WorldWideScience

Sample records for railway level crossings

  1. Fatal accidents at railway level crossings in Great Britain 1946-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates fatal accidents and fatalities at level crossings in Great Britain over the 64-year period 1946-2009. The numbers of fatal accidents and fatalities per year fell by about 65% in the first half of that period, but since then have remained more or less constant at about 11 fatal accidents and 12 fatalities per year. At the same time other types of railway fatalities have fallen, so level crossings represent a growing proportion of the total. Nevertheless, Britain's level crossing safety performance remains good by international standards. The paper classifies level crossings into three types: railway-controlled, automatic, and passive. The safety performance of the three types of crossings has been very different. Railway-controlled crossings are the best-performing crossing type, with falling fatal accident rates. Automatic crossings have higher accident rates per crossing than railway controlled or passive crossings, and the accident rates have not decreased. Passive crossings are by far the most numerous, but many have low usage by road users. Their fatal accident rate has remained remarkably constant over the whole period at about 0.9 fatal accidents per 1000 crossings per year. A principal reason why fatal accidents and fatalities have not fallen in the second half of the period as they did in the first half is the increase in the number of automatic crossings, replacing the safer railway controlled crossings on some public roads. However, it does not follow that this replacement was a mistake, because automatic crossings have advantages over controlled crossings in reducing delays to road users and in not needing staff. Based on the trends for each type of crossing and for pedestrian and non-pedestrian accidents separately, in 2009 a mean of about 5% of fatal accidents were at railway controlled crossings, 52% were at automatic crossings, and 43% were at passive crossings. Fatalities had similar proportions. About 60% of fatalities were

  2. Evaluation of Railway Level Crossing Attributes on Accident Causation in Lagos, Nigeria.

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    Adeolu O Dina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examines the contribution of Railway Level Crossing (RLCphysical attributes to accident occurrence using the12 major level crossings within the Lagos metropolis. The 48km single track mainline section under consideration which barely make up 1.1% of the entire narrow gauge track network of the country within a 5 year period contributed about 45% of the total National crossing accidents recorded in Nigeria. The method of investigation involved recording the individual attributes of each RLC such asgates, pedestrian traffic, car traffic light, proximity of signage to crossing, vehicular traffic as dummy variables.The regression analysis  was used to measure their effect on accidents.The result indicates gates, pedestrians and the location of signage had significant impact on accidents occurrence at level crossings within Lagos metropolis. Based on the findings, enhancement of active warning systems among other recommendations was suggested as potent counter measures for RLC accident reduction. Abstrak Penelitian menguji tingkat kontribusi atribut fisik dari perlintasan jalan kereta api terhadap kejadian kecelakaan menggunakan 12 perlintasan utama dalam kota metropolis Lagos. 48 km jalan utama tunggal menjadi pertimbangan yang hampir meningkat 1.1% dari seluruh trek sempit jaringan negara dalam jangka waktu 5 tahun menyumbang sekitar 45% dari total kecelakaan perlintasan secara Nasional di Nigeria. Metode penelitian melibatkan catatan dari masing-masing atribut RLC seperti pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, lampu lalu lintas mobil, kedekatan tanda penyebarangan, lalu lintas kendaraan sebagai variabel dumi. Analisis regresi digunakan untuk mengukur pengaruh dari atribut terhadap kecelakaan. Hasilnya menunjukkan pintu gerbang, pejalan kaki, dan lokasi tanda perlintasan mempunyai dampak signifikan pada kecelakaan dalam kota metropolis Lagos.Berdasarkan penemuan tersebut, perbaikan dari sistem peringatan aktif disarankan sebagai upaya

  3. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of fatal motor vehicle accidents at passive and active railway level crossings in Finland

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    Sirkku Laapotti

    2016-07-01

    Active warning devices are effective in preventing accidents due to road user errors. Equipping the most dangerous passive level crossings with warning devices – low cost or conventional – would increase safety. Alternatively, some level crossings could be removed altogether. A minimum requirement is that the environmental factors at passive level crossings support safe crossing.

  5. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

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    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  6. Bacteria-foraging based-control of high-performance railway level-crossing safety drives fed from photovoltaic array

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    Essamudin A. Ebrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, railway level-crossing accidents have noticeably escalated in an indisputably preposterous manner, this devastating snag opened the floodgates for the frustrating death of a numerous number of the third world’s citizens, especially in Egypt. To tackle with this problem, a fully intelligent control system is required, which must be automated without human intervention. So, in this research, a new proposed level-crossing tracking system is designed and introduced. The system comprises a high-performance induction motor (IM fed from photovoltaic (PV array, the boom barrier (gate with its mechanism – as a load – buck–boost converter, inverter, and two smart PI-controllers. The first one is designed to regulate the duty cycle of the converter to its optimum value required to balance between maximum power point tracking (MPPT and keeping dc-link voltage of the inverter at a minimum level needed to maintain the motor internal torque at rated value. The second PI-controller is designed for speed control of indirect field-oriented vector-control (IFO-VC IM. The proposed design problems of MPPT, dc-link voltage and speed controllers are solved as optimization problems by bacteria-foraging optimization (BFO algorithm to search for the optimal PI-parameters. The simulation test results are acquired when using the battery-less PV-array with and without the proposed controllers. Also, results are obtained when applying several prescribed speed trajectories to test the robustness against PV-irradiance fluctuations and motor-dynamic disturbances. From these results, the proposed intelligent controllers are robust compared to classical Ziegler–Nichols (ZN PI-controllers and also when the motor is directly fed from PV generator without converter.

  7. Traffic control on a railway crossing with elements of utility theory

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    Abramova L.S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An approach to the management of vehicles at a railway crossing in order to improve the road safety is considered. To do this, it is suggested to introduce the dynamic motion control modes on the road, which consist in reducing the speed at a certain distance from the railway crossing and depends on its condition. The value of the recommended speed is displayed on the managed road signs and is calculated in real-time traffic controller at the railway crossing control point. The mark location is determined based on traffic intensity equalization that affects both the traffic intensity of the railway crossing and the road section on the approach to it. To analyze such events directed to improve the traffic on level crossings it is suggested to use the elements of utility theory to further develop the traffic control algorithm. For this purpose there was built a decision tree for the existing conditions at the railway crossing and at the introduction of the dynamic management, which indicates the result of decision taken by the change in the selected criteria of efficiency of traffic management at the railway crossing. Such an approach can reduce the number of road accidents and to increase the capacity of vehicular traffic at a particular road section to the technical means of attracting the driver's attention to the complex road by forced reduction in speed not only before the railway crossing, but also in at the approach to it.

  8. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

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    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  9. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Yuan; Wang, Mei; Fu, Zhou-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1) we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC) technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2) we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3) we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP) to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas. PMID:24936948

  10. Railway Crossing Risk Area Detection Using Linear Regression and Terrain Drop Compensation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most railway accidents happen at railway crossings. Therefore, how to detect humans or objects present in the risk area of a railway crossing and thus prevent accidents are important tasks. In this paper, three strategies are used to detect the risk area of a railway crossing: (1 we use a terrain drop compensation (TDC technique to solve the problem of the concavity of railway crossings; (2 we use a linear regression technique to predict the position and length of an object from image processing; (3 we have developed a novel strategy called calculating local maximum Y-coordinate object points (CLMYOP to obtain the ground points of the object. In addition, image preprocessing is also applied to filter out the noise and successfully improve the object detection. From the experimental results, it is demonstrated that our scheme is an effective and corrective method for the detection of railway crossing risk areas.

  11. Evaluation of railway transportation efficiency based on super-cross efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xiuyuan

    2018-01-01

    The efficiency of railway transportation is an important index. It can measure the development of railway transportation enterprises, and the efficiency of railway transportation has become a hot issue in the study of railway development. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) has been widely applied to railway efficiency analysis. In this paper, BBC model and super-cross efficiency model are constructed by using DEA theory, taking the 18 Railway Bureau as the research object, with the mileage, the number of employees, locomotive number, average daily loading number as input indicators, the passenger turnover, freight turnover and transport income as output indicators, then calculated and evaluated comprehensive efficiency, pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency. We get that the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation. Getting the super-cross efficiency is more in line with the actual situation.

  12. Railway crossings: driving the structure under the railway by means of oleodinamic jacks

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael; Ruiz Viedma, Andrés J.

    1991-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in ...

  13. Level and determinants of knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis among railway workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Mean (± SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (± 10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ≥ 50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

  14. Risk Evaluation of Railway Coal Transportation Network Based on Multi Level Grey Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Wang, Xifu

    2018-01-01

    The railway transport mode is currently the most important way of coal transportation, and now China’s railway coal transportation network has become increasingly perfect, but there is still insufficient capacity, some lines close to saturation and other issues. In this paper, the theory and method of risk assessment, analytic hierarchy process and multi-level gray evaluation model are applied to the risk evaluation of coal railway transportation network in China. Based on the example analysis of Shanxi railway coal transportation network, to improve the internal structure and the competitiveness of the market.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Rolling Contact Fatigue Crack Initiation and Fatigue Life Prediction of the Railway Crossing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The procedure for analysing rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway turnout crossing is developed. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is used to obtain stress and strain results, considering the dynamic effects of wheel-crossing rolling contact.

  16. Vibrations of a delivery car excited by railway track crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litak, Grzegorz; Borowiec, Marek; Hunicz, Jacek; Koszalka, Grzegorz; Niewczas, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Vertical vibrations of a delivery car passing through railway tracks have been investigated in this paper. The application of recurrence plots allows to examine short time series of acceleration non-stationary courses. Recurrence quantification analysis and square deviations estimated in small windows have been used to monitor car vibrations and transient behaviour. Measuring acceleration on the 'sprung' and 'unsprung' masses of a vehicle has enabled also to test the quality of a car suspension.

  17. The Concept of Limitation of the Vibration Generated by Rail-Vehicles at Railway Stations and Railway Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Jan; Targosz, Jan

    2011-03-01

    One of the possibilities of limitation of effects of dynamic influence of the rail-vehicles is the application of the complex objects of vibroinsulation when the mass of the vibroinsulating element is significant, and that is the case of the transporting machines and devices, when the geometric dimensions of the elements of vibroinsulation system are similar to the slab, where the process of modelling of the vibroinsulation mechanism as a discrete system, creates extreme hazards. The article presents the concept of limitation of effects of dynamic influence of the rail-vehicles and tram-vehicles, mainly in the railway tracks located at the railway stations, tram-stops and other engineering structures. The digital model was developed for simulation regarding the propagation of the vibration to the environment. The results of simulation were the basis for development of the vibroinsulation system for the rail-tracks located at the engineering structures such as railway stations, viaducts. The second part of the article presents the approach for controlling of the tension as a function of load of the railway crossing, which was modelled as discrete-continous model. The continuous systems consist of two elements, that is of the support made of elastomer and of the tension members with controlled tension depending on the crossing load. Together with development and more popular application of tension member systems in engineering structures, among others in vibroinsulation systems, it is important to include into calculations and experiments the dynamic loads of the tension member with the mass attached to it. In case of complex objects of vibroinsulation when the mass of the vibroinsulator is significant, and that is the case of the transporting machines and devices, when the geometric dimensions of the elements of vibroinsulation system are similar to the slab, where the process of modelling of the vibroinsulation mechanism as a discrete system, creates extreme

  18. Numerical analysis of rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway crossing

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, L.; Markine, V.L.; Shevtsov, I.

    2015-01-01

    The procedure for analysing rolling contact fatigue crack initiation and fatigue life prediction of the railway turnout crossing is developed. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is used to obtain stress and strain results, considering the dynamic effects of wheel-crossing rolling contact. Material model accounting for elastic- plastic isotropic and kinematic hardening effects is adopted. The results from FE analysis are combined with J-S fatigue model that is based on critical plan...

  19. Modelling of Signal - Level Crossing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Novak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author presents an object-oriented model of a railway level-crossing system created for the purpose of functional requirements specification. Unified Modelling Language (UML, version 1.4, which enables specification, visualisation, construction and documentation of software system artefacts, was used. The main attention was paid to analysis and design phases. The former phase resulted in creation of use case diagrams and sequential diagrams, the latter in creation of class/object diagrams and statechart diagrams.

  20. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goverde, Rob M P; Bešinović, Nikola; Binder, Anne

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a performance-based railway timetabling framework integrating timetable construction and evaluation on three levels: microscopic, macroscopic, and a corridor fine-tuning level, where each performance indicator is optimized or evaluated at the appropriate level. A modular implementation...

  1. Self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise: exposure-response relationships for nighttime equivalent and maximum noise levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Moum, Torbjorn; Engdahl, Bo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the present survey was to study self-reported sleep disturbances due to railway noise with respect to nighttime equivalent noise level (L(p,A,eq,night)) and maximum noise level (L(p,A,max)). A sample of 1349 people in and around Oslo in Norway exposed to railway noise was studied in a cross-sectional survey to obtain data on sleep disturbances, sleep problems due to noise, and personal characteristics including noise sensitivity. Individual noise exposure levels were determined outside of the bedroom facade, the most-exposed facade, and inside the respondents' bedrooms. The exposure-response relationships were analyzed by using logistic regression models, controlling for possible modifying factors including the number of noise events (train pass-by frequency). L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) were significantly correlated, and the proportion of reported noise-induced sleep problems increased as both L(p,A,eq,night) and L(p,A,max) increased. Noise sensitivity, type of bedroom window, and pass-by frequency were significant factors affecting noise-induced sleep disturbances, in addition to the noise exposure level. Because about half of the study population did not use a bedroom at the most-exposed side of the house, the exposure-response curve obtained by using noise levels for the most-exposed facade underestimated noise-induced sleep disturbance for those who actually have their bedroom at the most-exposed facade.

  2. IMPROVING THE POSITIONING ACCURACY OF TRAIN ON THE APPROACH SECTION TO THE RAILWAY CROSSING

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    V. I. Havryliuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary to analyze possibility of improving the positioning accuracy of train on the approach section to crossing for traffic safety control at railway crossings. Methodology. Researches were performed using developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio frequency track circuits on a train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all usable frequencies. Findings. The paper presents the developed mathematical model, describing dependence of the input impedance of the coded and audio-frequency track circuits on the train coordinate at various values of ballast isolation resistances and for all frequencies used in track circuits. The relative error determination of train coordinate by input impedance caused by variation of the ballast isolation resistance for the coded track circuits was investigated. The values of relative error determination of train coordinate can achieve up to 40-50 % and these facts do not allow using this method directly for coded track circuits. For short audio frequency track circuits on frequencies of continuous cab signaling (25, 50 Hz the relative error does not exceed acceptable values, this allow using the examined method for determination of train location on the approach section to railway crossing. Originality. The developed mathematical model allowed determination of the error dependence of train coordinate by using input impedance of the track circuit for coded and audio-frequency track circuits at various frequencies of the signal current and at different ballast isolation resistances. Practical value. The authors proposethe method for train location determination on approach section to the crossing, equipped with audio-frequency track circuits, which is a combination of discrete and continuous monitoring of the train location.

  3. A Bi-Level Programming Model for the Railway Express Cargo Service Network Design Problem

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    Boliang Lin

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Service network design is fundamentally crucial for railway express cargo transportation. The main challenge is to strike a balance between two conflicting objectives: low network setup costs and high expected operational incomes. Different configurations of these objectives will have different impacts on the quality of freight transportation services. In this paper, a bi-level programming model for the railway express cargo service network design problem is proposed. The upper-level model forms the optimal decisions in terms of the service characteristics, and the low-level model selects the service arcs for each commodity. The rail express cargo is strictly subject to the service commitment, the capacity restriction, flow balance constraints, and logical relationship constraints among the decisions variables. Moreover, linearization techniques are used to convert the lower-level model to a linear one so that it can be directly solved by a standard optimization solver. Finally, a real-world case study based on the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway Line is carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed solution approach.

  4. Synchrotron X-ray measurement of residual strain within the nose of a worn manganese steel railway crossing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhar, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, Ruichao

    2017-01-01

    Switches and crossings are an integral part of any railway network. Plastic deformation associated with wear and rolling contact fatigue due to repeated passage of trains cause severe damage leading to the formation of surface and sub-surface cracks which ultimately may result in rail failure. Kn...

  5. Resistance leveling to changes on railway enterprises under implementation of reforms

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    E.N. Shyrokova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The observed tendencies in the development of the national economy require stable implementation of planned reforms in the sphere of industrial and economic activities of the railway transport in the strategic railway branch. At the same time the issue of resistance elimination to changes that innovative solutions may cause is topical. To study the subject matter of resistance manifestation to implementable changes and search for solutions on the problem in question as well. Methodology. Methodology in an article is based on the use of consistent methodological technique. Findings. It contains the author’s point of view on necessity of taking changes resistance into account during restructuring and further reformation. Emphasized is the need for careful planning of changes and current detection of obstacles that inevitably, for a variety of reasons, arise. Originality. The causes of resistance to changes from different points of view were identified in this paper. Their classification was made and some advice for manifestation leveling of resistance to changes was offered. Practical value. The rational application of measures for resistance leveling to the introduced measures will provide not only high-quality and fast implementation of the reform program, but also its implementation with minimum time and finance losses. That is an important factor in competitiveness increase of railways under unstable economic development.

  6. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems - In the context of ERTMS/ETCS Level 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong

    This dissertation presents a holistic, formal method for efficient modelling and verification of safety-critical railway control systems that have product line characteristics, i.e., each individual system is constructed by instantiating common generic applications with concrete configuration dat...... standardized railway control systems ERTMS/ETCS Level 2. Experiments showed that the method can be used for specification, verification and validation of systems of industrial size....

  7. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This

  8. Prediction of microstructure and ductile damage of a high-speed railway axle steel during cross wedge rolling

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Y; Lin, J; Bai, Q; Wang, B; Tang, X; Ji, H

    2016-01-01

    Microstructure and ductile damage have a significant influence on the deformation behavior of high-speed railway axles during hot cross wedge rolling (CWR) and its final performance. In this study, based on the continuum damage mechanics, a multiaxial constitutive model coupling microstructure and ductile damage was established to predict the evolution of microstructure and ductile damage of 25CrMo4 during hot CWR processes. Material constants within the multiaxial constitutive model were det...

  9. Synchrotron X-ray measurement of residual strain within the nose of a worn manganese steel railway crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, S.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, R.; Danielsen, HK; Jensen, D. Juul

    2017-07-01

    Switches and crossings are an integral part of any railway network. Plastic deformation associated with wear and rolling contact fatigue due to repeated passage of trains cause severe damage leading to the formation of surface and sub-surface cracks which ultimately may result in rail failure. Knowledge of the internal stress distribution adds to the understanding of crack propagation and may thus help to prevent catastrophic rail failures. In this work, the residual strains inside the bulk of a damaged nose of a manganese railway crossing that was in service for five years has been investigated by using differential aperture synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The main purpose of this paper is to describe how this method allows non-destructive measurement of residual strains in selected local volumes in the bulk of the rail. Measurements were conducted on the transverse surface at a position about 6.5 mm from the rail running surface of a crossing nose. The results revealed the presence of significant compressive residual strains along the running direction of the rail.

  10. Programmable Logic Controllers for Systems of Automatic of the Level Crossing

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    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway crossings are vulnerable to incidence of high number of accidents often deadly. In order to face this problem, the modern systems of automatic of the level crossing have been introduced. These systems are based on Programmable Logic Controllers, which allow the designers to exploit self-control mechanisms, events acquiring, technical diagnostic which in turn enable remote control and acquisition of faults.

  11. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

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    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  12. Formal verfication of a railway crossing controller using time petri nets; Taimupetorinetto wo mochiita fumikiri seigyo puroguramu no keishikiteki kensho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, R. [The Nippon Signal Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoneda, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-20

    In the system requesting the real-time property, detecting the dugs in the method by carrying out the verification at the stage of method is important for excluding the error from the latter process. The verifying device for investigating whether the properties are satisfied by the system with the expression of the operation rules of system with time Petri nets and presenting the properties to be verified with real-time linear time-phase theory is developed by Yoneda, et al. In this paper, the verification of train check and warning-controlling operation in railway-crossing is carried out by using said verifying device, and the effectiveness of this verifying method is examined. In the practical controlling program, the mistakes in design occurs easily because of the further execution of complex processings including the countermeasure to the defect of short circuit in controlling unit and the control of up/down trains. It is planned in the future to modeled such processings as well as functions and to verify the system more utilizable. 12 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  14. Analysis of Traffic Safety Factors at Level Rail-Road Crossings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Mlinarić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main factors of traffic safety andreliabilityat level crossings. The number and causes of accidentsare stated, that result from ignorance, insufficient training ofthe traffic participants, their ilnsponsibility and insufficient orincomplete legislation, as well as from insufficiently professionaland scientifically not serious enough approach to solvingthis cardinal problem in road and railway traffic. Based on theanalysis the causes are determined and solutions proposed, aswell as more efficient methods to improve safety and reduce thenumber of traffic accidents at level crossings.

  15. A calculation model for the noise from steel railway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, M.H.A.; Thompson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The sound level of a train crossing a steel railway bridge is usually about 10 dB higher than on plain track. In the Netherlands there are many such bridges which, for practical reasons, cannot be replaced by more intrinsically quiet concrete bridges. A computational model is described for the

  16. The incentive regulation in the network management. A cross-sectorial investigation of the network managements energy, telecommunication and railway; Die Anreizregulierung in den Netzwirtschaften. Eine sektoruebergreifende Untersuchung der Netzwirtschaften Energie, Telekommunikation und Eisenbahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, Andrea

    2011-07-01

    The author of the book under consideration reports on a cross-sectoral analysis of network management of energy, telecommunications and railways with regard to incentive regulation. The cross-sectoral analysis of incentive regulation requires a systematization of the instrument of payment regulation. Using the example of the incentive regulation, the author provides a rather jurisprudential contribution to a network management dogma.

  17. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  18. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  19. Using a very low level radioactive steel from decommissioning of nuclear installation for the construction of railway structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimak, A.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    During the operation, but especially during decommissioning (SW) of operation, there is a large amount of radioactive waste, whose activity only slightly exceeds the limits for unrestricted use, or for the unconditional release into the environment. In particular, metal and concrete debris. Processing, treatment and disposal of such waste would require considerable funds, and also storage space would be quickly filled up. A convenient way to use a large number of low-activity materials seems to be conditional release, which will reuse the materials for a particular purpose. The paper deals with use of a very low level of steel from decommissioning of nuclear installations for construction of the railway bridge. The task of the present paper is to review the impact of conditionally released steel on population and to determine what level of mass activity of the steel meets the limits prescribed by law. For impact assessment of conditionally released steel on population there was selected computing resource VISIPLAN 3D ALARA Planning Tool. (author)

  20. Modernized level limiters for petroleum products during pouring into railway cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batrakov, B.P.; Bakshi, A.S.; Efremov, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The drawbacks of the POUN-1 and POUN-2 pouring limiters are examined and a brief description of the POUN-1M level limiter is given. The device is modernized and is designed for operation with pressure differentials up to 5 kilograms per square centimeter is approved for the premium quality level and is series manufactured by the ''Starorusspribor'' factory. It is noted that at the Neftekhimavtomatika Scientific and Industrial Association factory is planning to manufacture the first industrial series of the POUN-2M level limiters which are designed for pressure differentials up to seven kilograms per square centimeter. Unlike the basic design, the POUN-2M device is equipped with a hydraulic shock and a flow generator which controls the fluid flow rate during the time the sealing valve is closed.

  1. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  2. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  3. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  4. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  5. Case for railway electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.N.

    1981-06-10

    The publication earlier this year of the joint BR-DTp final report of the review of main line electrification represented the culmination of over two years work; the study is almost certainly the most complex and comprehensive of this type ever undertaken. Heavy reliance on computer models allowed business analysis over the 34-year timespan of the review to extend to a level of detail that was not expected at the time of the last such investigation, the 1931 Weir Report of the Committee on Main Line Railway Electrification. It is encouraging that, despite the sweeping changes in both technology and economic conditions during the intervening years, the verdict remains highly favourable.

  6. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises.

  7. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  8. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  9. 铁路跨境电商邮包运输业务模式探析%Discussion on Business Mode of Railway Cross-border E-commerce Mail Parcel Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章雪岩; 刘虹; 于琛卓

    2016-01-01

    为贯彻落实“一带一路”政策,提高我国国际铁路运输的市场适应能力,提出了要大力发展铁路跨境电商邮包运输业务,阐述了其必要性与可行性,在此基础上定义了铁路跨境电商邮包运输,设计了其业务模式、业务流程及总体架构,此外,探讨了该业务的营销模式,对“一带一路”政策的推行以及扩大铁路货运市场具有重要意义。%In this paper, to substantiate the belt and road strategy of China and improve the market adaptability of the Chinese international railway transportation industry, we proposed to forcefully develop the railway cross-border e-commerce mail parcel transportation business, discussed its necessity and feasibility, then on such basis, defined the railway cross-border e-commerce mail parcel transport, and designed its business mode, process and overall architecture. At the end, we went over its marketing mode.

  10. Field observation of advance warning/advisory signage for passive railway crossings with restricted lateral sightline visibility: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, N J; Wilde, G J

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated a newly proposed series of signs intended for passive crossings with restrictions to lateral sightline visibility. These signs provide advance warning of a crossing and the restriction to lateral visibility. In addition, the signs advise motorists to come to a complete stop before crossing. Motorist behaviour was examined before and after installation of these signs at a rural passive crossing. A second site was observed in parallel to control partially for any confounding effects. Results indicated that motorists reduced speed and searched approach quadrants longer at points in the approachway after installation of the signs. However, there was no reliable increase in the number of motorists coming to complete stop, engaging in search behaviours, or classified as safe. The results are discussed in terms of reasons for the lack of compliance with the sign advisory.

  11. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  12. The Power of Cross-Level Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngerman, Stephanie

    1998-01-01

    Much credit for the tangible feeling of caring at an Idaho elementary school is due to partnerships that faculty, families, and students have forged across grade levels. These cross-grade buddy systems have put the brakes on bullies, fostered student friendships, and resolved personality conflicts among staff members. (MLH)

  13. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  14. Large level crossings of a random polynomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Farahmand

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available We know the expected number of times that a polynomial of degree n with independent random real coefficients asymptotically crosses the level K, when K is any real value such that (K2/n→0 as n→∞. The present paper shows that, when K is allowed to be large, this expected number of crossings reduces to only one. The coefficients of the polynomial are assumed to be normally distributed. It is shown that it is sufficient to let K≥exp(nf where f is any function of n such that f→∞ as n→∞.

  15. Analyzing injury severity factors at highway railway grade crossing accidents involving vulnerable road users: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomi, Haniyeh; Bagheri, Morteza; Fu, Liping; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F

    2016-11-16

    The main objective of this study is to identify the main factors associated with injury severity of vulnerable road users (VRUs) involved in accidents at highway railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) using data mining techniques. This article applies an ordered probit model, association rules, and classification and regression tree (CART) algorithms to the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) HRGC accident database for the period 2007-2013 to identify VRU injury severity factors at HRGCs. The results show that train speed is a key factor influencing injury severity. Further analysis illustrated that the presence of illumination does not reduce the severity of accidents for high-speed trains. In addition, there is a greater propensity toward fatal accidents for elderly road users compared to younger individuals. Interestingly, at night, injury accidents involving female road users are more severe compared to those involving males. The ordered probit model was the primary technique, and CART and association rules act as the supporter and identifier of interactions between variables. All 3 algorithms' results consistently show that the most influential accident factors are train speed, VRU age, and gender. The findings of this research could be applied for identifying high-risk hotspots and developing cost-effective countermeasures targeting VRUs at HRGCs.

  16. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaona Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2, we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP. After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers’ physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors.

  17. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  18. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  19. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  20.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  1. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  2. Portfolio Selection Using Level Crossing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam; Shirazi, A. H.; Jafari, G. R.

    Asset allocation is one of the most important and also challenging issues in finance. In this paper using level crossing analysis we introduce a new approach for portfolio selection. We introduce a portfolio index that is obtained based on minimizing the waiting time to receive known return and risk values. By the waiting time, we mean time that a special level is observed in average. The advantage of this approach is that the investors are able to set their goals based on gaining return and knowing the average waiting time and risk value at the same time. As an example we use our model for forming portfolio of stocks in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE).

  3. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sout'h Africa's armed forces were small, and their material resources ... scheme, contingency planning proceeded. On the outbreak of ... hannesburg); a Railway Operating Company; a Mechanical .... ded his verdict that from the points of view.

  4. Investigation of privatization by level crossing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, M.; Jafari, G. R.

    2009-09-01

    Privatization - a political as well as an economic policy - is generally defined as the transfer of a property or the responsibility for it from the public to the private sector. But privatization is not merely the transfer of the ownership and efficiency of the market should be considered. A successful privatization program induces better profitability and efficiency, higher output, more investment, etc. The main method of privatization is through introducing new stocks to the market to motivate competition. However, for a successful privatization the capability of a market for absorbing the new stock should also be considered. Without paying attention to this aspect, privatization through the introduction of new stocks may lead to reduced market efficiency. We study, based on the complexity theory and in particular the concept of Level Crossing, the effect of the stages of the development, activity, risk, and the waiting times for special events on the privatization.

  5. The importance of both workplace and private life factors in psychological distress: a large cross-sectional survey of French railway company employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David; Mallet, Luc; Flahault, Antoine; Cothereau, Catherine; Velazquez, Sébastien; Capron, Loïc; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2013-08-01

    The psychological well-being of employees is a priority in occupational health. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress among employees of a large French company, to calculate the associations between distress and stressors in the workplace and private life domains, and to explore confounding across stressor domains. 8,058 employees of the French national railways company completed a nation-wide survey in 2006 (94.3 % participation). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and 21 potential stressors and socio-demographic factors by a self-administered questionnaire. Stressors were summarized in scores for work pressure, workplace conflict, and personal life domains. Risk ratios (RRs) between psychological distress and stressors were calculated using robust-variance Poisson regression. The prevalence of psychological distress was 32.8 % (95 % CI 31.8-33.9 %), higher among women (48.9 %, 95 % CI 46.5-51.7 %) than men (30.1 %, 95 % CI 29.0-31.2 %). Each stressor domain was associated with distress in the final model containing likely confounders and all three domains (RR highest vs. lowest level-work pressure: men 1.55, 95 % CI 1.42-1.70, women 1.42, 95 % CI 1.23-1.63; work conflict: men 2.63, 95 % CI 2.38-2.91, women 1.98, 95 % CI 1.70-2.30; life concerns: men 2.04, 95 % CI 1.86-2.23, women 1.53, 95 % CI 1.32-1.78). The mutually adjusted RRs for the stressor domains were smaller than the unadjusted RRs. Almost one-third of all employees and one-half of female employees experienced psychological distress. All three stressor domains were associated with psychological distress and adjustment reduced the association size, suggesting possible over-estimation if one or more domains are omitted from the survey.

  6. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  7. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  8. Anomalous fermion number nonconservation: Paradoxes in the level crossing picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In theories with anomalous fermion number nonconservation, the level-crossing picture is considered a faithful representation of the fermionic quantum number variation. It represents each created fermion by an energy level that crosses the zero-energy line from below. If several fermions of various masses are created, the level-crossing picture contains several levels that cross the zero-energy line and cross each other. However, we know from quantum mechanics that the corresponding levels cannot cross if the different fermions are mixed via some interaction potential. The simultaneous application of these two requirements on the level behavior leads to paradoxes. For instance, a naive interpretation of the resulting level-crossing picture gives rise to charge nonconservation. In this paper, we resolve this paradox by a precise calculation of the transition probability, and discuss what are the implications for the electroweak theory. In particular, the nonperturbative transition probability is higher if top quarks are present in the initial state

  9. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  10. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  11. Monitoring of transition zones in railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, B.; Priest, J.; Holscher, P.; Powrie, W.

    2009-01-01

    Transitions between railway track on embankments or natural ground and fixed structures such as bridges and culverts often require substantial additional maintenance to preserve line, level and ride quality. This extra maintenance not only increases costs but also causes delays. Despite its

  12. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...

  13. Enrichment and Bioavailability of Trace Elements in Soil in Vicinity of Railways in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Watanabe, Izumi; Ozaki, Hirozaku; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the concentrations, distribution, pollution levels, and bioavailability of 12 trace elements in soils along 6 different railways in Japan. Three diesel powered railways and three electricity powered railways were chosen as target. Surface soils (railways for analysis. Digestion and extraction were performed before concentration and bioavailability analysis. Enrichment factor was applied to investigate contamination levels of selected elements. The mean concentrations of Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb in soil samples were higher than soil background value in Japan. Concentrations of trace elements in soils along different railway had different characteristics. Horizontal distribution of Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, and Pb in soil samples showed obviously downtrend with distance along railways with high frequency. Concentrations of V, Mn, Fe, and Co were higher in soils along railways which pass through city center. According to principal component analysis and cluster analysis, concentrations of Cu, Zn, Sn, and Pb could be considered as the indicators of soil contamination level along electricity powered trains, whereas indicators along diesel powered trains were not clear. Enrichment factor analysis proved that operation of freight trains had impact on pollution level of Cr, Ni, and Cd. Bioavailability of Mn, Co, Zn, and Cd in soil along electricity-powered railways were higher, and bioavailability of Pb in railways located in countryside was lower. Thus, enrichment and bioavailability of trace elements can be indicators of railway-originated trace elements pollution in soil.

