat.

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Wu, Shaohui; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie; Jaronski, Stefan T


    Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grains, corn, sugar beets, and potatoes. Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particularly in the 'Golden Triangle' area of north-central Montana. Wireworm populations in field crops are increasing, but currently available insecticides provide only partial control, and no alternative management tools exist. In our study, three entomopathogenic fungi were tested for their efficacy against wireworms in spring wheat at two field locations (Ledger and Conrad, Montana, USA) in 2013. The three fungi (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Beauveria bassiana GHA, and Metarhizium robertsii DWR 346) were evaluated as seed-coat, in-furrow granular, and soil band-over-row drench applications in addition to imidacloprid (Gaucho® 600) seed treatment (as a chemical check), the approach currently being used by growers. Wireworm damage in these treatments was evaluated as standing plant counts, wireworm population surveys, and yield. The three fungi, applied as formulated granules or soil drenches, and the imidacloprid seed treatment all resulted in significantly higher plant stand counts and yields at both locations than the fungus-coated seed treatments or the untreated control. Significant differences were detected among the application methods but not among the species of fungi within each application method. All three fungi, when applied as granules in furrow or as soil drenches, were more effective than when used as seed-coating treatments for wireworm control, and provided an efficacy comparable or superior to imidacloprid. The fungi used in this study provided significant plant and yield protection under moderate wireworm pressure, supporting their value in the management of this pest.

  19. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on canopy transpiration in senescent spring wheat

    Grossman, S.; Kimball, B.A.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Long, S.P. et al


    The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s}, the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to twenty percent and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by ten percent. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about five percent.


    Sitnikov M.N.


    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  1. Weed suppression and yield of thirteen spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties grown in an organic system

    Beata Feledyn-Szewczyk


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between morphological features, canopy parameters, weed infestation, and grain yield of spring wheat varieties. The study was conducted in the period 2011–2013, on fields managed organically at the Experimental Station of The Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation – State Research Institute, Osiny, Poland. Thirteen spring wheat varieties were sown in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Weed density and dry matter production were estimated as well biometric features of the wheat varieties at tillering (BBCH 22–24 and dough (BBCH 85–87 stages. The analyses of variance showed that the year had a stronger effect than varieties on the level of weed infestation. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that weed number was influenced by the height of wheat plants and their aboveground biomass at the tillering stage and additionally by number of tillers at the dough stage. A significant correlation (r = −0.328, siginfficant at p < 0.05 was shown between the number of weeds and wheat grain yield. Different morphological features and canopy parameters influenced the competitive abilities of the spring wheat varieties tested. A cluster analysis detected one set of varieties with the largest (‘Bombona’, ‘Brawura’, ‘Hewilla’, ‘Kandela’, ‘Katoda’, ‘Łagwa’, and ‘Żura’ and another with the smallest (‘Monsun’, ‘Ostka Smolicka’, and ‘Parabola’ competitive abilities against weeds. The main outcome of the research is information for farmers as to which varieties are highly competitive against weeds and also high yielding. Among the varieties with the highest competitiveness, Triticum aestivum ‘Żura’ was the highest yielder (3.82 t ha−1 on average, whereas ‘Bombona’ yielded only at an average level (3.03 t ha−1. The suppressive ability of spring wheat varieties against weeds and yield potential should be both

  2. Physiological, proteomic and transcriptional responses of wheat to combination of drought or waterlogging with late spring low temperature

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;


    impacts of combined low temperature and water stress, including drought and waterlogging. The responses of potted wheat plants cultivated in climatic chambers to these environmental perturbations were investigated at physiological, proteomic and transcriptional levels. At the physiological level......Spring low temperature events affect winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) during late vegetative or reproductive development, exposing plants to a subzero low temperature stress when winter hardening is lost. The increased climatic variability results in wheat being exposed to more frequent adverse...... in chloroplasts and mitochondria of leaf under low temperature. Further proteomic analysis revealed that the oxidative stress defence, C metabolism and photosynthesis related proteins were modulated by the combined low temperature and water stress. Collectively, the results indicate that impairment...

  3. [Ecophysiological effects of multiple cropping of winter wheat-spring corn-summer corn in Huanghuaihai Plain].

    Huang, Jinyong; Li, Xinping; Sun, Dunli


    Compared to sequential cropping of winter wheat-summer corn and mono cropping of spring corn, the ecophysiological effects of multiple cropping of winter wheat-spring corn-summer corn in Huanghuaihai Plain were studied. The results showed that under the multi-cropping, the crops occupied higher spatial niches during the period of reproductive growth. Ecological factors such as light, temperature, and air were improved, and plane light acceptance was changed into multistory light acceptance, which made the relative intensity of illumination in crop communities increased. Moreover, soil temperature between rows and wind velocity in planting strips were also increased. All these changes were advantageous to increasing the intensity and velocity of grain filling. The chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate in functional leaves of crops were higher, which was the main reason of yield increase under multiple cropping.

  4. Nematicides increase grain yields in spring wheat cultivars and suppress plant-parasitic and bacterial-feeding nematodes.

    Kimpinski, J; Martin, R A; Sturz, A V


    Grain yields of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. AC Barrie, AC Walton, AC Wilmot, Belvedere, Glenlea) in field plots over a 3-year period were increased (P nematicide treatments of AC Barrie and Glenlea, which are grown primarily in the prairie provinces of Canada, was greater (48.5%) than the mean response of Belvedere, AC Walton, and AC Wilmot (33.7%), which are more common in the Maritime region of Canada (P nematicide applications (P < 0.001). Bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri (Maupas)) in root zone soil were also suppressed by fosthiazate (P < 0.01) but not by aldicarb. These data indicate that root lesion nematodes cause substantial yield losses in spring wheat in the Maritime region of Canada.

  5. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    P. K. Martin


    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  6. Analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC of gluten proteins using Ward's clustering method

    There have been substantial breeding efforts in North Dakota to produce wheat cultivars that are well adapted to weather conditions and are disease resistant. In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed with regard to how they cluster in terms...

  7. Leaching of nitrate and phosphorus after autumn and spring application of separated solid manures to winter wheat

    Sørensen, Peter; Rubæk, Gitte Holton


    on a loamy sand and a sandy loam soil. The leaching experiment lasted for 2 yr, and the whole experiment was replicated twice. Nitrate leaching was generally low (19–34 kg N/ha) after spring applications of mineral fertilizer and manures. Nitrate leaching increased significantly after autumn application......, solid manure fractions should not be applied to winter wheat on sandy and sandy loam soils under humid North European conditions....

  8. [Effects of increasng field temperature on growth, development and yield of spring wheat in semi-arid area].

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Run-yuan; Wang, He-ling; Zhao, Hong; Zhao, Fu-nian; Yang, Fu-lin; Lei, Jun


    A field infrared temperature-increasing simulation experiment was conducted to investi- gate the effects of air temperature increases (0, 1 and 2 °C ) on growth, development and yield of spring wheat at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station of the Institute of Arid Meteorology of China Meteorological Administration. The results showed that the growth period of spring wheat was shortened by 7-11 d when the temperature increased by 1-2 °C. The plant height and leaf area index increased at early growth stage, decreased after entering the jointing stage, and warming 2 °C had a higher effect than warming 1 °C. Warming treatment induced an obvious decrease in chlorophyll content, especially from late grain filling stage to milk ripe stage. Compared with the control, increasing temperature by 1-2 °C decreased the spring wheat yield by 25.4%-45.5%, mainly due to obvious decreases in number of grains and grain mass per panicle. Water consumption of 0-100 cm soil horizons increased with the increase of temperature, while the variation tendency of water consumption of 100-160 cm soil horizons was not obvious.

  9. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    Dongmei Han; Denghua Yan; Xinyi Xu; Yu Gao


    Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.

  10. The role of calcium in improving photosynthesis and related physiological and biochemical attributes of spring wheat subjected to simulated acid rain.

    Dolatabadian, Aria; Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres; Gholamhoseini, Majid; Joghan, Aydin Khodaei; Majdi, Mohammad; Kashkooli, Arman Beyraghdar


    The response of photosynthesis parameters, catalase, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components to foliar application of calcium and simulated acid rain in wheat were investigated. Foliar treatment of calcium led to significant increases in the photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, proline, chlorophyll, yield and yield components in plants subjected to acid rain. Antioxidant enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation in the wheat leaves decreased because of calcium foliar application. Calcium hindered degradation of the rubisco subunits under acid rain treatment compared with water-treated plants. Results suggest that acid rain induces the production of free radicals resulting in lipid peroxidation of the cell membrane so that significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed. In addition, photosynthetic parameters i.e. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were drastically suppressed by acid rain. The cellular damage caused by free radicals might be reduced or prevented by a protective metabolism including antioxidative enzymes and calcium. We report that foliar application of calcium before acid rain may ameliorate the adverse effects of acid rain in wheat plants.

  11. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  12. Analysis of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars inoculated with Fusarium graminearum.

    Amarasinghe, Chami C; Simsek, Senay; Brûlé-Babel, Anita; Fernando, W G Dilantha


    Contamination of wheat grains with Fusarium mycotoxins and their modified forms is an important issue in wheat industry. The objective of this study was to analyse the deoxynivalenol (DON) and deoxynivalenol-3-glucosides (D3G) content in Canadian spring wheat cultivars grown in two locations, inoculated with a mixture of 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON)-producing Fusarium graminearum strains and a mixture of 15-acetlyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON)-producing F. graminearum strains. According to the analysis of variance, significant differences were observed among the cultivars for Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease index, Fusarium-damaged kernel percentage (%FDK), DON content and D3G content. When the effect of chemotype was considered, significant differences were observed for FHB disease index, FDK percentage and DON content. The D3G content and D3G/DON ratio were not significantly different between the chemotypes, except for D3G content at the Winnipeg location. The Pearson correlation coefficient between DON and D3G was 0.84 and 0.77 at Winnipeg and Carman respectively. The highest D3G/DON ratio was observed in cultivars Carberry (44%) in Carman and CDC Kernen (63.8%) in Winnipeg. The susceptible cultivars showed lower D3G/DON ratio compared with the cultivars rated as moderately resistant and intermediate. The current study indicated that Canadian spring cultivars produce D3G upon Fusarium infection.

  13. Fusarium head blight (FHB and Fusarium spp. on grain of spring wheat cultivars grown in Poland

    Lenc Leszek


    Full Text Available Eighteen spring wheat cultivars, recommended for commercial production in northern Poland, were assessed for Fusarium head blight (FHB in natural non-epidemic conditions, from 2011 to 2013. Assessment was based on FHB incidence (proportion of heads with symptoms, disease severity (DS; proportion of bleached spikelets per head, proportion of Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK, and spectrum of Fusarium spp. colonising the kernels. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS often differed significantly among cultivars and years. There was a strong positive correlation between FHB incidence and DS. Fusarium head blight incidence and DS were not correlated with the June–July temperatures, and were only occasionally correlated with the total June–July rainfall. There was a weak positive correlation between FHB incidence and proportion of FDK. There was a strong positive correlation between DS and proportion of FDK. The cultivar affected colonisation of kernels by Fusarium spp. Fusarium poae was the FHB pathogen isolated most often. Fusarium poae colonised 6.0% of the kernels, on average, but up to 12.0% on individual cultivars. Other Fusarium species were less frequent: F. avenaceum in 5.6% of kernels, F. culmorum in 5.3%, F. tricinctum in 2.8%, F. graminearum in 1.5%, and F. sporotrichioides in 1.2%. Fusarium equiseti occurred sporadically. The importance of F. poae in the FHB complex is emphasised. All cultivars expressed ‘moderate FHB resistance’ if evaluated according to FHB incidence. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka Smolicka, and Struna expressed ‘moderate susceptibility’, and Bombona, Hewilla, Katoda, KWS Torridon, Łagwa, Nawra, Parabola, Radocha, SMH 87, Trappe, Tybalt, and Waluta expressed ‘susceptibility’ if evaluated by the proportion of FDK. Cultivars differed within the ‘moderately resistant’, ‘moderately susceptible’, and ‘susceptible’ categories. Cultivars Arabella, Izera, Kandela, Monsun, Ostka

  14. Evaluation of Diversity and Traits Correlation in Spring Wheat Cultivars under Drought Stress

    Mohammad Reza NAGHAVI


    Full Text Available In order to study of diversity and classify agro-morphological characters under normal irrigation and drought stress in spring wheat cultivars, 20 cultivars were evaluated in the research farm of University of Tabriz, Iran. According to the results, significant correlation was found between grain yield and number of spikes per plant, number of tiller per plant, number of fertile tillers, spike length, root length, root number, root volume, root diameter and root dry weight under both conditions. Moreover, 1,000 grain weight and plant dry weight had significant positive correlation with grain yield under drought stress. Factor analysis detected four and two factors which explained 96.77% and 90.59% of the total variation in normal irrigation and drought stress conditions, respectively. In drought stress condition the first factor justified 69.52% of total variation and was identified as yield factor. The second factor explained 21.07% of total variation and represented the biomass and plant height factor. Cluster analysis was based on the four and two factors obtained. According to the amount of factors for clusters obtained under drought stress, ‘Kavir’, ‘Niknejhad’, ‘Moghan 3’, ‘Darya’ and ‘Marvdasht’ were identified as the most drought tolerant cultivars. Other cluster was comprised of ‘Bahar’, ‘Pishtaz’, ‘Bam’, ‘Sepahan’, ‘Sistan’, ‘Pars’ and ‘Sivand’ and was named as the most sensitive under drought stress. Tolerant cultivars identified within the study can be used for direct culture or as genitors in breeding programs.

  15. Improving farming practices reduces the carbon footprint of spring wheat production.

    Gan, Yantai; Liang, Chang; Chai, Qiang; Lemke, Reynald L; Campbell, Con A; Zentner, Robert P


    Wheat is one of the world's most favoured food sources, reaching millions of people on a daily basis. However, its production has climatic consequences. Fuel, inorganic fertilizers and pesticides used in wheat production emit greenhouse gases that can contribute negatively to climate change. It is unknown whether adopting alternative farming practices will increase crop yield while reducing carbon emissions. Here we quantify the carbon footprint of alternative wheat production systems suited to semiarid environments. We find that integrating improved farming practices (that is, fertilizing crops based on soil tests, reducing summerfallow frequencies and rotating cereals with grain legumes) lowers wheat carbon footprint effectively, averaging -256 kg CO2 eq ha(-1) per year. For each kg of wheat grain produced, a net 0.027-0.377 kg CO2 eq is sequestered into the soil. With the suite of improved farming practices, wheat takes up more CO2 from the atmosphere than is actually emitted during its production.

  16. Energy and CO$_2$; exchanges and influencing factors in spring wheat ecosystem along the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Shuchen Sun; Ming’an Shao; Hongbei Gao


    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) is an important crop for food security in the desert-oasis farmland in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. We measured fluxes using eddy covarianceand meteorological parameters to explore the energy fluxes and the relationship between CO² flux and climate change in this region during the wheat growing seasons in 2013 and 2014. The energy balance closures were 70.5% and 72.7% in the 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The wheat ecosystem had distinct seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO² fluxes with U-shaped curves. The accumulated net ecosystemic CO² exchanges (NEE) were −111.6 and −142.2 g C/m² in 2013 and 2014 growing season,respectively. The ecosystem generally acted as a CO² sink during the growing season but became aCO² source after the wheat harvest. A correlation analysis indicated that night-time CO² fluxes wereexponentially dependent on air temperature and soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm but were notcorrelated with soil-water content, water-vapour pressure, or vapour-pressure deficit. CO² flux was notcorrelated with the meteorological parameters during daytime. However, irrigation and precipitation,may complicate the response of CO² fluxes to other meteorological parameters.

  17. Identification and characterization of genes on a single subgenome in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring'.

    Ma, Jian; Zheng, Zhi; Stiller, Jiri; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Yaxi; Deng, Mei; Wang, Penghao; Pu, Zhien; Chen, Guangdeng; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang


    Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat. Unexpectedly, no bias in expression breadth or in the distribution patterns of GO (gene ontology) terms for these genes was detected among the high-confidence genes. Further, network and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses indicated that most of these genes were not functionally related to each other. Interestingly, 30.7% of these SSG genes were most highly expressed in root, showing biased distribution given the distribution of the whole high-confidence genes. Collectively, these results facilitate our understanding of the loss of the genes that were retained in a SSG during the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  18. Energy and CO2 exchanges and influencing factors in spring wheat ecosystem along the Heihe River, northwestern China

    Sun, Shuchen; Shao, Ming'an; Gao, Hongbei


    Spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum Linn.) is an important crop for food security in the desert-oasis farmland in the middle reaches of the Heihe River in northwestern China. We measured fluxes using eddy covariance and meteorological parameters to explore the energy fluxes and the relationship between CO2 flux and climate change in this region during the wheat growing seasons in 2013 and 2014. The energy balance closures were 70.5% and 72.7% in the 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The wheat ecosystem had distinct seasonal and diurnal dynamics of CO2 fluxes with U-shaped curves. The accumulated net ecosystemic CO2 exchanges (NEE) were -111.6 and -142.2 g C/m2 in 2013 and 2014 growing season, respectively. The ecosystem generally acted as a CO2 sink during the growing season but became a CO2 source after the wheat harvest. A correlation analysis indicated that night-time CO2 fluxes were exponentially dependent on air temperature and soil temperature at a depth of 5 cm but were not correlated with soil-water content, water-vapour pressure, or vapour-pressure deficit. CO2 flux was not correlated with the meteorological parameters during daytime. However, irrigation and precipitation, may complicate the response of CO2 fluxes to other meteorological parameters.

  19. Weed infestation of a spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. crop under the conditions of plough and ploughless tillage

    Andrzej Woźniak


    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted in the period 2007- 2009 in the Uhrusk Experimental Farm (Lublin region belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin. Different tillage systems - plough and ploughless tillage - were the experimental factors. In the plough tillage system, tillage involved skimming done after the harvest of the forecrop and autumn ploughing. In the ploughless tillage system, only the herbicide Roundup 360 SL (active substance - glyphosate was applied after the harvest of the forecrop. In both tillage treatments, spring tillage involved field cultivating and the use of a tillage assembly consisting of a cultivator, cage roller, and harrow. The present experiment evaluated weed infestation of the crop expressed by the number and air-dry weight of weeds and their species composition. Under the conditions of ploughless tillage, air-dry weight of weeds in the spring wheat crop was shown to increase significantly compared to plough tillage. The tillage systems under comparison did not differentiate the number of weeds per 1 m2. Spring wheat sown using plough tillage was colonized most extensively by the following weed species: Avena fatua L., Stellaria media (L. Vill., Galium aparine L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., and Consolida regalis Gray. In the ploughless tillage treatments, the following weeds were predominant: Stellaria media (L. Vill., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L. A. Löve, Papaver rhoeas L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Galium aparine L., and Chenopodium album L.

  20. Assessing the ratio of leaf carbon to nitrogen in winter wheat and spring barley based on hyperspectral data

    Xu, Xin-gang; Gu, Xiao-he; Song, Xiao-yu; Xu, Bo; Yu, Hai-yang; Yang, Gui-jun; Feng, Hai-kuan


    The metabolic status of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) as two essential elements of crop plants has significant influence on the ultimate formation of yield and quality in crop production. The ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from crop leaves, defined as ratio of LCC (leaf carbon concentration) to LNC (leaf nitrogen concentration), is an important index that can be used to diagnose the balance between carbon and nitrogen, nutrient status, growth vigor and disease resistance in crop plants. Thus, it is very significant for effectively evaluating crop growth in field to monitor changes of leaf C/N quickly and accurately. In this study, some typical indices aimed at N estimation and chlorophyll evaluation were tested to assess leaf C/N in winter wheat and spring barley. The multi-temporal hyperspectral measurements from the flag-leaf, anthesis, filling, and milk-ripe stages were used to extract these selected spectral indices to estimate leaf C/N in wheat and barley. The analyses showed that some tested indices such as MTCI, MCARI/OSAVI2, and R-M had the better performance of assessing C/N for both of crops. Besides, a mathematic algorithm, Branch-and-Bound (BB) method was coupled with the spectral indices to assess leaf C/N in wheat and barley, and yielded the R2 values of 0.795 for winter wheat, R2 of 0.727 for spring barley, 0.788 for both crops combined. It demonstrates that using hyperspectral data has a good potential for remote assessment of leaf C/N in crops.

  1. Genealogical Analysis of the North-American Spring Wheat Varieties with Different Resistance to Pre-harvest Sprouting

    Martynov Sergey


    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of genetic diversity of North American spring wheat varieties differing in resistance to pre-harvest sprouting was carried out. For identification of sources of resistance the genealogical profiles of 148 red-grained and 63 white-grained North-American spring wheat varieties with full pedigrees were calculated and estimates were made of pre-harvest sprouting. The cluster structure of the populations of red-grained and white-grained varieties was estimated. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the average contributions of landraces in the groups of resistant and susceptible varieties. Distribution of the putative sources of resistance in the clusters indicated that varieties having different genetic basis may have different sources of resistance. For red-grained varieties the genetic sources of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting are landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, and Iumillo, or Button, Kenya 9M-1A-3, and Kenya-U, or Red Egyptian and Kenya BF4-3B-10V1. Tracking of pedigrees showed these landraces contributed to the pedigrees, respectively, via Thatcher, Kenya-Farmer, and Kenya-58, which were likely donors of resistance for red-grained varieties. For white-grained varieties the sources of resistance were landraces Crimean, Hard Red Calcutta, Ostka Galicyjska, Iumillo, Akakomugi, Turco, Hybrid English, Rough Chaff White and Red King, and putative donors of resistance — Thatcher, RL2265, and Frontana. The genealogical profile of accession RL4137, the most important donor of resistance to pre-harvest sprouting in North American spring wheat breeding programmes, contains almost all identified sources of resistance.

  2. The occurrence of fungi on the stem base and roots of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in monoculture depending on tillage systems and catch crops

    Piotr Kraska


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the period 2006-2008 based on an experiment established in 2005. The study evaluated the effect of conservation and plough tillage as well as of four catch crops on the level of infection by fungal pathogens of the stem base and roots of the spring wheat cultivar ‘Zebra’ grown in monoculture. The species composition of fungi colonizing the stem base and roots of spring wheat was determined. The split-plot design of the experiment set up on rendzina soil included plough tillage and conservation tillage with autumn and spring disking of catch crops. The experiment used four methods for regeneration of the spring wheat monoculture stand using the following: undersown red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops. Plots without catch crops were the control treatment. Red clover and Westerwolds ryegrass catch crops as well as lacy phacelia and white mustard stubble crops had a significant effect on the decrease in the stem base and root infection index of spring wheat compared to the control without catch crops. The disease indices in the tillage treatments under evaluation did not differ significantly from one another. The stem base and roots of spring wheat were most frequently infected by fungi of the genus Fusarium, with F. culmorum being the dominant pathogen of cereals. Compared to conservation tillage, in plough tillage the pathogenic fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana was not found to occur on the stem base and roots. The Westerwolds ryegrass catch crop promoted the occurrence of F. culmorum, both on the stem base and roots of spring wheat.

  3. Effects of tillage technologies and application of biopreparations on micromycetes in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Kozlova, L. M.; Shirokikh, A. A.; Popov, F. A.; Tovstik, E. V.


    The population density and structure of complexes of soil microscopic fungi in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), plant damage by root rot and leaf diseases, and crop yield were determined in a stationary field experiment on a silty loamy soddy-podzolic soil (Albic Retisol (Loamic, Aric)) in dependence on the soil tillage technique: (a) moldboard plowing to 20-22 cm and (b) non-inversive tillage to 14-16 cm. The results were treated with the two-way ANOVA method. It was shown that the number of fungal propagules in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants in the variant with non-inversive tillage was significantly smaller than that in the variant with plowing. Minimization of the impact on the soil during five years led to insignificant changes in the structure of micromycete complexes in the rhizosphere of wheat. The damage of the plants with root rot and leaf diseases upon non-inversive tillage did not increase in comparison with that upon plowing. Wheat yield in the variant with non-inversive tillage was insignificantly lower than that in the variant with moldboard plowing. The application of biopreparations based on the Streptomyces hygroscopicus A4 and Pseudomonas aureofaciens BS 1393 resulted in a significant decrease of plant damage with leaf rust.

  4. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai


    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared......Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage....... Comparedwith the non-primed plants, drought priming could alleviate photo-inhibition in flag leaves caused by drought and heat stress episodes during grain filling. In the primed plants, drought stress inhibited photosynthesis mainly through decrease of maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate, while...... decrease of the carboxylation efficiency limited photosynthesis under heat stress. The higher saturated net photosynthetic rate of flag leaves coincidedwith the lowered nonphotochemical quenching rates in the twice-primed plants under drought stress and in the primed plants during stem elongation under...

  5. The effect of herbicides on Chenopodium album L. phenology in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops

    Marian Wesołowski


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the time of occurrence of the emergence, budding, fruiting and seed shedding stages, as well as the degree of advancement of the white goosefoot fruiting and diaspores shedding stages in fodder beet, spring wheat and faba bean crops under mechanical and chemical weed control. Phenological observations were conducted in the years 2000-2002 at 10-day intervals, starting from the day of crop sowing on alluvial soil made of light loam. Chemically weed controlled objects were treated with herbicides: fodder beet - lenacil 80%; spring wheat - MCPA 30% + dicamba 4%; faba bean - linuron 50%. It was proven that the times of occurrence and the scale of the studied phenological stages of white goosefoot depended on the crop species, the in-crop weed control method and the pattern of weather conditions in the study years. White goosefoot had the most favourable conditions of growth in the fodder beet crop. The herbicides in the fodder beet and faba bean crops delayed the emergence and the time of occurrence of successive white goosefoot growth stages. These agents also decreased the degree of diaspores shedding by the weed species studied. The most white goosefoot specimens shed fruits on the mechanically weed controlled plots. The diaspores dissemination was promoted by a warm and moist growing season.

  6. Characteristics of spring wheat genotypes exhibiting high resistance to FHB in terms of their resistance to other fungal diseases

    Danuta Kurasiak-Popowska


    Full Text Available The field experiment was carried out in 2010–2012 at the Dłoń Agricultural Research Station, the Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland. The study was designed to evaluate the degree of infection by powdery mildew, brown rust, and septoria leaf blotch in 61 spring wheat genotypes differing in their resistance to Fusarium ssp. The vast majority of spring wheat genotypes in the collection of gene resources in the USA defined as resistant to Fusarium ssp. confirmed their resistance under Polish climatic conditions. The B .graminis infection rate of genotypes that are considered to be resistant to Fusarium head blight was high. The resistance ranged from 7 for Sumai 3 (PL2 up to 8.8 for Ning 8331 (in a 9-point scale. Most of the genotypes (56.5% were infected by Puccinia recondita at a level of 1–3 (in a 9-point scale. The genotypes of Sumai 3 exhibited high resistance to septoria leaf blotch, amounting to 1–2 in a 9-point scale; the resistance of Frontana ranged from 1 to 3.5, while the genotypes of Ning were infected by Mycosphaerella graminicola at 5–6.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  8. Water stress-induced changes in morphology and anatomy of flag leaf of spring wheat

    Barbara Zagdańska


    Full Text Available Flag leaves of wheat (drought hardened and non-hardened were examined by light microscopy to determine whether the differences in leaf anatomy could be related to the known differences in dehydration tolerance. Plants exposure to water stress during tissue differentiation of flag leaves resulted in an irreversible reduction of leaf area and thickness, increased frequencies of stomata and higher number of bulliform cells with simultaneous decrease in number of intermediate veins and an increase in the share of the cell walls in total cell volume. The smaller leaf thickness was due to a diminished number of mesophyll layers and a decreased size of mesophyll cells. Such altered leaf anatomy indicated development of leaf xerophily. It was found that the irreversible changes in anatomy of wheat flag leaves play a decisive role in acquiring drought tolerance during wheat acclimation to drought.

  9. Stem Rust Resistance in a Geographically Diverse Collection of Spring Wheat Lines Collected from Across Africa

    Prins, Renée; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Pretorius, Zakkie; van Schalkwyk, Hester; Wessels, Elsabet; Smit, Corneli; Bender, Cornel; Singh, Davinder; Boyd, Lesley A.


    Following the emergence of the Ug99 lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) a collective international effort has been undertaken to identify new sources of wheat stem rust resistance effective against these races. Analyses were undertaken in a collection of wheat genotypes gathered from across Africa to identify stem rust resistance effective against the Pgt races found in Eastern and Southern Africa. The African wheat collection consisted of historic genotypes collected in Kenya, South Africa, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia, Morocco, and Tunisia, and current South African breeding lines. Both Bayesian cluster and principal coordinate analyses placed the wheat lines from Sudan in a distinct group, but indicated a degree of genetic relatedness among the other wheat lines despite originating from countries across Africa. Seedling screens with Pgt race PTKST, pedigree information and marker haplotype analysis confirmed the presence of Sr2, Sr36, Sr24, Sr31, and Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 in a number of the lines. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) undertaken with Diversiry Arrays Technology (DArT) and stem rust (Sr) gene associated markers and Stem Area Infected (SAI) and Reaction Type (RT) field phenotypes, collected from trials carried out across two seasons in Kenya in 2009 and in South Africa in 2011, identified 29 marker-trait associations (MTA). Three MTA were in common between SAI and RT, with the biggest effect MTA being found on chromosome 6AS. Two wheat lines, W1406 and W6979 that exhibited high levels of adult plant stem rust resistance were selected to generate bi-parental mapping populations. Only the MTA on chromosomes 6AS and 3BS, and the locus Lr34/Yr18/Sr57 were confirmed following QTL mapping. Additional stem rust resistance QTL, not detected by the GWAS, were found on chromosomes 2BS, 2DL, 3DL, and 4D. PMID:27462322

  10. Springs

    James J. Kilpatrick


    @@ Springs are not always the same. In some years, April bursts upon our Virginia hills in one prodigious leap-and all the stage is filled at once, whole choruses of tulips, arabesques of forsythia, cadenzas of flowering plum. The trees grow leaves overnight

  11. Study of Rain-Induced Landslides Prediction in Malaysia

    Koay, S. P.; Lateh, H.; Fukuoka, H.; Sakai, N.; Murakami, S.; Koyama, T.; Jamaludin, S. B.


    In Malaysia, rain-induced landslides are occurring more often recently. Millions of Malaysian Ringgit are allocated for risky slope monitoring and slope failure measurement in the government budget every year. However, there are thousands of slopes which are classified as dangerous slopes, and implementing site monitoring system in all slopes, with physical devices, to monitor the movement of the soil in the slopes are too costly and almost impossible. In our study, we propose 2 methods to predict the slope failure, which are (1)Accumulated Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity and (2)Working Rainfall vs. Rainfall Intensity, with water table drawdown period consideration. The curve of jointed data will be reset to 0 if the rain stop period is longer than the period of water table drawdown to pre-rain level. The critical line, in these 2 methods, which determines if the slope is in a risk state, should be generated by collecting historical landslides data. However, unlike the other developed countries, a complete historical landslides data in Malaysia is difficult to be obtained. We propose that the critical line is drawn by referring to the simulation result of the factor of slope stability F, with the slope parameters and rainfall data, to cover the uncompleted historical landslides data. If the curves cross over the critical line, the probability of slope failure is considered high. In this study, the proposed methods managed to show that 2 occurrences of landslides, in Malaysia, could be predicted if it was applied earlier. In future, further study on fine tuning of these two methods and selecting the more accuracy method from these two methods may assist the government authorities to judge the movement of the slopes before disseminating data and information for early warning system.

  12. NIR calibration of soluble stem carbohydrates for predicting drought tolerance in spring wheat

    Soluble stem carbohydrates are a component of drought response in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other grasses. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) can rapidly assay for soluble carbohydrates indirectly, but this requires a statistical model for calibration. The objectives of this study were: (i) to ...

  13. Analysis of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Hard Red Spring Wheat Inoculated with Fusarium Graminearum

    Maribel Ovando-Martínez


    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin affecting wheat quality. The formation of the “masked” mycotoxin deoxinyvalenol-3-glucoside (D3G results from a defense mechanism the plant uses for detoxification. Both mycotoxins are important from a food safety point of view. The aim of this work was to analyze DON and D3G content in inoculated near-isogenic wheat lines grown at two locations in Minnesota, USA during three different years. Regression analysis showed positive correlation between DON content measured with LC and GC among wheat lines, locality and year. The relationship between DON and D3G showed a linear increase until a certain point, after which the DON content and the D3G increased. Wheat lines having higher susceptibility to Fusarium showed the opposite trend. ANOVA demonstrated that the line and location have a greater effect on variation of DON and D3G than do their interaction among years. The most important factor affecting DON and D3G was the growing location. In conclusion, the year, environmental conditions and location have an effect on the D3G/DON ratio in response to Fusarium infection.

  14. Quantification of peptides causing celiac disease in historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars

    Celiac disease (CD) is prevalent in 0.5 to 1.26% of adolescents and adults. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals as a result of ingestion of gluten forming proteins found in cereals such as, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), rye (Secale cereale L.) and barley (Hordeum sativum L.)...

  15. Effects on nutrients and on grain quality in spring wheat crops grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and stress conditions in the European, multiple-site experiment 'ESPACE-wheat'

    Fangmeier, A.; Temmerman, de L.; Mortensen, L.; Kemp, K.; Burke, J.; Mitchell, J.R.A.C.; Oijen, van M.; Weigel, H.J.


    Nutrient element concentrations and grain quality were assessed in spring wheat grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and contrasting levels of tropospheric ozone at different nitrogen supply rates at several European sites. Carbon dioxide enrichment proved to affect nutrient concentrations in a c

  16. Effects of zinc on cadmium uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.): long-time hydroponic study and short-time 109Cd tracing study

    ZHAO Zhong-qiu; ZHU Yong-guan; CAI Yun-long


    To investigate effects of Zn on Cd uptake by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in solution culture, long-time hydroponic experiment (1 month) (Experiment 1) and short-time Cd isotope (109Cd) tracing experiment (24 h) (Experiment 2) were conducted. In Experiment 1, spring wheat (cv. Brookton) was grown in nutrient solution at uniform cadmium concentration of 20μ mol/L and 10 zinc concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, spring wheat seedlings,pre-cultivated in complete nutrient solution, were treated with 109Cd of uniform activity and the same series of Zn concentrations as those in Experiment 1 for 24 h. Cd concentrations in shoots and roots in Experiment 1 increased marginally but not consistently with Zn increasing at Zn rates of 1~200 μmol/L, and then decreased significantly at high rates (>200 μ mol/L). In Experiment 2, the response of 109Cd activities in shoots and roots to increasing Zn was greatly similar to the response of Cd concentrations to Zn increasing in Experiment 1. The results of the two experiments indicated that the short-time and long-time exposure of spring wheat to Zn had similar effects on Cd accumulation.

  17. Cluster analysis of historical and modern hard red spring wheat cultivars based on parentage and HPLC analysis of gluten forming proteins

    In this study, 30 hard red spring (HRS) wheat cultivars released between 1910 and 2013 were analyzed to determine how they cluster in terms of parentage and protein data, analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) of gliadins, and size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) of unreduced proteins. Dwarfing genes in...

  18. A Comparison of Aggressiveness and Deoxynivalenol Production Between Canadian Fusarium graminearum Isolates with 3-Acetyl and 15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol Chemotypes in Field-Grown Spring Wheat

    Twenty four isolates of Fusarium graminearum, half of which were 3- acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and half 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) chemotypes, were tested for their ability to produce deoxynivalenol and to cause Fusarium head blight (FHB), in spring wheat cultivars. The objectives of this...

  19. Postharvest resistance in hard spring and winter wheat varieties of the northern Great Plains to the lesser grain borer (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae).

    Watts, Vanessa M; Dunkel, Florence V


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varietal resistance to the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F), was evaluated in hard spring and winter wheat produced 1997, 1998 (Bozeman, Montana). We tested the hypothesis that six Montana-grown spring wheat varieties, 'Ernest', 'Scholar', 'Hi-Line', 'McNeal', 'Newana', and 'Amidon', were equally and strongly resistant to R. dominica at low moisture contents (9-10%). Mortality/Feeding damage occurred in all varieties. In most assays, Ernest had significantly greater feeding damage from R. dominica than other varieties, usually not significantly different from the susceptible control. Mean adult mortality was significantly greater in McNeal (93%) and Hi-Line (92%) than in Ernest (34%) and Montana-grown, soft white spring wheat (Penawawa), the susceptible control (36%). In 9 wk, twice as many adult progeny were produced on Ernest than on McNeal, Hi-Line, or Scholar. We also compared three Montana-grown winter wheat varieties for resistance to R. dominica attack at low moisture contents (9-10%). Significantly more mortality after 6 wk was associated with all winter wheat varieties than the susceptible control. In 'Nuwest', 'Rocky', and 'Vanguard', significantly fewer progeny were produced than in the susceptible control; these varieties appeared more resistant. 'Tiber' and 'Neeley', in contrast, appeared more susceptible than other winter wheat varieties evaluated. Susceptibility decreased significantly with a 1.2% decrease in moisture content. Percentage of total protein was positively correlated with percentage of sound kernels and negatively with total progeny (r2 = -0.69). Kernel hardness was positively correlated with percentage of sound kernels, but negatively correlated with total progeny (r2 = -0.87) and dry weight loss.

  20. Environmental Safety for Chernozem Soil Fertilized with Phosphogypsum and Ash for Spring Wheat Cultivation in North Kazakhstan

    Muhanbet Ainur


    Full Text Available Currently, year by year the industrial waste stockpiles increase, but at the same time its recycling is not more than 10–15% of the production. There are several methods of recycling of such waste as phosphogypsum and ash, among which one of the perspective directions is considered using them in agriculture as fertilizer and ameliorator. The limiting factor of their widespread use in agriculture is the presence of heavy metals and radionuclides in them. This article presents data about environmental safety of using phosphogypsum and ash for cultivation spring wheat on the chernozem soils of Northern Kazakhstan. According to the results of research, using phosphogypsum and ash doesn’t give negative impact on the environment, the presence of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soil and grain do not exceed the maximum allowable concentrations.

  1. Reconciling the discrepancy in ground- and satellite-observed trends in the spring phenology of winter wheat in China from 1993 to 2008

    Guo, Li; An, Ning; Wang, Kaicun


    Monitoring crop phenology has become a growing concern for food security. Crop phenology can be traditionally observed at plot scale in the field or recently at a much larger scale by satellites. In this study, we compared the spring phenology of winter wheat (Triticum sp.), quantified as the timing of start-of-spring-season (SOS), using 8 km resolution satellite data and ground observations at 112 agrometeorological stations across China from 1993 to 2008. We found that ground and satellite observations displayed opposing trends in winter wheat SOS. Ground observation exhibited a delayed onset of SOS at 86% of ground stations, whereas satellite data suggested an earlier arrival of SOS at 78% of stations. The meteorological SOS calculated from daily air temperature supported the earlier occurrence of SOS indicated by satellite data. Moreover, satellite data showed more agreement with meteorological data with respect to interannual SOS variations than did field phenology records. Given the dominant control of air temperature on winter wheat's spring phenology, satellite observation provides a reliable measure of the long-term trends and dynamics of SOS. Ground-observed SOS trends were impaired by data heterogeneity and limited spatial coverage. However, compared with ground observations, satellite-derived phenological timings are often lack of biological meanings. Therefore, integrating ground and satellite observations could enhance the monitoring of winter wheat SOS, which would increase the knowledge of vegetation's response to the changing climate and help to optimize timely crop management.

