WorldWideScience

Sample records for railway interlocking systems

  1. A Domain-Specific Language for Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    ). Furthermore, the paper describes an interlocking table generator (ITG) that generates automatically a well-formed interlocking table from a well-formed railway network layout. Experiments with the DSL and ITG using the RAISE tools and the C++ implementation show that the use of the DSL and ITG can increase...... the productivity and significantly reduce errors in the specifications of railway interlocking systems....

  2. Formal Verification of the Danish Railway Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    in the new Danish interlocking systems. Instantiating the generic model with interlocking configuration data results in a concrete model and high-level safety properties. Using bounded model checking and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway...

  3. Automatic Verification of Railway Interlocking Systems: A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jakob Lyng

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experiences in applying formal verification to a large industrial piece of software. The are of application is railway interlocking systems. We try to prove requirements of the program controlling the Swedish railway Station Alingsås by using the decision procedure which...... express thoughts on what is needed in order to be able to successfully verify large real-life systems....

  4. The Use of UML to Development of a Railway Interlocking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using the Unifield Modeling Lanfuage (UML in developmentt of new railway interlocking and signalling systems. A simplifield example of the control circuit of a point machine is used to demonstrate an object-oriented approach to specifying the functional safety requirements. An informal specification given by the relevant technical standart is used as a starting point and results in semi-formal specification based on UML model. Advantages of the presented approach are discussed and new trends of increasing formality of UML models are indicated within conclusions.

  5. Automated generation of formal safety conditions from railway interlocking tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for extracting formal safety conditions from interlocking tables for railway interlocking systems. The tool has been applied to generate safety conditions for the interlocking system at Stenstrup station in Denmark, and the SAL model checker tool has been used to check...

  6. Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Bliguet, Marie Le; Kjær, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways can be formally modelled and verified. Such systems are documented by circuit diagrams describing their static layout. It is explained how to derive a state transition system model for the dynamic behaviour...

  7. New BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan; Cai Guangyu; Wu Jingmin; Li Tiehui

    1998-01-01

    A new interlock system for BEPC (Beijing Electron Positron Collider) has been developed in order to improve the reliability of the personal safety and the subsystem's interlocks. Another role of the system is to update the BEPC TV status screen once every 6 seconds. The hardware for the new interlock system is based on industrial Programmable logic controllers (PLC). By means of the PC-links, the interlock system is composed as a distributed control system. One inexpensive multimedia IBM/486 PC is used as the host computer of the PLCs. The application programs dedicated for the system is written in visual C++ language under Chinese MS-Windows. In case there is a failure in a subsystem, the message is displayed visually, supplemented by a voice message, which causes the operators to pay attention

  8. Interlocked systems in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Megiatto, Catia; Becher, Tiago B; Megiatto, Jackson D

    2015-01-01

    The concept of Nanomedicine emerged along with the new millennium, and it is expected to provide solutions to some of modern medicine's unsolved problems. Nanomedicine offers new hopes in several critical areas such as cancer treatment, viral and bacterial infections, medical imaging, tissue regeneration, and theranostics. To explore all these applications, a wide variety of nanomaterials have been developed which include liposomes, dendrimers, nanohydrogels and polymeric, metallic and inorganic nanoparticles. Recently, interlocked systems, namely rotaxanes and catenanes, have been incorporated into some of these chemical platforms in an attempt to improve their performance. This review focus on the nanomedicine applications of nanomaterials containing interlocked structures. The introduction gives an overview on the significance of interdisciplinary science in the progress of the nanomedicine field, and it explains the evolution of interlocked molecules until their application in nanomedicine. The following sections are organized by the type of interlocked structure, and it comprises details of the in vitro and/or in vivo experiments involving each material: rotaxanes as imaging agents, rotaxanes as cytotoxic agents, rotaxanes as peptide transporters, mechanized silica nanoparticles as stimuli responsive drug delivery systems, and polyrotaxanes as drug and gene delivery systems.

  9. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method and an associated toolchain for the formal verification of the new Danish railway interlocking systems that are compatible with the European Train Control System (ETCS) Level 2. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behaviour and generic...... safety properties. This model accommodates sequential release - a feature in the new Danish interlocking systems. To verify the safety of an interlocking system, first a domain-specific description of interlocking configuration data is constructed and validated. Then the generic model and safety...

  10. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  11. Formal Modeling and Verification of Interlocking Systems Featuring Sequential Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method and an associated tool suite for formal verification of the new ETCS level 2 based Danish railway interlocking systems. We have made a generic and reconfigurable model of the system behavior and generic high-level safety properties. This model accommodates seque...... SMT based bounded model checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, we are able to verify the properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments also show that BMC is efficient for finding bugs in the railway interlocking designs....

  12. Automatic generation and verification of railway interlocking control tables using FSM and NuSMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. YAZDI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their important role in providing safe conditions for train movements, railway interlocking systems are considered as safety critical systems. The reliability, safety and integrity of these systems, relies on reliability and integrity of all stages in their lifecycle including the design, verification, manufacture, test, operation and maintenance.In this paper, the Automatic generation and verification of interlocking control tables, as one of the most important stages in the interlocking design process has been focused on, by the safety critical research group in the School of Railway Engineering, SRE. Three different subsystems including a graphical signalling layout planner, a Control table generator and a Control table verifier, have been introduced. Using NuSMV model checker, the control table verifier analyses the contents of control table besides the safe train movement conditions and checks for any conflicting settings in the table. This includes settings for conflicting routes, signals, points and also settings for route isolation and single and multiple overlap situations. The latest two settings, as route isolation and multiple overlap situations are from new outcomes of the work comparing to works represented on the subject recently.

  13. Comparing formal verification approaches of interlocking systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nguyen, Hoang Nga; Roggenbach, Markus

    2016-01-01

    these approaches. As a first step towards this, in this paper we suggest a way to compare different formal approaches for verifying designs of route-based interlocking systems and we demonstrate it on modelling and verification approaches developed within the research groups at DTU/Bremen and at Surrey......The verification of railway interlocking systems is a challenging task, and therefore several research groups have suggested to improve this task by using formal methods, but they use different modelling and verification approaches. To advance this research, there is a need to compare....../Swansea. The focus is on designs that are specified by so-called control tables. The paper can serve as a starting point for further comparative studies. The DTU/Bremen research has been funded by the RobustRailS project granted by Innovation Fund Denmark. The Surrey/Swansea research has been funded by the Safe...

  14. Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. An intelligent interlock design support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshifumi; Kamiyama, Masahiko

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent interlock design support system, called Handy. BWR plant interlocks have been designed on a conventional CAD system operating on a mini-computer based time sharing system. However, its ability to support interlock designers is limited, mainly due to the system not being capable of manipulating the interlock logic. Handy improves the design efficiency with consistent manipulation of the logic and drawings, interlock simulation, versatile database management, object oriented user interface, high resolution high speed graphics, and automatic interlock outlining with a design support expert system. Handy is now being tested by designers, and is expected to greatly contribute to their efficiency. (author)

  16. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  17. The safety interlocking system at the NAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, K.; Mostert, H.

    1984-01-01

    The central safety interlocking system (CSIS) controls the higher level of interlocking between the various cyclotron subsystems. It ensures the safe operation of the entire cyclotron facility as regards personnel safety and proper instrument operation. The system consists of a micro-processor with a ROM-based safety interlocking program, relay output modules providing ''safety OK'' instructions to all interlocked apparatus, alarm input modules connected to transducers providing binary alarm status signals and an interface to the central control computer. All solid state electronic components of the system are situated in a low level radiation area and are interfaced to cyclotron equipment by means of 24 V relays

  18. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor...

  19. Towards a Framework for Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a framework currently under development for modelling, simulation, and verification of relay interlocking systems as used by the Danish railways. The framework is centred around a domain-specific language (DSL) for describing such systems, and provides (1) a graphical editor ...

  20. Compositional Model Checking of Interlocking Systems for Lines with Multiple Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the railway domain safety is guaranteed by an interlocking system which translates operational decisions into commands leading to field operations. Such a system is safety critical and demands thorough formal verification during its development process. Within this context, our work has focused...

  1. Safety and interlock system for Tristan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, S.; Kudo, K.; Katoh, T.; Akiyama, A.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes alarm and interlock system of TRISTAN, concentrating on personnel safety. The basis of TRISTAN machine-control system (TMS) is an N-to-N computer network and KEK NODAL which offers high software productivity. TMC achieves high flexibility of operation both for normal operation and for the fast commissioning. However, to assure the safety of personnel and the TRISTAN machine operation, the safety system has to continue functioning during TMC failure as well. A distributed safety and interlock system (DSIS) is used for diversification of risks in TRISTAN system. DSIS is functionally subdivided along local system lines and has a hierarchical structure of 12 programmable sequence controllers (PSCs). Optical fiber links connect the PSCs at subsystem level and a PSC at the supervisory level of TRISTAN central control room (TCCR). The subsystem PSCs provide the interlock functions between their local devices. The local PSCs interact with the central system through a limited number of summarized signals. The central PSC provides the interlock functions between the subsystems and interacts with an operator's panel. Personnel safety is based on a system of electrical interlock keys, emergency push-buttons around the tunnel, at the entrance gates or in the control room

  2. Interlocks for the LEP Radio-Frequency System

    CERN Document Server

    Livesley, S

    2000-01-01

    Interlocks for the LEP RF system totalled more than 7000. They provided protection for the personnel and a wide range of equipment: copper cavities, superconducting cavities, klystrons and high voltage equipment. The interlock system layout, functionality and components are described.

  3. Application software for new BEPC interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Shuming; Na Xiangyin; Chen Jiansong; Yu Yulan

    1997-01-01

    New BEPC (Beijing electron Positron collider) interlock system has been built in order to improve the reliability of personnel safety and interlock functions. Moreover, the system updates BEPC operation message once every 6 seconds, which are displayed on TV screens at the major entrances. Since March of 1996, new BEPC interlock system has been operating reliably. The hardware of the system is based on Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). A multimedia IBM/PC-586 as the host computer of the PLCs, monitors the PLC system via serial port COM2. The PC communicates with the central computer VAX-4500 of BEPC control system and gets operating massage of the accelerator through serial port COM3. The application software on the host computer has been developed. Visual C++ for MS-Windows 3.2 TM is selected as the work bench. It provides nice tools for building programs, such as APP STUDIO, CLASS WIZARD, APP WIZARD and debugger tool. The author describes the design idea and the structure of the application software. Error tolerance is taken into consideration. The author also presents a small database and its data structure for the application

  4. The vacuum interlock system for the PETRA III beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhardt, Markus; Hahn, Ulrich; Hesse, Mathias; Schulte-Schrepping, Horst [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The storage ring PETRA at DESY in Hamburg is being reconstructed into the third generation source for synchrotron radiation, PETRA III. The up to 100 m long beamlines are large UHV-systems that guide the synchrotron radiation from the storage ring to the experiments. Each beamline will be equipped with a vacuum interlock system to ensure the safe operation of the vacuum components. In particular the task of the vacuum interlock is to prevent faulty operations that can cause a ventilation of the vacuum system or a damage of vacuum components by the high power synchrotron radiation beam. The interlock system will be implemented as a PLC that is connected to a distributed input/output layer via a field bus system. As a specialty, the PLC will be realised as a soft-PLC running on a PC with a real time windows operating system. Another specialty is the visualisation and remote control of the vacuum interlock system by means of a website. At the beamline the interlock will be operated via a touch panel that displays the visualisation website. Additionally, the interlock can be remotely operated from any location by opening the visualisation website with a browser. The interlock is protected against unauthorised operation by a login page. All relevant interlock data will be fed into the existing network-based archive system.

  5. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification o...

  6. Applied Bounded Model Checking for Interlocking System Designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Pinger, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    In this article the verification and validation of interlocking systems is investigated. Reviewing both geographical and route-related interlocking, the verification objectives can be structured from a perspective of computer science into (1) verification of static semantics, and (2) verification...

  7. A new interlock design for the TESLA RF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, H.; Kahl, J.; Choroba, S.; Grevsmuehl, T.; Heidbrook, N.

    2001-01-01

    The RF system for TESLA requires a comprehensive interlock system. Usually interlock systems are organized in a hierarchical way. In order to react to different fault conditions in a fast and flexible manner a nonhierarchical organization seems to be the better solution. At the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) at DESY the authors will install a nonhierarchical interlock system that is based on user designed reprogrammable gate-arrays (FPGA's) which incorporate an embedded microcontroller system. This system could be used later for the TESLA linear collider replacing a strictly hierarchical design

  8. Interlock system of electron beam machine GJ-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnada, Nada

    1999-01-01

    As an irradiation installation facility, the electron beam machine (EBM) irradiation facility which use radionuclide as radiation source. There are three safety aspects to be considered in the facility i.e the safeties for human, machines, and samples to be irradiated. The safety aspect for human is to the radiation hazard and the safety aspect for machine and sample is to the damage as the result of operating failure. In the EBM GJ-2 (made in China) twelve interlock system parameter are installed to keep all of the safety aspects. Each interlock system consist transducer that controls a certain switch, a magnetic relay, and visible and audible interlock indicators to improve the reliability of interlock systems a method called redundancy method is applied to the systems of operation of high voltage. (author)

  9. Interlock System for the COMPASS Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Pisacka, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Sova, J.; Siba, J.; Kovarj, J. [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The COMPASS tokamak (R=0.56 m, a=0.18 - 0.23 m) is starting operation presently at Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR in Prague. An important issue of the operation is the safety of the personnel and machine protection against faults, presented in this contribution. The personnel protection is based on a restricted access into the experimental hall during the operation of potentially dangerous systems. A tokamak hall access system, based on Honeywell WIN-PAK (tm) 2005, allows to set the status of the experimental area (open/closed) and to control the in and out movement of persons using access cards. On top of this, a check of the whole experimental area by the operator is enforced before the hall enclosure. A hardware interlock then interprets the experimental hall status and controls the operation of key systems accordingly. The permit for operation is granted and the real status of the systems is reported by hard wired potential less contacts. The control procedure is based on a PLC MicroPEL M66. This PLC provides HW interface between Actuators (Relays and switches) and it is connected on PESNET bus. Its programming is done using language Simple v.2 in Winstudio IDE. Second site of personnel protection system is created on PC where runs a .NET application on MSWindows XP or 2000. This PC is connected with PLC via PESNET bus (on RS485 layer) and it generates all control signals to PLC from the operator. Simultaneously, the PC receives all warning and alarm signals from the PLC. This signals are displayed on a screen of the PC in real-time, this way the GUI provides visualization of the controlled process. Except for this fact the operator is informed about the status of the system and individual subsystems on a PC via an operator's panel. Further we will describe the machine protection which uses similar system for checking conditions for the start of a shot. Fast key processes which have to be checked during the shot are

  10. NEW POSSIBILITIES OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionginas LIUDVINAVIČIUS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the train traffic control systems in 1435 mm and 1520 mm gauge railways. The article analyses the aspects of train traffic control and locomotive energy saving by using the coordinates of track profile change that have been received from GPS. In the article, achievements of Lithuanian railways (LG in the area of train traffic control optimisation are presented.

  11. PLC-based interlock system for superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Hodgers, J.; Reagan, D.; Walz, H.V.

    1989-01-01

    Conventional interlock systems rely heavily on hard-wired electromagnetic relays. Although this approach is well understood and has proven to be reliable, several drawbacks plague the designer as well as the repairman. If larger systems have to be implemented in relay logic, the complexity limit is soon reached; the systems become too bulky, and wiring expenses sky-rocket; moreover, the intelligence of those designs is limited in such a way that desirable features such as self-tests have to be left out. Additionally, relay interlocks are inherently inflexible: if the configuration of the system they protect has to change, a disproportional amount of time, work and money has to be invested in order to adapt the hard-wiring of the interlock system to the new requirements. Repair work is often unnecessarily delayed due to the lack of adequate documentation

  12. A Retrospective View to the Magnet Interlock Systems at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Romera, I; Mompo, R; Puccio, B; Zerlauth, M

    2014-01-01

    Several thousands of both, superconducting and normal conducting magnets are in charge of guiding the particle beams in CERN’s accelerator complex. In order to protect the magnet and powering equipment from damage, dedicated magnet interlock and protection systems are deployed throughout the various accelerators and transfer lines. These systems have worked extremely well during the first years of LHC operation, providing highly dependable interlocking of magnet powering based on industrial COTS components. This paper reviews the performance and experience with more than 70 individual installations during the first LHC running period and compares the operational experience with the initial expectations of dependability. Additional improvements required to address specific operational needs and observed shortcomings are presented. Finally, we review the existing magnet interlock infrastructure in the LHC injector complex and the ongoing renovation works during the first long shutdown.

  13. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM. ... involve collision with automobiles or other vehicles and collision with other trains. ... the processed signals to control electromagnetic devices through motor drivers.

  14. Mine railway equipments management information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Han, K.; Duan, T.; Liu, Z.; Lu, H. [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China)

    2007-06-15

    Based on client/server and browser/server models, the management information system described realized the entire life-cycle management of mine railway equipment which included universal equipment and special equipment in the locomotive depot, track maintenance division, electrical depot and car depot. The system has other online functions such as transmitting reports, graphics management, statistics, searches, graphics wizard and web propaganda. It was applied in Pingdingshan Coal Co. Ltd.'s Railway Transport Department. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Interlock system for the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Martin; Sova, J.; Šíba, J.; Kovář, J.; Adámek, Jiří; Pánek, Radomír; Havlíček, Josef; Písačka, Jan; Mlynář, Jan; Stöckel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, 3-4 (2010), s. 505-508 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/7th./. Aix – en – Provence, 15.06.2009-19.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G09042; GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak operation * Interlock * Personnel safety Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V3C-5003BXW-1&_user=6542793&_coverDate=07%2F31%2F2010&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_origin=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000070123&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6542793&md5=ef5794d05cc6530a905d1de43aa0ac6a&searchtype=a

  16. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Young, J

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies, and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability.

  17. Central system of Interlock of ITER, high integrity architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, I.; Martinez, G.; Lopez, C.

    2014-01-01

    The CIS (Central Interlock System), along with the CODAC system and CSS (Central Safety System), form the central I and C systems of ITER. The CIS is responsible for implementing the core functions of protection (Central Interlock Functions) through different systems of plant (Plant Systems) within the overall strategy of investment protection for ITER. IBERDROLA supports engineering to define and develop the control architecture of CIS according to the stringent requirements of integrity, availability and response time. For functions with response times of the order of half a second is selected PLC High availability of industrial range. However, due to the nature of the machine itself, certain functions must be able to act under the millisecond, so it has had to develop a solution based on FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) capable of meeting the requirements architecture. In this article CIS architecture is described, as well as the process for the development and validation of the selected platforms. (Author)

  18. Modular safety interlock system for high energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieffer, J.; Golceff, B.V.

    1980-10-01

    A frequent problem in electronics systems for high energy physics experiments is to provide protection for personnel and equipment. Interlock systems are typically designed as an afterthought and as a result, the working environment around complex experiments with many independent high voltages or hazardous gas subsystems, and many different kinds of people involved, can be particularly dangerous. A set of modular hardware has been designed which makes possible a standardized, intergrated, hierarchical system's approach and which can be easily tailored to custom requirements

  19. The vacuum interlock system for the CELSIUS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, K.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum interlock system has been designed and built for the CELSIUS storage ring. The ultrahigh-vacuum system of CELSIUS has a design pressure of 10 -11 mbar. This is achieved by using vacuum-fired stainless-steel chambers, baking the whole ring to 300degC and running some 50 sputter ion and titanium sublimation pumps. The turbopumps, combined with roughing pumps, are used during the pump-down and the bake-out. The pressure is monitored by Penning vacuum gauges. There is a number of programmable pressure thresholds set to trigger various events (like closing the sector valves, disabling the bake-out, etc.). The interlock system is based on the Mitsubishi programmable logic controller (PLC). An IBM PC is used as an operator's console. The operation and performance of the system is described. On the basis of present experience an upgrading of the system is suggested. (orig.)

  20. From the LHC Reference Database to the Powering Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Dehavay, C; Schmidt, R; Veyrunes, E; Zerlauth, M

    2003-01-01

    The protection of the magnet powering system for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) currently being built at CERN is a major challenge due to the unprecedented complexity of the accelerator. The Powering Interlock System of the LHC will have to manage more than 1600 DC circuits for magnet powering, different in their structure, complexity and importance to the accelerator. For the coherent description of such complex system, a Reference Database as unique source of the parameters of the electrical circuits has been developed. The information, introduced via a generic circuit description language, is first used for installing the accelerator and making all electrical connections. The data is then used for tests and commissioning. During operation, the Powering Interlock System manages all critical functions. It consists of 36 PLC based controllers dis tributed around the machine and requires a flexible and transparent way of configuration, since each controller manages different numbers and types of electrical ci...

  1. Access control and interlock system at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrestal, J.; Hogrefe, R.; Knott, M.; McDowell, W.; Reigle, D.; Solita, L.; Koldenhoven, R.; Haid, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) consists of a linac, position accumulator ring (PAR), booster synchrotron, storage ring, and up to 70 experimental beamlines. The Access Control and Interlock System (ACIS) utilizes redundant programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and a third hard-wired chain to protect personnel from prompt radiation generated by the linac, PAR, synchrotron, and storage ring. This paper describes the ACIS's design philosophy, configuration, hardware, functionality, validation requirements, and operational experience

  2. Verifying therapy safety interlock system with spin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available signal is sent to the SIS. 2.6 Accelerator control system There are two types of beam stop devices: a Faraday cup, which is a cup shaped piece of copper and a neutron shutter, which is a steel cylinder for shielding radiation. Both kinds of devices... have two micro-switches, associated with each extreme movement of the device, which are used to detect whether the device is in the beam line or not. There are five of these beam-stop devices: (1) Faraday Cup 1: can be in or out of the beam line...

  3. Formal Development of a Tool for Automated Modelling and Verification of Relay Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Kjær, Andreas A.; Le Bliguet, Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for formal modelling relay interlocking systems and explains how it has been stepwise, formally developed using the RAISE method. The developed tool takes the circuit diagrams of a relay interlocking system as input and gives as result a state transition system modelling...

  4. Availability Analysis of the Ventilation Stack CAM Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YOUNG, J.

    2000-01-01

    Ventilation Stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock System failure modes, failure frequencies and system availability have been evaluated for the RPP. The evaluation concludes that CAM availability is as high as assumed in the safety analysis and that the current routine system surveillance is adequate to maintain this availability. Further, requiring an alarm to actuate upon CAM failure is not necessary to maintain the availability credited in the safety analysis, nor is such an arrangement predicted to significantly improve system availability. However, if CAM failures were only detected by the 92-day functional tests required in the Authorization Basis (AB), CAM availability would be much less than that credited in the safety analysis. Therefore it is recommended that the current surveillance practice of daily simple system checks, 30-day source checks and 92-day functional tests be continued in order to maintain CAM availability

  5. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... of the controlled system to split in different ways the state space have been investigated. In particular, compositional approaches divide the controlled track network in regions that can be verified separately, once proper assumptions are considered on the way the pieces are glued together. Basing on a successful...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  6. Hardwired interlock system with fault latchability and annunciation panel for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukesh Kumar; Roychoudhury, P.; Nimje, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    A hard-wired interlock system is designed, developed, installed and tested to ensure healthy status for interlock signals, coming from the various sub-systems of electron accelerators as digital inputs. Each electron accelerator has approximately ninety-six interlock signals. Hardwired Interlock system consists of twelve-channel 19 inches rack mountable hard-wired interlock module of 4U height. Digital inputs are fed to the hard-wired interlock module in the form of 24V dc for logic 'TRUE' and 0V for logic 'FALSE'. These signals are flow signals to ensure cooling of the various sub-systems, signals from the klystron modulator system in RF Linac to ensure its healthy state to start, signals from high voltage system of DC accelerator, vacuum signals from vacuum system to ensure proper vacuum in the electron accelerator, door interlock signals, air flow signals, and area search and secure signals. This hard-wired interlock system ensures the safe start-up, fault annunciation and alarm, fault latchablity, and fail-safe operation of the electron accelerators. Safe start-up feature ensures that beam generation system can be made ON only when cooling of all the electron accelerator sub-systems are confirmed, all the fault signals of high voltage generation system are attended, proper vacuum is achieved inside the beam transport system, all the doors are closed and various areas have been searched and secured manually. Fault annunciation and alarm feature ensures that during the start up and operation of the electron accelerators, if any fault is there, that fault signal window keeps on flashing with red colour and alarm is sounded till the operator acknowledges the fault. Once acknowledged, flashing and alarm stops but display of the window in red colour remains till the operator clears the fault. Fault latchability feature ensures that if any fault has happened, accelerator cannot be started again till the operator resets that interlock signal. Fail-safe feature ensures

  7. Modeling thermal effects in braking systems of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Miloš S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling of thermal effects has become increasingly important in product design in different transport means, road vehicles, airplanes, railway vehicles, and so forth. The thermal analysis is a very important stage in the study of braking systems, especially of railway vehicles, where it is necessary to brake huge masses, because the thermal load of a braked railway wheel prevails compared to other types of loads. In the braking phase, kinetic energy transforms into thermal energy resulting in intense heating and high temperature states of railway wheels. Thus induced thermal loads determine thermomechanical behavior of the structure of railway wheels. In cases of thermal overloads, which mainly occur as a result of long-term braking on down-grade railroads, the generation of stresses and deformations occurs, whose consequences are the appearance of cracks on the rim of a wheel and the final total wheel defect. The importance to precisely determine the temperature distribution caused by the transfer process of the heat generated during braking due to the friction on contact surfaces of the braking system makes it a challenging research task. Therefore, the thermal analysis of a block-braked solid railway wheel of a 444 class locomotive of the national railway operator Serbian Railways is processed in detail in this paper, using analytical and numerical modeling of thermal effects during long-term braking for maintaining a constant speed on a down-grade railroad.