  14. A modelling approach for railway overhead line equipment asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsby, Paul; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    The Overhead Line Equipment (OLE) is a critical sub-system of the 25kV AC overhead railway electrification system. If OLE asset management strategies can be evaluated using a whole lifecycle cost analysis that considers degradation processes and maintenance activities of the OLE components, the investment required to deliver the level of performance desired by railway customers and regulators can be based on evidence from the analysis results. A High Level Petri Net (HLPN) model, proposed in ...

  15. Railway capacity and expansion analysis using time discretized paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Pisinger, David; Lusby, Richard Martin

    2017-01-01

    of railway freight transportation on a long term strategic level. The model uses an hourly time discretization and analyses the impact of railway network expansions based on future demand forecasts. It provides an optimal macroscopic freight train schedule and can indicate the time and place of any...... variable penalties for the different passenger busy time slots. As part of a European Union project, all models are applied to a realistic case study that focuses on analyzing the capacity of railway network, in Denmark and Southern Sweden using demand forecasts for 2030. Results suggest that informative...

  16. Competitiveness of the railway transportation in the conditions of functioning of the infrastructure new organizational-economic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Mishchenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure of railways of the countries of EU-27 in the conditions of functioning new organizational-economic mechanism, and also dynamics of level of competitiveness of a railway transportation as result of reforming of railways of the countries of EU-27, in the conditions of realisation of the European transport legislation is investigated.

  17. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  18. Luminosity Anti-leveling with Crossing Angle (MD 1669)

    CERN Document Server

    Gorzawski, Arkadiusz; Ponce, Laurette; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Wenninger, Jorg; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    A significant fraction of the LHC luminosity ($\\sim$30\\% in 2016) is lost due to the presence (and necessity) of the crossing angles at the IPs. At the LHC the crossing angle is typically set to a value that provides sufficient separation of the beams at the start of fills for the peak bunch intensities. As the bunch intensity decays during a fill, it is possible to reduce the crossing angle and recover some luminosity. A smooth crossing angle reduction procedure must be developed to take advantage of this option during stable beam operation. During this MD a smooth procedure for luminosity leveling with crossing angle was tested. It was demonstrated that the orbit was well controlled, beam losses were low and the offset leveled experiments ALICE and LHCb were not affected by crossing angle leveling in ATLAS and CMS.

  19. Mean level signal crossing rate for an arbitrary stochastic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    The issue of the mean signal level crossing rate for various probability density functions with primary relevance for optics is discussed based on a new analytical method. This method relies on a unique transformation that transforms the probability distribution under investigation into a normal...... probability distribution, for which the distribution of mean level crossings is known. In general, the analytical results for the mean level crossing rate are supported and confirmed by numerical simulations. In particular, we illustrate the present method by presenting analytic expressions for the mean level...

  20. Level crossing analysis of Burgers equation in 1 + 1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Movahed, M Sadegh; Bahraminasab, A; Rezazadeh, H; Masoudi, A A

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the velocity field u(x) - u-bar = α in the Burgers equation. The level crossing analysis in the inviscid limit and the total number of positive crossings of the velocity field before the creation of singularities are given. The main goal of this paper is to show that this quantity, ν + α , is a good measure for the fluctuations of velocity fields in the Burgers turbulence

  1. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  2. Geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium, 2008-2013: a principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strale, Mathieu; Krysinska, Karolina; Overmeiren, Gaëtan Van; Andriessen, Karl

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the geographic distribution of suicide and railway suicide in Belgium over 2008--2013 on local (i.e., district or arrondissement) level. There were differences in the regional distribution of suicide and railway suicides in Belgium over the study period. Principal component analysis identified three groups of correlations among population variables and socio-economic indicators, such as population density, unemployment, and age group distribution, on two components that helped explaining the variance of railway suicide at a local (arrondissement) level. This information is of particular importance to prevent suicides in high-risk areas on the Belgian railway network.

  3. Occupational Stress and Hypertension among Railway Loco Pilots and Section Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar, Devasigamoney

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: A cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted on loco pilots in 2008, in view of loco pilots being one of the high strain jobs in Indian Railways. Subsequently, a comparative cross-sectional study on occupational stress was conducted among section controllers in 2011, which is another high strain job of Indian Railways. Objective: The studies were conducted to analyze and compare occupational stress and hypertension. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study on ...

  4. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  5. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  6. Exact analytic solutions for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein level crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzold, D.

    1987-01-01

    An exact formula for the transition probability in level-crossing phenomena is derived for a general case, ranging from adiabatic to sudden crossings. This is done in the context of neutrino flavor oscillations for the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect, where hitherto only numerical or approximate solutions were obtained. The matter density or level splitting is assumed to be governed by a hyperbolic-tangent function which, however, can change arbitrarily fast between two constant values. For example, in context of the MSW effect this furnishes a nice fit to the solar density determining the level crossing of solar neutrinos. In the quasiadiabatic limit the exact Landau-Zener factor can be read off, correcting some expressions obtained so far. Even in the opposite limit of a sudden level crossing a conversion is found, which can have far-reaching consequences for neutrino detection on Earth

  7. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  8. INEQUALITIES RESEARCH OF THE TRACK AT THE RAILROAD CROSSINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Kurhan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The intersection of highways and railways in one levelrailway crossing, is a zone of increased danger for rail and road transport. Nearly half of all crossings are available on the main directions of passenger transportation. From this comes the problem of maintenance and service locations of intersection roads and railways. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the processes of emergence and development of inequalities in the area of railroad crossings and identify the factors that cause them. Methodology. The presence of derogation from the plan and profile within the railway crossing and approaches to it reduces evenness of riding and passenger comfort. Today, there are various possibilities for shooting natural geometry of a railway track. For research on a large number of areas during long service life, the tape of a track measuring car remains the most convenient. However, this tool is directed to assess the state of the railway line and does not determine the exact geometrical position. When trying to determine valid outlines of the track inequalities on track measuring tape, some difficulties arise. Findings. Performed statistical analysis showed a steady trend of growth of inequalities in the area of the railway crossings. Generally, the level of inequalities in the vertical plane increases in1.3−3.2 times and in 1.2−2.0 times in the horizontal plane (compared with areas that are outside crossing. During the deflection lines of action in the area of railroad crossing concrete slabs work as ribs that limit deflections of rail-tie grating. When placing the wheels of the bogie before (or after and within crossing the calculated modulus of elasticity under the rail base, brought to the point of wheels contact can vary up to 3 times. Originality. Issues of the assessment and investigation of inequalities on track started to be developed. The resulting statistics on inequalities accumulation gauge in the zone of crossing

  9. New Porta Susa - Turin Railway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio d'Ascia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project of the new station of Torino Porta Susa is the project of a huge urban public space, where the station, conceived as an urban gallery, becomes a real street, a “passage”, a new kind of urbanity shape for the future city. The railway station’s transparent volume - a 385 m (the length of the TGV long steel and glass tunnel, 30 m. width, with a variable height compared to the outdoor street level (between 12 and 3 m at the height of the cover - is proposed as a modern reinterpretation of the nineteenth century’s urban galleries and the great historical station’s halles, as well as a kind of symbolic building. Symbol of movement, of the travel universe and the presence of the transportation universe in the contemporary city, urban simulacrum of the object train disappeared from the urban scene below the future Central Spine. The sinuous movement of the tunnel follows the flows of urban pedestrians from the city towards the different transportation modes presents at various levels (national and international lines AV, regional lines, subways, taxis ... emphasizing with its lowering the presence of the big void inside of the underground subway station, about 20 meters deep. The gallery, oriented north-south, folds with its internal pedestrian paths to bring natural light and the sky of Turin, to the quays of trains (at an altitude of -10 m and the Subway (which share -20, transformed so’ in a sort of urban sidewalks. The fast rhythm of the structure of arches with step 360 cm. is marked by the presence of numerous openings along the longitudinal development of the gallery, which is crossed by three transversal passages inside the gallery and is bounded by two others on the north and south of the lot, connecting the city from east to west at street level in continuity with pre-existing axes. The presence of these transversal passages accentuates the urban value of the Spina which was to re-connect the two sides of the city until

  10. Experimental Analysis of Stiffness of the Riveted Steel Railway Bridge Deck Members’ Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gocál Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the real behaviour of the riveted steel railway bridge deck members’ connections with respect to their bending stiffness. Attention is paid to the stringer-to-cross beam connection as well as the cross beam-to-main girder connection. The stiffness of the two connections is investigated on the basis of evaluation of the experimentally determined stress response of the observed structural members to the actual traffic load on an existing railway bridge.

  11. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  12. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  13. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  14. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  15. Subsidence Evaluation of High-Speed Railway in Shenyang Based on Time-Series Insar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Wei, Lianhuan; Li, Jiayu; Liu, Shanjun; Mao, Yachun; Wu, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    More and more high-speed railway are under construction in China. The slow settlement along high-speed railway tracks and newly-built stations would lead to inhomogeneous deformation of local area, and the accumulation may be a threat to the safe operation of high-speed rail system. In this paper, surface deformation of the newly-built high-speed railway station as well as the railway lines in Shenyang region will be retrieved by time series InSAR analysis using multi-orbit COSMO-SkyMed images. This paper focuses on the non-uniform subsidence caused by the changing of local environment along the railway. The accuracy of the settlement results can be verified by cross validation of the results obtained from two different orbits during the same period.

  16. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe S; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne

    2016-01-01

    and railway noise and adiposity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993-1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated....... Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors......, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure-response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1...

  17. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  18. Evolution of superpositions of quantum states through a level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2011-01-01

    The Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) model is widely used for estimating transition probabilities in the presence of crossing energy levels in quantum physics. This model, however, makes the unphysical assumption of an infinitely long constant interaction, which introduces a divergent phase in the propagator. This divergence remains hidden when estimating output probabilities for a single input state insofar as the divergent phase cancels out. In this paper we show that, because of this divergent phase, the LZSM model is inadequate to describe the evolution of pure or mixed superposition states across a level crossing. The LZSM model can be used only if the system is initially in a single state or in a completely mixed superposition state. To this end, we show that the more realistic Demkov-Kunike model, which assumes a hyperbolic-tangent level crossing and a hyperbolic-secant interaction envelope, is free of divergences and is a much more adequate tool for describing the evolution through a level crossing for an arbitrary input state. For multiple crossing energies which are reducible to one or more effective two-state systems (e.g., by the Majorana and Morris-Shore decompositions), similar conclusions apply: the LZSM model does not produce definite values of the populations and the coherences, and one should use the Demkov-Kunike model instead.

  19. Level crossing in a molecular Cr8 ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affronte, M.; Guidi, T.; Caciuffo, R.; Carretta, S.; Amoretti, G.; Hinderer, J.; Sheikin, I.; Smith, A.A.; Winpenny, R.E.P.; Slageren, J. van; Gatteschi, D.

    2004-01-01

    The heat capacity of a molecular Cr 8 ring was measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field in order to follow the evolution of the Schottky anomaly through the first (S=0 to |1,-1>) level crossing occurring at B c1 =6.9 T. The results are interpreted within the framework of a spin Hamiltonian approach and they nicely fit the pattern of the energy levels derived by inelastic neutron spectroscopy. At B c1 , the Schottky anomaly almost vanishes suggesting that a true crossing occurs in Cr 8 in contrast to what was observed for ferric wheels

  20. Level crossing in a molecular Cr{sub 8} ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affronte, M. E-mail: affronte@unimore.it; Guidi, T.; Caciuffo, R.; Carretta, S.; Amoretti, G.; Hinderer, J.; Sheikin, I.; Smith, A.A.; Winpenny, R.E.P.; Slageren, J. van; Gatteschi, D

    2004-05-01

    The heat capacity of a molecular Cr{sub 8} ring was measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field in order to follow the evolution of the Schottky anomaly through the first (S=0 to |1,-1>) level crossing occurring at B{sub c1}=6.9 T. The results are interpreted within the framework of a spin Hamiltonian approach and they nicely fit the pattern of the energy levels derived by inelastic neutron spectroscopy. At B{sub c1}, the Schottky anomaly almost vanishes suggesting that a true crossing occurs in Cr{sub 8} in contrast to what was observed for ferric wheels.

  1. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...

  2. Second Best Decision Making of Railway Operators: How to fix Fares, Frequency and Vehicle Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Woudenberg, van Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Railway networks are characterised by variations in demand on different links. Optimal strategies therefore call for a differentiated treatment of fares, frequencies and vehicle sizes in various links. However, for several reasons, railway operators may apply uniform levels for these decision

  3. Level dynamics: An approach to the study of avoided level crossings and transition to chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Chu, S.Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Dyson-Pechukas level dynamics has been reformulated and made suitable for studying avoided level crossings and transition to chaos. The N-level dynamics is converted into a many-body problem of one-dimensional Coulomb gas with N-constituent particles having intrinsic excitations. It is shown that local fluctuation of the level distribution is generated by a large number of avoided level crossings. The role played by avoided level crossings in generating chaoticity in level dynamics is similar to the role played by short-range collisions in causing thermalization in many-body dynamics. Furthermore, the effect of level changing rates in producing avoided level crossings is the same as particle velocities in causing particle-particle collisions. A one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian has been constructed as an illustration of the level dynamics, showing how the avoided level crossings cause the transition from a regular distribution to the chaotic Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) distribution of the levels. The existence of the one-dimensional su(2) Hamiltonian which can show both GOE and Poisson level statistics is remarkable and deserves further investigation

  4. The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai–Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0–10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai–Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: ► Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. ► Cadmium enrichment is especially high. ► The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. ► The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  5. [Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-zhi; Qiu, Peng-hua; Fang, Yuan-min

    2015-08-01

    As a large corridor project, plateau railway has multiple points and passes various sensitive environments along the railway. The determination of the scope of impact on ecological environment from railway construction is often controversial in ecological impact assessment work. Taking the Tangbu-Jiantang section of Li-Xiang Railway as study object, and using present land use map (1:10000) in 2012 and DEM as data sources, corridor cutting degree index ( CCI) and cumulative effect index of corridor (CCEI) were established by topology, buffer zone and landscape metrics methods. Besides, the ecological risk index used for railway construction was improved. By quantitative analysis of characteristics of the spatio-temporal change of landscape pattern and its evolution style at different spatial scales before and after railway construction, the most appropriate evaluation scale of the railway was obtained. Then the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variation of ecological risk within this scale before and after railway construction were analyzed. The results indicated that the cutting model and degree of railway corridor to various landscape types could be effectively reflected by CCI, and the exposure and harm relations between risk sources and risk receptors of railway can be measured by CCEI. After the railway construction, the railway corridor would cause a great deal of middle cutting effect on the landscape along the railroad, which would influence wood land and grassland landscape most greatly, while would cause less effect of edge cutting and internal cutting. Landscape indices within the 600 m buffer zone demonstrated the most obvious scale effect, therefore, the 600 m zone of the railway was set as the most suitable range of ecological impact assessment. Before railway construction, the low ecological risk level covered the biggest part of the 600 m assessment zone. However, after the railway construction, the ecological risk increased significantly, and

  6. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  7. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  8. Magnetic levitation railways. 2. enlarged ed. Magnetschwebebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedtank, R [comp.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 129 literature references, mostly with German abstracts on: Representation of the magnetic levitation railway (MAGLEV railway) as a fast modern railway; type of design of tracks and stations; manufacture of track supports made of steel and reinforced concrete with the accuracy required for this fast railway system. Introduction of experimental sections and planning study for this means of transport. (orig./HP).

  9. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  10. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  11. A comparative study of performance measurement standards of railway operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongjirawut Siripong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The European standard (EN 13816, is one of the widely accepted standards for measuring the quality of public passenger transport (PPT service. EN 13816 indicates 8 measurement criteria, 29 sub-criteria and 193 Key Performance Indicators (KPIs to be used to measure the performance of railway operators. Nowadays, there are other addition criteria beyond EN13816, developed by various organisations. This research firstly aims to explore the service performance measurement of railway operators used by actual railway operators at international level and in Thailand. After an intensive review of performance measurement standards, 9 standards are compiled and compared in terms of criteria, sub-criteria and KPIs using a cluster analysis methodology. The result found additional performance measurement aspects at 2 sub-criteria and 91 KPIs in addition to EN 13816. This research summarized and compared different performance measurement standards to measure service quality of metro rail line.

  12. A Predictive Maintenance Model for Railway Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Wen, Min; Salling, Kim Bang

    2015-01-01

    presents a mathematical model based on Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) which is designed to optimize the predictive railway tamping activities for ballasted track for the time horizon up to four years. The objective function is setup to minimize the actual costs for the tamping machine (measured by time......). Five technical and economic aspects are taken into account to schedule tamping: (1) track degradation of the standard deviation of the longitudinal level over time; (2) track geometrical alignment; (3) track quality thresholds based on the train speed limits; (4) the dependency of the track quality...

  13. Pseudo Asynchronous Level Crossing adc for ecg Signal Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa, T; Niederhauser, T; Haeberlin, A; Wildhaber, R A; Vogel, R; Goette, J; Jacomet, M

    2017-02-07

    A new pseudo asynchronous level crossing analogue-to-digital converter (adc) architecture targeted for low-power, implantable, long-term biomedical sensing applications is presented. In contrast to most of the existing asynchronous level crossing adc designs, the proposed design has no digital-to-analogue converter (dac) and no continuous time comparators. Instead, the proposed architecture uses an analogue memory cell and dynamic comparators. The architecture retains the signal activity dependent sampling operation by generating events only when the input signal is changing. The architecture offers the advantages of smaller chip area, energy saving and fewer analogue system components. Beside lower energy consumption the use of dynamic comparators results in a more robust performance in noise conditions. Moreover, dynamic comparators make interfacing the asynchronous level crossing system to synchronous processing blocks simpler. The proposed adc was implemented in [Formula: see text] complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (cmos) technology, the hardware occupies a chip area of 0.0372 mm 2 and operates from a supply voltage of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. The adc's power consumption is as low as 0.6 μW with signal bandwidth from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] and achieves an equivalent number of bits (enob) of up to 8 bits.

  14. Simplified Transit Procedure in Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kokorović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The current transit procedure in railway transport that iscarried out on the basis of the Customs Act [ 11 of the Republicof Croatia is applied only up to the border, i. e. the issued documentsand guarantees are valid only up to the border, and byjoining the Convention on Common transit procedure, i. e. integrationof the Republic of Croatia in the European Union, theRepublic of Croatia will also have to implement the regulationsand rules of Simplified transit procedure valid in each of thethirty member states. In international railway traffic, the transportof goods is regulated by the Convention concerning InternationalCarriage by Rail- COT IF [2 1 and usage of the CIMwaybill (Contract for International Carriage of Goods by Rail.If the goods are transported in Simplified transit procedure, theformalities regarding the transport of goods performed by railcarriers using the international waybill CIM will be significantlysimplified and accelerated. In principle there are no delays dueto customs on the borders when crossing the EU borders andborders of the Convention member states, contributing greatlyto the acceleration of the transport of goods, reduction of waitingcosts and paperwork, as well as influence on the schedulereliability.

  15. Electrical injuries due to railway high tension cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, M; Kay, S

    1985-08-01

    We have noted a large number of young boys being admitted to our Unit with burns due to railway high tension cables. On review of these cases we have noted: most of the burns were due to arcing, there is a high level of ignorance among the population at risk. We propose some ways of preventing these injuries.

  16. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  17. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-Qing; Lin, Qi-Li; Li, Zheng-Guang; Kang, Jian

    2014-03-07

    High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However, it should be pointed out that this study provides

  18. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hagen, M.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings.

  19. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  20. Impact of service quality management (SQM) practices on Indian railways : study of South Central Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a framework developed for assisting Railways to monitor and : control the quality of services provided to passengers. The study evaluated the passenger Rail Service quality of : Indian Railways by develo...

  1. Real-time Railway Traffic Management : Dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  2. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    on a reach of over 380km of railway line. In order to characterise the component “probability”, data relating to important historic rainfall events have been used in the model against which known incidents on the railway line have been subsequently analysed. Initial results are very positive with a high level of capture of known incidents by the model in relation to the type of flooding recorded. The model RiskVIP allows the evaluation of flood risk to be undertaken at different scales and will aid in targeting precise reaches of railway line to be studied in more detail. It is a tool which can aid in the management of flood risk on the railway network, optimising for example the maintenance program of drainage structures, ensuring monitoring and inspections are targeted at problem reaches, identifying areas where civil works are necessary and improving the overall resilience of the railway system.

  3. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoyu; Chang, Ling; Markine, Valeri

    2018-01-31

    Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger's comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches) are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands). To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC) device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  4. Structural Health Monitoring of Railway Transition Zones Using Satellite Radar Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are locations with considerable changes in the rail-supporting structure. Typically, they are located near engineering structures, such as bridges, culverts and tunnels. In such locations, severe differential settlements often occur due to the different material properties and structure behavior. Without timely maintenance, the differential settlement may lead to the damage of track components and loss of passenger’s comfort. To ensure the safety of railway operations and reduce the maintenance costs, it is necessary to consecutively monitor the structural health condition of the transition zones in an economical manner and detect the changes at an early stage. However, using the current in situ monitoring of transition zones is hard to achieve this goal, because most in situ techniques (e.g., track-measuring coaches are labor-consuming and usually not frequently performed (approximately twice a year in the Netherlands. To tackle the limitations of the in situ techniques, a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR system is presented in this paper, which provides a potential solution for a consecutive structural health monitoring of transition zones with bi-/tri-weekly data update and mm-level precision. To demonstrate the feasibility of the InSAR system for monitoring transition zones, a transition zone is tested. The results show that the differential settlement in the transition zone and the settlement rate can be observed and detected by the InSAR measurements. Moreover, the InSAR results are cross-validated against measurements obtained using a measuring coach and a Digital Image Correlation (DIC device. The results of the three measuring techniques show a good correlation, which proves the applicability of InSAR for the structural health monitoring of transition zones in railway track.

  5. The present condition and projection of construction of railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor, together with the road net represent the central section of the Pan-European transport corridor X. According to the traffic and economic standards, the railway net represents the second main traffic direction of this corridor as the area-functioning system of the territory of Serbia. Main railway lines have favourable positions as they are located along prominent geographical features, namely river valleys thus enabling considerable flow of goods, passengers and information. The paper presents some characteristics of the present condition of the railway net, its functioning and safety, with certain ideas of its future construction and expected exploitation till 2015. Traffic infrastructure represents the initial factor of overall development of a state and its connection with the surrounding countries. It is considered to be of strategic importance for a country to built railway net. Improvement and additional construction of railway lines is of the greatest priority for the purpose of enlargement of overall mobility and quality of life of population, to make urban areas closer, to improve connections, functions efficiency and level of services of railway system, reduction of negative influence on other economic systems and human environment, better safety etc.

  6. Dynamic response of railway tracks in tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang , T; Duhamel , Denis; Forêt , Gilles; Yin , H.P.; Joyez , P; Caby , R

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Periodically supported beams subjected to a moving load are often used for modelling the railway dynamics and analytical solutions have been developed for such modelling [3, 4]. More complex models can be constructed by including supports with damping or non-linear stiffness elements. This study deals with the dynamical modelling of non-ballasted railways, especially railways in tunnels. The model is developed as a dynamical system of multi-degree of freedom. Under the...

  7. 76 FR 59482 - The New Brunswick Railway Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Maine Northern Railway Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for Eastern Maine Railway, a Class III rail common carrier to continue in... Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.; Maine Northern Railway Company--Modified Rail...

  8. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  9. Application of lap laser welding technology on stainless steel railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao; Wang, Chunsheng; He, Guangzhong; Li, Wei; Liu, Liguo

    2016-10-01

    Stainless steel railway vehicles with so many advantages, such as lightweight, antirust, low cost of maintenance and simple manufacturing process, so the production of high level stainless steel railway vehicles has become the development strategy of European, American and other developed nations. The current stainless steel railway vehicles body and structure are usually assembled by resistance spot welding process. The weak points of this process are the poor surface quality and bad airtight due to the pressure of electrodes. In this study, the partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated to resolve the problems, by controlling the laser to stop at the second plate in the appropriate penetration. The lap laser welding joint of stainless steel railway vehicle car body with partial penetration has higher strength and surface quality than those of resistance spot welding joint. The biggest problem of lap laser welding technology is to find the balance of the strength and surface quality with different penetrations. The mechanism of overlap laser welding of stainless steel, mechanical tests, microstructure analysis, the optimization of welding parameters, analysis of fatigue performance, the design of laser welding stainless steel railway vehicles structure and the development of non-destructive testing technology were systematically studied before lap laser welding process to be applied in manufacture of railway vehicles. The results of the experiments and study show that high-quality surface state and higher fatigue strength can be achieved by the partial penetration overlap laser welding of the side panel structure, and the structure strength of the car body can be higher than the requirements of En12663, the standard of structural requirements of railway vehicles bodies. Our company has produced the stainless steel subway and high way railway vehicles by using overlap laser welding technology. The application of lap laser welding will be a big

  10. Framework for Railway Phase-based Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    spending) to evaluate the project alternatives. The comparison result can identify the most cost-efficient solution in a long run and therefore reduce the overall costs. This article defines a phase-based framework to guide the railway maintenance and renewal project planning at strategic level....... The framework evaluates the project options from a larger LCC scope: The costs from train operation companies and passengers, together with the maintenance and renewal costs from Infrastructure Managers are included in the calculation. The framework simplifies the planning processes and the LCC calculation...... and compared. A case study is introduced in the article to demonstrate how the framework works to compare timber sleepers and concrete sleepers from strategic planning level. Two Life Cycle Cost oriented policies are discussed to illustrate: high quality track is necessity to improve the cost efficiency...

  11. In-depth Analysis of Pattern of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Workers of Railway Wagon Repair Workshop in Jhansi (U.P.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhanshu; Malhotra, Anil K; Verma, Santosh K; Yadav, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Occupational injuries constitute a global health challenge, yet they receive comparatively modest scientific attention. Pattern of occupational injuries and its safety precautions among wagon repair workers is an important health issue, especially in developing countries like India. To assess the pattern of occupational injuries and utilization of safety measures among railway wagon repair workshop workers in Jhansi (U.P.). Railway wagon repair workshop urban area, Jhansi (U.P). Occupation-based cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 309 workers of railway workshop in Jhansi (U.P.) who were all injured during the study period of 1 year from July 2015 to June 2016. Baseline characteristics, pattern of occupational injuries, safety measures, and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data obtained were collected and analyzed statistically by simple proportions and Chi-square test. The majority of studied workers aged between 38 and 47 years ( n = 93, 30.6%) followed by 28-37 years ( n = 79, 26%). Among the pattern of occupational injuries, laceration (28.7%) was most common followed by abrasion/scratch (21%). Safety shoes and hat were utilized 100% by all workers. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience ( n = 237, 78%). Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with pattern of occupational injuries in univariate analysis ( P safety measures is low among workers on railway wagon repair workshop, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services toward this group of workers. Younger age group workers show a significant association with open wounds and surface wounds. As the education level of workers increases, the incidence of injuries decreases. Apart from shoes, hat, and gloves, regular utilization of other personal protective equipment was not seen.

  12. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  13. Images crossing borders: image and workflow sharing on multiple levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peeter; Pohjonen, Hanna

    2011-04-01

    Digitalisation of medical data makes it possible to share images and workflows between related parties. In addition to linear data flow where healthcare professionals or patients are the information carriers, a new type of matrix of many-to-many connections is emerging. Implementation of shared workflow brings challenges of interoperability and legal clarity. Sharing images or workflows can be implemented on different levels with different challenges: inside the organisation, between organisations, across country borders, or between healthcare institutions and citizens. Interoperability issues vary according to the level of sharing and are either technical or semantic, including language. Legal uncertainty increases when crossing national borders. Teleradiology is regulated by multiple European Union (EU) directives and legal documents, which makes interpretation of the legal system complex. To achieve wider use of eHealth and teleradiology several strategic documents were published recently by the EU. Despite EU activities, responsibility for organising, providing and funding healthcare systems remains with the Member States. Therefore, the implementation of new solutions requires strong co-operation between radiologists, societies of radiology, healthcare administrators, politicians and relevant EU authorities. The aim of this article is to describe different dimensions of image and workflow sharing and to analyse legal acts concerning teleradiology in the EU.

  14. Adaptive Reference Levels in a Level-Crossing Analog-to-Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Singer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Level-crossing analog-to-digital converters (LC ADCs have been considered in the literature and have been shown to efficiently sample certain classes of signals. One important aspect of their implementation is the placement of reference levels in the converter. The levels need to be appropriately located within the input dynamic range, in order to obtain samples efficiently. In this paper, we study optimization of the performance of such an LC ADC by providing several sequential algorithms that adaptively update the ADC reference levels. The accompanying performance analysis and simulation results show that as the signal length grows, the performance of the sequential algorithms asymptotically approaches that of the best choice that could only have been chosen in hindsight within a family of possible schemes.

  15. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaofeng [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yili, E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Zhongjun [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium enrichment is especially high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  16. The keys to Europe : regulating railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the railways in Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century quickly raised new questions about harmonizing standards to allow them to travel over national borders. Negotiations regarding how to run international railways involved entrepreneurs, engineers, and politicians from

  17. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  18. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  19. Railway timetabling from an operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); D. Huisman (Dennis); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe Operations Research (OR) models and techniques that can be used for determining (cyclic) railway timetables. We discuss the two aspects of railway timetabling: ($i$) the determination of arrival and departure times of the trains at the stations and other

  20. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...

  1. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  2. The Hanle effect and level-crossing spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Strumia, Franco

    1991-01-01

    I am most pleased and, in a way, I feel honored to write the Foreword for the book The Hanle Effect and Level-Crossing Spectroscopy, which covers such a very wide range of applications not only in the initial areas of atomic and molecular physics, but also in solid state physics, solar physics, laser physics, and gravitational metrology. To link these fields together in a coherent way has been the merit of the editors of the book, who attracted most distinguished authors for writing the chapters. In retrospect to Hanle's discovery of quantum mechanical coherence between two quantum states about 65 years ago, this book demonstrates the enormous impact and central importance the effect has had, and most vividly still has, on modern physics. On the other hand, the concept of quantum mechanical coherence, which is an outgrowth of the linear super­ position principle of quantum states, has been evident through a consider­ able number of experimental methods beyond the original Hanle effect; some of these methods...

  3. Predicting civil religion at a cross-cultural level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrič Miran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of civil religion has caught major attention among scholars studying the junction of religion and politics (J.-J. Rousseau, E. Durkheim, R. Bellah. The notion focuses on the phenomenon of cultural contents sacralizing and ritualizing the ruling political institutions of a society, extending support to the integration of the political and social system at a cultural level. The notion of civil religion has recently been operationalized crossculturally, but light has not been shed upon its predictors. In this paper authoritarianism is tested as a predictor of civil religion cross-culturally. Four student samples of Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian and US students were analyzed. Very strong, significant associations between authoritarianism, as operationalized by a modified Lane scale, and civil religion were found in all cases. Moreover, upon introducing femininity, anxiety and gender into the analysis, a strong, dominant and significant impact on the part of authoritarianism was still found when civil religion was observed crossculturally. When the same predictors were applied to explaining general religiosity, authoritarianism fell short of being a significant predictor in most of the environments observed. Such results suggest an especially close link between civil religion and authoritarianism.

  4. Adaptive Rate Sampling and Filtering Based on Level Crossing Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mian Qaisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent sophistications in areas of mobile systems and sensor networks demand more and more processing resources. In order to maintain the system autonomy, energy saving is becoming one of the most difficult industrial challenges, in mobile computing. Most of efforts to achieve this goal are focused on improving the embedded systems design and the battery technology, but very few studies target to exploit the input signal time-varying nature. This paper aims to achieve power efficiency by intelligently adapting the processing activity to the input signal local characteristics. It is done by completely rethinking the processing chain, by adopting a non conventional sampling scheme and adaptive rate filtering. The proposed approach, based on the LCSS (Level Crossing Sampling Scheme presents two filtering techniques, able to adapt their sampling rate and filter order by online analyzing the input signal variations. Indeed, the principle is to intelligently exploit the signal local characteristics—which is usually never considered—to filter only the relevant signal parts, by employing the relevant order filters. This idea leads towards a drastic gain in the computational efficiency and hence in the processing power when compared to the classical techniques.