  2. A Novel Retrotransposon Inserted in the Dominant Vrn-B1 Allele Confers Spring Growth Habit in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Chu, C-G; Tan, C T; Yu, G-T; Zhong, S; Xu, S S; Yan, L


    Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In wheat (Triticum L. sp.), it was previously shown that allelic variation in the vernalization gene VRN1 was due to deletions or insertions either in the promoter or in the first intron. Here, we report a novel Vrn-B1 allele that has a retrotransposon in its promoter conferring spring growth habit. The VRN-B1 gene was mapped in a doubled haploid population that segregated for winter-spring growth habit but was derived from two spring tetraploid wheat genotypes, the durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum) variety 'Lebsock' and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accession PI 94749. Genetic analysis revealed that Lebsock carried the dominant Vrn-A1 and recessive vrn-B1 alleles, whereas PI 94749 had the recessive vrn-A1 and dominant Vrn-B1 alleles. The Vrn-A1 allele in Lebsock was the same as the Vrn-A1c allele previously reported in hexaploid wheat. No differences existed between the vrn-B1 and Vrn-B1 alleles, except that a 5463-bp insertion was detected in the 5'-UTR region of the Vrn-B1 allele. This insertion was a novel retrotransposon (designated as retrotrans_VRN), which was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contained primer binding site and polypurine tract motifs, a 325-bp long terminal repeat, and an open reading frame encoding 1231 amino acids. The insertion of retrotrans_VRN resulted in expression of Vrn-B1 without vernalization. Retrotrans_VRN is prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accessions, less prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum accessions, and rarely found in other tetraploid wheat subspecies.

  3. Mapping of resistance to spot blotch disease caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana in spring wheat.

    Kumar, Uttam; Joshi, Arun K; Kumar, Sundeep; Chand, Ramesh; Röder, Marion S


    Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a destructive disease of wheat in warm and humid wheat growing regions of the world. The development of disease resistant cultivars is considered as the most effective control strategy for spot blotch. An intervarietal mapping population in the form of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from a cross 'Yangmai 6' (a Chinese source of resistance) x 'Sonalika' (a spot blotch susceptible cultivar). The 139 single seed descent (SSD) derived F(6), F(7), F(8) lines of 'Yangmai 6' x 'Sonalika' were evaluated for resistance to spot blotch in three blocks in each of the 3 years. Joint and/or single year analysis by composite interval mapping (CIM) and likelihood of odd ratio (LOD) >2.2, identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on the chromosomes 2AL, 2BS, 5BL and 6DL. These QTLs were designated as QSb.bhu-2A, QSb.bhu-2B, QSb.bhu-5B and QSb.bhu-6D, respectively. A total of 63.10% of phenotypic variation was explained by these QTLs based on the mean over years. Two QTLs on chromosomes 2B and 5B with major effects were consistent over 3 years. All QTL alleles for resistance were derived from the resistant parent 'Yangmai 6'.

  4. Effect of dark, hard, and vitreous kernel content on protein molecular weight distribution and on milling and breadmaking quality characteristics for hard spring wheat samples from diverse growing regions

    Kernel vitreousness is an important grading characteristic for segregation of sub-classes of hard red spring (HRS) wheat in the U.S. This research investigated the protein molecular weight distribution (MWD), and flour and baking quality characteristics of different HRS wheat market sub-classes. T...

  5. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A


    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  6. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  7. Yield stability of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan

    Ghulam Rasul Tahir


    Full Text Available Ten promising wheat genotypes were evaluated for grain yield stability under varied environments at nine locations in the North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. The interaction between genotypes and environments (G x E was found significant in this study. None of the regression coefficients (bi was significantly different from variety; therefore, stable performance of the genotypes could not be predicted on ‘bi’ alone. In this study, deviations from regression (S2d and average grain yields were used to identify the superior genotypes. Above average grain yields were observed in genotypes, CT-99022, SAW-98063, CT- 99155 and Saleem-2000. Although cultivar Saleem-2000 produced high yield, on the basis of high S2d value seemed to be sensitive upon environmental changes. Based on grain yield performance, low deviation from regression and bi values the genotype CT-99022 is more suitable for favourable and CT-99155 for unfavourable environments. Stable performance was expressed by SAW-98063 because of higher grain yield, regression coefficient (bi = .983 and low deviation from regression (S2d = 0.065.

  8. Effects Of Spring Herbicide Treatments On Winter Wheat Growth And Grain Yield*

    Hamouz P.


    Full Text Available Herbicides provide a low-cost solution for protecting crops from significant yield losses. If weed infestations are below damage thresholds, however, then herbicide application is unnecessary and can even lead to yield loss. A small-plot field trial was conducted to examine the effect of herbicides on winter wheat yields. Weeds were removed manually from the trial area before herbicide application. Twenty-four treatments were tested in four replications. Treatment 1 consisted of an untreated weed-free control, whereas the other treatments comprised applications of the following herbicides and their combinations: metsulfuron-methyl + tribenuron-methyl (4.95 + 9.99 g ha−1, pinoxaden (30 g ha−1, fluroxypyr (175 g ha−1, and clopyralid (120 g ha−1. Water (250 l ha−1 or a urea-ammonium nitrate fertilizer solution (UAN, 120.5 l ha−1 was used as the herbicide carrier. Crop injury 30 days after treatment and yield loss were recorded. Results showed minor crop injury by herbicides and their combinations when applied without UAN and moderate injury caused by UAN in combination with herbicides. Yield losses reached 5.3% and 4.3% in those treatments where all of the tested herbicides were applied with and without UAN, respectively. The effect of all treatments on crop yield was, however, statistically insignificant (P = 0.934.

  9. Root carbon consumption and grain yield of spring wheat in response to phosphorus supply under two water regimes

    GUAN Yu; QIAO Zhen; DU Jiu-yuan; DU Yan-lei


    In semiarid areas, cereal crops often alocate more biomass to root at the expense of aboveground yield. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate carbon consumption of roots and its impact on grain yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as affected by water and phosphorus (P) supply. A factorial design was used with six treatments namely two water regimes (at 80–75% and 50–45% ifeld capacity (FC)) and three P supply rates (P1=0, P2=44 and P3=109 µg P g–1 soil). At shooting and lfowering stages, root respiration and carbon consumption increased with the elevate of P supply rates, regardless of water conditions, which achieved the minimum and maximum at P1 under 50–45% FC and P3 under 80–75% FC, respectively. However, total aboveground biomass and grain yield were higher at P2 under 80–75% FC; and decreased with high P application (P3). The results indicated that rational or low P supply (80–75% of ifeld water capacity and 44 mg P kg–1 soil) should be recommended to improve grain yield by decreasing root carbon consumption in semiarid areas.

  10. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race...

  11. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in the vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The main wheat vernalization genes VRN1, V...

  12. Influence of climatic factors on the low yields of spring barley and winter wheat in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic) during the 1961-2007 period

    Kolář, Petr; Trnka, Miroslav; Brázdil, Rudolf; Hlavinka, Petr


    The paper aims to study the variability of spring barley and winter wheat yields, the most important crops in the Czech Republic, with respect to the variability of weather and climatic factors. Yields of both crops have been studied for 13 districts in Southern Moravia for the 1961-2007 period. From detrended series of spring barley and winter wheat yields, years with very low (lower than the mean minus a 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) and extremely low (interval given by the mean minus a 1.5- and 2.5-multiple of the standard deviation) yields were selected. Years in which at least one of the districts had extremely low/very low yields were further analyzed. From 10 such years selected separately for spring barley and winter wheat, six of them agreed for both crops. Extreme years were studied using NUTS4-level yield data with respect to temperature, precipitation, the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), snow cover, frost patterns, and the onset and duration of select phenophases. Extremely/very low barley yields in 1993, 2000, and 2007 were related to high April-June (AMJ) temperatures, low AMJ precipitation totals, and negative AMJ scPDSI (indicating drought) with an earlier onset of flowering and full ripeness and shorter intervals from tillering to flowering and from flowering to full ripeness compared to the entire 1961-2007 mean. As for extremely/very low winter wheat yields, in addition to the previously mentioned factors, winter patterns also played an important role, particularly the occurrence of severe frosts with a coinciding lack of snow cover and a long-lasting snow cover (in highlands), indicating that low yields are the result of not only one unfavorable factor but a combination of several of them.

  13. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer on crop yields in a field pea-spring wheat-potato rotation system with calcareous soil in semi-arid environments

    Liu, C.A.; Zhang, S.; Hua, S.; Rao, X.


    The object of the present study was to investigate the yield-affecting mechanisms influenced by N and P applications in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. The experimental treatments were as follows: NF (no fertilizer), N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), and NP (nitrogen plus phosphorus) in a field pea-spring wheat-potato cropping system. This study was conducted over six years (2003-2008) on China’s semi-arid Loess Plateau. The fertilizer treatments were found to decrease the soil water content more than the NF treatment in each of the growing seasons. The annual average yields of the field pea crops during the entire experimental period were 635, 677, 858, and 1117 kg/ha for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. The annual average yields were 673, 547, 966, and 1056 kg/ha for the spring wheat crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. Also, the annual average yields were 1476, 2120, 1480, and 2424 kg/ha for the potato crops for the NF, N, P, and NP treatments, respectively. In the second cycle of the three-year rotation, the pea and spring wheat yields in the P treatment were 1.2 and 2.8 times higher than that in the N treatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the potato crop yield in the N treatment was 3.1 times higher than that in the P treatment. In conclusion, the P fertilizer was found to increase the yields of the field pea and wheat crops, and the N fertilizer increased the potato crop yield in rainfed areas with calcareous soil. (Author)

  14. QTLs associated with agronomic traits in the Attila × CDC Go spring wheat population evaluated under conventional management

    Zou, Jun; Iqbal, Muhammad; Chen, Hua; Asif, Mohammad; N’Diaye, Amidou; Navabi, Alireza; Perez-Lara, Enid; Pozniak, Curtis; Yang, Rong-Cai; Randhawa, Harpinder; Spaner, Dean


    Recently, we investigated the effect of the wheat 90K single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) array and three gene-specific (Ppd-D1, Vrn-A1 and Rht-B1) markers on quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, ‘Attila’ and ‘CDC Go’, and evaluated for eight agronomic traits at three environments under organic management. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of conventional management on QTL detection in the same mapping population using the same set of markers as the organic management and compare the results with organic management. Here, we evaluated 167 RILs for number of tillers (tillering), flowering time, maturity, plant height, test weight (grain volume weight), 1000 kernel weight, grain yield, and grain protein content at seven conventionally managed environments from 2008 to 2014. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) on phenotypic data averaged across seven environments and a subset of 1203 informative markers (1200 SNPs and 3 gene specific markers), we identified a total of 14 QTLs associated with flowering time (1), maturity (2), plant height (1), grain yield (1), test weight (2), kernel weight (4), tillering (1) and grain protein content (2). Each QTL individually explained from 6.1 to 18.4% of the phenotypic variance. Overall, the QTLs associated with each trait explained from 9.7 to 35.4% of the phenotypic and from 22.1 to 90.8% of the genetic variance. Three chromosomal regions on chromosomes 2D (61–66 cM), 4B (80–82 cM) and 5A (296–297 cM) harbored clusters of QTLs associated with two to three traits. The coincidental region on chromosome 5A harbored QTL clusters for both flowering and maturity time, and mapped about 2 cM proximal to the Vrn-A1 gene, which was in high linkage disequilibrium (0.70 ≤ r2 ≤ 0.75) with SNP markers that mapped within the QTL confidence interval

  15. Ozone uptake modelling and flux-response relationships—an assessment of ozone-induced yield loss in spring wheat

    Danielsson, Helena; Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl; Karlsson, Per Erik; Håkan Pleijel, H.

    Measurements of stomatal conductance on field grown spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) from two experiments conducted in southwest Sweden were combined to validate and adjust the Jarvis type of multiplicative stomatal conductance model presented by Emberson et al. (Environ. Pollut. 109 (2000) 403). The adjusted model (Östad model) and the Emberson model are based on the boundary line technique. The aging of the flag leaf became important for stomatal conductance at about 500 degrees days after anthesis, on average 30 days after anthesis. Elevated ozone concentrations were assumed to influence the stomatal conductance in relation to the effect on the leaf life span. During the hours after noon the stomata tended to close to an extent that could not be explained by the combined effects of leaf temperature, leaf-to-air vapour pressure difference (VPD LA) or solar radiation. For these reasons factors describing the reduction of stomatal conductance caused by ozone and time of day were introduced in the calibration of the Östad stomatal conductance model. VPD LA induced closure of stomata at ≈1.5 kPa. In elevated carbon dioxide concentration (680 μmol mol -1) the stomatal conductance was reduced by approximately 60%. Test with the data from Östad showed that the Östad multiplicative model had an r2-value of 0.59 for the relationship between calculated and observed conductance. The Östad as well as the Emberson models were used to estimate the cumulated uptake of ozone (CUO) by the wheat flag leaves. The relationship between CUO based on the Östad model cumulated from anthesis to harvest, with a threshold for the uptake rate of 5 nmol m -2 s -1 and relative yield loss, resulted in a higher r2-value (0.90) than any other CUO model or relationships based on the accumulated ozone exposure over 40 nmol mol -1 (AOT40). The corresponding relationships between relative yield and CUO based on the Emberson model and with AOT40 were however also statistically

  16. Photosynthesis and Rubisco kinetics in spring wheat and meadow fescue under conditions of simulated climate change with elevated CO2 and increased temperatures



    Full Text Available Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Hudson cv. Kalevicwere grown in ambient and elevated (700 µl l -1 carbon dioxide concentration both at present ambient temperatures and at temperatures 3°C higher than at present simulating a future climate.The CO2 concentrations were elevated in large (3 m in diameteropen top chambers and the temperatures in a greenhouse built over the experimental field.The photosynthetic rate of both wheat and meadow fescue was 31 –37%higher in elevated carbon dioxide (eCO2 than in ambient CO 2 (aCO2 throughout the growing season.The enhancement in wheat photosynthesis in eCO2 declined 10 –13 days before yellow ripeness,at which point the rate of photosynthesis in both CO 2 treatments declined.The stomatal conductance of wheat and meadow fescue was 23–36% lower in eCO2 than in aCO2 .The amount and activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco in wheat were lower under conditions of eCO2 ,except at elevated temperatures in 1993 when there was a clear yield increase.There was no clear change in the amount and activity of Rubisco in meadow fescue under eCO2 at either elevated or ambient temperature.This suggests that adaptation to elevated CO2 at biochemical level occurs only when there is insufficient sink for photosynthetic products.While the sink size of wheat can be increased only by introducing new,more productive genotypes,the sink size of meadow fescue can be regulated by fitting the cutting schedule to growth.;

  17. A genome-wide association study of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a worldwide collection of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Maccaferri, Marco; Zhang, Junli; Bulli, Peter; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Cantu, Dario; Bossolini, Eligio; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael; Dubcovsky, Jorge


    New races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, show high virulence to previously deployed resistance genes and are responsible for large yield losses worldwide. To identify new sources of resistance we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a worldwide collection of 1000 spring wheat accessions. Adult plants were evaluated under field conditions in six environments in the western United States, and seedlings were tested with four Pst races. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Infinium 9K-assay provided 4585 SNPs suitable for GWAS. High correlations among environments and high heritabilities were observed for stripe rust infection type and severity. Greater levels of Pst resistance were observed in a subpopulation from Southern Asia than in other groups. GWAS identified 97 loci that were significant for at least three environments, including 10 with an experiment-wise adjusted Bonferroni probability resistance genes and QTL, and likely represent new resistance loci. The other seven QTL mapped close to known resistance genes and allelism tests will be required to test their relationships. In summary, this study provides an integrated view of stripe rust resistance resources in spring wheat and identifies new resistance loci that will be useful to diversify the current set of resistance genes deployed to control this devastating disease.

  18. QTL analysis of the spring wheat "Chapio" identifies stable stripe rust resistance despite inter-continental genotype × environment interactions.

    Yang, E-N; Rosewarne, G M; Herrera-Foessel, S A; Huerta-Espino, J; Tang, Z-X; Sun, C-F; Ren, Z-L; Singh, R P


    Chapio is a spring wheat developed by CIMMYT in Mexico by a breeding program that focused on multigenic resistances to leaf rust and stripe rust. A population consisting of 277 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed by crossing Chapio with Avocet. The RILs were genotyped with DArT markers (137 randomly selected RILs) and bulked segregant analysis conducted to supplement the map with informative SSR markers. The final map consisted of 264 markers. Phenotyping against stripe rust was conducted for three seasons in Toluca, Mexico and at three sites over two seasons (total of four environments) in Sichuan Province, China. Significant loci across the two inter-continental regions included Lr34/Yr18 on 7DS, Sr2/Yr30 on 3BS, and a QTL on 3D. There were significant genotype × environment interactions with resistance gene Yr31 on 2BS being effective in most of the Toluca environments; however, a late incursion of a virulent pathotype in 2009 rendered this gene ineffective. This locus also had no effect in China. Conversely, a 5BL locus was only effective in the Chinese environments. There were also complex additive interactions. In the Mexican environments, Yr31 suppressed the additive effect of Yr30 and the 3D locus, but not of Lr34/Yr18, while in China, the 3D and 5BL loci were generally not additive with each other, but were additive when combined with other loci. These results indicate the importance of maintaining diverse, multi-genic resistances as Chapio had stable inter-continental resistance despite the fact that there were QTLs that were not effective in either one or the other region.

  19. Independent and combined effects of soil warming and drought stress during anthesis on seed set and grain yield in two spring wheat varieties

    Weldearegay, Dawit Fisseha; Yan, F.; Jiang, D.


    irrigation until all of the transpirable soil water had been depleted in the pots. Results showed that, particularly under D treatment, Alora depleted soil water faster than Trappe. In both varieties, flag leaf relative water content (RWC) was significantly lowered, while spikelet abscisic acid (ABA...... decreased shoot biomass and reduced seed set. When analysed across the varieties and the treatments, it was found that the reduction in seed set was closely correlated with the increase in spikelet ABA concentration, indicating that D and HD treatments induced greater spikelet ABA concentrations might have...... caused seed abortion. It was concluded that the grain yield reduction under D and HD treatments during anthesis in spring wheat is ascribed mainly to a lowered seed set and wheat varieties (i.e. Alora) with more dramatic increase in spikelet ABA concentration are more susceptible to D and HD treatment....

  20. Genotype and environment variation for arabinoxylans in hard winter and spring wheats of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    The development of high quality wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties depends on a thorough understanding of the constituents of grain, and their variation due to genetics and environment. Arabinoxylans (pentosans) are key constituents of wheat grain and have broad and far-reaching influences on m...

  1. Cereal cyst nematode screening in locally adapted spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm of the Pacific Northwest, 2015

    Field screenings were performed to determine if there is resistance to Heterodera filipjevi in locally adapted wheat germplasm which could be introgressed into new WA wheat varieties. A field naturally infested with Heterodera filipjevi located in Colton, WA, was selected for this experiment. Cultiv...

  2. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment, Applied Nitrogen and Soil Moisture on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Uptake in Spring Wheat


    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi No. 8654) was treated with two concentrations of atmospheric COz (350 and 700 μmol mol-1), two levels of soil moisture (well-watered and drought) and five rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg kg-1 soil) to study the atmospheric CO2 concentration effect on dry matter accumulation and N uptake of spring wheat. The effects of CO2 enrichment on the shoot and total mass depended largely on soil nitrogen level, and the shoot and total mass increased significantly in the moderate to high N treatments but did not increase significantly in the low N treatment. Enriched CO2concentration did not increase more shoot and total mass in the drought treatment than in the well-watered treatment. Thus, elevated CO2 did not ameliorate the depressive effects of drought and nitrogen stress. In addition, root mass decreased slightly and root/shoot ratio decreased significantly due to CO2 enrichment in no N treatment under well-watered condition. Enriched CO2 decreased shoot N content and shoot and total N uptake; but it reduced root N content and uptake slightly. Shoot critical N concentration was lower for spring wheat grown at 700 μmol mol-1 CO2 than at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2 in both well-watered and drought treatments. The critical N concentrations were 16 and 19 g kg-1 for the well-watered treatment and drought treatment at elevated CO2 and 21 and 26 g kg-1 at ambient CO2, respectively. The reductions in the movement of nutrients to the plant roots through mass flow due to the enhancement in WUE (water use efficiency) and the increase in N use efficiency at elevated CO2 could elucidate the reduction of shoot and root N concentrations.

  3. Identification and validation of single nucleotide polymorphic markers linked to Ug99 stem rust resistance in spring wheat

    Chao, Shiaoman; Singh, Ravi P.; Sorrells, Mark E.


    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. and E. Henn.) is one of the most destructive diseases world-wide. Races belonging to Ug99 (or TTKSK) continue to cause crop losses in East Africa and threaten global wheat production. Developing and deploying wheat varieties with multiple race-specific genes or complex adult plant resistance is necessary to achieve durability. In the present study, we applied genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying loci associated with the Ug99 stem rust resistance (SR) in a panel of wheat lines developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Genotyping was carried out using the wheat 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Phenotyping was done in the field in Kenya by infection of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKST, the Sr24-virulent variant of Ug99. Marker-trait association identified 12 SNP markers significantly associated with resistance. Among them, 7 were mapped on five chromosomes. Markers located on chromosomes 4A and 4B overlapped with the location of the Ug99 resistance genes SrND643 and Sr37, respectively. Markers identified on 7DL were collocated with Sr25. Additional significant markers were located in the regions where no Sr gene has been reported. The chromosome location for five of the SNP markers was unknown. A BLASTN search of the NCBI database using the flanking sequences of the SNPs associated with Ug99 resistance revealed that several markers were linked to plant disease resistance analogues, while others were linked to regulatory factors or metabolic enzymes. A KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) assay was used for validating six marker loci linked to genes with resistance to Ug99. Of those, four co-segregated with the Sr25-pathotypes while the rest identified unknown resistance genes. With further investigation, these markers can be used for marker-assisted selection in breeding for Ug99 stem rust resistance in wheat. PMID:28241006

  4. The uptake and storage of caesium and strontium by spring wheat - a modelling study based on a field experiment

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I.; Linnea Berglund, S.; Bengtsson, Stefan B.; Rosen, Klas [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)


    The aim was to model, quantify, and analyse the dynamics of uptake (foliar and root) and grain storage of wet-deposited radionuclides by a growing crop. The dynamic trace element model, Tracey, for terrestrial ecosystems was used after extension with descriptions for contamination by wet-deposition, interception, and foliar uptake. Tracey contains two alternative root uptake descriptions, one driven by transpiration and one by growth. Radionuclide fluxes were assumed proportional to the corresponding water or carbon fluxes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system, simulated with the CoupModel. The extended Tracey was calibrated against data from the wet-deposition experiment at Ultuna, central Sweden. {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr were deposited on spring wheat at six growth stages in 2010 and 2011. The sensitivity for different radionuclide, plant, and soil properties were assessed by Monte Carlo simulations using the sensitivity toolbox Eikos. One thousand simulations were made for each of the 48 scenarios (2 radionuclides, 2 root uptake approaches, 6 deposition treatments, 2 years). The simulated dynamics of grains' storage of radionuclides were accepted if the simulated values were within the 95% confidence interval of the measured values at all available samplings of a deposition treatment. A ten percentage of all {sup 134}Cs and {sup 85}Sr simulations were accepted. Highest percentage of accepted simulations was found for the scenarios with deposition shortly before harvest, indicating that the added model descriptions of deposition and interception performed well. The model mimicked well that the grain storage of radionuclides increased exponentially the later in the growing season the deposition took place; the storage of radionuclides when deposited at full ripening was 250 times higher than the storage when deposition took place at tillering. The model results confirmed that foliar uptake i.e. direct atmosphere-plant transfer, fully dominates total plant

  5. Rapid identification of resistance loci effective against Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici race TTKSK in 33 spring wheat landraces

    Wheat breeders worldwide are seeking new sources of resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici race TTKSK. To prioritize field-resistant landraces for follow-up genetic studies to test for the presence of new resistance genes, seedling response to Pgt race TTKSK, molecular markers linked to speci...

  6. Invertebrate communities in spring wheat and the identification of cereal aphid predators through molecular gut content analysis

    Cereal aphid complexes are responsible for reducing wheat production worldwide; however, management against these species is rare in North America. Generalist predators may contribute to reducing cereal aphid numbers and preventing significant damage to crops. A two-year survey identifying the arth...

  7. Rain induced cross polarization at millimeter waves in a Xi'an environment

    Yi, Yan; Lijiun, Wang; Jiying, Huang


    The rainfall intensity accumulative distribution, raindrop size and canting angle distributions in Xi'an(108.9 E, 34.3 N) have been obtained from data measured over a long period of time. Rain induced crose polarization in this environment has been studied. The crose polarization discrimination, XPD, was compu ted over a frequency range of 19.3 to 300 GHz for non spherical drops. The variations of XPD with frequency, rainfall rate and copolar attenuation, CPA, were investigated. The computational resulte are in good agreement with experimental data. A mathematical relationship was established between the XPD and CPA, raindrop canting angle, which result is in good agreement with experimental data. The cumulative distribution of rain induced cross polarization for eleven years and in month have been ob tained with the cumulative distribution of the rain rate from the data measured from 1975 to 1985. The role of multiple scattering also has been discussed, it is shown that the multiple scattering play an important part in short millimeter wave.

  8. Yield and quality prediction using satellite passive imagery and ground-based active optical sensors in sugar beet, spring wheat, corn, and sunflower

    Bu, Honggang

    Remote sensing is one possible approach for improving crop nitrogen use efficiency to save fertilizer cost, reduce environmental pollution, and improve crop yield and quality. Feasibility and potential of using remote sensing tools to predict crops yield and quality as well as detect nitrogen requirements, application timing, rate, and places in season were investigated based on 2012-2013 two-year and four-crop (corn, spring wheat, sugar beet, and sunflower) study. Two ground-based active optical sensors, GreenSeeker and Holland Scientific Crop Circle, and the RapidEye satellite imagery were used to collect sensing data. Highly significant statistical relationships between INSEY (NDVI normalized by growing degree days) and crop yield and quality indices were found for all crops, indicating that remote sensing tools may be useful for managing in-season crop yield and quality prediction.

  9. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Bosch Dirk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  10. QTL Mapping of Adult-Plant Resistance to Leaf Rust in the Wheat Cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring Using High-Density SNP Markers

    Peipei Zhang


    Full Text Available Wheat leaf rust is an important disease worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is an effective means to control the disease. In the present study, 244 recombinant inbred lines from Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring cross were phenotyped for leaf rust severities during the 2011–2012, 2012–2013, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015 cropping seasons at Baoding, Hebei province, and 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons in Zhoukou, Henan province. The population was genotyped using the high-density Illumina iSelect 90K SNP assay and SSR markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping identified eight QTL, designated as QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, QLr.hebau-4B, QLr.hebau-5BL, and QLr.hebau-7DS, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS, QLr.hebau-3A, QLr.hebau-3BS, and QLr.hebau-5BL were derived from Zhou 8425B, whereas the other four were from Chinese Spring. Three stable QTL on chromosomes 2BS, 4B and 7DS explained 7.5–10.6%, 5.5–24.4%, and 11.2–20.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively. QLr.hebau-2BS in Zhou 8425B might be the same as LrZH22 in Zhoumai 22; QLr.hebau-4B might be the residual resistance of Lr12, and QLr.hebau-7DS is Lr34. QLr.hebau-2AL, QLr.hebau-3BS, QLr.hebau-4AL, and QLr.hebau-5BL are likely to be novel QTL for leaf rust. These QTL and their closely linked SNP and SSR markers can be used for fine mapping, candidate gene discovery, and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding.

  11. [Effects of conservation tillage on soil water conservation and crop yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland].

    Zhang, Li-hua; Li, Jun; Jia, Zhi-kuan; Liu, Bing-feng; Zhao, Hong-li; Shang, Jin-xia


    A field experiment was conducted in 2007-2010 to study the effects of no-tillage, subsoiling, and deep-ploughing combined with balanced fertilization, traditional fertilization, and no (or lower amount) fertilization on the soil water storage, crop yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and economic return of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland. Among the tillage measures, no-tillage in fallow period had the best effect in soil water conservation, followed by sub-soiling, and deep-ploughing. The average water storage in 0-200 cm soil layer in crop growth period under no-tillage and sub-soiling was 6.7% and 1.9% higher than that under deep-ploughing, respectively. Under the balanced, traditional, and no (or lower amount) fertilizations, subsoiling all showed the highest yield, WUE, and economic return, with the best effect under balanced fertilization. The three-year crop yield under sub-soiling combined with balanced fertilization was 6909, 9689, and 5589 kg x hm(-2), WUE was 18.5, 25.2, and 23.0 kg x hm(-2) x mm(-1), and economic return was 5034, 5045, and 7098 yuan x hm(-2), respectively. It was suggested that balanced fertilization combined with sub-soiling had the best effect in soil water conservation and yield- and income increase, being the more appropriate fertilization and tillage mode for the wheat-maize rotation field in Weibei highland.

  12. 新疆春小麦品种苗期耐盐性分析%Analysis on Salt Stress of Spring Wheat Bred in Xinjiang during Germination

    李士磊; 霍鹏; 李卫华; 石培春; 魏凌基


    [目的]研究新疆20世纪80年代至今自主选育的新春系列春小麦品种苗期耐盐性差异,筛选苗期耐盐性较好的品种,为新疆耐盐春小麦品种的选育提供参考.[方法]对新疆自育的31个春小麦品种分别采用0.15 mol/L的Na2 SO4的单盐和0.1 mol/L NaCl +0.05 mol/L Na2SO4复合盐进行胁迫处理,通过测量发芽率、苗高、苗鲜重、主根长、根数和发芽势,计算出相对耐盐系数和隶属函数综合值,并用SPSS分析软件进行聚类分析.[结果]通过比较分析各个品种苗期相对耐盐系数、隶属函数综合值以及隶属函数综合值总和,筛选出相对耐盐性较好的品种新春26号、新春22号、新春13号和新春16号,这些品种在单盐和复合盐胁迫下都具有较高的隶属函数综合值,且隶属函数综合值总和均较高.通过隶属函数值聚类分析,将新疆自育春小麦品种划分为耐盐性较好、中等和较差的三种类型,其中苗期耐盐性较好的材料有13个,占新疆自育品种数的42%,而耐盐性较差的品种有10个,占新疆自育品种数的32%.[结论]新疆自育春小麦品种多数在苗期具有良好的耐盐性.%[Objective]The study aims at the work of breeding better variety of spring wheat with salt tolerance in Xinjiang and provide reference for such work through the analysis of the differences of salt stress of a lots of spring wheat during germination bred in Xinjiang since the early 1980s. [Method]31 spring wheat cultivars bred in Xinjiang were treated respectively with simple salt with 0. 15 mol/L Na2SO4 and mixed salt with 0. 1 mol/L NaCl +0. 05 mol/L Na2SO4. The differences about spring wheat varieties in germination energy, plant height, seeding wet weight, main root length, root number and germination percentage, and the coefficient of relative salt - tolerance and the sum of membership functions with different salt were studied, then a cluster analysis for them was done with the SPSS

  13. Genomic Selection for Processing and End-Use Quality Traits in the CIMMYT Spring Bread Wheat Breeding Program

    Sarah D. Battenfield


    Full Text Available Wheat ( L. cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520 tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Quality parameters included test weight, 1000-kernel weight, hardness, grain and flour protein, flour yield, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation, Mixograph and Alveograph performance, and loaf volume. In general, prediction accuracy substantially increased over time as more data was available to train the model. Reflecting practical implementation of genomic selection (GS in the breeding program, forward prediction accuracies ( for quality parameters were assessed in 2015 and ranged from 0.32 (grain hardness to 0.62 (mixing time. Increased selection intensity was possible with GS since more entries can be genotyped than phenotyped and expected genetic gain was 1.4 to 2.7 times higher across all traits than phenotypic selection. Given the limitations in measuring many lines for quality, we conclude that GS is a powerful tool to facilitate early generation selection for end-use quality in wheat, leaving larger populations for selection on yield during advanced testing and leading to better gain for both quality and yield in bread wheat breeding programs.

  14. 汞在春小麦植株中的富集及转移规律研究%Study on Enrichment and Transfer of Mercury in Spring Wheat under Mercury Stress

    张丙春; 任凤山; 孟立红; 范仲学; 王峰恩; 董崭; 吕潇


    A pot experiment was conducted to study the distribution,accumulation and transfer of mercury(Hg) in spring wheat under Hg stress.The transfer rate of Hg was low,the root Hg content hadn't peaked at the end of the growth period of spring wheat.The Hg accumulation of spring wheat was largely deposited in root,and barely transported to leaves,stems and seeds.The enrichment capacity for mercury of wheat root was large.There was a significant correlation between the Hg contents in wheat root and soil(R2=0.9499,P0.05);the Hg content in wheat seed was not correlated with the Hg contents in soil.%为了明确汞(Hg)在小麦植株中的吸收和转运规律,采用盆栽试验,研究了Hg胁迫下重金属Hg在春小麦中的分布、富集及转移规律。结果表明,Hg迁移速率较慢,Hg胁迫下,根对Hg的富集吸收于春小麦生育期结束还未达到峰值。春小麦吸收的Hg大部分积累在根中,仅极少部分转移至叶和茎,未发现转移至籽粒。小麦根对Hg的富集能力较强,根中Hg积累量与土壤中Hg含量呈显著正相关(R2=0.9499,P〈0.05);籽粒中Hg含量与土壤中Hg含量无明显相关性。

  15. Molecular mapping of QTLs for Fusarium head blight resistance in spring wheat. I. Resistance to fungal spread (Type II resistance).

    Buerstmayr, H; Lemmens, M; Hartl, L; Doldi, L; Steiner, B; Stierschneider, M; Ruckenbauer, P


    Fusarium head blight (FHB, scab) is a fungal disease of wheat and other small cereals that is found in both temperate and semi-tropical regions. FHB causes severe yield and quality losses, but the most-serious concern is the possible mycotoxin contamination of cereal food and feed. Breeding for FHB resistance by conventional selection is feasible, but tedious and expensive. This study was conducted to identify and map DNA markers associated with FHB resistance genes in wheat. A population of 364 F(1)-derived doubled-haploid (DH) lines from the cross 'CM-82036' (resistant)/'Remus' (susceptible) was evaluated for Type II resistance (spread within the spike) during 2 years under field conditions. Marker analysis was performed on 239 randomly chosen DH lines. Different marker types were applied, with an emphasis on AFLP and SSR markers. Analysis of variance, as well as simple and composite interval mapping, were applied. Three genomic regions were found significantly associated with FHB resistance. The most-prominent effect was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B, explaining up to 60% of the phenotypic variance for Type II FHB resistance. A further QTL was located on chromosome 5A and a third one on 1B. The QTL regions on 3B and 5A were tagged with flanking SSR markers, the 1B QTL was found associated with the high-molecular-weight glutenin locus. These results indicate that FHB resistance is under control of a few major QTLs operating together with unknown numbers of minor genes. Marker-assisted selection for these major QTLs involved in FHB resistance appears feasible and should accelerate the development of resistant and agronomically improved wheat cultivars.

  16. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun


    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency.

  17. Understanding long-term (1982-2013) patterns and trends in winter wheat spring green-up date over the North China Plain

    Wang, Sisi; Mo, Xingguo; Liu, Zhengjia; Baig, Muhammad Hasan Ali; Chi, Wenfeng


    Monitoring the spring green-up date (GUD) has grown in importance for crop management and food security. However, most satellite-based GUD models are associated with a high degree of uncertainty when applied to croplands. In this study, we introduced an improved GUD algorithm to extract GUD data for 32 years (1982-2013) for the winter wheat croplands on the North China Plain (NCP), using the third-generation normalized difference vegetation index form Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS3g NDVI). The spatial and temporal variations in GUD with the effects of the pre-season climate and soil moisture conditions on GUD were comprehensively investigated. Our results showed that a higher correlation coefficient (r = 0.44, p wheat area on the NCP, with significant advances in 37.8% of the area (p < 0.05). GUD occurred later at high altitudes and in coastal areas than in inland areas. At the interannual scale, the average GUD advanced from DOY 76.9 in the 1980s (average 1982-1989) to DOY 73.2 in the 1990s (average 1991-1999), and to DOY 70.3 after 2000 (average 2000-2013), indicating an average advance of 1.8 days/decade (r = 0.35, p < 0.05). Although GUD is mainly controlled by the pre-season temperature, our findings underline that the effect of the pre-season soil moisture on GUD should also be considered. The improved GUD algorithm and satellite-based long-term GUD data are helpful for improving the representation of GUD in terrestrial ecosystem models and enhancing crop management efficiency.

  18. Stay-green in spring wheat can be determined by spectral reflectance measurements (normalized difference vegetation index) independently from phenology.

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P


    The green area displayed by a crop is a good indicator of its photosynthetic capacity, while chlorophyll retention or 'stay-green' is regarded as a key indicator of stress adaptation. Remote-sensing methods were tested to estimate these parameters in diverse wheat genotypes under different growing conditions. Two wheat populations (a diverse set of 294 advanced lines and a recombinant inbred line population of 169 sister lines derived from the cross between Seri and Babax) were grown in Mexico under three environments: drought, heat, and heat combined with drought. In the two populations studied here, a moderate heritable expression of stay-green was found-when the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) at physiological maturity was estimated using the regression of NDVI over time from the mid-stages of grain-filling to physiological maturity-and for the rate of senescence during the same period. Under heat and heat combined with drought environments, stay-green calculated as NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence, showed positive and negative correlations with yield, respectively. Moreover, stay-green calculated as an estimation of NDVI at physiological maturity and the rate of senescence regressed on degree days give an independent measurement of stay-green without the confounding effect of phenology. On average, in both populations under heat and heat combined with drought environments CTgf and stay-green variables accounted for around 30% of yield variability in multiple regression analysis. It is concluded that stay-green traits may provide cumulative effects, together with other traits, to improve adaptation under stress further.

  19. Plant growth and cation composition of two cultivars of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) differing in P uptake efficiency.

    Zhu, Y G; Smith, S E; Smith, F A


    Phosphorus (P)-zinc (Zn) interactions were investigated in two wheat cultivars (Brookton versus Krichauff) differing in P uptake efficiency. The experiment was done in a growth chamber. Rock phosphate (RP) or CaHPO4 (CaP) were used as P sources, and ammonium nitrate (AN) or nitrate only (NO) were used as nitrogen sources. Two Zn levels were used, 0.22 mg x kg(-1) (LZ) and 2.2 mg ZnSO4.7H2O x kg(-1) (HZ), respectively. P availability significantly affected plant biomass production, but Zn supply had little effect. Plants fed ammonium nitrate had significantly lower concentrations of cations than those fed nitrate only. Cultivar Brookton (with higher P uptake efficiency) consistently had lower concentrations of cations than cv. Krichauff (with low P uptake efficiency) under limited P supply. The differences in concentrations of cations increased with the decrease in P availability, but were not affected by Zn supply. The ratio of potassium in roots to shoots of cultivar Brookton was always higher than in cultivar Krichauff. Based on these findings, it is postulated that the lower concentrations of cations in cultivar Brookton are related to root exudation of organic anions, and a conceptual model is established to describe the regulation of root exudation of organic anions and concentrations of cations.

  20. Comparative Analysis of Deoxynivalenol Biosynthesis Related Gene Expression among Different Chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in Spring Wheat

    Amarasinghe, Chami C.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha


    Fusarium mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) act as virulence factors and are essential for symptom development after initial infection in wheat. To date, 16 genes have been identified in the DON biosynthesis pathway. However, a comparative gene expression analysis in different chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in response to Fusarium head blight infection remains to be explored. Therefore, in this study, nine genes that involved in trichothecene biosynthesis were analyzed among 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and nivalenol producing F. graminearum strains in a time course study. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of all examined TRI gene transcripts initiated at 2 days post-inoculation (dpi), peaked at three to four dpi and gradually decreased at seven dpi. The early induction of TRI genes indicates that presence of high levels of TRI gene transcripts at early stages is important to initiate the biosynthetic pathway of DON and NIV. Comparison of gene expression among the three chemotypes showed that relative expression of TRI genes was higher in 3-ADON producing strains compared with 15-ADON and NIV strains. Comparatively higher levels of gene expression may contribute to the higher levels of DON produced by 3-ADON strains in infected grains. PMID:27550207

  1. Quality properties and expression profiling of protein disulfide isomerase genes during grain development of three spring wheat near isogenic lines

    Dong Liwei


    Full Text Available Three wheat glutenin near isogenic lines (NILs CB037A, CB037B and CB037C were used to investigate their quality properties and the transcriptional expression profiles of PDI gene family during grain development. Our purpose is to understand the relationships between the dynamic expression of different PDI genes and glutenin allelic compositions related to gluten quality. The results showed that glutenin allelic variations had no significant effects on main agronomic traits and yield performance, but resulted in clear gluten quality changes. CB037B with 5+10 subunits had higher glutenin macropolymer (GMP content and better breadmaking quality than CB037A with 2+12 while the lack of Glu-B3h encoding one abundant B-subunit in CB037C significantly reduced GMP content, dough strength and breadmaking quality. The dynamic expression patterns of eight protein disulfide isomerase (PDI genes during grain development detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR showed the close correlations between higher expression levels of PDI3-1, PDI5-1 and PDI8-1 and the presence of 5+10 subunits. Meanwhile, Glu-B3h silence resulted in significant decrease of expression levels of five PDI genes (PDI3-1, PDI5-1, PDI6-1, PDI7-2 and PDI8-1, suggesting the vital roles of certain PDI genes in glutenin and GMP synthesis and gluten quality formation.