  8. Model Checking Geographically Distributed Interlocking Systems Using UMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Nielsen, Michel Bøje Randahl

    2017-01-01

    the relevant distributed protocols. By doing that we obey the safety guidelines of the railway signalling domain, that require formal methods to support the certification of such products. We also show how formal modelling can help designing alternative distributed solutions, while maintaining adherence...

  9. Formal modelling and verification of interlocking systems featuring sequential release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2017-01-01

    checking (BMC) and inductive reasoning, it is verified that the generated model instance satisfies the generated safety properties. Using this method, we are able to verify the safety properties for model instances corresponding to railway networks of industrial size. Experiments show that BMC is also...

  10. Energy efficient solutions for the complete railway system; Energieeffiziente Loesungen fuer das Gesamtsystem Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Rechenberg, K.; Hein, G. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Innovative technologies for the power supply of electric railway vehicles by stationary and mobile devices allow to operate the complete railway system in an energy efficient manner and therefore reduce the energy consumption considerably. So it is necessary to examine the power supply of the railway network as well as the railway vehicles and their own operational behaviour within the railway network. A complete tramway system was choosen as one example. (orig.)

  11. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lawson, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Marsala, R.; Schneider, H.

    2009-01-01

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  12. Power System Unbalance due to Railway Electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatopoulos, Athanasios; Vikelgaard, Henrik; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    The decision to electrify the main part of the Danish railway at the same time where the supply and generation of electrical power in Denmark moves to a more decentralized structure, raises concerns regarding the balanced and secure operation of the power grid. Adverse effects include, among others......, the lifetime reduction of rotating machines and the malfunction of HVDC converters. Toward this direction, this paper aims to review the challenges and mitigation solutions with respect to voltage unbalance, focusing on the conditions relevant to the electrification of the Danish railway....

  13. Design of the interlock and protection system for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomaro, N.; Grando, L.; Luchetta, A.; Paolucci, F.; Sartori, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A custom designed interlock and protection system for SPIDER experiment is described. •It includes two subsystems implementing slow and fast protection functions. •High reliability PLCs are adopted for slow protection. •Fiber-optic based, custom designed fast logic circuitry is proposed for fast protection. •Accelerators breakdown events are also managed by the fast subsystem. -- Abstract: Unprecedented levels of beam energy and power are required for ITER Neutral Beam Heating systems. SPIDER experiment is an experimental device aimed to test and optimize a full size beam source satisfying ITER requirements. SPIDER experiment operation involves high power, voltage, temperature, and gas pressure. All these critical conditions are present simultaneously, so that any failure if not properly detected and managed is likely to cause severe damage. The Interlock and Protection System is a high-reliability system devoted to the investment protection of SPIDER. Its main purpose is to manage abnormal events occurring in one or more plants in order to minimize adverse consequences. The Interlock System also manages the SPIDER Operating Modes, defining the set and status of the Plants used in the various possible experimental configurations. In addition, the Interlock and Protection System takes care of particular events occurring during normal SPIDER operation, i.e. electrical arcs between accelerator grids, named breakdowns. Their treatment is committed to the Interlock and Protection System, as they need to be managed timely and with absolute reliability like actual faults. To perform the required functions, the Interlock and Protection System is interfaced with most SPIDER plants and with the SPIDER Control and Data Acquisition System. The paper describes the rationale of the protection functions, their implementation in the design and the technical specifications of the system

  14. Evaluation of a fast PLC module in prospect of the LHC beam interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Zaera-Sanz, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of mseconds. Siemens has introduced a “so called” fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor) that provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This note publishes the results of this study. As well, this note could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  15. Evaluation and application of a fast module in a PLC based interlock and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaera-Sanz, M

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Interlock system requires a controller performing a simple matrix function to collect the different beam dump requests. To satisfy the expected safety level of the Interlock, the system should be robust and reliable. The PLC is a promising candidate to fulfil both aspects but too slow to meet the expected response time which is of the order of μseconds. Siemens has introduced a 'so called' fast module (FM352-5 Boolean Processor). It provides independent and extremely fast control of a process within a larger control system using an onboard processor, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to execute code in parallel which results in extremely fast scan times. It is interesting to investigate its features and to evaluate it as a possible candidate for the beam interlock system. This paper publishes the results of this study. As well, this paper could be useful for other applications requiring fast processing using a PLC.

  16. The engineering project and reliability research of the safety interlock slow control system in BESIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yinhong; Zhao Jingwei; Li Xiaonan; Xie Xiaoxi; Gao Cuishan; Bai Jingzhi; Chen Xihui; Min Jian; Nie Zhendong

    2008-01-01

    The new safety interlock slow control system of BESIII is designed to ensure that the BESIII interior equipments and the accelerator control center to work in coordination, and to guarantee the safety of the operating staff and all the important equipments at the same time. This paper introduces the hardware and software design of safety interlock system from the engineering requirements angle, including a detailed research on the software implementation technique of the state machine on PLC and the reliability of the system. (authors)

  17. Kronecker Algebra-based Deadlock Analysis for Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mittermayr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Deadlock analysis for railway systems differs in several aspects from deadlock analysis in computer science. While the problem of deadlock analysis for standard computer systems is well-understood, multi-threaded embedded computer systems pose new challenges. A novel approach in this area can easily be applied to deadlock analysis in the domain of railway systems. The approach is based on Kronecker algebra. A lazy implementation of the matrix operations even allows analysing exponentially sized systems in a very efficient manner. The running time of the algorithm does not depend on the problem size but on the size of the solution. While other approaches suffer from the fact that additional constraints make the problem and its solution harder, our approach delivers its results faster if constraints are added. In addition, our approach is complete and sound for railway systems, i.e., it generates neither false positives nor false negatives.

  18. Economic aspects of interlocking hollow brick system designed for industrialized building system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mahmood Md.; Saggaff, Anis; Ngian, Shek Poi; Sulaiman, Arizu

    2017-11-01

    Construction industry has moved forward into a technology driven where a transition is in progress from conventional method to a more advanced and mechanised system known as the Industrialised Building System (IBS). However, the need to implement the IBS should be well understood by all construction players such as designer, architect, contraction, erectors and construction workers. Therefore, there is a need to educate all these construction players which should be spearheaded by authorities such as Construction Industrial Development Board where enforcement trough building by laws as well as initiative to those that adopt the IBS in their construction. This paper reports on economic aspects of using interlocking hollow brick system in construction as an alternative method offered for Industrialized Building System. The main objective is to address the economic aspects of using interlocking block system in terms of time, costs, and utilization of manpower and to present some of the experimental tests results related to Interlocking Hollow Brick System (IHBS). Example of savings from the use of IHBS is presented in this paper by comparing the construction of two storey terrace house with build-up area of about 200 square meter with conventional construction method of typical reinforced concrete construction (RCC) compared to IHBS. The comparison shows that the implementation of IHBS can reduce construction time, cost, and utilization of man power up to 26.6% compared to the conventional method. Moreover, the construction time using IHBS can also be reduced by up to 50% as compared to the conventional construction.

  19. Energetic optimization of regenerative braking for high speed railway systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilli, Amedeo; Meli, Enrico; Nocciolini, Daniele; Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A model of longitudinal dynamics of the High-speed train ETR1000 is presented. • The model includes on board traction and braking subsystems. • Interactions between overhead line and power line are modelled. • The model is validated on real experimental data. • An energy storage strategy for a high-speed line is proposed. - Abstract: The current development trend in the railway field has led to an ever increasing interest for the energetic optimization of railway systems (especially considering the braking phases), with a strong attention to the mutual interactions between the loads represented by railway vehicles and the electrical infrastructure, including all the sub-systems related to distribution and smart energy management such as energy storage systems. In this research work, the authors developed an innovative coupled modelling approach suitable for the analysis of the energetic optimization of railway systems and based on the use of the new object oriented language Matlab-Simscape™, which presents several advantages with respect to conventional modelling tools. The proposed model has been validated considering an Italian Direct Current High-speed line and the High-speed train ETR 1000. Furthermore, the model has been used to perform an efficiency analysis, considering the use of energy storage devices. The results obtained with the developed model show that the use of energy recovery systems in high-speed railway can provide great opportunities of energy savings.

  20. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEIMEL, A.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles, brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converter-fed induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual field-oriented high-performance motor control systems - including a speed-sensorless variant - is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.

  1. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  2. Development of prototype DC superconducting cable for railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaru; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Suzuki, Kenji; Miryala, Muralidhar

    2010-01-01

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTSC) wire has significant potential for railway system applications. HTSC wire is currently a promising candidate for various engineering applications such as transformers and motors for railway system. HTSC direct current (DC) cable is ideal for a feeder of the overhead contact line system between the substation and the electric train. We completed a prototype Bi-2223 tape based direct current cable for trial purposes of several meters length. In the energizing experiment the current of 1720 A successfully constantly flew.

  3. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Himanshu; Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli; Gahlaut, Agrajit; Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  4. Preliminary design of safety and interlock system for indian test facility of diagnostic neutral beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Himanshu, E-mail: htyagi@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Soni, Jignesh [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Yadav, Ratnakar; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Rotti, Chandramouli [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Joshi, Jaydeep; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India); Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun [Institute For Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Indian Test Facility being built to characterize DNB for ITER delivery. • Interlock system required to safeguard the investment incurred in building the facility and protecting ITER deliverable components. • Interlock levels upto 3IL-3 identified. • Safety instrumented system for occupational safety being designed. Safety I&C functions of SIL-2 identified. • The systems are based on ITER PIS and PSS design guidelines. - Abstract: Indian Test Facility (INTF) is being built in Institute For Plasma Research to characterize Diagnostic Neutral Beam in co-operation with ITER Organization. INTF is a complex system which consists of several plant systems like beam source, gas feed, vacuum, cryogenics, high voltage power supplies, high power RF generators, mechanical systems and diagnostics systems. Out of these, several INTF components are ITER deliverable, that is, beam source, beam line components and power supplies. To ensure successful operation of INTF involving integrated operation of all the constituent plant systems a matured Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) is required. The INTF DACS is based on CODAC platform following on PCDH (Plant Control Design Handbook) guidelines. The experimental phases involve application of HV power supplies (100 KV) and High RF power (∼800 KW) which will produce energetic beam of maximum power 6MW within the facility for longer durations. Hence the entire facility will be exposed tohigh heat fluxes and RF radiations. To ensure investment protection and to provide occupational safety for working personnel a matured Safety and Interlock system is required for INTF. The Safety and Interlock systems are high-reliability I&C systems devoted completely to the specific functions. These systems will be separate from the conventional DACS of INTF which will handle the conventional control and acquisition functions. Both, the Safety and Interlock systems are based on IEC 61511 and IEC 61508 standards as

  5. A codimension two bifurcation in a railway bogie system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tingting; True, Hans; Dai, Huanyun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive analysis is presented to investigate a codimension two bifurcation that exists in a nonlinear railway bogie dynamic system combining theoretical analysis with numerical investigation. By using the running velocity V and the primary longitudinal stiffness (Formula...... coexist in a range of the bifurcation parameters which can lead to jumps in the lateral oscillation amplitude of the railway bogie system. Furthermore, reduce the values of the bifurcation parameters gradually. Firstly, the supercritical Hopf bifurcation turns into a subcritical one with multiple limit...

  6. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ˜ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0.

  7. Control and Interlocking System for Bending Magnet Front-end at Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, Sanjeev R.; Garg, Chander Kant; Nandedkar, R. V.

    2007-01-01

    We present control and interlock system developed for Indus-2 bending magnet front-end. The paper describes in detail the control of various signals associated with the front-end and the interlocking scheme implemented for the installed front-end. The number of signals associated with each front-end is ∼ 75. A control system is designed for monitoring temperature, pressure, airflow, water flow and control of vacuum gauges, fast shutter, water cooled shutter, safety shutter, pneumatic gate valves, sputter ion pump power supplies, beam position monitor etc. Two independent signals are generated for critical components that are used for software interlock and hard-wired interlock. The front-end control system is VME based and window 2000/XP workstation as an operator console. The CPU used is Motorola 68000-processor board of the VME bus having OS-9 real time operating system. One VME crate serves a cluster of 2-3 front ends. The communication between the VME and the workstation is linked over RS232 serial communication. The sputter ion power supplies are connected over isolated RS485 network. Critical protection features are implemented so that no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is implemented by providing two independent chains of protection (1) Hard wired in which relay logic is used and (2) Software. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed using Lab view Version 7.0

  8. Beam interlock system and safe machine parameters system 2010 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2010-01-01

    The Beam Interlock System (BIS) and Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system are central to the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine. The BIS has been critical for the safe operation of LHC from the first day of operation. It has been installed and commissioned, only minor enhancements are required in order to accommodate all future LHC machine protection requirements. At reduced intensity, the SMP system is less critical for LHC operation. As such, the current system satisfies the 2010 operational requirements. Further developments are required, both at the SMP Controller level, and at the system level, in order to accommodate the requirements of the LHC beyond 2010.

  9. Software Verification and Validation Test Report for the HEPA filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERMI, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The HEPA Filter Differential Pressure Fan Interlock System PLC ladder logic software was tested using a Software Verification and Validation (VandV) Test Plan as required by the ''Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements''. The purpose of his document is to report on the results of the software qualification

  10. Architecture for interlock systems: reliability analysis with regard to safety and availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, S.; Apollonio, A.; Schmidt, R.; Zerlauth, M.; Vergara-Fernandez, A.

    2012-01-01

    For particle accelerators like LHC and other large experimental physics facilities like ITER, the machine protection relies on complex interlock systems. In the design of interlock loops for the signal exchange in machine protection systems, the choice of the hardware architecture impacts on machine safety and availability. The reliable performance of a machine stop (leaving the machine in a safe state) in case of an emergency, is an inherent requirement. The constraints in terms of machine availability on the other hand may differ from one facility to another. Spurious machine stops, lowering machine availability, may to a certain extent be tolerated in facilities where they do not cause undue equipment wear-out. In order to compare various interlock loop architectures in terms of safety and availability, the occurrence frequencies of related scenarios have been calculated in a reliability analysis, using a generic analytical model. This paper presents the results and illustrates the potential of the analysis method for supporting the choice of interlock system architectures. The results show the advantages of a 2003 (3 redundant lines with 2-out-of-3 voting) over the 6 architectures under consideration for systems with high requirements in both safety and availability

  11. The Radiation Safety Interlock System for Top-Up Mode Operation at NSRRC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Chien Rong; Kao, Sheau-Ping; Liu, Joseph; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Wang, Jau-Ping

    2005-01-01

    The radiation safety interlock systems of NSRRC have been operated for more than a decade. Some modification actions have been implemented in the past to perfect the safe operation. The machine and its interlock system were originally designed to operate at the decay mode. Recently some improvement programs to make the machine injection from original decay mode to top-up mode at NSRRC has initiated. For users at experimental area the radiation dose resulted from top-up re-fill injections where safety shutters of beam-lines are opened will dominate. In addition to radiation safety action plans such as upgrading the shielding, enlarging the exclusion zones and improving the injection efficiency, the interlock system for top-up operation is the most important to make sure that injection efficiency is acceptable. To ensure the personnel radiation safety during the top-up mode, the safety interlock upgrade and action plans will be implemented. This paper will summarize the original design logic of the safety inter...

  12. Advanced interlocking systems to improve heavy-load-bearing characteristics of flexible intramedullary nailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Leopold, E-mail: leopold.berger@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eichler, Johannes [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Ryll, E. Jonathan S. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Fischerauer, Stefan [Department of Traumatology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria); Raschke, Michael J. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital Muenster, Westphalian-Wilhelms University, Muenster (Germany); Kolbitsch, Andreas [Institute of Building Construction and Technology, TU Wien, Karlsplatz 13/206-4, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Castellani, Christoph [Department of Pediatric and Adolescence Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 34, 8036 Graz (Austria); Weinberg, Annelie-Martina [Department of Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 5/6, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2016-11-01

    Flexible intramedullary nailing (FIN) is a minimally invasive and widespread standard method for osteosynthesis of pediatric long bone fractures. In the case of unstable fractures of the lower extremity, interlocking systems need to be used to prevent axial shortening and subsequent perforation of the nail at its insertion site. In the present study, four different screw-fixed interlocking systems for FINs (Hofer TwinPlug with two 3-mm titanium interlocking screws, Hofer FixPlug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw, Hofer Plug with 3.5-mm titanium interlocking screw, and Hofer Plug with 3-mm titanium interlocking screw) in comparison with the commonly used Ender stainless steel nails (locked with 3.5-mm screw) were experimentally investigated in cadaveric lamb tibiae, regarding their load characteristics and failure modes in the case of heavy loading. The specimens were subjected to sequential axial cyclic loading of 5000cycles with stepwise increase of the load amplitude until failure. Migration of locking screws and internal damage of bone tissue was quantified by micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Ender nails failed on average at a peak load of 800 N, TwinPlugs at 1367 N, FixPlugs at 1222 N, Plugs 3.5mm at 1225 N and Plugs 3.0mm at 971 N. TwinPlugs, FixPlugs, and Plugs 3.5mm failed in a slow manner over several hundred loading cycles, whereas Ender nails and Plugs 3.0mm exhibited abrupt failure without any prior indication. Our results confirm that axial stability of FIN can be further improved by screw-fixed plugs by simultaneously avoiding shortcomings of an eye-locked system, which the Ender nails are. Considering biomechanical results, plug interlocking systems with 3.5-mm screws should be favored over conventional Ender nails and plugs with 3-mm screws. - Highlights: • Locked flexible intramedullary nails in lamb tibiae were cyclically loaded. • Strongly different failure modes of locking systems were detected. • Novel screw-fixed plugs are

  13. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...

  14. Developing resilience signals for the Dutch railway system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis; Herrera, I.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; van der Vorm, J.; Woods, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    A resilience state model for a railway system is proposed consisting of three boundaries putting pressure on the operating state: Safety, Performance (Capacity & Punctuality) and Workload. In order to model the pressure of the boundaries, an additional dimension is added where the slope represents

  15. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    1998-01-01

    In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic spec...

  16. Vulnerability assessment and mitigation for the Chinese railway system under floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Liu; Ouyang, Min; Peeta, Srinivas; He, Xiaozheng; Yan, Yongze

    2015-01-01

    The economy of China and the travel needs of its citizens depend significantly on the continuous and reliable services provided by its railway system. However, this system is subject to frequent natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, and debris flow. A mechanism to assess the railway system vulnerability under these hazards and the design of effective vulnerability mitigation strategies are essential to the reliable functioning of the railway system. This article proposes a comprehensive methodology to quantitatively assess the railway system vulnerability under floods using historical data and GIS technology. The proposed methodology includes a network representation of the railway system, the generation of flood event scenarios, a method to estimate railway link vulnerability, and a quantitative vulnerability value computation approach. The railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption related to the number of interrupted trains and the durations of interruption. A maintenance strategy to mitigate vulnerability is proposed that simultaneously considers link vulnerability and number of trains using it. Numerical experiments show that the flood-induced vulnerability of the proposed representation of the Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly value in July, and the proposed vulnerability mitigation strategy is more effective compared to other strategies. - Highlights: • We propose a methodology to assess flood-induced railway system vulnerability. • Railway system vulnerability is evaluated in terms of its service disruption. • Chinese railway system reaches its maximum monthly vulnerability in July. • We propose an effective maintenance strategy considering link vulnerability and burden

  17. Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling for European Railway Traffic Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    signalling system. Therefore, the entire maintenance system needs to change from the previous system to the newest system, and hence, new optimisation techniques need to be established so as to facilitate managers in creating ideal maintenance strategies. The aim of this thesis is to develop new maintenance......The European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) is the newest signalling standard that has been introduced in the railway industry. The aim of ERTMS is to ensure better signalling communication amongst various train systems, and hence, to help in attaining improved connectivity and commuting...... between European countries. In various countries across the world, there is a gradual shift from the current signalling systems to ERTMS. Amongst the European countries, Denmark was the first country to commence a full upgrading of its signalling system to ERTMS. A variety of maintenance requirements...

  18. Machine interlock and protection system based on PLC for the SSRF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Wenjun; Zhou Dayong; Chen Jianfeng; Shen Liren; Liu Yajuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a machine interlock and protection system used for accelerators based on EPICS (Experimental physics and industrial control system). The system is composed of a front-end computer and an FM-3R logic controller PLC. The alarm signal is passed by the hardware directly, and would be deal with PLC. The reporting, recording and analyst of the event are accomplished by EPICS control software. And PLC is linked to the EPICS by Internet. (authors)

  19. PLC-based search and secure interlock system for the personnel safety in folded tandem ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, Sapna; Subramanyum, N.B.V.; Bhatt, Jignesh P.; Ware, Shailaja V.; Kansara, M.J.; Gupta, S.K.; Singh, P.

    2006-01-01

    Safety of the personnel is one of the key issues addressed in any accelerator project. The FOTIA facility at BARC is capable of operating under standard operation conditions without any radiation hazard. Even then for a safe and reliable operation of FOTIA a PLC (Programmable logic controller) based interlock system has been implemented. This interlocking system is compact, modular, flexible, robust and easy for troubleshooting. These advantages led to the popularity of PLC rather than using a relay-based system. This paper highlights the salient features of the search and secure interlock for the personal safety of FOTIA. (author)

  20. The multi-interlock and check of logical system for 5 MW low power reactor automatic rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjian; Zhao Zengqiao

    1992-01-01

    The safety and reliability of the logical system for 5 MW LPR automatic rod are improved, because of using multi-interlock and manual check on line. The design character and function of the logical system are introduced

  1. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software

  2. Railway automatic safety protection system based on GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Hai Juan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The automatic protection system of railway safety is designed for the railway construction workers to protect alarm, and the safety protection device by using GPS satellite positioning system to acquire location information of the operating point, through the CTC/TDCS system and computer monitoring system for the running of the train position and the arithmetic distance. Achieving timely and continuously forecasts about the distance of the train which is apart from the operating point to prompt the voice alarm of the approaching train. Using digital technology to realize the function of the traditional analog interphone, eliminates the quality problems of the call. With the GSM-R, mobile wireless transmission channel and terminal technology, it overcomes the restrictions of the analog interphone which influenced by communication distance and more problems of blind areas. Finally to achieve practical, convenient, applicable and adaptable design goals.

  3. High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan

    2018-03-01

    High-speed railway signal trackside equipment patrol inspection system comprehensively applies TDI (time delay integration), high-speed and highly responsive CMOS architecture, low illumination photosensitive technique, image data compression technique, machine vision technique and so on, installed on high-speed railway inspection train, and achieves the collection, management and analysis of the images of signal trackside equipment appearance while the train is running. The system will automatically filter out the signal trackside equipment images from a large number of the background image, and identify of the equipment changes by comparing the original image data. Combining with ledger data and train location information, the system accurately locate the trackside equipment, conscientiously guiding maintenance.