  5. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  6. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi

    2017-07-27

    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.

  7. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study presents railway restructuring as a solution option to railway problems in Nigeria. It aims at ascertaining the efficiency of the critical input factors of Nigerian Railway corporation (NRC) while comparing it with that of the restructured developed and best practices railways to establish the basis for restructuring.

  8. System of preparing the personnel for railway of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaaziz ARTIKBAEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, by the example of training for the railway industry in Uzbekistan, focuses on the experiences and characteristics of Uzbekistan's integration into the international system of education, a framework of qualifications of the European Commission. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering has: rated the students' knowledge of the possibility of mutual recognition and accreditation based on the comparability of disciplines and curricula; included in its institutional strategy doctoral program, which has national features aimed at providing career opportunities for young researchers and university teachers based on the fundamental nature and the humanization of education, providing the preparation of the highly qualified specialists, ensures the interconnection and interdependence at all levels of technical education: secondary, undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-graduate training and re-training to maintain the knowledge and skills of teachers at the level of requests engineering and production of the XXI century.

  9. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided.

  10. Accident analysis of railway transportation of low-level radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes: Application of the /open quotes/Maximum Credible Accident/close quotes/ concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, E.; McLean, R.B.

    1988-09-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) approach to accident analysis places an upper bound on the potential adverse effects of a proposed action by using conservative but simplifying assumptions. It is often used when data are lacking to support a more realistic scenario or when MCA calculations result in acceptable consequences. The MCA approach can also be combined with realistic scenarios to assess potential adverse effects. This report presents a guide for the preparation of transportation accident analyses based on the use of the MCA concept. Rail transportation of contaminated wastes is used as an example. The example is the analysis of the environmental impact of the potential derailment of a train transporting a large shipment of wastes. The shipment is assumed to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and low-level radioactivities of uranium and technetium. The train is assumed to plunge into a river used as a source of drinking water. The conclusions from the example accident analysis are based on the calculation of the number of foreseeable premature cancer deaths the might result as a consequence of this accident. These calculations are presented, and the reference material forming the basis for all assumptions and calculations is also provided

  11. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  12. Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime

    A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.

  13. 78 FR 56769 - South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways-Intra-Corporate Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Cooper and Berkeley Railroad Company South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35762] South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--The...

  14. Development of a Comprehensive Programme to Prevent and Reduce the Negative Impact of Railway Fatalities, Injuries and Close Calls on Railway Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardon, Cécile; Mishara, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a strategy to prevent trauma, support and care for railway personnel who experience critical incidents (CI) on the job, usually fatalities by accident or suicide. We reviewed all publications on CI management, support and care practices in the railway industry, as well as practices in place in Canada (unpublished protocols). Semi structured interviews were conducted with 40 train engineers and conductors involved in CIs and the content was coded and analysed quantitatively. Employees' satisfaction with the help received after the incident varies according to the behaviour of the local manager, company officers and police, the level of compliance with existing company protocols to help them, the presence of unmet expectations for support and care, their perceived competency of clinicians they consulted and the level of trust toward their employers. On the basis of the interview results, the review of existing railway practices and discussions with railway stakeholders, a model protocol was developed for a comprehensive workplace prevention, support and care protocol to reduce the negative impact of railway critical incidents on employees. This protocol includes preventive actions before traumatic events occur, immediate responses at the site of incident, interventions within the first few days after the incident and longer term support and interventions provided by the company and by outsourced experts.

  15. Development of sanitary-protection zones and sanitation gaps for the kuibyshev railway within the boundaries of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplykh Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is quite relevant to work on projects development and projects coordination of sanitary protection zones (SPZ and sanitation gaps (SG. It is explained by mutual proximity of objects of regulation and objects of the Kuybyshev railroad within the boundaries of settlements in a dense residential development. The aim of this work is to attract attention of project organizations and design contractors to the minimum limitations of SPZ and SG (according to existing standards and regulations as far as the factor of noise is concerned. This factor has the most tangible impact for the population. Meanwhile, there is no express reference in these documents to the cases of exceeding maximum permissible levels of noise (MPL and to the cases of SPZ and SG crossings by several enterprises. The paper shows the results of mathematical calculations of the spread of noise from railway with and without noise screens on different test sites. The authors come to the conclusion that the existing regulations do not provide clear guidance in cases where there is an excess of physical factors of influence on the air (noise, etc., taking into account the background, or crossings of SPZ borders and SG by several groups of enterprises. Therefore, the question whether standardized territory, (housing in particular lies within the boundaries of SPZ (SG of the railway or this territory is within the object of regulation boundaries is settled by court of law.

  16. Growth of Railway Network in China (1988-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Tarkhov

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available 20. 000 km of new railways were built in China in1988-2002. The railway network has increased its topologicalcomplexity from 75 to 112 circuits and the new 3nt topologicallayer appeared in 1993 and the 4'h will emerge in 2004 after the opening of the rail ferry Dalian - Yan-tai. The main features ofthe recent Chinese rail network are: 1 the predominance ofmeridional-ity, 2 the spatial disproportion between the easterncoastal area (with dense network and the empty western part,3 the low level of electrification (20% and the low share ofdouble-track sections (30%, 4 the land-lock orientation ofthe whole network and a small number of lines along the seacoasts. These disproportions are the main obstacles for a harmonicspatial devel-opment of the economic structure.

  17. Phase-based Planning for Railway Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    is important in terms of economy and rail operations. This study presents two types of Phase-based Decision Support System (PDSS), i.e. Functional Phase-Based Planning Approach (F-PBPA) and Process-Oriented Phase-Based Planning Approach (PO-PBPA). They are used for decision support for the planning...... of the railway infrastructure maintenance activities at the strategic planning level. The objective is to achieve better economy, as well as improve cost efficiency. F-PBPA consists of ve main phases: Data Collection, Technical Optimization (TeO), Economic Optimization (EcO), Constrained Optimization (Co...... the costs. Finally, constrained optimization (CoO) includes additional constraints and it allows the railway expert to adjust input parameters, thereby to obtain alternative maintenance plans. PO-PBPA contains another systematic phase based process. With a focus on Life Cycle Cost (LCC), PO-PBPA can guide...

  18. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  19. SURVEY RESULTS AND TESTING OF RAILWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Haniiev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the survey and testing of railway bridges by the State Joint-Stock Railway Company «Uzbekiston Temir Yollari» («Uzbekistan Railways». It is stated that in the existing rules on determination of the capacity of bridges the recommendations on taking into account the cumulative deflection to the moment of technical diagnostics of spans on the bridge capacity are absent. The author states on the need to develop a method for determining the wear of spans on restriction of the residual deflection in the bridge floor slabs.

  20. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: Results from the ALPNAP-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Lercher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643 we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A, Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A, Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A, Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  1. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  2. BOTTOM TO TOP APPROACH FOR RAILWAY KPI GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto VILLAREJO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synony-mous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the de-velopment of key performance indicators (KPIs linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such ques-tions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  3. Bottom to Top Approach for Railway KPI Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Roberto; Johansson, Carl-Anders; Leturiondo, Urko; Simon, Victor; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synonymous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the development of key performance indicators (KPIs) linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such questions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  4. Structural impact response for assessing railway vibration induced on buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroussis, Georges; Mouzakis, Harris P.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos E.

    2018-03-01

    Over the syears, the rapid growth in railway infrastructure has led to numerous environmental challenges. One such significant issue, particularly in urban areas, is ground-borne vibration. A common source of ground-borne vibration is caused by local defects (e.g. rail joints, switches, turnouts, etc.) that generate large amplitude excitations at isolated locations. Modelling these excitation sources is particularly challenging and requires the use of complex and extensive computational efforts. For some situations, the use of experiments and measured data offers a rapid way to estimate the effect of such defects and to evaluate the railway vibration levels using a scoping approach. In this paper, the problem of railway-induced ground vibrations is presented along with experimental studies to assess the ground vibration and ground borne noise levels, with a particular focus on the structural response of sensitive buildings. The behaviour of particular building foundations is evaluated through experimental data collected in Brussels Region, by presenting the expected frequency responses for various types of buildings, taking into account both the soil-structure interaction and the tramway track response. A second study is dedicated to the Athens metro, where transmissibility functions are used to analyse the effect of various Athenian building face to metro network trough comprehensive measurement campaigns. This allows the verification of appropriate vibration mitigation measures. These benchmark applications based on experimental results have been proved to be efficient to treat a complex problem encountered in practice in urban areas, where the urban rail network interacts with important local defects and where the rise of railway ground vibration problems has clearly been identified.

  5. Intermediate-level crossings of a first-passage path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Uttam; Redner, S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate some simple and surprising properties of a one-dimensional Brownian trajectory with diffusion coefficient D that starts at the origin and: (i) is at X at time T, or (ii) first reaches X at time T. We determine the most likely location of the first-passage trajectory from (0, 0) to (X, T) and its distribution at any intermediate time t < T. A first-passage path typically starts out by being repelled from its final location when X 2 /DT ≪ 1. We also determine the distribution of times when the trajectory first crosses and last crosses an arbitrary intermediate position x < X. The distribution of first-crossing times may be unimodal or bimodal, depending on whether X 2 /DT ≪ 1 or X 2 /DT ≫ 1. The form of the first-crossing probability in the bimodal regime is qualitatively similar to, but more singular than, the well-known arcsine law. (paper)

  6. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  7. Developments and Prospects of Long-Span High-Speed Railway Bridge Technologies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shunquan Qin; Zongyu Gao

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid developments of the high-speed railway in China, a great number of long-span bridges have been constructed in order to cross rivers and gorges. At present, the longest main span of a constructed high-speed railway bridge is only 630 m. The main span of Hutong Yangtze River Bridge and of Wufengshan Yangtze River Bridge, which are under construction, will be much longer, at 1092 m each. In order to overcome the technical issues that originate from the extremely large dead loading...

  8. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. ... the processed signals to control electromagnetic devices through motor drivers.

  9. Analysis of the distribution of temperature fields in the braked railway wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchánek Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of reduced stress in a braked railway wheel, based on thermal transient analysis on virtual models, which influence the characteristics of the railway wheels. Structural analysis was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics program system package. Thermal transient analysis deals with detection of temperature fields which are a result of braking by brake block. The applied heat flux represents the heat generated by friction of brake block. It is applied to a quarter model of the wheel to speed up the calculation. This analysis simulates two braking processes with subsequent cooling. Distribution of the equivalent stress was detected in the railway wheel cross section, at selected points. The input parameters were taken from the thermal transient analysis. These equivalent stresses result from thermal load.

  10. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  11. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  12. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. The liberalisation of the railways in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    It is certainly high time to talk about policy for the railways not only in the Russian Federation but also in Europe, where the railways are vital part of the Community transport sector and need to be promoted and revitalized, especially considering the increasing air-traffic and railroad congestion, the environmental problems, the traffic noise, the accidents and the growing opposition to the unchecked development of the new road infrastructure. Railtrack’s business is supported by state-fu...

  14. The impact of texting on driver behaviour at rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Lenné, Michael G; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A

    2018-05-21

    A driver text messaging in the vicinity of a rail level crossing represents the merging of a high-risk, high-workload driving environment with a highly distracting secondary task. In this simulator study, we examined how texting impacts driver behaviour on approach to actively controlled urban rail level crossings. Twenty-eight participants drove a series of simulated urban routes containing rail level crossings, while sending text messages and while driving without performing a secondary task. At half of the crossings, drivers were required to respond to the crossing warnings as a train approached. Results revealed that texting on approach to rail level crossings had a detrimental impact on a range of driver behaviour measures. Specifically, texting more than doubled the amount of time spent with eyes off the forward roadway, resulting in drivers spending more than half of their approach time to rail level crossings looking away from the road. This lack of visual attention to the roadway was associated with a range of decrements in driving that may be indicative of a loss of situation awareness, including increased brake reaction time to the crossing warnings and a reduction in lateral position control. The findings have safety implications, not only for urban level crossings, but also for passive level crossings where no warnings are present to re-orient the distracted driver's attention toward an approaching train. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  16. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  17. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  18. INDIVIDUAL DAN ORGANIZATIONAL UNLEARNING: PROPOSISI HUBUNGAN MODERASI CROSS-LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Dwi Wahyudi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unlearning stripped result old learning to give space for new information and new attitude. Unlearning is undoubtedly for individu or organization to receive new knowledge (herdberg,1981, increase innovation performance (pighin &Marzona,2011 and increase the company abbility to facing  crisis (Starbuck, 1995, this article give six preposision that connect the literature from micro level and macro level use the mediation variable, multi level moderation to explain the fenomena in organizational behavior that don’t have enough support in empirical, individual and organizational unlearning.

  19. Past and future of a regional railway network in Mezohegyes (Hungary area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta ZSOTER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of railway network in the internal passenger and heavy traffic is continuously decreasing. Regarding the number of passengers, proportion of the railway out of the internal passenger transport was more than 20% less in 2000. The railway passenger transportation suffered a setback in shorter distances in the last decades. In case of railway transportation of goods both the carriage distance and the quantity of goods have decreased. Content of the load has changed, too. Comparing to the previous one, quantity of the transported building materials, metal waste, ores and coal etc. lessened. In contrast with it proportion of agricultural products, machines has increased. It is worth examining the changes in connection with the passenger and heavy traffic in the last few years not only in country level but in the level of several settlements, as well. In settlements’ life a transportation route of the infrastructural sphere plays an important role. In this essay it is aiming to examine the changes in railway traffic of town Mezohegyes, a settlement on the Southern part of the Hungarian Plain, between 1990 and 2006. Research work of this kind has been carried out about town Mezohegyes earlier.

  20. Experimental Results on the Level Crossing Intervals of the Phase of Sine Wave Plus Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Neji; Munakata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1993-03-01

    Experimental study was made on the level crossing intervals of a phase process of a sine wave plus narrow-band Gaussian noise. Since successive level crossings of phase do not necessarily occur alternately in the upward and downward direction due to the phase jump beyond 2π, the usual definitions of the probability densities of the level crossing intervals for continuous random processes are not applicable in the case of the phase process. Therefore, the probability densities of level crossing intervals of phase process are newly defined. Measurements of these densities were performed for noise having lowpass spectra of Gaussian and 7th order Butterworth types. Results are given for various values of the signal-to-noise power ratio and of the crossing level, and compared with corresponding approximation developed under the assumption of quasi-independence. The validity of the assumption depends on the spectrum shape of the noise.

  1. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  2. Levels, Linkages, and Networks in Cross-Cultural Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Judith; Kennedy, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Individuals belong to different cultural networks, and these networks and connections between them play an important role in success or failure of educational innovation and should be included in any model of the management or evaluation of innovation. Looks at functions of the different networks to which individuals belong at three levels,…

  3. Power Analysis for Cross Level Mediation in CRTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelcey, Ben

    2014-01-01

    A common design in education research for interventions operating at a group or cluster level is a cluster randomized trial (CRT) (Bloom, 2005). In CRTs, intact clusters (e.g., schools) are assigned to treatment conditions rather than individuals (e.g., students) and are frequently an effective way to study interventions because they permit…

  4. Cross-cultural differences in levels of knowledge about epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Julie; Baker, Gus A; Jacoby, Ann; Lavaud, Virginie

    2003-01-01

    To study how much people with epilepsy in Europe know and understand about their condition and how this might affect their lives. Clinical, demographic, psychosocial details and information assessing knowledge were collected by using self-completion questionnaires mailed to members of epilepsy support groups. Data were collected from 6,156 people with epilepsy from ten European countries. There were significant between-country differences in all variables considered. Overall levels of knowledge were acceptable when measured by the epilepsy knowledge questionnaire (EKQ, medical items). However, there were some gaps in knowledge, particularly in issues relating to medication and cause of epilepsy. This is the largest study of its kind to date. Results clearly highlighted that levels of knowledge differed significantly between countries. Overall, people with epilepsy are reasonably well informed about epilepsy, although some gaps in knowledge were evident.

  5. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure, and whe......This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  6. New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with emphasis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem

  7. [Mental health status in railway female workers and its occupational influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, F L; Liu, Z M; Liu, Z S; Zou, J F; Yu, W L; Li, H M; Li, J; Kong, L M; Jiang, Q

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the mental health status of railway female workers and related influencing factors, and to provide a scientific strategy for labor protection regulations in railway female workers. Methods: Cluster sampling was used to select 5033 female workers from Jinan, Nanning, Qinghai-Tibet, and Wuhan railway systems in China from January to August, 2016. A uniform reproductive health questionnaire, as well as the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , was used to investigate their general information (age, marital status, education level, and family income) , work type (day shift, night shift, or work on shift) , work position, and the presence or absence of exposure to occupational hazardous factors. The score on each factor of SCL-90 and the positive rate of mental health status were calculated. Results: The positive rate of mental health status was 10.6% in railway female workers. The workers exposed to occupational hazardous factors had a significantly higher positive rate of mental health status than those not exposed to occupational hazardous factors (14.20% vs 8.02%, P mental health status between workers with different ages, marital status, education levels, histories of abortion, or annual family income levels ( P mental health problems ( OR =1.797, 95% CI : 1.393-2.318; OR =0.641, 95% CI : 0.498-0.827; OR =0.586, 95% CI : 0.439-0.783; OR =0.580, 95% CI : 0.378-0.890) . Conclusion: Railway female workers have lower levels of mental health than the general population and are under significant occupational stress. Exposure to occupational hazardous factors, night shift, overwork, and carrying heavy objects are associated with the development of mental health problems in railway female workers.

  8. Statistical modelling of railway track geometry degradation using Hierarchical Bayesian models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, A.R.; Teixeira, P.F.

    2015-01-01

    Railway maintenance planners require a predictive model that can assess the railway track geometry degradation. The present paper uses a Hierarchical Bayesian model as a tool to model the main two quality indicators related to railway track geometry degradation: the standard deviation of longitudinal level defects and the standard deviation of horizontal alignment defects. Hierarchical Bayesian Models (HBM) are flexible statistical models that allow specifying different spatially correlated components between consecutive track sections, namely for the deterioration rates and the initial qualities parameters. HBM are developed for both quality indicators, conducting an extensive comparison between candidate models and a sensitivity analysis on prior distributions. HBM is applied to provide an overall assessment of the degradation of railway track geometry, for the main Portuguese railway line Lisbon–Oporto. - Highlights: • Rail track geometry degradation is analysed using Hierarchical Bayesian models. • A Gibbs sampling strategy is put forward to estimate the HBM. • Model comparison and sensitivity analysis find the most suitable model. • We applied the most suitable model to all the segments of the main Portuguese line. • Tackling spatial correlations using CAR structures lead to a better model fit

  9. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  10. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  11. Effect of Different Structure Type Traffic On Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleba Radosław

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article points to methods of analyzing railway traffic conditions based on two parameters: capacity and delay of trains. The impact of the differentiated railway type structure on the capacity of the railway line was presented. Particular attention has been paid to the assessment of commonly used simplifications in analyzes.

  12. Tree-indexed processes: a high level crossing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Kelbert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider a branching diffusion process on R1 starting at the origin. Take a high level u>0 and count the number R(u,n of branches reaching u by generation n. Let Fk,n(u be the probability P(R(u,n

  13. Cross-Level Effects Between Neurophysiology and Communication During Team Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C; Martin, Melanie J; Dunbar, Terri A; Stevens, Ronald H; Galloway, Trysha L; Amazeen, Polemnia G; Likens, Aaron D

    2016-02-01

    We investigated cross-level effects, which are concurrent changes across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis as teams interact, between neurophysiology and team communication variables under variations in team training. When people work together as a team, they develop neural, cognitive, and behavioral patterns that they would not develop individually. It is currently unknown whether these patterns are associated with each other in the form of cross-level effects. Team-level neurophysiology and latent semantic analysis communication data were collected from submarine teams in a training simulation. We analyzed whether (a) both neural and communication variables change together in response to changes in training segments (briefing, scenario, or debriefing), (b) neural and communication variables mutually discriminate teams of different experience levels, and (c) peak cross-correlations between neural and communication variables identify how the levels are linked. Changes in training segment led to changes in both neural and communication variables, neural and communication variables mutually discriminated between teams of different experience levels, and peak cross-correlations indicated that changes in communication precede changes in neural patterns in more experienced teams. Cross-level effects suggest that teamwork is not reducible to a fundamental level of analysis and that training effects are spread out across neural and cognitive-behavioral levels of analysis. Cross-level effects are important to consider for theories of team performance and practical aspects of team training. Cross-level effects suggest that measurements could be taken at one level (e.g., neural) to assess team experience (or skill) on another level (e.g., cognitive-behavioral). © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  14. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  15. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  16. Crossing rule for a PT-symmetric two-level time-periodic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2011-01-01

    For a two-level system in a time-periodic field we show that in the non-Hermitian PT case the level crossing is of two quasistationary states that have the same dynamical symmetry property. At the field's parameters where the two levels which have the same dynamical symmetry cross, the corresponding quasienergy states coalesce and a self-orthogonal state is obtained. This situation is very different from the Hermitian case where a crossing of two quasienergy levels happens only when the corresponding two quasistationary states have different dynamical symmetry properties and, unlike the situation in the non-Hermitian case, the spectrum remains complete also when the two levels cross.

  17. The impact of personality on driving safety among Chinese high-speed railway drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Wei, Wei; Liao, Ganli; Chu, Fulei

    2016-07-01

    This study explored the impact of personality traits on driving safety in high-speed railway drivers. A sample of high-speed railway drivers in Beijing (N=214) completed a questionnaire, including information on personality traits and background variables. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) was administered to characterize participants based on five personality traits: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness. The survey data were combined with naturalistic data of accident involvement and risky driving behavior in China. Poisson regression results show that drivers with high Conscientiousness and Extraversion caused fewer accidents. Higher Conscientiousness and lower Agreeableness were related to less frequent risky driving behavior. Education level and age negatively moderated the relation between certain personality traits and driving safety. The findings suggest that personality traits should be considered when selecting and training high-speed railway drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 6517 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35461] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  19. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    vulnerable. Several cases of railway incidents have occurred during last ten years in Georgia and several tanks with oil have been released in the rivers causing significant contamination. The railway infrastructure needs significant improvement and strict control. The railway tanks for oil transportation should be also technically improved to minimize emissions and risks of leakage. Yet we can not avoid the fact that the railways are very often crossing the populated areas and the risks for the human life in case of collision (e.g. third party intentional actions or operational faults) are high. Very important fact is that the National Plan for Oil Spill Contingency in Georgia is almost 95% focused on off-shore spills and in fact no plan exists for the on-shore spills except the corporative oil spill plans provided by BP for the BTC and WREP pipelines. The Government has in fact no capacity to react on railway related oil spills or leakages from other pipeline systems. The government has no capacity for being involved in oil spill response actions organized by BP in case of spills from the BTC or WREP pipelines. There is no organized governmental system for emergency situations. Even BP has not introduced yet the oil spill related fire response plans (and the fires are highly probable in the cases of oil spills cause by terrorist attacks). The general system for emergency response and particularly system of fire response should be organized in the countries of the Region

  20. Positive well-being and work-life balance among UK railway staff

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jialin; Smith, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Failure to manage the well-being and work-life balance of railway workers\\ud may result in an increased risk to train safety and employees’ health. This article\\ud reports the findings of a study that measured positive well-being and\\ud work-life balance, and identified the factors affecting these among UK railway\\ud staff. On the whole, staff who perceived high levels of control and support had\\ud a better work-life balance and an increased sense of well-being. A positive\\ud personality was ...

  1. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    in a demand for a higher degree of automation for the development verification, validation and test phases of projects, without impairing the thoroughness of safety-related quality measures and certification activities. Motivated by these considerations, this presentation describes an approach for automated...... elaborate safety mechanisms in order to keep the risk at the same low level that has been established for European railways until today. The challenge is further increased by the demand for shorter time-to-market periods and higher competition among suppliers of the railway domain; both factors resulting...

  2. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  3. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  4. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Updating for Railway Bridges Based on Local Inspection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Robin E; Suh, Wonho; Park, Kiwon

    2017-04-24

    Railway bridges are exposed to repeated train loads, which may cause fatigue failure. As critical links in a transportation network, railway bridges are expected to survive for a target period of time, but sometimes they fail earlier than expected. To guarantee the target bridge life, bridge maintenance activities such as local inspection and repair should be undertaken properly. However, this is a challenging task because there are various sources of uncertainty associated with aging bridges, train loads, environmental conditions, and maintenance work. Therefore, to perform optimal risk-based maintenance of railway bridges, it is essential to estimate the probabilistic fatigue life of a railway bridge and update the life information based on the results of local inspections and repair. Recently, a system reliability approach was proposed to evaluate the fatigue failure risk of structural systems and update the prior risk information in various inspection scenarios. However, this approach can handle only a constant-amplitude load and has limitations in considering a cyclic load with varying amplitude levels, which is the major loading pattern generated by train traffic. In addition, it is not feasible to update the prior risk information after bridges are repaired. In this research, the system reliability approach is further developed so that it can handle a varying-amplitude load and update the system-level risk of fatigue failure for railway bridges after inspection and repair. The proposed method is applied to a numerical example of an in-service railway bridge, and the effects of inspection and repair on the probabilistic fatigue life are discussed.

  5. Gantry Crane Scheduling with Interference Constraints in Railway Container Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Railway container terminals, where gantry cranes are responsible for loading and unloading containers between freight trains and yards, are important hubs of hinterland logistics transportation. Terminal managers confront the challenge in improving the efficiency of their service. As the most expensive equipment in a terminal, the operational performance of gantry cranes is a crucial factor. In this paper, the gantry crane scheduling problem of railway container terminals is investigated. A mixed integer programming model which considers the effect of dwelling position dependent processing times is formulated. In addition, the safety distances, the travel times and the non-crossing requirement of cranes are incorporated in the mathematical model. A novel discrete artificial bee colony algorithm is presented to solve the intractable scheduling problem. Computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithm on some randomly constructed instances based on typical terminal operational data. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can obtain near optimal solutions for the investigated problem in a reasonable computational time.

  6. Railway power supply - free of crises and independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The German Federal Railway realizes 84% of its transport performance by electric traction. The prevailing primary energy source of the railway electric power supply is coal, but the DB uses also furnace gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power. The shave of mineral oil lies by about 5%. The public utilities deliver about 15%. The dispersed situation of the power stations and converter stations over the whole supply area offers the advantage of short transport distances. Therefore the 110-kV-railway mains especially meets distribution demands. Very useful is the compound operation with the Austrian Federal Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways. (orig.) [de

  7. Preliminary analysis of LED enhanced signs at a passive rural level crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The purpose of this research was to measure motor vehicle speed profiles at a rural level crossing following the replacement of the existing Crossbuck signs and Advance Warning signs (AWSs) with flashing light-emitting diode (LED) versions. Measureme...

  8. In search of a railway Europe : transnational railway developments in interwar Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadou, E.

    2009-01-01

    Most conventional histories that address the creation and development of railway networks start from national developments. Recent scholarship on this topic, however, has stressed the importance of formulating a transnational perspective on technological developments and infrastructural developments

  9. CVTresh: R Package for Level-Dependent Cross-Validation Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoh Kim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of the wavelet approach to nonparametric regression is thresholding of wavelet coefficients. This paper reviews a cross-validation method for the selection of the thresholding value in wavelet shrinkage of Oh, Kim, and Lee (2006, and introduces the R package CVThresh implementing details of the calculations for the procedures. This procedure is implemented by coupling a conventional cross-validation with a fast imputation method, so that it overcomes a limitation of data length, a power of 2. It can be easily applied to the classical leave-one-out cross-validation and K-fold cross-validation. Since the procedure is computationally fast, a level-dependent cross-validation can be developed for wavelet shrinkage of data with various sparseness according to levels.

  10. CVTresh: R Package for Level-Dependent Cross-Validation Thresholding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoh Kim

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The core of the wavelet approach to nonparametric regression is thresholding of wavelet coefficients. This paper reviews a cross-validation method for the selection of the thresholding value in wavelet shrinkage of Oh, Kim, and Lee (2006, and introduces the R package CVThresh implementing details of the calculations for the procedures.This procedure is implemented by coupling a conventional cross-validation with a fast imputation method, so that it overcomes a limitation of data length, a power of 2. It can be easily applied to the classical leave-one-out cross-validation and K-fold cross-validation. Since the procedure is computationally fast, a level-dependent cross-validation can be developed for wavelet shrinkage of data with various sparseness according to levels.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ATTENTION CONCENTRATION AND STABILITY OF RAILWAY STUDENTS IN THE PROCESS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPHYSICAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pichurin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Some railway professions impose exceptionally high demands on such characteristics of railway students as concentration and stability. One should find out the conditions for effective development of these characteristics in the process of physical training. Methodology. Pedagogical experiment is the main method of research. During this experiment the content of psychological and psychophysical training foundations developed by the author was an independent value. A dependent value was the dynamics performance of the level of development of concentration and stability of railway students’ attention. Findings. It was established, that realization of measure complex (included by the author to the content of foundations of psychological and psychophysical training of railway students during the lessons is the effective direction of the development of the attention concentration and stability. Originality. The effectiveness of using the psychological and psychophysical training of students for development of attention concentration and stability during the lessons was confirmed. Practical value. Realization of the proposed approach during the training of specialists for the railway branch will increase the productivity and safety of railway transportations.

  12. Electron excitation cross sections of the 2p53s levels of neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    The electron excitation cross sections of the four 2p 5 3s levels of neon are measured by means of a new technique using laser induced fluorescenc. The values of both the apparent and direct excitatiuon cross sections are given as a function of incident electron energy (0-100eV for 1s 3 and 1s 5 metastable levels and 0-300 eV for the 1s 2 and 1s 4 resonance levels). The metastable levels are triplet states and their cross sections are sharply peaked. At the peak, 30 eV, the measured values of the cross sections are 0.59 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 3 level and 3.2 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 5 level. The 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels are mixtures of singlet and triplet states, and the cross sections are broad and peak at 60 eV. The apparent cross sections at 60 eV are 13.5 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 2 level and 2.9 x 10 -18 cm 2 for the 1s 4 level. Measurement of the atomic number density of each of the 1s levels is performed using the pulsed laser induced fluorescence. The measured values of the number density and the excitation cross section are used to obtain the lifetime of each level. The measured value of the reciprocal of the 1s 3 and 1s 5 lifetime is 1 x 10 5 s -1 . The 1s 2 and 1s 4 levels are radiation trapped, and the reciprocals of their lifetimes are 4 x 10 5 s -1 and 3 x 10 5 s -1 respectively. The electron excitation cross sections of the magnetic sublevels of each 1s level are obtained by measuring the polarization of the laser induced fluorescence as a function of laser polarization. The excitation cross sections of each of the magnetic sublevels within a particular 1s level are equal within experimental uncertainty

  13. Noise annoyance through railway traffic - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta Zannin, Paulo Henrique; Bunn, Fernando

    2014-01-08

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large Latin American city. Measurements were taken of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods with and without blowing their horns. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition - annoyance of the residents - affected by railway noise, was evaluated based on interviews. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train with its horn blowing are extremely high, clearly exceeding the daytime limits of equivalent sound pressure level - Leq = 55 dB(A) - established by the municipal laws No 10.625 of the city of Curitiba. The Leq = 45 dB (A) which is the limit for the night period also are exceeded during the passage of trains. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which causes irritability, headaches, poor concentration and insomnia, and 88% of them claimed that nocturnal noise pollution is the most distressing. This study showed that the vast majority of residents surveyed, (69%) believe that the noise of the train can devalue their property.

  14. Optimal Train Dispatching at Railway Stations : A Discrete Event Dynamic System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of transfers in a transportation network largely influences the level of service of trip chains. Especially in low-frequency service networks like (long-distance) railway networks. Running and dwell times are typically subject to random variations resulting in arrival delays during

  15. CAD/CAE-technologies application for assessment of passenger safety on railway transport in emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Shorokhov, S. G.; Bondarenko, O. I.

    2018-03-01

    A possibility of using current software products realizing CAD/CAE-technologies for the assessment of passenger safety in emergency cases on railway transport has been analyzed. On the basis of the developed solid computer model of an anthropometric dummy, the authors carried out an analysis of possible levels of passenger injury during accident collision of a train with an obstacle.