  2. Effect of external potassium (K) supply on the uptake of {sup 137}Cs by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Tonic): a large-scale hydroponic study

    Zhu, Y.-G. E-mail:


    A large-scale hydroponic experiment was carried out in a non-controlled greenhouse. Spring wheat plants were grown to maturity at four levels of external K concentration (2, 4, 20 and 40 mg l{sup -1}) and one concentration of radiocaesium (8 Bq ml{sup -1}). Concentrations of K and radiocaesium in the growth solution were closely monitored, and replenishments were made upon depletion. K effectively competed with radiocaesium in terms of root uptake. Activity concentrations of radiocaesium in plants differed significantly between the four K treatments; the activity concentration at the lowest external K concentration being 100 times higher than that at the highest K level. The relationship between radiocaesium uptake and external K level could be described by a negative power function; this showed that when the K level reached around 12 mg l{sup -1}, further increases in the external K level resulted only in slight changes in its inhibitory effect. As a result of this inhibitory effect of potassium supply, concentrations of radiocaesium in plant tissues, grains in particular, were greatly reduced at high external K concentration. Mechanisms involved in Cs-K interaction in root uptake are also discussed.



    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  4. 50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防效%Control Effect of Diflufenican 50%WG on Broad-leaved Weeds in Spring Wheat Field



    通过田间药效试验明确50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对春小麦田阔叶杂草的防除效果和田间推荐使用剂量,结果表明,50%吡氟酰草胺水分散粒剂对小麦田杂草密花香薷、野油菜和酸模叶蓼的防除效果稍差,施药后40 d对杂草株数总体防效为53.01%~61.75%,鲜重总体防效为54.30%~58.03%。该药剂对小麦安全,较空白对照增产6.44%~8.52%。建议该药剂于春小麦3叶期前,杂草2叶期前进行茎叶喷雾处理。%Based on the field trials,the efficacy and recommended dosage of diflufenican 50% WG are determined for controlling broad-leaf weeds in spring wheat field. The result shows that diflufenican 50% WG had not good control effect to broad-leaved weeds. The integrated plant and fresh weight control effects are 53.01%~61.75% and 54.30%~58.03% on weeds respectively after 40 days after spaying. Diflufenican 50% WG had no significant effect on spring wheat growth and the yield increasing rate of spring wheat is 6.44%~8.52%after sparing. The proper period of spraying is 2 leaves in weeds(3 leaves in wheat).

  5. Study on the Effect of High Temperature after Anthesis on Starch Formation and Yield in Spring Wheat%花后高温对春小麦籽粒淀粉含量及产量的影响研究

    周续莲; 康建宏; 吴宏亮; 杨金娟; 姚珊


    春小麦灌浆期频繁遭受高温危害,严重影响了小麦产量和品质.本研究在盆栽条件下,探讨了花后高温对春小麦淀粉形成和产量的影响.结果表明,灌浆期高温使春小麦籽粒直链淀粉含量上升,支链淀粉含量下降,直/支比增大,总淀粉降低显著,淀粉品质下降.花后高温降低了春小麦籽粒淀粉,导致春小麦产量大幅度下降.因此,采取相应栽培技术缓解花后高温危害,可以在一定程度上提高宁夏春小麦的产量.%Spring wheat frequently subjected to high temperature damage, seriously affecting the yield and quality. In this study, spring wheat were plantd under the conditions of high temperature and studied the change of yield of starch formation. The results showed that daring wheat grain filling stage, amylase content increased and amyl pectin decreased, amylase/amyl pectin ratio increased significantly, total starch content and starch quality degraded. High temperature after flowering reduced starch content and yield. So, took a cultivation techniques to remit hazard of high temperaure after flowers could improve the yield of spring wheat in Ningxia,to a certain extent.

  6. Effect of a 5-Year Multi-Crop Rotation on Mineral N and Hard Red Spring Wheat Yield, Protein, Test Weight and Economics in Western North Dakota, USA

    Landblom, Douglas; Senturklu, Songul; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric


    The objectives of this non-irrigated cropping study was to employ the principles of soil health and determine the effect of rotation on seasonal mineral N, HRSW production, protein, test weight, and economics. Prior to the initiation of this research, the cropping study area had been previously seeded to hard red spring wheat (HRSW). The cropping systems consisted of a continuous HRSW control (C) compared to HRSW grown in a multi-crop 5-year rotation (R). The 5-yr rotation consisted of HRSW, cover crop (dual crop winter triticale-hairy vetch harvested for hay in June and immediately reseeded to a 7-species cover crop mix grazed by cows after weaning from mid-November to mid-December), forage corn, field pea-forage barley, and sunflower. The cereal grains, cover crops, and pea-barley intercrop were seeded using a JD 1590 no-till drill, 19 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 2.54 cm Cereal grain plant population was 3,088,750 plants/ha. The row crops were planted using a JD 7000 no-till planter, 76.2 cm row spacing, and seed depth of 5.08 cm. Plant population for the row crops was 46,947 plants/ha. Weeds were controlled using a pre-plant burn down and post-emergence control except for cover crops and pea-barley where a pre-plant burn down was the only chemical applied. Fertilizer application was based on soil test results and recommendations from the North Dakota State University Soil Testing Laboratory. During the 1st three years of the study 31.8 kg of N was applied to the C HRSW and then none the last two years of the 5-year period. The R HRSW was fertilized with 13.6 kg of N the 1st two years of the study and none the remaining three years of the 5-year period. However, chloride was low; therefore, 40.7-56.1 kg/ha were applied each year to both the C and R treatments. Based on 2014 and 2015 seasonal mineral N values, the data suggests that N levels were adequate to meet the 2690 kg/ha yield goal. In 2015, however, the R yield goal was exceeded by 673 kg/ha whereas

  7. A simple model for the estimation of rain-induced attenuation along earth-space paths at millimeter wavelengths

    Stutzman, W. L.; Dishman, W. K.


    A simple attenuation model (SAM) is presented for estimating rain-induced attenuation along an earth-space path. The rain model uses an effective spatial rain distribution which is uniform for low rain rates and which has an exponentially shaped horizontal rain profile for high rain rates. When compared to other models, the SAM performed well in the important region of low percentages of time, and had the lowest percent standard deviation of all percent time values tested.

  8. Extension of the prognostic model of sea surface temperature to rain-induced cool and fresh lenses

    Bellenger, Hugo; Drushka, Kyla; Asher, William; Reverdin, Gilles; Katsumata, Masaki; Watanabe, Michio


    The Zeng and Beljaars (2005) sea surface temperature prognostic scheme, developed to represent diurnal warming, is extended to represent rain-induced freshening and cooling. Effects of rain on salinity and temperature in the molecular skin layer (first few hundred micrometers) and the near-surface turbulent layer (first few meters) are separately parameterized by taking into account rain-induced fluxes of sensible heat and freshwater, surface stress, and mixing induced by droplets penetrating the water surface. Numerical results from this scheme are compared to observational data from two field studies of near-surface ocean stratifications caused by rain, to surface drifter observations and to previous computations with an idealized ocean mixed layer model, demonstrating that the scheme produces temperature variations consistent with in situ observations and model results. It reproduces the dependency of salinity on wind and rainfall rate and the lifetime of fresh lenses. In addition, the scheme reproduces the observed lag between temperature and salinity minimum at low wind speed and is sensitive to the peak rain rate for a given amount of rain. Finally, a first assessment of the impact of these fresh lenses on ocean surface variability is given for the near-equatorial western Pacific. In particular, the variability due to the mean rain-induced cooling is comparable to the variability due to the diurnal warming so that they both impact large-scale horizontal surface temperature gradients. The present parameterization can be used in a variety of models to study the impact of rain-induced fresh and cool lenses at different spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Spring green-up date derived from GIMMS3g and SPOT-VGT NDVI of winter wheat cropland in the North China Plain

    Liu, Zhengjia; Wu, Chaoyang; Liu, Yansui; Wang, Xiaoyue; Fang, Bin; Yuan, Wenping; Ge, Quansheng


    Satellite temporal resolution affects the fitting accuracy of vegetation growth curves. However, there are few studies that evaluate the impact of different satellite data (including temporal resolution and time series change) on spring green-up date (GUD) extraction. In this study, four GUD algorithms and two different temporal resolution satellite data (GIMMS3g during 1982-2013 and SPOT-VGT during 1999-2013) were used to investigate winter wheat GUD in the North China Plain. Four GUD algorithms included logistic-NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), logistic-cumNDVI (cumulative NDVI), polynomial-NDVI and polynomial-cumNDVI algorithms. All algorithms and data were first regrouped into eight controlled cases. At site scale, we evaluated the performance of each case using correlation coefficient (r), bias and root mean square error (RMSE). We further compared spatial patterns and inter-annual trends of GUD inferred from different algorithms, and then analyzed the difference between GIMMS3g-based GUD and SPOT-VGT-based GUD. Our results showed that all satellite-based GUD were correlated with observations with r ranging from 0.32 to 0.57 (p < 0.01). SPOT-VGT-based GUD generally had better correlations with observed GUD than those of GIMMS3g. Spatially, SPOT-VGT-based GUD performed more reasonable spatial distributions. Inter-annual regional averaged satellite-based GUD presented overall advanced trends during 1982-2013 (0.3-2.0 days/decade) while delayed trends were observed during 1999-2013 (1.7-7.4 days/decade for GIMMS3g and 3.8-7.4 days/decade for SPOT-VGT). However, their significance levels were highly dependent on the data and algorithms used. Our findings suggest cautions on previous results of inter-annual variability of phenology from a single data/method.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of spring wheat to variations in temperatures under different tillage measures%不同耕作措施下春小麦产量对温度变化的敏感性分析

    董莉霞; 李广; 闫丽娟; 刘强; 燕振刚


    为了研究温度变化对不同耕作条件下春小麦产量的影响,利用修正参数后的APSIM模型,自变量因子分别为最低温度、最高温度,在9种变化条件下对传统耕作+秸秆还田(TS )、免耕(NT )、免耕覆盖(NTS )3种耕作措施下的春小麦产量进行了模拟,并利用Surfer软件对产量变化率进行了敏感性分析。结果表明:在三种不同耕作措施下,春小麦产量变化率对最高温度的变化更为敏感,最高温度升高,产量变化率呈负敏感;在传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖耕作措施下,春小麦平均产量分别是2268.8 kg·hm-2和2274.0 kg·hm-2,明显高于免耕耕作措施下的春小麦平均产量1815.4 kg·hm-2;传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖耕作措施下,小麦产量随温度变化相对稳定;当最低温度和最高温度在一定区域范围内变化时,传统耕作+秸秆还田和免耕覆盖产量表现更稳定。%In order to study the influences of temperature variations under different tillage conditions on yield of spring wheat ,a revised APSIM model was used .A simulation was implemented to analyze the yield of spring wheat by cultivation measures including conventional tillage & straw turnover (TS ) , no-till (NT ) , and no-tillage with mulch (NTS ) under nine variable conditions using lowest and highest temperatures as the independent variable factors .Then the surfer software was used to complete the sensitivity analysis .The result shows that under three different cultivation mea-sures ,yield rate of the spring wheat was more sensitive to the variations of the highest temperature .When the highest temperature rose ,yield rate showed a negative sensitivity .Under conventional tillage + straw returned and no-till cover tillage measures ,the average yield of spring wheat are respectively 2 268 .8 kg·hm-2 and 2 274 .0 kg·hm-2 ,signifi-cantly higher than the average yield of spring

  11. Features of Localization of ARG-X Protease-processing in the Suprastructures of Interphase Chromatin under Conditions of Cell Cycle Arrest by Sodium Butyrate, upon Induction of Growth Morphogenesis of Mature Embryos of Winter and Spring Wheat

    Ivanov R.S.


    Full Text Available A fundamental property of many organisms is the ability to feel, to assess direction of the signal action and respond to the environmental conditions. It is known that chromatin plays a major role in organizing the regulation of gene activity. However, our understanding of how state of the suprastructure organization of chromatin and its proteins reacts not only to changes in the environment, but also on the development of specific signals remains largely unclear. In the course of this work, we have analyzed the result of the various ways of chromatin modifications: the regulatory Arg-X protease-processing and inhibition of protein deacetylation with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate causes cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and promotes of duration of the transcriptional activity of chromatin. Experiments on molecular-genetic state of the chromatin matrix were carried out at the induction of growth morphogenesis in the physiological period of active water absorption of mature seeds and wheat germs, which were purposefully transformed and formed in different environmental conditions. During focused, long-term transforming of spring wheat Artemovka into winter wheat Mironovskaya 808 and the last of them again into Mironovskaya Spring wheat while stopping of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, mainly occurs the active Arg-X protease-processing at the level of non-histone proteins, and linker histones of suprastructures chromatin. We assume that the regulatory proteolytic processing and prolongation of acetylation of proteins can be interconnected in the regulation of conformational transitions of chromatin at the different levels of its organization: both suprastructures and at the more profound proteomic level of non-histone and histone blocks, and have its peculiarities during the period of transcriptional activation. We hope that the study peculiarities of locations of regulatory proteolysis in the conditions of inhibition of deacetylation in

  12. Study on Control Effect and Safety of Sulfosulfuron 75%WG in Spring Wheat Field%75%磺酰磺隆WG防除春小麦田杂草及安全性研究



    为明确75%磺酰磺隆 WG 对春小麦田杂草的防除效果及对当季春小麦和后茬作物的安全性影响,采用茎叶喷雾处理进行了田间药效试验。结果表明:施药后45 d,75%磺酰磺隆WG 10~40 g/hm2对北方春小麦田稗草、狗尾草、藜和卷茎蓼株防效和鲜重防效均在84.8%以上,且对春小麦安全。75%磺酰磺隆WG对当季后茬敏感作物白菜、油菜、生菜的根长、株鲜重有不同程度的抑制作用。75%磺酰磺隆WG在春小麦田喷雾使用可以有效防除禾本科杂草和阔叶杂草,但当季后茬不能种植敏感作物白菜、油菜、生菜。%In order to determine the control effect of sulfosulfuron 75%WG on weeds in spring wheat field, the safety to spring wheat and following crops, field efficacy trials were carried out by foliar spraying. The results showed that the control effects of sulfosulfuron 75%WG on Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv., Setaria viridis L., Chenopodium album L. and Polygonum convolvlus L. were more than 84.8%, and sulfosulfuron was safe to spring wheat on the 45th days after spraying. Sulfosulfuron 75%WG had inhibition roles on the root length and fresh weight of sensitive crops. Sulfosulfuron 75%WG had good control effects on gramineous weeds and broadleaf weeds in spring wheat field in north China, but the sensitive crops should not be planted in the same growing season.


    Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.


    Past debate on competition and quality in international wheat markets has focused on class and country of origin as the salient source of differentiation. This study analyzes changes in demand for both wheat classes and grades. Comparisons are made between Canadian and U.S. hard wheats, principal competitors in the hard wheat market. Both countries are dominant producers of Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRS in the United States and Canadian Western Red Spring [CWRS] in Canada); the United States is ...

  14. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design.

    Morris, Craig F; Fuerst, E Patrick; McLean, Derek J; Momont, Kathleen; James, Caleb P


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending results to human sensory analysis. Here, we examine the application of a single-elimination tournament design to the analysis of consumption preferences of a set of hard red and hard white spring wheat varieties. A single-elimination tournament design in this case pairs 2 wheat varieties and only 1 of the 2 is advanced to further tests. Preferred varieties were advanced until an overall "winner" was identified; conversely, less desirable varieties were advanced such that an overall "loser" was identified. Hollis and IDO702 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard red varieties, and Clear White 515 and WA8123 were the winner and loser, respectively, for the hard white varieties. When using the more powerful protocol of 14 mice and a 4-d trial, differences in mean daily consumption preferences of 2 varieties were separated at P-values as small as 2 × 10(-8) . The single-elimination tournament design is an efficient means of identifying the most and least desirable varieties among a larger set of samples. One application for identifying the 2 extremes in preference within a group of varieties would be to use them as parents of a population to identify quantitative trait loci for preference.

  15. β-Aminobutyric acid increases abscisic acid accumulation and desiccation tolerance and decreases water use but fails to improve grain yield in two spring wheat cultivars under soil drying.

    Du, Yan-Lei; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Fan, Jing-Wei; Turner, Neil C; Wang, Tao; Li, Feng-Min


    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of the non-protein amino acid, β-aminobutyric acid (BABA), on the homeostasis between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence during progressive soil drying, and its relationship with the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), water use, grain yield, and desiccation tolerance in two spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released in different decades and with different yields under drought. Drenching the soil with 100 µM BABA increased drought-induced ABA production, leading to a decrease in the lethal leaf water potential (Ψ) used to measure desiccation tolerance, decreased water use, and increased water use efficiency for grain (WUEG) under moderate water stress. In addition, at severe water stress levels, drenching the soil with BABA reduced ROS production, increased antioxidant enzyme activity, and reduced the oxidative damage to lipid membranes. The data suggest that the addition of BABA triggers ABA accumulation that acts as a non-hydraulic root signal, thereby closing stomata, and reducing water use at moderate stress levels, and also reduces the production of ROS and increases the antioxidant defence enzymes at severe stress levels, thus increasing the desiccation tolerance. However, BABA treatment had no effect on grain yield of wheat when water availability was limited. The results suggest that there are ways of effectively priming the pre-existing defence pathways, in addition to genetic means, to improve the desiccation tolerance and WUEG of wheat.

  16. Calibration and Validation of AquaCrop Model in Spring Wheat Region of Songnen Plain%AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的校正和验证

    付驰; 李双双; 李晶; 王泳超; 芦玉双; 许为政; 魏湜


    In this study,the measured soil moisture,spring wheat growth and yield data,combined with meteorological data obtained AquaCrop soil moisture and spring wheat growth simulation model parameters,and previous years' data for the crop model validation.The results showed that the simulated values and measured values of spring wheat's yield and biomass MAE were 0.058 and 0.109,RMSE were 0.06 and 0.11 t/hm2,EF were 0.795 and 0.822,CRM were-0.006 96 and 0.005 87,IoA were 0.959 and 0.966;for 10 cm and 20 cm in depth soil volumetric water content of the simulated values and measured values,MAE were 5.23 and 2.53,RMSE were 6.47% and 7.95%,EF were-0.277 and-0.069,CRM were 0.097 and 0.212,IoA were 0.585 and 0.741.AquaCrop model of biomass and yield of spring wheat growth stages and soil volumetric water content of the simulation results is fine,the production of spring wheat Songnen Plain has some reference value.%为了研究AquaCrop作物模型在松嫩平原春麦区的适用性,利用实测的土壤水分、春小麦生长和产量数据,结合气象数据,获得AquaCrop模拟土壤水分和春小麦生长的模型参数,并用往年的作物生长数据对模型进行验证。结果表明,春小麦的产量和生物量的实测值与模拟值的绝对平均误差(MAE)为0.058和0.109、均方根误差(RMSE)为0.06和0.11t/hm2、模拟性能指数(EF)为0.795和0.822、残差聚集系数(CRM)为-0.006 96和0.005 87、一致性系数(IoA)为0.959和0.966;对10cm和20cm土壤体积含水率的实测值与模拟值的MAE为5.23和2.53、RMSE为6.47%和7.95%、EF为-0.277和-0.069、CRM为0.097和0.212、IoA为0.585和0.741。说明AquaCrop模型对春小麦的生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水率的模拟结果总体较好,对松嫩平原春麦生产有一定的参考意义。

  17. 青海高原不同海拔高度区小麦生长对气候变暖的响应%Climate Warming Impacts on Spring Wheat Growth at Different Altitude Regions in Qinghai Plateau

    王力; 李凤霞; 徐维新; 李晓东; 苏文将


    Impact of climate warming on the growth and yields of spring wheat at high and low altitudes in the Qinghai Plateau was studied by using the observation data obtained at Minhe and Nuomuhong agricultural meteorological stations from 1980 to 2007. The results show that during the past 28 years the air temperature had an increase trend both at high and low altitudes, and the warming amplitude of annual air temperature was larger at high altitude than at low altitude. Responses of spring wheat at low altitude were an advanced sowing time, an unchanged mature stage, an extended growth period, and a declined yield, and at high altitude the responses were a postponed sowing time, an advanced mature stage, a shortened growth period, and an unstable yield with a larger fluctuation. The growth period of spring wheat was shortened by 11.7 d at high altitude and no significant change at low altitude when daily average temperature increased 1 ℃ in the growth period of spring wheat. Tillering stage was the turning point of growing period changes of spring wheat between the two places and also a "buffer" of the environment and crop population.%利用青海高原上两个不同海拔高度区农业气象观测站1980-2007年的观测资料,就低海拔地(民和)和高海拔地(诺木洪)的气候变化及其对春小麦生长发育和产量的影响差异进行研究.结果显示:28年来民和和诺木洪两站均存在变暖趋势,且高海拔地区的线性增暖幅度大于低海拔地区.春小麦对气候变暖的响应表现在低海拔地区播种期提前,成熟期基本没有变化,生育期延长,产量下降;高海拔地区播种期推迟,成熟期提前,生育期缩短,产量波动较大.春小麦生长期内日平均气温每升高1℃,高海拔地区春小麦生育期缩短11.7d,而低海拔地区无显著变化.分蘖期是两地小麦生育时期变化的转折点,是环境与群体的“缓冲者”.

  18. 1961-2010年中国主要麦区冬春气象干旱趋势及其可能影响%Meteorological Drought Trend in Winter and Spring from 1961 to 2010 and Its Possible Impacts on Wheat inWheat Planting Area of China

    房世波; 齐月; 韩国军; 周广胜; Davide Cammarano


    Objective Continuous occurrence of winter and spring drought events in recent years has seriously threatened the safety production and grain increase of winter wheat in the north of China. This study focused on the main wheat growing areas of China, precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought trend in winter and spring from 1961 to 2010 and its possible impacts on wheat in wheat planting area in north of China.[Method]Trend analysis of precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought for the 1961-2010 period using data from 329 meteorological stations located in the wheat growing regions in the north of China. The linear trend and significance of precipitation and no precipitation days in different regions in north of China was analyzed using the methods of regression analysis, inverse distance weighted and robust F linear significant test. The precipitation, no precipitation days and frequency of extreme meteorological drought of interannual and decadal variation trend was analyzed. Based on the sliding average precipitation anomaly, the linear tendency of annual extreme drought frequency in winter from 1961 to 2010 was calculated, and the interannual variation trend of extreme drought frequency and changing trend of precipitation indifferent regions were analyzed for exploration of the temporal dynamic trend of drought. According to the GB/ T20481-2006 national standards of meteorological drought classification, the severe drought and specially drought of drought grade were defined as extreme drought. According to the different climate characteristics of wheat growing regions in China, the main wheat growing area is divided into six zones as follows in order to quantify the different drought trends in the north of China.① The Northeast China spring wheat region: Heilongjiang Province, Jilin Province and Liaoning Province;②The Inner Mongolia spring wheat region including the Inner

  19. 晚霜冻害对不同类型小麦产量性状的影响%Influence of Spring Frost on Different Ear Types of Wheat Yield Component

    任德超; 胡新; 黄绍华; 葛君; 赵敬领; 朱培培; 张福娟


    Through low temperature processtion of simulated natural spring frost damage in artificial intelligence frost box to the big ear (s9538, Lankao 906), middle ear (Yumai 21,Shaan 225),multi-spike (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) types of wheat varieties, the changes in their production factors were studied. The result showed that multi-spike type wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) after the spring frost damage treatment got more yield than the others. Spikes per plant of multi-spike type wheat showed the biggest increase, with 32.98% and 37.19% for Linfen 7203 and Luzi 0885299 compared to the untreated, respectively,and the yield of per plant was increased by 36.36% and 38.40 %. Grain weight of wheat after the treatment showed decreased tendency,multi-spike wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) reduced with the maximum rate and middle ear wheat (Yumai 21, Shan 225) reduced with the minimum rate. The grain number per ear of middle ear wheat after treatment (Yumai 21, Shaan 225) were decreased but the others were increased, and multi-spike wheat (Linfen 7203, Luzi 0885299) showed the biggest increase.%采用人工智能霜箱模拟自然界晚霜冻害过程,对大穗(s9538、兰考906)、中穗(豫麦21号、陕225)、多穗(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)类型的小麦品种在经历低温处理后产量因素的变化进行了研究.结果表明,多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)在经历晚霜冻害后比另外两类小麦表现增产,其中单株穗数较对照增加幅度最大(32.98%、37.19%),单株产量分别较对照提高36.36%、38.40%.千粒重在处理后都呈降低趋势,并且多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)降低幅度最大,中穗小麦(豫麦21号、陕225)降低幅度最小.穗粒数在低温处理后中穗型小麦(豫麦21号、陕225)呈降低趋势,另外两类呈增加趋势,并且多穗型小麦(临汾7203、鲁资0885299)增加幅度最大.

  20. Quality Analysis of Different Spring Wheat Grain with Different Gluten Strength under Different Germination Conditions%不同筋性春小麦籽粒不同发芽程度下的品质分析



    To understand the influence of the different levels of harvest sprouting on the qualities of spring wheats with different gluten strength,spring wheat varieties with high gluten strength selected in this experiment are Kechun 1 and Kefeng 6;the middle ones are Kehan 16 and Kehan 21;the low ones are XinKehan 9 and Kefeng 9 for the experimental material,artificial control of seed germination under the use of artificial climate incubator to simulate the natural environment,,and then measuring relevant datas,the results show that:for the flour yield in the bud state,high gluten strenth ones are higher than the middle ones which are higher than the low ones,with the deepening of germination,and flour yield is not associated with own characteristic of gluten strengh for the experimental material;compared with the nomal state,the declining rate of the land value of high gluten strength wheats in bud state,is higher than the one with the middle gluten stregth,which is higher than the one with the low gluten strength;for the wheats with different gluten strength,wet gluten content,dry gluten content and gluten index with the deepening of germination are reduced%为了解穗发芽不同程度下对不同筋性春小麦品种品质的影响,该实验选取强筋小麦品种克春1号、克丰6号,中筋品种克旱16、克旱21,弱筋小麦品种新克旱9、克丰9为实验材料,利用人工智能气候培养箱模拟自然环境,人为控制种子发芽程度并测定相关数据,结果表明:出粉率在萌动状态下,强筋〉中筋〉弱筋,随着发芽程度的加深,出粉率并未表现出与小麦筋性相关的规律性;强筋粉降落值在萌动状态下,较正常状态下降幅度大于中筋粉,中筋粉大于弱筋粉;各筋性小麦品种其湿面筋含量、干面筋含量以及面筋指数均随发芽程度的加深,而降低。

  1. 基于寒地春小麦AquaCrop与WOFOST模型适应性验证分析%The Adaptability Test Analysis of AquaCrop and WOFOST Model Based on the Cold Spring Wheat

    张铁楠; 付驰; 李晶; 顾万荣; 许为政; 芦玉双; 魏湜


    使用AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型对哈尔滨地区春小麦生长进行模拟,以春小麦的地上生物量和产量及生育期土壤体积含水量为指标,对比分析两个模型的模拟精度.结果表明:使用经过校正的两个模型均能够较为准确地模拟哈尔滨地区春小麦的生长发育情况及产量形成,观测值与模拟值一致性较好,误差均在合理范围内.在非正常年际AquaCrop模型模拟结果与实测结果偏差较大,说明该模型适合于正常年景的作物生长模拟,WOFOST模型适应性更强.在对201 1年土壤水分含量的模拟中,两个模型观测值与模拟值总体趋势相同,误差均在合理范围内.总体来说,经过修正和校准后的AquaCrop模型与WOFOST模型均适合寒地春小麦的模拟研究.%The main object of the study was analyzing the accuracy of the two models AquaCrop and WOFOST which were used for simulating the growth of spring wheat in Harbin based on biomass,yield and soil volume moisture content.The results indicated that the spring wheat growth and yield formation could be simulated accurately with the two optimized models.What's more,the values of observation and simulation value were closer and the error was creditable.The simulation results of AquaCrop model exhibit more difference with the measured results in abnormal year which revealed that the model was suitable for the crop growth in normal year while the WOFOST model showed more adaptability.The observation values of soil moisture content in 2011 were consistent with the total trend in the two models used in the research,also the error was creditable.In general,the optimized models AquaCrop and WOFOST were suitable for the cold spring wheat simulation research.

  2. Genetic mapping of resistance to the Ug99 race group of Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici in a spring wheat landrace CItr 4311

    Wheat landrace CItr 4311 has seedling resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp tritici Eriks. & E. Henn (Pgt) race TTKSK and field resistance to the Ug99 race group. Parents, F1 seedlings, 121 doubled haploid (DH) lines, and 124 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross...

  3. The dissection and SSR mapping of a high-temperature adult-plant stripe rust resistance gene in American spring wheat cultivar Alturas

    Stripe rust is one of major diseases in wheat production worldwide. The best economic and efficient method is to utilize resistant varieties. Alturas has high-temperature adult-plant resistance. In order to determine stripe rust resistance characteristics, resistance gene combination and molecular m...

  4. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  5. A rain induced landslide 3D model based on molecular dynamics with fractal and fractional water diffusion

    Martelloni, Gianluca; Guarino, Alessio


    We present a three-dimensional model, based on cohesive spherical particles, of rain-induced landslides. The rainwater infiltration into the soil follow the either the fractional or the fractal diffusion equations. We solve analytically the fractal diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) with particular boundary conditions to simulate a rainfall event. Then, for the PDE, we developed a numerical integration scheme that we integrate with MD (Molecular Dynamics) algorithm for the triggering and propagation of the simulated landslide. Therefore we test the numerical integration scheme of fractal diffusion equation with the analytical solution. We adopt the fractal diffusion equation in term of gravimetric water content that we use as input of triggering scheme based on Mohr-Coulomb limit-equilibrium criterion, adapted to particle level. Moreover, taking into account an interacting force Lennard-Jones inspired, we use a standard MD algorithm to update particle positions and velocities. Then we present resul...

  6. Progress Towards Genetics and Breeding for Minor Genes Based Resistance to Ug99 and Other Rusts in CIMMYT High-Yielding Spring Wheat

    Ravi Prakash Singh; Sybil Herrera-Foessel; Julio Huerta-Espino; Sukhwinder Singh; Sridhar Bhavani; Caixia Lan; and Bhoja Raj Basnet


    Wheat rusts continue to cause signiifcant losses worldwide despite major efforts given to their genetic control. This is due to frequent evolution and selection of virulence in pathogen overcoming the deployed race-speciifc resistance genes. Although the life of effective race-speciifc resistance genes can be prolonged by using gene combinations, an alternative approach being implemented at CIMMYT is to deploy varieties that posses adult plant resistance (APR) based on combinations of minor, slow rusting genes. When present alone, the APR genes do not confer adequate resistance especially under high disease pressure; however, combinations of 4 or 5 minor genes usually result in “near-immunity” or a high level of resistance. Although only a few APR genes are catalogued, various APR QTLs are now known and could lead to further characterization of additional genes. Four characterized genes have pleiotropic effects in conferring partial APR to all 3 rusts and powdery mildew, thus simplifying the task of breeding wheat varieties that are resistant to multiple diseases. Signiifcant progress was made recently in developing high-yielding wheat germplasm that possesses high levels of APR to all three rusts by implementing a Mexico-Kenya shuttle breeding scheme. Parents with APR to Ug99 were hybridized with high-yielding parents that had adequate to high levels of APR to leaf rust and yellow rust. Segregating populations and advanced lines from these crosses were selected under high rust pressures in Mexico (leaf rust and yellow rust) and Kenya (Ug99 stem rust and yellow rust) to identify high-yielding progenies that possess high to adequate APR to all three rusts. International distribution of these high-yielding wheats is underway through CIMMYT international yield trials and screening nurseries. It is expected that several wheat varieties with APR to three rusts will be released and grown in various countries in the near-future that will allow determining the

  7. Impact of rain-induced sea surface roughness variations on salinity retrieval from the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite

    MA Wentao; YANG Xiaofeng; YU Yang; LIU Guihong; LI Ziwei; JING Cheng


    Rainfall has two significant effects on the sea surface, including salinity decreasing and surface becoming rougher, which have further influence on L-band sea surface emissivity. Investigations using the Aquarius and TRMM 3B42 matchup dataset indicate that the retrieved sea surface salinity (SSS) is underestimated by the present Aquarius algorithm compared to numerical model outputs, especially in cases of a high rain rate. For example, the bias between satellite-observed SSS and numerical model SSS is approximately 2 when the rain rate is 25 mm/h. The bias can be eliminated by accounting for rain-induced roughness, which is usually modeled by rain-generated ring-wave spectrum. The rain spectrum will be input into the Small Slope Approximation (SSA) model for the simulation of sea surface emissivity influenced by rain. The comparison with theoretical model indicated that the empirical model of rain spectrumis more suitable to be used in the simulation. Further, the coefficients of the rain spectrum are modified by fitting the simulations with the observations of the 2–year Aquarius and TRMM matchup dataset. The calculations confirm that the sea surface emissivity increases with the wind speed and rain rate. The increase induced by the rain rate is rapid in the case of low rain rate and low wind speed. Finally, a modified model of sea surface emissivity including the rain spectrum is proposed and validated by using the matchup dataset in May 2014. Compared with observations, the bias of the rain-induced sea surface emissivity simulated by the modified modelis approximately 1e–4, and the RMSE is slightly larger than 1e–3. With using more matchup data, thebias between model retrieved sea surface salinities and observationsmay be further corrected, and the RMSE may be reduced to less than 1 in the cases of low rain rate and low wind speed.

  8. Agro-climatic Risk Zoning of Wheat Stripe Rust in Spring of Sichuan Province%四川省小麦条锈病春季流行的农业气候风险区划

    游超; 肖天贵; 李金建; 张菡


    From the perspective of risk zoning, there was little research on the relationship between wheat stripe rust and meteorological condition method during the past years. Based on the theory of agrometeorological disaster risk, this paper developed the agricultural climate risk model to study wheat stripe rust of Sichuan Province in spring with the help of correlation analysis, AHP and range normalization methods. Coinstantaneously, the model included two environmental factors such as climate condition and the number of host plants. Then the risk index was divided into high, medium and low-grades clearly by using the model. After all, with GIS technology, the spring risk zoning of wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Province was carried out. Finally, t he result showed that, the western Sichuan Plateau, as well as the mountainous area of southwest Sichuan and the southwest basin region belonged to the low risk area. Meanwhile, the high and medium area included the the most of Sichuan basin where the wheat stripe rust happened frequently in spring. This paper supplied theoretical basis for the forecast in subarea and integrated control of wheat stripe rust in Sichuan Province. Based on the conclusion which showed that the risk assessment coincided with the actual situation generally, better services for decision-making to disease pests prevention and reduction could be provided.%针对当前从气象风险角度开展小麦条锈病与气象关系研究甚少的状况,从农业气象灾害风险分析理论出发,采用相关分析、层次分析和极差正规化等方法,建立了包含气候条件和寄主存在数量两个环境因子的四川省小麦条锈病春季流行农业气候风险模型,并划分了高、中、低风险等级的指标.在此基础上,利用GIS技术对四川省小麦条锈病春季流行的农业气候风险进行了区划.结果表明,四川省的川西高原地区、川西南山地和盆地西南部是小麦条锈病春季流行低风险区,

  9. 西北干旱区农田春小麦蒸散量的空间插值方法%Spatial Interpolation Analysis of Spring Wheat Evapotranspiration Measurements in Northwest China

    王春梅; 孟庆岩; 占玉林; 刘苗; 王靓; Tamas Jancso


    综合运用传统统计分析方法和地质统计分析方法,研究了西北旱区春小麦蒸散量在不同生育阶段的时空变异特征,并分析了试验区表层土壤储水量和叶面积指数对春小麦蒸散量的影响关系,通过分析比较,筛选表层土壤储水量为协同因子,并将其应用到试验区春小麦蒸散量的空间插值研究中.研究结果表明:在所研究的条件下,即使外观较为均匀、面积相对较小的农田,春小麦蒸散量仍具有较高的空间变异(变异系数范围0.328 ~0.495);当降雨入渗深度小于20 cm时,表层土壤储水量(0 ~20 cm)是影响研究区春小麦蒸散量变异的主要因子,春小麦不同生育期累积蒸散量与表层土壤储水量变化的相关系数在0.8 ~0.9之间,远大于春小麦累积蒸散量与叶面积指数的相关系数;基于表层土壤储水量的蒸散量协同克里金空间插值分析与地面实测结果相比,仅42个蒸散量地面采样数据即可保证研究区春小麦蒸散量估计精度高于90%.%The study investigated spatial variability of spring wheat ET and uses regression analysis to identify the ET main factors.Furthermore,the ET main factors were taken into account in the ET space research.Results showed that the geo-spatial coefficients of variation of spring wheat ET ranged from 0.328 to 0.495 at various growing stages even for homogeneous farm fields.During the spring wheat growing season,the spatial variability of cumulative ET estimates was high at the tillering-shooting stage,and then reduced at the shooting-heading stage.Comparing to leaf area index (LAI),spring wheat ET had a significant relationship with surface soil moisture content change at all the growing stages.When the rainfall infiltration depth was less than 20 cm,the soil moisture (0 ~20 cm)was the ET main factor.Compared with the ground-based observations,the ET estimation precision with 42 ET ground sample data was better than 90%.