  4. Control Logic for the Interlock system of the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Riegel, Christian

    Part of the first upgrade program of the ATLAS detector is the installation of the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) as a fourth and innermost detector layer of the ATLAS pixel detector to prepare the tracking system for the expected increase of pile-up events. As with every sub-detector, the IBL and its components have to be monitored and controlled via a Detector Control System (DCS). A hardware-based interlock system is installed on-site to prevent detector and people working at the detector from serious harm and damage. For the IBL, the logical processing of interlock signals is realised in Interlock Matrix Crates (IMCs) using Complex Programmable Logic Devices (CPLD). One part of this master thesis is the automatic implementation of the logical assignments from database information. A script was developed to generate the needed file to program the CPLD. The second part of this thesis is the design of a test setup to verify the functionality of the electrical components of each IMC and to confirm the correct proce...

  5. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other Regulations...

  6. System of preparing the personnel for railway of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullaaziz ARTIKBAEV

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper, by the example of training for the railway industry in Uzbekistan, focuses on the experiences and characteristics of Uzbekistan's integration into the international system of education, a framework of qualifications of the European Commission. Tashkent Institute of Railway Engineering has: rated the students' knowledge of the possibility of mutual recognition and accreditation based on the comparability of disciplines and curricula; included in its institutional strategy doctoral program, which has national features aimed at providing career opportunities for young researchers and university teachers based on the fundamental nature and the humanization of education, providing the preparation of the highly qualified specialists, ensures the interconnection and interdependence at all levels of technical education: secondary, undergraduate, graduate, doctoral and post-graduate training and re-training to maintain the knowledge and skills of teachers at the level of requests engineering and production of the XXI century.

  7. Research on the Special Railway Intelligence Transportation Hierarchy and System Integration Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jie WANG

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the rapid development of information technology in the field of railway transportation, the problems of establishing a digital, integrated and intelligent special railway system need to be solved immediately. This paper designs and implements the intelligent transportation information system based on the unique pattern of transportation organization, the characteristics of transportation operations and the workflow of special railway. Through the detailed analysis of system architecture and framework design, the main subsystems and the internal comprehensive integrated principle, business system from a system integration perspective of the special railway is optimized, which can be able to realize the integration of all kinds of information resources. The implementation of integration and the special railway intelligent system is a great change in terms of maximizing transportation capacity, improving efficiency and guaranteeing the safety of special railway transportation.

  8. Application of programmable controllers to vacuum system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.; Moore, D.

    1979-11-01

    This paper describes the Doublet III Vacuum Control System in which all input signals and output loads are connected to a programmable controller (PC) for logical interfacing. Input signals derived from CAMAC, control panels, limit switches, etc., are implemented as output signals to CAMAC, vacuum valves, pump motors, etc., according to a logic program stored in the PC memory. The memory can be easily programmed by anyone familar with either Boolean algebra or relay-ladder network diagrams. The program data is entered with the aid of a calculator like, keyboard instrument with LED readout displays. The PC system contains a 1024 word RAM memory with a battery backup system to provide 72 hours protection of contents in case of power failure

  9. Load management potentials for the railway power system; Potenziale fuer das Lastmanagement im Bahnenergiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Julius; Aniceto, Josep M. [SBB AG Infrastruktur Energie, Zollikofen (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    The railway power supply system of the Schweizerische Bundesbahnen (SBB) is characterised by major load fluctuations that are expected to increase in the future. The available power that is generated must be kept at absolute load peak level which causes high costs. Simulations show that a load management is a practicable way of noticeably reducing load peaks in the SBB railway power supply system without having an adverse effect on railway operations or the energy demand.

  10. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  11. Dataset Documentation for the ERTMS-Oriented Signalling Maintenance in the Danish Railway System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad

    2017-01-01

    This documentation provides information about the dataset generated as part of a PhD thesis (Towards Signalling Maintenance Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management System ) for the signaling maintenance of the Danish railway system . The data instances (M.Pour 2018a; M.Pour 2018b......) have been created for the purpose of adaptation to the newest railway signalling standard which is so called European Railway Traffic Management System(ERTMS). The chapter provides explanation of the different types of maintenance tasks in the ERTMS, followed by data definition. Furthermore...

  12. The Preventive Signaling Maintenance Crew Scheduling Problem for European Railway Traffic Management system (ERTMS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Pour, Shahrzad; Stidsen, Thomas Jacob Riis; Rasmussen, Kourosh Marjani

    , the western part of Denmark. This case is particularly interesting, since the entire railway signalling system is currently being upgraded to the new European Railway Traffic Management System (ERTMS) standard. The new signals need continuous maintenance and in this article we plan the distribution of crew......A railway system is a large and complex infrastructure, which requires continuous maintenance in order to function correctly. Proper maintenance is critical but can also be costly. In this paper we consider the practical case of planning the preventive maintenance of railway signals in Jutland...

  13. Residual Heat Removal System qualitative probabilistic safety analysis before and after auto closure interlock removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulicic, V.; Simic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis evaluates the consequences of the removal of the auto closure interlock (ACI) on the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) suction/isolation valves at the nuclear power plant. The deletion of the RHRS ACI is in part based on a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) which justifies the removal based on a criterion of increased availability and reliability. Three different areas to be examined in PSA: the likelihood of an interfacing system LOCA; RHRS availability and reliability; and low temperature overpressurization control. The paper emphasizes particularly the RHRS unavailability and reliability evaluation utilizing the current control circuitry configuration and then with the proposed modification to the control circuitry. (author)

  14. A review on past and present development on the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosro, M. Z. M.; Samad, A. A. A.; Mohamad, N.; Goh, W. I.; Tambichik, M. A.; Iman, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Massive migration and increasing population in Malaysia has contributed to the increasing demand of quality and affordable housing. Over the past 50 years, the Malaysian housing industry has seen the growth of using conventional construction system such as reinforced concrete frame structures and bricks. The conventional system, as agreed by many researchers, causes delays and other disadvantages in some of the construction projects. Thus, the utilization of interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system is needed to address these issues. This system has been identified as an alternative and sustainable building system for the construction industry in Malaysia which the PUTRA block system is the latest example of the ILHB developed. The system offers various advantages in terms of speed and cost in construction, strength, environmentally friendly and aesthetic qualities. Despite these advantages, this system has not been practically applied and develop in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper aims to review the past and present development of the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system that available locally and globally.

  15. Development of Broadband Telecommunication System for Railways using Laser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Nakagawa, Shingo; Matsubara, Hiroshi; Tatsui, Daisuke; Seki, Kiyotaka; Haruyama, Shinichiro; Teraoka, Fumio

    We developed a high-speed telecommunication system applicable to railways, to improve customer service and efficiency of operator's telecommunication between the ground facilities and trains under operations. We manufactured a mobile telecommunication system, capable of recording the transfer rate of 1Gbps in theory by applying the laser beam communication technology. We carried out a field test using trains in active service, and obtained the result of the transfer rate of approximately 700Mbps on the TCP layer between the ground and the train running at a speed of approximately 130km/h.

  16. AN AUTOMATED RAILWAY STATION TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... Software simulation was carried out using the Proteus virtual system modeling ... system which helps in track switching and level crossing gate traffic control is capable of improving reliability, speed, .... Lane Switching Network.

  17. Model of traffic access mode and railway station choice of suburban railway system in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor RAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the establishment of a model of understanding the access mode and railway station choice of Slovenian passengers. Therefore, a model has been designed to predict the determination of existing decision making preferences of railway users about the access mode and railway station choice with a stated preference survey and face to face method. The target group in the survey were railway passengers in the suburban environment that use the rail for work and school purposes. The total number of respondents was 412. The survey showed that most passengers access the railway station with car (60,2%, by foot (26,2%, with public transport (bus – 8,3% and with bike (5,3%. Average distance to the station is 4,9 km, average time of access is 10,5 min. Upon exit most passengers walk to the final destination (84,5%, use the public transport (bus – 14,1%, car (1,2% or bike (0,2%. Average time from exit of the train to final destination is 13,1 min, average distance is 1,58 km.

  18. A novel linear switched reluctance motor for railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daldaban, Ferhat; Ustkoyuncu, Nurettin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a new linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) structure, especially suitable for high-speed railway systems. The new model has a double active stator configuration and provides high force for many applications with low cost. The characteristics of the LSRM are obtained by using finite element analysis (FEA) and analytical calculations. The results of the FEA and analytical calculations are presented, and compared with experimental results. In addition, a classical double-sided LSRM (DSLSRM) is modeled with the same specifications of the new motor structure and the results are compared.

  19. Modelling and simulation of railway cable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichelmann, G.; Schaub, M.; Simeon, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrum Mathematik M2

    2005-12-15

    Mathematical models and numerical methods for the computation of both static equilibria and dynamic oscillations of railroad catenaries are derived and analyzed. These cable systems form a complex network of string and beam elements and lead to coupled partial differential equations in space and time where constraints and corresponding Lagrange multipliers express the interaction between carrier, contact wire, and pantograph head. For computing static equilibria, three different algorithms are presented and compared, while the dynamic case is treated by a finite element method in space, combined with stabilized time integration of the resulting differential algebraic system. Simulation examples based on reference data from industry illustrate the potential of such computational tools. (orig.)

  20. Railway line capacity consumption of different railway signalling systems under scheduled and disturbed conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Corman, F.; D'Ariano, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity consumption on a Dutch railway line both under scheduled and disturbed traffic conditions. For the scheduled condition the standard UIC compression method is used, while the computation of capacity consumption under disturbed conditions requires multiple simulation

  1. On the Development of Intelligent Railway Information and Safety Systems: An Overview of Current Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Tokody

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article focuses on the research and development planning for innovative railway systems. Within such a general framework, the specific objectives of the research have been defined within the framework of a large Intelligent Railway System project in Hungary. Our theoretical research work at the university is combined with practical experience gained at the Hungarian State Railways. In the course of this research work, the development of an intelligent railway system has been investigated by leveraging on the fruitful cooperation between academic and industrial partners, in order to promote the application and integration possibilities of the development results, as well as the introduction of innovative components in the railway system. In such a context, this article discusses the research plan, preliminary and long-term expected results, sharing objectives and experiences with the aim of providing novel views in an extremely current and challenging field of research.

  2. The New Control and Interlock System for the SPS Main Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B; Mugnier, C; Varas, J

    1999-01-01

    The Control and Interlock System (CIS) of the SPS main power converters was designed in the mid-70s and became increasingly difficult to maintain. A new system based on Programmable Logic Controllers has been developed by an external contractor in close collaboration with CERN. The system is now operational and fully integrated in the SPS/LEP control infrastructure. The CIS is the first major contracted industrial solution used to control accelerator equipment directly involved in the production of particle beams at CERN. This paper gives an overview of the SPS main power converter installation and describes both the contractual and technical solution adopted for the CIS. It first explains how the system was specified and how the contractual relationship was defined to respect CERN’s purchasing rules and the operational requirements of the SPS accelerator. The architectural design of the new system is presented with special emphasis on how the conflict between safety and availability has been addressed.

  3. Investigation on energy efficient sensor node placement in railway systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayona Philipose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently wireless sensor network (WSN has been widely used for monitoring railway tracks and rail tunnels. The key requirement in the design of such WSN is to minimize the energy consumption so as to maximize the network lifetime. This paper includes the performance of an improved medium access control (MAC protocol, namely, time adaptive-bit map assisted (TA-BMA protocol, for the purpose of communication between the sensors placed in a railway wagon. The train is considered to be moving at a constant speed, and the sensor nodes are stationary with respect to the motion of train. The effect of mobility on the proposed MAC protocol is determined using genetic algorithm (GA, and the observed increase in energy consumption on considering mobility is 18.51%. Performance analysis of the system model is carried out using QualNet (ver. 7.1, and the energy consumption in transmit mode, receive mode, percentage of time in sleep mode, end-to-end delay and throughput are investigated.

  4. Formal development and verification of a distributed railway control system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, J.

    2000-01-01

    specifications which are transformed into directly implementable distributed control processes by applying a series of refinement and verification steps. Concrete safety requirements are derived from an abstract version that can be easily validated with respect to soundness and completeness. Complexity......The authors introduce the concept for a distributed railway control system and present the specification and verification of the main algorithm used for safe distributed control. Our design and verification approach is based on the RAISE method, starting with highly abstract algebraic...... is further reduced by separating the system model into a domain model and a controller model. The domain model describes the physical system in absence of control and the controller model introduces the safety-related control mechanisms as a separate entity monitoring observables of the physical system...

  5. Radiation interlocks - The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system? Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper reviews the status of the committee's recommendations, and describes radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional (relay) approach and designs using computers

  6. Radiation interlocks: The choice between conventional hard-wired logic and computer-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crook, K.F.

    1986-11-01

    During the past few years, the use of computers in radiation safety systems has become more widespread. This is not surprising given the ubiquitous nature of computers in the modern technological world. But is a computer a good choice for the central logic element of a personnel safety system. Recent accidents at computer controlled medical accelerators would indicate that extreme care must be exercised if malfunctions are to be avoided. The Department of Energy has recently established a sub-committee to formulate recommendations on the use of computers in safety systems for accelerators. This paper will review the status of the committee's recommendations, and describe radiation protection interlock systems as applied to both accelerators and to irradiation facilities. Comparisons are made between the conventional relay approach and designs using computers. 6 refs., 6 figs

  7. An active interlock system for the NSLS x-ray ring insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Biscardi, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Flannigan, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Rothman, J.; Smith, J.; So, I.; Thomas, M.; Decker, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the design and operation of an active interlock system which has been installed in the NSLS X-ray electron storage ing to protect the vacuum chamber from thermal damage by mis-steered high power photon beams from insertion devices (IDs). the system employs active beam position detectors to monitor beam motion in the ID straight sections and solid state logic circuitry to ''dump'' the stored beam in the event of a fault condition by interrupting the rf. To ensure a high degree of reliability, redundancy and continuous automatic checking has been incorporated into the design. Overall system integrity is checked periodically with beam at safe levels of beam current. 2 refs., 3 figs

  8. Systematic review of research on railway and urban transit system suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishara, Brian L; Bardon, Cécile

    2016-03-15

    We critically review research on railway suicides to inform suicide prevention initiatives and future studies, including who is at risk and why, and behaviours at track locations. Literature was identified from Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar and our documentation centre, and contacting 71 railway companies, resulting in 716 articles and eight unpublished reports, with 94 having empirical data on 55 unique studies. Research quality was critically assessed. The quality of studies varies greatly with frequent shortcomings: no justification of sample size, lacking information on the reliability and validity of measures, no explanation nor theoretical understanding of findings. Railway suicides resemble closely people who use other methods, although they tend to be younger. As with other suicide methods, mental health problems are likely to be present. Railway suicide attempters usually die, but most urban transportation systems attempters survive. Railway suicides are rarely impulsive; people usually go to the railway for the purpose of killing themselves. Hotspots have been the focus of some prevention measures. We know little about why people choose railway suicide, but studies of survivors suggest they often thought they would have an immediate, certain and painless death. Media reports on railway suicides can increase their incidence. Most research focuses on the incidence and characteristics of events and attempters. Research has not shown that railway suicides are different from suicides by other means. Better quality research is needed, particularly studies that investigate why people use railways to kill themselves and how railway suicides can be effectively prevented, as well as more evaluations of prevention programmes. Because of significant variations by country and region in characteristics of railway suicides, prevention programmes should conduct a local assessment of the characteristics of attempters and incidents. We need more research on

  9. Wheel slip dump valve for railway braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, LiHao; Li, QingXuan; Shi, YanTao

    2017-09-01

    As we all know, pneumatic braking system plays an important role in the safety of the whole vehicle. In the anti slip braking system, the pressure of braking cylinder can be adjusted by the quick power response of wheel slip dump valve, so that the lock situation won’t occur during vehicle service. During the braking of railway vehicles, the braking force provided by braking disc reduces vehicle’s speed. But the locking slip will happen due to the oversize of braking force or the reduction of sticking coefficient between wheel and rail. It will cause not only the decline of braking performance but also the increase of braking distance. In the meanwhile, it will scratch the wheel and influence the stable running of vehicles. Now, the speed of passenger vehicle has been increased. In order to shorten the braking distance as far as possible, sticking stickiness must be fully applied. So the occurrence probability of wheel slip is increased.

  10. Application of Superconducting Power Cables to DC Electric Railway Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Lv, Zhen; Sekino, Masaki; Tomita, Masaru

    For novel design and efficient operation of next-generation DC electric railway systems, especially for their substantial energy saving, we have studied the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to them. In this paper it is assumed that a superconducting power cable is applied to connect substations supplying electric power to trains. An analysis model line was described by an electric circuit, which was analyzed with MATLAB-Simulink. From the calculated voltages and currents of the circuit, the regenerative brake and the energy losses were estimated. In addition, assuming the heat loads of superconducting power cables and the cryogenic efficiency, the energy saving of the total system was evaluated. The results show that the introduction of superconducting power cables could achieve the improved use of regenerative brake, the loss reduction, the decreased number of substations, the reduced maintenance, etc.

  11. Developing a Service Improvement System for the National Dutch Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Heijnsbroek, Martin; Bosma, Joost

    2017-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is essential for public and railway services, because firms in these industries have contracts with governments requiring them to achieve specific customer satisfaction targets. In this paper, we describe a National Dutch Railways project in which we identify the major

  12. Development of Remote Control and Interlock System for the PEFP Microwave Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Gi; Seol, Kyung Tae; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    The control system for a microwave ion source as an isolated high voltage device is a main part of the PEFP distributed control system. The system is used to control two sets of microwave ion sources, the remote control and the interlock system. A VME system with an embedded Power PC CPU is used as main computer. The VME system is dedicated to control and monitoring of the ion source operation. An isolated control system has been designed and developed for remote control and monitoring of a microwave generator and various power supplies. As the source is placed on high voltage platform, optical fiber isolation has been used between the serial to optical fiber VME I/O board and the control system on the high voltage platform. These are connected through RS232 serial interface. A fast Ethernet is used to communicate between the microwave ion source control system and other control stations in the PEFP control system. EPICS toolkit is adopted to provide network programming and user interface by using EPICS Channel Access (CA)

  13. RISK MANAGEMENT IN A LARGE-SCALE NEW RAILWAY TRANSPORT SYSTEM PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunduck D. SUH, Ph.D., P.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk management experiences of the Korean Seoul-Pusan high-speed railway (KTX project since the planning stage are evaluated. One can clearly see the interplay of engineering and construction risks, financial risks and political risks in the development of the KTX project, which is the peculiarity of large-scale new railway system projects. A brief description on evaluation methodology and overview of the project is followed by detailed evaluations on key differences in risks between conventional railway system and high-speed railway system, social and political risks, engineering and construction risks, and financial risks. Risks involved in system procurement process, such as proposal solicitation, evaluation, selection, and scope of solicitation are separated out and evaluated in depth. Detailed events resulting from these issues are discussed along with their possible impact on system risk. Lessons learned and further possible refinements are also discussed.

  14. [Emergency response management near the tracks of the public railway network: special aspects of missions connected with the German national railway system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, P; Aul, A; Vock, B; Frank, C

    2010-11-01

    Emergency response management and rescue operations concerning the railway network in Germany need special attention and implementation in several ways. The emergency response concerning the German national railway network managed by Deutsche Bahn AG is subject to various rules and regulations which have to be followed precisely. Only by following these rules and procedures is the safety of all emergency staff at the scene ensured. The German national railway network (Deutsche Bahn AG) provides its own emergency response control center, which specializes in managing its response to emergencies and dispatches an emergency response manager to the scene. This person serves as the primary Deutsche Bahn AG representative at the scene and is the only person who is allowed to earth the railway electrical power lines. This article will discuss different emergency situations concerning railway accidents and the emergency medical response to them based on a near collision with a high speed train during a rescue mission close to the railway track. Injury to personnel could only be avoided by chance and luck. The dangers and risks for rescue staff are specified. Furthermore, the article details practical guidelines for rescue operations around the German national railway track system.

  15. Model Checking and Model-based Testing in the Railway Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes some approaches and emerging trends for verification and model-based testing of railway control systems. We describe state-of-the-art methods and associated tools for verifying interlocking systems and their configuration data, using bounded model checking and k...... with good test strength are explained. Interlocking systems represent just one class of many others, where concrete system instances are created from generic representations, using configuration data for determining the behaviour of the instances. We explain how the systematic transition from generic...... to concrete instances in the development path is complemented by associated transitions in the verification and testing paths....

  16. Intelligent condition monitoring of railway catenary systems : A Bayesian Network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Liu, Zhigang; Chen, Junwen; Spiryagin, Maksym; Gordon, Timothy; Cole, Colin; McSweeney, Tim

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes a Bayesian network (BN) dedicated for the intelligent condition monitoring of railway catenary systems. It combines five types of measurements related to catenary condition, namely the contact wire stagger, contact wire height, pantograph head displacement, pantograph head

  17. CAMAC-based interlock system for power-supply-hardware protection on MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauch, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    This interlock module accepts 16 inputs and generates, in conjunction with an internal PROM map, 8 outputs. This decision process is autonomous of the CAMAC dataway and host computer. The map is generated, burned and verified by a user interactive program written to accept input/output equations in Boolean algebra. The interlock module requires the host computer to periodically interrogate it to verify proper operation of the module, host computer and date link; otherwise, permissives are dropped. An internal mask register may be used to override interlock inputs. This mask is perishable and must be constantly refreshed. Output drivers may be operated in a latch/no latch mode. This prevents outputs, once dropped, from being reasserted even if the proper input sequence is reestablished. A first-out register may be utilized to determine which input has dropped first in the event that chain reactions are developed among the interlock inputs

  18. The Place of Railway Transport in Romania’s Transport System

    OpenAIRE

    Dãneci-Pãtrãu Daniel; Coca Carmen Elena

    2012-01-01

    The transport activity in all its forms represents one of the most complex sections of an economy, but also an important factor of influence over the quality of life, that is why current preoccupations of international organisms are oriented towards measures meant to develop performing transport systems and compatible with the environment. In the article the main activities and resources of Romania’s railway transport system are presented , the place of the railway transport in the transport ...

  19. Supervision Software for the Integration of the Beam Interlock System with the CERN Accelerator Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Audrain, M; Dragu, M; Fuchsberger, K; Garnier, JC; Gorzawski, AA; Koza, M; Krol, K; Moscatelli, A; Puccio, B; Stamos, K; Zerlauth, M

    2014-01-01

    The Accelerator complex at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is composed of many systems which are required to function in a valid state to ensure safe beam operation. One key component of machine protection, the Beam Interlock System (BIS), was designed to interface critical systems around the accelerator chain, provide fast and reliable transmission of beam dump requests and trigger beam extraction in case of malfunctioning of equipment systems or beam losses. Numerous upgrades of accelerator and controls components during the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are followed by subsequent software updates that need to be thoroughly validated before the restart of beam operation in 2015. In parallel, the ongoing deployments of the BIS hardware in the PS booster (PSB) and the future LINAC4 give rise to new requirements for the related controls and monitoring software due to their fast cycle times. This paper describes the current status and ongoing work as well as the long-term vision for the integratio...

  20. [The monorail system--bone segment transport over unreamed interlocking nails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedekoven, G; Jansen, D; Raschke, M; Claudi, B F

    1996-11-01

    A treatment protocol is demonstrated, consisting of an osteotomy, either proximal or distal, of the bone defect with subsequent segmental transport via an anteromedially (tibia) or laterally (femur) mounted AO external fixation over an unreamed interlocking nail (monorail system). Twenty patients were treated by this method with indications as follows: 13 had a segmental bone defect of the tibia, 3 of the femur. Three patients showed post-traumatic and postinfectious leg-length discrepancies and one was treated for hypertrophic non-union of the femur. Defect distance varied between 5 and 18.5 cm and average time for transport was 19,42 days/ cm for the tibial shaft, 15,93 days/cm for the femur. Two patients developed deep infection, which required change of treatment, removing the monorail system and application of an Ilizarov apparatus. Despite complications using the monorail system, all patients healed and no amputations were required. The monorail system can be used as an alternative to the Ilizarov method under certain criteria of patient selection; these criteria are shown by an algorithm for segmental bone defects without infection, respecting the soft-tissue status with or without neurovascular compromise.