  16. Analysis of Bridge Transition Zones in Railways Considering the Moisture Condition of the Ballast and Subballast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Haoyu; Silvast, Mika; Markine, V.L.; Wiljanen, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in vertical support structures, e.g., near bridges. Due to possible water flow constrictions in transition zone structures, there is frequently an increased moisture level in the ballast/subballast layers, which is a

  17. INVESTIGATION OF INNER SHEAR RESISTANCE OF GEOGRIDS BUILT UNDER GRANULAR PROTECTION LAYERS AND RAILWAY BALLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sz. Fischer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Using adequate granular materials and layer structures in the railway super- and substructure is able to stabilise railway track geometry. For this purpose special behaviour of above materials has to be determined, e.g. inner shear resistance. Inner shear resistance of granular media with and without geogrid reinforcement in different depths is not known yet. Methodology. The author developed a special laboratory method to measure and define inner shear resistance of granular materials, it is called «multi-level shear box test». This method is adequate to determine inner shear resistance (pushing force vs. depth (distance from the «zero» surface. Two different granular materials: andesite railway ballast (31.5/63 mm and andesite railway protection layer material (0/56 mm, and seven different types of geogrids (GG1…GG7 were used during the tests. Findings. Values of inner shear resistance functions of andesite railway ballast without geogrid reinforcement and reinforced with different types of geogrids and andesite granular protection layer in function of the vertical distance from the geogrid plane were determined with multi-layer shear box tests when the material aggregation is uncompacted and compacted. Only the compacted sample was tested in case of the 0/56 mm protection layer. Cubic polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the measurements are described graphically. Determination coefficients with values of R2>0.97 were resulted in all the cases of regression functions. Based on the polynomial regression functions fitted on the mean values of the test results, three increasing factors were determined in function of the distance measured from the geogrid. Increasing factor «A», «B» and «D». Originality. Multi-level shear box test, developed by the author, is certified unequivocally adequate for determining inner shear resistance of reinforced and unreinforced granular materials, e.g. railway ballast

  18. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  19. THE BASING OF STABILIZATION PARAMETERS OF A FORTIFIED RAILWAY BED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is devoted to stabilization parameters determination of reinforced railway bed. At the present time, the railway plays the leading role in transport system to ensure the needs of freight and passenger traffic. In modern conditions railway operation concentrates on ensuring the necessary level of track reliability, including the roadbed, this is one of the main elements of road structures. The purpose of this article is the determination of basic parameters of stress-strain state to stabilize the soil subgrade embankment by reinforced materials. Methodology. To achieve this goal the following tasks of researches were solved: the effect of reinforcing layer of geomaterial on deformation properties of soil subgrade in various design of strengthening was investigated, the distributions of stresses in the subgrade were determined, reinforced of geomaterials under state load. Experimental studies to explore the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress were carried out. Findings. The analysis of the results of performed experimental and theoretical studies permitted to do the following conclusions. In conducting researches determined the distribution of stresses in the subgrade reinforced geomaterials under static load. The complex of experimental studies allows exploring the nature of the deformation model subgrade at various degrees of stress. Originality. On the basis of the theoretical studies have been regarded the problem of determining the stress-strain state of subgrade reinforced geomaterials by measuring stresses in its application for step loads. Practical value. The practical value was presented by the results of evaluating the effect of reinforcing way for changing the stress-strain state of subgrade.

  20. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the railways at many key points in Natal and the ... feking to a point just north of the Orange River on the Cape Main Line ... occupied to a point some three miles north of .... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the.

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  2. Design of railway obstacle detection prototype

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xungu, Sipho A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...

  3. Introducing gaming simulation in the Dutch railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, S.

    2012-01-01

    Innovation in the Dutch railways in the domain of capacity management and traffic control is increasingly difficult to implement because of the large interconnectedness of all processes and separation into different institutions and organizations. Meanwhile there is a push for quality improvements

  4. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  5. 20 CFR 202.13 - Electric railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric railways. 202.13 Section 202.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EMPLOYERS UNDER... conclusion reached the question will be submitted to the Interstate Commerce Commission for determination...

  6. Performance communication of the Belgian railway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Galetzka, Mirjam; Seydel, E.R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into performance communication from an important public service, i.e. the Belgian Railway, towards its employees (internal) and stakeholders (external). Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative research approach was taken in the form of

  7. Resolving instability in railway timetabling problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besinovic, Nikola; Quaglietta, E.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    A growth of the railway transportation demand is forecasted in the next decades which needs an increase of network capacity. Where possible, infrastructure upgrading can release extra capacity, although in some cases this is not enough to satisfy the entire transportation demand unless optimised

  8. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfieri, A.; Groot, R.; Kroon, L.G.; Schrijver, A.

    2006-01-01

    Railway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of rolling

  9. Efficient Circulation of Railway Rolling Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Alfieri (Arianna); R. Groot (Rutger); L.G. Kroon (Leo); A. Schrijver (Lex)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractRailway rolling stock (locomotives, carriages, and train units) is one of the most significant cost sources for operatorsof passenger trains, both public and private. Rolling stock costsare due to material acquisition, power supply, and material maintenance. The efficient circulation of

  10. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus virtual system modeling ... system which helps in track switching and level crossing gate traffic control is capable of improving reliability, speed, .... Lane Switching Network.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TOXIC CHEMICAL DISPERSION AFTER ACCIDENT AT RAILWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This research focuses on the development of an applied numerical model to calculate the dynamics of atmospheric pollution in the emission of dangerous chemical substances in the event of transportation by railway. Methodology. For the numerical simulation of transport process of the dangerous chemical substance in the atmosphere the equation of convection-diffusion pollutant transport is used. This equation takes into account the effect of wind, atmospheric diffusion, the power of emission source, as well as the movement of the source of emission (depressurized tank on the process of pollutant dispersion. When carrying out computing experiment one also takes into account the profile of the speed of the wind flow. For the numerical integration of pollutant transport in the atmosphere implicit finite-difference splitting scheme is used. The numerical calculation is divided into four steps of splitting and at each step of splitting the unknown value of the concentration of hazardous substance is determined by the explicit running account scheme. On the basis of the numerical model it was created the code using the algorithmic language FORTRAN. One conducted the computational experiments to assess the level of air pollution near the railway station «Illarionovo» in the event of a possible accident during transportation of ammonia. Findings. The proposed model allows you to quickly calculate the air pollution after the emission of chemically hazardous substance, taking into account the motion of the emission source. The model makes it possible to determine the size of the land surface pollution zones and the amount of pollutants deposited on a specific area. Using the developed numerical model it was estimated the environmental damage near the railway station «Illarionovo». Originality. One can use the numerical model to calculate the size and intensity of the chemical contamination zones after accidents on transport. Practical value

  12. 75 FR 29805 - CSX Transportation, Inc. and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc.-Joint Use Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... attach a document and otherwise comply with the instructions found on the Board's website at `` www.stb... Syracuse and Huntingdon, Que. CSXT interchanges this cross-border rail traffic with Canadian National Railway Company (CN) at Huntingdon, with CN handling the traffic to and from the Montreal terminal area...

  13. Nuclear Data for Reactor Physics: Cross sections and level densities in the actinide region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernstein L.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear data in the actinide region are particularly important because they are basis behind all simulations of nuclear reactor core behaviour over both long time scales (fuel depletion and waste production and short time scales (accident scenarios. Nuclear reaction cross sections must be known as precisely as possible so that core reaction rates can be accurately calculated. Although cross section measurements in this region have been widely performed, for certain nuclei, particularly those with short half lives, direct measurements are either very difficult or impossible and thus reactor simulations must rely on theoretical calculations or extrapolations from neighbouring nuclei. The greatest uncertainty in theoretical cross section calculations comes from the lack of knowledge of level densities, for which predicted values can often be incorrect by a factor of two or more. Therefore there is a strong case for a systematic experimental study of level densities in the actinide region for the purpose of a providing a stringent test of theoretical cross section calculations for nuclei where experimental cross section data are available and b for providing better estimations of cross sections for nuclei in which no cross section data are available.

  14. Practical Constraint K-Segment Principal Curve Algorithms for Generating Railway GPS Digital Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a decent trade-off between the low-cost, low-accuracy Global Positioning System (GPS receivers and the requirements of high-precision digital maps for modern railways, using the concept of constraint K-segment principal curves (CKPCS and the expert knowledge on railways, we propose three practical CKPCS generation algorithms with reduced computational complexity, and thereafter more suitable for engineering applications. The three algorithms are named ALLopt, MPMopt, and DCopt, in which ALLopt exploits global optimization and MPMopt and DCopt apply local optimization with different initial solutions. We compare the three practical algorithms according to their performance on average projection error, stability, and the fitness for simple and complex simulated trajectories with noise data. It is found that ALLopt only works well for simple curves and small data sets. The other two algorithms can work better for complex curves and large data sets. Moreover, MPMopt runs faster than DCopt, but DCopt can work better for some curves with cross points. The three algorithms are also applied in generating GPS digital maps for two railway GPS data sets measured in Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR. Similar results like the ones in synthetic data are obtained. Because the trajectory of a railway is relatively simple and straight, we conclude that MPMopt works best according to the comprehensive considerations on the speed of computation and the quality of generated CKPCS. MPMopt can be used to obtain some key points to represent a large amount of GPS data. Hence, it can greatly reduce the data storage requirements and increase the positioning speed for real-time digital map applications.

  15. Hydrologic Analysis of Ungauged Catchments For The Supply of Water For Irrigation On Railway Embankment Batters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Y.; Nissen, D.

    Water has been identified as a key component to the success of grass establishment on railway embankment batters (side slope) within Central Queensland, Australia, to control erosion. However, the region under study being semi-arid experiences less than 600 mm average annual rainfall occurring on about 60 days of the year. Culverts and bridges are integral part of railway embankments. They are used to cross water courses, be it an ephemeral creek or just a surface runoff path. Surface runoff through an ungauged railway embankment culvert is diverted to a temporary excavated pond located at the downstream side of the hydraulic structure. The temporary excavated pond water is used to feed an automated drip irrigation system, with solar as a source of energy to drive a pump. Railway embankment batter erosion remediation is timed in the wet season when irrigation is used to supplement natural rainfall. Hydrologic analysis of ungauged catchments for sizing the temporary excavated pond is presented. It is based on scenarios of runoff coefficient and curve number, and mass curve (Rippl diagram). Three years of continuous rainfall data (1997/1998 -1999/2000) were used to design a pond. The performance of the designed pond was evaluated in a field experiment during the next wet season (2000/2001). It supplied adequate water for irrigation as predicted by the hydrologic analysis during the grass establishment. This helped to achieve 100% grass cover on the railway embankment batter within 12 weeks. The proposed irrigation system has been demonstrated t o be feasible and cost effective.

  16. Review of experience of major reform of railways of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V.Martsenyuk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the possibility of the foreign countries experience in the reforming of railway transport of Ukraine. Methodology. On the basis of comparative analysis the suitability of foreign experience of infrastructure branches reformation, dividing the range of problems to the questions of ideological and methodological character, and of course, taking into account the peculiarities of the situation in Ukraine is estimated. As for the first range of problems, it is, first of all, the choice of the form of ownership. Findings. Experience shows that both types of property have not only the beneficial but also the negative impacts. On the one hand, it is the state railways have the conditions for development and implementation of the new technologies such as high-speed trains, construction of which, as well as construction of specialized lines would be impossible without appropriate research base, and without public funding. On the other – private companies. operating on a concession basis, usually provide a higher level of services at affordable rates. Originality. It can be concluded that there is no direct correlation between the ownership form of railroads and economic or qualitative characteristics of their work. The necessity of various forms of technical and economic relationships, the existence of separate railways at the regional and local levels, which offers a great opportunity to overcome the monotony of operation, in the development of railways towards greater differentiation of service levels is proved. This however does not mean that the only alternative is to sell concessions to private enterprises, especially if the transfer of ownership is not supplemented by commitments to support public transport at a certain level. Practical value. Examples of positive governance are opposed to the equal examples of private management and vice versa. Deep analysis of reforming experience of world leading railways will prevent from

  17. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  18. Develop railway engineering modules in UTK civil engineering undergraduate and graduate courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-31

    The importance of railway transport has long been recognized. However, no railway : engineering courses have been provided in the UTK civil engineering curricula. The : objective of this education project is to develop some railway engineering module...

  19. New techniques for multi-level cross section calculation and fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, F.H.

    1980-09-01

    A number of recent developments in multi-level cross section work are described. A new iteration scheme for the conversion of Reich-Moore resonance parameters to Kapur-Peierls parameters allows application of Turing's method for Gaussian broadening of meromorphic functions directly to multi-level cross section expressions, without recourse to the Voigt profiles psi and chi. This makes calculation of Doppler-broadened Reich-Moore and MLBW cross sections practically as fast as SLBW and Adler-Adler cross section calculations involving the Voigt profiles. A convenient distant-level treatment utilizing average resonance parameters is presented. Apart from effectively dealing with edge effects in resonance fitting work it also leads to a simple prescription for the determination of bound levels which reproduce the thermal cross sections correctly. A brief discussion of improved resonance shape fitting techniques is included, with empahsis on the importance of correlated errors and proper use of prior information by application of Bayes' theorem. (orig.) [de

  20. Validation of hindi translation of DSM-5 level 1 cross-cutting symptom measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Ankit; Kataria, Dinesh

    2018-04-01

    The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure is a self- or informant-rated measure that assesses mental health domains which are important across psychiatric diagnoses. The absence of this self- or informant-administered instrument in Hindi, which is a major language in India, is an important limitation in using this scale. To translate the English version of the DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure to Hindi and evaluate its psychometric properties. The study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi. The DSM-5 Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was translated into Hindi using the World Health Organization's translation methodology. Mean and standard deviation were evaluated for continuous variables while for categorical variables frequency and percentages were calculated. The translated version was evaluated for cross-language equivalence, test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and split half reliability. Hindi version was found to have good cross-language equivalence and test-retest reliability at the level of items and domains. Twenty two of the 23 items and all the 23 items had a significant correlation (ρ Cutting Symptom Measure as translated in this study is a valid instrument. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...... are considered to replace GSM-R in the future. This thesis is focused on Long Term Evolution (LTE) as one of the most likely successors to GSM-R. As a technology designed for commercial purposes, LTE has to be investigated specifically in railway environment. Using computer-based simulations, the LTE network...... important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show...

  2. Characteristics of suicide hotspots on the Belgian railway network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbaut, Kevin; Krysinska, Karolina; Andriessen, Karl

    2014-01-01

    In 2004, railway suicide accounted for 5.3% of all suicides in Belgium. In 2008, Infrabel (Manager of the Belgian Railway Infrastructure) introduced a railway suicide prevention programme, including identification of suicide hotspots, i.e., areas of the railway network with an elevated incidence of suicide. The study presents an analysis of 43 suicide hotspots based on Infrabel data collected during field visits and semi-structured interviews conducted in mental health facilities in the vicinity of the hotspots. Three major characteristics of the hotspots were accessibility, anonymity, and vicinity of a mental health institution. The interviews identified several risk and protective factors for railway suicide, including the training of staff, introduction of a suicide prevention policy, and the role of the media. In conclusion, a comprehensive railway suicide prevention programme should continuously safeguard and monitor hotspots, and should be embedded in a comprehensive suicide prevention programme in the community.

  3. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  4. Adriatic storm surges and related cross-basin sea-level slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Međugorac, Iva; Orlić, Mirko; Janeković, Ivica; Pasarić, Zoran; Pasarić, Miroslava

    2018-05-01

    Storm surges pose a severe threat to the northernmost cities of the Adriatic coast, with Venice being most prone to flooding. It has been noted that some flooding episodes cause significantly different effects along the eastern and western Adriatic coasts, with indications that the difference is related to cross-basin sea-level slope. The present study aims to determine specific atmospheric conditions under which the slope develops and to explore connection with increased sea level along the two coastlines. The analysis is based on sea-level time series recorded at Venice and Bakar over the 1984-2014 interval, from which 38 most intensive storm-surge episodes were selected, and their meteorological backgrounds (ERA-Interim) were studied. The obtained sea-level extremes were grouped into three categories according to their cross-basin sea-level slope: storm surges that slope strongly westward (W type), those that slope eastward (E type) and ordinary storm surges (O type). Results show that the slope is controlled by wind action only, specifically, by the wind component towards a particular coast and by the cross-basin shear of along-basin wind. Meteorological fields were used to force an oceanographic numerical model in order to confirm the empirically established connection between the atmospheric forcing and the slope. Finally, it has been found that the intensity of storm surges along a particular Adriatic coast is determined by an interplay of sea-level slopes in the along and cross-basin directions.

  5. Towards a real-time Structural Health Monitoring of railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Vagnoli, Matteo; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    More than 350,000 railway bridges are present on the European railway network, making them a key infrastructure of the whole railway network. Railway bridges are continuously exposed to changing environmental threats, such as wind, floods and traffic load, which can affect safety and reliability of the bridge. Furthermore, a problem on a bridge can affect the whole railway network by increasing the vulnerability of the geographic area, served by the railway network. In this paper a Bayesian B...

  6. Electrically controlled crossing of energy levels in quantum dots in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2017-05-15

    We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.

  7. Electrically controlled crossing of energy levels in quantum dots in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2017-05-01

    We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.

  8. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  9. Efficiency and Robustness in Railway Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Simon Henry; Pisinger, David

    reliability. Offering these services presents a challenging sequence of planning problems for operators. These range from problems considered on a daily basis to planning for years in the future, with different problems interacting and influencing each other. Operations research methods can be used...... to effectively model, investigate, and solve railway planning problems. Despite advances in computational power these large problems are still challenging to solve, especially as more modelling detail is sought. Within a Danish context this thesis seeks to apply operations research methods to different planning...... problems beyond past approaches, and where applicable, investigate solution methods that place more focus on the passenger and passenger experience. To cater to the growing demand for rail transport, and compete with different modes of transport, Danish railway operators must offer a consistent, reliable...

  10. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  11. The noise factor in railway locomotives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, T

    1982-09-01

    This article concerns the problem of acoustic work conditions on railway locomotives. The objective results of sonometric surveys in locomotive cabins are compared with subject data received from locomotive crews obtained by means of a specific questionnaire 'The Subjective Estimation of Noise'. The analysis touched 9 type of locomotives; steam, diesel and electric engines. We asked drivers of different age groups and with varying lengths of professional service for their opinions The aim of the investigation was to determine the following points: 1. to analyse the drivers' subjective estimation of the noise in the locomotive cabins; 2. to define length of time for which the driver remains under the influence of the noise after finishing work; 3. to investigate the question of perception and understanding of sounds and vocal signals used in the locomotive. These problems are a small part of the general plan to improve work conditions on the Polish National Railways.

  12. A methodology for evaluating environmental impacts of railway freight transportation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Javier; Buron, Jose Manuel; Garcia, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Railway freight transportation presents a degree of complexity which frequently makes impossible to model it with sufficient precision. Currently, energetic and environmental impacts of freight transportation are usually modelled following average data, which do not reflect the characteristics of specific lines. These models allow qualitative approximations which may be used as criteria for designing high-level transportation policies: road-train modal shift, regional energetic planning or environmental policies. This paper proposes a methodology for estimating railway consumption associated to a specific railway line which yields a new degree of precision. It is based on estimating different contributions to railway consumption by a collection of factors, mobility, operation, or infrastructure-related. This procedure also allows applying the methodology for designing transportation policies in detail: evaluating impact of modal shift, consumption and pollutant emissions on a specific line, as well as the effect of building tunnels, reducing slopes, improving traffic control, etc. A comparison of the estimations given by the conventional approach and the proposed methodology is offered, as well as further comments on the results.

  13. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dotsinsky Ivan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public access defibrillators (PADs are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Method Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed. This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. Results The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. Conclusion The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  14. Suppression of AC railway power-line interference in ECG signals recorded by public access defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsinsky, Ivan

    2005-11-26

    Public access defibrillators (PADs) are now available for more efficient and rapid treatment of out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. PADs are used normally by untrained people on the streets and in sports centers, airports, and other public areas. Therefore, automated detection of ventricular fibrillation, or its exclusion, is of high importance. A special case exists at railway stations, where electric power-line frequency interference is significant. Many countries, especially in Europe, use 16.7 Hz AC power, which introduces high level frequency-varying interference that may compromise fibrillation detection. Moving signal averaging is often used for 50/60 Hz interference suppression if its effect on the ECG spectrum has little importance (no morphological analysis is performed). This approach may be also applied to the railway situation, if the interference frequency is continuously detected so as to synchronize the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) for introducing variable inter-sample intervals. A better solution consists of rated ADC, software frequency measuring, internal irregular re-sampling according to the interference frequency, and a moving average over a constant sample number, followed by regular back re-sampling. The proposed method leads to a total railway interference cancellation, together with suppression of inherent noise, while the peak amplitudes of some sharp complexes are reduced. This reduction has negligible effect on accurate fibrillation detection. The method is developed in the MATLAB environment and represents a useful tool for real time railway interference suppression.

  15. APPRAISAL OF USED WOODEN RAILWAY SLEEPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI HAWA HAMZAH

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003 on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  17. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  18. Fatigue lifetime estimation of railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Fajkoš, R.; Matušek, P.; Hutař, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR (2017), s. 139-157 ISSN 1350-6307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual fatigue lifetime * Railway axle * Variable amplitude loading * Fatigue crack propagation * Damage tolerance methodology Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering, reliability analysis Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2016

  19. An Improved Walk Model for Train Movement on Railway Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keping; Mao Bohua; Gao Ziyou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an improved walk model for simulating the train movement on railway network. In the proposed method, walkers represent trains. The improved walk model is a kind of the network-based simulation analysis model. Using some management rules for walker movement, walker can dynamically determine its departure and arrival times at stations. In order to test the proposed method, we simulate the train movement on a part of railway network. The numerical simulation and analytical results demonstrate that the improved model is an effective tool for simulating the train movement on railway network. Moreover, it can well capture the characteristic behaviors of train scheduling in railway traffic. (general)

  20. Response of soil microflora to impact of heavy metals in zones of influence of railway transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bobryk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring research on the areas intensively and continuously affected by technogenic loading has remained topical until nowadays. The soil as a basic component of many ecosystems, including the structure of its microbial cenoses, remains an informative index of a system’s overall stability. The areas affected by railway transport have been scarcely studied. Due to the above, the aim of this work has been to establish the transformation regularities of soil microbial cenoses of territories close to railways and to establish the groups of microorganisms that are a sensitive criterion of technogenic vehicular influence. For the purpose of microbiological research, soil samples were taken at different distances from the railway track (0, 25, 50, 100 and250 m within five monitoring sections of the Tchop – Uzhhorod – Sambor railway (in the territory of Zakarpatska oblast. The number of ecological trophic groups was identified by means of inoculation on nutrient media using the method of serial dilution of soil suspensions. The research showed that in all types of soils that were adjacent to railway tracks, the number of ammonifiers and spore microbiota was high due to the high content of heavy metals (beyond the background levels. Besides, the bacterial microflora on beef-extract agar was characterized by homogeneity with domination of enteric bacteria and spore bacteria. Simultaneously, the numbers of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, micromycetes, oligonitrophils, amylolytic and pedotrophic microflorae were shown to be low compared to the control. Farther from the railway track, pigmental species of bacteria appeared in the soil samples, attesting to the activity of self-purification processes. Correlation analysis of the data showed that the soil microbiota of the railway-side areas was undergoing changes as affected by heightened contents of heavy metals. Existence of medium and close connections was established between the number of

  1. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain dr...

  2. Proton NMR for Measuring Quantum Level Crossing in the Magnetic Molecular Ring Fe10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, M.; Jang, Z.H.; Borsa, F.; Julien, M.; Lascialfari, A.; Borsa, F.; Horvatic, M.; Caneschi, A.; Gatteschi, D.

    1999-01-01

    The proton nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 has been measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field (up to 15thinspthinspT) in the molecular magnetic ring Fe 10 ( OCH 3 ) 20 (O 2 CCH 2 Cl) 10 (Fe10). Striking enhancement of 1/T 1 is observed around magnetic field values corresponding to a crossing between the ground state and the excited states of the molecule. We propose that this is due to a cross-relaxation effect between the nuclear Zeeman reservoir and the reservoir of the Zeeman levels of the molecule. This effect provides a powerful tool to investigate quantum dynamical phenomena at level crossing. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  4. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  5. Geometric Filtering Effect of Vertical Vibrations in Railway Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Dumitriu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper herein examines the geometric filtering effect coming from the axle base of a railway vehicle upon the vertical vibrations behavior, due to the random irregularities of the track. For this purpose, the complete model of a two-level suspension and flexible carbody vehicle has been taken into account. Following the modal analysis, the movement equations have been treated in an original manner and brought to a structure that points out at the symmetrical and anti-symmetrical decoupled movements of vehicle and their excitation modes. There has been shown that the geometric filtering has a selective behavior in decreasing the level of vibrations, and its contribution is affected by the axle base magnitude, rolling speed and frequency range.

  6. Cross-Circulating Current Suppression Method for Parallel Three-Phase Two-Level Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Guo, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    The parallel architecture is very popular for power inverters to increase the power level. This paper presents a method for the parallel operation of inverters in an ac-distributed system, to suppress the cross-circulating current based on virtual impedance without current-sharing bus...

  7. Polymers and Cross-Linking: A CORE Experiment to Help Students Think on the Submicroscopic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Mitchell R. M.; Bruce, Alice E.; Avargil, Shirly; Amar, Francois G.; Wemyss, Thomas M.; Flood, Virginia J.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers and Cross-Linking experiment is presented via a new three phase learning cycle: CORE (Chemical Observations, Representations, Experimentation), which is designed to model productive chemical inquiry and to promote a deeper understanding about the chemistry operating at the submicroscopic level. The experiment is built on two familiar…

  8. Level crossings, excess times, and transient plasma–wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsen, A., E-mail: audun.theodorsen@uit.no; Garcia, O. E., E-mail: odd.erik.garcia@uit.no [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2016-04-15

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with a radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  9. Cross-Level Analysis of Social Media: Toward the Construction of an Ecological Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Joo-Young; Moro, Munehito; Joo-Young, Jung; Munehito, Moro

    2012-01-01

    The media environment has undergone significant changes with the advent of the Internet. In the recent years, the prevalence and popularity of “social media” is re-shaping the ways in which people communicate and obtain information. This paper proposes a framework that conceptualizes a cross-level functionality of social media. We conceptualize social media as an information system functioning at micro-(interpersonal), meso-(group or organizational), and macro-(mass media) levels. Based on me...

  10. The Role of Cedex s Railway Inter operability Laboratory (RIL) in the European ERTMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamarit Rodriguez de Huici, J.

    2015-01-01

    The RIL is the most recently laboratory set up within CEDEXs premises. From the start, it has aimed to support the development of rail transport at both European and Spanish levels. This article describes the role played by CEDEX-RIL in the development of ERTMS, and the close link which from its inception, has existed between this system and the EMSET project, in which the feasibility of the European Railway inter operability was demonstrated with the participation of the whole European signalling industry. The key factor for the success of this project was the creation of both and independent laboratory and testing sites which, right from the very beginning, enjoyed the confidence of the industry, thus allowing for the first time the execution of cross tests between companies. Finally, and equally important, this paper shows the fruitful evolution followed by the laboratory aforementioned, which, from its establishment, has evolved from performing tests on generic ERTMS constituents to undertaking, first, remote tests jointly carried out between specific commercial projects with different suppliers on track and on-board; and, second, Handover tests between diverse RBC suppliers. (Author)

  11. A health examination of railway high-voltage substation workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, P; Battisti, S; Checcucci, A; Comba, P; Grandolfo, M; Serio, A; Vecchia, P

    1986-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional survey on the health conditions of railways workers active in 258 interconnection and conversion substations all over Italy. Measurements performed in both kinds of substations operating at 220 kV have shown that maximum levels of the electric field strength and of the magnetic flux density at 50 Hz are of the order of 5 kV/m and 15 microT, respectively. Three subject groups, differently exposed (1, 10, 20 h/week), and an unexposed control group, for a total number of 627 workers, constitute the population at study. All subjects underwent a general medical examination, laboratory investigations, and a series of selected examinations relative to three systems (nervous, cardiovascular, and haematopoietic) considered at higher risk. No differences have been found between the exposed and the control groups. It is concluded that workers exposed to ELF electromagnetic fields of moderate strength do not show the presence of clear effects on their state of health.

  12. EXPANSION OF OBJECTIVES OF THE PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF TECHNICAL AUDIT AT RAILWAY TRANSPORT ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Okorokov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work is aimed to study, compare and summarize information on the current state and peculiarities of conducting technical audit in various branches of business in order to obtain the possibility of developing proposals for expanding the objectives of this procedure in railway enterprises. Methodology. In the course of the research there were used the methods of analysis and synthesis to study the content and basic provisions of scientific publications, normative legal acts of Ukraine, and other data on conducting technical audit in the field of industry, construction, gas extraction, electricity, marine and rail transport, followed by their comparison and generalization. Findings. Taking into account the positive experience of the audit carrying out in other sectors the article expands the goals of practical application of technical audit in railway transport enterprises. This envisages assessment of the current technical condition and the residual life of exploited vehicles and equipment of PJSC "Ukrzaliznytsia". As a result, there is an opportunity to detect and activate the reserves for improving the efficiency of railway transport enterprises, estimating and forecasting the costs for repair cycles and modernization, as well as for increasing the train safety level and improving investment attractiveness of the industry. Originality. The obtained results make it possible to broaden the concept of "technical audit" in railway transport, to define the purpose of its carrying out and the list of tasks. Application of the extended technical audit will provide an opportunity to receive objective information on the actual technical condition of the objects of the railway infrastructure, means of transport and equipment, and to use it for the formation of development programs as individual enterprises and the railway as a whole. Practical value. Expanding the goals of practical application of the technical audit at railway enterprises

  13. Numerical modelling of ground vibration caused by elevated high-speed railway lines considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bucinskas, Paulius; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Construction of high speed railway lines has been an increasing trend in recent years. Countries like Denmark and Sweden plan to expand and upgrade their railways to accommodate high-speed traffic. To benefit from the full potential of the reduced commuting times, these lines must pass through...... densely populated urban areas with the collateral effect of increased noise and vibrations levels. This paper aims to quantify the vibrations levels in the area surrounding an elevated railway line built as a multi-span bridge structure. The proposed model employs finite-element analysis to model......-space. The paper analyses the effects of structure-soil-structure interaction on the dynamic behaviour of the surrounding soil surface. The effects of different soil stratification and material properties as well as different train speeds are assessed. Finally, the drawbacks of simplifying the numerical model...

  14. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  15. Electron excitation cross sections for some Ar I 5d (J = 2) levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, F.; Sanchez, J.A.; Campos, J.

    1992-01-01

    Absolute excitation cross sections by electron impact for some 5d levels with J = 2 of Ar I have been measured by the optical method. Excitation functions for electron energies in the range from the excitation threshold to 1000 eV are also reported. A delayed coincidence analysis of the de-excitation at 100 eV electron energy allowed for the subtraction of radiative cascades. The resulting excitation cross sections are between 7.3 and 12x10 -20 cm 2 . (author)

  16. A comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.A.

    1997-04-01

    This document, prepared by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, is a comparison and cross-reference of commercial low-level radioactive waste acceptance criteria. Many of these are draft or preliminary criteria as well as implemented criteria at operating low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Waste acceptance criteria from the following entities are included: US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, South Carolina, Washington, Utah, Nevada, California, illinois, Texas, North Carolina, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, New York, and the Midwest Compact Region. Criteria in the matrix include the following: physical form, chemical form, liquid limits, void space in packages, concentration averaging, types of packaging, chelating agents, solidification media, stability requirements, sorptive media, gas, oil, biological waste, pyrophorics, source material, special nuclear material, package dimensions, incinerator ash, dewatered resin, transuranics, and mixed waste. Each criterion in the matrix is cross-referenced to its source document so that exact requirements can be determined

  17. Analysis of the process related to the operations management of the rail traction vehicles in JSC 'Serbian Railways'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Vojislav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, issues related to the operations management in railway were elaborated, with special emphasis on the operations management of rail vehicles and main parameters in its activities and in the railway functioning. The analysis of the current status, operation and functioning of the Serbian Railways was also provided, with a special focus on the study of the technical condition regarding exploitation, reliability, and availability of traction vehicles operation which is always actual and particularly important for ensuring the regular and safe functioning of train traffic in all railways in the world as well as in the railway of Serbia. The issue related to the exploitation reliability and availability regarding traction vehicles operation is also being analyzed which is reflected in development of the concept and creation of the methodology for assessment of the technical condition and indicators for determining the level of exploitation reliability, availability of the traction vehicle operation as well as functioning of train traffic and the models related to the operations management of rail traction vehicles.

  18. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawronek, Pelagia; Makuch, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface). The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement).