  10. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein; T.L. Jensen; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock


    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  11. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein; Jensen, T. L.; Dowbenko, R.E.; A.D. Blaylock


    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  12. Adubação verde e nitrogenada na cultura do trigo em plantio direto Green manure and nitrogen fertilization in the spring wheat under no-tillage

    Ricardo Viola


    Full Text Available Pouco se sabe sobre os benefícios do cultivo de adubos verdes sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão e, até que ponto, pode substituir ou reduzir a adubação nitrogenada mineral. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar a produção e decomposição de matéria seca bem como o acúmulo e liberação de nutrientes de plantas de cobertura de solo (nabo forrageiro, ervilhaca comum, ervilha forrageira, tremoço e feijoeiro e quantificar seus efeitos sobre o desempenho da cultura do trigo, cultivada em sucessão, sob diferentes doses de adubação nitrogenada (sem adição de nitrogênio, 40, 80 e 120 kg ha-1. O experimento foi desenvolvido no município de Pato Branco (PR, em duas safras agrícolas, em sistema de plantio direto. O nabo forrageiro e o tremoço acumularam as maiores quantidades de cálcio e potássio. A ervilha forrageira e o nabo forrageiro destacam-se pela produção de matéria seca, acúmulo de nitrogênio, fósforo, potássio, bem como pela decomposição e liberação de nitrogênio para a cultura do trigo em estádios fenológicos de maior demanda deste nutriente. A relação C/N (superior a 40 dos restos culturais do milho e feijoeiro não possibilitou equilíbrio entre os processos de mineralização e imobilização. Os adubos verdes promoveram acréscimos significativos na produtividade de grãos em comparação ao pousio. Houve resposta do trigo à aplicação de nitrogênio mineral, e esta foi dependente da planta de cobertura antecessora.There are few studies about the benefits of green manure on wheat performance grown in succession as source of nitrogen. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in wheat and the dry matter decomposition and nutrient release of cover crops forage turnip, common vetch, forage pea, lupine and bean and quantify their effects over wheat crop performance sown in succession under different nitrogen rates (without

  13. 青海省春麦田杂草种类组成及群落特征%Species Composition and Characteriziation of Weed Community in Spring Wheat Field in Qinghai

    翁华; 魏有海; 郭良芝; 郭青云


    The weed species,weed community structure and occurrence regulation in spring wheat fields in Qinghai province were investigated in this research.The results showed that there are 87 species,25 families of weeds in spring wheat fields in Qinghai.Among those the monocotyledon are 8 species,1 family.dicotyledon are 79 species,24 families.Galium aparine (L)Var tenerum Rcbb,Chenopodium album L.,Radix Pteroxygoni Giraldii,Elsholtiza densa Benth,Hypecoum leptocarpum Thoms.and Polygonum aviculare L.are advantage weeds in wheat fields.Polygonum nepalense Meisn.,Polygonum sibiricum Laxm.,Avena fatua L.,Phragmites australis,Stellaria media (Linn.)Cyr.,Sonchus brachyotus DC.,Cephalanoplos setosum (willd)Kitam.are regional advantage weeds.In irrigation region of Qinghai,peak time of emergence is during mid-to-late May;in Qinghai mountain regions,peak time of emergence is in early to middle May.The optimum depth of weeds emergence is 1 ~ 2cm soil layer.Weed population structure has significantly changed in spring wheat field in Qinghai.The farmland weed community structure has changed from wild oats and annual dicotyledonous weeds to perennial weeds and some resistant-herbicide annual weeds.%对青海省春小麦田杂草发生种类、群落构成及发生规律进行了调查研究.结果表明:青海省春麦田杂草共有87种,隶属于25科.其中单子叶植物1科8种,双子叶植物24科79种.猪殃殃、藜、荞麦蔓、密花香薷、节裂角茴香、萹蓄等6种杂草为田间的优势杂草;尼泊尔蓼、西伯利亚蓼、野燕麦、芦苇、繁缕、苣荬菜、大刺儿菜为田间区域性优势杂草.发生规律的研究表明青海川水地区春麦田杂草出苗高峰期在5月中、下旬;脑山地区春麦田杂草出苗高峰期在5月上、中旬,1 ~ 2cm土层是杂草出苗的最适深度.青海春麦田杂草由过去的野燕麦和一年生双子叶杂草为主的群落结构明显向以多年生杂草和部分耐药性强的

  14. 水浇地与旱地春小麦冠层高光谱反射特征比较%Comparative study of canopy spectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat in irrigated land and dry land

    靳彦华; 熊黑钢; 张芳


    Canopy data from hyperspectral remote sensing of irrigated land and dry land at different growth stages were used to analyze the difference between irrigated land and dry land. According to the bands of TM image,the measured spectrum was divided into four bands,the comparison of the spectra between irrigated land and dry land at each band was made and, on such a basis, the best band to identify irrigated land and dry land for spring wheat was chosen. The results show that canopy spectral reflectance in the visible region and in the near-infrared region of spring wheat has complete variation regularity:at the first band,the order is sunny land>double-sided land>shady land>irrigated land,which is opposite to the things of the near-infrared band. From setting to milk stage, in the visible band, spring wheat of irrigated land and dry land shows the order of setting stage >milk stage >jointing stage>heading stage>flowering stage;in the near-infrared band, the order is flowering stage>heading stage>jointing stage>setting stage>milk stage. The spectral curves are different because of chlorophyll content and coverage. In the visible band,spectral curves of spring wheat at setting and milk stage have their own lines but become two lines in the middle period; i. e. ,sunny land and double-sided land are completely coincident with each other,whereas shady land and irrigated land are basically coincident with each other. The spectral range of 760~900 nm is the optimal band for identifying spring wheat in irrigated land and dry land.%用野外实测的水浇地与不同坡向旱地春小麦各发育期的冠层光谱数据,对比分析各发育期春小麦冠层光谱反射特征;依据TM图像的波段设置将实测光谱划分为4个波段,对比分析水浇地与旱地春小麦光谱在各波段的差异,并选择出识别水浇地与旱地春小麦的最佳波段。研究结果表明:不同地类水浇地与旱地春小麦冠层光谱反射率在可见光波段

  15. Effects of film-covering cultivation patterns for dryland spring wheat in Lintan county%临潭县旱区地膜春小麦覆膜方式对比试验初报

    梁勇; 杨彩霞


    There are now three patterns of film-covering cultivation for dryland spring wheat for farmers to choose. One is sowing-in-hole and flatly covered with film (Pattern Ⅰ), anoter is sowing-in-hole in furrows between film-covered ridges (Pattern Ⅱ), still a third is sowing-in-both-half-side furrows of film-covered ridges (Pattern Ⅲ). However, different film-covering pattern brings about somewhat different gain against traditional pattern of sowing flatly with no film coverage (CK) in general. Firstly, positive effects show in bringing forth about both sprouting of seedling and being ripe for all of three film-covering patterns. Secondly, because of the improvements mainly in microenvironment of soil, the period of little ears origination, for every film-covering pattern, is stretched longer than that of CK. And thirdly, better developments of wheat plants pace the way to favor results in such productive characteristics as average grains of single plant, average weight of kilo-grain, grain weight of single plant, and therefore, all of these add weight upon the grain output per hm2 over that of CK. Of them, the highest is from PatternⅡ, which harvests 4 600.2 kg/hm2 of grain, up 33.3% against that of CK. After it is PatternⅠ, which produces 3 800.3 kg/hm2 of grain, up 10.1%. Finally, in the view of net income for wheat production, still PatternⅡ gets ahead over others for which produces 4 250.3 yuan/hm2 of net income, over 40.7% than that of CK, also 38.0% higher than PatternⅠ which gets 3 100.5 yuan/hm2 and 2.7% over CK. So it seems to be better to choose Pattern Ⅱ for cultivation of dryland spring wheat covered with film.%在旱作雨养农业区,采用平膜穴播、地膜沟穴播和垄膜侧沟播不同覆膜播种方式对春小麦的产量、经济效益及经济性状进行研究。结果表明,3种不同覆膜方式下春小麦的出苗期、成熟期均比露地条播(CK)提早,幼穗分化期延长,单株粒数、千粒重、单株

  16. 不同耕作措施旱地春小麦产量对温度变化的响应%Reponses of spring wheat yield to temperature variations with different tillage measures in dryland

    董莉霞; 李广; 闫丽娟; 刘强; 燕振刚; 罗珠珠


    In order to analyze the influence of the temperature variationson the yield of spring wheat with different cultivation measures ,the spring wheat yields resulted from cultivation measuresemploying two-factor ,nine-level and three-typewere simulated by the APSIM model .Yielding-effect was analyzed by choosing the lowest and the highest day temperatures as the independent variable factors .Interacting effectsbetweenthe lowest and the highest temperatures under three kinds of tillage measures were also investigated by a path analysis .It turned out that under the conditions of differ-ent tillage measureswith the increase of the lowest temperature ,the yield of spring wheat changed in a quadratic parabola rising pattern ,displayinga decrease inrewards .The cultivation measure using conventional tillage ,straw returning and no-tillage with mulch played a more important role in yield improvement than no-tillage cultivation .Under the condition of traditional tillage ,straw returning and no-till farming measures ,the yield decreased in a quadratic parabola type ashigh-est temperature rose ,showinga superposition of diminishing .Yield was negatively correlated with the highest temperature while the production was under covered no-till farming measures .Withinthe three kinds of cultivation measures ,there was a positive synergy between the lowest temperature and highest temperature ,and cultivation measure usingno-tillage with mulch had a better synergistic promoting effect than the other two kinds .%为了探析温度变化对不同耕作措施春小麦产量的影响,利用 APSIM 模型对2因素9水平3种耕作措施下的春小麦产量进行了模拟,选择日最低温度和最高温度作为自变量因子对产量效应进行分析,并对3种耕作措施条件下最低温度和最高温度的互作效应进行通径分析。结果表明:不同耕作措施条件下,春小麦产量随最低温度升高呈二次抛物线上升型变化,会出现报酬递

  17. [Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China].

    Zhang, Jian-jun; Wang, Yong; Fan, Ting-lu; Guo, Tian-wen; Zhao, Gang; Dang, Yi; Wang, Lei; Li, Shang-zhong


    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.

  18. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    Lenz Haderlein


    Full Text Available Controlled release nitrogen (N fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yields and increase grain N and N use efficiency when compared to the practice of side-banding of urea N fertilizer. CRU was designed to release timely and adequate, but not excessive, amounts of N to the crop. Crop uptake of N from seed-placed CRU was sufficient to provide yields similar to those of side-banded urea N. Grain N concentrations of the CRU treatments were higher, on average, than those from side-banded urea, resulting in 4.2% higher N use efficiency across the entire N application range from 25 to 100 kg ha-1. Higher levels of removal of N in grain from CRU compared to side-banded urea can result in less residual N remaining in the soil, and limit the possibility of N losses due to denitrification and leaching.

  19. Study on the Phosphorus Efficiency in Varieties of Spring Wheat Ⅲ. Characteristics of Phosphorus Efficient Varieties%春小麦品种磷营养效率研究Ⅲ.磷高效品种的特征特性

    黄亚群; 马文奇; 王激清; 刘社平


    Based on the identification and classification of the phosphorus efficiency of spring wheat varieties, characteristic of phosphorus efficient varieties were made clear by variance analysis to different efficient varieties. Under phosphorus stress condition, there were high ability to spikelet and floscule differentiation and seed setting. The sensitivity to phosphorus application was decreased forvanieties with the tolerance to phosphorus deficiency. The phosphorus use efficiency was not related to the ability to tolerance phosphorus deficiency and sensitivity to phosphorus application. There was high ability to uptake phosphorus and tolerance phosphorus stress in the varieties with strong root system.%通过对不同磷效率类型品种(系)性状表现的方差分析, 阐明了春小麦磷高效品种的性状特征。当受到同一缺磷胁迫时,耐缺磷的品种具有较高的穗分化和结实能力,品种耐缺磷能力越强,对加磷反应越不敏感;品种的磷利用效率同耐缺磷能力和对加磷反应敏感性无关。具有发达根系的品种吸磷能力强、耐缺磷程度高。


    白凌凤; 逯晓萍; 张瑞霞


    In 1996-1998,the region test of spring wheat varieties inBayenaoer league was carried out to analyse the high-productivity and stability of 10 varieties.The results showed that the differences among varicty,site and variety×site are significant;Among the tested varieties the Heyou2.Shows a good performence and may be substituted for comparative variety Yunliang4 in future.%本文根据1996年~1998年巴盟春小麦区域试验结果资料,对参试的10个品种进行了丰产性和稳定性分析,结果表明:品种、地点以及品种X地点互作差异均达显著水平;在参试品种中,河优2号小麦品种表现优良,将成为目前对照品种永良4号的替代品种。

  1. 新疆春小麦品种品质性状主成分及聚类分析%Principal Components and Cluster Analyses of Xinjiang Spring Wheat Quality Traits

    高欢欢; 李卫华; 穆培源; 桑伟; 冶婷; 王亮


    [目的]选择不同筋力新疆自育和引进的春小麦品种,分析其磨粉品质、蛋白质品质性状和淀粉品质性状等指标,为育种家进一步开展品种选育和品质改良提供参考依据.[方法]选择30个春小麦品种,分析23个品种性状指标,采用主成分分析.把23个品质性状归于8个主成分,分别是淀粉糊化特性、粉质参数、蛋白质含量、降落数值、直链淀粉含量、面筋指数、峰值时间和Zeleny沉淀值,以品质因子进行聚类分析.[结果]经主成分分析,8个主成分其分别决定总变异量的44.00%、14.49%、8.52%、8.25%、5.46%、4.07%、3.30%和2.74%.把30个春小麦品种聚成4类:第一类小麦品种的面粉L*、面团形成时间、稳定时间和评价值等粉质参数上表现突出,面筋指数和淀粉糊化特性表现较好,而籽粒蛋白含量、湿面筋含量和面粉吸水率偏低.第二类小麦品种中的淀粉糊化特性好,湿面筋含量、籽粒蛋白质、面粉b*含量高,但面筋指数含量低.第三类小麦品种在面粉L*、面团稳定时间和评价值表现差.第四类小麦品种的灰分含量、面粉吸水率偏高,而形成时间较短,淀粉糊化特性表现较差.[结论]通过对新疆自育和引进的30个春小麦品种的23个品质性状的主成分和聚类分类分析,筛选出了影响春小麦品质的8个主成分,对这8个品质指标的选择有利于小麦品质育种和改良效率的提高.%[ Objective ] Gluten spring wheat of 30 different self - fertile or introduced varieties in Xinjiang were chosen to conduct principal component and cluster analyses of 23 indexes such as their flour quality, protein quality traits and starch quality traits. [Method] By the principal component analysis, the 23 quality characters belong to 8 principal components; starch gelatinization characteristics, silty parameters, protein content, falling number, amylose content, gluten index, peak time and Zeleny

  2. Spring Outing



    It is springtime.The days are getting warmer and the flowers are in bloom.With the pleasantly warm sunshine,gentle breeze and fresh air,it is high time for spring outing and sightseeing.Are you still hesitating? Let’s see what benefits spring outing brings about and then pay attention to some matters while taking a trip out in spring. Benefits of spring outing Spring outing is especially popular with children and teenagers.But many adults also like to go on spring trips.The reason might be that spring outing can have several benefits.

  3. Spring in the Arab Spring

    Borg, G.J.A.


    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than 14 mill

  4. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu


    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  5. Wheat Allergy

    ... but also, in some cases, by inhaling wheat flour. Wheat can be found in many foods, including ... protein Soy sauce Some condiments, such as ketchup Meat products, such as hot dogs or cold cuts ...

  6. Wheat Allergy

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  7. 30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的防效及安全性评价%Control Effect and Crop Safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP against Broad-leaf Weeds in Spring Wheat Fields



    采用田间试验方法研究了30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP对春小麦田杂草的控制效果和应用安全性.结果表明,30%苄嘧·苯磺隆对田间阔叶杂草具有较好的防除效果,于春小麦3~5叶期每公顷施用30%苄嘧·苯磺隆WP 281.25~337.50 g/hm2对水300 kg茎叶喷雾,可有效防除密花香薷(Elsholtzia densa)、遏蓝菜(Thlaspi arvnse)、藜(Chenopodium album)、苦苣菜(Sonchus oleraceus)等阔叶杂草;在以大刺儿菜(Cephalanoplos setosum)、泽漆(Euphorbia helioscopia)为优势种群的春麦田需增大剂量至337.50 g/hm2.对供试的乐麦5号和高原483春小麦安全,除草后小麦增产12.02%~17.38%,增产效果总体优于对照药剂.%To provide guidance for chemical weed management in spring wheat fields,experiments were conducted to evaluate the weed control effects and crop safety of Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP. The results showed that Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP has very good efficacy on Elsholtzia densa, Thlaspi arvnse, Chenopodi-um album, Sonchus oleraceus,etc.. Its normal dosage is 281.25~337.50 g/hm2 with 300 kg water in the term of 3~5 leaf—age of spring wheat. The dosage should increase to 337.50 g/hm2 in spring wheat field where the dominant species were Cepha-lanoplos setosum and Euphorbia helioscopia. Bensulfuron-methyl and Tribenuron-methyl 30% WP was safety to spring wheat variety Lemai 5 and Gaoyuan 483; the yield of wheat was increased by 12.02%~17.38% than CK and ecceeded that of the compared herbicides.

  8. Wheat Woes



    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  9. Wheat Woes


    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  10. SPRING 2016

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  11. Characteristics of diurnal variation about photosynthetic physiology of spring wheat iii dryland at high altitude locality%高海拔地区旱地春小麦光合日变化特征

    马兴祥; 王润元; 杨永龙; 姚涛峰


    An experiment was conducted to measure photosynthetic elements of flag leaves and compare the charac- teristics of diurnal variation about photosynthetic physiology on various sowing dates of wheat named Longchun 8 in Wushaoling . The results show that the net photosynthetic rate and water utilization have increasing trends after pushing their sowing dates . In process of diurnal variation , the transpiration rate is less , water utilization is higher , and photo- synthetic rate is stronger in morning than in afternoon , which turns a phenomenon of photosynthetic siesta . On different sowing dates, air temperature has relationships with photosynthetic elements of spring wheat . In higher air temperature time , air temperature is negatively correlated with net photosynthetic rate and water utilization , but it has unfavorable impact if air temperature is too high . Temperature is positively correlated with transpiration rate , reflecting that the higher temperature is , the larger transpiration rate of leaves is , which has disadvantage of photosynthetic accumulation . Air humidity has positive impact on net photosynthetic rate , and the correlativity between air humidity and net photosynthetic rate has an increasing trend with pushing sowing dates . Air humidity also has positive correlations with leaf stomata trans- mitting rates, intercellular CO2 concentration and CO2 concentration . High humidity would be advantageous to increase the intercellular CO2 concentration . The effective radiation is little negatively correlated with the photosynthetic elements , which shows that the area of Wushaoling has abundant sunlight supply , and the temperature and humidity are sensitive elements in the process of photosynthesis .%测定小麦旗叶光合特性,比较乌鞘岭地区分期播种陇春8号小麦的光合生理日变化特征.结果表明:净光合速率、水分利用效率随播种期推后有增大趋势.在日变化过程中,上午

  12. Spring Tire

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.


    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  13. Beginning Spring

    Caliskan, Mert


    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  14. Just Spring

    Konda, Madhusudhan


    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  15. Effects of Maize Straw Mulching on Soil Physical Properties in Spring Wheat Fields%玉米秸秆覆盖对春小麦田土壤物理性状的影响

    张志贤; 文卿琳


    The field experiments were made to study the changes of soil temperature, bulk density and soil moisture content under the different mulching. The results showed that mulching and straw standing treatment dicrease soil bulk density compared with the check treatment. In sowing and tillering of spring wheat, the soil layer which the depth of 5 cm, mulching soil temperature is lowest, compared with conventional tillage low than 2.13℃ and 1.79℃; soil temperature of 15 cm was 2.36℃ and 1.90℃ lower on straw mulching than conventional tillage. Between the soil layers, the highest and lowest points of soil temperature delayed 3 hours with the deepening of soil layer. Water content of soil in the layers of 0~10 cm, the cover and pole treatment higher than conventional tillage,but in the layers of 10~20 cm, soil moisture of the cover and pole treatment lower than conventional tillage.%为了明确生物覆盖对塔里木盆地绿洲区土壤性能的影响,采用田间试验研究了玉米秸秆不同覆盖处理方式对土壤容重、温度及含水量的影响。结果表明,覆盖处理、立秆处理都较常规处理降低了土壤容重。在春小麦播种期和分蘖期,覆盖处理的5cm土层温度最低,较常规处理的分别低2.13℃和1.79℃;15 cm土层温度较常规处理的分别低2.36℃和1.90℃;土层加深10 cm土壤温度的最高点和最低点都延迟3 h出现。土壤含水量表现为0~10 cm土层立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的高,而10~20 cm土层则表现为立秆、覆盖处理的土壤含水量均较常规处理的低。

  16. Spring Festival


    Spring Festival is the most important festival in China. It's to celebrate the lunar calendar's new year. In the evening before the Spring Festival, families get together and have a big meal. In many places people like to set off firecrackers. Dumplings are

  17. Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

    Iván Matus


    Full Text Available The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than ‘Llareta-INIA’ and ‘Corcolén-INIA’. In La Platina, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, ‘Lleuque-INIA’ yield exceeded ‘Llareta-INIA’ by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%, and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L. de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color

  18. Risk Evaluation for Spring Frost Disaster of Winter Wheat in Yellow River-Huai River Regions Based on Crop Model%基于作物模型灾损识别的黄淮区域冬小麦晚霜冻风险评估

    张雪芬; 余卫东; 王春乙


    利用近50年黄淮地区54个农业气象观测站的作物观测资料和气象资料,结合人工移动式霜箱试验结果,研究了WOFOST作物模型中增加晚霜冻影响的处理技术,揭示了晚霜冻对冬小麦各生长量的影响结果。利用修改后的作物模型提取晚霜冻灾损评估技术,建立以晚霜冻的危险性、暴露性和脆弱性为风险因子的风险评估模型,开展黄淮区域晚霜冻风险评估。结果表明,黄淮区域冬小麦晚霜冻风险分布呈西高东低分布,高风险地区主要分布在黄淮区域的河南西部、西南部、西北部及东部永城、沈丘一带。其中,黄淮西部的高风险主要是由晚霜冻高灾损引起的,河南西南部的高风险是由晚霜冻的高频率引起的,其西北部和东部的高风险则是由晚霜冻的高频率和高灾损共同引起的。%The winter wheat spring frost damage mainly occurs in the Yellow River-Huai River regions.Based on the winter wheat data,the meteorological data at 54 agrometeoroligical observation stations from 1961 to 2008 and the results of frost-box experiment in the field,the technologies of spring frost disaster effect on growth of winter wheat by the WOFOST crop model are studied,and the influence of the spring frost on different growth periods of wheat is revealed.Using the technology of extracting the spring frost disaster damage from crop model,risk evaluation model is established with spring frost danger,exposure and fragility as the risk factors,and develops spring frost risk evaluation in recently 50 years in the Yellow River-Huai River regions.The results show that,the areas including western,southwestern,north western and eastern of Henan Province in Yellow River-Huai River regions are high risk,in which that high risk in western Henan is due to higher yield damage,and higher risk in southwestern Henan results from high frequency of spring frost,and higher risk in northwestern and eastern Henan is because of

  19. Eat Wheat!

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  20. 花后水分胁迫对春小麦淀粉形成及相关酶活性的影响%Effects of water stress after anthesis on starch formation and the activity of associated enzyme in spring wheat

    李亚婷; 康建宏; 吴宏亮; 李昱; 姚珊


    近年来,气候变化导致农田干旱与渍水频繁发生.研究花后水分胁迫对春小麦(Triticum aestivum)淀粉形成的影响,对栽培稳产优质的春小麦品种具有重要意义.本研究以宁夏平原主栽春小麦宁春4号和宁春47号为试材,采用盆栽种植,人工控制土壤含水量,设置重度干旱、轻度干旱、正常处理和过度灌溉4个试验梯度.结果表明,花后干旱显著(P<0.05)提高了宁春4号灌浆前期籽粒中直链淀粉含量,显著降低了两种春小麦灌浆中后期直链、支链淀粉含量,最终使收获期籽粒中总淀粉含量显著降低.与籽粒中淀粉形成相关的4种关键酶,AGPP、UGPP、SBE及 SSS活性在整个灌浆期均呈单峰曲线,两种春小麦灌浆中后期受花后水分胁迫显著降低了酶活性,两种春小麦的直链淀粉积累速率与 SSS活性活性均呈极显著正相关(P<0.01).%Recently,frequent drought and waterlogging due to climate change caused severe yield loss in spring wheat.The research about the effects of water stress after anthesis on starch formation had great importance for cultivation of spring wheat with stable production and high quality.In the present study,two spring wheat varieties Ningchun 4 and Ningchun 47 which were domain varieties in Ningxia province were selected as materi-al.Four different soil moisture treatments including heavy drought,light drought,normal and water logging were performed by manipulating the post-anthesis soil moisture in pots.The results showed that post-anthesis drought significantly increased (P<0.05)the grain starch content during the earlier filling stage and signifi-cantly reduced (P<0.05)the amylose and amylopectin content during the mid and late filing stage so that sig-nificantly reduced (P<0.05)the total starch content during the late filing stage.The activities of four key en-zymes associated with starch formation,AGPP (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase),UGPP (UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase

  1. 模拟增温对春小麦生长发育、根区土壤呼吸速率及酶活性的影响%Effects of Simulated Enhancement of Temperature on Growth and Root Soil Respiration Rate and Enzyme Activity of Spring Wheat



    The small scale temperature enhancement experiment was simulated with open-top chamber ( OTC) in two years,and the response of temperature enhancement on growth and root soil respiration rate and enzyme activity of spring wheat was studied,so as to reveal the spring wheat response mechanism to global climate change and provide scientific basis for the spring wheat cultivation with high yield and good quality under the background of global climate change. The results showed that at the mature stage,the contents of chlorophyll a,b,carbohydrate,protein,crude protein,crude fat,crude fiber,crude ash,nitrogen free extract,and the plant height,stem diameter,leaf area index,specific leaf weight,grains per ear and 1000-seed weight presented OTC >CK ( without temperature enhancement ) . The simulated temperature enhancement increased the soil respiration rate and soil enzyme activities at the growth stage of spring wheat. There were significant exponential relationship between soil respiration rate and enzyme activities and soil temperature. To sum up,enhancement of temperature was beneficial to improve the growth and root soil respiration rate and enzyme activity of spring wheat.%采用开顶式生长室连续2a小尺度的模拟增温,同步监测模拟增温对春小麦生长发育、根区土壤呼吸速率及酶活性的影响,以期揭示春小麦对全球气候变化的响应机制,为实现全球气候变化背景下春小麦高产优质栽培提供科学依据和理论基础.结果表明:成熟期春小麦株高、茎粗、叶面积指数、比叶重、穗粒数和千粒质量均表现为模拟增温处理>未增温处理,并且模拟增温提高了成熟期叶片叶绿素a、叶绿素b、碳水化合物、蛋白质及粗蛋白、粗脂肪、粗纤维、粗灰分、无氮浸出物含量.模拟增温增加了生长期春小麦根区土壤呼吸速率和酶活性,土壤呼吸速率和酶活性均与土壤温度呈极显著的指数关系.综上,模拟增温促进了

  2. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  3. Tritium in the food chain. Comparison of predicted and observed behaviour. A: Re-emission from soil and vegetation. B: Formation of organically bound tritium in grain of spring wheat

    Davis, P. [AECL, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Strack, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Barry, P. [PJS Barry, (Canada)] [and others


    equation are increasingly invalid. Below a flux of 0.04 g m{sup -2} s{sup -1} models increasingly overpredict, nevertheless at the lowest measured flux, about 0.01 g m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, the overprediction was less than a factor of 4. Tritium fluxes were overpredicted by a factor of between 2 and 3 but this was partially explained by a possible underestimate of the observed value. The second major source of uncertainty arising during work for TR8 was the comparative uptake of HTO by plants and subsequent conversion to OBT in light or dark conditions. Two experiments were carried out at FZK in Germany and the information obtained was used as the basis for the model test exercise Scenario V3.0. The experiments involved exposing spring wheat plants after anthesis to air containing HTO vapour in a growth chamber either with light or with dark conditions. Tissue water tritium concentrations in leaves were measured in samples taken from the chamber two hours after exposure and then OBT concentrations were measured in grain at harvest time 30 days later. Modelers, were provided with the hourly averaged HTO concentrations in air, air temperatures and humidities, radiation information, the history of the plant growth before and after exposure, and the herbage densities of the plants. They were then required to predict the OBT concentrations in grain at harvest. The primary purposes of this scenario were to find out if HTO still enters plant leaves when leaf stomata close at night and, if HTO is present in leaves, whether it can still become incorporated into OBT in the dark. The results were quite clear - HTO does enter plants at night and OBT does continue to be formed in the dark. Models which excluded both processes therefore do not provide the correct predictions when exposures occur at night. Values of the transfer parameters were evaluated from the experimental results. The velocity of deposition was estimated to be 16 - 23 10{sup -3} m s{sup -1} and 3 - 4 10{sup -3} m s

  4. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David


    There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140,500 +/- 102 genes, a core genome of 81,070 +/- 1,631 genes, and an average of 128,656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to gene presence variation, more than 36 million intervarietal SNPs were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into elite wheat genome diversity as a basis for genomics based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome Gbrowse is available at, and data is available for download from This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Michael Tilley; Valquiria Pierucci; Katherine A Tilley; Okkyung Kim Chung


    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. All of the Kansas varieties of white wheat, milled to 80% extraction, performed as well as, if not better than, a standard commercial tortilla flour milled to 72% extraction when various quality factors were compared. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties,dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the new Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. In summary, Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to,those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.

  6. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  7. Quantum Spring

    Feng, Chao-Jun; Li, Xin-Zhou

    In this paper, we will give a short review on quantum spring, which is a Casimir effect from the helix boundary condition that proposed in our earlier works. The Casimir force parallel to the axis of the helix behaves very much like the force on a spring that obeys the Hooke's law when the ratio r of the pitch to the circumference of the helix is small, but in this case, the force comes from a quantum effect, so we would like to call it quantum spring. On the other hand, the force perpendicular to the axis decreases monotonously with the increasing of the ratio r. Both forces are attractive and their behaviors are the same in two and three dimensions.

  8. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon


    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al. 2014). A modern spring elite variety, 'Paragon,' was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1,611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC) was constructed and contained 2,498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g. by comparing at marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot-spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the

  9. Effects of Whole Field Soil-Plastic Mulching on Spring Wheat Water Consumption, Yield, and Soil Water Balance in Semiarid Region%旱地全膜覆土穴播对春小麦耗水、产量和土壤水分平衡的影响

    侯慧芝; 吕军峰; 郭天文; 张国平; 董博; 张绪成


    [Objective]The main limiting factors which affect spring wheat productivity on Northwest Loess Plateau are drought, rainfall dynamics could not meet spring wheat water needs, and low temperature in spring. How to conserve the rainwater in soil efficiently, and use it at the spring wheat growth stage, is the most important method to increase spring wheat yield in this area. The aim of the study is to reveal the effect of whole field soil plastic mulching (i.e. the whole soil surface firstly mulched by plastic, and then spread around 1cm thick soil on plastic surface) on spring wheat seasonal water consumption, yield, water use efficiency and the soil water recharge in fallow period, further to assess its effect on inter annual soil water balance in semiarid region on Northwest Loess Plateau. [Method]The spring wheat (Triticum aestivum Lunchun 27) selected as test material, a field experiment was conducted from 2011 to 2013 on the Dingxi Experimental Station of Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (104°36′E, 35°35′N) , which located on northwest Loess plateau. The designed three treatments are whole field soil plastic mulching and bunch seeded (FMS), whole field mulching and bunch seeded (FM), and uncovered and bunch seeded (CK). The seasonal soil water content, spring wheat biomass, yield and spring wheat yield components were recorded, as well as the rainwater fallow efficiency, evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, harvest index, and reproduction allocation index were calculated.[Result]The evapotranspiration among the three treatments were not differed significantly in 2011 and 2012, but the evapotranspiration of FMS was significantly higher than CK in 2013. From seeding to jointing stage, the FMS and FM significantly increased spring wheat evapotranspiration by 27.2%and 9.6%in dry year, 52.2%and 44.6%in wet year, respectively, as compared with CK. The evapotranspiration of FMS and FM was not significantly different at each spring wheat growth stage

  10. The content of dietary fiber, amino acids, dihydroxyphenols and some macro- and micronutrients in grain of conventionally and organically grown common wheat, spelt wheat and proso millet

    Cezary A Kwiatkowski


    Full Text Available The effects of conventional and organic farming system on some quality parameters of grains were studied in winter and spring common wheat, spelt wheat and proso millet. Under organic farming conditions, spelt wheat was characterized by the most favorable grain chemical composition (essential amino acids index [EAAI] 85.3, o-dihydroxyphenol 2.00 g kg-1, nitrogen [N] 23.5 g kg-1, magnesium [Mg] 705, zinc [Zn] 32.9 mg kg-1, followed by millet (total dietary fiber [TDF] 185.3 g kg-1, Mg 904, copper [Cu] 6.27, iron [Fe] 57.0 mg kg-1. The above-mentioned cereals also showed a satisfactory yield level under the organic system (spelt wheat 2.69, proso millet 1.42 t ha-1. Both in winter and spring common wheat organic farming led a significant reduction in productivity, but the content of chemical components in grain (dihydroxyphenols—spring wheat 1.68 g kg-1, winter wheat 1.74 g kg-1; selenium [Se]—spring wheat 53.4 mg kg-1, winter wheat 40.5 mg kg-1; some amino acids—spring wheat valine [Val] 5.11, methionine [Met] 2.09, tryptophan [Trp] 0.40 g kg-1, winter wheat glutamate [Glu] 41.9, proline [Pro] 15.3, glysine [Gly] 5.24, arginine [Arg] 5.04, [Trp] 0.97 g kg-1 was more favorable compared to the conventional system. The present study showed that the organic farming system does not result in reduced productivity neither in spelt wheat or proso millet, but contributes to an improvement in their grain quality parameters. On the other hand, common wheat performed better under the conventional system.

  11. 粉煤灰对加工番茄生长与养分吸收的影响及对春小麦残效研究%Effect of Coal Fly Ash on Plant Growth and Nutrient Uptake in Processing Tomato and Its Residual Effect on Spring Wheat

    李志强; 梁永超; 褚贵新; 冶军; 张波; 刘倩


    [目的]揭示石灰性土壤施用碱性粉煤灰与作物生长和元素吸收的关系.[方法]分别以加工番茄和春小麦为材料,采用盆栽试验研究干旱区灌耕灰漠土施用粉煤灰对加工番茄生长及养分吸收的影响,并以春小麦为二茬作物研究粉煤灰的残效作用.[结果]施用粉煤灰可以增加加工番茄地上部干物质量,同时增加花期叶片氮含量,减少茎秆和叶片磷含量;但是增加收获期叶片氮、磷、钾的含量.同时施用粉煤灰增加加工番茄花期茎秆、叶片和植株整体的氮、钾的积累量,而减少加工番茄茎秆、叶片和植株整体磷的积累量;施用粉煤灰增加加工番茄收获期茎秆、叶片和植株的氮、磷、钾的积累量.残效试验表明,与对照相比,粉煤灰残效显著提高春小麦地上部干物质量,减少春小麦花期茎秆和叶片氮、磷、钾含量;22.50t/hm2粉煤灰残效增加春小麦收获期茎秆和叶片的氮、磷、钾含量.粉煤灰残效增加春小麦花期茎秆、叶片和植株氮和钾积累量和叶片、植株磷的积累量;增加春小麦收获期茎秆,叶片和植株氮、磷、钾积累量.粉煤灰及其残效作用增加土壤pH值和电导率.[结论]使用粉煤灰可以增加收获期加工番茄和春小麦地上部干物质积累量和氮、磷、钾积累量,同时增加土壤pH值和电导率.%[Objective]The objective of the present study is to elucidate nutrient uptake in processing tomato and the residual effect of fly ash on spring wheat grown in a gray desert soil in an arid region - Xinjiang. [Method] Pot experiments were conducted with processing tomato as the first crop and spring wheat as the second crop to study the effect of coal fly ash applied at different rates on plant growth and nutrient uptake . [ Result]The results showed that application of coal fly ash could increase the shoot dry weight of processing tomato, and the foliar N content,but decreased the foliar and

  12. 河北低平原区春玉米一熟替代麦玉两熟制的水生态与粮食安全分析%Security of water-ecology and food under replacement of winter wheat-summer maize rotation with spring maize mono-cropping in Hebei Lowland Plains

    闫鹏; 陈源泉; 张学鹏; 陶志强; 杨肖蕾; 隋鹏


    AbstractHebei Lowland Plains, one of the main grain producing areas in China, has an acute water shortage. To ensure sustainable development in the plains, strategies are needed to manage the water shortage and obtain high crop yield in the region. In terms of water-saving and high-yield farming systems for the region, spring maize mono-cropping has shown to be a promising alternative to the traditional winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping system. A comprehensive comparison between the effects of the winter wheat-summer maize rotation and the spring maize mono-cropping on water ecological security and food security in the study area under different yield levels has not yet been tested. Thus, field experiments were conducted at Wuqiao Experiment Station of China Agricultural University in the Hebei Lowland Plains in 2011–2014 to determine the feasibility of replacing traditional high irrigation costs of the winter wheat-summer maize double-cropping rotation system with the spring maize mono-cropping system. The three treatments implemented in the experiment included a winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping rotation (WS), a rain-fed spring maize mono-cropping system (SMRF) and a fully-irrigated spring maize mono-cropping system (SMSW) — in which treatment WS was used as the control (CK). Four main factors were evaluated — actual annual evapotranspiration (ETa), productivity, water use efficiency (WUE), economic benefit and economic water use efficiency (EWUE) — that influenced the performance of the three treatments. Results showed that averageannual ETawas highest under WS, followed by SMSW and SMRF. Average annual ETa under SMSW and SMRF decreased by 48.4% and 54.2%, respectively, compared with WS. Under WS cropping system, precipitation accounted for only 32.9% of total water consumption by winter wheat during the three-year experimentation period, while irrigation and soil water were the two main water sources of winter wheat. Adversely

  13. Pushing Wheat

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  14. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  15. Regulation of whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting and whole field sand mulching with flat planting on soil moisture and yield of spring wheat in semiarid dryland areas%旱地全膜覆土穴播和全沙覆盖平作对小麦田土壤水分和产量的调节机理

    宋婷; 王红丽; 陈年来; 张绪成


    Whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting is a firstly spreading wheat cultivation technique in Gansu Province. Domestic studies have shown significant increases in yields of wheat, flax and other crops under this cultivation mode. Previous researches mainly focused on the cultivation techniques and yield effects, with little documentation of the mechanism of yield increase. To address this knowledge gap, field experiments were conducted to explore the regulation of whole field soil-plastic mulching with bunch planting (PM) and whole field sand mulching with flat planting (SM) on soil moisture content and yield of spring wheat in semiarid dryland areas. The results showed that compared to uncovered and flat planting (CK), PM and SM significantly improved soil moisture conditions in the 0-40 cm soil layer. This was especially noticeable in dry years, which supported early growth of wheat by enhancing water use in the 0-200 cm soil layer after wheat emergence. The maximum soil water used by wheat under PM was from 60-80 cm and that under both SM and CK was from 40-60 cm in the first year (median water year) of wheat cultivation. In the second year (less water year) of cultivation, the maximum soil water used under PM was from 120-180 cm and that under both SM and CK was from 60-80 cm. After two years of continuous cultivation, the depth of used water under PM increased from 120 cm to 200 cm, that under SM increased from 120 cm to 140 cm and that under CK remained unchanged. Leisure efficiency of PM was the highest, followed by SM and then CK. Leisure efficiency of each treatment decreased with increasing years of wheat cultivation. In summary, PM and SM improved the moisture environment of the soil in early wheat growth period, promoted water use after wheat emergence and accelerated the use of deep soil moisture. Compared with CK, PM and SM increased wheat yield by 48.77%-815.79% and 49.41%-702.24%, respectively. But with increasing years of cultivation

  16. Stomatal or non-stomatal limitation of photosynthesis of spring wheat flag leaf at late growth stages under natural conditions in semiarid rainfed regions%自然条件下半干旱雨养春小麦生育后期旗叶光合的气孔和非气孔限制

    杨泽粟; 张强; 郝小翠


    为探究半干旱地区雨养春小麦旗叶的光合作用限制因素、不同生育期差异及其适应策略,分析了大田条件下春小麦旗叶在抽穗期和灌浆期光合生理特征的动态变化规律,探讨了自然条件下光合作用的气孔与非气孔限制特征。结果表明:净光合速率日变化趋势在抽穗期和灌浆期分别为单峰型和双峰型,峰值相当,为18.5µmol(CO2)·m−2·s−1左右。气孔导度具有与净光合作用几乎相似的日变化规律,胞间 CO2浓度大致为上午下降、下午回升。胞间CO2浓度变化除受光合作用消耗和气孔限制共同作用外,下午时段叶肉导度增大,也影响胞间CO2浓度变化。在抽穗期和灌浆期,春小麦旗叶光合作用速率与气孔导度相关性十分显著,相关系数分别达0.916(P=0.000)和0.945(P=0.000)。并且2个生育期均出现明显的光合气孔限制,抽穗期达0.64,灌浆期为0.53。其中,抽穗期气孔导度对饱和水汽压差响应十分敏感,下午出现较为明显的气孔限制;灌浆期中午出现较为明显的光合“午休”现象,其主要原因是半干旱区较大饱和水汽压差和强烈辐射致使气孔关闭,气孔限制达到极大值,并且非气孔限制因素也较为突出。抽穗期至灌浆期,由于气孔对饱和水汽压差敏感性的下降以及“午休”策略,光合气孔限制逐渐减小,是春小麦在半干旱地区维持较高光合速率和保证产量的重要自适应机制。%Rainfed agriculture is a critical production mode in arid and semiarid regions, which accounts for 30% of the earth’s surface. Spring wheat is one of the main crops in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau in China. It is therefore important to investigate the photosynthetic characteristics of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau. Previous studies have mainly focused on the responses of photosynthesis to environmental factors, with few

  17. Wheat Generation Adding in Xundian County of Yunnan Province in Summer

    Kong Zhi-you; Liu Ye-ju; Qin Peng


    Local climate conditions and sowing time are very important to the vernalization and summer reproduction of the wheat. Xundian County is located in Yunnan Province of China, at latitude 25.56° north and longitude 103.25° east. Xundian County is situated 1 873 m above sea level, and is conducive for the summer reproduction of the wheat. To investigate the optimal sowing time, 11 spring wheat cultivars and one semi-winter wheat cultivar were sown 10 times at an interval of five days from May 26, 2012, and the strong winter wheat Suyin 10 was treated in a vernalization room at 2℃ with different concentrations of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine. The results showed that Suyin 10 should be vernalized at 2℃ for 30 days in summer, and the growth periods of strong winter wheat plants could been shortened if treated with a specific concentration of the gibberellin and 5-azacytidine at a low temperature. The growth period of the spring wheat in summer reproduction was delayed, and their agronomic traits gradually decreased with the passage of the sowing time. Thus, spring wheat should be sown at the earliest time possible for better yield. June 25 should be the latest date for summer reproduction of the wheat, but the semi-winter wheat cultivars in Xundian County should be added generation in summer after being treated at 2℃ for 10 days. Xundian County is a suitable location for summer reproduction of the wheat in China.