  1. An overview of natural hazard impacts to railways and urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Nezval, Vojtěch; Bílová, Martina; Andrášik, Richard; Kubeček, Jan

    2017-04-01

    We present an overview and two case studies of natural hazard impacts on rail transportation systems in the Czech Republic. Flooding, landsliding, heavy snowfall, windstorms and glaze (black ice) are the most common natural processes which occur in this region. Whereas flooding and landsliding usually cause direct damage to the transportation infrastructure, other hazards predominantly cause indirect losses. Railway and urban tramline networks are almost fully dependent on electricity which is provided by a system of overhead lines (electric lines above the tracks). These lines are extremely susceptible to formation of glaze which blocks conduction of electric current. A December 2014 glaze event caused significant indirect losses in the largest Czech cities and railways due to the above-mentioned process. Details of this event will be provided during the presentation. Windstorms usually cause tree falls which can affect overhead lines and physically block railway tracks. Approximately 30 % of the Czech railway network is closer than 50 m from the nearest forest. This presents significant potential for transport interruption due to falling trees. Complicated legal relations among the owners of the plots of land along railways, the environment (full-grown trees and related habitat), and the railway administrator are behind many traffic interruptions due to falling trees. We have registered 2040 tree falls between 2012 and 2015 on the railway network. A model of the fallen tree hazard was created for the entire Czech railway network. Both above-mentioned case studies provide illustrative examples of the increased fragility of the modern transportation systems which fully rely on electricity. Natural processes with a low destructive power are thereby able to cause network wide service cut-offs.

  2. Discontinuous Residue and Theme in Higher-Order Semiotic: A Case for Interlocking Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Farahani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The fallacy persists in discourse analysis research to explore lexicogrammatical phenomena detached from any adjacent plane of the meaning potential. In an attempt to dispel this and toss out some preconceived notions about what a modern SFG vantage point should involve, this study homes in on one aspect of SFG within prose fiction in particular, which is very revealing in terms of how separate system networks are actually in synergistic simultaneity, and how SFG allows one , phenomenally well, to bring such synergies out, getting to the heart of the fact that language pervasively operates on multiple planes of textuality simultaneously. Thus, building upon Halliday’s 2004 work, the quest is if it is interpersonally significant when the Residue is split into two parts; more importantly, if it is also laced with some lexicogrammatical quality on the textual plane, in light of the fairly well-entrenched assumption that there is always Theme at work when the Residue is split. Halliday is the only scholar to touch upon the topic of Discontinuous Residue and its relationship to Marked Theme in the culmination of his groundbreaking career, i.e. his 2004 work. Having driven home the proposal to make into a watchword the ubiquity of interlocking macro-semantic system networks, some pedagogical and research implications and suggestions flowing from this are brought up.

  3. Active interlock system for high power insertion devices in the x-ray ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In modern synchrotron radiation rings photon beams generated by high power insertion devices (IDs) may be sufficiently intense to cause severe thermal damage to the machine vacuum chamber if mis-steered. Thus when operating a storage ring with the IDs, great care must be exercised to prevent mis-steering of the electron beam orbit. At present, the X-ray ring operates with three IDs, namely two hybrid wigglers (HBW) at X-21 and X-25,a nd a 5-Tesla superconducting wiggler at X-17. All wigglers are located in low-beta straight sections. In the straight sections. In the straight sections, beam orbit may be deflected by as much as ±8 mrad without scraping the chamber wall. For various reasons it was not possible to design the X-ray ring vacuum chamber to be safe under all possible operating conditions, however, the chamber is safe for i < 7 mA, all horizontal beam deflection angles and for vertical angles < ± 2.5 mrad. To protect the machine vacuum chamber from damage due to mis-steered beams, and interlock system has been developed and installed. This system utilizes active beam position detectors which continuously monitor beam motion in each of the ID straight sections and logic circuitry which interrupts the RF and dumps the stored beam in the case of a fault

  4. Septum magnet MNP-23 for the CERN PS experimental area and its fast interlock system

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Prost, A; Zickler, T

    2004-01-01

    Two MNP-23 septum-like magnets are installed at CERN in the transfer line from the Proton Synchrotron (PS) to the East Hall Experimental Area. They are exposed to extremely high doses of ionizing radiation. In the past, the magnets experienced two catastrophic failures due to overheating of its coils and cannot be repaired. The magnets of improved design which is subject of this article are built as replacements for the magnets presently installed. The MNP-23 is a resistive C shaped iron-dominated magnet made of solid low carbon steel blocks. The excitation windings consist of two water-cooled coils wound from hollow copper conductor. The septum design of these magnets implies a high current density which requires an efficient water cooling system. The newly designed cooling circuit provides better cooling performance and more reliability. To avoid failures due to coil overheating, an elaborate interlock system was developed and installed. It consists of two parts: firstly a slow, more classic sensor, to dete...

  5. PLC based development of control, monitoring and interlock for 100 kW, 45.6 MHz ICRH system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadav, Hiralal; Joshi, Rameshkumar; Mali, Aniruddh K.; Kadia; Bhavesh; Parmar; Maganbhai, Kiritkumar; Kulkarni, S.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents details of PLC based system development for 100KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. Presently in ICRH RF DAC (Data acquisition and control) system existing based on real time VME and linux operating system. The ICRH system consists of 1.5 MW RF generator operating at 22- 40MHz which is used for second harmonic heating and pre-ionization experiments on SST-1 Tokamak at 1.5T and 3T magnetic field operation respectively. The task of PLC system in RF ICRH is to control, monitoring and interlocks HVDC power supply signal. Voltage and current signal of 2 kW, 20 kW, tetrode for 100 kW RF tube electrode like Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid, signal monitor and voltage set raised by PLC analog IO module. Acknowledgement of the HVDC supply Filament, Control grid, Plate, Screen grid power supply is monitor and interlocks by PLC Digital IO module to interlocks stop the RF pulse and off HV power supply. The RF pulse(shot) to trigger signal generator (5mw) RF power output feed to LPA then chain of 2 KW, 20 KW, 100 KW at the rate 45.6 MHz. The programming logic controller (PLC) software is written in ladder language for AH500 Delta make using ISP Soft 2.04 and GUI is in the table form to control and monitor the parameters. Communication of PLC to PC by ethernet LAN network. (author)

  6. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain dr...

  7. Elaboration of the configuration and programming of the interlocks system of the TRIGA Mark III reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia C, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The modernization of the TRIGA Mark III reactor interlock system requires a system that provides high reliability, flexibility and ease of operation during reactor operation. With this modernization of the system, is intended to prevent, control and mitigate the causes of probable accidents reported in the reactor accident analysis. On the other hand, is foreseen the ease reactor operation in a simple, safe and efficient way. The programmable logic controller can be programmed by programming instructions using simple language and easy to develop, these can be modified from a computer using the programming software. In addition, another of the advantages offered by the controller is that can be modified from a touch screen (human-machine interface) that allows adjustment, without the need to use programming software and diagnostic functions during the process. As a result of the present work, a situation of improvement in the reactor operation was generated, facilitating the handling of the bridge and increasing the efficiency of the system in the execution of the operating conditions of the installations external to the reactor. A modern, more reliable and much less expensive system was achieved than the previous one, avoiding that the maintenance to the system generates high expenses. With respect to the development of the application programming, a control was implemented that allows to select a zone of the five that have inside the pool to carry out the displacement of automatic way and later to be located in that zone, having in this way a greater efficiency and ease in bridge control. (Author)

  8. On the Use of Static Checking in the Verification of Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Østergaard, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    In the formal methods community, the correctness of interlocking tables is typically verified by model checking. This paper suggests to use a static checker for this purpose and it demonstrates for the RobustRailS verification tool set that the execution time and memory usage of its static checker...

  9. Planning the most suitable travel speed for high frequency railway lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2005-01-01

    the interlocking system. Based on the braking distance it is possible to calculate the minimum headway time, and thereby determine the buffer time when knowing the frequency. Hence the headway time can be divided into minimum headway time and buffer time. The buffer time is an indicator for the spare capacity......This paper presents a new method to calculate the most suitable travel speed for high frequency railway lines to achieve as much capacity as possible for congested railway lines. The method calculates the most suitable travel speed based on the braking distance and information about...

  10. An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Catalano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology.

  11. A model to quantify the resilience of mass railway transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjetey-Bahun, Kpotissan; Birregah, Babiga; Châtelet, Eric; Planchet, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Traditional risk management approaches focus on perturbation events' likelihood and their consequences. However, recent events show that not all perturbation events can be foreseen. The concept of resilience has been introduced to measure not only the system's ability to absorb perturbations, but also its ability to rapidly recover from perturbations. In this work, we propose a simulation-based model for quantifying resilience in mass railway transportation systems by quantifying passenger delay and passenger load as the system's performance indicators. We integrate all subsystems that make up mass railway transportation systems (transportation, power, telecommunication and organisation subsystems) and their interdependencies. The model is applied to the Paris mass railway transportation system. The model's results show that since trains continue running within the system even by decreasing their speed, the system remains resilient. During the normal operation of the system as well as during perturbation, the model shows similarities with reality. The perturbation management plan that consists of setting up temporary train services on part of the impacted line while repairing the failed system's component is considered in this work. We also assess the extent to which some resilient system's capacities (i.e. absorption, adaptation and recovery) can increase the resilience of the system. - Highlights: • The need of resilience quantification models in sociotechnical systems. • We propose a simulation-based model. • This model is applied to Paris mass railway transportation system.

  12. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  13. Introductory strategies for the automation of suburban railway systems; Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Automatisierung von Nahverkehrsbahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, N. [Siemens Transportation Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    Driverless automatic operation is a cost-effective and passenger-friendly form of handling services in suburban railway systems. It is intended to introduce this operating mode also in railway systems that have so far been operated in a conventional mode. The article outlines solution concepts and introductory strategies for changing the operating mode. (orig.) [German] Der fahrerlose automatische Betrieb stellt eine wirtschaftliche und fahrgastfreundliche Form der Betriebsabwicklung von Nahverkehrssystemen dar. Ziel ist es, diese Betriebsform auch bei bislang konventionell betriebenen Bahnen einzufuehren. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt Loesungsansaetze und Einfuehrungsstrategien fuer die Umstellung auf einen automatischen Betrieb. (orig.)

  14. Adaptive neuro fuzzy system for modelling and prediction of distance pantograph catenary in railway transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panoiu, M.; Panoiu, C.; Lihaciu, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    This research presents an adaptive neuro-fuzzy system which is used in the prediction of the distance between the pantograph and contact line of the electrical locomotives used in railway transportation. In railway transportation any incident that occurs in the electrical system can have major negative effects: traffic interrupts, equipment destroying. Therefore, a prediction as good as possible of such situations is very useful. In the paper was analyzing the possibility of modeling and prediction the variation of the distance between the pantograph and the contact line using intelligent techniques

  15. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Process Vacuum Liquid Detection interlock systems prevent intrusion of process liquids into the HEPA filters downstream of demisters No.6 and No.7 during Process Vacuum System operation. This prevents liquid intrusion into the filters, which could cause a criticality. The Safety Envelope (SE) includes the equipment, which detects the presence of liquids in the vacuum headers; isolates the filters; shuts down the vacuum pumps; and alarms the condition. This report identifies the equipment in the SE operating, maintenance, and surveillance procedures needed to maintain the SE equipment; and rationale for exclusion of some equipment and testing from the SE

  16. Operating a railway system within a challenging environment: Economic history and experiences of Zimbabwe’s national railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical background to the development of the railways in Zimbabwe and then discusses their current state. Besides being a landlocked country in Southern Africa, Zimbabwe has since 2000 been saddled with socio-economic and political challenges which have seen a decline in all economic indices, hence posing some challenges to its railways. This article discusses the challenges faced by the railways as a result of high inflation, unstable currency exchange rate, brain drain, poor management, government interference in management, customs border delays, and energy shortage. The problems have been addressed in unique ways and unusual solutions are proposed. These include customer financing for maintenance and spares and the resuscitation of steam locomotives. The presented solutions, lessons and issues from this experience contribute to discussions and study of railway logistics in challenging environments. Finally, current and future research issues, which have a global appeal, are presented.

  17. A Formal Approach for the Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan; Kinder, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a complete model-based development and verification approach for railway control systems. For each control system to be generated, the user makes a description of the application-specific parameters in a domain-specific language. This description is automatically transformed...

  18. Vulnerability analysis of complementary transportation systems with applications to railway and airline systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min; Pan, ZheZhe; Hong, Liu; He, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Most of existing studies on vulnerability analysis of multiple infrastructure systems mainly focus on negative effects of interdependencies, which mean that failures in one system can propagate to other systems and aggravate the initial damage. In reality, there also exist positive effects of interdependencies, which are shown in complementary systems and mean that if one system fails another system can provide alternative services to satisfy customers' demands. Different types of transportation systems in a city or country are typical complementary systems. Taking railway and airline systems in China as an example, this paper proposes a network-based approach to model the vulnerability of complementary transportation systems, and based on this model, this paper further introduces a dynamic complementary strength metric, which can help decision makers design or select better complementary topologies from the vulnerability perspective. Also, based on a simple genetic algorithm, this paper analyzes whether critical components for single systems are still important when taking two systems as a whole for analysis. Results show that a protection strategy of hardening a few critical components is also good strategy for the combined system. In addition, the findings and several assumptions are further discussed to close the gap between theory and practice. - Highlights: • We propose a method to model and analyze complementary system vulnerability. • We study vulnerability of complementary railway and airline systems in China. • We propose an approach to quantify dynamic complementary strength. • A few critical components for single systems are important for combined system

  19. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  20. Railway Reform in China.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, J. H.; Nash, C.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper is to consider the current situation of Chinese Railways, the progress of reforms to date, and possible future developments. The first section describes the current problems of Chinese Railways, as a vast organisation subject to strong central control, facing enormous and rapidly growing demands which it is unable to satisfy. The progress of reform in Chinese Railways to date, and in particular the Economic Contract Responsibility System instituted in the lat...

  1. Meteorological tools in support to the railway security system on the Calabria region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Gabriele, Salvatore; Iovine, Giulio; Baldini, Luca; Chiravalloti, Francesco; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Marcello Mario; Milani, Lisa; Procopio, Antonio; Roberto, Nicoletta; Tiesi, Alessandro; Agostino, Mario; Niccoli, Raffaele; Stassi, Sergio; Rago, Valeria

    2017-04-01

    RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot project co-funded by the Italian Railway Company - RFI S.p.A. and conceived for the mitigation of the hydrological risk along the Calabria railways. RAMSES aims at improving the forecast of very short life-cycle convection systems, responsible of intense and localized rainfalls affecting small catchment areas, which are often underestimated by the numerical weather models and even non-adequately detected by the network of sparse raingauges. The RAMSES operational design is based on a synergistic and integrated architecture, providing a series of information able to identify the most active convective cells and monitoring their evolution in terms of vertical structure, rain intensity and geo-hydrological effects at ground (debris flow, landslides, collapses of bridges, erosion of the ballast). The RAMSES meteorological component is designed to identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on dual-polarization weather radar and Meteosat data. In support of this quasi-real time analysis, the numerical model WRF provides the weather forecast at 3-6 hours range by ingesting, through the assimilation system LAPS, the observational data (rain gauges, ground weather stations, radar, satellites) in order to improve the initial condition. Finally, the hydraulic flow modeling is used to assess the ground effects in terms of landslide susceptibility, rainfall-runoff intensity, debris impact on the drainage network and evaluate of risk along the railway track.

  2. Derailment-based Fault Tree Analysis on Risk Management of Railway Turnout Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; An, Min; Gigante-Barrera, Ángel

    2017-10-01

    Railway turnouts are fundamental mechanical infrastructures, which allow a rolling stock to divert one direction to another. As those are of a large number of engineering subsystems, e.g. track, signalling, earthworks, these particular sub-systems are expected to induce high potential through various kind of failure mechanisms. This could be a cause of any catastrophic event. A derailment, one of undesirable events in railway operation, often results, albeit rare occurs, in damaging to rolling stock, railway infrastructure and disrupt service, and has the potential to cause casualties and even loss of lives. As a result, it is quite significant that a well-designed risk analysis is performed to create awareness of hazards and to identify what parts of the systems may be at risk. This study will focus on all types of environment based failures as a result of numerous contributing factors noted officially as accident reports. This risk analysis is designed to help industry to minimise the occurrence of accidents at railway turnouts. The methodology of the study relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood, and is based on statistical multiple factors-integrated accident rate analysis. The study is prepared in the way of establishing product risks and faults, and showing the impact of potential process by Boolean algebra.

  3. SaRDIn - A Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro; Gnesi, S.; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Current computer-based interlocking systems most often have a centralized design, with all logic residing in a single computer. Centralized interlockings are complex to design. Following the general trend in Cyber-Physical Systems, the SaRDIn (Safe Reconfigurable Distributed Interlockings) concept...

  4. Integrating robust timetabling in line plan optimization for railway systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burggraeve, Sofie; Bull, Simon Henry; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    We propose a heuristic algorithm to build a railway line plan from scratch that minimizes passenger travel time and operator cost and for which a feasible and robust timetable exists. A line planning module and a timetabling module work iteratively and interactively. The line planning module......, but is constrained by limited shunt capacity. While the operator and passenger cost remain close to those of the initially and (for these costs) optimally built line plan, the timetable corresponding to the finally developed robust line plan significantly improves the minimum buffer time, and thus the robustness...... creates an initial line plan. The timetabling module evaluates the line plan and identifies a critical line based on minimum buffer times between train pairs. The line planning module proposes a new line plan in which the time length of the critical line is modified in order to provide more flexibility...

  5. Monitoring the Como Railway Bridge based on dynamic FBG sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Sun, Weimin; Peng, G. D.; Yuan, Libo

    2007-07-01

    A FBG-based dynamic strain sensor system, whose responding frequency and resolution can be high as 16Hz and ~1μɛ respectively, is described and the system is applied to monitor the dynamic strain of Como Railway Bridge in Australia. The results of one-month long measurement show that the system can figure out all dynamic strain caused by passed trains and also prove the stability of the sensor system.

  6. Formal Development and Verification of Railway Control Systems - In the context of ERTMS/ETCS Level 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Linh Hong

    This dissertation presents a holistic, formal method for efficient modelling and verification of safety-critical railway control systems that have product line characteristics, i.e., each individual system is constructed by instantiating common generic applications with concrete configuration dat...... standardized railway control systems ERTMS/ETCS Level 2. Experiments showed that the method can be used for specification, verification and validation of systems of industrial size....

  7. Logistic system as an essential element of modern organization of railway passenger traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Khodoskina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and place of passenger transport services in the modern structure of rail transportation is considered. The need for approach to rail passenger transport as a logistics system, which is characterized by a set of parameters corresponding to the concept of logistics system in general and taking into account the peculiarities of railway passenger transportation is determined. The features of formation of such a system, taking into account the generally accepted theoretical approach and the specifics of rail transport are also presented. The concept of logistic system for railway vehicles is given; its overall structure is reviewed. The structure of the particular transport is defined by rail freight and in passenger traffic. Is an example of a mathematical model of the logistics system of rail passenger services on the basis of sets of incoming and outgoing parameters is determined. The structure of technologic process for goods and passenger transportation by rail from the perspective of logistics is characterized.

  8. The use of microprocessors at TRIUMF in the control of radiation safety interlock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1988-01-01

    At TRIUMF the cyclotron vault, all primary beam lines, and each experimental area has a dedicated control unit to manage the safety interlock control of the area lockup sequence, beam blocker drive and area access. Typically each area has 24 devices which are monitored to control 16 outputs. These control units (Area Safety Units) were first implemented through the use of relay logic. The relay logic was reliable but difficult to modify to incorporate changes to the areas. In 1979 it was decided to use microprocessors in the form of single board computers to control the Area Safety Units. The details of the hardware and software is discussed as well as the advantages of microprocessor control

  9. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  10. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chaozhe; Xu, Yibo; Wen, Chao; Chen, Dilin

    2017-12-19

    Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS) based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  11. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhe Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  12. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lai-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge's abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature. PMID:26451387

  13. Long-Term Structural Health Monitoring System for a High-Speed Railway Bridge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Liang Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanjing Dashengguan Bridge, which serves as the shared corridor crossing Yangtze River for both Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway and Shanghai-Wuhan-Chengdu railway, is the first 6-track high-speed railway bridge with the longest span throughout the world. In order to ensure safety and detect the performance deterioration during the long-time service of the bridge, a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM system has been implemented on this bridge by the application of modern techniques in sensing, testing, computing, and network communication. The SHM system includes various sensors as well as corresponding data acquisition and transmission equipment for automatic data collection. Furthermore, an evaluation system of structural safety has been developed for the real-time condition assessment of this bridge. The mathematical correlation models describing the overall structural behavior of the bridge can be obtained with the support of the health monitoring system, which includes cross-correlation models for accelerations, correlation models between temperature and static strains of steel truss arch, and correlation models between temperature and longitudinal displacements of piers. Some evaluation results using the mean value control chart based on mathematical correlation models are presented in this paper to show the effectiveness of this SHM system in detecting the bridge’s abnormal behaviors under the varying environmental conditions such as high-speed trains and environmental temperature.

  14. Outsourcing the development of specific application software using the ESA software engineering standards the SPS software Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    Denis, B

    1995-01-01

    CERN is considering outsourcing as a solution to the reduction of staff. To need to re-engineer the SPS Software Interlock System provided an opportunity to explore the applicability of outsourcing to our specific controls environment and the ESA PSS-05 standards were selected for the requirements specification, the development, the control and monitoring and the project management. The software produced by the contractor is now fully operational. After outlining the scope and the complexity of the project, a discussion on the ESA PSS-05 will be presented: the choice, the way these standards improve the outsourcing process, the quality induced but also the need to adapt them and their limitation in the definition of the customer-supplier relationship. The success factors and the difficulties of development under contract will also be discussed. The maintenance aspect and the impact on in-house developments will finally be addressed.

  15. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  16. Smart current collector—fibre optic hit detection system for improved security on railway tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schröder, Kerstin; Ecke, Wolfgang; Kautz, Michael; Rothhardt, Manfred; Willett, Simon; Unterwaditzer, Hansjörg; Bosselmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a deregulated EU railway market, monitoring the vehicle and infrastructure interfaces is mandatory for the enhanced availability of operation and for reducing costs. Therefore, infrastructure managers need monitoring tools on overhead contact lines (OCLs). We know from earlier investigations that a measurement of contact forces alone is not sufficient (Schröder et al 2013 Opt. Lasers Eng. 51 172–9). In this study, we introduce a system which is fast enough to detect short disturbances and which can be used with regular trains. It is based on fibre optic sensors integrated with conventional current collectors (CCs). The system is designed to monitor hard and soft hits on the CC in horizontal (driving) and vertical (contact) direction. It was systematically tested in the laboratory as well as in test runs on commercial railways in several countries. With its help, a variety of minor as well as serious defects have been discovered and repaired at the CC–OCL interface. (paper)

  17. Fuel cells in railway systems. Project report; Brennstoffzellen im Schienenverkehr. Projektbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    The project report describes the state of the art of fuel cell technology and the specific requirements of railway systems. Potential applications in the state of Schleswig-Holstein are gone into. [German] In diesem Projektbericht wird der Stand der Brennstoffzellentechnik und die Entwicklung von Anforderungen des Schienenverkehrs an diese Technik ermittelt. Darueber hinaus wird untersucht, inwieweit eine Modellregion Schleswig-Holstein zur weiteren Entwicklung der Technik beitragen kann.

  18. Nondestructive Evaluation of Railway Bridge by System Identification Using Field Vibration Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Duc Duy; Hong, Dong Soo; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a nondestructive evaluation approach for system identification (SID) of real railway bridges using field vibration test results. First, a multi-phase SID scheme designed on the basis of eigenvalue sensitivity concept is presented. Next, the proposed multi-phase approach is evaluated from field vibration tests on a real railway bridge (Wondongcheon bridge) located in Yangsan, Korea. On the steel girder bridge, a few natural frequencies and mode shapes are experimentally measured under the ambient vibration condition. The corresponding modal parameters are numerically calculated from a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model established for the target bridge. Eigenvalue sensitivities are analyzed for potential model-updating parameters of the FE model. Then, structural subsystems are identified phase-by-phase using the proposed model-updating procedure. Based on model-updating results, a baseline model and a nondestructive evaluation of test bridge are identified

  19. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LINTHO, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010/Rev.1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived FR-om information in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (PFP FSAR), HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021, Rev 4, and the Criticality Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the 26-inch Hg Vacuum System, WHC-SD-SQA-CSA-20159, Rev 0-A. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety envelope boundary for the system (Section 4 list of SE boundary drawings). (3) A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). (4) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate set points and process parameters (Section 4). (5) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A)

  20. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  1. Proposal of an intelligent wayside monitoring system for detection of critical ice accumulations on railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelberger, Frank; Wagner, Adrian; Ostermann, Michael; Maly, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    At railway lines with ballasted tracks, under unfavourable conditions, the so-called flying ballast can occur predominantly for trains driving at high speeds. Especially in wintertime, it is highly likely that the causes are adhered snow or ice deposits, which are falling off the vehicle. Due to the high kinetic energy, the impact can lead to the removal of ballast stones from the structure of the ballasted track. If the stones reach the height of vehicles underside, they may be accelerated significantly due to the collision with the vehicle or may detach further ice blocks. In the worst case, a reinforcing effect occurs, which can lead to considerable damage to railway vehicles (under-floor-area, vehicle exteriors, etc.) and infrastructure (signal masts, noise barriers, etc.). Additionally the flying gravel is a significant danger to people in the nearby area of the tracks. With this feasibility study the applicability and meaningfulness of an intelligent monitoring system for identification of the critical ice accumulation to prevent the ballast fly induced by ice dropping was examined. The key findings of the research are that the detection of ice on railway vehicles and the development of an intelligent monitoring seem to be possible with existing technologies, but a proof of concept in terms of field tests is necessary.