  19. Application of Classical Land Surveying Measurement Methods for Determining the Vertical Displacement of Railway Bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawronek Pelagia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical measurements of stability of railway bridge, in the context of determining the vertical displacements of the object, consisted on precise leveling of girders and trigonometric leveling of controlled points (fixed into girders' surface. The construction elements, which were measured in two ways, in real terms belonged to the same vertical planes. Altitude measurements of construction were carried out during periodic structural stability tests and during static load tests of bridge by train. The specificity of displacement measurements, the type of measured object and the rail land surveying measurement conditions were determinants to define methodology of altitude measurement. The article presents compatibility of vertical displacements of steel railway bridge, which were developed in two measurement methods. In conclusion, the authors proposed the optimum concept of determining the vertical displacements of girders by using precise and trigonometric leveling (in terms of accuracy, safety and economy of measurement.

  20. Panel Data with Cross-Sectional Dependence Characterized by a Multi-Level Factor Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, Carlos Vladimir

    A panel data model with a multi-level cross-sectional dependence is proposed. The factor structure is driven by top-level common factors as well as non-pervasive factors. I propose a simple method to filter out the full factor structure that overcomes limitations in standard procedures which may...... mix up both levels of unobservable factors and may hamper the identification of the model. The model covers both stationary and non-stationary cases and takes into account other relevant features that make the model well suited to the analysis of many types of time series frequently addressed...

  1. Performance of LTE in High Speed Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with a number of shortcomings in terms of capacity and capability. These shortcomings become a major issue for railways as GSM-R may limit the number of running trains in some areas and it cannot support advanced data services. Hence...

  2. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  3. The effects of 10 years Railway investment in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten A.

    1998-01-01

    The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period.......The paper retrives the impacts of the last 10 years of investment in railway infrastructure in Denmark and ooncludes, that traveltimes and frequency is large unchanged during that period....

  4. Formal Methods and Safety Certification: Challenges in the Railways Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Ferrari, Alessio; Gnesi, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment.......The railway signalling sector has historically been a source of success stories about the adoption of formal methods in the certification of software safety of computer-based control equipment....

  5. Seismic Performance of Multi-Span RC Railway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakis, Christos; Barrau, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Presently, there is no clear method for determining the optimal railway bridge design for a particular ground type and expected seismic intensity. Four main types of RC bridge dominate the current multi-span railway bridge design trends – the Simply Supported Beam, Continuous Box-Girder (CBG), CBG...

  6. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  7. The Penarroya mining railway; El Ferrocaril minero de Penarroya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grado Contreras, J. I. de

    2009-07-01

    The French Society Miniere et Metallurgique de Panarroya mining railway, 241 km long, was the second largest private narrow gauge railway in Spain. Located in the inland. linked the coal and galena mines with foundries and also with the national railroads grid, to transport the minerals to national and foreign markets. (Author)

  8. The Ginghai-Tibet railway and Tibet tourism: travelers' perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming Ming Su; Geoffrey Wall

    2009-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet railway opened in July 2006 and boosted Tibetan tourism markedly by increasing the accessibility and affordability of travel from China to Tibet. This study evaluates the railway's impacts on tourists' travel decisions and experiences in Tibet. The relative importance of the train journey in comparison with the destination experience in...

  9. WAYS OF IMPROVEMENT RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN OVERPASS ECONOMIC CRISIS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. H. Deineka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article a problem of adapting the railway transport to market requirements is presented and the ways of improving its competitiveness are investigated. Some measures and reserves of improving the operation efficiency for the railway transport are offered.

  10. The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The political economy of railway construction in Nigeria: the Bornu railway extension. ... One key strategy employed was to side with the faction of the Nigerian petty bourgeoisie whose political, economic and class interests were in agreement with ... The 400-mile extension was eventually constructed and opened in 1964.

  11. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  12. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  13. Developing a Service Improvement System for the National Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Heijnsbroek, Martin; Bosma, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is essential for public and railway services, because firms in these industries have contracts with governments requiring them to achieve specific customer satisfaction targets. In this paper, we describe a National Dutch Railways project in which we identify the major

  14. Application of data clustering to railway delay pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    K-means clustering is employed to identify recurrent delay patterns on a high traffic railway line north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The clusters identify behavioral patterns in the very large (“big data”) data sets generated automatically and continuously by the railway signal system. The results re...

  15. Railway track circuit fault diagnosis using recurrent neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, T.D.; Verbert, K.A.J.; Babuska, R.

    2017-01-01

    Timely detection and identification of faults in railway track circuits are crucial for the safety and availability of railway networks. In this paper, the use of the long-short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network is proposed to accomplish these tasks based on the commonly available

  16. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  17. Railway station structures designed for densely populated urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vákár, L.I.; Snijder, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, the interest in public transit increased because of its contribution in solving the problem in mobility. This resulted in a worldwide need for building new railway stations and expanding existing ones. A railway station forms no longer a building on its own, but part of a larger complex.

  18. Railway Endowment in Italy’s Provinces, 1839-1913

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groote, Peter D.; Ciccarelli, Carlo

    This paper presents new annual estimates of railway extension in Italian provinces at 1913 borders for the period 1839-1913. The main operator of the Italian railway network (Ferrovie dello Stato) published in 1911 a unique set of homogeneous historical five year maps illustrating the routes of

  19. 77 FR 47922 - BNSF Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Northern Lines Railway, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... includes: (a) Track 204 between 33rd Avenue North and Rice Junction, Minn.; and (b) Track 203 between milepost 0.0, at Rice Junction, and milepost 5.71, just west of the Highway I-94 overpass (the Lines). \\1....C.C. 605 (1978), as modified in Mendocino Coast Railway--Lease & Operate--California Western...

  20. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  1. HIGH SPEED RAILWAY LINES – FUTURE PART OF CZECH RAILWAY NETWORK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Týfa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper first describes high speed rail generally and explains the relationship between high speed and conventional railway networks (according to the vehicle types in operation on the network. The core of the paper is comprised of the methodology for choosing the best route for a railway line and its application to the high speed railway connection Praha – Brno. The Algorithm used assumes the existence of more route proposals, which could be different in terms of the operational conception, line routing or types of vehicles used. The optimal variant is the one with the lowest daily cost, which includes infrastructure and vehicle costs; investment and operational costs. The results from applying this model confirmed the assumption, that a dedicated high speed railway line, only for high speed trains, has the same or lower investment costs than a line for both high speed and conventional trains. Furthermore, a dedicated high line also has a lower cost for infrastructure maintenance but a higher cost for buying high speed multiple units.

  2. PROCESS FEATURES OF FLUCTUATIONS PROPAGATION AT STRESS-STRAIN WORK OF THE RAILWAY TRACK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Bondarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the determination the basic laws of fluctuations propagation process from exitation of rolling stock in the design system of permanent way and substructures of the railway lines for studing the deformation processes as the basis for a regulatory framework of the track operation in the conditions of ensuring the reliability of railways. Methodology. To achieve the aim the principles of elasticity theories and wave propagation process in describing the interaction track and rolling stock were applied. Findings. The kinds of fluctuations and system which should be used when considering the fluctuations in the deformation process of rail track were established. The general view of the displacement function was determined. Originality. The theoretical concepts and principles to consider fluctuations of a structures system of permanent way and substructures of the railway track, energised by rolling stock were grounded. This will allow studing the process of deformation work of the mentioned system, which changes its state. That in turn will allow us to determine the parameters of the trains functional reliability, as part of the security passes of rolling stock on the track section with regard to its technical condition. Practical value. Usually for safe crossing of rolling stock parameters of fluctuation process in the system «vehicle-track» are determined. Existing models or carefully consider fluctuations of rolling stock in generalized characteristics of the structures of permanent way and substructures of the railway tracks or view of quasi-dynamic fluctuations rails with general characteristics of under rail base. This review process of oscillations, energised by rolling stock and delivered to all the elements of the permanent way and substructures of the railway track do not allow determining both the reliability parameters of elements in the system of track construction and parameters of functional

  3. Effects of shape differences in the level densities of three formalisms on calculated cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C.Y.; Larson, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of shape differences in the level densities of three formalisms on calculated cross-sections and particle emission spectra are described. Reactions for incident neutrons up to 20 MeV on 58 Ni are chosen for illustrations. Level density parameters for one of the formalisms are determined from the available neutron resonance data for one residual nuclide in the binary channels and from fitting the measured (n,n'), (n,p) and (n,α) cross-sections for the other two residual nuclides. Level density parameters for the other two formalisms are determined such that they yield the same values as the above one at two selected energies. This procedure forces the level densities from the three formalisms used for the binary pat of the calculation to be as close as possible. The remaining differences are in their energy dependences (shapes). It is shown that these shape differences alone are enough to cause the calculated cross-sections and particle emission spectra to be different by up to 60%. (author)

  4. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  5. Modeling Guidelines for Code Generation in the Railway Signaling Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Alessio; Bacherini, Stefano; Fantechi, Alessandro; Zingoni, Niccolo

    2009-01-01

    Modeling guidelines constitute one of the fundamental cornerstones for Model Based Development. Their relevance is essential when dealing with code generation in the safety-critical domain. This article presents the experience of a railway signaling systems manufacturer on this issue. Introduction of Model-Based Development (MBD) and code generation in the industrial safety-critical sector created a crucial paradigm shift in the development process of dependable systems. While traditional software development focuses on the code, with MBD practices the focus shifts to model abstractions. The change has fundamental implications for safety-critical systems, which still need to guarantee a high degree of confidence also at code level. Usage of the Simulink/Stateflow platform for modeling, which is a de facto standard in control software development, does not ensure by itself production of high-quality dependable code. This issue has been addressed by companies through the definition of modeling rules imposing restrictions on the usage of design tools components, in order to enable production of qualified code. The MAAB Control Algorithm Modeling Guidelines (MathWorks Automotive Advisory Board)[3] is a well established set of publicly available rules for modeling with Simulink/Stateflow. This set of recommendations has been developed by a group of OEMs and suppliers of the automotive sector with the objective of enforcing and easing the usage of the MathWorks tools within the automotive industry. The guidelines have been published in 2001 and afterwords revisited in 2007 in order to integrate some additional rules developed by the Japanese division of MAAB [5]. The scope of the current edition of the guidelines ranges from model maintainability and readability to code generation issues. The rules are conceived as a reference baseline and therefore they need to be tailored to comply with the characteristics of each industrial context. Customization of these

  6. A State-Space Approach to Optimal Level-Crossing Prediction for Linear Gaussian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney Alexander

    2009-01-01

    In many complex engineered systems, the ability to give an alarm prior to impending critical events is of great importance. These critical events may have varying degrees of severity, and in fact they may occur during normal system operation. In this article, we investigate approximations to theoretically optimal methods of designing alarm systems for the prediction of level-crossings by a zero-mean stationary linear dynamic system driven by Gaussian noise. An optimal alarm system is designed to elicit the fewest false alarms for a fixed detection probability. This work introduces the use of Kalman filtering in tandem with the optimal level-crossing problem. It is shown that there is a negligible loss in overall accuracy when using approximations to the theoretically optimal predictor, at the advantage of greatly reduced computational complexity. I

  7. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  8. Energy storage on board of railway vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, M.; Scholten, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Mannheim (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The proposed energy storage on board of a Railway vehicle leads to a big step in the reduction of consumed energy. Up to 30% energy saving are expected in a light rail vehicle, at the same time reducing the peak power demand drastically. In addition, with the energy storage an operation without catenary could become reality, which was successfully demonstrated with the prototype light rail vehicle driving with switched off pantograph. This prototype vehicle is in passenger operation since September 2003, the implemented software is optimised on energy savings and first experience is very promising. (authors)

  9. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  10. The importance of railway noise in France

    CERN Document Server

    Maurin, M

    1979-01-01

    A national survey on environmental nuisances due to all forms of transport was made in France during 1977. From among the data gathered, it is possible to extract results concerning the impact of nuisance due to railways, partly from results of questionnaires and partly from results of acoustical measurements. Interviews and measurements were made in several towns, at randomly selected dwellings. Rail and air transport noise nuisance impacts appeared to be of comparable importance, with that of road transport very much larger than either. (0 refs).

  11. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, L. M.; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered

  12. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...... is to minimize cost while adhering to constraints regarding infrastructure usage, demand coverage, and engine availability. The model is solved by a column generation scheme where feasible engine schedules are designed in a label setting algorithm with time-dependent cost and service times....

  13. Cross flow filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    A new method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level radioactive waste is being developed as an alternative to hydrofracture. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic (TRU) isotopes. Inertial cross flow filtration was used in this study to determine the potential of this method for separation of the TRU isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks. 7 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Spin dynamics at level crossing in molecular AF rings probed by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lascialfari, A. E-mail: lascialfari@fisicavolta.unipv.it; Borsa, F.; Julien, M.-H.; Micotti, E.; Furukawa, Y.; Jang, Z.H.; Cornia, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Horvatic, M.; Van Slageren, J

    2004-05-01

    The low-temperature spin dynamics in molecular rings with a finite number (N{<=}10) of magnetic ions was studied by means of {sup 1}H NMR. When an external magnetic field (B) induces a crossing between energy levels, peaks are observed in the spin-lattice relaxation rate of protons, 1/T{sub 1}(B), at constant temperature. We discuss similarities and differences in the data from three different rings: Fe10, Fe6:Li and Cr8.

  15. Spin dynamics at level crossing in molecular AF rings probed by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lascialfari, A.; Borsa, F.; Julien, M.-H.; Micotti, E.; Furukawa, Y.; Jang, Z.H.; Cornia, A.; Gatteschi, D.; Horvatic, M.; Van Slageren, J.

    2004-01-01

    The low-temperature spin dynamics in molecular rings with a finite number (N≤10) of magnetic ions was studied by means of 1 H NMR. When an external magnetic field (B) induces a crossing between energy levels, peaks are observed in the spin-lattice relaxation rate of protons, 1/T 1 (B), at constant temperature. We discuss similarities and differences in the data from three different rings: Fe10, Fe6:Li and Cr8

  16. Servant leadership and employee voice behavior: a cross-level investigation in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Aimin; Xiao, Yigui

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the influence and mechanisms of servant leadership on voice behavior, including the mediating role of psychological safety, and the moderating role of supervisor-subordinate Guanxi. Data were collected from 430 civil servants and their immediate supervisors in Changsha, China. Cross-Level investigation revealed that servant leadership had a significant influence on voice behavior, psychological safety mediated the relationship between servant leadership and voice behavior, w...

  17. A framework to support human factors of automation in railway intelligent infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, Nastaran; Wilson, John R; Golightly, David; Sharples, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Technological and organisational advances have increased the potential for remote access and proactive monitoring of the infrastructure in various domains and sectors - water and sewage, oil and gas and transport. Intelligent Infrastructure (II) is an architecture that potentially enables the generation of timely and relevant information about the state of any type of infrastructure asset, providing a basis for reliable decision-making. This paper reports an exploratory study to understand the concepts and human factors associated with II in the railway, largely drawing from structured interviews with key industry decision-makers and attachment to pilot projects. Outputs from the study include a data-processing framework defining the key human factors at different levels of the data structure within a railway II system and a system-level representation. The framework and other study findings will form a basis for human factors contributions to systems design elements such as information interfaces and role specifications.

  18. Ergonomic Intervention on the Occupational Stress of Selective Railway Workshop's Fitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Dey, Netai Chandra

    2017-12-01

    In India, progressively rigorous health, safety and environmental regulation, together with rapid technological advances have caused job demands of man machine interface. Any deviations in implementing rules and regulations leave many workers at severe risks. In different railway workshops where periodic overhauling (POH) of different coaches and locomotives are obtained, the exhaustive nature of work results strain within the workers. Unfortunately physiological work studies on railway workers are highly inadequate in India. The present study is aimed to relate the ergonomic intervention on the occupational stress of railway workshop's fitters. Working heart rate (WHR) is measured continuously during their work schedule by portable heart rate monitor. Recovery heart rate and other essential occupational stress indexes are also measured along with total working environmental details. The working heart rate (WHR) of the subjects are found as 138 beats/min (bpm) and 121 bpm for the junior (age senior fitters (age > 40 years), respectively. Net cardiac cost (NCC) and relative cardiac cost (RCC) values exhibit their range in a non-safe zone. No recovery in resting heart rate denotes the hostile environmental effect on the worker's physiology. The effective temperature (ET) and wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) of work site cross the recommended value. Clear evidences of a direct relationship between occupational hazard and fatigue is found and it can be considered as an environmental stresses which, in conjunction with other environmental and host factors induced a chronic fatigue that lead to non-specific health disorders.

  19. The Accuracy Assessment of Determining the Axis of Railway Track Basing on the Satellite Surveying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Władysław; Specht, Cezary; Chrostowski, Piotr; Palikowska, Katarzyna

    2012-09-01

    In 2009, at the Gdansk University of Technology there have been carried out, for the first time, continuous satellite surveying of railway track by the use of the relative phase method based on geodesic active network ASG-EUPOS and NAVGEO service. Still continuing research works focused on the GNSS multi-receivers platform evaluation for projecting and stock-taking. In order to assess the accuracy of the railway track axis position, the values of deviations of transverse position XTE (Cross Track Error) were evaluated. In order to eliminate the influence of random measurement errors and to obtain the coordinates representing the actual shape of the track, the XTE variable was analyzed by signal analysis methods (Chebyshev low-pass filtering and fast Fourier transform). At the end the paper presents the module of the computer software SATTRACK which currently has been developing at the Gdansk University of Technology. The program serves visualization, assessment and design process of railway track, adapted to the technique of continuous satellite surveying. The module called TRACK STRAIGHT is designed to assess the straight sections. A description of its operation as well as examples of its functions has been presented.

  20. THE RESULTS OF THE DEFECT PLACES INVESTIGATION OF DONETSK RAILWAY ROAD BED BY GROUND PENETRATING RADAR COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Defective places definition of road bed at ground penetrating radar is examined. Methodology. For achievement of this goal the experimental research on ground penetrating radar inspection of road bed defective places of the Donetsk Railway, which are caused by a complex of various reasons of geotechnical and constructive character, were conducted. Findings. According to these diagnostic results of road bed on the three districts of the Donetsk Railway is revealed the main causes which lead to the defects appearance, deformities and injuries in it, there is abuse of process parameters and modify its physic mechanical soil properties of natural and technology-related factors. As it is established, the use of ground penetrating radar of series “Losa” on the railways of Ukraine allows searching ballast tank in the body of road bed, defining damp places in soil road bed and foundations, to find arrangement of foreign matter in the soil road bed and work search heterogeneity and places weakening soil. In addition, the use of ground penetrating radar provides rapid detection of defects, deformation and damage of railway track, especially in areas the most dangerous for rolling stock that creates the high level security at the main and auxiliary lines of Ukrzaliznytsia. In conducting the research was justified the high level of reliability and performance with autonomous use of ground penetrating radar. Originality. In modern conditions of defects determination, deformations and damages by traditional methods with application of engineering-geological investigations, it is impossible in connection with their insufficient efficiency. Therefore the using of highly effective methodology of expeditious tool identification of defective places allows reducing significantly the periods of repair of a railway track which is very important for introduction of the high-speed movement on the Ukrainian Railways. Practical value. On the basis of the

  1. Non Destructive Tests for Evaluation of Railway Platforms: Application of Ground Penetrating Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Fontul, S.; Fortunato, E.; Chiara, F.; Paixão, A.

    2012-01-01

    Identification and diagnosis of railway track problems of the supporting layers is essential to achieve efficient maintenance and safe train operations [1]. Nowadays, maintenance interventions consist of performing different operations such as levelling and tamping of the track, based on the measured geometric parameters. Although these actions restore the track design geometry, they do not solve substructure related problems. Thus, a better maintenance policy should be adop...

  2. Serum IFN neutralizing antibodies and neopterin levels in a cross-section of MS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S D; Quinless, J R; Jotkowitz, A; Beaton, P

    2001-09-25

    To determine levels of serum interferon beta (IFNbeta) neutralizing antibody (NAb) and neopterin-an IFN biologic response marker-in patients with MS treated with Betaseron or Avonex. Controversy exists over the relative immunogenicity of IFNbeta-1a and IFNbeta-1b and the reasons for any such difference. To determine the role of patient profile and test methodology in IFNbeta, NAb levels need to be measured blindly and simultaneously in a predefined closely matched MS patient cohort. Serum NAb and neopterin levels were measured in closely matched patients on Avonex (n = 98) or Betaseron (n = 64). NAb were determined by Athena Diagnostics and serum neopterin levels by Covance Laboratories using a competitive binding radioimmunoassay. More patients taking Betaseron (22%) than Avonex (7%) had elevated titers of NAb (p = 0.008). Mean serum neopterin levels were lower in patients with high as compared to low NAb titers (p = 0.0002). No difference in mean neopterin levels was found comparing the total Betaseron group to the Avonex group; however, in the subset of patients with low NAb titers, mean neopterin levels were higher in the Betaseron than in the Avonex group (p = 0.027). A random cross-sectional sampling of patients on Avonex showed a decrease in neopterin levels over time between weekly doses. NAb are more commonly found with Betaseron than Avonex. More studies are needed to determine the correlation among serum neopterin levels, other biologic response markers, NAb, and disease activity in patients with MS being treated with IFNbeta.

  3. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  4. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  5. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  6. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  7. Guideline for load and resistance assessment of existing european railway bridges

    OpenAIRE

    JENSEN, Jens S; CASAS, Joan R; KAROUMI, Raid; PLOS, Mario; CREMONA, Christian; MELBOURNE, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Many of the European railway bridges are getting close to the end of their service life. At the same time the railway operators demand higher axle loads for freight trains and higher speeds for passenger trains. This requires new and better approaches for assessing both the railway loads and the resistance of railway bridges. The main objective of the "Guideline for Load and Resistance Assessment of Existing European Railway Bridges", developed within EU founded project "Sustainable Bridge...

  8. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  9. Method for Pedestrian Crossing Risk Assessment and Safety Level Determination: the Case Study of Tallinn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashkevich, M.; Krasilnikova, A.; Antov, D.

    2016-07-01

    Pedestrians are a part of vulnerable road users which safety requires a special attention. Official statistics in Estonia from the last decade returns the following numbers: around 30 % of all road traffic accidents in the country were accidents with pedestrians, 32 % of all traffic fatalities were finished with pedestrian death. Pedestrian crossing has the biggest risk level between all kinds of pedestrian facilities, because it includes a direct conflict point between vehicle and pedestrian traffics. The article presents a method to assess risk of pedestrian crossing users and to determine safety level of this road infrastructure element. This approach is based on observation and collection of infrastructural as well as traffic data, which includes: (1) information about each pedestrian crossing facility, its location and state, (2) data about accidents with pedestrians and their features, (3) data from road traffic measurements. The main advantages of the described method are universality and comprehensiveness. The case study was done in Kristiine district of the city Tallinn, which was chosen as the most typical average district of Estonian capital. Results of this study are also presented in the article. (Author)

  10. Measurement and calculation of excitation cross sections and level ionization by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Rames, F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical study of the atomic structure in neutral noble gases is studied in this work. It mainly deals with the determination of total cross sections by electron impact and transition probabilities, including: Chapter 1: Theoretical introduction and the intermediate coupling description obtained for 420 levels of s, p and d configurations in neutral noble gases. Chapter 2: Experimental and theoretical values for electron collision cross sections are obtained for several levels of He, Ne, Ar and Kr. Our results as well as those available from existing bibliography are sumarized and compared. By means of an intermediate coupling treatment a number of regularities is found that provides us with some useful approximate semi empirical expressions. Chapter 3: Determination of lifetime and transition probabilities. Lifetime measurements are carried out by means of laser excitation and multichannel delayed coincidences technique. The experimental setup and electronics are also described. Chapter 4: Details the experimental setup developed for electron cross sections measurement by the optical method. The difficulties of this method and their treatment are also shown. (Author)

  11. ADVANCED VOCATIONAL TRAINING OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROFESSIONALS FOR PROVIDING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RAILWAYS OF UKRAINE ON THE WAY TO EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoriana Dvulit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is to study the state of issue of advanced training of environmental professionals and specialists on six railways of Ukrzaliznytsia PJSC: Donetsk, Lviv, Odesa, Pivdenna (Southern, Pivdenno-Zakhidna (Southwestern and Pridniprovska Railways. The purpose of the article is to study the issue of providing the necessary qualification level of postgraduate education (advanced training of environmental professionals and specialists at six Ukrainian railways. The methodology of the research: In order to achieve the goal, the following methods are used in the article: 1 statistical methods and methods of comparative analysis; 2 questionnaires and expert surveys of environmental professionals and specialists; 3 taxonomic methods. The novelty of the research. The state of the issue of ensuring the necessary level of professional development of environmental professionals and specialists at six railways of Ukrzaliznytsia PJSC is investigated. Namely: 1. the state of the level of professional development of environmental professionals and specialists of 6 railways of Ukrzaliznytsia PJSC for the period from 2012 to 2016 is researched and evaluated; its structural and dynamic analysis is carried out; 2. calculations of taxonomic indicators of the level of development of career development system for environmental professionals and specialists as distribution of expenses for advanced training for 6 railways for 2012–2016 are made; 3. carried out a questionnaire of environmental professionals and specialists, whose list of functional responsibilities, in accordance with the job description (both staffed and part-time workers, includes issues of the use of natural resources and environmental protection – in order to clarify the availability of environmental education, the length of work in the railway, the length of work in positions associated with environmental activities, the level of satisfaction with the content of their work

  12. THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Grischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the

  13. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  14. INDIAN RAILWAYS AND FAMINE 1875-1914: Magic Wheels and Empty Stomachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Sweeney

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy-makers interpreted famines in nineteenth century British India as problems of distribution, rather than food production. Railways provided speedier and cheaper transport than road methods employed during that time. They were more reliable than canals, which needed rainfall to facilitate transport. However, they were expensive to construct and maintain, and the British offered various levels of state support to encourage private investors under the façade of laissez faire capitalism. The effectiveness of the largest investment program in the history of the British Empire, in combating appalling famines, was questionable. There was a failure to overcome acute price increases in wheat and rice, and morefundamentally, deindustrialization and poverty in India, all of which colonial railways encouraged.

  15. Management of low adhesion on railway tracks in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Andersen, Henning Boje

    with purely technical aspects of e.g. braking and WSP systems, but focus on the implied requirements for organisations and drivers. The report is largely based on literature describing measures taken by existing railway organisations, comprising, besides a few journal article, largely reports by railway...... incident in 2011 in Denmark and the braking ability of a specific type of train (Havarikommissionen 2012), but since expanded to encompass general problems with low adhesion (Nielsen et al. 2012). This report thus addresses problems that are already well‐known to Danish railway organisations...

  16. Current and future flood risk to railway infrastructure in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubeck, Philip; Kellermann, Patric; Alfieri, Lorenzo; Feyen, Luc; Dillenardt, Lisa; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2017-04-01

    Railway infrastructure plays an important role in the transportation of freight and passengers across the European Union. According to Eurostat, more than four billion passenger-kilometres were travelled on national and international railway lines of the EU28 in 2014. To further strengthen transport infrastructure in Europe, the European Commission will invest another € 24.05 billion in the transnational transport network until 2020 as part of its new transport infrastructure policy (TEN-T), including railway infrastructure. Floods pose a significant risk to infrastructure elements. Damage data of recent flood events in Europe show that infrastructure losses can make up a considerable share of overall losses. For example, damage to state and municipal infrastructure in the federal state of Saxony (Germany) accounted for nearly 60% of overall losses during the large-scale event in June 2013. Especially in mountainous areas with little usable space available, roads and railway lines often follow floodplains or are located along steep and unsteady slopes. In Austria, for instance, the flood of 2013 caused € 75 million of direct damage to railway infrastructure. Despite the importance of railway infrastructure and its exposure to flooding, assessments of potential damage and risk (i.e. probability * damage) are still in its infancy compared with other sectors, such as the residential or industrial sector. Infrastructure-specific assessments at the regional scale are largely lacking. Regional assessment of potential damage to railway infrastructure has been hampered by a lack of infrastructure-specific damage models and data availability. The few available regional approaches have used damage models that assess damage to various infrastructure elements (e.g. roads, railway, airports and harbours) using one aggregated damage function and cost estimate. Moreover, infrastructure elements are often considerably underrepresented in regional land cover data, such as

  17. Auction pricing of network access for North American railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2013-01-01

    The question of pricing train paths for "open access" railway networks in North America is discussed. An auction process is suggested as necessary to maintain transparency in the contracting process. Multiple random samples of auction pricing for a single track railway line demonstrate...... that the infrastructure entity will receive approximately 15.6% less than the true value of the contracted train paths. This loss of revenue threatens the objective of reducing government subsidy for the railway network. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Dynamic Response of Railway Bridges Subjected to Passing Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravčík Milan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some issues related to dynamic effects in railway bridges focussed on the dynamic behaviour of the small and medium span simply supported railway bridges subjected to a series of moving vehicle. Presented parametric study is focused on the dynamic deflection of the simply supported railway bridge of the span Lb = 38 m, due to the series moving loads representing a conventional train with the IC-coaches, with the impact to the speed up to 160 km/h applied in Slovakia.

  19. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  20. Nuclear level density effects on the evaluated cross-sections of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed investigation has been made to estimate the effect of various level density options on the computed neutron induced reaction cross-sections of Ni-58 and Ni-60 covering the energy range 5-25 MeV in the framework of the multistep Hauser-Feshbach statistical model scheme which accounts for the pre-equilibrium decay according to the Kalbach exciton model and gamma-ray competition according to the giant dipole radiation model of Brink and Axel. Various level density options considered in this paper are based on the Original Gilbert-Cameron, Improved Gilbert-Cameron, Back-Shifted Fermi gas and the Ingatyuk-Smirenkin-Tishin approaches. The effect of these different level density prescriptions is brought out with special reference to (n,p) (n,2n) (n,α) and total production cross-sections for neutron, hydrogen, helium and gamma-rays which are of technological importance for fission and fusion based reactor systems. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs

  1. Non-statistically populated autoionizing levels of Li-like carbon: Hidden-crossings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveney, E.F.; Krause, H.F.; Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The intensities of the Auger-electron lines from autoionizing (AI) states of Li-like (1s2s2l) configurations excited in ion-atom collisions vary as functions of the collision parameters such as, for example, the collision velocity. A statistical population of the three-electron levels is at best incomplete and underscores the intricate dynamical development of the electronic states. The authors compare several experimental studies to calculations using ''hidden-crossing'' techniques to explore some of the details of these Auger-electron intensity variation phenomena. The investigations show promising results suggesting that Auger-electron intensity variations can be used to probe collision dynamics

  2. Nuclear hyperfine structure of muonium in CuCl resolved by means of avoided level crossing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, J.W.; Celio, M.; Keller, H.; Kuendig, W.; Odermatt, W.; Puempin, B.; Savic, I.M.; Simmler, H.; Estle, T.L.; Schwab, C.; Kiefl, R.F.; Renker, D.

    1990-01-01

    We report detailed avoided-level-crossing spectra of a muonium center (Mu II ) in single-crystal CuCl in a magnetic field range of 4--5 T and at a temperature of 100 K. The hyperfine parameters of the muon and the closest two shells of nuclei indicate that this center consists of muonium at a tetrahedral interstice with four Cu nearest neighbors and six Cl next-nearest neighbors and that the spin density is appreciable on the muon and on the ten neighboring nuclei but negligible elsewhere

  3. Servant leadership and employee voice behavior: a cross-level investigation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Aimin; Xiao, Yigui

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the influence and mechanisms of servant leadership on voice behavior, including the mediating role of psychological safety, and the moderating role of supervisor-subordinate Guanxi. Data were collected from 430 civil servants and their immediate supervisors in Changsha, China. Cross-Level investigation revealed that servant leadership had a significant influence on voice behavior, psychological safety mediated the relationship between servant leadership and voice behavior, while supervisor-subordinate Guanxi negatively moderated the relationship between servant leadership and voice behavior.

  4. Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Xu, Cheng-Fu; Wan, Xing-Yong; Yu, Chao-Hui; Shen, Chao; Chen, Peng; Xu, Gen-Yun; Li, You-Ming

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed among subjects who presented for a health examination at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University in 2013. FLD was diagnosed based on an ultrasonography examination. Serum AFP levels were measured with a chemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Of the 9800 subjects enrolled, 2601 were diagnosed with FLD. Subjects with FLD had higher serum AFP levels than those without the disease. Subjects with high serum AFP levels had a higher prevalence of FLD, metabolic syndrome, and its components. Univariate logistic analysis showed that elevated serum AFP levels were associated with an increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.057, 95%CI: 1.031-1.084). However, after adjusting for covariates, AFP no longer remained significantly associated with the risk factors for FLD. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that serum AFP levels are significantly associated with FLD and that AFP acts as a cofactor, but not as an independent factor, for FLD. PMID:25206293

  5. Plasma lipid levels in Alzheimer's disease patients treated by Donepezil hydrochloride: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunsky, Abraham; Chesnin, Vladimir; Ravona, Ramit; Harats, Dror; Davidson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Donepezil hydrochloride is a central acetylcholine esterase inhibitor that is widely used in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently observed some differences in lipid profile between occasional cases of Donepezil hydrochloride users (DU) and non-users (DNU). This prompted us to study the levels of plasma lipids in these two groups, cross-sectionally. The medical charts of patients with probable AD were screened for current use of Donepezil hydrochloride and lipids profile, along with other clinical and demographic data. A total number of 105 patients were identified and included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into two groups (DU and DNU). Plasma levels of lipids were recorded. Mann-Whitney or t-test for continuous variables and Fisher exact test for categorical variables were used to test for significant differences between the groups. Regression analysis was applied to identify independently the factors associated with lipid levels. Thirty-three patients were DU and 72 DNU. The two groups differed in terms of age, lipid levels and cognitive level. DU had statistically significant higher levels of triglycerides compared with those not using the drug (P=0.036), higher total cholesterol (Phydrochloride. Alternatively, this may indicate that the effect of the medication may involve lipid metabolism, rather than other proposed mechanisms.