  18. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu


    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  19. The dynamics of acid-soluble phosphorus compounds in the course of winter and spring wheat germination under various thermic conditions. Part II. Labile phosphorus after hydrolysis of the acid-soluble fraction

    A. Barbaro


    Full Text Available The changes in labile phosphorus compounds content during germination of wheat were investigated. These compounds were determined in acid-soluble germ extracts separated into fractions according to the solubility of their barium salts. Low germination temperature was found to raise the labile phosphorus content in the fraction of insoluble barium salts. If we assume that labile P of this fraction consisted mainly of adenosinedi- and triphosphates, it would seem that the rise, in the ATP and ADP level under the influence of low temperature may be essential for initiating flowering in winter varieties.

  20. Wheat induced urticaria

    Uppal Monica


    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  1. Distribution of Grain Hardness in Chinese Wheats and Genetic Analysis

    ZHOU Yan-hua; HE Zhong-hu; YAN Jun; ZHANG Yan; WANG De-sen; ZHOU Gui-ying


    A hundred winter wheat and 41 spring wheat cultivars and advanced lines were used to investigate the distribution of grain hardness in Chinese wheats and correlations between grain hardness and other kernel traits. P1, P2, F1, F2 and F3 from three crosses, i. e. , Liken2/Yumai2, 85Zhong33/Wenmai6 and 85Zhong33/95Zhong459 were sown to study the genetics of grain hardness. Significant correlation was observed between hardness measured by Single Kernel Characteristic System 4100 (SKCS 4100) and Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy, r ranging from 0. 85 to 0.94. Chinese wheat is a mixed population in terms of hardness, ranging from very soft to very hard. For autumn-sown wheat, on average, grain hardness decreases from north to south and spring-sown wheat is dominant with hard type. Hardness is negatively associated with flour color, and its associations with flour yield and ash content differ in winter and spring wheats. Grain hardness is controlled by a major gene and several minor genes with additive effect mostly, but dominant effect is also observed, with heritability of 0.78.

  2. 新疆不同类型春小麦品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累及转运规律研究%Study on the Accumulation and Translocation Regulation of Dry Matter and NP after Anthesis in Different Types of Spring Wheat Varieties in Xinjiang

    栾姗姗; 贾永红; 马会杰; 侯丽丽; 王伟; 石书兵


    [Objective] The purpose of this project was to evaluate the accumulation and translocation regulation of dry matter and NP of different types of spring wheat varieties planted in the natural ecological condition. [Method]The test materials were 8 spring wheat varieties cultivated in Xinjiang. The accumulation and translocation regulations were studied by measuring the accumulation of dry matter and NP after anthesis. [ Result] The accumulative dynamic state of dry matter and NP appeared a rising tendency after anthesis. The accumulation of dry matter and NP in strong gluten varieties was the highest in maturity, followed by middle gluten varieties and middle strong varieties. For the translocation of dry matter and NP, the amount and rate of dry matter translocation before anthesis was middle gluten > middle strong gluten > strong gluten in turn from high to low, the amount of dry matter translocation was middle gluten > strong gluten > middle strong gluten, the contribution rate of dry matter translocation to grain yield was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. The regulation of NP accumulation and translocation was basically consistent, and the amount of NP accumulation was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. [ Conclusion ] Certain difference existed under the regulation of dry matter and NP accumulation and translocation in different types of spring wheat varieties.%[目的]在自然生态条件下,研究不同品质类型春小麦品种干物质及氮磷的积累和转运规律.[方法]选用新疆主栽的8个春小麦品种,测定其花后干物质和氮磷的积累量,对其积累和转运规律进行研究.[结果]不同类型品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累动态均呈上升的趋势,成熟期干物质与氮磷的积累量强筋品种最高,其次为中筋品种,中强筋品种较低;从干物质与氮磷的转运情况来看,花前干物质转运量和干物质转运率由大到小依次为中强筋>中筋>

  3. First report of Diuraphis (Holcaphis frequens as a pest of wheat in Finland



    Full Text Available Colonies of Diuraphis (Holcaphis frequens (Walker were found on wheat, Triticum aestivum L. in the vicinity of Jokioinen in south-west Finland in summer 1997. The aphid was present in all wheat fields inspected, and was particularly abundant on spring wheat plants of field and plot margins. The aphid was also common on its recognised, host Elymus repens (L. Gould (couch grass. Damage symptoms, longitudinal chlorotic streaking of tightly rolled leaves, resembled those caused by Diu-raphis noxia (Mordvilko, the Russian wheat aphid. Diuraphis frequens appears unlikely to become a serious pest of wheat, and its relative abundance during 1997 may have resulted from particularly hot, dry weather.

  4. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Jankielsohn, Astrid


    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  5. Effects of kernel weight and source-limitation on wheat grain yield ...



    Feb 9, 2012 ... 2Islamic Azad University, Dehdasht Branch, Dehdasht, Iran. ... as well as in other Mediterranean environments and the long-term spring temperatures trend to ... affects wheat grain yield, which potentially increases food.

  6. Mineral composition of organically grown wheat genotypes: contribution to daily minerals intake.

    Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva


    In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.

  7. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.


    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  8. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    Iván Matus


    Full Text Available Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white with long awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, white, and vitreous. The weight of 1000 grains varies between 50 and 59 g. It was sown in mid-August at the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31’ S; 71°54’ W, Chillán. Head emergence occurred 88 to 89 d after sowing, which is 2 to 3 d after Ciko-INIA. On average, Millán-INIA reached a yield similar to that of the var. Ciko-INIA. This line stands out for its good resistance to disease, high protein content (11.5% mean, high sedimentation value, and high W value.Millán-INIA es un trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera que proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado en 1995 en el Proyecto de Fitomejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Es un trigo de hábito primaveral, de época de espigadura mediana a precoz, con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula. La altura de la planta adulta se considera mediana a baja, y varía entre 75 y 90 cm, con un promedio de 85 cm. La espiga es de color blanco y de barbas largas y presentes en toda su extensión. El grano es de color blanco y aspecto vítreo y de tamaño grande, con un peso de los 1000 granos que varía entre 50 y 59 g. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31’ S; 71°54’ O, Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre 88 a 89 días después de la siembra, entre 2 y 3 días después que Ciko-INIA. Como

  9. Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat

    Pedro Carvalho; Sayed AzamAli; M. John Foulkes


    In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experi-ments under wel watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in wel watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90%available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD.

  10. 春天%Spring


    @@ Days get longer and warmer in the spring. There are new leaves on the trees. Flowers begin to grow. Spring rain makes the grass green and helps the plants grow. Nature wears new clothes in many colors red, yellow, blue, white and purple. Spring is the time of new life. I love spring.

  11. Effects of Neonicotinoids and Crop Rotation for Managing Wireworms in Wheat Crops.

    Esser, Aaron D; Milosavljević, Ivan; Crowder, David W


    Soil-dwelling insects are severe pests in many agroecosystems. These pests have cryptic life cycles, making sampling difficult and damage hard to anticipate. The management of soil insects is therefore often based on preventative insecticides applied at planting or cultural practices. Wireworms, the subterranean larvae of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), have re-emerged as problematic pests in cereal crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Here, we evaluated two management strategies for wireworms in long-term field experiments: 1) treating spring wheat seed with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam and 2) replacing continuous spring wheat with a summer fallow and winter wheat rotation. Separate experiments were conducted for two wireworm species--Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Limonius infuscatus (Motschulsky). In the experiment with L. californicus, spring wheat yields and economic returns increased by 24-30% with neonicotinoid treatments. In contrast, in the experiment with L. infuscatus, spring wheat yields and economic returns did not increase with neonicotinoids despite an 80% reduction in wireworms. Thus, the usefulness of seed-applied neonicotinoids differed based on the wireworm species present. In experiments with both species, we detected significantly fewer wireworms with a no-till summer fallow and winter wheat rotation compared with continuous spring wheat. This suggests that switching from continuous spring wheat to a winter wheat and summer fallow rotation may aid in wireworm management. More generally, our results show that integrated management of soil-dwelling pests such as wireworms may require both preventative insecticide treatments and cultural practices. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  12. Moisture influence on near-infrared prediction of wheat hardness

    Windham, William R.; Gaines, Charles S.; Leffler, Richard G.


    Recently near infrared (NTR) reflectance instrumentation has been used to provide an empirical measure of wheat hardness. This hardness scale is based on the radiation scattering properties of meal particles at 1680 and 2230 nm. Hard wheats have a larger mean particles size (PS) after grinding than soft wheats. However wheat kernel moisture content can influence mean PS after grinding. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of MR wheat hardness measurements to moisture content and to make the hardness score independent of moisture by correcting hardness measurements for the actual moisture content of measured samples. Forty wheat cultivars composed of hard red winter hard red spring soft red winter and soft white winter were used. Wheat kernel subsamples were stored at 20 40 60 and 80 relative humidity (RH). After equilibration samples were ground and the meal analyzed for hardness score (HS) and moisture. HS were 48 50 54 and 65 for 20 40 60 and 80 RH respectively. Differences in HS within each wheat class were the result of a moisture induced change in the PS of the meal. An algorithm was developed to correct HS to 11 moisture. This correction provides HS that are nearly independent of moisture content. 1.

  13. Hyperspectral imaging to identify salt-tolerant wheat lines

    Moghimi, Ali; Yang, Ce; Miller, Marisa E.; Kianian, Shahryar; Marchetto, Peter


    In order to address the worldwide growing demand for food, agriculture is facing certain challenges and limitations. One of the important threats limiting crop productivity is salinity. Identifying salt tolerate varieties is crucial to mitigate the negative effects of this abiotic stress in agricultural production systems. Traditional measurement methods of this stress, such as biomass retention, are labor intensive, environmentally influenced, and often poorly correlated to salinity stress alone. In this study, hyperspectral imaging, as a non-destructive and rapid method, was utilized to expedite the process of identifying relatively the most salt tolerant line among four wheat lines including Triticum aestivum var. Kharchia, T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, (Ae. columnaris) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring, and (Ae. speltoides) T. aestivum var. Chinese Spring. To examine the possibility of early detection of a salt tolerant line, image acquisition was started one day after stress induction and continued on three, seven, and 12 days after adding salt. Simplex volume maximization (SiVM) method was deployed to detect superior wheat lines in response to salt stress. The results of analyzing images taken as soon as one day after salt induction revealed that Kharchia and (columnaris)Chinese Spring are the most tolerant wheat lines, while (speltoides) Chinese Spring was a moderately susceptible, and Chinese Spring was a relatively susceptible line to salt stress. These results were confirmed with the measuring biomass performed several weeks later.

  14. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.


    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  15. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.


    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  16. 秸秆覆盖免耕储水灌溉对春小麦耗水特征及灌溉水分利用效率的影响%Effects of Storage Irrigation by No-tillage with Stubble Mulch on Water Consumption and Irrigation Water Use Efficiency~of Spring Wheat



    Abstract: The effect of storage irrigation by no-tillage with stubble mulch on water consumption and irriga- tion water use efficiency of spring wheat was studied at Heihe River Center Experimental Station in Hexi Corridor. Results showed that: (1) As for the whole growing stage, compared with other tillage methods, no-tillage with stubble mulch didn't reduce soil water consumption of spring wheat but changed the spatio- temporal pattern of water consumption. (2) The mean daily water consumption under no-tillage with stubble mulch was the highest with respect to the whole growing stage, but it was the minimum with respect to the whole year because no-tillage with stubble mulch preserved much soil moisture during no-cultivation stage. (3) To obtain high yield and improve irrigation water use efficiency, the treatment of no-tillage with stubble mulch tillage with water storage of 1 200 m3. hm-2 in winter was the best. (4) During the whole growing stage and the whole year, the mean daily water consumption increased and irrigation water use efficiency decreased when the storage irrigation amounts in efficiency and irrigation water use efficiency, the winter increased. So, if only for improving water saving storage irrigation amount in winter should be reduced to 750 m3 · hm-2.%摘要:在河西走廊的黑河流域中心试验站进行了秸秆覆盖免耕(NTS)储水灌溉对春小麦耗水特征及灌溉水分利用效率影响的试验研究。结果表明:①就春小麦全生育期耗水情况来看,NTS并没有减少土壤水分的消耗,只使春小麦的耗水在时间和空间上有所改变;②NTS的全生育期日均耗水量最高,而全年的日均耗水量最低,这主要是由NTS在休闲期时明显的保墒作用所导致;③为获取高产和提高灌溉水分利用效率,耕作方式为NTS且冬季储水定额为1200m3·hm^-2的处理是最优的;④随着储水定额的增大,全生育期和全年的

  17. Effects of Different Soil Moisture on Growth, Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Spring Wheat Under Drip Irrigation%不同土壤水分对滴灌春小麦生长、产量及水分利用效率的影响

    王冀川; 徐翠莲; 韩秀锋; 高山; 徐雅丽


    在南疆干旱气候生态条件下,以矮秆品种新春22和高杆品种新春19为试验材料,研究了滴灌条件下不同土壤水分对春小麦生长、产量及水分利用效率(WE)的影响,结果表明:拔节-扬花期是春小麦水分敏感期,水分亏缺将显著影响小麦株高、生物量、叶面积和产量形成.各水分处理中丁2(出苗-拔节期、拔节-扬花期、扬花-乳熟期田间相对含水量分别为65%-70%、70%-75%,65%-70%)的产量、WUE和收获指数(HI)最高,其次是T4(出苗-拔节期相对含水量为45%-50%,其余时期同T2),其WE、HI、穗粒数和粒重与处理T2差异不显著,在调亏灌溉中此处理是经济可行性的.不同基因型品种对土壤水分反应有差异,矮秆品种新春22受水分调控较大,各处理的耗水量均低于新春19,是个节水型品种.研究表明南疆春小麦实现高产节水的适宜滴灌量范围:矮秆品种为318.86mm-368.72mm,高杆品种为394.52mm-458.14mm.%A soil moisture controlled experiment under drip irrigation was conducted under the ecological and climatic conditions of South Xinjiang to study the effects of soil moisture on shoot growth, grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring wheat with tall variety of Xinchun 19 and dwarf variety of Xinchun 22.The results indicated that the moisture-sensitive stage of spring wheat was at jointing to flowering stage and water deficit would significantly affect plant height, biomass, leaf area and yield components.In all water treatments, the soil relative moisture content of T2 at emergence to jointing, jointing to flowering and flowering to milk maturation being 65%-70%, 70%-75% and 65%-70%,respectively, showed a highest values of grain yield, WUE and harvest index(HI).The soil relative moisture content of T4 at emergence to jointing being 45%-50% and at other stages being the same as T2, was the secondary in grain yield, and its WUE, HI, number of kernels per spike and grain

  18. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    Chiang, Geoff


    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  19. 小麦中国春 NAM 转录因子 Gpc-1和 Gpc-2灌浆期时空表达模式分析%Spatiotemporal Expression Pattern Analysis of NAM Transcription Factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in Bread Wheat Cultivar Chinese Spring During Grain Filling

    吴丹; 董剑; 要燕杰; 赵万春; 高翔


    Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the roles of no apical meristem (NAM) transcription factors Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 in early senescence and nutrient remobilization to the grain of bread wheat. [Method] Their spatiotemporal expression patterns were investigated during the grain-filling stage in wheat cultivar Chinese Spring. Their temporal expression dynamics were studied in penultimate leaf, flag leaf, peduncle, glume, rachis and the kernel using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). And the relative expression level was quantified using Pfaffl method with normalization against multiple verified reference genes. Applying mRNA in situ hybridization, the spatial expression pattern was explored in post-anthesis flag leaf, peduncle and the kernel only with digoxin-labeled oligonucleotide probes which were specifically targeting 5′ or 3′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of Gpc-1 and Gpc-2. [Result] Contrary to a previous report, the functional TaNAM-B1 rather than its dysfunctional paralog was found in Chinese Spring, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with the wild-type TtNAM-B1 in T. turgidum var.dicoccoides. All the results showed that Gpc-1 and Gpc-2 were all widely expressed in studied tissues with the exception of the root in which only the transcript of Gpc-1 was detected. The outcomes of mRNA in situ hybridization indicated that all five genes shared cell-type specificities. To be specific, no transcripts were distributed in leaf epidermal cells, pericarp and the seed coat;however, they mainly aggregated in leaf mesophyll cells, aleurone layer, embryo, and the tissues responsible for the mineral element transport (vascular bundle, pigment strand, nucellar projection and the transfer cell) in grain, in which the highest expression level was observed in embryo. In addition, lower expression level was detected in the peduncle and leaf vascular bundle as well. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the temporal expression

  20. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Senay Simsek


    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  1. Effects of different rotational tillage patterns on soil physical properties and yield of winter wheat-spring maize rotation field in Weibei highland%不同轮耕方式对渭北旱塬麦玉轮作田土壤物理性状与产量的影响

    陈宁宁; 李军; 吕薇; 王淑兰


    To study the effects of different rotational tillage patterns on soil physical properties and crop yield under winter wheat-spring maize single-cropping rotation systems in Weibei highlands, a 7-year on-site conservation tillage experiment was conducted, which consisted of three rotational tillage and three continuous tillage treatments. The rotational tillage systems included NT/ST (yearly rotation between no-tillage and subsoiling), ST/CT (yearly rotation between subsoiling and conventional tillage) and CT/NT (yearly rotation between conventional tillage and no-tillage). Also the continuous tillage treatments included continuous no-tillage (NT/NT), continuous subsoiling (ST/ST) and continuous conventional tillage (CT/CT). The study was conducted in wheat-maize rotation fields in 2007 to 2014 in Heyang County, Shaanxi Province. Soil physical properties (e.g., bulk density, soil aggregates and soil moisture) and crop yield under different tillage treatments were measured in 2014. The results were as follows: 1) Soil bulk density, soil porosity and field water capacity were significantly impacted by the three rotational tillage patterns, and were best under NT/ST rotational tillage. Compared with CT/CT treatment, NT/ST rotational tillage treatment increased average field capacity in the 0-60 cm soil layer by 12.9%. 2) The properties of soil aggregates changed significantly under different rotational tillage treatments. The NT/ST treatment was the best with the highest macro-aggregate content (R0.25), lowest rate of structure break-up, lowest unstable aggregate index (ELT), highest water-stable aggregate mean weight diameter (MWD) and lowest fractal dimension (D) of mechanical-stable and water-stable aggregates. 3) In wheat growing period, average soil water storage in the 0-200 cm soil layer and yield of wheat under NT/ST treatment were respectively 17.7 mm and 9.5% higher than CT/CT treatment. It was concluded that rotational tillage was conducive for improving

  2. Fungicide seed treatment and host resistance for the management of wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum

    Shree R Pariyar


    Full Text Available Seed treatment of wheat with the fungicide thiabendazole on the development of crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum was evaluated on six wheat genotypes with different genetic sources of resistance under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. Seed of three susceptible (S cultivars, Seri 82 (Spring bread wheat, Kiziltan 91 (Winter durum Wheat, and Demir 2000 (Winter bread wheat and three moderately resistant (MR wheat lines, 2-49 (Spring bread wheat, Altay 2000 (Winter bread wheat, and Burbot-6 (Winter bread wheat were treated with thiabendazole at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 g ai per 100 kg seeds. Thiabendazole seed treatment caused a significant (P< 0.05 reduction in severity of crown rot on 4 out of the 6 wheat genotypes. The highest crown score reduction was recorded on S genotypes Seri 82 and Demir 2000. Thiabendazole at 100 g ai per 100 kg seed gave the highest CS reduction on both the S and MR wheat genotypes. Seed coating with thiabendazole did not show any effect on plant height, plant weight, root length and root weight. No phytotoxicity symptoms were observed at any concentration of the fungicide.

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  4. 半干旱黄土高原地区春小麦地膜覆盖研究概述%Review of clear plastic film mulch on spring wheat in semi-arid loess plateau

    刘小兰; 李世清; 王俊; 宋秋华


    The results of plastic film mulching experiments for spring wheatcarried out in the semi-arid areas on the loess plateau show that plastic film mulching can play a very important role in the aspect of increasing water and nutrient utilization efficiency and in increase of grain yield.Because plastic film mulching can activate soil nutrient by means of improving soil ecological and environmental conditions in the plowed layer,namely,improving water and heat status.But in recent years through production practice and scientific experiments,people increasingly find that irrational and long-term plastic film mulching during the whole growth period also cause serious problems:for example,during the early stage and medium stage of crop growth,the crops mulched by plastic film usually grow better than those no mulching plastic film,so during the whole growth stage of former situation more soil water will lose through transpiration,the evapotranspiration (evaporation+transpiration) loss of soil water will be much more serious than that no plastic film mulching,during the late growth period of crops if precipitation is little or no additional water is supplemented to irrigation,this will lead to serious water stress phenomena,and will significantly inhibit small spike differentiation,this finally will lead to decrease of harvest index and crop yields;in the meantime,the yield increase effect under plastic film mulching must be paid heavy cost such as exhaust soil fertility especially organic matter to some extent.Therefore,incorrect plastic film mulching method (for instance mulching plastic film during the whole growth period ) sometimes will not only has no significant yield increase effect,but also easily cause the loss of soil nutrient in particular the loss and accumulation of nitrate in the soil,decreasing the fertilizer utilization efficiency,deterioration of soil ecological condition,decline of soil fertility,and high crop yield will also not maintain sustainable

  5. Effect of the Relationship between Agricultural Extension Agents and Wheat Farmers in Medina Region, Saudi Arabia, on the Adoption of Appropriate Wheat Production Practices. A Summary Report of Research. Department Information Bulletin 91-3.

    Bakri, Mohammad Saleh

    The relationship between agricultural extension agents and wheat farmers in the Medina region, Saudi Arabia, was analyzed, based on each group's perception of the relationship. Participants were 73 randomly selected wheat farmers and 31 of 34 agricultural extension agents working in the region during spring 1990. Farmers were interviewed, and…

  6. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  7. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.


    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  8. Pro Spring Batch

    Minella, Michael T


    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  9. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J


    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage.

  10. Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Sharma-Poudyal, D; Chen, X M


    Climatic variation in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) affects epidemics of wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Previous models only estimated disease severity at the flowering stage, which may not predict the actual yield loss. To identify weather factors correlated to stripe rust epidemics and develop models for predicting potential yield loss, correlation and regression analyses were conducted using weather parameters and historical yield loss data from 1993 to 2007 for winter wheat and 1995 to 2007 for spring wheat. Among 1,376 weather variables, 54 were correlated to yield loss of winter wheat and 18 to yield loss of spring wheat. Among the seasons, winter temperature variables were more highly correlated to wheat yield loss than the other seasons. The sum of daily temperatures and accumulated negative degree days of February were more highly correlated to winter wheat yield loss than the other monthly winter variables. In addition, the number of winter rainfall days was found correlated with yield loss. Six yield loss models were selected for each of winter and spring wheats based on their better correlation coefficients, time of weather data availability during the crop season, and better performance in validation tests. Compared with previous models, the new system of using a series of the selected models has advantages that should make it more suitable for forecasting and managing stripe rust in the major wheat growing areas in the U.S. PNW, where the weather conditions have become more favorable to stripe rust.

  11. 麦长管蚜(Sitobion avenae F.)危害对春小麦面粉品质性状及面团流变学特性的影响%Responses of Flour Quality and Dough Rheological Properties to Sitobion avenue F. Inoculated in Spring Wheat

    师桂英; 尚勋武; 王化俊; 马小乐; 胡秉芬; 李昌盛


    Sitobion avenae F., one of the important aphid species infesting spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in western China, causes not only yield loss but also quality degradation of wheat flour. In the authors' earlier studies, two wheat lines with high resistance to 5. Avenae, 04-9284 and C272 were screened out from 521 accessions. Another five highly susceptible cultivars (lines) were also identified, including a specific cultivar "Guanchun 20" for Lanzhou hand-stretched noodles. The aims of the present study were to compare quality differences of resistant and susceptible wheat lines inoculated with aphids, and to assess the contributions of grain hardness and gliadin to aphid resistance. The lines 04-9284 and C272 (soft grain) were used as resistant lines, and four cultivars (lines), Ganchun 20 (hard grain) as well as Ganchuan 18, C162, and C167 (soft grain with specific ω gliadin in grains after aphid infecting) were susceptible to S. Avenae. After artificial inoculation with S. Avenae on 5 June, the density of aphid population was measured from 15 June to 20 July at an interval of 6-7 d. Flour quality and dough rheological properties were determined after grain maturing. The mean density of aphid population at peak occurrence was 4.3-fold higher in susceptible lines than in resistant lines. Aphid infecting resulted in no significant change in flour granule (t = 0.4312, P = 0.68), but induced significant increase in ash content (t = 2.9207, P = 0.03) and reductions in protein content (t = 2.5444, P = 0.05), SDS sedimentation value (t = 4.5736, P = 0.01), strength (t = 4.2517, P = 0.01), swelling (t = 6.6691, P = 0.00), extensibility (t = 3.1826, P = 0.02), tenacity (t = 3.6653, P = 0.01), and index of elastic (t = 2.8750, P = 0.03). In susceptible lines Ganchun 18, C162, and C167, aphid infecting significantly reduced quality parameters mentioned above excluding flour gradual and ash content. Ganchun 20 showed less influence than the other three susceptible lines

  12. Response of Growth and Water Use Efficiency of Spring Wheat to Whole Season CO2 Enrichment and Drought%CO2浓度升高和干旱对春小麦生长和水分利用的生态效应

    吴冬秀; 王根轩; 白永飞; 廖建雄; 任红旭


    Whole-growing season pot experiments were conducted to examine the response of growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Cv. Gaoyuan 602) to CO2 enrichment. Wheat plants were grown in open_top chambers (OTCs) subject to two concentrations of CO2 ([CO2])(350 and 700 μL/L, hereafter "ambient" and "elevated" respectively) and three soil water levels (80%, 60% and 40% field water capacity (FWC), hereafter "high soil moisture", "medium soil moisture" and "low soil moisture" respectively). Elevated CO2 greatly increased leaf net photosynthesis (Pn) at all three soil water levels. The Pn of plants growing under elevated [CO2] was 22% lower than that of plants growing at ambient [CO2] when measured with the same [CO2] (700 μL/L). Plant growth was enhanced by elevated [CO2] throughout the growing season, with an increase of 14.8% in shoot dry weight at harvest under high soil moisture, and leaf area was increased by about 20% at all three soil water levels. Elevated [CO2] in combination with high soil moisture increased the ratio of plant shoot dry weight to height by 15.7%, while this ratio was decreased by over 50% when plants were subject to drought. Elevated [CO2] also increased the water use efficiency of wheat, mainly due to decreases in transpiration and cumulative consumption of water, and an increase in shoot dry weight, with the biggest value of 30% occurring at high soil water moisture level. Compared to high soil moisture, drought decreased shoot dry weight by 72% under ambient [CO2], and by 76% under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, drought also reduced WUE by 19% under ambient [CO2], and 23% under elevated [CO2]. Our results indicate that: (1) elevated [CO2] can increase the photosynthetic rates, growth and WUE of wheat plants; (2) long_term exposure to high [CO2] may result in lower photosynthetic capacity; (3) high [CO2] stimulates plants lateral growth more than vertical growth; (4) the effects of CO2 enrichment on plants

  13. 4种除草剂防除保护性耕作麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性%Efficacy and Selectivity of Four Herbicides on Poa annua L. in Spring Wheat



    The efficacy of formulated pyroxsulam 7.5%WG,mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6%WG,fenoxaprop 6.9%EW,and clodinafop-propargyl 15%WP to control Poa annua and their selectivity to wheat were studied under field con-ditions.Pyroxsulam 7.5%WG (187.5 g hm2 ) and mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron 3.6% WG (450 g hm2 ) controlled 84%and 85% P.annua,respectively,based on fresh weight determinations.Both herbicide treatments were highly se-lective to spring wheat cv.Tongmai 1 although mesosulfuron plus idosulfuron caused slight crop phytotoxicity.Fenoxaprop and clodinafop-propargyl did not provide adequate control of the grass weed.Given the efficacy,selectivity and long-term control provided by pyroxsulam 7.5%WG at 187.5 g hm2 ,its use can be recommended in the field.%通过田间试验,比较4种除草剂药后不同时期对保护性耕作麦田早熟禾的防效及其增产效果,进而比较7.5%啶磺草胺WG、3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG、15%炔草酸WP、6.9%精唑禾草灵EW 4种除草剂防除早熟禾效果和对小麦的安全性。采用田间药效试验方法,对麦田早熟禾采用喷雾处理,进行4种除草剂防除麦田早熟禾效果及其对作物的安全性试验。7.5%啶磺草胺WG 187.50 g/hm2和3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG 450.00 g/hm2对早熟禾鲜质量防效分别为83.58%、84.87%。3.6%甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐WG对春小麦通麦1号品种有一定的药害,药害程度:甲基二磺隆·甲基碘磺隆钠盐>啶磺草胺。6.9%精唑禾草灵EW、15%炔草酸WP对早熟禾达未到防治要求。187.50 g/hm27.5%啶磺草胺WG,安全性好、防效高、持续期长,可进一步示范推广使用。

  14. Adaptability and Genotype x Environment Interaction of Spring Wheat Cultivars in Chile using Regression Analysis, AMMI, and SRAG Adaptabilidad e Interacción Genotipo x Ambiente en Trigos de Primavera utilizando Análisis de Regresión, AMMI y SREG

    Dalma Castillo


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genetic improvement objectives include obtaining cultivars capable of expressing their maximum potential yield and quality in diverse environments. This make necessary to know and define the environment in which a variety can express its maximum potential yield and quality. The objective of this study was to assess which method is the most efficient to study cultivars response in multiple environments. For this, we analyze the adaptability, stability, and genotype x environment (GxE interaction effect, grain yield, sedimentation, and wet gluten content of 13 spring wheat cultivars sown in six environments in the central-south and southern zones of Chile during two seasons. The data were analyzed by regression analysis, additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI, and the sites regression (SREG model. By this was thus established that SREG analysis is the most efficient for this type of study since, in addition to analyzing stability, adaptability, and effect (GxE, it allows identifying the best cultivar. In this case, 'Pandora-INIA' stands out by exhibiting the best yield (7.38 t ha-1, high sedimentation (36.95 cm³, and wet gluten (41.54% indices in all the environments, and this positions it as a variety having both high yield and quality.Dentro de los objetivos del mejoramiento genético del trigo (Triticum aestivum L. figura la obtención de variedades capaces de expresar su máximo potencial de rendimiento y calidad en diversos ambientes. Por lo cual es necesario conocer y definir el ambiente en que una variedad puede expresar al máximo su potencial de rendimiento y de calidad. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar una metodología eficiente para analizar la respuesta de diversos cultivares de trigo a distintos ambientes. Para ello se analizó la adaptabilidad, estabilidad y la interacción Genotipo x Ambiente (GxE de 13 variedades de trigo de primavera, sembradas, en seis ambientes de la

  15. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian


    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  16. Effect of Differen t Mulching Measures on Spring WheatG rowth and Yield in Oasis Region%不同覆盖措施对荒漠绿洲区春小麦生长及产量的影响



    通过野外大田试验,研究了不同覆盖措施对春小麦生长及产量的影响。结果显示:覆盖处理春小麦的株高、叶面积指数、地上生物量均大于无覆盖对照( CK)的,而秸秆覆盖处理的地下生物量低于CK的;与CK相比,地膜覆盖处理春小麦的籽粒产量增加了2.2%~10.9%,石子覆盖处理增加了0.86%~3.50%,秸秆覆盖处理增加了-6.9%~-9.4%;在各覆盖处理间春小麦的千粒重、穗数和每穗小穗个数均无显著性差异。因此,地膜覆盖处理最有利于提高春小麦的籽粒产量。%The effect of spring wheat growth and yield were studied by the different mulching treatments at field trails.The re-sults were as follows:the plant height, leaf area index and the aboveground biomass of mulching treatments were larger than the un-mulching treatments.But the underground biomass of mulching treatments was smaller than the un -mulching treatments.Com-pared with the CK treatment, the grain yield of plastic film mulching treatment was increased by 2.2%~10.9%.And the grain yield of stone mulching treatment was increased by 0.86% ~0.35%.The grain yield of straw mulching treatment was increased by-6.9%~-9.4%.There were no significant differences of 1000-seed weight , the number of spikes and the number of spikelets per spike among the mulching treatments.Plastic film mulching treatment compared with other treatments was better to improve crop yields, which was the best planting method in the oasis area.

  17. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao


    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  18. Spring integration essentials

    Pandey, Chandan


    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  19. Pro Spring Integration

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh


    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  20. The International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment for Modeling Wheat Response to Heat: Field Experiments and AgMIP-Wheat Multi-Model Simulations

    Martre, Pierre; Reynolds, Matthew P.; Asseng, Senthold; Ewert, Frank; Alderman, Phillip D.; Cammarano, Davide; Maiorano, Andrea; Ruane, Alexander C.; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Anothai, Jakarat; hide


    The data set contains a portion of the International Heat Stress Genotype Experiment (IHSGE) data used in the AgMIP-Wheat project to analyze the uncertainty of 30 wheat crop models and quantify the impact of heat on global wheat yield productivity. It includes two spring wheat cultivars grown during two consecutive winter cropping cycles at hot, irrigated, and low latitude sites in Mexico (Ciudad Obregon and Tlaltizapan), Egypt (Aswan), India (Dharwar), the Sudan (Wad Medani), and Bangladesh (Dinajpur). Experiments in Mexico included normal (November-December) and late (January-March) sowing dates. Data include local daily weather data, soil characteristics and initial soil conditions, crop measurements (anthesis and maturity dates, anthesis and final total above ground biomass, final grain yields and yields components), and cultivar information. Simulations include both daily in-season and end-of-season results from 30 wheat models.

  1. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  2. Estimation of adaptive of bread spring wheat varieties

    В. А. Власенко


    Full Text Available For estimation of adaptive of varieties it is offered to use the aggregate of estimations of stability and plasticity in the integrated index - rating of adaptive of varieties. The high rating of adaptive on the parameters of productivity have the varieties Elegia myronivska, Kolektyvna 3, Etud and Suita.


    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等


    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  4. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    Tate, Bruce A


    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  5. Mockito for Spring

    Acharya, Sujoy


    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  6. Masters of the springs

    Laursen, Steffen


    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  7. Effects of diurnal temperature range and drought on wheat yield in Spain

    Hernandez-Barrera, S.; Rodriguez-Puebla, C.; Challinor, A. J.


    This study aims to provide new insight on the wheat yield historical response to climate processes throughout Spain by using statistical methods. Our data includes observed wheat yield, pseudo-observations E-OBS for the period 1979 to 2014, and outputs of general circulation models in phase 5 of the Coupled Models Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) for the period 1901 to 2099. In investigating the relationship between climate and wheat variability, we have applied the approach known as the partial least-square regression, which captures the relevant climate drivers accounting for variations in wheat yield. We found that drought occurring in autumn and spring and the diurnal range of temperature experienced during the winter are major processes to characterize the wheat yield variability in Spain. These observable climate processes are used for an empirical model that is utilized in assessing the wheat yield trends in Spain under different climate conditions. To isolate the trend within the wheat time series, we implemented the adaptive approach known as Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. Wheat yields in the twenty-first century are experiencing a downward trend that we claim is a consequence of widespread drought over the Iberian Peninsula and an increase in the diurnal range of temperature. These results are important to inform about the wheat vulnerability in this region to coming changes and to develop adaptation strategies.

  8. The Spring Festival



    Everybody likes to have the Spring Festival, so do I.Because during the Spring Festival there are many good things to eat, to drink and to play with. During the last Spring Festival I had a very good time. On the eve of the festival, our family had a big dinner. My uncle, aunt and cousin came back from Canada to celebrate(庆祝) my grandma's eightieth birthday. They also brought many beautiful gifts to me. My cousin and I watched TV and played games the whole night, while the grown-ups had a long talk. I didn't know when I fell asleep.

  9. Relationships among deoxynivalenol, ergosterol and Fusarium exoantigens in Canadian hard and soft wheat.

    Abramson, D; Gan, Z; Clear, R M; Gilbert, J; Marquardt, R R


    Soluble extracellular components (exoantigens) from cultures of Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides were used to produce antisera from chickens for an indirect enzyme immunoassay. This immunoassay was used to estimate Fusarium exoantigen levels in 40 samples of fusarium head blight-infected hard red spring wheat from Manitoba, and in 50 samples of infected soft white winter wheat from Ontario. These wheat samples were also assayed for deoxynivalenol (DON), the predominant Fusarium mycotoxin, and for ergosterol, a metabolite reflecting fungal biomass. Using F. sporotrichioides antisera, the linear correlations between exoantigen level and DON content for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.80 and 0.76, respectively. With the same antisera, linear correlations between exoantigen level and total ergosterol concentration for the hard and soft wheats had coefficients of 0.66 and 0.81, respectively.

  10. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H


    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat.

  11. Expression of a Thatcher wheat adult plant stem rust resistance QTL on chromosome arm 2BL is enhanced by Lr34

    An F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) spring wheat population derived from RL6071, a stem rust susceptible line and RL6058, a backcross line of Thatcher wheat with Lr34 that is highly resistant to stem rust, was evaluated for adult plant stem rust resistance in North Dakota in 1999, and in Kenya in 20...

  12. Intercropping of wheat and pea as influenced by nitrogen fertilization

    Ghaley, B.B.; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Henning Høgh;


    The effect of sole and intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on crop yield, fertilizer and soil nitrogen (N) use was tested on a sandy loam soil at three levels of urea fertilizer N (0, 4 and 8 g N m−2) applied at sowing. The 15N enrichment...... and natural abundance techniques were used to determine N accumulation in the crops from the soil, fertilizer and symbiotic N2 fixation. Intercrops of pea and wheat showed maximum productivity without the supply of N fertilizer. Intercropping increased total dry matter (DM) and N yield, grain DM and N yield......, grain N concentration, the proportion of N derived from symbiotic N2 fixation, and soil N accumulation. With increasing fertilizer N supply, intercropped and sole cropped wheat responded with increased yield, grain N yield and soil N accumulation, whereas the opposite was the case for pea. Fertilizer N...