  2. Enabling the usage of UML in the verification of railway systems: The DAM-rail approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardi, S.; Flammini, F.; Marrone, S.; Mazzocca, N.; Merseguer, J.; Nardone, R.; Vittorini, V.

    2013-01-01

    The need for integration of model-based verification into industrial processes has produced several attempts to define Model-Driven solutions implementing a unifying approach to system development. A recent trend is to implement tool chains supporting the developer both in the design phase and V and V activities. In this Model-Driven context, specific domains require proper modelling approaches, especially for what concerns RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) analysis and fulfillment of international standards. This paper specifically addresses the definition of a Model-Driven approach for the evaluation of RAM attributes in railway applications to automatically generate formal models. For this aim we extend the MARTE-DAM UML profile with concepts related to maintenance aspects and service degradation, and show that the MARTE-DAM framework can be successfully specialized for the railway domain. Model transformations are then defined to generate Repairable Fault Tree and Bayesian Network models from MARTE-DAM specifications. The whole process is applied to the railway domain in two different availability studies

  3. ASN.1 notation for exchange of data in computer-based railway control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew ŁUKASIK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of railway control systems aims at computerization. In most cases these systems are Distributed Real Time Systems. However, a huge problem in their putting into practice is the lack of interface standardization in the range of data structures and information exchange methods. It results in a variety of solutions, and thus in problems concerning cooperation of systems that come from different software vendors. Specification of protocols for data exchanging applications should therefore be created with the use of generally accepted standards. One of them is ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation One language, which shall be presented in this article.

  4. THE RAILMAPPER – A DEDICATED MOBILE LIDAR MAPPING SYSTEM FOR RAILWAY NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kremer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mobile LiDAR Mapping System StreetMapper from IGI and 3D Laser Mapping (Bingham Nottingham, UK is mounted on a large variety of road vehicles to cover different mission specifications. In addition to the operation on the road, the system finds its applications on other kinds of vehicles, like boats or trains. The modular and flexible system concept even allows utilizing the same LiDAR Mapping system for Mobile Mapping on the ground and for airborne missions on helicopters, respectively. Besides this general flexibility, each application has its own special requirements. Special hardware and software components are needed to complete the core components, like the laser scanner and the GNSS/IMU systems, to build a dedicated system for the chosen task. Compared to the typical dynamics of a road vehicle mounted Mobile Mapping system, a dedicated rail mapping system operates under conditions that are much more challenging for a high accuracy GNSS/IMU trajectory determination. Furthermore, the typical rail mapping tasks, like the exact measurement of the rail track geometry, require the operation of the most accurate laser scanners and of specialized post-processing software. In this paper, the RailMapper, a specialized Mobile Mapping system for railway surveys is presented. The system is described with focus on the railway specific requirements and results of practical surveys are given.

  5. Railway testing using a portable ride quality and vibration measurement system with GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Brian; Whitten, Brian; Neijikovsky, Boris

    1995-06-01

    To conduct the testing and evaluation of railway and railway vehicles, the Federal Railroad Administration developed a protable system that consists of accelerometers oriented in the vertical and horizontal directions, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, data collection and power systems, and a portable computer. Commercial software was used to collect and display the data, while software, developed by ENSCO, was used to analyze and display results. The GPS provided dynamic location to an accuracy of 30 meters or better, and vehicle speed to within one mile per hour. The system was used in the demonstration tests of several advanced high-speed trains on Amtrak's Northeast Corrider and on other tracks in the US. The portable measurement system proved to be a simple and effective device to characterize the vibration environment of any transportation system. It is ideal for use in the assessment of the safe performance of high-speed trains operating at high cant deficiency. The system has also been used for other field tests, including braking performance and bridge monitoring. This report discusses the portable measurement system, the test applications that the system has been used for, the results of thoses tests, and the potential for improvements.

  6. Modelling of a Double-Track Railway Contact System Electric Field Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinsky, Stanislav; Khanzhina, Olga; Sidorov, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Working conditions of personnel that serves contact system (CS) are affected by factors including health and safety, security and working hours (danger of rolling stock accidents, danger of electric shock strokes, work at height, severity and tension of work, increased noise level, etc.) Low frequency electromagnetic fields as part of both electric and magnetic fields are among of the most dangerous and harmful factors. These factors can affect not only the working personnel, but also a lot of people, who do not work with the contact system itself, but could be influenced by electromagnetic field as the result of their professional activity. People, who use public transport or live not far from the electrified lines, are endangered by these factors as well. There are results of the theoretical researches in which low frequency electric fields of railway contact system were designed with the use of mathematical and computer modelling. Significant features of electric field distribution near double-track railway in presence or absence of human body were established. The studies showed the dependence of low frequency electric field parameters on the distance to the track axis, height, and presence or absence of human body. The obtained data were compared with permissible standards established in the Russian Federation and other countries with advanced electrified railway system. Evaluation of low frequency electric fields harmful effect on personnel is the main result of this work. It is also established, that location of personnel, voltage and current level, amount of tracks and other factors influence electric fields of contact systems.

  7. Wheel slide protection control using a command map and Smith predictor for the pneumatic brake system of a railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2016-10-01

    In railway vehicles, excessive sliding or wheel locking can occur while braking because of a temporarily degraded adhesion between the wheel and the rail caused by the contaminated or wet surface of the rail. It can damage the wheel tread and affect the performance of the brake system and the safety of the railway vehicle. To safeguard the wheelset from these phenomena, almost all railway vehicles are equipped with wheel slide protection (WSP) systems. In this study, a new WSP algorithm is proposed. The features of the proposed algorithm are the use of the target sliding speed, the determination of a command for WSP valves using command maps, and compensation for the time delay in pneumatic brake systems using the Smith predictor. The proposed WSP algorithm was verified using experiments with a hardware-in-the-loop simulation system including the hardware of the pneumatic brake system.

  8. Implementation of a Direct Link between the LHC Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Re-Triggering Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S; Denz, R; Magnin, N; Uythoven, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Vatansever, V; Bartholdt, M; Bertsche, B; Zeiler, P

    2014-01-01

    To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump blocks must be guaranteed at all times. When a beam dump is demanded, the Beam Interlock System communicates this request to the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System of the LHC Beam Dumping System. Both systems were built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System, a new direct link from the Beam Interlock System to the re-triggering lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the start-up with beam in 2015. The link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called asynchronous beam dumps nor compromise machine availability. This paper describes the implementation choices of this link. Furthermore the results of a rel...

  9. A thermodynamic, environmental and material flow analysis of the Italian highway and railway transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, M.; Ulgiati, S.; Basosi, R.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to provide a multi-method multi-scale comparative picture of selected terrestrial transport modalities. This is achieved by investigating the Italian transportation system by means of four different evaluation methods: material flow accounting (MFA), embodied energy analysis (EEA), exergy analysis (EXA) and emergy synthesis (ES). The case study is the main Italian transportation infrastructure, composed by highways, railways, and high-speed railways (high-speed trains, HST) sub-systems supporting both passengers and freight transport. All the analyses have been performed based on a common database of material, labor, energy and fuel input flows used in the construction, maintenance and yearly use of roads, railways and vehicles. Specific matter and energy intensities of both passenger and freight transportation services were calculated factors affecting results as well as strength and weakness points of each transportation modality were also stressed. Results pointed out that the most important factors in determining the acceptability of a transportation system are not only the specific fuel consumption and the energy and material costs of vehicles, as it is common belief, but also the energy and material costs for infrastructure construction as well as its intensity of use (with special focus on load factor of vehicles). The latter become the dominant factors in HST modality, due to technological and safety reasons that require high energy-cost materials and low intensity of traffic. This translates into very high thermodynamic and environmental costs for passenger and freight transported, among which an embodied energy demand up to 1.44 MJ/p-km and 3.09 MJ/t-km, respectively

  10. RAMSES: a nowcasting system for mitigating geo-hydrological risk along the railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Salvatore; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania; Rago, Valeria; Chiaravalloti, Francesco; Sabatino, Pietro; Brocca, Luca; Laviola, Sante; Baldini, Luca; Federico, Stefano; Miglietta, Mario M.; Marra, Gian Paolo; Niccoli, Raffaele; Arcuri, Salvatore; Catalano, Filippo; Stassi, Sergio; Baccillieri, Maurizio; Agostino, Mario; Iovine, Giulio G. R.

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a number of exceptional rainfall events of short / very short duration (from 15 minutes to about 2 hours) caused incidents and service interruptions due to landslides, collapses of bridges, and erosion of the ballast, along the Calabrian railway. RAMSES (RAilway Meteorological SEcurity System) is a pilot CNR project, recently co-funded by RFI S.p.A. and aimed at mitigating the risk along the railway. Forecasting of weather events responsible of heavy convective rainfall, even when provided with some advance, is not generally performed with reliable localization. In fact, objective limits of the numerical weather prediction derive from grid resolution, often exceeding the size of convective cells. These phenomena, whose recurrence periods seem to show a reduction due to climate changes, affect limited areas and are characterized by a very short life cycle. As a consequence, failures of hydraulic crossings are increasingly being recorded together with landslide-related debris invasion along the drainage network and slopes. RAMSES aims at improving short term (3-6 hours) weather forecasts and ground effects at local scale. The employed approach is base on synergistic and integrated operational tools to provide weather information on small-size basins. The system will also allow to promptly identify and track the short-term evolution (15-60 min) of convective cells, by means of imaging techniques based on quasi-real time radar and Meteosat data. The extension of the temporal horizon of the forecast up to three hours will be performed by using the Local Analysis and Prediction System (LAPS) model. This latter employs, as a "first guess", the output of the WRF numerical model: such analyses are updated and improved by means of observational data from different instruments (e.g. on land weather stations, radar, satellites, etc.). Finally, the assessment of ground effects will be accomplished for selected study areas, by means of landslide susceptibility

  11. Formal techniques for a data-driven certification of advanced railway signalling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantechi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The technological evolution of railway signalling equipment promises significant increases in transport capacity, in operation regularity, in quality and safety of the service offered.This evolution is based on the massive use of computer control units on board trains and on the ground, that aims...... at improving the performance of rail transport and maintaining high safety figures.A brief review of possible innovation trends of signalling systems shows that they will be more and more based on the exchange of accurate and secure complex information, in order to ensure safe operation.For this reason we want...

  12. MODELING OF RAILWAY TRACK OPERATION AS A SYSTEM OF QUASI-ELASTIC ORTHOTROPIC LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychev Vyacheslav Petrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors give a solution to the problem of the impact of a rolling stock on the rail track on the basis of modeling a railway track as a multi-layered space, introducing each of the layers is a quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy in the polar coordinate system. The article describes wave equations, taking into account the rotational inertia of cross sectional and transverse shear strains. From the point of view of classical structural mechanics train path can be represented as a multilayer system comprising separate layers with different stiffness, lying on the foundation being the elastic-isotropic space. Winkler model provides that the basis is linearly deformable space, there are loads influencing its surface. These loads are transferred through a layered deformable half-space. This representation is used in this study as an initial approximation. For more accurate results of the deformation of a railway track because of rolling dynamic loads it is proposed to present a railway track in the form of a layered structure, where each element (assembled rails and sleepers, ballast section, the soil in the embankment, basement soils is modeled as a planar quasi-elastic orthotropic layer with cylindrical anisotropy. The equations describing the dynamic behaviour of flat element in a polar coordinate system are hyperbolic in nature and take into account the rotational inertia of the cross sectional and the transverse shear strains. This allows identifying the impact on the final characteristics of the blade wave effects, and oscillatory processes. In order to determine the unknown functions included in the constitutive equations it is proposed to use decomposition in power series in spatial coordinate and time. In order to determine the coefficients of ray series for the required functions, it is necessary to differentiate the defining wave equations k times on time, to take their difference on the different

  13. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  14. USE OF AN AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE DESIGNING OF REAL-TIME INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE RAILWAY STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor ZHUKOVYTS’KYY

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes to develop special models that are built based on finite-state machine, Mealy, in order to display information about technological processes at railway stations. The input alphabet of such machines is represented by the real signals (from the floor equipment, the related information systems and the dispatch office personnel. This representation allows one to formalize the software design process of real-time information management systems for these technological processes. The article demonstrates the possibility of formal transition from the automaton model to the software algorithms. The proposed approach was tested when designing the information system for Nizhnedneprovsk junction railway yard.

  15. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms reduction of capital structures handover to operation. The results of work of a commission responsible for completed underground railway system objects acceptance and putting into operation were analyzed. Considering example of object «Second entrance hall area of «Sportivnaya» station the statistical data of revealed snagging items is consolidated and dynamics of corrective actions is provided.Proposed solutions laid the foundation for corrections of requirements documents and were accepted for realization in the process of works acceptance of Saint-Petersburg underground railway system objects.

  16. Calibration of the CCD photonic measuring system for railway inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, D. V.; Ryabichenko, R. B.; Krivosheina, E. A.

    2005-08-01

    Increasing of traffic speed is the most important task in Moscow Metro. Requirements for traffic safety grow up simultaneously with the speed increasing. Currently for track inspection in Moscow Metro is used track measurement car has built in 1954. The main drawbacks of this system are absence of automated data processing and low accuracy. Non-contact photonic measurement system (KSIR) is developed for solving this problem. New track inspection car will be built in several months. This car will use two different track inspection systems and car locating subsystem based on track circuit counting. The KSIR consists of four subsystems: rail wear, height and track gauge measurement (BFSM); rail slump measurement (FIP); contact rail measurement (FKR); speed, level and car locating (USI). Currently new subsystem for wheel flange wear (IRK) is developed. The KSIR carry out measurements in real-time mode. The BFSM subsystem contains 4 matrix CCD cameras and 4 infrared stripe illuminators. The FIP subsystem contains 4 line CCD cameras and 4 spot illuminators. The FKR subsystem contains 2 matrix CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. The IRK subsystem contains 2 CCD cameras and 2 stripe illuminators. Each system calibration was carried out for their adjustment. On the first step KSIR obtains data from photonic sensors which is valued in internal measurement units. Due to the calibration on the second step non-contact system converts the data to metric measurement system.

  17. Development and evaluation of a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong San; Baek, Dong Hyun; Yoon, Wan Chul

    2010-01-01

    As human error has been recognized as one of the major contributors to accidents in safety-critical systems, there has been a strong need for techniques that can analyze human error effectively. Although many techniques have been developed so far, much room for improvement remains. As human error analysis is a cognitively demanding and time-consuming task, it is particularly necessary to develop a computerized system supporting this task. This paper presents a computer-aided system for analyzing human error in railway operations, called Computer-Aided System for Human Error Analysis and Reduction (CAS-HEAR). It supports analysts to find multiple levels of error causes and their causal relations by using predefined links between contextual factors and causal factors as well as links between causal factors. In addition, it is based on a complete accident model; hence, it helps analysts to conduct a thorough analysis without missing any important part of human error analysis. A prototype of CAS-HEAR was evaluated by nine field investigators from six railway organizations in Korea. Its overall usefulness in human error analysis was confirmed, although development of its simplified version and some modification of the contextual factors and causal factors are required in order to ensure its practical use.

  18. VoLTE performance in railway scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  19. VoLTE Performance in Railway Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Sønderskov, Morten; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R) is the current standard for railway voice and data communication. GSM-R provides railway specific voice services, such as Railway Emergency Call (REC). GSM-R provides also the European Train Control System (ETCS), which offers in-cab signaling and Automatic Train Protection...... (ATP). Despite these features and services, GSM-R has various major shortcomings. Therefore, alternative technologies are considered to replace GSM-R and become the next generation railway mobile communication network. 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a likely candidate for GSM-R replacement. LTE...... is more efficient, flexible and offers much higher capacity, which allows the railway network to provide new communication-based applications for railways. Most of the research on LTE in railways has been focused on data-based railway applications (ETCS signaling and other). Nevertheless, voice...

  20. Performance Deterioration of Heavy-Haul Railway Bridges under Fatigue Loading Monitored by a Multisensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-haul railway bridges play an increasingly essential role in the transportation in China due to the increasing transport volume. The performance deterioration of the scale models of a typical heavy-haul railway bridge under fatigue loading is monitored in this work, based on a multisensor system including the fiber-reinforced polymer optical fiber Bragg grating and electrical resistance strain gauges, linear variable displacement transducer, and accelerometer. Specifically, by monitoring/observing on the failure mode, fatigue life, load-midspan deflection response, material strain development, and so forth, this work develops an S-N model by comparing the relationship between fatigue life and rebar stress range with that between fatigue life and load level and proposes a damage evolution model considering the coupling of the stiffness degradation and inelastic deformation of specimens. It is found that the fatigue life of specimens is determined by the fatigue life of the rebar at the bottom and it may be lower than 2.0 million cycles with a 30-ton axle weight when environmental factors are taken into account. The predictions of the models agree well with experimental results. Therefore, this work furthers the understanding of the fatigue performance deterioration of the bridges by using a multisensor system.

  1. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  2. Energy recovery from air flow in underground railway systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrone, B.; Mariani, A. [Seconda Univ. degli studi di Napoli, Aversa (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering; Costanzo, M.L. [Tecnosistem spa, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    The 20-20-20 energy policy of the European Union commits members to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 20 per cent by 2020, and stipulates that 20 per cent of final-use energy is to be supplied by renewable energy sources. This paper proposed the concept of recovering energy from underground trains by using the air flow inside tunnels to drive energy conversion systems such as turbines to generate electricity. Underground trains use much of their power to overcome the aerodynamic resistance moving the air in front of the train, creating a piston effect when travelling inside tunnels at relatively low speed. Numerical simulations were used in this study to determine how much electricity could be produced. A one-dimensional numerical analysis of a specific subway train track was used to evaluate the air flow magnitude inside the tunnel. Once the air flow features were detected, the potential electricity production was evaluated by considering the characteristics of a Wells turbine. Two types of 3-dimensional models of the tunnel and train were presented. One considered a long straight tunnel with a train running in it, and a small portion of a bypass tunnel. The other considered a large part of an opposite tunnel connected to the main one through the by-pass tunnel. Both the 3D models revealed a maximum flow rate of 2.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h, while the 1D model showed an air flow of 1.5 x 105 m{sup 3}/h. The difference was due primarily to the presence of fans in the 1D Model and different modelling assumptions. It was concluded that one single Wells type turbine placed in a by-pass tunnel can produce 32.6 kWh per day, or about 10 MWh per year, resulting in a CO{sub 2} savings of about 5.5 tons per year. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  3. Automatic Railway Traffic Object Detection System Using Feature Fusion Refine Neural Network under Shunting Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Many accidents happen under shunting mode when the speed of a train is below 45 km/h. In this mode, train attendants observe the railway condition ahead using the traditional manual method and tell the observation results to the driver in order to avoid danger. To address this problem, an automatic object detection system based on convolutional neural network (CNN is proposed to detect objects ahead in shunting mode, which is called Feature Fusion Refine neural network (FR-Net. It consists of three connected modules, i.e., the depthwise-pointwise convolution, the coarse detection module, and the object detection module. Depth-wise-pointwise convolutions are used to improve the detection in real time. The coarse detection module coarsely refine the locations and sizes of prior anchors to provide better initialization for the subsequent module and also reduces search space for the classification, whereas the object detection module aims to regress accurate object locations and predict the class labels for the prior anchors. The experimental results on the railway traffic dataset show that FR-Net achieves 0.8953 mAP with 72.3 FPS performance on a machine with a GeForce GTX1080Ti with the input size of 320 × 320 pixels. The results imply that FR-Net takes a good tradeoff both on effectiveness and real time performance. The proposed method can meet the needs of practical application in shunting mode.

  4. Real time software for the control and monitoring of DIII-D system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Penaflor, B.G.; Coon, R.M.; Harris, J.J.; Scoville, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the real time, multi-tasking, multi-user software and communications of the E-Power Supply System Integrated Controller (EPSSIC) for the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC performs the DIII-D system wide go/no-go determination for the plasma sequencing. This paper discusses the data module handling, task work load balancing, and communications requirements. Operational experience with the new EPSSIC and recent improvements to this system are also described

  5. Evaluation of High-Speed Railway Bridges Based on a Nondestructive Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosbeh R. Kaloop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, trains’ velocities in Korea increased more than the speed used in the design of some bridges. Accordingly, this paper demonstrates the evaluation of a railway bridge due to high-speed trains’ movement. A nondestructive monitoring system is used to assess the bridge performance under train speeds of 290, 360, 400 and 406 km/h. This system is comprised of a wireless short-term acceleration system and strain monitoring sensors attached to the bridge girder. The results of the analytical methods in time and frequency domains are presented. The following conclusions are obtained: the cross-correlation models for accelerations and strain measurements are effective to predict the performance of the bridge; the static behavior is increased with train speed developments; and the vibration, torsion, fatigue and frequency contents analyses of the bridge show that the bridge is safe under applied trains’ speeds.

  6. Estimation of a condition of electromagnetic relays a method of acoustic diagnostics in systems of railway automatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Laguta

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with methods of preliminary analysis of sound signals to extract stable features in classifying the relay used in railway automation systems. The algorithm of the description of a sound signal on the basis of these attributes is offered.

  7. Communication and Sensemaking in the Dutch Railway System: Explaining coordination failure between teams using a mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schipper (Danny); L.M. Gerrits (Lasse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractEarly in 2014, the Dutch railway system spiralled out of control after traffic management was confronted with the decision to take four double switches and two rail tracks out of service. A lack of coordination between the responsible teams resulted in the decision to stop all traffic in

  8. Generic FPGA-Based Platform for Distributed IO in Proton Therapy Patient Safety Interlock System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichin, Michael; Carmona, Pablo Fernandez; Johansen, Ernst; Grossmann, Martin; Mayor, Alexandre; Erhardt, Daniel; Gomperts, Alexander; Regele, Harald; Bula, Christian; Sidler, Christof

    2017-06-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland, cancer patients are treated with protons. Proton therapy at PSI has a long history and started in the 1980s. More than 30 years later, a new gantry has recently been installed in the existing facility. This new machine has been delivered by an industry partner. A big challenge is the integration of the vendor's safety system into the existing PSI environment. Different interface standards and the complexity of the system made it necessary to find a technical solution connecting an industry system to the existing PSI infrastructure. A novel very flexible distributed IO system based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology was developed, supporting many different IO interface standards and high-speed communication links connecting the device to a PSI standard versa module eurocard-bus input output controller. This paper summarizes the features of the hardware technology, the FPGA framework with its high-speed communication link protocol, and presents our first measurement results.

  9. The data acquisition and interlock system for Tore Supra infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Balorin, C.; Buravand, Y.; Caulier, G.; Ducobu, L.; Guilhem, D.; Jouve, M.; Roche, H.

    2003-01-01

    The data acquisition for the infrared measurement system on Tore-Supra is a key element in ensuring the supervision of the new actively-cooled plasma facing components of the CIEL project. It will allow us to follow the thermal evolution of components of Tore-Supra, in particular the toroidal pumped limiter (LPT) (360 deg.-15 m long) and the five additional heating launchers. When fully installed, the infrared measurement system will be composed of 12 digital 16-bit infrared cameras. They cover a 100-1200 deg.C temperature range and each picture has a definition of 320x240 pixels with a 20 ms time resolution. The objectives of the data acquisition system is real-time recording and analysis of each view element for further post-pulse analysis in order to understand the physics phenomenon and ensure the supervision of the plasma facing components and also to be part of the global feedback control system of Tore Supra

  10. Machine Protection and Interlock Systems for Circular Machines - Example for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the protection of circular particle accelerators from accidental beam losses. Already the energy stored in the beams for accelerators such as the TEVATRON at Fermilab and Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN could cause serious damage in case of uncontrolled beam loss. With the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the energy stored in particle beams has reached a value two orders of magnitude above previous accelerators and poses new threats with respect to hazards from the energy stored in the particle beams. A single accident damaging vital parts of the accelerator could interrupt operation for years. Protection of equipment from beam accidents is mandatory. Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. extraction of the beam towards a dedicated beam dump block o...