  6. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatta Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges along the export lines are now crossed by heavier and longer trains with more frequent train passages than in the past. Increasing train loading might lead to significant consequences on structures such as dynamic amplifications and reduction of service life due to fatigue. Hence dynamic assessment and monitoring of the structural condition of bridges under actual train loading are becoming more relevant to support decision making processes. The paper presents the investigations carried out on the Olifants River Viaduct, a critical structure along the Iron Ore Export Line, in order to implement a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system.

  7. Electron-impact excitation cross sections of the higher argon 3p5np (n=5,6,7) levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Tobin; Boffard, John B.; Lin, Chun C.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact excitation cross sections for argon into the ten levels of 3p 5 5p configuration, as well as numerous levels of the 3p 5 6p and 3p 5 7p configurations. Fluorescence from the decay of the excited atoms to the levels of 3p 5 4s configuration was used to determine the optical-emission cross sections. These results were combined with transition probabilities to find apparent cross sections into the 3p 5 5p and 3p 5 6p levels. These new cross sections of the Ar(3p 5 np) levels along with the available Ne(2p 5 3p), Kr(4p 5 5p), and Xe(5p 5 6p) data help provide a global view of the excitation behaviors of the np 5 n ' p levels of the rare-gas series

  8. Automated vehicle for railway track fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, M.; Sujay, S.; Tushar, B.; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    For the safety reasons, railroad tracks need to be inspected on a regular basis for detecting physical defects or design non compliances. Such track defects and non compliances, if not detected in a certain interval of time, may eventually lead to severe consequences such as train derailments. Inspection must happen twice weekly by a human inspector to maintain safety standards as there are hundreds and thousands of miles of railroad track. But in such type of manual inspection, there are many drawbacks that may result in the poor inspection of the track, due to which accidents may cause in future. So to avoid such errors and severe accidents, this automated system is designed.Such a concept would surely introduce automation in the field of inspection process of railway track and can help to avoid mishaps and severe accidents due to faults in the track.

  9. Overhead mining railway, particularly for underground use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, L

    1976-05-20

    Overhead mining railways are usually equipped with a friction wheel drive in underground use. This drive has the advantage over a gear drive that it is more robust and therefore more economic. However, it produces unsatisfactory running for difficult sections with steep gradients up or down or places where deposits of grease and dirt are inevitable. It is proposed to change over to a gear drive at such sections. The high degree of wear, which is characteristic of this type of drive, can be reduced if the drive is only used in difficult sections. It is proposed that the gear drive should be automatically switched on and off by means of stops or contacts on the rails.

  10. Reliability analysis of maintenance operations for railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhayma, N.; Bressolette, Ph.; Breul, P.; Fogli, M.; Saussine, G.

    2013-01-01

    Railway engineering is confronted with problems due to degradation of the railway network that requires important and costly maintenance work. However, because of the lack of knowledge on the geometrical and mechanical parameters of the track, it is difficult to optimize the maintenance management. In this context, this paper presents a new methodology to analyze the behavior of railway tracks. It combines new diagnostic devices which permit to obtain an important amount of data and thus to make statistics on the geometric and mechanical parameters and a non-intrusive stochastic approach which can be coupled with any mechanical model. Numerical results show the possibilities of this methodology for reliability analysis of different maintenance operations. In the future this approach will give important informations to railway managers to optimize maintenance operations using a reliability analysis

  11. Basic stages of introduction of kontrolingu in management railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Kokovikhina, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the article research existent approaches in relation to introduction of financial kontrolingu in activity of subjects of menage and ten stages of introduction of kontrolingu are offered in the management of railway transport enterprises.

  12. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  13. Storage Space Allocation of Inbound Container in Railway Container Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient storage strategy of railway container terminals is important in balancing resource utilization, reducing waiting time, and improving handling efficiency. In this paper, we consider the formulation and solution algorithm for storage space allocation problem of inbound containers in railway container terminal. The problem is formulated as two-stage optimization models, whose objectives are balancing the workload of inbound containers and reducing the overlapping amounts. An algorithm implement process based on rolling horizon approach is designed to solve the proposed models. Computational experiments on an actual railway container terminal show that the proposed approach is effective to solve space allocation problem of inbound container and is significant for the operation and organization of railway container terminals.

  14. An integrated micro-macro approach to robust railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bešinović, Nikola; Goverde, Rob M P; Quaglietta, Egidio

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing demand for railway transportation infrastructure managers need improved automatic timetabling tools that provide feasible timetables with enhanced performance in short computation times. This paper proposes a hierarchical framework for timetable design which combines a microsc...

  15. Railway Transportation Engineering (CEE 408) Course updates and online conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-20

    The new order of lectures provides students with a sound introduction to the main concepts behind efficiency and economic railway operations. This naturally follows into the design of railcars for safe, efficient and economical operations. With railc...

  16. Synergies of the Liberalization of the Railway Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panák Michal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liberalization of transport market brings various effects, which in the context of the assessment of synergies can affect in different ways the company, a customer as such, and transport undertakings operating on the railway transport market as well. This paper provides an innovative perspective on the relationship between liberalization and synergy, defining new types of synergies that have not yet been monitored in the conditions of railway transport. This approach is interesting because of the possibility of assessing the operation of railway undertakings in the open transport market. The eminent is characteristic of integration type synergies and emergence type synergies in relation to railway transport, as well as the breakdown of synergies in relation to the customer and carrier.

  17. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  18. Modeling track access charge to enhance railway industry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Miraj, Perdana; Berawi, Abdur Rohim Boy; Susantono, Bambang; Leviakangas, Pekka; Radiansyah, Hendra

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia attempts to improve nation's competitiveness by increasing the quality and the availability of railway network. However, the infrastructure improperly managed by the operator in terms of the technical issue. One of the reasons for this problem is an unbalanced value of infrastructure charge. In 2000's track access charge and infrastructure maintenance and operation for Indonesia railways are equal and despite current formula of the infrastructure charge, issues of transparency and accountability still in question. This research aims to produce an alternative scheme of track access charge by considering marginal cost plus markup (MC+) approach. The research combines qualitative and quantitative method through an in-depth interview and financial analysis. The result will generate alternative formula of infrastructure charge in Indonesia's railway industry. The simulation also conducted to estimate track access charge for the operator and to forecast government support in terms of subsidy. The result is expected to enhance railway industry performance and competitiveness.

  19. THE EVALUATION OF OUTSOURCING USE ON UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Stasiuk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimate of outsourcing possibilities on the railway transport of Ukraine is realized. The kinds of activities, which are promising for transfer through outsourcing to small enterprises, are proposed.

  20. ON OPERATION OF 740 M LONG FREIGHT TRAINS ON CZECH TEN-T RAILWAY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Drábek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regulation (EU No 1315/2013 defines actual scope of core and comprehensive TEN-T network, including both networks for railway freight transport. For the core network, possibility to operate 740 m long freight trains is required. The aim of this paper is to analyse availability of appropriate overtaking tracks for 740 m long freight trains. Due to ETCS braking curves and odometry, such trains, after ETCS implementation, will require 780-800 m long overtaking tracks. For practical reasons (e.g. bypass lines, whole Czech railway TEN-T network is analysed. The overtaking track, whose occupation means influence on scheduled traffic or threat to boarding passengers, are excluded. The data was collected from station schemes from Collection of Official Requisites for 2015/16 Timetable, issued by SŽDC, Czech state Infrastructure Manager. Most of appropriate tracks are over 800 m long, but their density in the network and in particular directions varies considerably. For freight traffic, gradient of the line is important, so in the resulting figure, there are marked significant peaks for particular lines as well. Czech TEN-T lines are further segmented on the basis of number of tracks and their traffic character. Then, specific issues on overtaking or crossing of 740 m long freight trains are discussed. As a conclusion, for long-term development of Czech TEN-T lines, targeted investment is recommended not only for passenger railway, but also for freight railway. An attractive capacity offer for railway undertakings, which can stimulate freight traffic on European Rail freight corridors, can be represented by network-bound periodic freight train paths with suitable long overtaking tracks outside bottlenecks. After the overtaking by passenger trains, a freight train should run without stop through large node station or a bottleneck area. Before the sections with high gradients, coupling of additional locomotives should be connected with the overtaking

  1. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to explore the current state of the railway engineering industry in the world, the problems of its development prospects, especially the introduction of the modular process technology and economic impact of its introduction. Methodology. The research is based on statistical information from public sources, which is used to confirm the veracity of the thesis put forward about the feasibility of further implementation of the principle of modularity in the railway engineering sector. Data was also obtained from the websites of manufacturers of railway equipment. Also, in the study of the issue, analytical articles on the economic development of the sector of railway engineering in the world were used. Results of the research showed that today, in transport engineering industry, in particular – in the railway engineering, there is a problem of inefficient implementation and use of technological developments, which are used in the manufacture of railway rolling stock. Many technical solutions are duplicated, leading to more time and financial costs. At the same time, there is no free access to information about existing technical solutions, which significantly slows down the development of rail transport. One of the main solutions to the problem is the use of modular technology in the design and manufacture of rolling stock. Leading global manufacturers have already begun to use the modules in the production of their rolling stock, but the technology is not yet sufficiently developed and finds its realization only in reducing the costs of production of rolling stock by specific manufacturers. The full benefits of the new technology have not yet been obtained by producers and operators. Thus, there is a considerable margin for the implementation of modular technology in the production of railway vehicles, which will result in further reducing both production costs and the costs of maintenance, operation and repair of

  2. Learning Object Names at Different Hierarchical Levels Using Cross-Situational Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Hsin; Zhang, Yayun; Yu, Chen

    2018-05-01

    Objects in the world usually have names at different hierarchical levels (e.g., beagle, dog, animal). This research investigates adults' ability to use cross-situational statistics to simultaneously learn object labels at individual and category levels. The results revealed that adults were able to use co-occurrence information to learn hierarchical labels in contexts where the labels for individual objects and labels for categories were presented in completely separated blocks, in interleaved blocks, or mixed in the same trial. Temporal presentation schedules significantly affected the learning of individual object labels, but not the learning of category labels. Learners' subsequent generalization of category labels indicated sensitivity to the structure of statistical input. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. Regional specific groundwater arsenic levels and neuropsychological functioning: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Johnson, Leigh; Mauer, Cortney; Barber, Robert; Hall, James; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the link between geographic information system (GIS)-estimated regional specific groundwater levels and neuropsychological functioning in a sample of individuals with and without cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional study design analyzed data from 1390 participants (733 Alzheimer's disease, 127 Mild Cognitive Impairment, and 530 with normal cognition) enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium. GISs analyses were used to estimate regional specific groundwater arsenic concentrations using the Environmental Systems Research Institute and arsenic concentrations from the Texas Water Development Board. In the full cohort, regional specific arsenic concentrations were positively associated with language abilities (p = 0.008), but associated with poorer verbal memory, immediate (p = 0.008), and delayed (p arsenic being related with cognition most prominently among mild cognitive impairment cases. Overall, estimated regional specific groundwater arsenic levels were negatively associated with neuropsychological performance.

  4. Motivating and demotivating forces in teams: cross-level influences of empowering leadership and relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gilad; Sharma, Payal Nangia; Edinger, Suzanne K; Shapiro, Debra L; Farh, Jiing-Lih

    2011-05-01

    Using cross-cultural laboratory and field studies with samples of leaders, employees, and students from the United States and the People's Republic of China, we examined how team-level stimuli, including empowering leadership and relationship conflict, combine to influence individual members' motivational states of psychological empowerment and affective commitment. As predicted, we found that these motivational states are individually and jointly influenced by teams' level of empowering leadership and relationship conflict and that these motivational states mediate the relationships between team stimuli and team members' innovative and teamwork behaviors and turnover intentions. In addition, results held despite controlling for team members' nationality and collectivism. We discuss contributions of our study to the team motivation, conflict, and stress literatures.

  5. Effect of different level density prescriptions on the calculated neutron nuclear reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of different level density prescriptions on the computed neutron nuclear data of Ni-58 in the energy range 5-25 MeV. Calculations are performed in the framework of the multistep Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory including the Kalbach exciton model and Brink-Axel giant dipole resonance model for radiative capture. Level density prescriptions considered in this investigation are based on the original Gilbert-Cameron, improved Gilbert-Cameron, backshifted Fermi-gas and the Ignatyuk, et al. approaches. The effect of these prescriptions is discussed, with special reference to (n,p), (n,2n), (n,alpha) and total particle-production cross sections. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs

  6. The impact of power market reforms on electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels: A cross country panel data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2011-01-01

    One of the main expectations from power market reform has been a reduction in both price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels between industrial and residential consumers. This paper focuses on this issue by looking at the impact of the electricity industry reforms on residential and industrial electricity price-cost margins and their effect on cross-subsidy levels between consumer groups. Using panel data for 63 developed and developing countries covering the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. The research findings suggest that there is no uniform pattern for the impact of reform process as a whole on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. Each individual reform step has different impact on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels for each consumer and country group. Our findings imply that reform steps have different impacts in different countries, which supports the idea reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily and successfully be transferred to another one. So, transferring the formal and economic structure of a successful power market in a developed country to developing countries is not a sufficient condition for good economic performance of the electricity industries in developing countries. Furthermore, the study suggests that power consumption, income level and country-specific features constitute other important determinants of electricity price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. - Research highlights: → The paper focuses on the impact of power market reforms on price-cost margins and cross-subsidy levels. → Using panel data for 63 countries for the period 1982-2009, empirical models are developed and analyzed. → We found that each individual reform step has different impact for each consumer and country group. → We conclude that reform prescription for a specific country cannot easily be transferred to another one.

  7. Application of Mastic Asphalt Waterproofing Layer in High-Speed Railway Track in Cold Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Freeze-thaw damage is a typical distress incurred in road and railway engineering in cold regions. Concrete waterproofing layer is commonly used in high-speed railway tracks to prevent the penetration of surface water, however, it cracks easily under thermal stress, especially in cold regions. Recently solutions have been proposed to increase the waterproofing layer’s cracking resistance by using asphalt layers. Nonetheless, the use of emulsified asphalt as well as dense-graded asphalt mixture were not effective enough. To improve the effectiveness, in this study, mastic asphalt was designed for application as the waterproofing layer on the subgrade surface of high-speed railway tracks in cold regions. The overall performance of mastic asphalt was preliminarily evaluated by laboratory tests, then a 200-m test section was constructed for field validation in northeastern China as part of a new high-speed railway line, and water content sensors were placed inside the subgrade to monitor the performance of the mastic asphalt waterproofing layer (MAWL. The subsequent field investigation and monitoring data during the two years operation showed that MAWL dramatically outperformed the conventional concrete waterproofing layer in terms of waterproof performance. Plenty of serious cracks were found in the conventional concrete waterproofing layer, but only a limited number of local cracks were observed in MAWL. As a result, MAWL keeps the water content of subgrade at a stable level. In addition, MAWL showed relatively high stability during the two years investigation period, and no obvious deterioration was observed in the test section.

  8. An investigation of employee motivation at Botswana railways / John Latolang

    OpenAIRE

    Latolang, John

    2011-01-01

    Botswana Railways has been facing low employee motivation and productivity for some time. Companies such as Air Botswana which had been experiencing similar issues decided to privatise to increase its efficiency and, as a result, turned things around. Hence, using both quantitative and qualitative investigation at the Headquarters of the Botswana Railways, this study sought to determine the extent of employee motivation and how to enhance it in order to increase employee produc...

  9. Railway projects prioritisation for investment : application of goal programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahern, Aoife; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2007-01-01

    This research develops a weighted integer goal-programming model for prioritising railway projects for investment. The goal of the model is to prioritise the identified projects for investment while maximising the objectives and meeting the budget limit for capital investment. The model minimises the goal deviations of the objectives. The objectives of the model include quantitative and qualitative attributes. The model is applied to prioritise the new railway projects, which have a total cos...

  10. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  11. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  12. SOLUTION FOR AN EQUIPMENT OF RAILWAY BRIDGE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Mihai SIMA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution for the railway bridges monitoring based on the use of already existing equipments in the railway installations and some new equipments based on photo-elements, as well. This kind of equipments can function in continue and discontinuous regime, means of them tracking down if the bridge piles suffered movements by different reasons. This aspect can put in danger the safety of the circulation on that bridge.

  13. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y

    1973-07-01

    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  14. Reconstruction of railway energy lines; Rekonstruktion von Bahnenergieleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Matthias [DB Energie Gmbh, Berlin (Germany); Wahlen, Manfred [DB Energie Gmbh, Koeln (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    As is the case for other overhead lines, 110 kV railway energy lines are assumed to have a service life of 80 years. When this service life ends or the lines are adapted to the state of the art as necessary, all components of the overhead line are renewed. For the reconstruction of railway energy lines, the specifications laid down in planning and environmental laws, operational management aspects and the local ambient and development situation are decisive project planning parameters. (orig.)

  15. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  16. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  17. Exploring the cross-level impact of market orientation on nursing innovation in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Rhay-Hung; Huang, Ching-Yuan; Lin, Tzu-En

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many hospitals have been enthusiastically encouraging nurses to pursue nursing innovation to improve health care quality and increase nursing productivity by proposing innovative training methods, products, services, care skills, and care methods. This study tried to explore the cross-level impact of market orientation on nursing innovation. In our study, 3 to 7 nurses and 1 manager were selected from each nursing team to act as respondents. The questionnaire survey began after the managers of each nursing team and the nurses had been anonymously coded and paired up in Taiwan in 2009-2010. A total of 808 valid questionnaires were collected, including 172 valid teams. Hierarchical linear modeling was used for the analysis. Nursing innovation is the sum of knowledge creation, innovation behavior, and innovation diffusion displayed by the nurses during nursing care. The level of knowledge creation, as perceived by the nurses, was the highest, whereas the level of innovation diffusion was the lowest. Results of hierarchical linear modeling showed that only competitor orientation yielded a significant positive influence on knowledge creation, innovation behavior, or innovation diffusion. The r values were 0.53, 0.49, and 0.61, respectively. Customer orientation and interfunctional coordination did not have significant effects on nursing innovation. Hospital nurses exhibited better performance in knowledge creation than in innovation behavior and diffusion. Only competitor orientation had a significantly positive and cross-level influence on nursing innovation. However, competitor orientation was observed to be the lowest dimension of market orientation, which indicates that this factor should be the focus when improving nursing innovations in the future. Therefore, managers should continually understand the strategies, advantages, and methods of their competitors.

  18. Shipping container response to severe highway and railway accident conditions: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Chou, C.K.; Gerhard, M.A.; Kimura, C.Y.; Martin, R.W.; Mensing, R.W.; Mount, M.E.; Witte, M.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report describes a study performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to evaluate the level of safety provided under severe accident conditions during the shipment of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors. The evaluation is performed using data from real accident histories and using representative truck and rail cask models that likely meet 10 CFR 71 regulations. The responses of the representative casks are calculated for structural and thermal loads generated by severe highway and railway accident conditions. The cask responses are compared with those responses calculated for the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. By comparing the responses it is determined that most highway and railway accident conditions fall within the 10 CFR 71 hypothetical accident conditions. For those accidents that have higher responses, the probabilities anf potential radiation exposures of the accidents are compared with those identified by the assessments made in the ''Final Environmental Statement on the Transportation of Radioactive Material by Air and other Modes,'' NUREG-0170. Based on this comparison, it is concluded that the radiological risks from spent fuel under severe highway and railway accident conditions as derived in this study are less than risks previously estimated in the NUREG-0170 document

  19. Groundwater remediation project at Stockem railway station following a pollution with MIAK (Methyl Isoamyl Ketone)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelemans, A.; Boden, A.; Schuyteneer, L.W. de; Achter, L.H. van [Soil Service of Belgium, Leuven-Heverlee (Belgium)

    2003-07-01

    On the 20{sup th} of January 2000, a derailment accident happened near the railway station of Stockem in the vicinity of the city of Arlon. An estimated 20.000 litres of MIAK (methyl isoamyl ketone or 5-methyl-2-hexanone) was spilled and lost into the soil. Immediately after the accident, the Soil Service of Belgium received a request from the Belgian National Railway Company to establish an emergency plan for the remediation of the spill, including the design and the follow-up of the clean up operations. The calamity happened to the West of the railway station at a height of 360 m above sea level and in the vicinity of the Semois river (200 m to the South). From a geological point of view, the Formation of Florenville is outcropping at the site. This formation is characterized by an alternation of sandy sediments and sandstone layers. Locally the rock layer are porous allowing vertical migration of the water. The formation is an important but vulnerable aquifer. Further to the South, water is extracted from the aquifer in large quantities for both public distribution and bottling purposes. The spilled product, 5-methyl-2-hexanone (MIAK), has a typical fruity odour and its density is slightly lower than water. The product is relative mobile and fairly easy degraded biologically in low concentrations. (orig.)

  20. Improvement of railway ballast maintenance approach, incorporating ballast geometry and fouling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Motieyan-Najar, M. E.; Zakeri, J. A.; Yousefi, B.; Mollazadeh, M.

    2018-04-01

    Ballast plays an important role in the stability of railway track systems. The effectiveness of the ballast in maintaining the track stability is very much dependent on its mechanical conditions. The available ballast maintenance approaches are mainly based on only track geometry conditions (such as track profile) which do not sufficiently reflect the ballast mechanical behaviors. That is, the ballast potential of degradation (i.e., ballast long term behaviors) has been omitted. This makes the effectiveness of the current ballast maintenance approach questionable, indicating a need for a more comprehensive and effective ballast conditions assessment technique. In response to this need, two ballast condition indices based on ballast geometry degradation (BGI) and the level of ballast fouling (BFI) as the main indicators of ballast mechanical behavior were developed. The BGI is a function of the standard deviations of track alignment, unevenness and twist. The BFI was developed based on the data obtained from the ground penetration radar (GPR). Making use of the new indices, a more reliable maintenance algorithm was developed. Through illustrations of the applicability of the new maintenance algorithm in a railway line, it was shown that the new algorithm causes a considerable improvement in the maintenance effectiveness and an increase in the life cycle of railway tracks by making more effective allocation of resources and more accurate maintenance planning.

  1. Serum vitamin d levels and the components of metabolic syndrome: an analytical cross-sectional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roomi, M.A.; Farooq, A.; Ullah, E.; Lone, K.P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was planned to determine the serum vitamin D levels and its relation with the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in MetS positive and MetS negative subjects. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study on 88 subjects who were divided into two groups based on whether they fulfill the diagnostic criteria for MetS or not. Fasting serum glucose, lipid profile, insulin, HOMA-IR and vitamin D levels were measured. Two sample-t test and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences. Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used to observe the correlations. Results: BMI (p=0.001), waist/hip ratio (p=0.001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.010), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.010), fasting serum TGs (p = 0.001), TG/HDL ratio (p=0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.010), fasting serum insulin (p = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) were significantly high in MetS positive than MetS negative subjects. In MetS Positive subjects, serum vitamin D levels were found to have negative correlation with serum LDL (r= -0.485, p=0.001), total cholesterol (r= -0.408, p=0.007) and total cholesterol/HDL ratio (r= -0.355, p=0.019). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were found to have positive correlation with HDL/LDL ratio (r= 0.443, p=0.003). Other components of MetS did not show significant correlation with serum vitamin D levels in MetS positive subjects. In MetS negative subjects, serum vitamin D levels did not show any significant correlation with any of the study parameters. Conclusions: Serum vitamin D levels were correlated with a number of MetS components which may be controlled by optimizing vitamin D levels. (author)

  2. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  3. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  4. Investigating High-Speed Railways In Terms Of The Economy For Our Country and The Region

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Onur; Altan, Mehmet Fatih

    2018-01-01

    High-speed railways have a history of more than 40 years. Railways continued to be popular especially in variousparts of Eastern Europe and Asia until the end of the 1980s. As of today, we can talk about a high-speed railway thatcontinues to develop in the continents of Africa, Asia and the Americas around the world. At this point, one of themost significant factors in railways, in particular high-speed railways, is planning. Planning determines the effect ofthe railway on the economy, as wel...

  5. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  6. [Sleep quality and occupational stress relationship analysis of 1413 train drivers in a railway bureau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, G Z; Yu, S F; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Kang, L; Chen, R

    2017-07-20

    Objective: To investigate sleep quality status of train drivers. Methods: By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1413 train drivers (including passenger train drivers 301, freight train drivers 683, passenger shunting train drivers 350, and high speed train drivers 79) from a railway bureau. The occupational stressors, strains, personalities and sleep quality were measured using occupational stress instruments and effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Results: The train drivers of poor sleep quality was 48.34%. Sleep quality scores among different among different job category (job title) , exercise, smoking and drinking were statistical significance ( P 0.05) . Correlation: analysis revealed that sleep quality score was related negatively to job satisfaction, reward, working stability, promotion opportunities, positive affectivity, esteem and self-esteem scores ( r : -0.454, -0.207, -0.329,-0.170, -0.291, -0.103, -0.139, P stress, negative affectivity, depressive symptoms scores ( r : 0.338, 0.524, 0.226, 0.094, 0.182, 0.210, 0.247, 0.190, 0.615, 0.550, 0.345, 0.570, P stress, depressive symptoms, responsibility for person, responsibility for thing, negative affectivity and coping scores than the group of lower sleep quality score ( P stress for drivers occured the risk of poor sleep quality were more than two times as high as that of drivers with less physiological needs, less effort, less depressive symptoms and less daily stress ( OR =2.905~2.005) . Conclusions Different types of locomotive drivers get different level of sleep quality. Sleep quality was affected by occupational stress largely. Reducing the occupational stress may contribute to improve the sleep quality of train drivers.

  7. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford. BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs.

  8. Trains and the Italian Unification: the Time of the Railways Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Maggi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The physical construction of modern Italy began in 1861, with the foundation of the Kingdom of Italy. The historical period coincided with the early industrial development of north-western Italy, and so the new infrastructure system developed in response, on the one hand, to the need to join together all the fragmentary pieces that formed the country and, on the other, to the general tendency to strengthen those areas that were economically and industrially stronger even before unification. The system that was being created in the 1860s by the Italian State before unification suffered continuous interruptions and was substantially without transverse connections, those with more difficult construction caused by the need to cross the Apennines. Within five years, from 1861 to 1866, the size of the railway system doubled, going from little more than 2,000 km to more than 4,000. The management of railway was entrusted to limited companies. The government guaranteed the company a contribution for each kilometer of railway built. In 1863 the tracks extended down the Adriatic coast as far as Brindisi, in order to attract the transit of the India Mail London- Brindisi-Bombay, the most important trade of the world. In 1863 Rome was linked to Naples, in 1864 the line from Bologna to Florence via Pistoia was opened, in 1866 Rome was linked to Florence and Ancona and in 1867 with Pisa. In 1874 the Genoa-Pisa line were completed as far as the frontier with France; later, in 1879 the Naples-Foggia line went into operation. In the same period some of the longer tunnels were opened. Those of Fréjus was realised between 1857 and 1871. The Gottardo tunnel came into being in 1882 and the Sempione tunnel in 1906. The opening of the alpine passes effectively permitted the connection of Italy to central Europe, flinging open the doors to more and more easily reachable markets. In last twenty years of the 19th century, in Italy began the strong development of the

  9. Comparison of Aqueous Humor Nitric Oxide Levels After Different Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Nilay; Ozel-Turkcu, Ummuhani; Yalinbas, Duygu; Novruzlu, Sahin; Bilgihan, Ayse; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-12-01

    Nitric oxide production can cause either apoptotic or necrotic cell death through oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate the nitrite oxide metabolites (NO x ) and nitrite levels in the aqueous humor of rabbit eyes after different methods of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). Twenty-four eyes of 12 adult New Zealand rabbits were used. They were assigned into four groups, each including six eyes. Group 1 (control) consisted of eyes with no treatment. Group 2 received UV-A power setting at 3 mW/cm 2 for 30 minutes of continuous exposure and named as standard CXL group. Group 3 received UV-A power setting at 30 mW/cm 2 for 3 minutes of continuous exposure and named as accelerated CXL (A-CXL) group. Group 4 received UV-A power setting at 30 mW/cm 2 for 6 minutes of pulsed exposure (1 sec on, 1 sec off) and named as pulse-light accelerated CXL (PLA-CXL). Aqueous humors were aspirated from anterior chamber with a 27G needle after 1 hour UV-A exposure. NO x and nitrite levels were measured Results: The nitrite levels in aqueous humor were significantly increased in Group 2 and Group 3 when compared with Group 1 (p = 0.000, p = 0.036, respectively). When treatment modalities were compared with each other, high nitrite level in Group 2 was statistically significant when compared with Group 4 (p = 0.019). NO x levels were higher in Group 2 when compared with Group 1 (p = 0.006). Numerous studies investigated the physiological and pathophysiological roles of NO. NO is considered one of the most important molecule for ocular health. According to NO x level in aqueous humor, it seems that PLA-CXL is the safest method due to the similar results with control group.

  10. The influence of mechanical vibrations of railway and car traffics on the radon exhalation using track detector technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moharram, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of train and car traffic vibrations on the radon concentration (CRn) increase near the railway tracks and the heavy traffic roads. It was estimated along the railway road, and perpendicular directions using CR-39 detectors. The special radius of the influence is about 32 m, while the related value for car traffics is found to be about 25 m. The base line of radon concentration in soil gas and radon exhalation are estimated in the whole area, far from the center of traffic roads by a distance (> 100 m) in different different directions and found to be 0.6 Bq/L and 1.25 x 10 4 Bq m -2 respectively.It is easy to detect that the average ratio between the radon concentration at its higher level and its base line, which is regular concentration of radon in the ordinary positions far from the effect of traffics, is about 1.18 for railway traffics. While the related value to vehicle traffic is about 1.23, which is higher than that of railway traffic because the ground is stimulated per minutely

  11. SLP - A single level Breit-Wigner cross-section generating programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, G.

    1965-06-01

    Unbroadened cross-sections are calculated from a single level Breit-Wigner approximation which allows for resonance-potential interference but not resonance-resonance interference. Doppler broadening, and instrumental resolution broadening for thin samples, are optionally performed by successive numerical convolutions. An energy point selection and discard system enables the cross-section over a specified energy range to be represented to a required degree of accuracy using the minimum number of energy points. An energy grid prepared by the user can be incorporated in the calculation but the programme will usually be more efficient if only the end points of the energy range of interest are specified by the user and the intermediate energy points left to the programme to organise. The capacity of the programme varies with the energy range and type of resonance (narrow or broad). About fifty resonances may be sufficient to generate an energy grid of 4000 energy points, which is the maximum allowable energy vector. The programme is written in KDF9 EGTRAN (a FORTRAN dialect); output is printed and may be copied on cards, and intermediate results are stored on magnetic disc. (author)

  12. Microscopic description of dissipative dynamics of a level-crossing transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, M.; Militello, B.; Messina, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Vitanov, N. V. [Department of Physics, Sofia University, 5 James Bourchier Boulevard, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the effect of a dissipative bosonic environment on the Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) level crossing model by using a microscopic approach to derive the relevant master equation. For an environment at zero temperature and weak dissipation, our microscopic approach confirms the independence of the survival probability on the decay rate that has been predicted earlier by the simple phenomenological LZSM model. For strong decay the microscopic approach predicts a notable increase of the survival probability, which signals dynamical decoupling of the initial state. Unlike the phenomenological model, our approach makes it possible to study the dependence of the system dynamics on the temperature of the environment. In the limit of very high temperature we find that the dynamics is characterized by a very strong dynamical decoupling of the initial state--the temperature-induced quantum Zeno effect.