  13. Heat stress-responsive transcriptome analysis in heat susceptible and tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. by using Wheat Genome Array

    Peng Huiru


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat is a major crop in the world, and the high temperature stress can reduce the yield of wheat by as much as 15%. The molecular changes in response to heat stress are poorly understood. Using GeneChip® Wheat Genome Array, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression profiles in the leaves of two wheat genotypes, namely, heat susceptible 'Chinese Spring' (CS and heat tolerant 'TAM107' (TAM. Results A total of 6560 (~10.7% probe sets displayed 2-fold or more changes in expression in at least one heat treatment (false discovery rate, FDR, α = 0.001. Except for heat shock protein (HSP and heat shock factor (HSF genes, these putative heat responsive genes encode transcription factors and proteins involved in phytohormone biosynthesis/signaling, calcium and sugar signal pathways, RNA metabolism, ribosomal proteins, primary and secondary metabolisms, as well as proteins related to other stresses. A total of 313 probe sets were differentially expressed between the two genotypes, which could be responsible for the difference in heat tolerance of the two genotypes. Moreover, 1314 were differentially expressed between the heat treatments with and without pre-acclimation, and 4533 were differentially expressed between short and prolonged heat treatments. Conclusion The differences in heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes may be associated with multiple processes and mechanisms involving HSPs, transcription factors, and other stress related genes. Heat acclimation has little effects on gene expression under prolonged treatments but affects gene expression in wheat under short-term heat stress. The heat stress responsive genes identified in this study will facilitate our understanding of molecular basis for heat tolerance in different wheat genotypes and future improvement of heat tolerance in wheat and other cereals.

  14. Fish Springs pond snail

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  15. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  16. Learning Spring application development

    Soni, Ravi Kant


    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  17. Harbingers of Spring

    Serrao, John


    Emphasizing the spring migration of frogs, toads, and salamanders to their watery breeding sites, this article presents information on numerous amphibians and suggests both indoor and outdoor educational activities appropriate for elementary and/or early secondary instruction. (JC)

  18. 1980-2011年阿勒泰市光热资源变化对春小麦发育期的影响%Influence of Light and Heat Resources Change on Development Stage of Spring Wheat in Altay During 1980-2011

    李海花; 候彦芹; 李新建; 刘大锋


    Based on the meteorological observation data in Altay station during 1981-2011, it was analyzed that the change of light and heat resources for spring wheat in its full growth period, and correlation study of each of growth date and ≥0 ℃ effective accumulated temperature solar radiation hours. The results showed that the full growth period was a significant decreasing trend (P<0.01), and the test of significance showed that the effect is remarkable in tillering and milky maturity period. Results also suggested that effective accumulated temperature (≥0 ℃)during full growth period had shown obviously an linear decreasing tendency, and significant correlation between effective accumulated temperature (≥0 ℃)in jointing and mature period and year (P<0.01);there was a decreasing trend of solar radiation hours in full growth period, and it showed that correlation between year and solar radiation hours in emergence, jointing and milky maturity period. Finally, there was a positive correlation between solar radiation hours and date in milky maturity period(P<0.05), similar to ≥0 ℃ effective accumulated temperature in tillering and milky maturity (P<0.01).These differences could be mainly attributed to the different yearly climate conditions, secondly to the dissimilar non -climatic factors such as cultivate,management (irrigation, fertilization,disease and pest controlling)etc. The growth and yields in different year were formed by the joint influence both climatic and non-climatic factors.%利用阿勒泰基准站1980—2011年观测资料,进行了阿勒泰市春小麦发育期和光热资源变化,及各发育期日期与≥0℃积温、日照时数的相关性研究。结果表明:全发育期天数的变化呈减少趋势,分蘖、乳熟期、全发育期天数均通过了(P<0.01)显著性检验;全发育期≥0℃积温和日照时数呈线性减少趋势,拔节、乳熟、成熟期≥0℃积温与年份

  19. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  20. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J


    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  1. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  2. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  3. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  4. Integration of weed management and tillage practices in spring barley production

    Spring barley can be used to diversify and intensify winter wheat-based production systems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, but the response of barley to conservation tillage systems, which are needed to reduce the risk of soil erosion, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to descri...

  5. Impact Load of Rain Induced Wind on Rammed Earth Wall of Earth Building%土楼夯土墙的风驱雨撞击荷载影响分析

    张丽; 彭兴黔


    运用流体力学的相关知识,分析雨滴降落的运动方程,在考虑风速的基础上推算出风驱雨的雨滴撞击荷载,并分析各因素对撞击荷载的影响.研究结果表明:雨滴降落的竖直极限速度与雨滴的直径及牵引阻力系数有关,并随着雨滴直径的增大而增大;雨滴的水平极限速度等于风速.理论分析表明:雨滴的撞击荷载及其法向分荷载、切向分荷载均随着风速和雨滴直径的增大而增大.%Using hydromechanics, considering the effect of wind speed, the equation of motion of raindrops was presented to calculate the impact load of rain induced wind, the influence of different factors on the impact load was analyzed. Research results show that the vertical limit speed of the raindrops is related to the diameter of the raindrops and drawing resistance coefficient, and the speed increases with the increase of the diameter of the raindrops; the horizontal speed limit of raindrops is equal to the wind speed. Through a series of theory analysis, it is concluded that raindrop impact load, its normal and tangential component loads increase with the increase of wind speed and the diameter of the raindrops.

  6. Wheat Production and Economics

    Elgilany Ahmed


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  7. JINAN: the City of Springs


    @@ Attractions Jinan is not a hot tourist destination in China, but it has Something special to offer, such as the 72 springs scattered throughout the city. Jinan has an alias of the Spring City (Quan Cheng)because of ouver 700 natural springs run through the city. Among them,the Baotu Spring is the most famous.

  8. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  9. Leaf Rust of Wheat: Pathogen Biology, Variation and Host Resistance

    James Kolmer


    Full Text Available Rusts are important pathogens of angiosperms and gymnosperms including cereal crops and forest trees. With respect to cereals, rust fungi are among the most important pathogens. Cereal rusts are heteroecious and macrocyclic requiring two taxonomically unrelated hosts to complete a five spore stage life cycle. Cereal rust fungi are highly variable for virulence and molecular polymorphism. Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina is the most common rust of wheat on a worldwide basis. Many different races of P. triticina that vary for virulence to leaf rust resistance genes in wheat differential lines are found annually in the US. Molecular markers have been used to characterize rust populations in the US and worldwide. Highly virulent races of P. triticina are selected by leaf rust resistance genes in the soft red winter wheat, hard red winter wheat and hard red spring wheat cultivars that are grown in different regions of the US. Cultivars that only have race-specific leaf rust resistance genes that are effective in seedling plants lose their effective resistance and become susceptible within a few years of release. Cultivars with combinations of race non-specific resistance genes have remained resistant over a period of years even though races of the leaf rust population have changed constantly.

  10. Super Dwarf Wheat for Growth in Confined Spaces

    Bugbee, Bruce


    USU-Perigee is a dwarf red spring wheat that is a hybrid of a high-yield early tall wheat (USU-Apogee) and a low-yield, extremely short wheat that has poor agronomic characteristics. USU-Perigee was selected for its extremely short height (.0.3 m) and high yield . characteristics that make it suitable for growth in confined spaces in controlled environments. Other desirable characteristics include rapid development and resistance to a leaf-tip necrosis, associated with calcium deficiency, that occurs in other wheat cultivars under rapid-growth conditions (particularly, continuous light). Heads emerge after only 21 days of growth in continuous light at a constant temperature of 25 C. In tests, USU-Perigee was found to outyield other full dwarf (defined as wheat cultivars: The yield advantage at a constant temperature of 23 C was found to be about 30 percent. Originally intended as a candidate food crop to be grown aboard spacecraft on long missions, this cultivar could also be grown in terrestrial growth chambers and could be useful for plant-physiology and -pathology studies.

  11. Vernalization and Photoperiod Genes in Iranian Wheat Cultivars

    Seyyed Hamid Reza Ramazani


    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. can avoid the deleterious effects of low temperatures by using environmental adaptation strategies such as vernalization requirement and photoperiod reaction. Awareness of the genetic factors influencing growth and flowering patterns is necessary for introducing new varieties to specific environments. We performed morphological and genetic studies of 104 lines and cultivars of Iranian wheat genotypes, including four durum genotypes, obtained from national wheat breeding programmes. We used sequence-tagged site (STS-PCR with specific primers to identify alleles affecting the sensitivity to vernalization and photoperiod response at the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, Vrn-D1, Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1, and Ppd-D1 loci. Some morphological traits such as percentage germination, growth habit, final leaf number (FLN, ear length, and days to ear emergence were also measured. Results showed that FLN and days to ear emergence are the best morphological traits to study wheat flowering time. Allelic variation showed that Vrn-D1 is more frequent than other genes in Iranian wheat genotypes, and so most Iranian genotypes are vernalization-insensitive. In addition, most genotypes were photoperiod-insensitive because of the semi-dominant mutation allele, Ppd-D1a. Based on allelic variation and morphological traits, we identified five classes of Iranian genotypes. The allelic variation study and morphology evaluation of this germplasm showed that the majority of Iranian cultivars and breeding lines are spring varieties and insensitive to day length.

  12. Walking with springs

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.


    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  13. Modeling a Rain-Induced Mixed Layer


    te -)-A-- e e -2)- . (7) ’&Z AZ Az D Using the exponential relations with trigonometry , equation (7) becomes, Ok n) 3 (I- cos2ikAz)+ D (1- cos ikAz...completely unknown because there are no prior studies which predict what portion of total energy may go into subsurface mixing. The biggest obstacle

  14. Effects of corn oil and wheat brans on bile acid metabolism in rats.

    Gallaher, D D; Franz, P M


    High concentrations of colonic bile acids may promote tumor formation. Some studies have found that high levels of dietary fat increase fecal bile acid excretion, whereas others report no effect. Wheat bran appears to reduce fecal bile acid concentration. This study was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary fat levels and types of wheat bran on bile acid metabolism. Rats were fed diets containing either no fiber, 2% cholestyramine (CHO) or brans of hard red spring, soft white winter or durum wheat--at both a 5 or 20% fat level. Animals were fed for 7 wk, and feces were collected in the last week. Wheat bran (all types) significantly increased fecal mass approximately fourfold, and CHO significantly increased fecal mass twofold compared to the fiber-free diet. Increasing the fat level did not increase fecal bile acid excretion, nor did the addition of wheat bran. Addition of CHO, however, more than doubled it. CHO increased fecal bile acid concentration, all wheat brans decreased it and fat level had no effect. Bile acid pool size was increased slightly by fat level and cholestyramine feeding but not by wheat brans. These results indicate that fat level slightly alters bile acid metabolism but that wheat brans do not.

  15. Molecular characterization of vernalization loci VRN1 in wild and cultivated wheats

    Golovnina Kseniya A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability of the VRN1 promoter region of the unique collection of spring polyploid and wild diploid wheat species together with diploid goatgrasses (donor of B and D genomes of polyploid wheats were investigated. Accessions of wild diploid (T. boeoticum, T. urartu and tetraploid (T. araraticum, T. timopheevii species were studied for the first time. Results Sequence analysis indicated great variability in the region from -62 to -221 nucleotide positions of the VRN1 promoter region. Different indels were found within this region in spring wheats. It was shown that VRN1 promoter region of B and G genome can also contain damages such as the insertion of the transposable element. Some transcription factor recognition sites including hybrid C/G-box for TaFDL2 protein known as the VRN1 gene upregulator were predicted inside the variable region. It was shown that deletions leading to promoter damage occurred in diploid and polyploid species independently. DNA transposon insertions first occurred in polyploid species. At the same time, the duplication of the promoter region was observed in A genomes of polyploid species. Conclusions We can conclude that supposed molecular mechanism of the VRN1 gene activating in cultivated diploid wheat species T. monococcum is common also for wild T. boeoticum and was inherited by T. monococcum. The spring polyploids are not related in their origin to spring diploids. The spring T. urartu and goatgrass accessions have another mechanism of flowering activation that is not connected with indels in VRN1 promoter region. All obtained data may be useful for detailed insight into origin of spring wheat forms in evolution and domestication process.

  16. Spring of women?

    Mónica Castillo


    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  17. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr


    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  18. Pro Spring security

    Scarioni, Carlo


    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  19. What's Behind Spring Festival?


    @@ Similar to what the Christmas Day means for the westerners,the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people.This big event according to Chinese traditional lunar calendar relaxes and pleases the whole country as the happiest gathering time of the year.National-wide crusade for going back home,too-difficult-to-get train tickets,generous family-going-out shopping,Miaohui laundering,New Year Eve reunion dinner,visiting friends and relatives,watching annual TV gala……each piece of clue reminds us of the smell of Chinese Spring Festival.

  20. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei


    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  1. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J


    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.


    K. Mészáros


    Full Text Available Transformation of cereals is one of the emerging areas for plant genomic and biotechnology research. Wheat was among the last major crops to be transformed by particle bombardment about 10 years ago. However, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has several advantages over bombardment, including a reduction in copy number, fewer rearrangements and preferential integration into transcriptionally active chromosome regions. As a first step, we started to adapt an immature embryo-based transformation method for the model variety ‘Cadenza’. The regeneration of this variety was low and especially the cost of generating donor plants was high. Therefore, we decided (i to test regeneration capacity of winter and spring wheats using four different explants, (ii to determine the optimal genotype-regeneration system combinations, and (iii to work out the details of mature embryo transformation with Agrobacterium. The experiment was carried out with 16 cultivated winter wheat and 2 model spring wheat varieties. Four different explants: anther, immature embryo, mature embryo and dry seed were tested for callus induction and plant regeneration. The regeneration capacity was the lowest in the case of anther culture and ranged from 20% (‘Mv Béres’ to 0.1% (‘Mv Magvas’ with four varieties exerting significantly higher regeneration than ‘Cadenza’. Plant regeneration from immature embryos ranged between 59% (‘Mv Regiment’ and 0.1% (‘Mv Toborzó’. Again, four varieties produced significantly more plants than the control ‘Cadenza’. We tested two systems for the plant regeneration from mature embryos. First, mature embryos were isolated from seeds, which resulted in an average of 17% plant regeneration (from 63% in ‘Fatima’ to zero in ‘Mv Palotás’. ‘Cadenza’ was one of the worse regenerating genotype (7%. The highest plant regeneration (average 54% was in the case of seed explants. There were no significant differences

  3. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Rawat Nidhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  4. Spring batch essentials

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara


    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  5. Energy Matters - Spring 2002



    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  6. Renaissance Administrator, Spring 1998.

    Dowdy, June P., Ed.


    This spring 1998 issue of Renaissance Administrator features the following articles: (1) "Servant Leadership and Higher Education--What is Leadership?" (Richard E. Hasselbach); (2) "Teaching Writing in the 90's--Carnivorous Printers and Dying Grandmothers" (Helen Ruggieri); (3) Assignment--Journal Writing" (Lynn Muscato); and (4) "A Business…

  7. Editors' Spring Picks

    Library Journal, 2011


    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  8. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Cianferoni A


    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a


    Chlorophenoxy herbicides are widely used in the U.S. and Western Europe for broadleaf weed control in grain farming and park maintenance. Most of the spring and durum wheat produced in the U.S. is grown in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota, with over 85% of the a...

  10. Multielemental Fingerprinting as a Tool for Authentication of Organic Wheat, Barley, Faba Bean, and Potato

    Laursen, Kristian Holst; Schjørring, Jan Kofod; Olesen, Jørgen E;


    The multielemental composition of organic and conventional winter wheat, spring barley, faba bean, and potato was analyzed with inductively coupled plasma−optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and −mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The crops were cultivated in two years at three geographically...

  11. [Properties of the initial stages of embryoidogenesis in vitro in wheat calli of various origin ].

    Sel'dimirova, O A; Kruglova, N N


    The formation of embryoids obtained in vitro both in the culture of anthers and in the culture of the germs of spring soft wheat was analyzed using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The features ofembryoid for- mation in the calli of both types are detected.

  12. Weed seed production, crop planting pattern, and mechanical weeding in wheat

    Mertens, S.K.; Jansen, J.


    Experiments were carried out to investigate weed seed production in widely spaced spring wheat crops that received aggressive mechanical weed control (hoeing and harrowing) compared with that in narrowly spaced crops receiving less aggressive mechanical control (harrowing only). Three species (wild

  13. Durum wheat modeling

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.


    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy...

  14. [Effects of irrigation time on the growth and water- and fertilizer use efficiencies of winter wheat].

    Dang, Jian-You; Pei, Xue-Xia; Wang, Jiao-Ai; Zhang, Jing; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Ding-Yi


    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of irrigation time before wintering (November 10th, November 25th, and December 10th) and in spring (March 5th, re-greening stage; and April 5th, jointing stage) on the growth, dry matter translocation, water use efficiency (WUE), and fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) of winter wheat after returning corn straw into soil. The irrigation time before wintering mainly affected the wheat population size before wintering and at jointing stage, whereas the irrigation time in spring mainly affected the spike number, grain yield, dry matter translocation, WUE, and FUE. The effects of irrigation time before wintering to the yield formation of winter wheat were closely related to the irrigation time in spring. When the irrigation time in spring was at re-greening stage, the earlier the irrigation time before wintering, the larger the spike number and the higher the grain yield; when the irrigation time in spring was at jointing stage, the delay of the irrigation time before wintering made the spike number and grain yield decreased after an initial increase, the kernel number per plant increased, while the 1000-kernel mass was less affected. The WUE, nutrition uptake, and FUE all decreased with the delay of the irrigation time before wintering, but increased with the delay of the irrigation time in spring. Therefore, under the conditions of returning corn straw into soil and sowing when the soil had enough moisture, to properly advance the irrigation time before wintering could make the soil more compacted, promote the tillering and increase the population size before winter, and in combining the increased irrigation at jointing stage, could control the invalid tillering in early spring, increase the spiking rate, obtain stable kernel mass, and thus, increase the WUE and FUE, realizing water-saving and high efficiency for winter wheat cultivation.

  15. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  16. 河西畦田春小麦不同生育期灌水对土壤水氮空间分布的影响%Effect of irrigation at different growth stages on soil water and nitrogen spatial distribution in Hexi spring wheat border field

    索岩松; 张富仓; 薛冯定; 吴立峰; 袁宇霞


    试验采用规格为30m×3m条田,分别沿畦长中心位置布设了5个测点(每个测点距畦首依次为3、9、15、21、27m)用于定点测定不同生育期春小麦0~100cm土层深度内灌前2d和灌后2d土壤含水量和硝态氮的含量,评价了土壤水氮空间分布的变异性、土壤水氮贮存效率和土壤水氮沿畦长空间分布均匀性.结果表明:不同生育期内不同处理间灌前2d和灌后2d土壤水分空间分布均为中等变异性,灌后2d的变差系数小于灌前2d的变差系数;土壤硝态氮空间分布状况除拔节期灌前2d灌水量90mm和灌水量60mm为强变异性外其余均为中等变异性;不同生育期灌水对不同处理间的土壤水贮存效率无显著影响,成熟期春小麦不灌水处理的土壤水贮存率明显低于灌水处理;不同生育期灌水对不同处理间土壤硝态氮贮存率有显著影响,其中成熟期不灌水处理能使土壤硝态氮的贮存率增加,灌水减少了根系层内土壤硝态氮的贮存率;不同生育期灌水对不同处理间土壤水分和土壤硝态氮含量沿畦长的空间分布均匀性均无显著影响,其中成熟期不灌水处理对土壤水分沿畦长的空间分布均匀性的影响显著小于成熟期灌水处理,而对土壤硝态氮的空间分布均匀性无显著影响.%The experimental study on spatial distribution and uniformity of soil water and nitrogen was conducted in Hexi spring wheat border field from April to July 2011. Border irrigation, 30 m ·3 m, was designed and five points a-long border length center used for fixed observation were arranged in parts respectively 3 m, 9 m, IS m, 21 m and 27 m from the head of border. The contents of soil water and nitrate 2 d before and after irrigation were investigated in 0 - 100 cm soil depths. Meanwhile the spatial variabilities, the storage efficiency in the crop root zone and the uniformity along basin length for soil water and nitrate were evaluated. The

  17. 春小麦留茬处理对复种油菜产量和水分利用效率的影响%Effect of spring wheat stubble treatments on grain yield and water use efficiency of multiple cropping rape

    尹辉; 张恩和; 王琦; 刘青林; 刘朝巍; 王田涛; 俞华林


    In order to reduce stubble burning, to control burning pollution and to increase usage of stubble remaining after harvest, a study was conducted to determine effects of different spring wheat stubble treatments on grain yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of multiple cropping rape from July to October in 2009.Three kind of treatments were standing stubble removed by burning, standing stubble with no-tillage, and tilled plots (conservational tillage),respectively.The results showed that the farmers can get a profit of 3 275 RMB/hm2 as planting rape in standing stubble treatment with no-tillage, compared with leaving land fallow.Grain yields with different treatments, standing stubble removed by burning, conservational tillage and standing stubble with no-tillage were 1 549, 1331 and 1 222 kg/hm2,respectively, while WUE were 5.73, 3.81 and 5.71 kg/hm2/mm, and profits were 4 485, 2 929 and 3 275 RMB/hm2,respectively.The treatment of rape planting in standing stubble removed by burning has the highest grain yield, WUE and profit among all treatments, and farmers can gain the maximum benefit, but the treatment was not good for environmental protection.Although the treatment of conservational tillage had a higher grain yield than the treatment of standing stubble with no-tillage, but it had a lower WUE and profit.The treatment of standing stubble with no-tillage could get a relatively high WUE and profit, and had benefits for environmental protection and for agricultural farming in arid and semiarid areas, so it is worth trial on a wider scale.Based on research results, the proper technique and optional planting parameters were proposed for mechanized multiple cropping rape on standing stubble field with no-tillage in oasis irrigation area of Shiyanghe River Basin, Northwestern China.%为了减少麦茬焚烧、控制麦茬焚烧污染及提高留茬的利用效率,2009年7-10月在石羊河绿洲灌区进行不同留茬处理(焚烧、翻耕和立茬免耕)对麦茬

  18. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh


    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  19. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  20. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  1. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  2. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V


    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P bread loaf volume. Fourteen sensory attributes were generated by the descriptive analysis panel. No differences were observed for flavor, aroma, or color attributes (P > 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P bread.

  3. Warm Springs pupfish recovery plan

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document gives a history of pupfish and focuses on the warm springs pupfish. The warm springs pupfish is endangered, and this is a plan to help recover the...

  4. A new class of wheat gliadin genes and proteins.

    Olin D Anderson

    Full Text Available The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1.

  5. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Cianferoni, Antonella


    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  6. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Olalla López-López


    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  7. Magnetic Spring Device

    Hassam, A. B.; Rodgers, J. C.


    A cylindrical system is proposed that will store magnetic energy in a localized azimuthal field that can then be quickly released on Alfvenic timescales, accompanied by the formation of a flowing Z-pinch plasma. The magnetized plasma is MHD in character and will have unilateral axial momentum with Alfvenic speeds. Conventional plasma gun injectors (Marshall type) have a limited parameter space of operation. The "magnetic spring" momentum injector differs from Marshall guns in that it has an a...

  8. Antioxidant properties of wheat as affected by pearling.

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika; Dexter, Jim; Shahidi, Fereidoon


    The effects of pearling on the content of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of two Canadian wheat classes, namely, Canada Western Amber Durum; Triticum turgidum L. var. durum; CWAD) and Canada Western Red Spring; Triticum aestivum L.; CWRS) were examined. The antioxidant activity of wheat phenolics was evaluated using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), inhibition of photochemiluminescence (PCL), Rancimat method, inhibition of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and DNA. The phenolic composition of wheat extracts was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant capacity of both pearled grains and byproducts significantly decreased as the degree of pearling increased. Among grains, the unprocessed whole grains demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacity. The byproducts always demonstrated higher antioxidant capacity compared to the pearled grains, regardless of the wheat class. The resultant byproducts from 10-20% pearling possessed the highest antioxidant capacity. Processing of cereals may thus exert a significant effect on their antioxidant activity. The concentration of grain antioxidants is drastically reduced during the refining process. As phenolic compounds are concentrated in the outermost layers, the bran fractions resulting from pearling may be used as a natural source of antioxidants and as value-added products in the preparation of functional food ingredients or for enrichment of certain products.

  9. Heat tolerance in wheat

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... II (PSII), which is a fundamental process in photosynthesis. The first study was conducted to identify cultivars differing in Fv/Fm as a measure of heat tolerance during reproductive phase. The proportion of the total variation in cultivar Fv/Fm that was due to the genotypic difference was termed...... among cultivars due to heat stress as the GD of most of them remained similar in control and stress. The second study investigated if it was possible to use detached leaves to screen for heat tolerance instead of intact plants. The previously selected 41 cultivars, known to differ in v/Fm, were used...

  10. Deoxynivalenol and other selected Fusarium toxins in Swedish wheat--occurrence and correlation to specific Fusarium species.

    Lindblad, Mats; Gidlund, Ann; Sulyok, Michael; Börjesson, Thomas; Krska, Rudolf; Olsen, Monica; Fredlund, Elisabeth


    Wheat is often infected by Fusarium species producing mycotoxins, which may pose health risks to humans and animals. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most important Fusarium toxin in Swedish wheat and has previously been shown to be produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum. However, less is known about the co-occurrence of DON and F. graminearum with other toxins and Fusarium species in Sweden. This study examined the distribution of the most important toxigenic Fusarium species and their toxins in winter wheat (2009 and 2011) and spring wheat (2010 and 2011). DNA from seven species was quantified with qPCR and the toxin levels were quantified with a multitoxin analysis method based on liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). The method enabled detection of many fungal metabolites, including DON, zearalenone (ZEA), nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxins, moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA), and enniatins (ENNs). It was found that Fusarium poae and Fusarium avenaceum were present in almost all samples. Other common Fusarium species were F. graminearum and F. culmorum, present in more than 70% of samples. Several species occurred at lower DNA levels in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse was true for F. graminearum and Fusarium langsethiae. The most prevalent toxins were ENNs, present in 100% of samples. DON was also common, especially in spring wheat, whereas ZEA and NIV were common in 2009 and in winter wheat, but less common in 2011 and in spring wheat. Only three samples of spring wheat contained T-2 or HT-2 above LOQ. Annual mean levels of several mycotoxins were significantly lower in 2011 than in other years, but the reverse applied for DON. The strongest correlations between mycotoxin and Fusarium DNA levels were found between F. avenaceum and ENNs (r(2) = 0.67) and MON (r(2) = 0.62), and F. graminearum and DON (r(2) = 0.74). These results show that several Fusarium species and toxins co-occur in wheat. The

  11. 耕作方式与施肥对陇东旱塬冬小麦-春玉米轮作农田土壤理化性质及产量的影响%Effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil physical and chemical properties and crop yield under winter wheat/spring corn rotation on dryland of east Gansu, Northwest China

    张建军; 王勇; 樊廷录; 郭天文; 赵刚; 党翼; 王磊; 李尚中


    Based on the 7-year field experiment on the dryland of east Gansu of Northwest China in 2005-2011, this paper analyzed the variations of soil moisture content, bulk density, and nutrients content at harvest time of winter wheat and of the grain yield under no-tillage and conventional tillage and five fertilization modes, and approached the effects of different tillage and fertilization modes on the soil water storage and conservation, soil fertility, and grain yield under winter wheat/ spring corn rotation. In 2011, the soil moisture content in 0-200 cm layer and the soil bulk density and soil organic matter and available nitrogen and phosphorus contents in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layers under different fertilization modes were higher under no-tillage than under conventional tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the contents of soil organic matter and available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers , as compared with other fertilization modes. The soil available potassium content under different tillage and fertilization modes decreased with years. The grain yield under conventional tillage was higher than that under no-tillage. Under the same tillage modes, the grain yield was the highest under the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and the lowest under no fertilization. In sum, no-tillage had the superiority than conventional tillage in improving the soil water storage and conservation and soil fertility, and the combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizers under conventional tillage could obtain the best grain yield.%以陇东黄土旱塬已进行7年的田间定位试验为基础,分析了免耕和传统耕作条件下5个施肥处理冬小麦收获期土壤水分、土壤容重(2011年)及土壤养分和产量(2005-2011年)变化,探讨了耕作方式和施肥对冬小麦-春玉米轮作农田土壤蓄水保墒效果及土壤肥力

  12. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    Wetherell, Donald


    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  13. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte


    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  14. Use of ryegrass strips to enhance biological control of aphids by ladybirds in wheat fields

    Zhao-Ke Dong; Feng-Juan Gao; Run-Zhi Zhang


    Non-crop habitats may play a vital role in conservation biological control.This study tested the effect of ryegrass (Lolium muitiflorum L.) strips on aphid and ladybird populations in adjacent winter wheat fields.The field experiment was conducted in three ryegrass-margin wheat plots and three control plots in 2010 in North China.In spring,the same aphid species,Sitobion miscanthi (Takahashi),was found in both the ryegrass strips and wheat plots.The population density of ladybirds in the ryegrass strips (3.5±0.9/m2) was significantly higher than in the wheat plots (1.5±0.5/m2).We cut the ryegrass,forcing the ladybirds to migrate to the wheat fields.Three and eight days after cutting the ryegrass,the aphid numbers in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots decreased significantly:they were 19.9% and 53.6%,respectively,lower than in control plots.In the early period of ladybird population development,the percentage of larvae was greater in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots than in controls,and the peak number of pupae in the ryegrass-margin wheat plots occurred 5 days earlier than in the control plots.The results suggest that ryegrass strips may promote the development of ladybird populations.Cutting ryegrass can manipulate ladybirds to enhance biological aphid control in wheat fields.The efficiency of this management approach is discussed.

  15. The role of drought on wheat yield interannual variability in the Iberian Peninsula from 1929 to 2012

    Páscoa, P.; Gouveia, C. M.; Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.


    The production of wheat in the Iberian Peninsula is strongly affected by climate conditions being particularly vulnerable to interannual changes in precipitation and long-term trends of both rainfall and evapotranspiration. Recent trends in precipitation and temperature point to an increase in dryness in this territory, thus highlighting the need to understand the dependence of wheat yield on climate conditions. The present work aims at studying the relation between wheat yields and drought events in the Iberian Peninsula, using a multiscalar drought index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), at various timescales. The effects of the occurrence of dry episodes on wheat yields were analyzed, on regional spatial scale for two subperiods (1929-1985 and 1986-2012). The results show that in western areas, wheat yield is positively affected by dryer conditions, whereas the opposite happens in eastern areas. The winter months have a bigger influence in the west while the east is more dependent on the spring and summer months. Moreover, in the period of 1986-2012, the simultaneous occurrence of low-yield anomalies and dry events reaches values close to 100 % over many provinces. Results suggest that May and June have a strong control on wheat yield, namely, for longer timescales (9 to 12 months). A shift in the dependence of wheat yields on climatic droughts is evidenced by the increase in the area with positive correlation and the decrease in area with negative correlation between wheat yields and SPEI, probably due to the increase of dry events.

  16. The role of drought on wheat yield interannual variability in the Iberian Peninsula from 1929 to 2012

    Páscoa, P.; Gouveia, C. M.; Russo, A.; Trigo, R. M.


    The production of wheat in the Iberian Peninsula is strongly affected by climate conditions being particularly vulnerable to interannual changes in precipitation and long-term trends of both rainfall and evapotranspiration. Recent trends in precipitation and temperature point to an increase in dryness in this territory, thus highlighting the need to understand the dependence of wheat yield on climate conditions. The present work aims at studying the relation between wheat yields and drought events in the Iberian Peninsula, using a multiscalar drought index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), at various timescales. The effects of the occurrence of dry episodes on wheat yields were analyzed, on regional spatial scale for two subperiods (1929-1985 and 1986-2012). The results show that in western areas, wheat yield is positively affected by dryer conditions, whereas the opposite happens in eastern areas. The winter months have a bigger influence in the west while the east is more dependent on the spring and summer months. Moreover, in the period of 1986-2012, the simultaneous occurrence of low-yield anomalies and dry events reaches values close to 100 % over many provinces. Results suggest that May and June have a strong control on wheat yield, namely, for longer timescales (9 to 12 months). A shift in the dependence of wheat yields on climatic droughts is evidenced by the increase in the area with positive correlation and the decrease in area with negative correlation between wheat yields and SPEI, probably due to the increase of dry events.

  17. Field assessment of partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley

    Nørgaard Knudsen, J. Chr.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms


    Partial resistance to powdery mildew in spring barley was evaluated in three plot types: large isolation plots, in 1.4 m2 plots in chessboard design with guard plots of spring wheat and in single rows. Percentage leaf area covered by powdery mildew was scored four to six times during the season....... The relationship between single scores of amount of powdery mildew on the upper four leaves and the area under the disease progress curve was high in all plot designs during the first two to three weeks after heading, allowing selection for the trait by one or two scorings. Differential ranking of varieties...

  18. 77 FR 21685 - United States Standards for Wheat


    ... believe that the blending of wheat would facilitate the marketing of wheat, as a buyer may purchase Mixed... marketing of wheat. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June 11, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit... (SWH) wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. Wheat is consumed primarily as a human food but is also...

  19. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.


    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  20. Several Moments of the Spring



    Spring has finally fallen on Cambridge. After a long, wet and dark winter, sky finally brightens up. The first messenger of spring is the daffodil (水仙花). English daffodils are slightly different from the Chinese ones that we are all familiar with. First of all, they bloom in spring, not in winter as the Chinese daffodils do. Second, they do not grow in water, but on the ground, though they


    Pravin Gautam


    Full Text Available Formation of higher number of tillers is desirable for higher grain yield in both wheat and barley; tillers have delayed physiological development. Studies addressing the contribution of secondary tillers in final DON concentration for wheat and barley are limited. This project aims to improve our understanding of the relationship between FHB symptoms and DON concentration by examining the contribution of primary spikes and secondary tillers as it relates to the final DON concentration. Experiments, established as split-split plot design with five replications, was be conducted in South Dakota with moderately resistant and susceptible cultivars of each spring wheat, winter wheat and barley. Two inoculation time treatments was applied; at the anthesis of primary spikes (Feekes 10.5 and at anthesis of tillers (Feekes 11.2. Primary spikes (inoculated at Feekes 10.5 and tillers (inoculated at Feekes 11.2 were harvested separately, analyzed for visually scabby kernels and deoxynivalenol following standard protocols. Levels of DON were statistically higher in main heads of barley and spring wheat in each cultivar compared to its tillers. In winter wheat, though there was higher DON level in tillers than main heads in each cultivar, it was not statistically different. Based upon our result, it is suggested that cultivars with high tillers number should be selected in breeding programs to develop cultivars with high yield and low DON. Similarly, planting density of wheat and barley can be adjusted such that it will result in higher numbers of tillers, increasing tillers proportion that might lower DON concentration in final harvest.

  2. Spring viremia of carp

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.


    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  3. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    Mankale, Anjana


    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  4. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.


    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  5. Temperature and precipitation effects on wheat yield across a European transect: a crop model ensemble analysis using impact response surfaces

    Pirttioja, N.; Carter, T.R.; Fronzek, S.; Bindi, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Palosuo, T.; Ruiz-Ramos, M.; Tao, F.; Trnka, M.; Acutis, M.; Supit, I.


    This study explored the utility of the impact response surface (IRS) approach for investigating model ensemble crop yield responses under a large range of changes in climate. IRSs of spring and winter wheat Triticum aestivum yields were constructed from a 26-member ensemble of process-based crop sim

  6. Large springs of east Tennessee

    Sun, Pao-chang P.; Criner, J.H.; Poole, J.L.


    Springs constitute an important source of water in east Tennessee, and many individual springs are capable of supplying the large quantities needed for municipal and industrial supplies. Most of the springs in east Tennessee issue from solution openings and fractured and faulted zones in limestone and dolomite of the Knox Group, Chickamauga Limestone, and Conasauga Group. The ability of these rocks to yield a sustained flow of water to springs is dependent on a system of interconnected openings through which water can infiltrate from the land surface and move to points of natural discharge. Ninety springs were selected for detailed study, and 84 of these are analyzed in terms of magnitude and variability of discharge. Of the 84 springs analyzed, 4 flow at an average rate of 10 to 100 cfs (cubic feet per second), 62 at an average rate of 1 to 10 cfs, and 18 at an average rate of 1 cfs or less. Of the 90 springs, 75 are variable in their discharge; that is, the ratio of their fluctuations to their average discharges exceeds 100 percent. Mathematical analysis of the flow recession curve of Mill Spring near Jefferson City shows that the hydrologic system contributing to the flow of the spring has an effective capacity of about 70 million cubic feet of water. The rate of depletion of this volume of water, in the absence of significant precipitation, averages 0.0056 cfs per day between the time when the hydrologic system is full and the time when the spring ceases to flow. From such a curve it is possible to determine at any time the residual volume of water remaining in the system and the expected rate of decrease in discharge from that time to cessation of flow. Correlation of discharge measurements of 22 springs with those of Mill Spring shows that rough approximations of discharge can be projected for springs for which few measurements are available. Seventeen of the springs analyzed in this manner show good correlation with Mill Spring: that is, their coefficients

  7. Representing winter wheat in the Community Land Model (version 4.5)

    Lu, Yaqiong; Williams, Ian N.; Bagley, Justin E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Kueppers, Lara M.


    Winter wheat is a staple crop for global food security, and is the dominant vegetation cover for a significant fraction of Earth's croplands. As such, it plays an important role in carbon cycling and land-atmosphere interactions in these key regions. Accurate simulation of winter wheat growth is not only crucial for future yield prediction under a changing climate, but also for accurately predicting the energy and water cycles for winter wheat dominated regions. We modified the winter wheat model in the Community Land Model (CLM) to better simulate winter wheat leaf area index, latent heat flux, net ecosystem exchange of CO2, and grain yield. These included schemes to represent vernalization as well as frost tolerance and damage. We calibrated three key parameters (minimum planting temperature, maximum crop growth days, and initial value of leaf carbon allocation coefficient) and modified the grain carbon allocation algorithm for simulations at the US Southern Great Plains ARM site (US-ARM), and validated the model performance at eight additional sites across North America. We found that the new winter wheat model improved the prediction of monthly variation in leaf area index, reduced latent heat flux, and net ecosystem exchange root mean square error (RMSE) by 41 and 35 % during the spring growing season. The model accurately simulated the interannual variation in yield at the US-ARM site, but underestimated yield at sites and in regions (northwestern and southeastern US) with historically greater yields by 35 %.

  8. Path Through the Wheat

    David Middleton


    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  9. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván


    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  10. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Aldwell, C. R.


    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  11. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Arash Nezhadahmadi


    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  12. Spring comes for ATLAS

    Butin, F.


    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  13. A bountiful spring harvest


    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  14. Multiple heat and drought events affect grain yield and accumulations of high molecular weight glutenin subunits and glutenin macropolymers in wheat

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Cai, Jian; Wollenweber, Bernd


    Spring wheat plants were subjected to water deficit and/or high temperature episodes at spikelet initiation, anthesis or both stages. The stresses modified the early dough stage and maturity, shortened the kernel desiccation period and caused grain yield loss. Plants subjected to stress at the ea......Spring wheat plants were subjected to water deficit and/or high temperature episodes at spikelet initiation, anthesis or both stages. The stresses modified the early dough stage and maturity, shortened the kernel desiccation period and caused grain yield loss. Plants subjected to stress...

  15. Molecular cloning of a cDNA related to vernalization(verc203) in winter wheat

    种康; 谭克辉; 黄华梁; 梁厚果


    A cDNA clone related to the vernalization in winter wheat(verc203)was harvested from the en-riched cold-induced cDNA library of 10~4 pfu with differential screening.The insert of verc203 in λ gt10 vector wassubcloned into the sites between BamH Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ in pUC19 plasmid after being amplified with PCR.the analysis of the Northern blotting with a probe of verc203 indicated that the verc203 has a negative signalfor the control and the devernalized mRNA and a positive signal for the vernalized winter wheat and non-vernalized spring wheat at about 2.6 kb.

  16. Macronutrient composition of nickel-treated wheat under different sulfur concentrations in the nutrient solution.

    Matraszek, Renata; Hawrylak-Nowak, Barbara; Chwil, Stanisław; Chwil, Mirosława


    The effect of different sulfate(VI) sulfur (2, 6, and 9 mM S) levels and nickel(II) chloride (0, 0.0004, 0.04 and 0.08 mM Ni) in the nutrient solution on productivity and macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) status and accumulation in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Zebra cv. was studied. Ni treatment reduced the biomass and disturbed the balance and accumulation of macronutrients in wheat. Intensive S nutrition, especially with 6 mM S, at least partially increased the biomass, improved ionic equilibrium, and enhanced nutrient accumulation in Ni-exposed plants in spite of increased Ni accumulation. Admittedly, the dose 9 mM S reduced Ni accumulation in shoots but increased accumulation thereof in roots. Compared to 6 mM, the dose 9 mM was less effective in improving the mineral status of Ni-treated wheat.