  11. Characteristic Analysis of DC Electric Railway Systems with Superconducting Power Cables Connecting Power Substations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsaki, H.; Matsushita, N.; Koseki, T.; Tomita, M.

    2014-05-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  12. Characteristic analysis of DC electric railway systems with superconducting power cables connecting power substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsaki, H; Matsushita, N; Koseki, T; Tomita, M

    2014-01-01

    The application of superconducting power cables to DC electric railway systems has been studied. It could leads to an effective use of regenerative brake, improved energy efficiency, effective load sharing among the substations, etc. In this study, an electric circuit model of a DC feeding system is built and numerical simulation is carried out using MATLAB-Simulink software. A modified electric circuit model with an AC power grid connection taken into account is also created to simulate the influence of the grid connection. The analyses have proved that a certain amount of energy can be conserved by introducing superconducting cables, and that electric load distribution and concentration among the substations depend on the substation output voltage distribution.

  13. Research into human factors affecting the railway system; Studien zu menschlichen Einflussfaktoren im Eisenbahnsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerl, Malte; Feldmann, Frederike; Rumke, Axel; Pelz, Markus [DLR e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Verkehrssystemtechnik

    2010-07-01

    The Institute for Transportation Systems (ITS) at the German Aerospace Center DLR in Braunschweig has for many years been conducting research into current and future topics relating to railway transportation. Supplementing the in-house technical infrastructure including e.g. RailSiTe {sup registered} (Rail Simulation and Testing) and RailDriVE {sup registered} (Rail Driving Validation Environment), a new test environment for Rail Human Factors Research has been established to investigate such factors as they affect locomotive drivers. The aim is to analyse current issues and new concepts regarding human-machine interaction and test them under conditions that are as true-to-life as possible without exposure to real-life safety-critical situations. The test environment allows for investigation across the spectrum, starting with workplace analysis and going on from potential modifications to existing user interfaces through to the analysis of prototype assistance systems. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic levitation railways. 2. enlarged ed. Magnetschwebebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miedtank, R [comp.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 129 literature references, mostly with German abstracts on: Representation of the magnetic levitation railway (MAGLEV railway) as a fast modern railway; type of design of tracks and stations; manufacture of track supports made of steel and reinforced concrete with the accuracy required for this fast railway system. Introduction of experimental sections and planning study for this means of transport. (orig./HP).

  15. Advantages of low frequencies in converter-supplied railway traction power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Thorsten [Atkins Sverige AB, Vaesteras (Sweden); Behmann, Uwe

    2013-05-15

    As soon as a railway will be supplied from the public 50 Hz grid by means of static converters and no longer by direct transformers, you are free to choose its frequency. With the standardised railway frequency of 16 (2)/(3) Hz considerable advantages in line infrastructure can be utilised and thus energy and capital expenditures can be saved.

  16. Next generation railway system. ; Control system for JR Maglev. Jisedai tetsudo system. ; Rinia shinkansen no seigyo system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K [Central Japan Railway Company, Nagoya (Japan)

    1993-07-10

    Aiming at achieving a maglev Shinkansen that links Tokyo with Osaka at a speed of 500 km/h, an experimental maglev line is being constructed in Yamanashi Prefecture. This paper explains a train control system as the main subject. The system mounts superconductive magnets directly on bogies to propel a train using actions of moving magnet fields generated from propulsion coils paved on ground. Because of its mechanism to levitate and guide the train using induction coils superposed on the propulsion coils, no special control device is required for the levitation and guidance. This is a difference from a normal conduction magnet levitation system. Its speed control also differs from the conventional railway systems. It uses a ground primary control system that controls supply currents from substations on the ground, including braking control. One substation controls one train only. Automatic control is made on all controls related to travelling, including a control from train movement start to stops at predetermined positions, scheduled-time operation control, and jerk control. The construction of the experimental line is under steady progress. 5 figs.

  17. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  18. An Analytical Design Method for a Regenerative Braking Control System for DC-electrified Railway Systems under Light Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tatsuhito; Kondo, Keiichiro; Koseki, Takafumi

    A DC-electrified railway system that is fed by diode rectifiers at a substation is unable to return the electric power to an AC grid. Accordingly, the braking cars have to restrict regenerative braking power when the power consumption of the powering cars is not sufficient. However, the characteristics of a DC-electrified railway system, including the powering cars, is not known, and a mathematical model for designing a controller has not been established yet. Hence, the object of this study is to obtain the mathematical model for an analytical design method of the regenerative braking control system. In the first part of this paper, the static characteristics of this system are presented to show the position of the equilibrium point. The linearization of this system at the equilibrium point is then performed to describe the dynamic characteristics of the system. An analytical design method is then proposed on the basis of these characteristics. The proposed design method is verified by experimental tests with a 1kW class miniature model, and numerical simulations.

  19. Radiation safety interlocks at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, T.

    1985-07-01

    The function of the NSLS interlock systems is to insure that no one is in an area where there is hazardous radiation, and to turn off the radiation source if a person somehow gains access to such an area. The interlock systems for the high hazard areas meet the following design requirements: (1) The system is redundant, that is no single failure can render the system unsafe. This is done by providing 2 independent systems or circuits; (2) In so far as possible, the two circuits are physically different. This minimizes the possibility of related coincident failures; (3) The design is fail safe. This means that the most likely failure modes leave the system in a safe condition. For example, the following failures are safe: Loss of power in any part of the system, any combination of shorts to ground, and any combination of open circuits; and (4) The interlock system must be testable. Redundancy sometimes makes testing difficult, but testing schemes must be worked out, since an untested interlock is undependable

  20. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  1. Energy management and control strategies for the use of supercapacitors storage technologies in urban railway traction systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccarelli, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the need to reduce global energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the environment, has been involved even in the railways sector, aimed at the highly competitive concept of new vehicles/transportation systems. The requirements hoped by the operating companies, particularly as concerns tramway and metro-train systems, are increasingly focused on products with so far advanced features in terms of energy and environmental impact. In order to accomplish this possible scenario, thi...

  2. Multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS) for dynamic high-accuracy 3D measurements of railway tunnels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Dong; Yu, Long; Xiao, Jian; Chen, Tanglong

    2015-04-14

    Railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel 3D clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV) of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on dynamic railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS). First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results.

  3. Multi-Camera and Structured-Light Vision System (MSVS for Dynamic High-Accuracy 3D Measurements of Railway Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection is critical to guaranteeing railway operation safety. However, it is a challenge to inspect railway tunnel 3D clearance using a vision system, because both the spatial range and field of view (FOV of such measurements are quite large. This paper summarizes our work on dynamic railway tunnel 3D clearance inspection based on a multi-camera and structured-light vision system (MSVS. First, the configuration of the MSVS is described. Then, the global calibration for the MSVS is discussed in detail. The onboard vision system is mounted on a dedicated vehicle and is expected to suffer from multiple degrees of freedom vibrations brought about by the running vehicle. Any small vibration can result in substantial measurement errors. In order to overcome this problem, a vehicle motion deviation rectifying method is investigated. Experiments using the vision inspection system are conducted with satisfactory online measurement results.

  4. Multi-Range Conditional Random Field for Classifying Railway Electrification System Objects Using Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Railways have been used as one of the most crucial means of transportation in public mobility and economic development. For safe railway operation, the electrification system in the railway infrastructure, which supplies electric power to trains, is an essential facility for stable train operation. Due to its important role, the electrification system needs to be rigorously and regularly inspected and managed. This paper presents a supervised learning method to classify Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS data into ten target classes representing overhead wires, movable brackets and poles, which are key objects in the electrification system. In general, the layout of the railway electrification system shows strong spatial regularity relations among object classes. The proposed classifier is developed based on Conditional Random Field (CRF, which characterizes not only labeling homogeneity at short range, but also the layout compatibility between different object classes at long range in the probabilistic graphical model. This multi-range CRF model consists of a unary term and three pairwise contextual terms. In order to gain computational efficiency, MLS point clouds are converted into a set of line segments to which the labeling process is applied. Support Vector Machine (SVM is used as a local classifier considering only node features for producing the unary potentials of the CRF model. As the short-range pairwise contextual term, the Potts model is applied to enforce a local smoothness in the short-range graph; while long-range pairwise potentials are designed to enhance the spatial regularities of both horizontal and vertical layouts among railway objects. We formulate two long-range pairwise potentials as the log posterior probability obtained by the naive Bayes classifier. The directional layout compatibilities are characterized in probability look-up tables, which represent the co-occurrence rate of spatial relations in the horizontal and vertical

  5. A Weibull Approach for Enabling Safety-Oriented Decision-Making for Electronic Railway Signaling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Pascale

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the advantages of using Weibull distributions, within the context of railway signaling systems, for enabling safety-oriented decision-making. Failure rates are used to statistically model the basic event of fault-tree analysis, and their value sizes the maximum allowable latency of failures to fulfill the safety target for which the system has been designed. Relying on field-return failure data, Weibull parameters have been calculated for an existing electronic signaling system and a comparison with existing predictive reliability data, based on exponential distribution, is provided. Results are discussed in order to drive considerations on the respect of quantitative targets and on the impact that a wrong hypothesis might have on the choice of a given architecture. Despite the huge amount of information gathered through the after-sales logbook used to build reliability distribution, several key elements for reliable estimation of failure rate values are still missing. This might affect the uncertainty of reliability parameters and the effort required to collect all the information. We then present how to intervene when operational failure rates present higher values compared to the theoretical approach: increasing the redundancies of the system or performing preventive maintenance tasks. Possible consequences of unjustified adoption of constant failure rate are presented. Some recommendations are also shared in order to build reliability-oriented logbooks and avoid data censoring phenomena by enhancing the functions of the electronic boards composing the system.

  6. Performance evaluation of railway blocking system based on markov chain and queuing theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Yang

    2005-12-01

    Railway blocking system is the system with the high demanding of real-time performance. Firstly, the tasks and the time limits, which had to be handled for the blocking system, were introduced. The FCFS and the Markov chain were used to set the model for it. By analyzing the performance of the system with the FCFS model found out that it was not satisfied to the real-time performance. Secondly, NPPR model to evaluate the software real-time performance of the blocking processor was proposed. By evaluation, analysis and comparison, the results indicate that the NPPR model is prevail over the model of (M/M/1): (N/N/FCFS) in real-time performance. And the priorities of the tasks in the system should be given according to their time limit. With the principle of (M/M/1): (N/N/NPPR), if the priority was given to the tasks properly, the satisfied real-time performance will be gotten. The models were tested in forms software and the satisfied result has been gotten in practice.

  7. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  8. The railway as a system - a safety view of the interface between track and operations; System Bahn - Sicherheitsbetrachtung der Schnittstelle zwischen Fahrweg und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauf, H.H. [Eisenbahn-Bundesamt, Bonn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The opinion is often expressed that one of the essential advantages of rail compared with road traffic is that it forms a coherent closed system. In engineering terms, trains and the permanent way are parts of a single whole. The central monitoring and control of all process not only offers various different opportunities for economic optimization but also for making sure that technical safety is engineered in. However, there are objectives, such as the unimpeded movement of goods within Europe, competition of the railways and access to the railway infrastructure free from any form of discrimination, that mean that there has to be a differentiation between infrastructure providers and transport operators. Critics see this as a wilful dismembering of the system and express fears that safety could be jeopardized. The author sets out to explain the essentials of how the various components of the railway system interact with one another and to discuss implications for safety. (orig.)

  9. Design and construction of a high temperature superconducting power cable cryostat for use in railway system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, M; Muralidhar, M; Suzuki, K; Fukumoto, Y; Ishihara, A; Akasaka, T; Kobayashi, Y

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of the current effort was to design and test a cryostat using a prototype five-meter long high temperature Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y (Bi-2223) superconducting dc power cable for railway systems. To satisfy the safety regulations of the Govt of Japan a mill sheet covered by super-insulation was used inside the walls of the cryostat. The thicknesses of various walls in the cryostat were obtained from a numerical analysis. A non-destructive inspection was utilized to find leaks under vacuum or pressure. The cryostat target temperature range was around 50 K, which is well below liquid nitrogen temperature, the operating temperature of the superconducting cable. The qualification testing was carried out from 77 down to 66 K. When using only the inner sheet wire, the maximum current at 77.3 K was 10 kA. The critical current (I c ) value increased with decreasing temperature and reached 11.79 kA at 73.7 K. This is the largest dc current reported in a Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O y or YBa 2 Cu 3 O y (Y-123) superconducting prototype cable so far. These results verify that the developed DC superconducting cable is reliable and fulfils all the requirements necessary for successful use in various power applications including railway systems. The key issues for the design of a reliable cryogenic system for superconducting power cables for railway systems are discussed. (paper)

  10. Nonlinear dynamics analysis of the spur gear system for railway locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junguo; He, Guangyue; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongxiang; Yao, Yuan

    2017-02-01

    Considering the factors such as the nonlinearity backlash, static transmission error and time-varying meshing stiffness, a three-degree-of-freedom torsional vibration model of spur gear transmission system for a typical locomotive is developed, in which the wheel/rail adhesion torque is considered as uncertain but bounded parameter. Meantime, the Ishikawa method is used for analysis and calculation of the time-varying mesh stiffness of the gear pair in meshing process. With the help of bifurcation diagrams, phase plane diagrams, Poincaré maps, time domain response diagrams and amplitude-frequency spectrums, the effects of the pinion speed and stiffness on the dynamic behavior of gear transmission system for locomotive are investigated in detail by using the numerical integration method. Numerical examples reveal various types of nonlinear phenomena and dynamic evolution mechanism involving one-period responses, multi-periodic responses, bifurcation and chaotic responses. Some research results present useful information to dynamic design and vibration control of the gear transmission system for railway locomotive.

  11. Simulation on following Performance of High-Speed Railway In Situ Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Long Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subgrade bears both the weight of superstructures and the impacts of running trains. Its stability affects the line smoothness directly, but in situ testing method on it is inadequate. This paper presents a railway roadbed in situ testing device, the key component of which is an excitation hydraulic servo cylinder that can output the static pressure and dynamic pressure simultaneously to simulate the force of the trains to the subgrade. The principle of the excitation system is briefly introduced, and the transfer function of the closed-loop force control system is derived and simulated; that, it shows without control algorithm, the dynamic response is very low and the following performance is quite poor. So, the improvedadaptive model following control (AMFC algorithm based on direct state method is adopted. Then, control block diagram is built and simulated with the input of different waveforms and frequencies. The simulation results show that the system has been greatly improved; the output waveform can follow the input signal much better except for a little distortion when the signal varies severely. And the following performance becomes even better as the load stiffness increases.

  12. Analysis of the monitoring data of geomagnetic storm interference in the electrification system of a high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianguang; Ge, Xiaoning; Zong, Wei; Zhou, You; Liu, Mingguang

    2016-10-01

    To study the impact of geomagnetic storm on the equipment of traction electrification system in the high-speed railway, geomagnetically induced current (GIC) monitoring devices were installed in the Hebi East traction power supply substation of the Beijing-Hong Kong Dedicated Passenger Line in January 2015, and GICs were captured during the two geomagnetic storms on 17 March and 23 June 2015. In order to investigate the GIC flow path, both in the track circuit and in the traction network adopting the autotransformer feeding system, a GIC monitor plan was proposed for the electrical system in the Hebi East traction power supply substation. This paper analyzes the correlation between the GIC captured on 17 March and the geomagnetic data obtained from the Malingshan Geomagnetic Observatory and presents a regression analysis between the measured GIC and the calculated geoelectric fields on 23 June in the high-speed railway. The maximum GICs measured in the track circuit are 1.08 A and 1.74 A during the two geomagnetic storms. We find that it is necessary to pay attention on the throttle transformers and track circuits, as the most sensitive elements responding to the extreme geomagnetic storms in the high-speed railway.

  13. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  14. Enhancing the Use of Vehicle Alcohol Interlocks With Emerging Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Among the earliest applications of health technologies to a safety program was the development of blood alcohol content (BAC) tests for use in impaired-driving enforcement. This led to the development of miniature, highly accurate devices that officers could carry in their pockets. A natural extension of this technology was the vehicle alcohol interlock, which is used to reduce recidivism among drivers convicted of driving under the influence (DUI) by requiring them to install the devices (which will not allow someone with a positive BAC to drive) on their vehicles. While on the vehicle, interlocks have been shown to reduce recidivism by two-thirds. Use of these devices has been growing at the rate of 10 to 15 percent a year, and there currently are more than 300,000 units in use. This expansion in the application of interlocks has benefited from the integration of other emerging technologies into interlock systems. Such technologies include data systems that record both driver actions and vehicle responses, miniature cameras and face recognition to identify the user, Wi-Fi systems to provide rapid reporting on offender performance and any attempt to circumvent the device, GPS tracking of the vehicle, and more rapid means for monitoring the integrity of the interlock system. This article describes how these health technologies are being applied in interlock programs and the outlook for new technologies and new court sanctioning programs that may influence the growth in the use of interlocks in the future.

  15. Driver's behavioural changes with new intelligent transport system interventions at railway level crossings--A driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Kim, Inhi; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haworth, Narelle L; Ferreira, Luis

    2015-08-01

    Improving safety at railway level crossings is an important issue for the Australian transport system. Governments, the rail industry and road organisations have tried a variety of countermeasures for many years to improve railway level crossing safety. New types of intelligent transport system (ITS) interventions are now emerging due to the availability and the affordability of technology. These interventions target both actively and passively protected railway level crossings and attempt to address drivers' errors at railway crossings, which are mainly a failure to detect the crossing or the train and misjudgement of the train approach speed and distance. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of three emerging ITS that the rail industry considers implementing in Australia: a visual in-vehicle ITS, an audio in-vehicle ITS, as well as an on-road flashing beacons intervention. The evaluation was conducted on an advanced driving simulator with 20 participants per trialled technology, each participant driving once without any technology and once with one of the ITS interventions. Every participant drove through a range of active and passive crossings with and without trains approaching. Their speed approach of the crossing, head movements and stopping compliance were measured. Results showed that driver behaviour was changed with the three ITS interventions at passive crossings, while limited effects were found at active crossings, even with reduced visibility. The on-road intervention trialled was unsuccessful in improving driver behaviour; the audio and visual ITS improved driver behaviour when a train was approaching. A trend toward worsening driver behaviour with the visual ITS was observed when no trains were approaching. This trend was not observed for the audio ITS intervention, which appears to be the ITS intervention with the highest potential for improving safety at passive crossings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Passenger Sharing of the High-Speed Railway from Sensitivity Analysis Caused by Price and Run-time Based on the Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments around the world are active in constructing the high-speed railway. Therefore, it is significant to make research on this increasingly prevalent transport.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we simulate the process of the passenger’s travel mode choice by adjusting the ticket fare and the run-time based on the multi-agent system (MAS.Findings: From the research we get the conclusion that increasing the run-time appropriately and reducing the ticket fare in some extent are effective ways to enhance the passenger sharing of the high-speed railway.Originality/value: We hope it can provide policy recommendations for the railway sectors in developing the long-term plan on high-speed railway in the future.

  17. Monitoring system for assessment of prestressed railway bridges in the new Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Kohlhoff, H.; Knapp, J.; Helmerich, R.

    2003-03-01

    A new central railway station - Lehrter Bahnhof - is being built in Berlin. Because of construction activities in immediate vicinity and because of difficult soil conditions, vertical displacements will be expected. In order to avoid damage to the bridges and to a widely spanned glass roof which will be supported by two concrete bridges these two bridges have to be monitored right from the beginning of construction until commissioning as well as later on for several years. For this purpose, a long-term monitoring concept has been developed. Sensors with excellent long-term stabilty have been chosen to carry out the concept. This paper describes the measuring concept as well as components of the system. Especially techniques to monitor settlements and heaves and to measure strain and inclination of the prestressed concrete bridges are described. All measures are redundantly monitored. Measurements on-site are referenced by measurements on two large-scale beam models well-defined loaded under laboratory and field conditions.

  18. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niebla CristinaPárraga

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  19. Advanced Fade Countermeasures for DVB-S2 Systems in Railway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Párraga Niebla

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of advanced fade countermeasures for supporting DVB-S2 reception by mobile terminals mounted on high-speed trains. Recent market studies indicate this as a potential profitable market for satellite communications, provided that integration with wireless terrestrial networks can be implemented to bridge the satellite connectivity inside railway tunnels and large train stations. In turn, the satellite can typically offer the coverage of around 80% of the railway path with existing space infrastructure. This piece of work, representing the first step of a wider study, is focusing on the modifications which may be required in the DVB-S2 standard (to be employed in the forward link in order to achieve reliable reception in a challenging environment such as the railway one. Modifications have been devised trying to minimize the impact on the existing air interface, standardized for fixed terminals.

  20. A Domain-specific Framework for Automated Construction and Verification of Railway Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    in a demand for a higher degree of automation for the development verification, validation and test phases of projects, without impairing the thoroughness of safety-related quality measures and certification activities. Motivated by these considerations, this presentation describes an approach for automated...... elaborate safety mechanisms in order to keep the risk at the same low level that has been established for European railways until today. The challenge is further increased by the demand for shorter time-to-market periods and higher competition among suppliers of the railway domain; both factors resulting...

  1. Some aspects of operational reliability of the JET central interlock and safety system (CISS) in the period March 1984 to December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montfoort, Joop van.

    1987-01-01

    The Central Interlock and Safety System (CISS) provides basic safety functions for the JET plant. It monitors the status of emergency push buttons, access doors and plant equipment and takes corrective shutdown actions in the case that plant conditions are not compatible with safe operation. CISS consists of a hierarchical network of PLCs (programmable logic controllers) paralleling the CODAS architecture. It has been successfully in operation since June 1983 and has intervened many times and halted operation to protect JET from (further) damage or personnel against danger. The note will analyse genuine CISS failures only, and as will be shown, these failures are all due to malfunctioning of PLC hardware. All CISS failures have failed-safe and resulted in the expected shutdown action. Hence CISS failures have never resulted in a dangerous situation but they have restricted operational availability of JET. (author)

  2. LOD BIM Element specification for Railway Turnout Systems Risk Mitigation using the Information Delivery Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante-Barrera, Ángel; Dindar, Serdar; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Ruikar, Darshan

    2017-10-01

    Railway turnouts are complex systems designed using complex geometries and grades which makes them difficult to be managed in terms of risk prevention. This feature poses a substantial peril to rail users as it is considered a cause of derailment. In addition, derailment deals to financial losses due to operational downtimes and monetary compensations in case of death or injure. These are fundamental drivers to consider mitigating risks arising from poor risk management during design. Prevention through design (PtD) is a process that introduces tacit knowledge from industry professionals during the design process. There is evidence that Building Information Modelling (BIM) can help to mitigate risk since the inception of the project. BIM is considered an Information System (IS) were tacit knowledge can be stored and retrieved from a digital database making easy to take promptly decisions as information is ready to be analysed. BIM at the model element level entails working with 3D elements and embedded data, therefore adding a layer of complexity to the management of information along the different stages of the project and across different disciplines. In order to overcome this problem, the industry has created a framework for model progression specification named Level of Development (LOD). The paper presents an IDM based framework for design risk mitigation through code validation using the LOD. This effort resulted on risk datasets which describe graphically and non-graphically a rail turnout as the model progresses. Thus, permitting its inclusion within risk information systems. The assignment of an LOD construct to a set of data, requires specialised management and process related expertise. Furthermore, the selection of a set of LOD constructs requires a purpose based analysis. Therefore, a framework for LOD constructs implementation within the IDM for code checking is required for the industry to progress in this particular field.