  13. Industry growth, work role characteristics, and job satisfaction: a cross-level mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T; Wooldridge, Jessica D

    2012-10-01

    The associations between industry revenue growth, individual work role characteristics, and job satisfaction were examined in this cross-level mediation analysis. Work roles were expected to be more autonomous, involve greater skill variety, and offer more opportunities for growth and development for workers in growing industries than for workers in declining industries. Supervisor support was also hypothesized to be stronger for workers in high-growth industries. Results from a nationally representative (U.S.) sample of service industry workers, using multilevel modeling, supported these propositions and suggest that job enrichment mediates relations between industry growth and job satisfaction. Associations between industry growth and autonomy were also stronger among workers in occupations that are less normatively autonomous, suggesting that industry growth fosters a weakening, and industry decline a strengthening, of traditional differences in autonomy across work roles. These results contribute to a multilevel perspective on organizational environments, individual work roles, and worker attitudes and well-being.

  14. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of top-level youth cross-country cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, Alessandro; Savoldelli, Aldo; Modena, Roberto; Boccia, Gennaro; Pellegrini, Barbara; Schena, Federico

    2018-04-01

    In the literature there is a lack of data about the development of top level athletes in cross-country mountain biking (XCO). The purpose of this study was to analyze anthropometric and physiological characteristics of some of the best XCO bikers aged between 13 and 16. The study involved 45 bikers (26 males and 19 females) belonging to a youth national team. The evaluations, consisting of anthropometric measures, incremental cycling tests (VO 2max , PPO, P@RCP), and 30 s Wingate Tests (PMax, PMean), were conducted over a lapse of 4 years. Our findings showed in bikers, already at young age, a specific athletic profile advantageous for XCO performance. At the age of 16, just before entering the junior category and competing at international level, male and female bikers showed physiological values normalized to the body mass comparable to those reported in literature for high level athletes (VO 2max >70 and >60 ml/kg/min, PPO >6.5 and >5.5 W/kg, respectively in males and females). The production of high power-to-weight ratios and high peaks of anaerobic power attests the presence of highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems in young XCO cyclists reflecting the high physiological demand of this sport.

  15. Protein Oxidation Levels After Different Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkcu, Ummuhani Ozel; Yuksel, Nilay; Novruzlu, Sahin; Yalinbas, Duygu; Bilgihan, Ayse; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, and total sulfhydryl (TSH) levels in rabbit corneas after different corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) methods. Eighteen eyes of 9 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 6 eyes. The standard CXL group was continuously exposed to UV-A at a power setting of 3 mW/cm for 30 minutes. The accelerated CXL (A-CXL) group was continuously exposed to UV-A at a power setting of 30 mW/cm for 3 minutes. The pulse light-accelerated CXL (PLA-CXL) group received UV-A at a power setting of 30 mW/cm for 6 minutes of pulsed exposure (1 second on, 1 second off). Corneas were obtained after 1 hour of UV-A exposure, and 360-degree keratotomy was performed. SOD enzyme activity, AOPP, and TSH levels were measured in the corneal tissues. Compared with the standard CXL and A-CXL groups (133.2 ± 8.5 and 140.2 ± 6.2 μmol/mg, respectively), AOPP levels were found to be significantly increased in the PLA-CXL group (230.7 ± 30.2 μmol/mg) (P = 0.005 and 0.009, respectively). SOD enzyme activities and TSH levels did not differ between the groups (P = 0.167 and 0.187, respectively). CXL creates covalent bonds between collagen fibers because of reactive oxygen species. This means that more oxygen concentration during the CXL method will produce more reactive oxygen species and, thereby, AOPP. This means that in which CXL method occurs in more oxygen concentration that will produce more reactive oxygen species and thereby AOPP. This study demonstrated that PLA-CXL results in more AOPP formation than did standard CXL and A-CXL.

  16. Estimating national exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, Faruk; Elbir, Tolga

    2007-01-01

    The estimated exhaust emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were presented. The emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), hydrocarbon compounds (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the diesel locomotives and railcars were calculated using the railway traffic data recorded by Turkish State Railways (TSR) for the period of 2000-2005. EPA emission factors were used for different vehicle types and operation modes such as shunting and line-hauling. Total emissions from railway vehicles in Turkey were estimated as 384 t y - 1 for HC, 1016 t y - 1 for CO, 6799 t y - 1 for NO X , 256 t y - 1 for PM, 357 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 383 537 t y - 1 for CO 2 for the year 2005. The distribution of emissions with respect to type of railway vehicles shows that the mainline locomotives contribute ∝ 91% to the total emissions. The increases of 22%, 39% and 49% in the current numbers of mainline locomotives, shunting locomotives and diesel railcars, respectively corresponding to the full capacity of railway network in Turkey will increase the annual emissions to 431 t y - 1 for HC, 1121 t y - 1 for CO, 7399 t y - 1 for NO X , 342 t y - 1 for PM, 552 t y - 1 for SO 2 and 420 256 t y - 1 for CO 2 . Total railway emissions constitute 0.15%, 0.08% and 4.21% of total Turkish traffic emissions for HC, CO and NO X , respectively. (author)

  17. MODELING OF RAILWAY TRACK OPERATION AS A SYSTEM OF QUASI-ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a solution to the problem of the impact of a rolling stock on the rail track on the basis of modeling a railway track as a multi-layered space, introducing each of the layers is a quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy in the polar coordinate system. The article describes wave equations, taking into account the rotational inertia of cross sectional and transverse shear strains. From the point of view of classical structural mechanics train path can be represented as a multilayer system comprising separate layers with different stiffness, lying on the foundation being the elastic-isotropic space. Winkler model provides that the basis is linearly deformable space, there are loads influencing its surface. These loads are transferred through a layered deformable half-space. This representation is used in this study as an initial approximation. For more accurate results of the deformation of a railway track because of rolling dynamic loads it is proposed to present a railway track in the form of a layered structure, where each element (assembled rails and sleepers, ballast section, the soil in the embankment, basement soils is modeled as a planar quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy. The equations describing the dynamic behaviour of flat element in a polar coordinate system are hyperbolic in nature and take into account the rotational inertia of the cross sectional and the transverse shear strains. This allows identifying the impact on the final characteristics of the blade wave effects, and oscillatory processes. In order to determine the unknown functions included in the constitutive equations it is proposed to use decomposition in power series in spatial coordinate and time. In order to determine the coefficients of ray series for the required functions, it is necessary to differentiate the defining wave equations k times on time, to take their difference on the different

  18. Development of a guide for prioritization of railway bridges for repair and replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop evaluation bases for the repair, rehabilitation, and replacement of existing : railway bridges. Considering the importance of bridges to the railway network, the research involved the review and : analysis o...

  19. Traffic and transport technology-road, railway, and water-borne transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This is "Part 2: Case Studies - Chapter 9" of the book, "The Japanese Experience in Technology", and includes the following subsections: Modernization and the railway; The transportation network; Issues in railway policy; Original design and producti...

  20. Participation in the management of Greek Natura 2000 sites: evidence from a cross-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulou, Evangelia; Drakou, Evangelia G; Pediaditi, Kalliope

    2012-12-30

    The governance of protected areas has experienced rapid advancement over the last two decades with regard to the inclusion of stakeholders and local communities into the management process. During the same period Greek biodiversity governance has been characterized by a shift, at least on paper, towards the adoption of participatory approaches primarily through the establishment of management agencies. However, this has not been institutionalized for the majority of Natura 2000 sites, thus posing questions on the existence, nature, and effectiveness of participation in sites with no management agency. This is the first conducted large scale, cross level participation analysis for Greek Natura 2000 sites enabling the formation of a representative picture of the situation in the country. We investigated the nature and role of participation in Greek biodiversity governance by exploring both general opinions regarding the national context of participation in Greek Natura 2000 network as well as site-specific opinions regarding three case study areas where Natura 2000 sites have been established. Overall, we analyzed the results of 96 interviews, conducted with national, regional and local level stakeholders and 734 questionnaires conducted with local communities of the three case study areas. Results indicate with non-significant difference among governance levels, or between case study sites, that stakeholders' participation exists mainly on paper whereas community participation is practically absent. Stakeholder engagement seems to take place through administrational documentation across levels and to be locally confined based mainly on personal contacts and initiatives. Interviewees and survey respondents indicated a preference towards improving stakeholders' participation and the community's engagement in the management of Natura 2000 sites. Overall, the results of this study revealed the urgent need for policy initiatives towards adopting meaningful, fair and

  1. Carryover of maduramicin from feed containing cross-contamination levels into eggs of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Dorina; Fry, Hildburg; Schafft, Helmut; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika

    2012-07-18

    Maduramicin is a coccidiostat authorized as feed additive in the European Union for chickens and turkeys for fattening but not for laying hens, considering the risk of residues in eggs. The unavoidable cross-contamination of non-target feed with coccidiostats is regulated by Commission Directive 2009/8/EC and resulting carry-over in food by Commission Regulation (EC) No. 124/2009. To verify the compliance of the maximum levels for maduramicin in feed (50 μg/kg) and eggs (2 μg/kg), the carry-over from feed into eggs was investigated. Diets containing 10, 30, and 50 μg of maduramicin/kg of feed were fed to laying hens. Feed, egg white, and yolk were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Maduramicin residues were only detected in in egg yolk. Feeding the 10 μg/kg maduramicin diet resulted in maduramicin concentrations up to 2.5 μg/kg in whole eggs, already exceeding the maximum level. A carry-over rate of 8% maduramicin from feed into eggs was calculated.

  2. Daily micro-breaks and job performance: General work engagement as a cross-level moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeol; Park, YoungAh; Headrick, Lucille

    2018-03-29

    Despite the growing research on work recovery and its well-being outcomes, surprisingly little attention has been paid to at-work recovery and its job performance outcomes. The current study extends the work recovery literature by examining day-level relationships between prototypical microbreaks and job performance as mediated by state positive affect. Furthermore, general work engagement is tested as a cross-level moderator weakening the indirect effects of microbreaks on job performance via positive affect. Using multisource experience sampling method, the authors collected two daily surveys from 71 call center employees and obtained objective records of daily sales performance for two consecutive weeks (n = 632). Multilevel path analysis results showed that relaxation, socialization, and cognitive microbreaks were related to increased positive affect at work which, in turn, predicted greater sales performance. However, breaks for nutrition-intake (having snacks and drinks) did not show significant effects. Importantly, microbreaks had significant indirect effects on job performance via positive affect only for workers who had lower general work engagement, whereas the indirect effects did not exist for workers who had higher general work engagement. Furthermore, Bayesian multilevel analyses confirmed the results. Theoretical and practical implications, limitations, and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Institutions for sustainable forest governance: Robustness, equity, and cross-level interactions in Mawlyngbna, Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Oberlack

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts Ostrom’s Social-Ecological Systems (SES framework in empirical fieldwork to explain how local forestry institutions affect forest ecosystems and social equity in the community of Mawlyngbna in North-East India. Data was collected through 26 semi-structured interviews, participatory timeline development, policy documents, direct observation, periodicals, transect walks, and a concurrent forest-ecological study in the village. Results show that Mawlyngbna's forests provide important sources of livelihood benefits for the villagers. However, ecological disturbance and diversity varies among the different forest ownership types and forest-based livelihood benefits are inequitably distributed. Based on a bounded rationality approach, our analysis proposes a set of causal mechanisms that trace these observed social-ecological outcomes to the attributes of the resource system, resource units, actors and governance system. We analyse opportunities and constraints of interactions between the village, regional, and state levels. We discuss how Ostrom’s design principles for community-based resource governance inform the explanation of robustness but have a blind spot in explaining social equity. We report experiences made using the SES framework in empirical fieldwork. We conclude that mapping cross-level interactions in the SES framework needs conceptual refinement and that explaining social equity of forest governance needs theoretical advances.

  4. Cross-Scale and Cross-Level Dynamics: Governance and Capacity for Resilience in a Social-Ecological System in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Sheng Tai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience thinking has strongly influenced how people understand and pursue sustainability of linked social-ecological systems. Resilience thinking highlights the need to build capacity and manage general system properties in a complex, constantly changing world. I modified an analytical framework to address associations among cross-scale and cross-level dynamics, attributes of governance, and capacity to enhance resilience. The Danungdafu Forestation Area represents one of Taiwan’s most controvisal cases concerning land use, indigenous rights, and environmental issues. Analysis of this Taiwanese experience from a social-ecological perspective can show how current capacities for managing resilience are related to critical governance attributes. Analysis helped identify fundamental flaws in current governance and key issues needing to be addressed. The Danungdafu Forestation Area should transition towards a governance regime that is more participatory, deliberative, multi-layered, accountable, just, and networked. This can be done by developing an intermediate level institution that coordinates the cross-scale and cross-level interactions that better fit this social-ecological system.

  5. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machelski Czesław

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces, as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell’s span, geometry (static scheme and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure’s characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  6. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  7. Railway bridge monitoring during construction and sliding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaudi, Daniele; Casanova, Nicoletta; Kronenberg, Pascal; Vurpillot, Samuel

    1997-05-01

    The Moesa railway bridge is a composite steel concrete bridge on three spans of 30 m each. The 50 cm thick concrete deck is supported on the lower flanges of two continuous, 2.7 m high I-beams. The bridge has been constructed alongside an old metallic bridge. After demolishing this one, the new bridge has been slid for 5 m by 4 hydraulic jacks and positioned on the refurbished piles of the old bridge. About 30 fiber optic, low-coherence sensors were imbedded in the concrete deck to monitor its deformations during concrete setting and shrinkage, as well as during the bridge sliding phase. In the days following concrete pour it was possible to follow its thermal expansion due to the exothermic setting reaction and the following thermal and during shrinkage. The deformations induced by the additional load produced by the successive concreting phases were also observed. During the bridge push, which extended over six hours, the embedded and surface mounted sensors allowed the monitoring of the curvature variations in the horizontal plane due to the slightly uneven progression of the jacks. Excessive curvature and the resulting cracking of concrete could be ruled out by these measurements. It was also possible to observe the bridge elongation under the heating action of the sun.

  8. Stiffness of Railway Soil-Steel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machelski, Czesław

    2015-12-01

    The considerable influence of the soil backfill properties and that of the method of compacting it on the stiffness of soil-steel structures is characteristic of the latter. The above factors (exhibiting randomness) become apparent in shell deformation measurements conducted during construction and proof test loading. A definition of soil-shell structure stiffness, calculated on the basis of shell deflection under the service load, is proposed in the paper. It is demonstrated that the stiffness is the inverse of the deflection influence function used in structural mechanics. The moving load methodology is shown to be useful for testing, since it makes it possible to map the shell deflection influence line also in the case of group loads (concentrated forces), as in bridges. The analyzed cases show that the shell's span, geometry (static scheme) and the height of earth fill influence the stiffness of the structure. The soil-steel structure's characteristic parameter in the form of stiffness k is more suitable for assessing the quality of construction works than the proposed in code geometric index ω applied to beam structures. As shown in the given examples, parameter k is more effective than stiffness parameter λ used to estimate the deformation of soil-steel structures under construction. Although the examples concern railway structures, the methodology proposed in the paper is suitable also for road bridges.

  9. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  10. Epidemiology & preventive aspects of railway suicides and fatalities related to trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop K; Bhattacharya, Sandeep; Singh, Uma Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Suicide and trespass are major contributors to risk on the railway, resulting in around 170-180 fatalities per year in Lucknow region, as well as associated major disruption to the rail network. Lucknow is the capital city of the state of Uttar Pradesh in India. The analysis included train-pedestrian fatalities during 2007-2012. The data for 2007-2012 were collected from the autopsy reports of the university, case sheets from the hospital, the general prosecutor's investigations report and the inquest reports from police. The results show that the majority of victims were males. Half of the suicide victims were 20-39 years old. Accidents happened most frequently in situations when a person was walking on the tracks/in front of train (22.7%) or were crossing the tracks illegally (20.9%). Among all train-pedestrian fatalities, about half of the victims (42.8%) were intoxicated by alcohol. Female suicide victims suffered from mental health problems more frequently (55.8%) than male suicide victims. Overall, there is no reason to believe that train-pedestrian fatalities are unavoidable. By contrast, the effective prevention of railway suicides and accidents should be based on a systems approach involving effective measures introduces by several organisations such as government, railway organisations, various authorities (such as public health, education, enforcement, urban planning) and communities. Same measures can often be used to prevent both trespassing and suicides, even though their effectiveness may depend on the target group. In addition, there are measures specifically targeted to prevent either trespassing or suicides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  12. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  13. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEIMEL, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles, brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converter-fed induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual field-oriented high-performance motor control systems - including a speed-sensorless variant - is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.

  14. Integrity Evaluation of Railway Bogie Using Infrared Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk

    2011-01-01

    The lock-in thermography was employed to evaluate the integrity of railway bogies. Prior to the actual application on railway bogies, in order to assess the detectability of known flaws, the calibration reference panel was prepared with various dimensions of artificial flaws. The panel was composed of structural steel, which was the same material with actual bogies. Through lock-in thermography evaluation, the optimal frequency of heat source was determined for the best flaw detection. Based on the defects information, the actual defect assessments on railway bogie were conducted with different types of railway bogies, which were used for the current operation. In summary, the defect assessment results with thermography method showed a good agreement as compared with the conventional inspection techniques. Moreover, it was found that the novel infrared thermography technique could be an effective way for the inspection and the detection of surface defects on bogies since the infrared thermography method provided rapid and non-contact mode for the investigation of railway bogies

  15. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  16. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  17. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  18. Natriuria and calciuria levels in preeclampsia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gasnier

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Sodium excretion abnormalities in preeclampsia have been studied in relation to several factors. The objective of this study was to compare natriuria (mEq/24 h and calciuria levels (mg/24 h in preeclamptic patients. DESIGN AND SETTING An analytical cross-sectional study with a control group was conducted in the obstetric center and the high-risk pregnancy outpatient clinic at a university hospital in southern Brazil, and in a primary healthcare unit in the same city, including pregnant women with mild preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia or chronic hypertension, and women with normal pregnancies (14 patients in each group. METHOD Natriuria was measured using an ion-selective electrode in an automated clinical chemistry analyzer (Hitache 917, Roche. All the patients collected 24-hour urine, at home or at the hospital, for analysis of proteins, creatinine, calcium, sodium and uric acid. Quantitative variables with asymmetrical distribution were described using the median, minimum and maximum, and were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results were logarithmically transformed, with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA by ranks and then the post-hoc Tukey test, and were analyzed by means of the Spearman correlation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The significance level used was 0.05. RESULTS There were significant differences between the groups in comparing severe preeclampsia with chronic hypertension and severe preeclampsia with controls (P < 0.0001 for both measurements. CONCLUSION Natriuria levels may be lower in preeclampsia when associated with calciuria. Natriuria assessment is an additional test for differential diagnosis of hypertensive diseases in pregnancy, but is a poor predictor when used alone.

  19. Risk assessment and economic appraisal of protection methods for the Tarascon-Arles railway embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    ., existing geotechnical conditions and the railway embankment structure were required to undertake the risk assessment. For each hydraulic loading scenario, a detailed economic appraisal was undertaken for each method of protection involving the evaluation of damages associated with disruption to train services and the associated costs to repair the structure. The final stage of the project involved integrating the economic assessment into a wider reaching multi-criteria analysis including indicators for train security, maintainability and environmental impact aspects. The multi-criteria approach was tested under two management strategies to evaluate the effectiveness of each embankment protection system. This paper outlines how the risk assessment, economic appraisal and management-strategy based multi-criteria approach resulted in a highly optimized system of embankment protection with significant gains in terms of both reduced cost of implementation and environmental enhancement whilst maintaining the high levels of railway security required by SNCF-RESEAU.

  20. Impact of high-speed railway accessibility on the location choices of office establishments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigers, J.

    2006-01-01

    High-speed railways are becoming increasingly common in Europe. In the Netherlands soon the HSL-South will be opened. This high-speed railway line connects the Randstad to Brussels and Paris. A prominent aim of this new railway is to improve international competitiveness of the Netherlands. As a

  1. 78 FR 41993 - Ann Arbor Railroad, Inc.-Lease Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... number of carloads interchanged with NSR in a given year.\\1\\ AARR states that the interchange commitment..., Canadian National Railway Company (CN), CSX Transportation, Inc., and Wheeling & Lake Erie Railway in Toledo; the Indiana and Ohio Railway and CN in Diann, Mich.; NSR in Milan, Mich.; and Great Lakes Central...

  2. Evaluation of ETCS performance with LTE as alternative railway communication network using OPNET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is a communication mobile network designed to fulfill specific communication needs of railways. GSM-R is being widely deployed across Europe and other countries around the world for providing railway voice and train control services (ETCS). Despite that, GSM-R already shows...

  3. Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables and rolling stock schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Maróti, G.

    2017-01-01

    In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take

  4. Safety motion increase of trains by improvement diagnostics process devices of railway automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M.Bondarenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex use of methods of nondestructive check for the automated diagnostics electromagnetic relays of railway automation the first class reliability is offered. The methods determination of their mechanical parameters are resulted, that allows to exclude a human factor from the control, promote reliability of devices railway automation and safety motion of railway transport.

  5. Routing trains through railway junctions: A new set-packing approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ryan, David

    2011-01-01

    The problem of routing trains through railway junctions is an integral part of railway operations. Large junctions are highly interconnected networks of track where multiple railway lines merge, intersect, and split. The number of possible routings makes this a very complicated problem. We show h...

  6. Sounding the warning bells: the need for a systems approach to understanding behaviour at rail level crossings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    Collisions at rail level crossings are an international safety concern and have been the subject of considerable research effort. Modern human factors practice advocates a systems approach to investigating safety issues in complex systems. This paper describes the results of a structured review of the level crossing literature to determine the extent to which a systems approach has been applied. The measures used to determine if previous research was underpinned by a systems approach were: the type of analysis method utilised, the number of component relationships considered, the number of user groups considered, the number of system levels considered and the type of model described in the research. None of research reviewed was found to be consistent with a systems approach. It is recommended that further research utilise a systems approach to the study of the level crossing system to enable the identification of effective design improvements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic-sublevel cross sections for excitation of the n 1P levels of helium by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csanak, G.; Cartwright, D.C.; Trajmar, S.

    1992-01-01

    First-order many-body theory has been used to calculate collision-frame magnetic-sublevel differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of the n 1 P (n=2,3,4,5,6) levels of helium for electrons with incident energy in the 25--500-eV range. By combining results from electron-impact differential-cross-section measurements and electron-photon coincidence measurements, experimental magnetic-sublevel cross sections have also been derived for the excitation of the 2 1 P and 3 1 P levels. The theory predicts a pronounced minimum for the M=0 magnetic-sublevel differential cross section for incident electron energies around 30 eV. Our theoretical results are compared to the experimental data and some other theoretical results

  8. Recent advances in the fundamental understanding of railway vehicle dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non-linear dy......The topic of this article is the calculation of the critical speed for railway vehicles. It is emphasised that it is misleading to formulate the mathematical problem as a stability problem. It must correctly be formulated as a problem of existence of coexisting solutions to the full non......-linear dynamical problem. The lowest speed at which there exist more critical speed in road tests. A couple of examples show applications of the method to various dynamical models of railway vehicles. Freight wagons are treated in the end of the article because the dry friction damping with stick-slip and end...

  9. Approaches for reducing structural vibration of the carbody railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitriu Mădălina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the weight of the railway vehicles stands as a decisive rule in their design, entailed by higher velocities, the need to consume less energy and lower the manufacturing costs, along with the maximization of the use of loads on the axle. Once complied with this rule, the vehicle flexibility increases and leads to an easy excitation of the structural vibrations in the carbody, with an impact upon the ride comfort in the railway vehicle. For a better ride comfort in lightweight railway vehicles, both vibration isolation approaches and structural damping approaches have been introduced. The paper herein submits a brief review of the main structural damping approaches aiming to reduce the amplitude in the carbody structural vibrations, based on the use of the piezoelectric elements in passive control schemes. The paper outcomes show the potential of the presented methods concerning the reduction of the flexible vibrations in the carbody and the ride comfort improvement.

  10. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  11. A cascading failure model for analyzing railway accident causation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-Tao; Li, Ke-Ping

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new cascading failure model is proposed for quantitatively analyzing the railway accident causation. In the model, the loads of nodes are redistributed according to the strength of the causal relationships between the nodes. By analyzing the actual situation of the existing prevention measures, a critical threshold of the load parameter in the model is obtained. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed cascading model, simulation experiments of a train collision accident are performed. The results show that the cascading failure model can describe the cascading process of the railway accident more accurately than the previous models, and can quantitatively analyze the sensitivities and the influence of the causes. In conclusion, this model can assist us to reveal the latent rules of accident causation to reduce the occurrence of railway accidents.

  12. Kronecker Algebra-based Deadlock Analysis for Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mittermayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock analysis for railway systems differs in several aspects from deadlock analysis in computer science. While the problem of deadlock analysis for standard computer systems is well-understood, multi-threaded embedded computer systems pose new challenges. A novel approach in this area can easily be applied to deadlock analysis in the domain of railway systems. The approach is based on Kronecker algebra. A lazy implementation of the matrix operations even allows analysing exponentially sized systems in a very efficient manner. The running time of the algorithm does not depend on the problem size but on the size of the solution. While other approaches suffer from the fact that additional constraints make the problem and its solution harder, our approach delivers its results faster if constraints are added. In addition, our approach is complete and sound for railway systems, i.e., it generates neither false positives nor false negatives.

  13. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  14. Seismic impact of the railway on the geotechnical constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolárik, Martin; Pinka, Miroslav

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays, the focus on more ecological means of material and persons transport is still higher. Big loads can be transported on railways more effectively and with lower environment impact than on roads. The geotechnical structures are inherent parts of railway infrastructure, such as embankments, sides of notches and, of course, tunnels, foundation constructions of buildings or pillars of bridges and the others geotechnical constructions (e.g. retaining walls, culverts, transition area of bridges). By train pass, vibrations are caused and these vibrations are relayed to the soil. These vibrations can make adverse impact to surrounding objects and to technologies placed in. This so far uncared-for influence gets into the foreground by current trend of everyday life technical equipment increasing. The article introduces different kinds of geotechnical structures and the influence of by-passing railway transport on their constructions and surroundings. The data are evaluated in the amplitude and frequency domain.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (TOWNTH00290037) on Town Highway 29, crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R.L.; Medalie, Laura

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure TOWNTH00290037 on Town Highway 29 crossing Mill Brook, Townshend, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (FHWA, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D.

  16. Muon level crossing resonance spectroscopy applied to free-radical formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, K.; Barnabas, M.V.; Walker, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Muon Level Crossing Resonance Spectroscopy has been used to explore two aspects of muonium chemistry: unique free radicals and muonated radical yields. (1) A variety of new free-radicals have been seen by LCR. For instance, in thioacetamide the only radical produced from muonium is the S sm-bullet radical formed when Mu adds to the C of the C=S bond. In allylbenzene a whole range of radicals form with substantial yields (two side-chain and three ring additions); whereas in styrene, 85% of the radicals have Mu bonded to the end C of the side-chain and there is no meta-adduct at all. (2) Absolute yields of the radicals formed by interaction of muonium atoms in water with acrylamide as a solute (and with benzene in n-hexane) have shown that all muons not directly incorporated into diamagnetic molecules (such as MuH) appear as muonated free radicals. i.e. the missing fraction is found

  17. Level crossings and excess times due to a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O. E.

    2018-01-01

    A well-known stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in physical systems is investigated. The model is given by a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses, and the degree of pulse overlap is interpreted as an intermittency parameter. Expressions for excess time statistics, that is, the rate of level crossings above a given threshold and the average time spent above the threshold, are derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. Limits of both high and low intermittency are investigated and compared to previously known results. In the case of a strongly intermittent process, the distribution of times spent above threshold is obtained analytically. This expression is verified numerically, and the distribution of times above threshold is explored for other intermittency regimes. The numerical simulations compare favorably to known results for the distribution of times above the mean threshold for an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. This contribution generalizes the excess time statistics for the stochastic model, which find applications in a wide diversity of natural and technological systems.

  18. Similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Domhoff, G; Schneider, Adam

    2008-12-01

    The similarities and differences in dream content at the cross-cultural, gender, and individual levels provide one starting point for carrying out studies that attempt to discover correspondences between dream content and various types of waking cognition. Hobson and Kahn's (Hobson, J. A., & Kahn, D. (2007). Dream content: Individual and generic aspects. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 850-858.) conclusion that dream content may be more generic than most researchers realize, and that individual differences are less salient than usually thought, provides the occasion for a review of findings based on the Hall and Van de Castle (Hall, C., & Van de Castle, R. (1966). The content analysis of dreams. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.) coding system for the study of dream content. Then new findings based on a computationally intensive randomization strategy are presented to show the minimum sample sizes needed to detect gender and individual differences in dream content. Generally speaking, sample sizes of 100-125 dream reports are needed because most dream elements appear in less than 50% of dream reports and the magnitude of the differences usually is not large.

  19. SATISFACTION LEVEL OF MEDICAL EDUCATORS WORKING IN TEACHING INSTITUTIONS : A QUESTIONNAIRE BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Chatterjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a resource-limited and high-burden disease setting, satisfied health professional is an asset in terms of maximized productivity, efficiency and quality health care. Job Satisfaction Index is a validated measure to identify the components that influence those issues. A multi-faceted structured questionnaire study was conducted upon a cross-section of medical educators (n=160 serving two tertiary care teaching institutions under different management set-up. Multiple demographic features were independent variables whereas three (3 critical areas of satisfaction index (SI were outcome variables. All participants were interviewed using 15 item Likert response-based, modified job satisfaction scale. It was observed that total SI scores among doctors representing the private group remained marginally higher (P<0.05 while compared to the other group. The comparative analysis of SI scores in critical areas like availability of academic supports and job security remained higher among the private doctors than that of the government ones though not significant. However the private doctors remained marginally satisfied in terms of working environment. The study outcome necessitates appropriate intervention measures at the organizational levels.

  20. A cross-level investigation of informal field-based learning and performance improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Mikhail A; Tannenbaum, Scott I; Mathieu, John E; Maynard, M Travis

    2018-01-01

    Organizations often operate in complex and dynamic environments which place a premium on employees' ongoing learning and acquisition of new competencies. Additionally, the majority of learning in organizations does not take place in formal training settings, but we know relatively little about how informal field-based learning (IFBL) behaviors relate to changes in job performance. In this study, we first clarified the construct of IFBL as a subset of informal learning. Second, on the basis of this clarified construct definition, we developed a measure of IFBL behaviors and demonstrated its psychometric properties using (a) a sample of subject matter experts who made item content validity judgments and (b) both an Amazon Mechanical Turk sample (N = 400) and a sample of 1,707 healthcare employees. Third, we advanced a grounded theory of IFBL in healthcare, and related it to individuals' regulatory foci and contextual moderators of IFBL behaviors-job performance relationships using a cross-level design and lagged nonmethod bound measures. Specifically, using a sample of 407 healthcare workers from 49 hospital units, our results suggested that promotion-focused individuals, especially in well-staffed units, readily engage in IFBL behaviors. Additionally, we found that the IFBL-changes in job performance relationship was strengthened to the extent that individuals worked in units with relatively nonpunitive climates. Interestingly, staffing levels had a weakening moderating effect on the positive IFBL-performance improvements relationship. Detailed follow-up analyses revealed that the peculiar effect was attributable to differential relationships from IFBL subdimensions. Implications for future theory building, research, and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Historical flora of Moscow’s Railway Junction (until 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradova Yulia Konstantinovna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article touches upon the biodiversity at the railways. The list of species found within the Moscow Railways (≈300 km from 1851 until today has been compiled based on herbarium data [MHA, MW, LE] and personal observations conducted in 1980-2016. The list of “railways’ flora” includes 1087 taxa from 447 genera of 94 families – this is significantly higher than what is known for the railroads of other regions. A brief comparative analysis with the “railways’ flora” in other regions of the world in respect of the species number, taxonomy and life form spectrum has been performed. The therophytes absolutely prevail in the life-form spectrum (46 percent. The role of the railways as a pathway for alien species has been confirmed. Around 54 percent of all alien plants recorded for the Moscow Region (Moscow and Moscow Region grow along the railways. Several species new for the former USSR territory was found there, as well as many species new for the Moscow Region. The Railways are not only “donors/sources” of alien species, they also act as a refugee area for “the escapees”: over 30 years, Asclepias syriaca has been growing within the section of the Kursk-Moscow railway located near the All-Russian Research Institute of Medical and Aromatic Plants. Galega officinalis, a specie that forms a 200 m2 area of tangled vegetation, was found there, too. A trend when plants fall out of cultivation was established, this is how Sedum hispanicum and S. album emerged. The article also marks the role of the rail slopes as a refugium of rare and endangered plants of the natural flora: some 35 species included in the Red Book of Moscow were found within the area.

  2. Big data for risk analysis: The future of safe railways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueres Esteban, M.