  17. Influence of commodity type, percentage of cracked kernels, and wheat class on population growth of stored-product psocids (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae).

    Athanassiou, Christos G; Opit, George P; Throne, James E


    Differences in stored-product psocid progeny production as a function of commodity type, percentage of cracked kernels, and wheat class were examined using laboratory bioassays. Population growth of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, Liposcelis decolor (Pearman), Liposcelis paeta Pearman, and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) was highest on sorghum Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, followed by wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and rice, Oryza sativa L., whereas progeny production was negligible on wheat germ. In a second experiment that did not include L. entomophila, population growth was examined on wheat containing 0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100% cracked kernels. Progeny production did not increase as cracked kernel content increased. Instead, progeny production peaked at 20% for L. bostrychophila adults and nymphs, at 10% for L. decolor, and at 50% for L. paeta adults; no further increases were noted beyond these levels of cracked wheat content. In a third experiment that did not include L. entomophila, progeny production was examined on eight classes of wheat: hard red winter, hard red spring, soft white winter, soft white spring, soft club, durum, soft red winter, and hard white. Overall, progeny production was higher on durum wheat than on the other classes. The results indicate that there are considerable variations in psocid population growth among the different commodities tested, and this information may be used to predict the degree to which stored commodities are susceptible to psocid infestation.

  18. Effect of seed treatment with organic acids on the control of common bunt (Tilletia tritici and T. laevis) in wheat.

    Saidi, B; Azmeh, F; Mamluk, O F; Sikora, R A


    Common bunt caused by Tilletia tritici and T. laevis is an important disease, causes considerable losses in wheat yield on a world wild. The disease reduces yields, complicates harvesting and lowers the quality of the grain. It occurs more frequently and causes greater damage on winter wheat than on spring wheat. Grain standards designate wheat that has an unmistakable odor of smut or that contains smut balls, portions of balls, or spores of smut in excess of a quantity equal to 14 balls of average size in 250 g of wheat as "light smutty". Samples containing an excess of 30 balls, or their equivalent, in 250 g of wheat are graded as "smutty". Grain in these grades brings lower prices. Using commercial acetic acid and lactic acid, the pathogen was successfully controlled, but the treatment negatively affected seed germination and seedling vitality. Using dilutions of acetic acid and lactic acid, significant control of the pathogen also was achieved with acetic acid without causing phytotoxicity. Dilutions of lactic acid also gave good control, but showed some phytotoxicity. Using 30-50 ml/kg of vinegar, which is a natural source of acetic acid, proved to be one of the most effective alternatives for control of common bunt on wheat. The treatment had no negative effects on seed germination nor on seedling vitality.

  19. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J


    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.


    亦西; 杨延康


    How Spring Festival is celebrated Although the date of the Spring Festival was switched from the beginning of spring to the first day of the first lunar month, the main ways of celebrating it, from bygone days, remain popular.

  1. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.


    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  2. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard


    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  3. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard


    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Microencapsulation of wheat germ oil

    Yazicioglu, Basak; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum


    Wheat germ oil (WGO) is beneficial for health since it is a rich source of omega-3, omega-6 and tocopherol. However, as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to encapsulate wheat germ oil and determine the effects of core to coating ratio, coating materials ratio and ultrasonication time on particle size distribution of emulsions and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and surface morphology of capsules. Maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein conce...

  5. Growing wheat in Biosphere 2 under elevated CO2: observations and modeling

    Tubiello, F. N.; Mahato, T.; Morton, T.; Druitt, J. W.; Volk, T.; Marino, B. D.


    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Yecora Rojo) was grown in the intensive agricultural biome (IAB) of Biosphere 2 during the l995-l996 winter/spring season. Environmental conditions were characterized by a day/night temperature regime of 27/17 degrees C, relative humidity (RH) levels around 45%, mean atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppmv, and natural light conditions with mean intensities about half of outside levels. Weekly samples of above-ground plant matter were collected throughout the growing season and phenological events recorded. A computer model, CERES-Wheat, previously tested under both field and controlled conditions, was used to simulate the observed crop growth and to help in data analysis. We found that CERES-Wheat simulated the data collected at Biosphere 2 to within 10% of observed, thus suggesting that wheat growth inside the IAB was comparable to that documented in other environments. The model predicts phenological stages and final dry matter (DM) production within l0% of the observed data. Measured DM production rates, normalized for light absorbed by the crop. suggested photosynthetic efficiencies intermediate between those observed under optimal field conditions and those recorded in NASA-Controlled Ecological Life-Support Systems (CELSS). We suggest that such a difference can be explained primarily in terms of low light levels inside the IAB, with additional effects due to elevated CO2 concentrations and diffuse light fractions.


    Akula Annapurna


    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  7. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  8. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  9. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  10. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  11. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  12. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  13. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik


    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  14. The Tebuconazole-based Protectant of Seeds “Bunker” Induces the Synthesis of Dehydrins During Cold Hardening and Increases the Frost Resistance of Wheat Seedlings

    A.V. Korsukova


    Full Text Available Triazole derivatives are widely used in agriculture for seed protectant of cereals against seed and soil infection. Triazole derivatives can have an effect on the biochemical and physiological functions of plants. The tebuconazole-based protectant of seeds «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L is a systemic fungicide of preventive and therapeutic action. The effect of the seed treatment by «Bunker» preparation on the shoot growth and cell viability coleoptile, synthesis of dehydrins in shoots and frost resistance etiolated winter and spring wheat seedlings has been studied. It has been shown that treatment of winter and spring wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation induces similar concentration-dependent inhibition of the coleoptiles length. At the recommended dose (0,5 liter per tonne of seeds, L/t growth inhibition was 28 - 30%, at a concentration of 1 L/t – 33 - 36%, at a concentration of 1,5 L/t – 40 - 42%, at a concentration of 3 L/t – 43 - 47%, at a concentration of 4 L/t – 48 - 51% and at 5 L/t – 53 - 56%. The treatment of wheat seed by «Bunker» preparation had no phytotoxic effect on coleoptile cells in any of the studied concentrations, on the contrary, with increasing concentration of preparation observed the increase in cell viability, as measured by recovery of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride. We can assume that having retardant properties, tebuconazole not only inhibits the growth of plants, but also delays their aging. The treatment of seed protectant at a concentration of 1.5 L/t induced synthesis of the dehydrins with molecular masses about 19, 21, 22, 25 and 27 kD in winter wheat shoots and 18,6, 27 and 28,5 kD in spring wheat shoots during cold hardening. Among identified dehydrins the dehydrin of 27 kD is most significantly induced both in winter and spring wheat. The treatment of seed protectant «Bunker» in the same concentration increased the frost resistance of winter and spring wheat

  15. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program


    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY: Farm... specific requirements for the Durum Wheat Quality Program (DWQP) authorized by the Food, Conservation, and... through 2012 to partially compensate producers for the cost of fungicides applied to durum wheat to...

  16. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W.; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.


    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  17. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

    Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu


    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  18. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  19. Intake and digestion of whole-crop barley and wheat silages by dairy heifers.

    Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E


    The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.

  20. Variation of Starch Property and Its Relationship with Dry White Chinese Noodle Quality in Common Wheat

    LIU Jian-jun; HE Zhong-hu; YANG Jin; XU Zhao-hua; LIU Ai-feng; ZHAO Zhen-dong


    In total, 185 wheat cultivars and lines from major Chinese wheat regions, Australia and USAin two trials, sown in four and two environments, respectively, were used to investigate starch property and itsrelationship with dry white Chinese noodle (DWCN) quality. Significant variations were observed in all starchparameters and DWCN quality. High pasting viscosity cultivars include Sunstate, Hartog, Eradu, Cunning-han, Gamenya, Karl92, Sunco, Yangmai5, Yangmai158, Mianyang26, Een1, Yumai41, Yumai49,Zheng81-1, Yumai54, Yumai2, Yumai47, Lu955159, Lumai15, L;mai21, Shaanyou225, Guanfeng2,Ji5099, Bainong4, and Jinmai2. Wheats from Australia, USA, South China Autumn-sown Spring Wheat Re-gion and Yellow and Huai Valley showed better starch properties and DWCN quality than those from NorthChina Plain. High peak viscosity, breakdown and flour swelling volume were significantly associated with goodDWCN quality. A relatively high frequency of Wx-B1 null alleles was detected in Chinese wheats. Cultivarswith null for Wx-B1 GBSS performed higher pasting viscosity and flour swelling volume, and better DWCNquality than normal type.

  1. Cytogenetic and molecular markers for detecting Aegilops uniaristata chromosomes in a wheat background.

    Gong, Wenping; Li, Guangrong; Zhou, Jianping; Li, Genying; Liu, Cheng; Huang, Chengyan; Zhao, Zhendong; Yang, Zujun


    Aegilops uniaristata has many agronomically useful traits that can be used for wheat breeding. So far, a Triticum turgidum - Ae. uniaristata amphiploid and one set of Chinese Spring (CS) - Ae. uniaristata addition lines have been produced. To guide Ae. uniaristata chromatin transformation from these lines into cultivated wheat through chromosome engineering, reliable cytogenetic and molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes need to be developed. Standard C-banding shows that C-bands mainly exist in the centromeric regions of Ae. uniaristata but rarely at the distal ends. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using (GAA)8 as a probe showed that the hybridization signal of chromosomes 1N-7N are different, thus (GAA)8 can be used to identify all Ae. uniaristata chromosomes in wheat background simultaneously. Moreover, a total of 42 molecular markers specific for Ae. uniaristata chromosomes were developed by screening expressed sequence tag - sequence tagged site (EST-STS), expressed sequence tag - simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR), and PCR-based landmark unique gene (PLUG) primers. The markers were subsequently localized using the CS - Ae. uniaristata addition lines and different wheat cultivars as controls. The cytogenetic and molecular markers developed herein will be helpful for screening and identifying wheat - Ae. uniaristata progeny.

  2. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

    Settles Matthew L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are transcripts of the opposite DNA strand to the sense-strand either at the same locus (cis-encoded or a different locus (trans-encoded. They can affect gene expression at multiple stages including transcription, RNA processing and transport, and translation. NATs give rise to sense-antisense transcript pairs and the number of these identified has escalated greatly with the availability of DNA sequencing resources and public databases. Traditionally, NATs were identified by the alignment of full-length cDNAs or expressed sequence tags to genome sequences, but an alternative method for large-scale detection of sense-antisense transcript pairs involves the use of microarrays. In this study we developed a novel protocol to assay sense- and antisense-strand transcription on the 55 K Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array, which is a 3' in vitro transcription (3'IVT expression array. We selected five different tissue types for assay to enable maximum discovery, and used the 'Chinese Spring' wheat genotype because most of the wheat GeneChip probe sequences were based on its genomic sequence. This study is the first report of using a 3'IVT expression array to discover the expression of natural sense-antisense transcript pairs, and may be considered as proof-of-concept. Results By using alternative target preparation schemes, both the sense- and antisense-strand derived transcripts were labeled and hybridized to the Wheat GeneChip. Quality assurance verified that successful hybridization did occur in the antisense-strand assay. A stringent threshold for positive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the identification of 110 sense-antisense transcript pairs, as well as 80 potentially antisense-specific transcripts. Strand-specific RT-PCR validated the microarray observations, and showed that antisense transcription is likely to be tissue specific. For the annotated sense

  3. 小麦中国春-Synthetic 6x代换系的光合速率与产量性状研究%Study on the Photosynthesis and Yield Traits of Wheat Substitution Lines between Chinese Spring and Synthetic 6x

    白志英; 李存东; 孙红春


    以中国春(Chinese Spring-Synthetic 6x)代换系及其亲本为材料,通过测定旗叶光合速率在各生育时期的变化,研究外源染色体对光合作用的效应;通过观测产量性状,分析外源染色体对小麦产量性状的调控效应.结果表明,从孕穗到灌浆期,5A、5B代换系叶片的光合速率显著高于中国春,说明来自Synthetic 6x的5A、5B染色体上可能携有改良光合特征的相关有利基因;5A、5B代换系的每穗粒数、单穗粒重、千粒重均显著或极显著高于中国春,说明来自Synthetic 6x的5A、5B染色体上可能携有改良每穗粒数、单穗粒重、千粒重有关的有利基因,研究结果可以为小麦的遗传育种提供理论依据.

  4. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna


    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  5. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)


    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  6. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  7. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  8. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  9. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  10. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  11. Simulation of Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana L. Competition on Winter Wheat (Triticum astivum Growth and Yield. I: Model Description and Validation

    F Mondani


    Full Text Available Crop growth models could stimulate growth and development based on science principles and mathematical equations. They also able to evaluate effects of climate, soil, water and agronomic management practices on crop yield. In the present study, an eco-physiological simulation model developed to assess wild oat damage to winter wheat growth and yield. The general structure of this model is derived from LINTUL1 model which modified to wild oat competition against winter wheat. LINTUL1 model was developed for simulation of spring wheat potential production level. In this study, first, we added development stage (DVS and vernalization to LINTUL1 for simulation of winter wheat growth and development and then the model calibrated for potential production level. Finally, we incorporate harmful effects of wild oat to winter wheat growth and yield. Weather data used as input were average daily minimum and maximum temperature (°C and daily global radiation (MJ m-2 in Mashhad, Iran. Parameter values were derived from the literature. The model is written in Fortran Simulation Translator (FST programming language and then validated based on an experiment data. For these purposes different wild oat plant densities were arranged. The data of this experiment does not use for calibration. The results showed that this model was in general able to simulate the temporal changes in DVS of winter wheat and wild oat, total dry matter (TDM of winter wheat and wild oat and yield loss of wheat due to wild oat competition in all treatments, satisfactorily. Root mean square error (RMSE for winter wheat DVS, wild oat DVS, average winter wheat TDM, average wild oat TDM, and yield loss of winter wheat was 10.4, 14.5, 5.8, 7.6 and 7.5, respectively.

  12. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  13. Mechanics of anisotropic spring networks

    Zhang, T.; Schwarz, J. M.; Das, Moumita


    We construct and analyze a model for a disordered linear spring network with anisotropy. The modeling is motivated by, for example, granular systems, nematic elastomers, and ultimately cytoskeletal networks exhibiting some underlying anisotropy. The model consists of a triangular lattice with two different bond occupation probabilities, px and py, for the linear springs. We develop an effective medium theory (EMT) to describe the network elasticity as a function of px and py. We find that the onset of rigidity in the EMT agrees with Maxwell constraint counting. We also find beyond linear behavior in the shear and bulk modulus as a function of occupation probability in the rigid phase for small strains, which differs from the isotropic case. We compare our EMT with numerical simulations to find rather good agreement. Finally, we discuss the implications of extending the reach of effective medium theory as well as draw connections with prior work on both anisotropic and isotropic spring networks.

  14. Motor gasoline assessment, Spring 1997



    The springs of 1996 and 1997 provide an excellent example of contrasting gasoline market dynamics. In spring 1996, tightening crude oil markets pushed up gasoline prices sharply, adding to the normal seasonal gasoline price increases; however, in spring 1997, crude oil markets loosened and crude oil prices fell, bringing gasoline prices down. This pattern was followed throughout the country except in California. As a result of its unique reformulated gasoline, California prices began to vary significantly from the rest of the country in 1996 and continued to exhibit distinct variations in 1997. In addition to the price contrasts between 1996 and 1997, changes occurred in the way in which gasoline markets were supplied. Low stocks, high refinery utilizations, and high imports persisted through 1996 into summer 1997, but these factors seem to have had little impact on gasoline price spreads relative to average spread.

  15. Effects of drought on winter wheat yield in north China during 2012-2100

    Song, Yanling; Zhao, Yanxia


    Winter wheat is one of China's most important staple food crops, and its production is strongly influenced by weather, especially droughts. As a result, the impact of drought on the production of winter wheat is associated with the food security of China. Simulations of future climate for scenarios A2 and A1B provided by GFDL-CM2, MPI_ECHAM5, MRI_CGCM2, NCAR_CCSM3, and UKMO_HADCM3 during 2001-2100 are used to project the influence of drought on winter wheat yields in North China. Winter wheat yields are simulated using the crop model WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudies). Future changes in temperature and precipitation are analyzed. Temperature is projected to increase by 3.9-5.5°C for scenario A2 and by 2.9-5.1°C for scenario A1B, with fairly large interannual variability. Mean precipitation during the growing season is projected to increase by 16.7 and 8.6 mm (10 yr)-1, with spring precipitation increasing by 9.3 and 4.8 mm (10 yr)-1 from 2012-2100 for scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. For the next 10-30 years (2012-2040), neither the growing season precipitation nor the spring precipitation over North China is projected to increase by either scenario. Assuming constant winter wheat varieties and agricultural practices, the influence of drought induced by short rain on winter wheat yields in North China is simulated using the WOFOST crop model. The drought index is projected to decrease by 9.7% according to scenario A2 and by 10.3% according to scenario A1B during 2012-2100. This indicates that the drought influence on winter wheat yields may be relieved over that period by projected increases in rain and temperature as well as changes in the growth stage of winter wheat. However, drought may be more severe in the near future, as indicated by the results for the next 10-30 years.

  16. Spring harvest of corn stover

    Lizotte, P.L. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des sols et de genie agroalimentaire; Savoie, P. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)


    Corn stover is typically left behind in the field after grain harvest. Although part of the stover should remain in the field for soil organic matter renewal and erosion protection, half of the stover could be removed sustainably. This represents about one million t dry matter (DM) of stover per year in the province of Quebec. Stover harvested in the fall is very wet. While there are applications for wet stover, the available markets currently require a dry product. Preliminary measurements have shown that stover left in the field throughout the winter becomes very dry, and a considerable amount would still be harvestable in the spring. In the spring of 2009, corn stover was harvested at 2 sites, each subdivided into 2 parcels. The first parcel was cut and raked in the fall of 2008 (fall parcel), while the second parcel was cut and raked in spring 2009. Fibre from both parcels was baled in the spring 2009. At the first site, a large square baler was used in late April to produce bales measuring 0.8 m x 0.9 m x 1.8 m. On the second site a round baler was used in late May to produce bales of 1.2 m in width by 1.45 m in diameter. On the second site, a small square baler was also used to produce bales of 0.35 m x 0.45 m x 0.60 m (spring cutting only). With the large square baler, an average of 3.9 t DM/ha was harvested equally on the fall parcel and the spring parcel, representing a 48 per cent recovery of biomass based on stover yields.

  17. Yarn Expo Spring Concluded the Spring Fair in Beijing Successfully


    @@ As the 2009 Yarn Expo Spring, organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd, the Sub-Council of Textile Industry - CCPIT, China Cotton Textile Association, China Wool Textile Association, China Chemical Fibers Association, China Bast & Leaf Fiber Textiles Association, and China Textile Information Centre, came to an end on 1 April, the organizers had something to smile about.

  18. Instant Spring for Android starter

    Dahanne, Anthony


    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  19. SPring-8 twin helical undulator.

    Hara, T; Tanaka, T; Tanabe, T; Maréchal, X M; Kumagai, K; Kitamura, H


    There are several ways of producing circularly polarized light, such as using asymmetric devices, crossed undulators etc. The SPring-8 helical undulator introduces a simple way of producing both horizontal and vertical fields in one undulator. All the magnet arrays are arranged above and below the plane of the electron orbit, so there is no limitation of access from the sides of the undulator. For the SPring-8 BL25SU, two helical undulators will be installed in tandem, and the helicity of the polarization can be switched at up to 10 Hz using five kicker magnets.

  20. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    Koning, Frits


    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  1. Nitrogen Fertilizer Sources and Application Timing Affects Wheat and Inter-Seeded Red Clover Yields on Claypan Soils

    Kelly A. Nelson


    Full Text Available Controlled-release N fertilizer, such as polymer-coated urea (PCU, may be a fall N management option for wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in poorly-drained claypan soils. Field research evaluated (1 urea release from fall-applied PCU in 2006 and 2007; (2 broadcast fall-spring split (25%:75% of N sources; and (3 a single fall (100% application of PCU, urea, urea plus NBPT (N-(n-butyl thiophosphoric triamide] (U + NBPT, ammonium nitrate (AN, or urea ammonium nitrate (UAN at 0, 56, 84, and 112 kg·N·ha−1 on wheat yield, wheat biomass, N uptake by wheat, and frost-seeded red clover (FSC (Trifolium pratense L. forage yield (2004–2007. PCU applied in fall released less than 30% urea by February. Urea released from PCU by harvest was 60% and 85% in 2006 and 2007, respectively. In poorly-drained soils, wheat yields ranked PCU > AN > U + NBPT > urea ≥ UAN over the rates evaluated for fall-only application. PCU was a viable fall-applied N source, with yields similar to or greater than urea or U + NBPT split-applied. Split-N applications of AN, urea, UAN, and U + NBPT generally resulted in greater wheat yields than a fall application. Enhanced efficiency fertilizers provide farmers with flexible options for maintaining high yielding production systems.

  2. Importance of insoluble-bound phenolics to antioxidant properties of wheat.

    Liyana-Pathirana, Chandrika M; Shahidi, Fereidoon


    Two commercial samples of soft (70% Canadian Eastern soft red spring and 30% Canadian Eastern soft white winter) and hard (90% Canadian western hard red spring and 10% Canadian Eastern hard red winter) wheats were used to obtain different milling fractions. Phenolics extracted belonged to free, soluble esters and insoluble-bound fractions. Soluble esters of phenolics and insoluble-bound phenolics were extracted into diethyl ether after alkaline hydrolysis of samples. The content of phenolics was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent and expressed as ferulic acid equivalents (FAE). The antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions was evaluated using Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and DNA, Rancimat, inhibition of photochemilumenescence, and iron(II) chelation activity. The bound phenolic content in the bran fraction was 11.3 +/- 0.13 and 12.2 +/- 0.15 mg FAE/g defatted material for hard and soft wheats, respectively. The corresponding values for flour were 0.33 +/- 0.01 and 0.46 +/- 0.02 mg FAE/g defatted sample. The bound phenolic content of hard and soft whole wheats was 2.1 (+/-0.004 or +/-0.005) mg FAE/g defatted material. The free phenolic content ranged from 0.14 +/- 0.004 to 0.98 +/- 0.05 mg FAE/g defatted milling fractions of hard and soft wheats examined. The contribution of bound phenolics to the total phenolic content was significantly higher than that of free and esterified fractions. In wheat, phenolic compounds were concentrated mainly in the bran tissues. In the numerous in vitro antioxidant assays carried out, the bound phenolic fraction demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant capacity than free and esterified phenolics. Thus, inclusion of bound phenolics in studies related to quantification and antioxidant activity evaluation of grains and cereals is essential.

  3. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of 1D-encoded B and D glutenin subunits in common wheats with similar omega gliadins.

    Masci, S; Porceddu, E; Lafiandra, D


    Gli-D1-encoded omega gliadins of bread wheats show little variation; their electrophoretic patterns can be classified into two main groups which broadly resemble the patterns found in the cultivars Chinese Spring and in Cheyenne. B and D subunits of low molecular weight glutenin encoded by the chromosome 1D loci Glu-D3 and Gli-D1, respectively, also showed little variation. D subunits were found only in bread wheats with "Chinese Spring-type" omega gliadins and they all exhibited the same electrophoretic pattern. This material also showed very similar B subunits. "Cheyenne-type" bread wheats displayed the same electrophoretic distribution of chromosome 1D-encoded B subunits, although they were slightly different from that found in Cheyenne itself.

  4. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Simoson, Andrew J.


    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  5. Sources of antibiotics: Hot springs.

    Mahajan, Girish B; Balachandran, Lakshmi


    The discovery of antibiotics heralded an era of improved health care. However, the over-prescription and misuse of antibiotics resulted in the development of resistant strains of various pathogens. Since then, there has been an incessant search for discovering novel compounds from bacteria at various locations with extreme conditions. The soil is one of the most explored locations for bioprospecting. In recent times, hypersaline environments and symbiotic associations have been investigated for novel antimicrobial compounds. Among the extreme environments, hot springs are comparatively less explored. Many researchers have reported the presence of microbial life and secretion of antimicrobial compounds by microorganisms in hot springs. A pioneering research in the corresponding author's laboratory resulted in the identification of the antibiotic Fusaricidin B isolated from a hot spring derived eubacteria, Paenibacillus polymyxa, which has been assigned a new application for its anti-tubercular properties. The corresponding author has also reported anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity of 73 bacterial isolates from hot springs in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Simoson, Andrew J.


    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  7. NOVA Spring 2000 Teacher's Guide.

    Colombo, Luann; Gregoire, Tanya; Ransick, Kristina; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Sammons, James

    This teacher's guide complements six programs that aired on the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) in the spring of 2000. Programs include: (1) "Lost on Everest"; (2) "Lost Tribes of Israel"; (3) "Crocodiles"; (4) "Lost at Sea: The Search for Longitude"; (5) "Global Warming"; and (6) "Secrets of…

  8. Spring for It: First Novels

    Hoffert, Barbara


    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  9. Spring for It: First Novels

    Hoffert, Barbara


    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  10. Prevalence of Puroindoline D1 and Puroindoline b-2 variants in U.S. Pacific Northwest wheat breeding germplasm pools, and their association with kernel texture.

    Geng, Hongwei; Beecher, Brian S; He, Zhonghu; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Morris, Craig F


    Kernel texture is a major factor influencing the classification and end use properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and is mainly controlled by the Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. Recently, a new puroindoline gene, Puroindoline b-2 (Pin b-2), was identified. In this study, 388 wheat cultivars and advanced breeding lines from the U.S. Pacific Northwest were investigated for frequencies of Puroindoline D1 alleles and Pinb-2 variants 2 and 3. Results indicated that Pinb-D1b (74.0%) was the predominant genotype among hard wheats (N = 196), the only other hard allele encountered was Pina-D1b (26.0%). Across all varieties, Pinb-2v3 was the predominant genotype (84.5%) compared with Pinb-2v2 (15.5%). However, among 240 winter wheat varieties (124 soft white, 15 club, 68 hard red and 33 hard white varieties), all carried Pinb-2v3. Among spring wheats, Pinb-2v2 and Pinb-2v3 frequencies were more variable (soft white 25.0:75.0, hard red 58.2:41.8 and hard white 40.0:60.0, respectively). Kernel texture variation was analyzed using 247 of the 388 wheat varieties grown in multi-location factorial trials in up to 7 crop years. The range of variety means among the four groups, soft winter, soft spring, hard winter and hard spring, was on the order of 15-25 single kernel characterization system (SKCS) Hardness Index. The least significant difference for each of these trials ranged from 2.8 to 5.6 SKCS Hardness Index. Observations lead to the conclusion that Pinb-2 variants do not exert a prominent effect on kernel texture, however, Pinb-2 variants do identify features of wheat germ plasm structure in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

  11. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  12. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold


    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  13. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Carlos Roberto Riede


    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.


    food product to be widely distributed was a blend of wheat, defatted soy flour, .... drops of blood from the retroocular capillary bed (under light diethyl ether ..... Bioavaiiability to rats of the iron contents in selected cereals and pulses. Nutr. Rep.

  15. Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of Wheat-Thinopyrum elongatum Addition, Substitution and Translocation Lines with a Novel Source of Resistance to Wheat Fusarium Head Blight

    Shulan Fu; Zhenling Lv; Bao Qi; Xiang Guo; Jun Li; Bao Liu; Fangpu Han


    Thinopyrum elongatum (2n =2x =14,EE),a wild relative of wheat,has been suggested as a potentially novel source of resistance to several major wheat diseases including Fusarium Head Blight (FHB).In this study,a series of wheat (cv.Chinese Spring,CS) substitution and ditelosomic lines,including Th.elongatum additions,were assessed for Type Ⅱ resistance to FHB.Results indicated that the lines containing chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum gave a high level of resistance to FHB,wherein the infection did not spread beyond the inoculated floret.Furthermore,it was determined that the novel resistance gene(s) of 7E was located on the short-arm (7ES) based on sharp difference in FHB resistance between the two 7E ditelosomic lines for each arm.On the other hand,Th.elongatum chromosomes 5E and 6E likely contain gene(s) for susceptibility to FHB because the disease spreads rapidly within the inoculated spikes of these lines.Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) analysis revealed that the alien chromosomes in the addition and substitution lines were intact,and the lines did not contain discernible genomic aberrations.GISH and multicolor-GISH analyses were further performed on three translocation lines that also showed high levels of resistance to FHB.Lines TA3499 and TA3695 were shown to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving fragments of 7D plus a segment of the 7E,while line TA3493 was found to contain one pair of wheat-Th.elongatum translocated chromosomes involving the D- and A-genome chromosomes of wheat.Thus,this study has established that the short-arm of chromosome 7E of Th.elongatum harbors gene(s) highly resistant to the spreading of FHB,and chromatin of 7E introgressed into wheat chromosomes largely retained the resistance,implicating the feasibility of using these lines as novel material for breeding FHB-resistant wheat cultivars.

  16. The role of drought on wheat yield interannual variability in the Iberian Peninsula from 1929 to 2012.

    Páscoa, P; Gouveia, C M; Russo, A; Trigo, R M


    The production of wheat in the Iberian Peninsula is strongly affected by climate conditions being particularly vulnerable to interannual changes in precipitation and long-term trends of both rainfall and evapotranspiration. Recent trends in precipitation and temperature point to an increase in dryness in this territory, thus highlighting the need to understand the dependence of wheat yield on climate conditions. The present work aims at studying the relation between wheat yields and drought events in the Iberian Peninsula, using a multiscalar drought index, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), at various timescales. The effects of the occurrence of dry episodes on wheat yields were analyzed, on regional spatial scale for two subperiods (1929-1985 and 1986-2012). The results show that in western areas, wheat yield is positively affected by dryer conditions, whereas the opposite happens in eastern areas. The winter months have a bigger influence in the west while the east is more dependent on the spring and summer months. Moreover, in the period of 1986-2012, the simultaneous occurrence of low-yield anomalies and dry events reaches values close to 100 % over many provinces. Results suggest that May and June have a strong control on wheat yield, namely, for longer timescales (9 to 12 months). A shift in the dependence of wheat yields on climatic droughts is evidenced by the increase in the area with positive correlation and the decrease in area with negative correlation between wheat yields and SPEI, probably due to the increase of dry events.


    Sancar Bulut


    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  18. Production of multiple wheat-rye 1RS translocation stocks and genetic analysis of LMW subunits of glutenin and gliadins in wheats using these stocks.

    Gupta, R B; Shepherd, K W


    A triple (1AL.1RS/1BL.1RS/1DL.1RS) and three double (1AL.1RS/1BL.1RS, 1AL.1RS/1DL.1RS, 1BL.1RS/1DL.1RS) wheat-rye 1RS translocation stocks were isolated from a segregating population using the Gli-1, Tri-1 and Sec-1 seed proteins as genetic markers. These stocks carried 42 chromosomes and formed the expected multivalents (frequency of 14-25%) at metaphase 1. They gave floret fertility ranging from 40-60%. These stocks were subsequently used to determine the genetic control of low-molecular-weight (LMW) glutenin subunits in 'Chinese Spring' and 'Gabo' by means of two-step one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. All of the B subunits and most of the C subunits of glutenin were shown to be controlled by genes on the short arms of group-1 chromosomes in these wheats. The other C subunits were not controlled by group-1 chromosomes. The triple translocation line served as a suitable third parent in producing test-cross seeds for studying the inheritance of the LMW glutenin subunits and gliadins in wheat cultivars, e.g. 'Chinese Spring' and 'Orca'. The segregation patterns of the LMW glutenin subunits in these cultivars revealed that the subunits were inherited in clusters and that their controlling genes (Glu-3) were tightly linked with those controlling gliadins (Gli-1). The LMW glutenin patterns d, d and e in 'Orca' segregated as alternatives to the patterns a, a and a in 'Chinese Spring' controlled by Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on chromosome arms 1AS, 1BS and 1DS, respectively, thus indicating that these patterns were controlled by allelic genes at these loci.

  19. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Castenholz, Richard W


    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  20. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using Affymetrix arrays

    Hu Shengwa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a staple food crop worldwide. The wheat genome has not yet been sequenced due to its huge genome size (~17,000 Mb and high levels of repetitive sequences; the whole genome sequence may not be expected in the near future. Available linkage maps have low marker density due to limitation in available markers; therefore new technologies that detect genome-wide polymorphisms are still needed to discover a large number of new markers for construction of high-resolution maps. A high-resolution map is a critical tool for gene isolation, molecular breeding and genomic research. Single feature polymorphism (SFP is a new microarray-based type of marker that is detected by hybridization of DNA or cRNA to oligonucleotide probes. This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome. Results Six wheat varieties of diverse origins (Ning 7840, Clark, Jagger, Encruzilhada, Chinese Spring, and Opata 85 were analyzed for significant probe by variety interactions and 396 probe sets with SFPs were identified. A subset of 164 unigenes was sequenced and 54% showed polymorphism within probes. Microarray analysis of 71 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Ning 7840/Clark identified 955 SFPs and 877 of them were mapped together with 269 simple sequence repeat markers. The SFPs were randomly distributed within a chromosome but were unevenly distributed among different genomes. The B genome had the most SFPs, and the D genome had the least. Map positions of a selected set of SFPs were validated by mapping single nucleotide polymorphism using SNaPshot and comparing with expressed sequence tags mapping data. Conclusion The Affymetrix array is a cost-effective platform for SFP discovery and SFP mapping in wheat. The new high-density map constructed in this study will be a useful tool for genetic and genomic research in wheat.

  1. Genotypic variation in tetraploid wheat affecting homoeologous pairing in hybrids with Aegilops peregrina.

    Ozkan, H; Feldman, M


    The Ph1 gene has long been considered the main factor responsible for the diploid-like meiotic behavior of polyploid wheat. This dominant gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 5B (5BL), suppresses pairing of homoeologous chromosomes in polyploid wheat and in their hybrids with related species. Here we report on the discovery of genotypic variation among tetraploid wheats in the control of homoeologous pairing. Compared with the level of homoeologous pairing in hybrids between Aegilops peregrina and the bread wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), significantly higher levels of homoeologous pairing were obtained in hybrids between Ae. peregrina and CS substitution lines in which chromosome 5B of CS was replaced by either 5B of Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides line 09 (TTD09) or 5G of Triticum timopheevii ssp. timopheevii line 01 (TIMO1). Similarly, a higher level of homoeologous pairing was found in the hybrid between Ae. peregrina and a substitution line of CS in which chromosome arm 5BL of line TTD140 substituted for 5BL of CS. It appears that the observed effect on the level of pairing is exerted by chromosome arm 5BL of T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, most probably by an allele of Ph1. Searching for variation in the control of homoeologous pairing among lines of wild tetraploid wheat, either T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides or T timopheevii ssp. armeniacum, showed that hybrids between Ae. peregrina and lines of these two wild wheats exhibited three different levels of homoeologous pairing: low, low intermediate, and high intermediate. The low-intermediate and high-intermediate genotypes may possess weak alleles of Ph1. The three different T turgidum ssp. dicoccoides pairing genotypes were collected from different geographical regions in Israel, indicating that this trait may have an adaptive value. The availability of allelic variation at the Ph1 locus may facilitate the mapping, tagging, and eventually the isolation of this important gene.

  2. Distribution of sulfur in the wheat grain as shown by radioautographs

    Seidman, G.; Frazier, J.C.


    Radioautographs of sections of wheat grains in the dough stage 2 to 5 weeks after treatment with S/sup 35/ indicated appreciable quantities of S/sup 35/ concentrated in the embryo and particularly in the aleurone layer of the bran. An even distribution of low concentration occurred throughout the endosperm. The pericarp was nearly free of radioactivity. This report gives added data to show that the highest concentration of radioactive sulfur in the wheat kernel was deposited in the germ, with bran and endosperm following in order. Radioautographs obtained of longitudinal sections of wheat grains showed the gross distribution of S/sup 35/ in the grain, including a striking localization of radioactivity on the inner surface of the crease. Wheat plants used in this study were grown hydroponically in the greenhouse. The variety was Pusa 52 x Federation, a short-season hard spring wheat. Twenty millicuries of S/sup 35/ in the form of sulfate in weak HCl obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared for aliquoting by diluting to 5.2 ml with distilled water. One tenth of a milliliter (385 microcuries) was added to each jar which supported three plants. Wheat grains were prepared for sectioning on a freezing microtome by embedding in gelatin. The embedded grains were sliced into longitudinal sections about 500 microns thick. The gelatin was peeled off, then the sections were held in direct contact with the photographic emulsion of Kodak No-screen X-ray film in a light-tight box for 96 hours. The film was developed using X-ray developer and fixer. 2 references, 1 figure.

  3. Herbicide treatments for the control of resistant black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Gehring, Klaus


    Full Text Available Different herbicide treatments were tested in the year 2010 – 2013 at eight locations in the north-west of Bavaria in Franken to control herbicide resistant black grass (Alopecurus myosuroides, Huds.. Application of Atlantis (Mesosulfuron + Iodosulfuron + Mefenpyr was essential for the control of black grass in winter wheat. Combination with other herbicides was also in focus of the trial program as different treatment methods, application timing, application sequences, herbicide rate and the use of adjuvants. As a result of the trials sequence applications were more effective than single applications. The use of soil active herbicides in autumn and spring application of Atlantis was one of the best solutions to control resistant black grass in winter wheat. Reduced rate of Atlantis have to be compensated by addition of appropriate adjuvants. Higher level of resistance depends on implementation of integrated weed management to serve economic wheat production.

  4. Mycotoxin and fungicide residues in wheat grains from fungicide-treated plants measured by a validated LC-MS method.

    da Luz, Suzane Rickes; Pazdiora, Paulo Cesar; Dallagnol, Leandro José; Dors, Giniani Carla; Chaves, Fábio Clasen


    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an annual crop, cultivated in the winter and spring and susceptible to several pathogens, especially fungi, which are managed with fungicides. It is also one of the most consumed cereals, and can be contaminated by mycotoxins and fungicides. The objective of this study was to validate an analytical method by LC-MS for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins and fungicide residues in wheat grains susceptible to fusarium head blight treated with fungicides, and to evaluate the relationship between fungicide application and mycotoxin production. All parameters of the validated analytical method were within AOAC and ANVISA limits. Deoxynivalenol was the prevalent mycotoxin in wheat grain and epoxiconazole was the fungicide residue found in the highest concentration. All fungicidal treatments induced an increase in AFB2 production when compared to the control (without application). AFB1 and deoxynivalenol, on the contrary, were reduced in all fungicide treatments compared to the control.

  5. Cloning, Expression and Purification of Wheat Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases CT Domain in E.coil

    WANG Rui-jian; YANG Xue-ying; ZHENG Liang-yu; YANG Ye; GAO Gui; CAO Shu-gui


    The entire gene of carboxyltransferase(CT) domain of acetyl-CoA carboxylase(ACCase) from Chinese Spring wheat(CSW) plastid was cloned firstly,and the 2.3 kb gene was inserted into PET28a+ vector and expressed in E.coil in a soluble state.The (His)6 fusion protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot.The recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography,and the calculated molecular mass(Mr) was 88000.The results of the sequence analysis indicate that the cloned gene(GeneBank accession No.EU124675) was a supplement and revision of the reported ACCase CT partial cDNA from Chinese Spring wheat plastid.The recombinant protein will be significant for us to investigate the recognizing mechanism between ACCase and herbicides,and further to screen new herbicides.

  6. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  7. [Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, barley and corn and its relationship with the levels of total molds, Fusarium spp., colonization percentage and water activity].