  3. FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS: INTERLOCKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kaladagi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The incidence of humeral fracture has significantly increased during the present years due to the population growth and road traffic, domestic, industrial, automobile accidents & disasters like tsunami, earthquakes, head-on collisions, polytrauma etc. In order to achieve a stable fixation followed by early mobilization, numerous surgical implants have been devised. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the results of intramedullary fixation of proximal 2/3rd humeral shaft fractures using an unreamed interlocking intramedullary nail. INTRODUCTION: In 40 skeletally matured patients with fracture shaft of humerus admitted in our hospital, we used unreamed antegrade interlocking nails. MATERIAL: We carried out a prospective analysis of 40 patients randomly selected between 2001 to 2014 who were operated at JNMC Belgaum, MMC Mysore & Navodaya Medical College, Raichur. All cases were either RTAs, Domestic, Industrial, automobile accidents & also other modes of injury. METHOD: Routine investigations with pre-anaesthetic check-up & good quality X-rays of both sides of humerus was taken. Time of surgery ranged from 5-10 days from the time of admission. Only upper 1/3rd & middle 1/3rd humeral shaft fractures were included in the study. In all the cases antegrade locked unreamed humeral nails were inserted under C-arm. Patient was placed in supine position & the shoulder was kept elevated by placing a sandbag under the scapula. In all patients incision taken from tip of acromion to 3cm over deltoid longitudinally. Postoperatively sling applied with wrist & shoulder movements started after 24 hours. All the patients ranged between the age of 21-50 years. RESULTS: Total 40 patients were operated. Maximum fracture site were in the middle third- 76%, 14% upper 1/3rd. All 40 patients achieved union. The average time of union was 8-10 weeks. All patients regained full range of movements except in few cases, where there was shoulder

  4. Optimal Train Dispatching at Railway Stations : A Discrete Event Dynamic System Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of transfers in a transportation network largely influences the level of service of trip chains. Especially in low-frequency service networks like (long-distance) railway networks. Running and dwell times are typically subject to random variations resulting in arrival delays during

  5. Railway Timetable Stability Analysis Using Stochastic Max-Plus Linear Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Heidergott, B.; Merlet, G.

    2010-01-01

    Stability and robustness of a railway timetable are essential properties for punctual and reliable operations. Timetable performance evaluation is therefore an important aspect in the timetable design process. In particular, the stability and recoverability properties of a timetable with respect to

  6. Dynamic response of railway tracks in tunnel

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang , T; Duhamel , Denis; Forêt , Gilles; Yin , H.P.; Joyez , P; Caby , R

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Periodically supported beams subjected to a moving load are often used for modelling the railway dynamics and analytical solutions have been developed for such modelling [3, 4]. More complex models can be constructed by including supports with damping or non-linear stiffness elements. This study deals with the dynamical modelling of non-ballasted railways, especially railways in tunnels. The model is developed as a dynamical system of multi-degree of freedom. Under the...

  7. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansang, E-mail: hslee80@kiu.ac.kr [School of Railway and Electrical Engineering, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seungmin [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoonsung [Department of Electric and Energy Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Donghee [Department of New and Renewable Energy, Kyungil University, Hayang-eup, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Gilsoo, E-mail: gjang@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed.

  8. Peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement with the superconducting flywheel energy storage in electric railway system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hansang; Jung, Seungmin; Cho, Yoonsung; Yoon, Donghee; Jang, Gilsoo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •It is important to develop power and energy management system to save operating cost. •An 100 kWh of SFES is effective to decrease peak power and energy consumption. •Operation cost saving can be achieved using superconducting flywheel energy storage. -- Abstract: This paper proposes an application of the 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems to reduce the peak power of the electric railway system. The electric railway systems have high-power characteristics and large amount of regenerative energy during vehicles’ braking. The high-power characteristic makes operating cost high as the system should guarantee the secure capacity of electrical equipment and the low utilization rate of regenerative energy limits the significant energy efficiency improvement. In this paper, it had been proved that the peak power reduction and energy efficiency improvement can be achieved by using 100 kWh superconducting flywheel energy storage systems with the optimally controlled charging or discharging operations. Also, economic benefits had been assessed

  9. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component's purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system.

  10. The Effect of a Variable Disc Pad Friction Coefficient for the Mechanical Brake System of a Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Kang, Chul-Goo

    2015-01-01

    A brake hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) system for a railway vehicle is widely applied to estimate and validate braking performance in research studies and field tests. When we develop a simulation model for a full vehicle system, the characteristics of all components are generally properly simplified based on the understanding of each component’s purpose and interaction with other components. The friction coefficient between the brake disc and the pad used in simulations has been conventionally considered constant, and the effect of a variable friction coefficient is ignored with the assumption that the variability affects the performance of the vehicle braking very little. However, the friction coefficient of a disc pad changes significantly within a range due to environmental conditions, and thus, the friction coefficient can affect the performance of the brakes considerably, especially on the wheel slide. In this paper, we apply a variable friction coefficient and analyzed the effects of the variable friction coefficient on a mechanical brake system of a railway vehicle. We introduce a mathematical formula for the variable friction coefficient in which the variable friction is represented by two variables and five parameters. The proposed formula is applied to real-time simulations using a brake HILS system, and the effectiveness of the formula is verified experimentally by testing the mechanical braking performance of the brake HILS system. PMID:26267883

  11. Network effects in railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Railway operation is often affected by network effects as a change in one part of the network can influence other parts of the network. Network effects occur because the train runs may be quite long and since the railway system has a high degree of interdependencies as trains cannot cross....../overtake each other everywhere in the network. First this paper describes network effects in general (section 1). In section 2 the network effects for trains and how they can be measured by scheduled waiting time is described. When the trains are affected by network effects the passengers are also affected....... Therefore, sections 3 and 4 describe the network effects for passengers and how they can be measured using passenger delay models. Before the concluding remarks in section 6, section 5 discusses how the operation can be improved by examining network effects in the planning process. © 2012 WIT Press....

  12. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pagano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  13. The Use of Energy Storage Systems for Supporting the Voltage Needs of Urban and Suburban Railway Contact Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iannuzzi, Diago [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Pagano, Enrico [University of Federico II, Naples (Italy). Electrical Engineering Department; Tricoli, Pietro [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom). School of Electronic, Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The paper aims to contribute to the use of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) sets for boosting voltages of contact lines in urban and suburban railway traction systems. Different electrical configurations of contact lines are considered and investigated. For each of them, proper mathematical models are suggested to evaluate the electrical performances of the contact lines. They give rise, also, to sample design procedures for the sizing of the most appropriate energy storage systems, to be distributed along the lines, for boosting line voltages and avoiding undesired voltage drops. A numerical example based on the “Cumana” suburban Naples railway network is presented to give an idea of the weights and sizes of electric double layer capacitors needed to boost the voltage of a sample contact line. In particular, three different EDLC systems, for a overall installed energy of 9.6 kWh, have been placed nearby the stations presenting the highest voltage drops during the most representative situation of trains’ service. The new voltage drop is equal to 32% of that obtained in absence of EDLCs.

  14. JET neutral beam duct Optical Interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ash, A.D.; Jones, T.T.C.; Surrey, E.; Ćirić, D.; Hall, S.I.; Young, D.; Afzal, M.; Hackett, L.; Day, I.E.; King, R.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Optical Interlocks were installed on the JET NBI system as part of the EP2 upgrade. • The system protects the JET tokamak and NBI systems from thermal load damage. • Balmer-α beam emission is used to monitor the neutral beam-line pressure. • We demonstrate an improved trip delay of 2 ms compared to 50 ms before EP2. - Abstract: The JET Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system is the most powerful neutral beam plasma heating system currently operating. Optical Interlocks were installed on the beam lines in 2011 for the JET Enhancement Project 2 (EP2), when the heating power was increased from 23 MW to 34 MW. JET NBI has two beam lines. Each has eight positive ion injectors operating in deuterium at 80 kV–125 kV (accelerator voltage) and up to 65 A (beam current). Heating power is delivered through two ducts where the central power density can be more than 100 MW/m{sup 2}. In order to deliver this safely, the beam line pressure should be below 2 × 10{sup −5} mbar otherwise the power load on the duct from the re-ionised fraction of the beam is excessive. The new Optical Interlock monitors the duct pressure by measuring the Balmer-α beam emission (656 nm). This is proportional to the instantaneous beam flux and the duct pressure. Light is collected from a diagnostic window and focused into 1-mm diameter fibres. The Doppler shifted signal is selected using an angle-tuned interference filter. The light is measured by a photo-multiplier module with a logarithmic amplifier. The interlock activation time of 2 ms is sufficient to protect the system from a fully re-ionised beam—a significant improvement on the previous interlock. The dynamic range is sufficient to see bremsstrahlung emission from JET plasma and not saturate during plasma disruptions. For high neutron flux operations the optical fibres within the biological shield can be annealed to 350 °C. A self-test is possible by illuminating the diagnostic window with a test lamp and measuring

  15. Importance measures-based prioritization for improving the performance of multi-state systems: application to the railway industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico; Marella, Marco; Podofillini, Luca

    2007-01-01

    The railway industry is undertaking significant efforts in the application of reliability-based and risk-informed approaches for rationalizing operation costs and safety requirements. In this respect, importance measures can bring valuable information for identifying the actions to take for most effective system improvement. In this paper, the railway network is modelled within a multi-state perspective in which each rail section is treated as a component, which can stay in different discrete states representing the speed values at which the section can be travelled, depending on the tracks degradation and on the traffic conditions. The Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the complex stochastic dynamics of such multi-state system. A prioritization of the rail sections based on importance measures is then used to most effectively improve the performance of the rail network, in terms of a decrease in the overall trains delay. High-importance sections, i.e. with highest impact on the overall delay, are considered for a relaxation of their speed restrictions and the proposed changes are then verified, from the risk-informed perspective, to have negligible impact on the risk associated to the rail infrastructure

  16. Macro-Micro Interlocked Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    Simulation Science is now standing on a turning point. After the appearance of the Earth Simulator, HEC is struggling with several severe difficulties due to the physical limit of LSI technologies and the so-called latency problem. In this paper I would like to propose one clever way to overcome these difficulties from the simulation algorithm viewpoint. Nature and artificial products are usually organized with several nearly autonomously working internal systems (organizations, or layers). The Earth Simulator has gifted us with a really useful scientific tool that can deal with the entire evolution of one internal system with a sufficient soundness. In order to make a leap jump of Simulation Science, therefore, it is desired to design an innovative simulator that enables us to deal with simultaneously and as consistently as possible a real system that evolves cooperatively with several internal autonomous systems. Three years experience of the Earth Simulator Project has stimulated to come up with one innovative simulation algorithm to get rid of the technological barrier standing in front of us, which I would like to call 'Macro-Micro Interlocked Algorithm', or 'Macro-Micro Multiplying Algorithm', and present a couple of such examples to validate the proposed algorithm. The first example is an aurora-arc formation as a result of the mutual interaction between the macroscopic magnetosphere-ionosphere system and the microscopic field-aligned electron and ion system. The second example is the local heavy rain fall resulting from the interaction between the global climate evolution and the microscopic raindrop growth process. Based on this innovative feasible algorithm, I came up with a Macro-Micro Multiplying Simulator

  17. Features of formation of car-traffic in a regional transportation system in conditions the multi-agents organization of a railway transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Leonidovich Kazakov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of structural reform of Russian railways, a host of agents that provide customers with loading resources, especially wagons for transport by railway. These processes reduce in efficiency of the car fleet, increasing transportation costs, shortage of cars for many customers, an increase of empty runs and, as a result, a depletion of a number of sections of the network carrying capacity at a reduced total volume of rail traffic. The article describes the reasons for this situation due to the mismatch occurred heterogeneity of rolling stock to existing planning conditions and tariffs. It is also shown that the inefficiency of decentralized car fleet contributes to the predominance of tree-type network, and the importance of this factor in the new environment has increased substantially. To ensure the efficient operation of rail transport as a systemic industry, providing mass-haul transport, it is proposed for integration into a regional logistics. Freight terminals regional logistics transportation and distribution system (RLTRS is appropriate to create on the basis of major freight railway stations. Thus, the adaptation of planning car traffic volume and train formation to modern standards, the establishment of tariff incentives and long-term changes in network configuration are considered as a prerequisite for the transformation of local transport and technological systems on the network of Russian railways into the integrated transport and logistics systems.

  18. LTE for Railways: Impact on Performance of ETCS Railway Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    The Global System for Mobile Communications-Railways (GSM-R) is an obsolete mobile technology with considerable shortcomings in terms of capacity and data transmission capabilities. Because of these shortcomings, GSM-R is becoming the element limiting the number of running trains in areas with high...... train concentration, such as major train stations. Moreover, GSM-R cannot support advanced data services. Hence, modern technologies, such as long-term evolution (LTE), have to be evaluated as possible railway communication technologies to replace GSM-R in the future. This article analyzes...... the characteristics of the LTE railway radio access network in terms of eNodeB (LTE base station) density and eNodeB transmission power. Based on this analysis, a set of computer-based simulation scenarios (e.g., OPNET) with varying numbers of eNodeBs is evaluated regarding the achieved transfer delay and data...

  19. Planning Optimization of the Distributed Antenna System in High-Speed Railway Communication Network Based on Improved Cuckoo Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The network planning is a key factor that directly affects the performance of the wireless networks. Distributed antenna system (DAS is an effective strategy for the network planning. This paper investigates the antenna deployment in a DAS for the high-speed railway communication networks and formulates an optimization problem which is NP-hard for achieving the optimal deployment of the antennas in the DAS. To solve this problem, a scheme based on an improved cuckoo search based on dimension cells (ICSDC algorithm is proposed. ICSDC introduces the dimension cell mechanism to avoid the internal dimension interferences in order to improve the performance of the algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed ICSDC-based scheme obtains a lower network cost compared with the uniform network planning method. Moreover, ICSDC algorithm has better performance in terms of the convergence rate and accuracy compared with the conventional cuckoo search algorithm, the particle swarm optimization, and the firefly algorithm.

  20. Railway optimal network simulation for the development of regional transport-logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Borisovich Petrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of logistics on mineral fuel is a stable tendency of regions development, though when making strategic plans of logistics in the regions, it is necessary to provide the alternative possibilities of power-supply sources change together with population density, transport infrastructure peculiarities, and demographic changes forecast. On the example of timber processing complex of the Sverdlovsk region, the authors suggest the algorithm of decision of the optimal logistics infrastructure allocation. The problem of regional railway network organization at the stage of slow transition from the prolonged stagnation to the new development is carried out. The transport networks’ configurations of countries on the Pacific Rim, which successfully developed nowadays, are analyzed. The authors offer some results of regional transport network simulation on the basis of artificial intelligence method. These methods let to solve the task with incomplete data. The ways of the transport network improvement in the Sverdlovsk region are offered.

  1. Truck circuits diagnosis for railway lines equipped with an automatic block signalling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spunei, E.; Piroi, I.; Muscai, C.; Răduca, E.; Piroi, F.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents a diagnosis method for detecting track circuits failures on a railway traffic line equipped with an Automatic Block Signalling installation. The diagnosis method uses the installation’s electrical schemas, based on which a series of diagnosis charts have been created. Further, the diagnosis charts were used to develop a software package, CDCBla, which substantially contributes to reducing the diagnosis time and human error during failure remedies. The proposed method can also be used as a training package for the maintenance staff. Since the diagnosis method here does not need signal or measurement inputs, using it does not necessitate additional IT knowledge and can be deployed on a mobile computing device (tablet, smart phone).

  2. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  3. Railway safety climate: a study on organizational development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Hsiang

    2017-09-07

    The safety climate of an organization is considered a leading indicator of potential risk for railway organizations. This study adopts the perceptual measurement-individual attribute approach to investigate the safety climate of a railway organization. The railway safety climate attributes are evaluated from the perspective of railway system staff. We identify four safety climate dimensions from exploratory factor analysis, namely safety communication, safety training, safety management and subjectively evaluated safety performance. Analytical results indicate that the safety climate differs at vertical and horizontal organizational levels. This study contributes to the literature by providing empirical evidence of the multilevel safety climate in a railway organization, presents possible causes of the differences under various cultural contexts and differentiates between safety climate scales for diverse workgroups within the railway organization. This information can be used to improve the safety sustainability of railway organizations and to conduct safety supervisions for the government.

  4. PcInterlock: Implementation and Operational Experience with the Optics Interlock

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Fuchsberger, Kajetan; Wenninger, Jorg

    2018-01-01

    In 2016 the luminosity reach of the LHC was increased by reducing the β-function in the main collision points below the design value to β∗ = 40 cm. This was possible due to a review of the margins in the collimation hierarchy followed by the implementation of additional measures to ensure the phase advance in defined ranges around the circumference. The risk of damaging the triplet or the tertiary collimators (TCTs) close to the interaction points in the event of an asynchronous beam dump is minimized by including margins in the collimation hierarchy, which define the β∗-reach. By guaranteeing the phase advance within an acceptable tolerance between the beam dump kicker and the TCTs, those margins can be reduced and operation at lower β∗ becomes possible. A new interlock system on the quadrupole magnet currents was put in place to safeguard the stability of the phase advance. This note describes the technical implementation of this power-converter interlock (PcInterlock) and the strategies used to...

  5. Study on the correlation between the hierarchical urban system and high-speed railway network planning in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the interrelatedness between the hierarchical structure of China׳s urban system and high-speed railway (HSR network planning at the national level. As a multi-layered system, the Chinese HSR can be categorized into three sub-networks, namely, the national HSR trunk network, the national HSR extensional network, and the intercity HSR network. By examining the direct HSR network connection, HSR nodal connection, and HSR operational frequency of 287 prefecture-level cities, this study demonstrates that the hierarchies of China׳s administrative, demographic, and economic urban systems strongly influence HSR network planning. The national HSR trunk network prioritizes the connection of top-level central cities, whereas the extensional network prioritizes cities at the lower level of the urban system. Moreover, the national HSR system forms the backbone of the HSR network structure based on a national scale, whereas the intercity HSR system satisfies the travel needs within urban agglomerations based on the regional level.

  6. Webtechnology and internet services at power rail systems of German Railway DB AG; Nutzung von Webtechnologien und Internet-Diensten bei der Energieversorgung der Deutschen Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walther, J.T. [DB Energie, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Internet services and the technologies of the World Wide Web are used at power rail systems of German Railway in some processes. Important applications are systems support, service and parametering of substation control- and protection equipment and the monitoring of switches and power transformers. The performance of the security claims of the asset management and the IT-Department are a condition for implementation these technologies. (orig.)

  7. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.

  8. Design review report for the hydrogen interlock preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the hydrogen interlock. The hydrogen interlock, a proposed addition to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system portable exhauster, is intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  9. Improvement of Ride Quality of Railway Vehicle by Semiactive Secondary Suspension System on Roller Rig Using Magnetorheological Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jeong Shin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ride quality became a very important factor in the performance of railway vehicles according to the expansion of high-speed railways and speedup of velocity of railway vehicles. In this study, the results of applying the MR (magnetorheological lateral damper on the secondary suspension to reduce the vibration of the car body, directly relating to the ride quality of railway vehicles, were mentioned. In order to verify the control performance of MR dampers, a 1/5 scaled railway vehicle model was constructed, and numerical simulation and experimental tests were conducted. The MR damper for the experimental tests was produced and was attached between the car body and bogie of a full scaled vehicle, and a vibration controlling test was performed to improve ride quality on a roller rig. The skyhook control algorithm was used as the controlling technique, and regarding the test results, the RMS (root mean square value was found by compensating the frequency of the lateral vibration based on the UIC 513 R Standard about the ride quality of railway vehicles. As a result of the test, it could be confirmed that vibration was reduced by approximately 24% when attaching the MR damper between the bogie and the car body compared to when applying a passive damper.

  10. In situ health monitoring for bogie systems of CRH380 train on Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Qiang; Su, Zhongqing; Cheng, Li

    2014-04-01

    Based on the authors' research efforts over the years, an in situ structural health monitoring (SHM) technique taking advantage of guided elastic waves has been developed and deployed via an online diagnosis system. The technique and the system were recently implemented on China's latest high-speed train (CRH380CL) operated on Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The system incorporated modularized components including active sensor network, active wave generation, multi-channel data acquisition, signal processing, data fusion, and results presentation. The sensor network, inspired by a new concept—"decentralized standard sensing", was integrated into the bogie frames during the final assembly of CRH380CL, to generate and acquire bogie-guided ultrasonic waves, from which a wide array of signal features were extracted. Fusion of signal features through a diagnostic imaging algorithm led to a graphic illustration of the overall health state of the bogie in a real-time and intuitive manner. The in situ experimentation covered a variety of high-speed train operation events including startup, acceleration/deceleration, full-speed operation (300 km/h), emergency braking, track change, as well as full stop. Mock-up damage affixed to the bogie was identified quantitatively and visualized in images. This in situ testing has demonstrated the feasibility, effectiveness, sensitivity, and reliability of the developed SHM technique and the system towards real-world applications.

  11. Impact of Battery Energy Storage System Operation Strategy on Power System: An Urban Railway Load Case under a Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongig Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer-owned battery energy storage systems (BESS have been used to reduce electricity costs of energy storage owners (ESOs under a time-of-use (TOU tariff in Korea. However, the current TOU tariff can unintentionally induce customer’s electricity usage to have a negative impact on power systems. This paper verifies the impact of different BESS operation strategies on power systems under a TOU tariff by analyzing the TOU tariff structure and the customer’s load pattern. First, several BESS operation strategies of ESO are proposed to reduce the electricity cost. In addition, a degradation cost calculation method for lithium ion batteries is considered for the ESO to determine the optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes both electricity cost and annual investment cost. The optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes ESO’s net benefit is illustrated by simulation using an urban railway load data from Namgwangju Station, Korea. The results show that BESS connected to urban railway loads can negative impact power system operation. This is due to the high BESS degradation costs and lack of incentive of differential rates in TOU tariff that can effectively induce proper demand response.

  12. The VICKSI monitor interlock system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchardt, D.; Kluppak, B.

    1983-01-01

    Dose rate equivalents are monitored separately for all working areas and evaluated by a central unit. The accelerator is shut off automatically if the maximum permissible concentrations given in the Radiation Protection Ordinance are exceeded and if persons are endangered. However, the experimenter may, on his own responsibility, define certain areas as 'vacated' (no staff members inside). Operation can then proceed as desired. Entry of persons into these areas is checked by the central computer. (orig./HP) [de

  13. KNOWLEDGE CONVERSION PADA PROSES PERENCANAAN PROYEK DI PT. LEN RAILWAY SYSTEM UNTUK STANDARDISASI PROSES DENGAN METODE SECI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atikah Sayyidatu Nisaa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available PT LEN Railway System bergerak pada pembangunan proyek pensinyalan kereta api, namun pada proses perencanaan proyek pada perusahaan tersebut masih berupa tacit knowledge (pengalaman pekerja yang akan hilang. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan adanya konversi knowledge pekerja yang masih berbentuk tacit knowledge menjadi knowledge yang terdokumentasikan ke dalam bentuk explicit knowledge. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode SECI (Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization. Pada tahap socialization dilakukan eksplorasi data kepada pelaku proyek yang bersangkutan mengenai proses bisnis suatu aktivitas maupun tacit dan explicit knowledge dari masing-masing aktivitas. Pada tahap externalization dilakukan pendokumentasian dari hasil eksplorasi data. Pada tahap combination dilakukan pemilihan best practice dengan menggunakan beberapa tools yaitu: metode Delphi, metode AHP dan pemilihan best practice menggunakan metode factor rating. Best practice yang didapatkan akan dikombinasikan dengan proses aktivitas dari PMBOK. Pada tahap internalization dilakukan penginformasian kepada pekerja mengenai best practice yang telah didapatkan dari hasil penelitian. Best practice yang terpilih dari hasil perhitungan factor rating didapatkan sebagai berikut best practice pembuatan WBS adalah proses bisnis dari responden 2 dengan nilai sebesar 8,710, untuk penentuan jadwal proyek dari responden 2 dengan nilai sebesar 8,067, untuk penentuan biaya proyek dari responden 3 sebesar 9,554, untuk pemilihan supplier dari responden 1 sebesar 8,330, untuk pembuatan desain proyek dari responden 1 sebesar 8,368 dan untuk pengadaan barang dari responden 1 dengan nilai sebesar 8,195. Kata Kunci : knowledge conversion, knowledge management, metode SECI Abstract The economic foundation movement of industrial era into the knowledge era has involved the project PT LEN Railway System which operates in the construction of the railway signaling project. This research uses SECI

  14. Complex measurement system for long-term monitoring of prestressed railway bridges of the new Lehrter Bahnhof in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Hofmann, Detlef; Kohlhoff, H.; Knapp, J.; Brandes, K.; Haenichen, H.; Inaudi, Daniele

    2002-07-01

    A new central railway station - Lehrter Bahnhof - is being built in Berlin. Because of construction activities in immediate vicinity and because of difficult soil conditions, different vertical displacements have to be expected. In order to avoid damage to the bridges and to a widely spanned glass roof which will be supported by two concrete bridges these two bridges have to be monitored with regard to their deformation performance right from the beginning of construction until commissioning as well as later on for several years. For this purpose, a monitoring concept has been developed and sensors with excellent long-term stability have been chosen. This paper describes the system for monitoring settlements and heaves by means of laser-based optics and hydrostatic leveling. Additionally, strain and inclination of the prestressed concrete bridges are redundantly monitored by embedded long-gage length fiber-optic strain sensors as well as resistive strain gages, and inclinometers. Measurements on-site are referenced by measurements on two test beams well-defined loaded under laboratory and field conditions. The paper also describes the measuring concept and the sensor techniques as well as installation of the sensor system and first results.