    2016-07-01

    New technology brings ever more data to support decision-making for intelligent transport systems. Big Data is no longer a futuristic challenge, it is happening right now: modern railway systems have countless sources of data providing a massive quantity of diverse information on every aspect of operations such as train position and speed, brake applications, passenger numbers, status of the signaling system or reported incidents.The traditional approaches to safety management on the railways have relied on static data sources to populate traditional safety tools such as bow-tie models and fault trees. The Big Data Risk Analysis (BDRA) program for Railways at the University of Huddersfield is investigating how the many Big Data sources from the railway can be combined in a meaningful way to provide a better understanding about the GB railway systems and the environment within which they operate.Moving to BDRA is not simply a matter of scaling-up existing analysis techniques. BDRA has to coordinate and combine a wide range of sources with different types of data and accuracy, and that is not straight-forward. BDRA is structured around three components: data, ontology and visualisation. Each of these components is critical to support the overall framework. This paper describes how these three components are used to get safety knowledge from two data sources by means of ontologies from text documents. This is a part of the ongoing BDRA research that is looking at integrating many large and varied data sources to support railway safety and decision-makers. (Author)

  3. Genetic algorithm-based stochastic optimization for preempted signals at highway railroad grade crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Decreasing the number of accidents at highway-railway grade crossings (HRGCs) is an important goal in the transportation field. The preemption of traffic signal operations at HRGCs is widely used to prevent accidents by clearing vehicles off the trac...

  4. Dynamics of a railway vehicle on a laterally disturbed track

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; True, Hans

    2017-01-01

    In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values of the wavelen......In this article a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a railway bogie running on a tangent track with a periodic disturbance of the lateral track geometry is presented. The dynamics is computed for two values of the speed of the vehicle in combination with different values...

  5. A codimension two bifurcation in a railway bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tingting; True, Hans; Dai, Huanyun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive analysis is presented to investigate a codimension two bifurcation that exists in a nonlinear railway bogie dynamic system combining theoretical analysis with numerical investigation. By using the running velocity V and the primary longitudinal stiffness (Formula...... coexist in a range of the bifurcation parameters which can lead to jumps in the lateral oscillation amplitude of the railway bogie system. Furthermore, reduce the values of the bifurcation parameters gradually. Firstly, the supercritical Hopf bifurcation turns into a subcritical one with multiple limit...

  6. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model......In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...

  7. Robustness indicators and capacity models for railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup

    In a world continuous striving for higher mobility and the use of more sustainable modes of transport, there is a constant pressure on utilising railway capacity better and, at the same time, obtaining a high robustness against delays. During the planning of railway operations and infrastructure ....... This has motivated the research conducted and described in this thesis, where the objective has been to develop and improve existing methods to achieve timetable and infrastructure plans with robust capacity utilisation aimed at the strategic and early tactical planning phases....

  8. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  9. Dynamics of railway bridges, analysis and verification by field tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses different aspects of railway bridge dynamics, comprising analysis, modelling procedures and experimental testing. The importance of realistic models is discussed, especially regarding boundary conditions, load distribution and soil-structure interaction. Two theoretical case studies are presented, involving both deterministic and probabilistic assessment of a large number of railway bridges using simplified and computationally efficient models. A total of four experimental case studies are also introduced, illustrating different aspects and phenomena in bridge dynamics. The excitation consists of both ambient vibrations, train induced vibrations, free vibrations after train passages and controlled forced excitation.

  10. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  11. Examining Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Cross-Cultural Study at Tertiary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci; Erbay, Sakire; Flitner, Cristina; Saltas, Dogan

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to dominate the academic world as one of its greatest challenges, and the existing literature suggests cross-cultural investigation of this critical issue may help all shareholders who detect, are confronted by and struggle with this issue to address it. Therefore, the present study, drawing upon a cross-cultural investigation…

  12. Piloting a Non-Invasive Genetic Sampling Method for Evaluating Population-Level Benefits of Wildlife Crossing Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony P. Clevenger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, wildlife crossing structures should enhance the viability of wildlife populations. Previous research has demonstrated that a broad range of species will use crossing structures, however, questions remain as to whether these measures actually provide benefits to populations. To assess this, studies will need to determine the number of individuals using crossings, their sex, and their genetic relationships. Obtaining empirical data demonstrating population-level benefits for some species can be problematic and challenging at best. Molecular techniques now make it possible to identify species, individuals, their sex, and their genetic relatedness from hair samples collected through non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS. We describe efforts to pilot a method to assess potential population-level benefits of wildlife crossing structures. We tested the feasibility of a prototype NGS system designed to sample hair from black bears (Ursus americanus and grizzly bears (U. arctos at two wildlife underpasses. The piloted hair-sampling method did not deter animal use of the trial underpasses and was effective at sampling hair from more than 90% of the bear crossing events at the underpasses. Hair samples were also obtained from non-target carnivore species, including three out of five (60% cougar (Puma concolor crossing events. Individual identification analysis revealed that three female and two male grizzly bears used one wildlife underpass, whereas two female and three male black bears were identified as using the other underpass. Of the 36 hair samples from bears analyzed, five failed, resulting in an 87% extraction success rate, and six more were only identified to species. Overall, 70% of the hair samples from bears collected in the field had sufficient DNA for extraction purposes. Preliminary data from our NGS suggest the technique can be a reliable method to assess the population-level benefits of Banff wildlife crossings. Furthermore, NGS

  13. Dynamic modelling of high speed ballasted railway trakcs: Analysis of the behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallego, I.; Rivas, A.; Sanchez-Cambronero, S.; Lajara, J.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to present a numerical model for a ballasted railway track that includes the dynamic effect of a moving train load and predicts the values of the vertical stiffness of the infrastructure. This model is therefore deemed to be a tool for the evaluation of the state of the track during service situations as well as a predictive model of the behaviour of the system. Consequently, it will be very useful when sizing the cross section of a new railway line is required.The main modelling tool is the finite element method. In regard to this, the application of damping elements to avoid the elastic wave reflection on the boundaries of the numerical domain will be studied. The proposed dynamic analysis consider the change in time of the value of the train load, but not the change in position along the tracks.In the end, a set of suggestions for the numerical model with moving loads will be summarize aiming for the mitigation of the unusual behaviour of the contact surface between the ballast and the sleepers. (Author)

  14. Research of noise emission sources in railway transport and effective ways of their reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the EU conditions attention is systematically paid to noise reduction on the railways. Because TSI rules systematically tighten limits for noise emissions from railway vehicles, noise research must be addressed by all Member States, as the main technical solutions for railway vehicles and construction technological aspects of railway operations can result in lower noise exposure of affected areas or objects. The paper focuses on theoretical investigation of sources and paths of sound propagation, possibilities of noise reduction both on vehicles and by infrastructure and experimental measurements of the situation in transport practice. Methodology for reducing railway noise around tracks has been presented, too.

  15. Modelling of a Double-Track Railway Contact System Electric Field Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Stanislav; Khanzhina, Olga; Sidorov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Working conditions of personnel that serves contact system (CS) are affected by factors including health and safety, security and working hours (danger of rolling stock accidents, danger of electric shock strokes, work at height, severity and tension of work, increased noise level, etc.) Low frequency electromagnetic fields as part of both electric and magnetic fields are among of the most dangerous and harmful factors. These factors can affect not only the working personnel, but also a lot of people, who do not work with the contact system itself, but could be influenced by electromagnetic field as the result of their professional activity. People, who use public transport or live not far from the electrified lines, are endangered by these factors as well. There are results of the theoretical researches in which low frequency electric fields of railway contact system were designed with the use of mathematical and computer modelling. Significant features of electric field distribution near double-track railway in presence or absence of human body were established. The studies showed the dependence of low frequency electric field parameters on the distance to the track axis, height, and presence or absence of human body. The obtained data were compared with permissible standards established in the Russian Federation and other countries with advanced electrified railway system. Evaluation of low frequency electric fields harmful effect on personnel is the main result of this work. It is also established, that location of personnel, voltage and current level, amount of tracks and other factors influence electric fields of contact systems.

  16. The energy-level crossing behavior and quantum Fisher information in a quantum well with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, Xiaoguang; Li, Yong

    2016-03-01

    We study the energy-level crossing behavior in a two-dimensional quantum well with the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings (SOCs). By mapping the SOC Hamiltonian onto an anisotropic Rabi model, we obtain the approximate ground state and its quantum Fisher information (QFI) via performing a unitary transformation. We find that the energy-level crossing can occur in the quantum well system within the available parameters rather than in cavity and circuit quantum eletrodynamics systems. Furthermore, the influence of two kinds of SOCs on the QFI is investigated and an intuitive explanation from the viewpoint of the stationary perturbation theory is given.

  17. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  18. Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of tendon mechanical effects at the level of the tendon fascicle and fibril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Hassenkam, Tue; Svensson, Rene Bruggebusch

    2009-01-01

    at the tendon fibril level were examined by atomic force microscopy. Peak forces increased from approximately 1379 to approximately 2622 pN while an extended Hertz fit of force-indentation data showed a approximately 24 fold increase in Young's modulus on indentation. The effect of glutaraldehyde cross......Conclusive insight into the microscopic principles that govern the strength of tendon and related connective tissues is lacking and the importance of collagen cross-linking has not been firmly established. The combined application of whole-tissue mechanical testing and atomic force spectroscopy...... allowed for a detailed characterization of the effect of cross-linking in rat-tail tendon. The cross-link inducing agent glutaraldehyde augmented the tensile strength of tendon fascicles. Stress at failure increased from approximately 8 MPa to approximately 39 MPa. The mechanical effects of glutaraldehyde...

  19. Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linking of TendonMechanical Effects at the Level of the Tendon Fascicle and Fibril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P.; Svensson, R.B.; Aagaard, P.

    2009-01-01

    were examined by atomic force microscopy. Peak forces increased from 1379 to 2622 pN while an extended Hertz fit of force-indentation data showed a 24 fold increase in Young's modulus on indentation. The effect of glutaraldehyde cross-linking on the tensile properties of a single collagen fibril......Conclusive insight into the microscopic principles that govern the strength of tendon and related connective tissues is lacking and the importance of collagen cross-linking has not been firmly established. The combined application of whole-tissue mechanical testing and atomic force spectroscopy...... allowed for a detailed characterization of the effect of cross-linking in rat-tail tendon. The cross-link inducing agent glutaraldehyde augmented the tensile strength of tendon fascicles. Stress at failure increased from 8 MPa to 39 MPa. The mechanical effects of glutaraldehyde at the tendon fibril level...

  20. Assessment of vitamin D status and serum CrossLaps levels in adults with primary lactose malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enko, D; Kriegshäuser, G; Stolba, R; Mangge, H; Brandstetter, D; Mayr, N; Forstner, T; Halwachs-Baumann, G

    2016-09-01

    Primary adult-type lactose malabsorption (PALM) is a widespread inherited autosomal recessive condition, which is considered to be associated with osteoporosis. This prospective study aimed at assessing the 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and serum CrossLaps levels in individuals with PALM and normal controls. All participants (n=210) underwent genotyping for the LCT C/T-13910 polymorphism, 25(OH)D and CrossLaps measurements and clinical examinations. In addition, the anthropometric data (that is, height, weight and body mass index) were determined. Fifty-five individuals with PALM (that is, LCT C/C-13910 homozygotes) showed lower 25(OH)D (mean: 24.95±10.04 vs 28.59±9.56 ng/ml, P=0.018) and higher CrossLaps serum levels (mean: 0.46±0.31 vs 0.43±0.49 ng/ml, P=0.251) compared with 155 normal controls (that is, LCT C/T-13910 hetero- or T/T-13910 homozygotes). Anthropometric data were similar between PALM probands and controls. Individuals with PALM were found to have lower 25(OH)D and higher CrossLaps serum levels compared with normal controls. In order to preserve life-long bone health, routine 25(OH)D and CrossLaps serum measurements should be performed in individuals with PALM.

  1. Firearm legislation and firearm mortality in the USA: a cross-sectional, state-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesan, Bindu; Mobily, Matthew E; Keiser, Olivia; Fagan, Jeffrey A; Galea, Sandro

    2016-04-30

    In an effort to reduce firearm mortality rates in the USA, US states have enacted a range of firearm laws to either strengthen or deregulate the existing main federal gun control law, the Brady Law. We set out to determine the independent association of different firearm laws with overall firearm mortality, homicide firearm mortality, and suicide firearm mortality across all US states. We also projected the potential reduction of firearm mortality if the three most strongly associated firearm laws were enacted at the federal level. We constructed a cross-sectional, state-level dataset from Nov 1, 2014, to May 15, 2015, using counts of firearm-related deaths in each US state for the years 2008-10 (stratified by intent [homicide and suicide]) from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System, data about 25 firearm state laws implemented in 2009, and state-specific characteristics such as firearm ownership for 2013, firearm export rates, and non-firearm homicide rates for 2009, and unemployment rates for 2010. Our primary outcome measure was overall firearm-related mortality per 100,000 people in the USA in 2010. We used Poisson regression with robust variances to derive incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. 31,672 firearm-related deaths occurred in 2010 in the USA (10·1 per 100,000 people; mean state-specific count 631·5 [SD 629·1]). Of 25 firearm laws, nine were associated with reduced firearm mortality, nine were associated with increased firearm mortality, and seven had an inconclusive association. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the three state laws most strongly associated with reduced overall firearm mortality were universal background checks for firearm purchase (multivariable IRR 0·39 [95% CI 0·23-0·67]; p=0·001), ammunition background checks (0·18 [0·09-0·36]; plaws are associated with reduced firearm mortality, and this evidence underscores the importance of focusing on

  2. Attempted development and cross-validation of predictive models of individual-level and organizational-level turnover of nuclear power operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasa-Sideris, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear power accounts for 209% of the electric power generated in the U.S. by 107 nuclear plants which employ over 8,700 operators. Operator turnover is significant to utilities from the economic point of view since it costs almost three hundred thousand dollars to train and qualify one operator, and because turnover affects plant operability and therefore plant safety. The study purpose was to develop and cross-validate individual-level and organizational-level models of turnover of nuclear power plant operators. Data were obtained by questionnaires and from published data for 1983 and 1984 on a number of individual, organizational, and environmental predictors. Plants had been in operation for two or more years. Questionnaires were returned by 29 out of 50 plants on over 1600 operators. The objectives were to examine the reliability of the turnover criterion, to determine the classification accuracy of the multivariate predictive models and of categories of predictors (individual, organizational, and environmental) and to determine if a homology existed between the individual-level and organizational-level models. The method was to examine the shrinkage that occurred between foldback design (in which the predictive models were reapplied to the data used to develop them) and cross-validation. Results did not support the hypothesis objectives. Turnover data were accurate but not stable between the two years. No significant differences were detected between the low and high turnover groups at the organization or individual level in cross-validation. Lack of stability in the criterion, restriction of range, and small sample size at the organizational level were serious limitations of this study. The results did support the methods. Considerable shrinkage occurred between foldback and cross-validation of the models

  3. [Formation of working conditions and the problems of hygienic assessment of industrial environmental factors in railway tunnels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkova, G V; Lemeshevskaya, E P

    Tunnels are an integral part of the ways and artificial constructions of the railway. Objective assessment of working conditions is important, because current regulations fail to allow to give a definite hygienic assessment of some factors of the production environment of the tunnels. Objective: to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of working conditions in railway tunnels with the subsequent hygienic assessment for the development of preventive measures. Measurement of the factors of working process and working environment is carried out with the use of the certified equipment for the approved the hygienic and sanitary-chemical methods in workplaces in tunnels of the East-Siberian railway. Specific conditions were shown to be formed due to constructive solutions, climate and geographical location, the length of railway tunnels, the composition of the rocks through which the tunnel, the nature of the maintenance tunnels, ventilation system, repetition rate and type of passing rolling stock. All employees from occupational groups from examined tunnels were established to be exposed to high concentrations of aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic action, noise levels, adverse climate (low positive and negative temperatures, high relative humidity and mobility of air), the lack of natural lighting, low levels of artificial light, hard exertion of labor (dynamic physical load, working position, the slopes of the body, movement in space). Additionally, high levels of the vibration, nonionizing and ionizing radiation were typical for jobs of the Baikal and the North-Muya tunnel. There is proposed the algorithm of hygienic assessment of the microclimate, light environment at the working places depending on the time of the works in the underground conditions and constructional features of tunnels, methods of accounting personnel dose rates from natural sources.

  4. Assessment of Stochastic Capacity Consumption in Railway Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2015-01-01

    The railway industry continuously strive to reduce cost and utilise resources optimally. Thus, there is a demand for tools that are able to fast and efficiently provide decision-makers with solutions that can help them achieve their goals. In strategic planning of capacity, this translates...

  5. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  6. Dynamics of Railway Vehicles and Rail/Wheel Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2007-01-01

    of the most important dynamic effects on vehicle dynamic problems are described. In chapter 7 characteristic features of railway vehicle dynamics are described, and in chapter 8 recommendations are presented for the numerical handling that is necessary for the investigation of vehicle dynamic problems...

  7. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  8. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  9. Detection of failures of axle-bearings of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of axle-bearing is one of the most common causes of derailments of railway vehicles which are usually accompanied by huge material damage and human casualties. Modern railways are working intensively on the development and implementation of appropriate systems for early detection of axlebearing malfunctions, which are typically manifested by increasing of its temperature. The most common approach is based on the use of wayside systems or checkpoints located in certain places along the track. There is also an innovative approach that involves using the system for continuous measuring and online monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The main aim is to provide early detection of malfunctions of the axle-bearing and prevention of the potential derailment. This paper analyses the existing solutions for the detection of axle-bearings malfunctions with special emphasis on the working principle and the main advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents the basics of the one newly developed wireless measuring system for on-line monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The measuring system was tested in real conditions and can be successfully applied to the commercial railway vehicles. The main conclusion is that systems for on-line monitoring of axle-bearings temperatures are far more efficient than wayside systems. Obtained results may be important for those who deal with these and similar problems, problems of development, exploitation and maintenance of railway vehicles, strategies, regulations, etc.

  10. Delay propagation and process management at railway stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Hansen, I.A.

    2001-01-01

    Process operators at large railway stations have the difficult task to secure a fluent train traffic flow while minimizing deviations from established timetables. Variation in actual train departure times is inevitable due to many circumstances such as arrival delays and fluctuations in alighting

  11. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...

  12. Developing resilience signals for the Dutch railway system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Herrera, I.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; van der Vorm, J.; Woods, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    A resilience state model for a railway system is proposed consisting of three boundaries putting pressure on the operating state: Safety, Performance (Capacity & Punctuality) and Workload. In order to model the pressure of the boundaries, an additional dimension is added where the slope represents

  13. Railway Porters of Mumbai : Social Capital in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitering, D.; Nooteboom, G.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the scope and limitations of social capital and local forms of social security in the informal sector through a case study of railway coolies at Dadar station, Mumbai. The complex organisation of the coolies, virtually excluded from state or enterprise social security schemes,

  14. Finding suspects in multiple cameras for improved railway protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marck, J.W.; Bouma, H.; Baan, J; Oliveira Filho, J. de; Brink, M. van der

    2014-01-01

    The capability to find individuals using CCTV cameras is important for surveillance applications at large areas such as railway stations, airports and shopping centers. However, it is laborious to track and trace people over multiple cameras post incident. In this paper, we describe the live

  15. Sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oregui Echeverria-Berreyarza, M.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of railpad parameters on vertical railway track dynamics, incorporating the nonlinear behavior of the fastening (i.e., downward forces compress the railpad whereas upward forces are resisted by the clamps). For this purpose, solid railpads, rail-railpad

  16. Organisational citizenship behaviour among railway employees in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of differences in age, education and tenure on organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB). The purposive sample comprised 839 permanently employed staff in a railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Participants completed the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour ...

  17. High-Speed Railways and Urban Networks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Haoran

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, High-Speed Railway (HSR) networks have been developed intensely over the last few decades, such as Tokyo-Osaka, the first HSR corridor in Japan, the TGV in France and the ICE in Germany. HSR has also experienced exponential growth in China so that currently China’s HSR networks are the

  18. Sweden goes in for railways - an example to Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingland, Tore

    2004-01-01

    It is a sad fact that in their 150th anniversary, with very few exceptions, the Norwegian railways still use the first generation network, which dates back to the late 1800s. Off course, this puts the train at a serious disadvantage in the competition with cars and buses, which run on a third or four generation network of roads. The Norwegian Parliament has cut down on the fuel tax for the road traffic. They might have used this tax to provide much more environmentally friendly transport facilities. Green taxes are a proper means of adapting society to a sustainable way of using energy. The article contrasts the Norwegian policy with the Swedish one. The Swedes are preparing to invest twice as much in railways as in roads for the period of 2004 - 2015, while in Norway three times as much money will be spent on roads as on railways. Politicians in Norway essentially agree to concentrate on the railway, but they do not do it. Conservationists expect a clear change of course in the communications policy, with Sweden as a model

  19. Robustness in Railway Operations (RobustRailS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    This study considers the problem of enhancing railway timetable robustness without adding slack time, hence increasing the travel time. The approach integrates a transit assignment model to assess how passengers adapt their behaviour whenever operations are changed. First, the approach considers...

  20. Planning of resource maintenance at building of railway bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klykov Michael

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Publication contains the results of research on the problem of resources provision perfecting of erection processes of railway bridges including consideration of forecasting demand questions to material resources, formations of delivery schedules of materials and designs, definitions of insurance reserves in regards to suppliers of material and technical production.

  1. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  2. Transparency and performance communication: a case study of Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Gelders, Dave; Verckens, Jan Pieter; Seydel, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – In an attempt to gain insight into the effects of transparent communication on critical performances, this paper aims to explore performance measures and communication of a large‐scale service organization, i.e. the Dutch Railways (Nederlandse Spoorwegen, (NS)). Design/methodology/approach

  3. Fatigue Properties of Orthotropic Decks on Railway Bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frýba, Ladislav; Gajdoš, Lubomír

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 7 (1999), s. 639-652 ISSN 0141-0296 Grant - others:XX(CZ) ERRI D 191 Keywords : railway bridges * orthotropic decks * fatigue Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.364, year: 1999

  4. Damage Detection in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers using Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A.; Kaewunruen, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Papaelias, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are safety-critical elements in railway tracks that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. In many cases, structural cracks can develop within the sleepers due to high intensity impact loads or due to poor track maintenance. Often, cracks of sleepers develop and present at the midspan due to excessive negative bending. These cracks can cause broken sleepers and sometimes called ‘center bound’ problem in railway lines. This paper is the world first to present an application of non-destructive acoustic emission technology for damage detection in railway concrete sleepers. It presents experimental investigations in order to detect center-bound cracks in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Experimental laboratory testing involves three-point bending tests of four concrete sleepers. Three-point bending tests correspond to a real failure mode, when the loads are not transferred uniformly to the ballast support. It is observed that AE sensing provides an accurate means for detecting the location and magnitude of cracks in sleepers. Sensor location criticality is also highlighted in the paper to demonstrate the reliability-based damage detection of the sleepers.

  5. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic spec...

  6. Selection and testing of ballast stones for underground railway tracks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ballast is broken pieces of hard rocks such as sandstones, schist, etc. approximately 25- 60 mm size, over which the railway tracks are laid. The function of the ballast is to transfer the applied load over a large surface, provide adequate elasticity, prevent creep and hold the sleepers in position. Also under wet conditions, ...

  7. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  8. CALCULATION OF POLLUTION DYNAMICS NEAR RAILWAY TERRITORY DURING COAL TRANSPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article is aimed to develop 3D numerical model for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of bulk cargo in the railway car. Methodology.To solve this problem, it was developed three-dimensional numerical model, based on the use of the transport equation of dust pollution in the air by the wind and atmospheric turbulent diffusion. For the numerical integration of the simulating equation of the dust transport the implicit difference scheme was used. When constructing a difference scheme, it was carried out prior splitting of the original transport equation into the sequence of solutions of three equations. The first of them takes into account the transport of dust in paths, the second equation – dust transport under the influence of atmospheric turbulent diffusion, and the third equation –change of the dust concentration in the air due to its emissions from the cars.Unknown value of the pollutant concentration at every step of splitting is determined by the explicit scheme – the method of running account, which provides a simple numerical implementation of splitting equations. The developed numerical model is the basis for specialized computer program. On the basis of the constructed numerical model we carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution at the railway station during the motion of train with coal. Findings. Authors developed 3D numerical model, which belongs to the class of «screening models». This model takes into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during coal transportation. The proposed numerical model requires low cost of computer time in the practical implementation on small and medium-power computers. This model can be used for rapid calculations of the dynamics of air pollution when transporting coal by rail. Calculations to determine the pollutant concentration and formation of the

  9. Two-level MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2 for cross-section library generation for LWR hexagonal assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Nikolay; Todorova, Galina; Kolev, Nikola; Damian, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    The accurate and efficient MOC calculation scheme in APOLLO2, developed by CEA for generating multi-parameterized cross-section libraries for PWR assemblies, has been adapted to hexagonal assemblies. The neutronic part of this scheme is based on a two-level calculation methodology. At the first level, a multi-cell method is used in 281 energy groups for cross-section definition and self-shielding. At the second level, precise MOC calculations are performed in a collapsed energy mesh (30-40 groups). In this paper, the application and validation of the two-level scheme for hexagonal assemblies is described. Solutions for a VVER assembly are compared with TRIPOLI4® calculations and direct 281g MOC solutions. The results show that the accuracy is close to that of the 281g MOC calculation while the CPU time is substantially reduced. Compared to the multi-cell method, the accuracy is markedly improved. (author)

  10. A Study of Student Interaction in an Online Learning Environment Specially Crafted for Cross-Level Peer Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, Regina

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the ways that students in an online teacher education program connected in a specially crafted peer mentoring program developed for cross-level peer mentoring. Program administrators developed the peer mentoring site in response to observations that enrolled students, particularly new students, were often unsure of how to…

  11. Exploiting level anti-crossings for efficient and selective transfer of hyperpolarization in coupled nuclear spin systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pravdivtsev, A.N.; Yurkovskaya, A.V.; Kaptein, R.; Miesel, K.; Vieth, H.-M.; Ivanov, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Spin hyperpolarization can be coherently transferred to other nuclei in field-cycling NMR experiments. At low magnetic fields spin polarization is redistributed in a strongly coupled network of spins. Polarization transfer is most efficient at fields where level anti-crossings (LACs) occur for the

  12. Cross-Age Mentoring to Support A-Level Pupils' Transition into Higher Education and Undergraduate Students' Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alana I.

    2014-01-01

    Two challenges identified for psychology higher education are supporting entry students' transition, and supporting graduates' transition into employment. The evaluation of the first phase of a cross-age mentoring action research project targeting these issues is presented; eight psychology undergraduates mentored 20 A-level psychology pupils in…

  13. Level of colorectal cancer awareness: a cross sectional exploratory study among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Tin Tin; Goh, Jun Yan; Tan, Jackson; Muhaimah, Abdul Rahim; Pigeneswaren, Yoganathan; Khairun, Nasirin Sallamun; Normazidah, Abdul Wahab; Tharisini, Devi Kunasekaran; Majid, Hazreen Abd

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper presents the level of colorectal cancer awareness among multi-ethnic rural population in Malaysia. Methods A rural-based cross sectional survey was carried out in Perak state in Peninsular Malaysia in March 2011. The survey recruited a population-representative sample using multistage sampling. Altogether 2379 participants were included in this study. Validated bowel/colorectal cancer awareness measure questionnaire was used to assess the level of colorectal cancer aware...

  14. Cross sections of electron excitation out of metastable helium levels with a fast metastable target product produced via charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, M.E.; Boffard, J.B.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute direct cross sections for electron excitation out of the 2 3 S level and into the 3 3 D, 4 3 D, and 3 3 S levels of the helium atom from threshold to 500 eV and into the 3 3 P level over a more limited energy range have been measured using a fast metastable atomic beam target. We produce the metastable atoms via near-resonant charge exchange between a 1.6-keV He + ion beam and Cs vapor. Because this reaction is highly nonresonant with the ground state of helium, the charge-transfer process yields a primarily metastable beam. We use a thermal detector which we calibrate with ions to measure absolutely the neutral beam flux. The atomic beam is crossed by an electron beam, and we collect the resulting fluorescence at right angles to both the electron and atomic beams. We obtain the cross sections for excitation out of the 2 3 S level into the various excited levels by monitoring the emission out of the excited level of interest. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bookari K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results: More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65% were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000 of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that

  16. Stochastic Channel Modeling for Railway Tunnel Scenarios at 25 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available More people prefer using rail traffic for travel or for commuting owing to its convenience and flexibility. The railway scenario has become an important communication scenario in the fifth generation era. The communication system should be designed to support high‐data‐rate demands with seamless connectivity at a high mobility. In this paper, the channel characteristics are studied and modeled for the railway tunnel scenario with straight and curved route shapes. On the basis of measurements using the “Mobile Hotspot Network” system, a three‐dimensional ray tracer (RT is calibrated and validated for the target scenarios. More channel characteristics are explored via RT simulations at 25.25 GHz with a 500‐MHz bandwidth. The key channel parameters are extracted, provided, and incorporated into a 3rd‐Generation‐Partnership‐Project‐like stochastic channel generator. The necessary channel information can be practically realized, which can support the link‐level and system‐level design of the communication system in similar scenarios.

  17. Real-time flood inundation forecasting and mapping for key railway infrastructure: a UK case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Alexandra T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding events that impede railway infrastructure can cause severe travel delays for the general public and large fines in delayed minutes for the rail industry. Early warnings of flood inundation can give more time to implement mitigation measures which help reduce cancellations, delays and fines. Initial work is reported on the development of a real-time flood inundation forecasting and mapping system for the Cowley Bridge track area near Exeter, UK. This location is on one of the main access routes to South West England and has suffered major floods in the past resulting in significant transport impacts. Flood forecasting systems in the UK mainly forecast river level/flow rather than extent and depth of flood inundation. Here, the development of a chain of coupled models is discussed that link rainfall to river flow, river level and flood extent for the rail track area relating to Cowley Bridge. Historical events are identified to test model performance in predicting inundation of railway infrastructure. The modelling system will operate alongside a series of in-situ sensors chosen to enhance the flood mapping forecasting system. Sensor data will support offline model calibration/verification and real-time data assimilation as well as monitoring flood conditions to inform track closure decisions.

  18. Air pollution of railways in urban areas. [Denmark]; Luftforurening fra togdrift i byomraeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roerdam Olesen, H.; Ellermann, T.; Winther, M.; Schmidt Plejdrup, M.; Brandt, J. [Aarhus Univ.. Institut for Miljoevidenskab, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The present report describes the results of a project on the air pollution impact of railways in the towns of Copenhagen and Aarhus. The project has comprised three activities. 1) Emission inventory. Detailed information about the activity of diesel fuelled trains in Copenhagen and Aarhus has been acquired. Based on this information emissions of NO{sub X} and PM{sub 2.5} (particles with a diameter of less than 2.5 micron) have been computed for railways and stations. 2) Computations of concentrations. The above mentioned emission data have provided a base for computation of concentrations of air pollutants close to railways and at further distances from them. 3) Indicative measurements. A number of indicative measurements of NO{sub 2} (nitrogen dioxide) have been carried out at a few selected locations - some with an assumed large exposure to road traffic and trains, and others with assumed exposure from trains only. These indicative measurements have been limited in various respects. The focus of the entire work was to obtain an overall assessment, where results are expressed in terms of annual mean values. Features at a scale of less than 100 meters have not been described in the emission inventories, neither in the majority of the dispersion model calculations. Assessments for particle pollution involve only direct emissions of particles as PM{sub 2.5}, whereas resuspension of dust and wear from brakes and rails has been disregarded. Neither has the number of ultrafine particles been considered. The environmental significance of railway service in the two towns can be summarized as: 1) On a national level trains account for 2 % of NO{sub X} emission and 0.3 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 2) In the Copenhagen area (defined as a circle with radius 5 km and centre at Copenhagen Central Station) trains account for 3 % on NO{sub X} emission and 0.6 % of PM{sub 2.5} emission. 3) In the Aarhus area (a similar circle around Aarhus Central Station) trains account for 2 % on

  19. Strategic Framework for Implementing the Potential of Import Substitution on the Example of Railway Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Georgievna Lavrikova

    2015-07-01

    create qualitatively new types of products that provide technological parity between Russia and developed countries in the development of transport, and active influence on the development of the world market of technologies and science-intensive products. Effective implementation of import substitution policy is possible only on the basis of interaction of all the participants of technological chain, including designers of products and technologies, suppliers, and customers. The best way to organize such interaction is to form cluster associations. The article shows the role of clusters in the implementation of import substitution policy at the regional level on the example of the railway engineering cluster in the Sverdlovsk Oblast

  20. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a line of railroad referred to as the Brampton Lead, beginning just beyond the northernmost turnout switch at NSR milepost FL 5.5... revoke the exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to...