    Moreno Contreras, M C; Martínez Yepez, A J; Raybaudi Martínez, R


    Fifty samples of cereals including 30 of wheat (10 of wheat hard red spring), 10 of wheat soft red winter and 10 of wheat durum ámber), 10 of barley and 10 of corn (5 of white corn and 5 of yellow corn) were analyzed to detect and determine by the TLC method, the quantity of deoxynivalenol levels, which is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by Fusarium species. The aw of samples and the internal and external micoflora and Fusarium spp. levels were also investigated. Results showed that the highest grade of infection (12-80%), and the highest count of total molds (3.9 Log UFC/g) were detected in wheat samples, while the highest levels of Fusarium spp. (2.3 Log UFC/g) were detected in white corn. Deoxynivalenol was found in the wheat and barley samples but not in corn. The wheat red winter soft samples showed the highest levels of deoxynivalenol (3.2 ug/g) which is over the limit levels accepted by the FDA. Correlation was not found among count of total molds, Fusarium spp., infestation grade, aw, and deoxynivalenol levels. These results suggest that it is necessary to exert measures to avoid and to control the importation of contaminated cereals with DON levels higher to those allowed.

  8. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder


    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT’s ongoing ‘Seeds of Discovery’ project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change. PMID:26176697

  9. Wheat Growth in Soils Treated by Ex Situ Thermal Desorption.

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Wick, Abbey F; Khan, E


    Successful remediation of oil-contaminated agricultural land may include the goal of returning the land to prespill levels of agricultural productivity. This productivity may be measured by crop yield, quality, and safety, all of which are influenced by soil characteristics. This research was conducted to determine if these metrics are affected in hard red spring wheat ( L. cultivar Barlow) when grown in soils treated by ex situ thermal desorption (TD) compared with wheat grown in native topsoil (TS). Additionally, TD soils were mixed with TS at various ratios to assess the effectiveness of soil mixing as a procedure for enhancing productivity. In two greenhouse studies, TD soils alone produced similar amounts of grain and biomass as TS, although grain protein in TD soils was 22% (±7%) lower. After mixing TS into TD soils, the mean biomass and grain yield were reduced by up to 60%, but grain protein increased. These trends are likely the result of nutrient availability determined by soil organic matter and nutrient cycling performed by soil microorganisms. Thermal desorption soil had 84% (±2%) lower soil organic carbon than TS, and cumulative respiration was greatly reduced (66 ± 2%). From a food safety perspective, grain from TD soils did not show increased uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Overall, this research suggests that TD soils are capable of producing safe, high-quality grain yields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder


    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  11. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284 than elites (DI = 0.267 and landraces (DI = 0.245. GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  12. In vitro assessment of wheat tolerance to drought

    Galović Vladislava O.


    Full Text Available Analyzed in this paper were the in vitro effects of drought stress in 13 genotypes of winter wheat, one genotype of spring wheat, and three Triticale genotypes of different geographic origin. Callus tissue was induced from immature zygotic embryos (10-15 days after pollination on a modified MS nutrient medium. After two weeks, callus tissue was transplanted onto the same medium enriched with 5% high-molecular polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000, which was used as the stress agent to produce the effect of drought chemically. A control group of calluses was grown on an identical medium but without PEG. After four weeks of growing calluses on these mediums, we assessed callus mass survival ability of the genotypes before the transplantation as well as percentage reduction of callus fresh weight after the transplantation onto the nutrient medium with 5% PEG. Statistically significant differences were found among the genotypes in their response to the induced stress. The best survival ability before the transplantation was found in the genotype Mexicol20 (83%, while the lowest was recorded in Slavija (11.3%. Culture growing under stress conditions significantly reduced callus fresh weight in all of the genotypes. The lowest decrease of the callus mass relative to control was recorded in Rozofskaja (14.4% and the highest in Miranovska (58.4%, indicating the genotypes' tolerance levels towards drought stress.

  13. Top 5 Spring Festival Customs in China



    The Spring Festival is the largest and most important festival in China.It is the first day of the lunar calendar~1 and usually occurs somewhere between January30 and February 20,heralding~2 the beginning of spring,thus it is known as the Spring Festival.1.Spring Couplets On the Chinese New Year,families in China decorate their front doors with poetic couplets

  14. An Evaluation of Chinese Spring Festival



    Nowadays,many Chinese people felt that Spring Festival is bored;feeling of celebrating Spring Festival is not as strong as before.Some experts stated that the physical part of Spring Festival shrouded the cultural celebrations.This article analysis the phenomenon through comparing how Chinese people had Spring Festivals in the past and now,and comparing different economic status Chinese people have in these two periods.

  15. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Starch. ... Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising ... Article Metrics.

  16. Qatar and the Arab Spring

    Coates Ulrichsen, Kristian


    This chapter examines how Qatar assumed an extraordinarily visible and interventionist role during the Arab Spring upheaval in 2011. It argues that, after an initial period of caution in January 2011, Qatari officials quickly recognised the changing contours of the Arab Spring and pragmatically readjusted their policy-responses. The lack of domestic constraints on decision-making enabled officials, led by the Emir and the Prime minister, to reposition Qatar (somewhat improbably) as a champion of the popular uprisings in North Africa and later as a key external player in the Syrian Civil War. The chapter also provides historical context to Qatar’s close relationship with the Muslim Brotherhood, and documents why Qatari officials saw the outbreak of the uprisings as far more of an opportunity than a challenge.

  17. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  18. KUNMING: The City of Spring


    @@ Kunming is the political, economic and cultural center of Yunnan province and the most popular center for tourism in Southwest China. Kunming enjoys a pleasant climate and does its best to live up to its title of "the City of Spring". Whenever you are planning to go, the temperature is always pleasant. With its convenient transport links in and out of the city, Kunming welcomes tens of thousands of tourists every day.

  19. The Arab Spring in Jordan

    Eriksson, Elsa Annaklara; Hansen, Ditte Ingemann


    This project contains analysis and discussion of several social movements in Jordan. The uprising in Jordan and demands for more democratization are inspired by the Arab Spring observed in the Middle East. The most highlighted Jordanian social movements being the religious Muslim Brotherhood, the radical Salafi Movement and the newly proclaimed Popular Mobilization. Questions concerning the identification of them, their goals and ways of mobilizing and the hindrances for these movements to mo...

  20. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN. Geneva


    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  1. Controlling proteins through molecular springs.

    Zocchi, Giovanni


    We argue that the mechanical control of proteins-the notion of controlling chemical reactions and processes by mechanics-is conceptually interesting. We give a brief review of the main accomplishments so far, leading to our present approach of using DNA molecular springs to exert controlled stresses on proteins. Our focus is on the physical principles that underlie both artificial mechanochemical devices and natural mechanisms of allostery.

  2. Strategic Studies Quarterly- Spring 2016


    Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, bordering Afghanistan. A number of analysts agree that if conflict breaks out with India, Pakistan would immediately rede - ploy...the military should not risk its capacity to fight just to become an instrument of social progress but at the same rook pride in ending the...the " social experiments" conducted during his tenure are not yet known. The former Secretary STRATEGIC STUDIES QuARTERLY + SPRING 2016 [ 149] Book

  3. 14 CFR 27.687 - Spring devices.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 27.687 Section 27.687... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  4. 14 CFR 23.687 - Spring devices.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 23.687 Section 23.687 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Systems § 23.687 Spring devices. The reliability of any spring device used in the control system must...

  5. 14 CFR 29.687 - Spring devices.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spring devices. 29.687 Section 29.687... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.687 Spring devices. (a) Each control system spring device whose failure could cause flutter or other unsafe...

  6. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    Wijskamp, Sebastiaan; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, Remko; Banabic, D.


    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  7. Radon in Himalayan springs: a geohydrological control

    Choubey, V.M.; Bartarya, S.K. [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Garhwal Univ., Srinagar, Uttar Pradesh (India). Dept. of Physics


    This paper presents the results of radon measurements in springs of the Himalayan region by using radon emanometry technique. The radon was measured in different springs, draining from different geohydrological setups, and from stream water in order to find the geohydrological control over radon concentration in groundwater emanating in the form of spring. The radon values were found to vary from 0.4 Bq/l to 887 Bq/l, being observed lowest for a turbulent stream and highest for the spring. The radon values were recorded highest in the springs draining through gneiss, granite, mylonite, etc. Radon concentrations have been related with four spring types viz. fracture-joint related spring, fault-lineament related spring, fluvial related spring and colluvial related spring, showing geohydrological characteristics of the rocks through which they are emanating. The high radon concentration in fracture-joint and fault-lineament springs is related to increased ratio of rock surface area to water volume and uranium mineralisation in the shear zones present in the close vicinity of fault and thrust. The low concentration of radon in fluvial and colluvial springs is possibly because of high transmissivity and turbulent flow within such deposits leading to natural de-emanation of gases. (orig.)

  8. Spring-forward in composite plate elements

    Wijskamp, S.; Lamers, E.A.D.; Akkerman, R.


    Spring-forward is a distortion of corner sections in continuous fibre reinforced composite products. The linear thermoelastic prediction for the spring-forward of single curved geometries is incorporated in a FE formulation for plate elements in order to simulate the spring-forward of doubly curved

  9. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original...

  10. Skillful Use of Imagery in Two Odes to Spring--Comment on The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring



    The Soote Season and Spring, the Sweet Spring are two lyrics that sing the praise of spring. The common feature of the two lyrics is that the two poets depict a series of pictures of the sweet spring by rich and varied imagery for readers.When these pictures are presented to readers ,readers feel as if they are participating in them,and the enchanting beauty of spring makes readers feel intoxicated with happiness. The two poets express their different feelings toward nature.

  11. Genetic characterization of Lophopyrum elongatum salt tolerance and associated ion regulation as expressed in bread wheat. Final technical report



    Lophopyrum elongatum is a highly salt-tolerant relative of wheat. Its salt tolerance is partially expressed in the amphiploid from a cross between wheat cv. Chinese Spring and L. elongatum. Genetic studies showed that the tolerance of gradually imposed salt stress is controlled by L. elongatum chromosomes 3E, 4E, 5E, and 7E and the tolerance of suddenly imposed salt stress by chromosomes 3E, 5E, 6E, and 7E. In wheat, rye, barley, and Dasypyrum, chromosomes of the same homoeologous groups, 3, 5, 6, and 7, were found to control the tolerance of these stress regimes. To gain insight into the physiological mechanisms of salt tolerance by wheat and L. elongatum, accumulation of Na and K, 20 protein amino acids, glycinebetaine, aminobutyrate, all TCA cycle intermediates, oxalate, glycerol-3-P, glyceraldehyde-3-P, pyruvate, lactate, ornithine, taurine, glucose, sucrose and other sugars was examined in the amphiploid and Chinese Spring by gas chromatography and H-NMR.

  12. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Babenko D. O.


    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  13. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Bulletin


    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  14. Disaggregation modelling of spring discharges

    Kirilova Bojilova Elena


    Full Text Available Disaggregation models are basically divided into three main groups: temporal, spatial and temporal-spatial. The focus of this paper is the application of temporal disaggregation models to disaggregate the seasonal flow in some large time intervals to sub-seasonal flows in some shorter time intervals. Two basic models are applied: the original model of Mejia and Rousselle and the corrected extended Lin model one-stage disaggregation. The flow totals from some karstic springs are used. Data for five springs in different areas of Bulgaria for the aims of the study are executed. The synthetic data generation for the chosen spring stations for a new realisation of thirty years is obtained. The multi-variate lag-one auto regressive model (AR(1 model is applied for generation of the annual flow sequences. The Lin model single- site is performed for thirty years generation period. The Lin model is an improvement compared to the original extended model. The new Lin approach succeeds in the preservation of the additivity as well as the moments. Applying the Lin model one-stage disaggregation results in consistent model parameter estimates. As a second step in the research multi-site disaggregation schemes are also applied.

  15. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather.

    Weih, M; Pourazari, F; Vico, G


    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding-crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  16. Ammonia Volatilization from Winter Wheat Field Top—Dressed with Urea



    Ammonia volatilization was measured with a continuous air flow enclosure method from a winter wheat field in the Experimental Farm of Jurong Agricultural School to investigate its main influencing factors.The experiment with five treatments in triplicate,no N( control),100,200 and 300kg N ha-1 with rice straw cover at a rate of 1500 kg ha-1 and 200 kg N ha-1 without rice straw,started when the winter wheat was sown in 1994,Sixty percent of the total amount of N applice was basal and 40% was top-dressd,The measurement of ammonia volatilization was immediately conducted after urea was top-dressed on soil surface at wheat elongation stage in spring of 1996 and 1997.The results showed that there was a diurnal variation of ammonia volatilization rate from the winter wheat field,which synchronized with air temperature.N losses through ammonia volatilzation increased with increasing N application rate,but the ratio of N lost through ammonia volatilization to applied N was not significantly affected by N application rate The coverage of rice straw had no significant effect on ammonia volatilization ,Soil moisture and rain events after urea was top-dressed affected ammonia volatilization significantly.

  17. Nutrient stoichiometry in winter wheat: Element concentration pattern reflects developmental stage and weather

    Weih, M.; Pourazari, F.; Vico, G.


    At least 16 nutrient elements are required by plants for growth and survival, but the factors affecting element concentration and their temporal evolution are poorly understood. The objective was to investigate i) element concentration pattern in winter wheat as affected by crop developmental stage and weather, and ii) whether, in the short term, element stoichiometry reflects the type of preceding crop. We assessed the temporal trajectories of element concentration pattern (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Mn, Fe, Cu, Na, Zn) across the life cycle (from seed to seed) of winter wheat field-grown in cool-temperate Sweden during two years with contrasting weather and when cultivated in monoculture or after different non-wheat preceding crops. We found strong influence of developmental stage on concentration pattern, with the greatest deviation from grain concentrations found in plants at the start of stem elongation in spring. Inter-annual differences in weather affected stoichiometry, but no evidence was found for a short-term preceding–crop effect on element stoichiometry. Winter wheat element stoichiometry is similar in actively growing plant tissues and seeds. Nitrogen exerts a strong influence on the concentration pattern for all elements. Three groups of elements with concentrations changing in concert were identified.

  18. A meta-analysis of responses of wheat yield formation to elevated ozone concentration

    FENG ZhaoZhong; KOBAYASHI Kazuhiko; WANG XiaoKe; FENG ZongWei


    The meta-analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate effects of the elevated ozone con-centration ([O3]) on chlorophyll concentration, gas exchange and yield components of wheat. There were 39 effective references through Web of Science (ISI, USA) and Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI, China). The results of meta-analysis indicated that elevated [O3] decreased grain yield, grain weight, grain number per ear, ear number per plant and harvest index by 26%, 18%, 11%, 5% and 11%,respectively, relative to ambient air. The decrease in leaf physiological characters was much greater than that in yield when wheat was expose to elevated [O3], while light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat), stomatal conductance (Gs) and chlorophyll content (ChI) decreased by 40%, 31%, and 46%,respectively. The responses to elevated [O3] between spring wheat and winter wheat were similar. Most of the variables showed a linear decrease trend with an increase of [O3]. The most significant decrease for Asat, Gs and Chl was found in grain filling stage. Elevated [CO2] could significantly ameliorated or offset the detrimental effects caused by elevated [O3].

  19. Development of SSR markers from ESTs of gramineous species and their chromosome location on wheat

    Linzhi Li; Sishen Li; Junjun Wang; Ying Guo; Fangshan Jiang; Yunfeng Xu; Yingying Wang; Haitao Pan; Guanzhu Han; Ruijun Li


    A total of 407,663 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of wheat,barley,maize,rice,and sorghum,obtained from GenBank/dbEST,were used to search for simple sequence repeats (SSRs).A total of 10,253 EST-SSRs,which accounted for 2.52% of all the ESTs,were iden-tiffed.Using Primer Premier 5.0,1367 EST-SSR primer pairs were designed,of which 715 with high quality were synthesized.The 715 primer pairs were tested on wheat,rice,maize,cotton,and soybean under the same PCR conditions,and the effective primer pairs in the five crops were 500 (69.93%),383 (53.57%),452 (63.22%),357 (49.93%),and 388 (56.27%),respectively.This indicated a high transfer-ability of EST-SSR markers between far-ranging species.In addition,139 EST-SSR primer pairs with 240 loci were localized on all the 21 wheat chromosomes by using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic lines of wheat.

  20. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin


    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  1. Concept, Characteristics and Future of Cold-type Wheat

    Zhang Songwu


    Cold types of wheat are the kinds of wheat whose canopy temperature keeps slightly lower and has a series of advantageous traits, which are favorable for wheat to have high and stable yield and stable high quality. The paper expatiates on the advances and important problems in the research of cold types of wheat and predicts the future of cold types of wheat and the influences of the research about cold types of wheat on other crops and plants.

  2. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  3. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin


    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge...

  4. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu


    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein.


    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao


    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.


    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao


    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  7. Interference of allelopathic wheat with different weeds.

    Zhang, Song-Zhu; Li, Yong-Hua; Kong, Chui-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Hua


    Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds involves a broad spectrum of species either independently or synergistically with competitive factors. This study examined the interference of allelopathic wheat with 38 weeds in relation to the production of allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in wheat with and without root-root interactions. There were substantial differences in weed biomass and DIMBOA concentration in wheat-weed coexisting systems. Among 38 weeds, nine weeds were inhibited significantly by allelopathic wheat but the other 29 weeds were not. DIMBOA levels in wheat varied greatly with weed species. There was no significant relationship between DIMBOA levels and weed suppression effects. Root segregation led to great changes in weed inhibition and DIMBOA level. Compared with root contact, the inhibition of eight weeds was lowered significantly, while significantly increased inhibition occurred in 11 weeds with an increased DIMBOA concentration under root segregation. Furthermore, the production of DIMBOA in wheat was induced by the root exudates from weeds. Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds not only is determined by the specificity of the weeds but also depends on root-root interactions. In particular, allelopathic wheat may detect certain weeds through the root exudates and respond by increasing the allelochemical, resulting in weed identity recognition. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary


    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  9. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of black tip damage in wheat kernels

    Delwiche, Stephen R.; Yang, I.-Chang; Kim, Moon S.


    A feasibility study was conducted on the use of hyperspectral imaging to differentiate sound wheat kernels from those with the fungal condition called black point or black tip. Individual kernels of hard red spring wheat were loaded in indented slots on a blackened machined aluminum plate. Damage conditions, determined by official (USDA) inspection, were either sound (no damage) or damaged by the black tip condition alone. Hyperspectral imaging was separately performed under modes of reflectance from white light illumination and fluorescence from UV light (~380 nm) illumination. By cursory inspection of wavelength images, one fluorescence wavelength (531 nm) was selected for image processing and classification analysis. Results indicated that with this one wavelength alone, classification accuracy can be as high as 95% when kernels are oriented with their dorsal side toward the camera. It is suggested that improvement in classification can be made through the inclusion of multiple wavelength images.


    Sławomir Stankowski


    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted in 2013 in Duninowo (54o539’ N, 16o830’ E. The experimental factors were: I. factor - 6 variants of fertilization, and II. - two level of EM preparations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ash from biomass by comparing its effect with the calcium fertilizer and compost BIOTOPE in conjunction with the preparation of microbiological Effective Microorganisms (EM. The impact of ash from biomass introduced into the soil on yield and yield structure and physiological parameters of spring wheat was analyzed No significant impact of the various variants of fertilizer application on the yielding of spring wheat cv.Bombona was confirmed. As a result of the form of compost fertilizer BIOTOPE, an increase in the content of chlorophyll in leaves of wheat cv Bombona (SPAD and the size of canopy assimilation area per unit area of the field (LAI. The application of EM did not affect the physiological parameters (yield, the number of ears per area unit, SPAD, LAI characterizing the spring wheat cv. Bombona.

  11. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A


    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  12. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.

    A. Zareafeizabadi


    Full Text Available In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW, wheat- potato- wheat- potato- wheat (WPWPW, wheat- potato- wheat- canola- wheat (WPWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- sugar beet- wheat (WMWSW. Data analysis was done in fifth year. Weed sampling was done at four growth stages of wheat, including tillering, shooting, heading and soft dough stage of grains. Density, dry and fresh weight of each weed species per unit area, besides wheat grain yield were determined. All analysis of variances for traits related to weed were statistically significant (p≤0.01. The highest weed biomass was obtained in heading stage of wheat, and the greatest weed dry matter in all four growth stages was achieved in WWWWW rotation and the least one in WMWSW rotation. The highest weed density in different growth stages was achieved in rotations 7, 3, and 6. Wheat grain yield in all crop rotation treatments had a significant increase compared to monoculture. It seems that, yield reduction of wheat monoculture is related to weed density, its population and higher weed biomass in this treatment.

  13. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Zhenping Yang

    Full Text Available As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping

  14. Variation of Bacterial Community Diversity in Rhizosphere Soil of Sole-Cropped versus Intercropped Wheat Field after Harvest.

    Yang, Zhenping; Yang, Wenping; Li, Shengcai; Hao, Jiaomin; Su, Zhifeng; Sun, Min; Gao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Chunlai


    As the major crops in north China, spring crops are usually planted from April through May every spring and harvested in fall. Wheat is also a very common crop traditionally planted in fall or spring and harvested in summer year by year. This continuous cropping system exhibited the disadvantages of reducing the fertility of soil through decreasing microbial diversity. Thus, management of microbial diversity in the rhizosphere plays a vital role in sustainable crop production. In this study, ten common spring crops in north China were chosen sole-cropped and four were chosen intercropped with peanut in wheat fields after harvest. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA sequencing of one 16S rDNA fragment were used to analyze the bacterial diversity and species identification. DGGE profiles showed the bacterial community diversity in rhizosphere soil samples varied among various crops under different cropping systems, more diverse under intercropping system than under sole-cropping. Some intercropping-specific bands in DGGE profiles suggested that several bacterial species were stimulated by intercropping systems specifically. Furthermore, the identification of these dominant and functional bacteria by DNA sequencing indicated that intercropping systems are more beneficial to improve soil fertility. Compared to intercropping systems, we also observed changes in microbial community of rhizosphere soil under sole-crops. The rhizosphere bacterial community structure in spring crops showed a strong crop species-specific pattern. More importantly, Empedobacter brevis, a typical plant pathogen, was only found in the carrot rhizosphere, suggesting carrot should be sown prudently. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that crop species and cropping systems had significant effects on bacterial community diversity in the rhizosphere soils. We strongly suggest sorghum, glutinous millet and buckwheat could be taken into account as intercropping crops with peanut


    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia


    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  16. Cyclical parthenogenetic reproduction in the Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States: sexual reproduction and its outcome on biotypic diversity.

    Puterka, G J; Hammon, R W; Burd, J D; Peairs, F B; Randolph, T L; Cooper, W R


    In 1986, the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), became an invasive species of United States. Nearly 20 yr later, new biotypes appeared that were capable of overcoming most sources of resistance and became a renewed threat to wheat, Triticum aestivum L., production. Cyclical (CP) and obligate (OP) parthenogenesis enables aphids to both adapt to changing environments and exploit host resources. We documented these forms of reproduction for Russian wheat aphid in wheat and wild grasses in the Central Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions during falls 2004-2009. Colonies from sample sites also were held under unheated greenhouse conditions and observed for the presence of sexual morphs and eggs through the winter. Russian wheat aphid populations were mainly OP and attempted to overwinter as adults, regardless of region sampled. A few populations contained oviparae but no males (gynocyclic) and were not specific to any particular region. Observation of the Russian wheat aphid colonies under greenhouse conditions failed to produce males or eggs. In spring 2007, CP was confirmed in a small population of Russian wheat aphid that eclosed from eggs (fundatricies) on wild grasses and wheat near Dove Creek, CO, in the Colorado Plateau region where other aphid species undergo CP. Lineages from ninety-three fundatricies were screened against 16 resistant and susceptible cereal entries to determine their biotypic classification. A high degree of biotypic diversity (41.4%) was detected in this population. Although CP was a rare in Russian wheat aphid populations, genetic recombination during the sexual cycle creates new biotypes and can have significant effects on population genetics.

  17. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µ, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  18. MODIS Imagery Improves Pest Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Cephus cinctus, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) in Colorado, USA.

    Lestina, Jordan; Cook, Maxwell; Kumar, Sunil; Morisette, Jeffrey; Ode, Paul J; Peairs, Frank


    Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado. We identified environmental variables that influence the current distribution of wheat stem sawfly in the state and evaluated whether remotely sensed variables improved model performance. We used presence localities of C. cinctus and climatic, topographic, soils, and normalized difference vegetation index and enhanced vegetation index data derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery as environmental variables. All models had high performance in that they were successful in predicting suitable habitat for C. cinctus in its current distribution in eastern Colorado. The enhanced vegetation index for the month of April improved model performance and was identified as a top contributor to MaxEnt model. Soil clay percent at 0-5 cm, temperature seasonality, and precipitation seasonality were also associated with C. cinctus distribution in Colorado. The improved model performance resulting from integrating vegetation indices in our study demonstrates the ability of remote sensing technologies to enhance species distribution modeling. These risk maps generated can assist managers in planning control measures for current infestations and assess the future risk of C. cinctus establishment in currently uninfested regions. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  19. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland



    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  20. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  1. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  2. Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

  3. Endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in wheat exposed to drought stress.

    Janeczko, Anna; Oklešťková, Jana; Siwek, Agata; Dziurka, Michał; Pociecha, Ewa; Kocurek, Maciej; Novák, Ondřej


    Progesterone is a basic hormone that regulates the metabolism in mammals. The presence of this compound has also been found in certain plants. It is believed that progesterone can regulate growth processes and resistance to stress, however, its precise role in plants remains unknown. The research conducted in this study was aimed at analyzing the content of endogenous progesterone and its cellular binding sites in the leaves of spring wheat exposed to drought. Changes were studied in two cultivars of wheat - a cultivar sensitive to drought (Katoda) and tolerant cultivar (Monsun). Plants had undergone periodic droughts during the seedling stage or in the phase of heading. The occurrence of free progesterone as well as its conjugated forms was observed in wheat studied. The amount of progesterone ranged from 0.2 to 5.8pmolgFW(-1) and was dependent on the cultivar, age of the plants, stage of development and fluctuated as a result of the exposure to drought. Cv. Katoda responded to a water deficit by lowering the amount of progesterone and cv. Monsun by increasing its level. Progesterone in plants grown in limited water conditions occurred primarily in a free form. While in the optimal watering conditions, some of its pool was found in the form of conjugates. In the spring wheat the occurrence of binding sites for progesterone was detected in cell membranes, cytoplasm and nuclei in the range of 10-36fmol/mg of protein. The wheat cultivars tested, Monsun and Katoda, differ in their concentration of cellular binding sites for progesterone. This number varied in the individual fractions during different stages of plant development and due to the effect of drought stress. The number of binding sites for progesterone located in the membrane fraction of seedlings and flag leaves increased significantly under drought in the cv. Katoda (35-46%), but did not change in the cv. Monsun. Whereas the number of cytoplasmic progesterone binding sites increased during the drought in

  4. Slightly thermal springs and non-thermal springs at Mount Shasta, California: Chemistry and recharge elevations

    Nathenson, M.; Thompson, J.M.; White, L.D.


    Temperature measurements, isotopic contents, and dissolved constituents are presented for springs at Mount Shasta to understand slightly thermal springs in the Shasta Valley based on the characteristics of non-thermal springs. Non-thermal springs on Mount Shasta are generally cooler than mean annual air temperatures for their elevation. The specific conductance of non-thermal springs increases linearly with discharge temperature. Springs at higher and intermediate elevations on Mount Shasta have fairly limited circulation paths, whereas low-elevation springs have longer paths because of their higher-elevation recharge. Springs in the Shasta Valley are warmer than air temperatures for their elevation and contain significant amounts of chloride and sulfate, constituents often associated with volcanic hydrothermal systems. Data for the Shasta Valley springs generally define mixing trends for dissolved constituents and temperature. The isotopic composition of the Shasta Valley springs indicates that water fell as precipitation at a higher elevation than any of the non-thermal springs. It is possible that the Shasta Valley springs include a component of the outflow from a proposed 210??C hydrothermal system that boils to supply steam for the summit acid-sulfate spring. In order to categorize springs such as those in the Shasta Valley, we introduce the term slightly thermal springs for springs that do not meet the numerical criterion of 10??C above air temperature for thermal springs but have temperatures greater than non-thermal springs in the area and usually also have dissolved constituents normally found in thermal waters. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale) seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak; Maciej Niedzielski; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Wiesław Łuczak; Barbara Adomas


    Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario). Seed moisture content (mc) was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It w...

  6. Highly Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Wheat Via In Planta Inoculation

    Risacher, Thierry; Craze, Melanie; Bowden, Sarah; Paul, Wyatt; Barsby, Tina

    This chapter details a reproducible method for the transformation of spring wheat using Agrobacterium tumefaciens via the direct inoculation of bacteria into immature seeds in planta as described in patent WO 00/63398(1. Transformation efficiencies from 1 to 30% have been obtained and average efficiencies of at least 5% are routinely achieved. Regenerated plants are phenotypically normal with 30-50% of transformation events carrying introduced genes at single insertion sites, a higher rate than is typically reported for transgenic plants produced using biolistic transformation methods.

  7. A transgenic wheat with a stilbene synthase gene resistant to powdery mildew obtained by biolistic method


    Stilbene, a kind of phytoalexin, plays an important role in resistance to fungal and bacterial infection in plants. It strongly inhibits the growth of fungi and sprout of spore. Stilbene synthase gene (Vst1) obtained from grapevine has been transferred into common spring wheat Jinghong 5 by using the biolistic transformation method. Five transgenic plants (T0) were obtained from the bombarded 2014 immature embryos. One immune plantlet and 3 plantlets with mid-resistance to powdery mildew were identified from the transgenic plants of T3 generation which came from 2 T0 transgenic plants.

  8. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    Hurkman William J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, in part because of the unique end-use qualities conferred by the abundant glutamine- and proline-rich gluten proteins. Many wheat flour proteins also present dietary problems for consumers with celiac disease or wheat allergies. Despite the importance of these proteins it has been particularly challenging to use MS/MS to distinguish the many proteins in a flour sample and relate them to gene sequences. Results Grain from the extensively characterized spring wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' was milled to white flour from which proteins were extracted, then separated and quantified by 2-DE. Protein spots were identified by separate digestions with three proteases, followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides. The spectra were used to interrogate an improved protein sequence database and results were integrated using the Scaffold program. Inclusion of cultivar specific sequences in the database greatly improved the results, and 233 spots were identified, accounting for 93.1% of normalized spot volume. Identified proteins were assigned to 157 wheat sequences, many for proteins unique to wheat and nearly 40% from Butte 86. Alpha-gliadins accounted for 20.4% of flour protein, low molecular weight glutenin subunits 18.0%, high molecular weight glutenin subunits 17.1%, gamma-gliadins 12.2%, omega-gliadins 10.5%, amylase/protease inhibitors 4.1%, triticins 1.6%, serpins 1.6%, purinins 0.9%, farinins 0.8%, beta-amylase 0.5%, globulins 0.4%, other enzymes and factors 1.9%, and all other 3%. Conclusions This is the first successful effort to identify the majority of abundant flour proteins for a single wheat cultivar, relate them to individual gene sequences and estimate their relative levels. Many genes for wheat flour proteins are not expressed, so this study represents further progress in describing the expressed wheat genome. Use of cultivar

  9. Analysis of seasonal expression levels of wheat fructan exohydrolase (FEH) genes regulating fructan metabolism involved in wintering ability.

    Meguro-Maoka, Ayano; Yoshida, Midori


    In northern regions, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) accumulates fructan during cold-acclimation in autumn and freeze-acclimation in early winter. The content of fructan in wheat crown tissues is associated with both freezing tolerance and snow mold resistance, and expression levels of fructan synthesis genes in leaf and crown tissue are correlated with both changes and varietal differences in fructan accumulation levels of wheat during cold- and freeze-acclimation. Fructan hydrolysis activity has also been thought be involved in wintering ability of wheat. Since several kinds of gene homologs encoding fructan exohydrolase (FEH: EC., 154) with different substrate specificities have recently been cloned from wheat, changes in transcript levels of wheat FEH genes in field-grown wheat cultivars from autumn to spring were analyzed to investigate regulation of seasonal changes in fructan content. The seasonal expression patterns of five genes encoding 1-FEH, 6-FEH (and Wfh-sm3), 6&1-FEH and 6-KEH (kestose exohydrolase) varied. Among the five genes, only seasonal changes in the expression of wfh-sm3, which codes an enzyme that is able to hydrolyze almost all components of fructan that has accumulated in hardened wheat tissues, were correlated with those changes in fructan contents. Moreover, the transcript levels of wfh-sm3 were low in snow mold-resistant cultivars that accumulate high levels of fructan. The transcript levels of 6-FEH increased with decrease in ambient temperatures and the levels decreased under snow. The analysis indicated that cooperative expression of 6-FEH and 1-FEH genes might be related to the seasonal changes and varietal difference in mono- and disaccharide contents. This study showed that the coordinated expression of FEH genes in wheat was related to the regulation of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation from autumn to early winter and fructan consumption under snow cover as well as energy supply and that wheat FEHs also play


    Zuzana Gregorová


    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  11. Biological control of take-all by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from Chinese wheat fields.

    Yang, Ming-Ming; Mavrodi, Dmitri V; Mavrodi, Olga V; Bonsall, Robert F; Parejko, James A; Paulitz, Timothy C; Thomashow, Linda S; Yang, He-Tong; Weller, David M; Guo, Jian-Hua


    Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. Bacteria were isolated from winter wheat from irrigated and rainfed fields in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces in China, respectively. Samples from rhizosphere soil, roots, stems, and leaves were plated onto King's medium B agar and 553 isolates were selected. On the basis of in vitro tests, 105 isolates (19% of the total) inhibited G. graminis var. tritici and all were identified as Pseudomonas spp. by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis. Based on biocontrol assays, 13 strains were selected for further analysis. All of them aggressively colonized the rhizosphere of wheat and suppressed take-all. Of the 13 strains, 3 (HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07, all stem endophytes) had genes for the biosynthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) but none had genes for the production of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyoluteorin, or pyrrolnitrin. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of 2-day-old cultures confirmed that HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 produced PCA but no other phenazines were detected. HPLC quantitative time-of-flight 2 mass-spectrometry analysis of extracts from roots of spring wheat colonized by HC9-07, HC13-07, or Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 demonstrated that all three strains produced PCA in the rhizosphere. Loss of PCA production by strain HC9-07 resulted in a loss of biocontrol activity. Analysis of DNA sequences within the key phenazine biosynthesis gene phzF and of 16S rDNA indicated that strains HC9-07, HC13-07, and JC14-07 were similar to the well-described PCA producer P. fluorescens 2-79. This is the first report of 2-79-like bacteria being isolated from Asia.

  12. Rapid and targeted introgression of genes into popular wheat cultivars using marker-assisted background selection.

    Harpinder S Randhawa

    Full Text Available A marker-assisted background selection (MABS-based gene introgression approach in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was optimized, where 97% or more of a recurrent parent genome (RPG can be recovered in just two backcross (BC generations. A four-step MABS method was developed based on 'Plabsim' computer simulations and wheat genome structure information. During empirical optimization of this method, double recombinants around the target gene were selected in a step-wise fashion during the two BC cycles followed by selection for recurrent parent genotype on non-carrier chromosomes. The average spacing between carrier chromosome markers was <4 cM. For non-carrier chromosome markers that flanked each of the 48 wheat gene-rich regions, this distance was approximately 12 cM. Employed to introgress seedling stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici resistance gene Yr15 into the spring wheat cultivar 'Zak', marker analysis of 2,187 backcross-derived progeny resulted in the recovery of a BC(2F(2ratio3 plant with 97% of the recurrent parent genome. In contrast, only 82% of the recurrent parent genome was recovered in phenotypically selected BC(4F(7 plants developed without MABS. Field evaluation results from 17 locations indicated that the MABS-derived line was either equal or superior to the recurrent parent for the tested agronomic characteristics. Based on these results, MABS is recommended as a strategy for rapidly introgressing a targeted gene into a wheat genotype in just two backcross generations while recovering 97% or more of the recurrent parent genotype.

  13. Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in wheat: differential expression and gene mapping.

    Ainsworth, C; Hosein, F; Tarvis, M; Weir, F; Burrell, M; Devos, K M; Gale, M D


    A full-length cDNA clone representing the large (shrunken-2) subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC has been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from developing grain of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Chinese Spring). The 2084-bp cDNA insert contains an open reading frame of 1566 nucleotides and primer-extension analysis indicated that the 5' end is 10 nucleotides shorter than the mRNA. The deduced protein contains 522 amino acids (57.8 kDa) and includes a putative transit peptide of 62 amino acids (6.5 kDa). The similarity of the deduced protein to the small subunit of AGP and to other AGP genes from plants and microorganisms is discussed. Northern hybridisation shows that the Agp1 genes (encoding the small subunit in the wheat endosperm) and the Agp2 genes (encoding the large subunit in the wheat endosperm) are differentially expressed in the wheat grain. Transcripts from both gene sets accumulate to high levels in the endosperm during grain development with the majority of the expression in the endopsperm rather than the embryo and pericarp layers. Although enzyme activity is detected in developing grains prior to 10 d post anthesis, only the Agp1 genes are active at this time (the Agp2 genes are not expressed until 10 d post anthesis). The possibility that the enzyme expressed during early grain development is a homotetramer of small subunits is discussed. The Agp1 and Agp2 genes are arranged as triplicate sets of single-copy homoeoloci in wheat. The Agp2 genes are located on the long arms of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, about 80 cM from the centromere. The Agp1 genes have been mapped to a position just distal to the centromere on the long arms of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D.

  14. Relation Between Frost-Resistance of Winter Grains, Their Respiration Rate and Water – Soluble Carbohydrates Content in Autumn - Spring Period

    Pomortsev A.V.


    Full Text Available The content of water-soluble carbohydrates and respiration rate in the crown tissue of winter wheat, rye and triticale in autumn – winter – spring were studied. In the period and of winter significant differences were revealed between winter crops in the rate of respiration and content of carbohydrates. Respiration of wheat in mid-March increased over February to 33%, and the content of carbohydrates during this period decreased by 10%. Despite the increase in environment temperature by mid-March of winter rye and triticale showed not increase, but rather decrease in the rate of respiration. A higher level of plant resistance of winter rye and triticale to low temperatures, as compared to winter wheat is associated with carbohydrate status and higher stability of respiration process in winter rye and triticale in response to temperature rise in end of winter.

  15. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  16. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products... percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from...

  17. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  18. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans,...

  19. Stabilized nitrogen fertilizers and application rate influence nitrogen losses under rainfed spring wheat

    Nitrogen (N) losses associated with fertilizer application have negative economic and environmental consequences, but urease and nitrification inhibitors have potential to reduce N losses. The effectiveness of these inhibitors has been studied extensively in irrigated but not rainfed systems. Theref...

  20. Evapotranspiration measurement and crop coefficient estimation over a spring wheat Farmland ecosystem in the Loess Plateau.

    Yang, Fulin; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Runyuan; Zhou, Jing


    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of the surface energy balance and hydrological cycle. In this study, the eddy covariance technique was used to measure ET of the semi-arid farmland ecosystem in the Loess Plateau during 2010 growing season (April to September). The characteristics and environmental regulations of ET and crop coefficient (Kc) were investigated. The results showed that the diurnal variation of latent heat flux (LE) was similar to single-peak shape for each month, with the largest peak value of LE occurring in August (151.4 W m(-2)). The daily ET rate of the semi-arid farmland in the Loess Plateau also showed clear seasonal variation, with the maximum daily ET rate of 4.69 mm day(-1). Cumulative ET during 2010 growing season was 252.4 mm, and lower than precipitation. Radiation was the main driver of farmland ET in the Loess Plateau, which explained 88% of the variances in daily ET (p<0.001). The farmland Kc values showed the obvious seasonal fluctuation, with the average of 0.46. The correlation analysis between daily Kc and its major environmental factors indicated that wind speed (Ws), relative humidity (RH), soil water content (SWC), and atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were the major environmental regulations of daily Kc. The regression analysis results showed that Kc exponentially decreased with Ws increase, an exponentially increased with RH, SWC increase, and a linearly decreased with VPD increase. An experiential Kc model for the semi-arid farmland in the Loess Plateau, driven by Ws, RH, SWC and VPD, was developed, showing a good consistency between the simulated and the measured Kc values.