  15. Communication Technologies Support to Railway Infrastructure and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander

    GSM-Railways (GSM-R), which is state-of-the-art railway mobile communication technology, is gradually replacing legacy analogue radio systems. Although GSM-R is an unquestionable achievement in terms of European railway interoperability, from a telecommunication point of view, it is an obsolete...... are considered to replace GSM-R in the future. This thesis is focused on Long Term Evolution (LTE) as one of the most likely successors to GSM-R. As a technology designed for commercial purposes, LTE has to be investigated specifically in railway environment. Using computer-based simulations, the LTE network...... important railway applications: European Train Control System (ETCS) signalling and railway-specific voice communication. Therefore, LTE is technically capable of replacing GSM-R as the communication network for the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). Moreover, the simulation results show...

  16. Digital Model of Railway Electric Traction Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rachana; Mahajan, Priya; Kumar, Parmod

    2017-08-01

    The characteristic impedance and propagation constant define the behavior of signal propagation over the transmission lines. The digital model for railway traction lines which includes railway tracks is developed, using curve fitting technique in MATLAB. The sensitivity of this model has been computed with respect to frequency. The digital sensitivity values are compared with the values of analog sensitivity. The developed model is useful for digital protection, integrated operation, control and planning of the system.

  17. A clamping force measurement system for monitoring the condition of bolted joints on railway track joints and points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfa, B; Horler, G; Thobiani, F Al; Gu, F; Ball, A D

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial structures associated with railway infrastructures rely on a large number of bolted joint connections to ensure safe and reliable operation of the track and trackside furniture. Significant sums of money are spent annually to repair the damage caused by bolt failures and to maintain the integrity of bolted structures. In the UK, Network Rail (the organization responsible for rail network maintenance and safety) conducts corrective and preventive maintenance manually on 26,000 sets of points (each having approximately 30 bolted joints per set), in order to ensure operational success and safety for the travelling public. Such manual maintenance is costly, disruptive, unreliable and prone to human error. The aim of this work is to provide a means of automatically measuring the clamping force of each individual bolted joint, by means of an instrumented washer. This paper describes the development of a sensor means to be used in the washer, which satisfies the following criteria. 1. Sense changes in the clamping force of the joint and report this fact. 2. Provide compatibility with the large dynamic range of clamping force. 3. Satisfy the limitations in terms of physical size. 4. Provide the means to electronically interface with the washer. 5. Provide a means of powering the washer in situ. 6. Provide a solution at an acceptable cost. Specifically the paper focuses on requirements 1, 2 and 3 and presents the results that support further development of the proposed design and the realization of a pre-prototype system. In the paper, various options for the force sensing element (strain gage, capacitor, piezo-resistive) have been compared, using design optimization techniques. As a result of the evaluation, piezo-resistive sensors in concert with a proprietary force attenuation method, have been found to offer the best performance and cost trade-off The performance of the novel clamping force sensor has been evaluated experimentally and the results show

  18. A Successful Cooperation between Academia and Industry in Higher Rail Education: The Postgraduate Course in “Railway Infrastructure and Systems Engineering” at Sapienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rizzetto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the postgraduate course in “Railway Infrastructure and Systems Engineering” at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, funded by rail companies operating in Italy. It represents a successful example of cooperation between academia and industry in the field of railway transport. The success of the program is attested by its placement (the 90% of the graduates find an employment within six months in the companies which support the course; this percentage reached the 98% in the last three editions and by the fact that every year it receives many more applications (almost 400 last year than the maximum number of students that can attend the course (30. The main factors that make this course successful are its multidisciplinary training and the very close collaboration between the University and partner companies. In fact, the program of each module is designed both by academics and by managers of the companies in order to ensure an up-to-date teaching, which provides both the academic and the industrial point of view of any rail subject; this enables students to obtain a complete vision of the railway system, so to be able to work in any of the partner companies.

  19. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  20. Software Development for Auto-Generation of Interlocking Knowledge base using Artificial Intelligence Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Yun Seok [Nanseoul University (Korea); Kim, JOng Sun [Kwangwoon University (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    This paper proposes IIKBAG (Intelligent Interlocking Knowledge Base Generator) which can build automatically the interlocking knowledge base utilized as the real-time interlocking strategy of the electronic interlocking system in order to enhance it's reliability and expansion. The IIKBAG consists of the inference engine and the knowledge base. The former has an auto-learning function which searches all the train routes for the given station model based on heuristic search technique while dynamically searching the model, and then generates automatically the interlocking patterns obtained from the interlocking relations of signal facilities on the routes. The latter is designed as the structure which the real-time expert system embedded on IS (Interlocking System) can use directly in order to enhances the reliability and accuracy. The IIKBAG is implemented in C computer language for the purpose of the build and interface of the station structure database. And, a typical station model is simulated to prove the validity of the proposed IIKBAG. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Homodyne reflectometer for NBI interlock on Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kenji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Kawahata, Kazuo; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Ejiri, Akira

    2001-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) under low density causes serious damage on vacuum vessel wall. It is necessary to stop NBI when electron density becomes lower than 1x10 19 m -3 . This needs reliable density monitor for NBI interlock. A three-channel homodyne reflectometer was installed on Large Helical Device (LHD) and was used for NBI interlock. 28.5, 34.9 and 40.2 GHz Gunn oscillators were used with O mode injection. Their O mode cut off density correspond to 1x10 19 , 1.5x10 19 and 2x10 19 m -3 respectively. The simple homodyne detection is presently used. When the density reaches to the cutoff density, the reflected signals are detected. The reflected signal consists of DC signal due to local and reflected power, and AC signal due to position of cut off layer and density fluctuation. Since the change of DC signal at lower and higher than cut off density was very small, root mean square (RMS) value of AC signal were used for interlock signal. This interlock system is successfully working from the beginning of the NBI experiments campaign on LHD. (author)

  2. Model for Railway Infrastructure Management Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Stojić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The provision of appropriate quality rail services has an important role in terms of railway infrastructure: quality of infrastructure maintenance, regulation of railway traffic, line capacity, speed, safety, train station organization, the allowable lines load and other infrastructure parameters.The analysis of experiences in transforming the railway systems points to the conclusion that there is no unique solution in terms of choice for institutional rail infrastructure management modes, although more than nineteen years have passed from the beginning of the implementation of the Directive 91/440/EEC. Depending on the approach to the process of restructuring the national railway company, adopted regulations and caution in its implementation, the existence or absence of a clearly defined transport strategy, the willingness to liberalize the transport market, there are several different ways for institutional management of railway infrastructure.A hybrid model for selection of modes of institutional rail infrastructure management was developed based on the theory of artificial intelligence, theory of fuzzy sets and theory of multicriteria optimization.KEY WORDSmanagement, railway infrastructure, organizational structure, hybrid model

  3.  Railway Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Holvad, Torben; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    This paper considers railway operations in 23 European countries during 1995-2001, where a series of reform initiatives were launched by the European Commission, and analyses whether these reform initiatives improved the operating efficiency of the railways. Efficiency is measured using Multi......-directional Efficiency Analysis, which enables investigation of how railway reforms affect the inefficiencies of specific cost drivers. The main findings are that the reform initiatives generally improve operating efficiency but potentially differently for different cost drivers. Specifically, the paper provides clear...

  4. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  5. Computer Based ex-ante Evaluation of the Planned Railway Line between Copenhagen and Ringsted by use of a Decision Support System named COSIMA-DSS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Landex, Alex

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an appraisal study concerning the extension of the main railway line between Copenhagen and Ringsted by use of a software system named COSIMA-DSS. The modelling system is based upon a multi-methodological approach combining a cost-benefit analysis together with a multi......-criteria analysis. One of the key impacts in cost-benefit analyses is the time benefit which depends on the timetabling. The paper describes some of the challenges related to the calculation of the time benefits and how the time benefits can be implemented in the decision support system. At the end of the paper...

  6. Interdisciplinary safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems based on the functional resonance accident model: An application to railway trafficsupervision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.belmonte@transport.alstom.co [Alstom Transport, 48 rue Albert Dhalenne, 93482 Saint-Ouen cedex (France); Schoen, Walter [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, Laboratoire Heudiasyc, Centre de Recherches de Royallieu, BP20529, 60205 Compiegne cedex (France); Heurley, Laurent [Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Equipe Cognition, Langage, Emotion et Acquisition (CLEA), EA 4296, UFR de Philosophie, Sciences Humaines et Sociales, Chemin du Thil, 80025 Amiens, Cedex 1 (France); Capel, Robert [Alstom Transport, 48 rue Albert Dhalenne, 93482 Saint-Ouen cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents an application of functional resonance accident models (FRAM) for the safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems, i.e. systems which include not only technological, but also human and organizational components. The supervision of certain industrial domains provides a good example of such systems, because although more and more actions for piloting installations are now automatized, there always remains a decision level (at least in the management of degraded modes) involving human behavior and organizations. The field of application of the study presented here is railway traffic supervision, using modern automatic train supervision (ATS) systems. Examples taken from railway traffic supervision illustrate the principal advantage of FRAM in comparison to classical safety analysis models, i.e. their ability to take into account technical as well as human and organizational aspects within a single model, thus allowing a true multidisciplinary cooperation between specialists from the different domains involved. A FRAM analysis is used to interpret experimental results obtained from a real ATS system linked to a railway simulator that places operators (experimental subjects) in simulated situations involving incidents. The first results show a significant dispersion in performances among different operators when detecting incidents. Some subsequent work in progress aims to make these 'performance conditions' more homogeneous, mainly by ergonomic modifications. It is clear that the current human-machine interface (HMI) in ATS systems (a legacy of past technologies that used LED displays) has reached its limits and needs to be improved, for example, by highlighting the most pertinent information for a given situation (and, conversely, by removing irrelevant information likely to distract operators).

  7. Interdisciplinary safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems based on the functional resonance accident model: An application to railway trafficsupervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte, Fabien; Schoen, Walter; Heurley, Laurent; Capel, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of functional resonance accident models (FRAM) for the safety analysis of complex socio-technological systems, i.e. systems which include not only technological, but also human and organizational components. The supervision of certain industrial domains provides a good example of such systems, because although more and more actions for piloting installations are now automatized, there always remains a decision level (at least in the management of degraded modes) involving human behavior and organizations. The field of application of the study presented here is railway traffic supervision, using modern automatic train supervision (ATS) systems. Examples taken from railway traffic supervision illustrate the principal advantage of FRAM in comparison to classical safety analysis models, i.e. their ability to take into account technical as well as human and organizational aspects within a single model, thus allowing a true multidisciplinary cooperation between specialists from the different domains involved. A FRAM analysis is used to interpret experimental results obtained from a real ATS system linked to a railway simulator that places operators (experimental subjects) in simulated situations involving incidents. The first results show a significant dispersion in performances among different operators when detecting incidents. Some subsequent work in progress aims to make these 'performance conditions' more homogeneous, mainly by ergonomic modifications. It is clear that the current human-machine interface (HMI) in ATS systems (a legacy of past technologies that used LED displays) has reached its limits and needs to be improved, for example, by highlighting the most pertinent information for a given situation (and, conversely, by removing irrelevant information likely to distract operators).

  8. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    The adaptation of commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel has required the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated in a commercial robot which was modified and with additional interlocks into the existing robotic control system. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem in the Secure Automated Fabrication facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  9. THE RAILWAYS THE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sout'h Africa's armed forces were small, and their material resources ... scheme, contingency planning proceeded. On the outbreak of ... hannesburg); a Railway Operating Company; a Mechanical .... ded his verdict that from the points of view.

  10. National synchrotron light source medical personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buda, S.; Gmur, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-01-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated

  11. NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE MEDICAL PERSONNEL PROTECTION INTERLOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BUDA,S.; GMUR,N.F.; LARSON,R.; THOMLINSON,W.

    1998-11-03

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated.

  12. The Design and Implementation of Smart Monitoring System for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Cab Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Hairui Wang; Junfu Yu

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, organizations use IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee technology to deliver solution in variety areas including home environment monitoring. ZigBee technology has advantages on low-cost, low power consumption and self-forming. With the rapid expansion of the Internet, there is the requirement for remote monitoring large-scale railway maintenance equipment cab. This paper discusses the disadvantages of the existing smart monitoring system, and proposes a solution. A ZigBee wireless senso...

  13. Improving Punctuality and Transfer Reliability by Railway Timetable Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch railway network is operated close to capacity with the current safety system. This leaves little space for control by process operators by which a delayed train can cause severe delay propagation. The NS currently invest a large amount in punctuality improvement of the railway operations.

  14. Application of data clustering to railway delay pattern recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2018-01-01

    K-means clustering is employed to identify recurrent delay patterns on a high traffic railway line north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The clusters identify behavioral patterns in the very large (“big data”) data sets generated automatically and continuously by the railway signal system. The results re...

  15. Efficient Development and Verification of Safe Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2013-01-01

    the monitoring process; hydraulic absorbers as dampers to dissipate the energy of oscillations in railway electric equipment; development of train fare calculation and adjustment systems using VDM++; efficient development and verification of safe railway control software; and evolution of the connectivity...

  16. The Potential of a Cascaded TEG System for Waste Heat Usage in Railway Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrecht, Sebastian; Beitelschmidt, Michael

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on the conceptual design and optimization of a near series prototype of a high-power thermoelectric generator system (TEG system) for diesel-electric locomotives. The replacement of the silencer in the exhaust line enables integration with already existing vehicles. However, compliance with the technical and legal frameworks and the assembly space requirements is just as important as the limited exhaust back pressure, the high power density and the low life cycle costs. A special emphasis is given to the comparison of cascaded two-stage Bi2Te3 and Mg2Si0.4Sn0.6/MnSi1.81 modules with single-stage Bi2Te3 modules, both manufactured in lead-frame technology. In addition to the numerous, partly competing boundary conditions for the use in rail vehicles, the additional degree of freedom from the cascaded thermoelectric modules (TEM) is considered. The problem is investigated by coupling one-dimensional multi-domain simulations with an optimization framework using a genetic algorithm. The achievable electrical power of the single-stage system is significantly higher, at 3.2 kW, than the performance of the two-stage system (2.5 kW). Although the efficiency of the two-stage system is 44.2% higher than the single-stage system, the overall power output is 22.8% lower. This is because the lower power density and the lower number of TEM more than compensates the better efficiency. Hence, the available installation space, and thus the power density, is a critical constraint for the design of TEG systems. Furthermore, for applications recovering exhaust gas enthalpy, the large temperature drop across the heat exchanger is characteristic and must be considered carefully within the design process.

  17. The Potential of a Cascaded TEG System for Waste Heat Usage in Railway Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrecht, Sebastian; Beitelschmidt, Michael

    2018-06-01

    This work focuses on the conceptual design and optimization of a near series prototype of a high-power thermoelectric generator system (TEG system) for diesel-electric locomotives. The replacement of the silencer in the exhaust line enables integration with already existing vehicles. However, compliance with the technical and legal frameworks and the assembly space requirements is just as important as the limited exhaust back pressure, the high power density and the low life cycle costs. A special emphasis is given to the comparison of cascaded two-stage Bi2Te3 and Mg2Si0.4Sn0.6/MnSi1.81 modules with single-stage Bi2Te3 modules, both manufactured in lead-frame technology. In addition to the numerous, partly competing boundary conditions for the use in rail vehicles, the additional degree of freedom from the cascaded thermoelectric modules (TEM) is considered. The problem is investigated by coupling one-dimensional multi-domain simulations with an optimization framework using a genetic algorithm. The achievable electrical power of the single-stage system is significantly higher, at 3.2 kW, than the performance of the two-stage system (2.5 kW). Although the efficiency of the two-stage system is 44.2% higher than the single-stage system, the overall power output is 22.8% lower. This is because the lower power density and the lower number of TEM more than compensates the better efficiency. Hence, the available installation space, and thus the power density, is a critical constraint for the design of TEG systems. Furthermore, for applications recovering exhaust gas enthalpy, the large temperature drop across the heat exchanger is characteristic and must be considered carefully within the design process.

  18. Parallel Evolutionary Optimization of Multibody Systems with Application to Railway Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, Peter [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: eberhard@ltm.uni-erlangen.de; Dignath, Florian [University of Stuttgart, Institute B of Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: fd@mechb.uni-stuttgart.de; Kuebler, Lars [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Institute of Applied Mechanics (Germany)], E-mail: kuebler@ltm.uni-erlangen.de

    2003-03-15

    The optimization of multibody systems usually requires many costly criteria computations since the equations of motion must be evaluated by numerical time integration for each considered design. For actively controlled or flexible multibody systems additional difficulties arise as the criteria may contain non-differentiable points or many local minima. Therefore, in this paper a stochastic evolution strategy is used in combination with parallel computing in order to reduce the computation times whilst keeping the inherent robustness. For the parallelization a master-slave approach is used in a heterogeneous workstation/PC cluster. The pool-of-tasks concept is applied in order to deal with the frequently changing workloads of different machines in the cluster. In order to analyze the performance of the parallel optimization method, the suspension of an ICE passenger coach, modeled as an elastic multibody system, is optimized simultaneously with regard to several criteria including vibration damping and a criterion related to safety against derailment. The iterative and interactive nature of a typical optimization process for technical systems is emphasized.

  19. Parallel Evolutionary Optimization of Multibody Systems with Application to Railway Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, Peter; Dignath, Florian; Kuebler, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The optimization of multibody systems usually requires many costly criteria computations since the equations of motion must be evaluated by numerical time integration for each considered design. For actively controlled or flexible multibody systems additional difficulties arise as the criteria may contain non-differentiable points or many local minima. Therefore, in this paper a stochastic evolution strategy is used in combination with parallel computing in order to reduce the computation times whilst keeping the inherent robustness. For the parallelization a master-slave approach is used in a heterogeneous workstation/PC cluster. The pool-of-tasks concept is applied in order to deal with the frequently changing workloads of different machines in the cluster. In order to analyze the performance of the parallel optimization method, the suspension of an ICE passenger coach, modeled as an elastic multibody system, is optimized simultaneously with regard to several criteria including vibration damping and a criterion related to safety against derailment. The iterative and interactive nature of a typical optimization process for technical systems is emphasized

  20. The Design and Implementation of Smart Monitoring System for Large-Scale Railway Maintenance Equipment Cab Based on ZigBee Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairui Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, organizations use IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee technology to deliver solution in variety areas including home environment monitoring. ZigBee technology has advantages on low-cost, low power consumption and self-forming. With the rapid expansion of the Internet, there is the requirement for remote monitoring large-scale railway maintenance equipment cab. This paper discusses the disadvantages of the existing smart monitoring system, and proposes a solution. A ZigBee wireless sensor network smart monitoring system and Wi-Fi network is integrated through a home gateway to increase the system flexibility. At the same time the home gateway cooperated with a pre- processing system provide a flexible user interface, and the security and safety of the smart monitoring system. To testify the efficiency of the proposed system, the temperature and humidity sensors and light sensors have developed and evaluated in the smart monitoring system.

  1. High Speed Rail Learning System (HSRLS – Taking Advantage of Online Technologies in Railway Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi T. Lautala, Ph.D., P.E.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States has taken initial steps toward developing a high speed rail (HSR network, but the domestic workforce experience and institutional knowledge necessary for the planning, design, construction, and operations of HSR is underdeveloped. This paper describes and provides preliminary assessment of the High Speed Rail Learning System (HSRLS, a demonstration project that seeks to address gaps in HSR knowledge and skills in the US. The HSRLS developers designed an online education system to serve as a clearinghouse for rail-related information and content, connect teachers, trainers, and students at pre-, and postgraduate levels, and to collect demographic and professional information on groups and individuals interested in HSR. The paper explores the technology review, selection process, and content developed. Website visits and demographic information from over 4,000 unique individuals and 600 HSRLS course registrations are analyzed and assessed.

  2. Embedded security system for multi-modal surveillance in a railway carriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouaoui, Rhalem; Audigier, Romaric; Ambellouis, Sébastien; Capman, François; Benhadda, Hamid; Joudrier, Stéphanie; Sodoyer, David; Lamarque, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Public transport security is one of the main priorities of the public authorities when fighting against crime and terrorism. In this context, there is a great demand for autonomous systems able to detect abnormal events such as violent acts aboard passenger cars and intrusions when the train is parked at the depot. To this end, we present an innovative approach which aims at providing efficient automatic event detection by fusing video and audio analytics and reducing the false alarm rate compared to classical stand-alone video detection. The multi-modal system is composed of two microphones and one camera and integrates onboard video and audio analytics and fusion capabilities. On the one hand, for detecting intrusion, the system relies on the fusion of "unusual" audio events detection with intrusion detections from video processing. The audio analysis consists in modeling the normal ambience and detecting deviation from the trained models during testing. This unsupervised approach is based on clustering of automatically extracted segments of acoustic features and statistical Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) modeling of each cluster. The intrusion detection is based on the three-dimensional (3D) detection and tracking of individuals in the videos. On the other hand, for violent events detection, the system fuses unsupervised and supervised audio algorithms with video event detection. The supervised audio technique detects specific events such as shouts. A GMM is used to catch the formant structure of a shout signal. Video analytics use an original approach for detecting aggressive motion by focusing on erratic motion patterns specific to violent events. As data with violent events is not easily available, a normality model with structured motions from non-violent videos is learned for one-class classification. A fusion algorithm based on Dempster-Shafer's theory analyses the asynchronous detection outputs and computes the degree of belief of each probable event.

  3. Parameter Optimization and Operating Strategy of a TEG System for Railway Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heghmanns, A.; Wilbrecht, S.; Beitelschmidt, M.; Geradts, K.

    2016-03-01

    A thermoelectric generator (TEG) system demonstrator for diesel electric locomotives with the objective of reducing the mechanical load on the thermoelectric modules (TEM) is developed and constructed to validate a one-dimensional thermo-fluid flow simulation model. The model is in good agreement with the measurements and basis for the optimization of the TEG's geometry by a genetic multi objective algorithm. The best solution has a maximum power output of approx. 2.7 kW and does not exceed the maximum back pressure of the diesel engine nor the maximum TEM hot side temperature. To maximize the reduction of the fuel consumption, an operating strategy regarding the system power output for the TEG system is developed. Finally, the potential consumption reduction in passenger and freight traffic operating modes is estimated under realistic driving conditions by means of a power train and lateral dynamics model. The fuel savings are between 0.5% and 0.7%, depending on the driving style.

  4. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  5. Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutter Dóra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

  6. Synthesis of interlocked molecules by olefin metathesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Paul Gregory

    polyammonium scaffold. Diolefin polyether fragments were coordinated and "clipped" around the ammonium sites within the polymer backbone using ring-closing olefin metathesis, giving the molecular "charm bracelet". Confirmation of the interlocked nature of the product was achieved via 1H NMR spectroscopy and two-dimensional diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy. A simple strategy for a one-pot, multi-component synthesis of polyrotaxanes using acyclic diene metathesis polymerization was developed. The polyrotaxanes were characterized by traditional 1H NMR spectroscopy as well as size exclusion chromatography, and the interlocked topology was confirmed using two-dimension diffusion-ordered NMR spectroscopy. The dynamic, self-correcting nature of the ADMET polymerization was also explored through the equilibration of a capped polyammonium polymer in the presence of dibenzo-24-crown-8 ether and olefin metathesis catalysts. The efficiency and ease with which these mechanically interlocked macromolecules can be assembled should facilitate rapid modulation to achieve versatile polyrotaxane architectures. Flexible, switchable [c2]daisy-chain dimers (DCDs) were synthesized, where the macromer ammonium binding site was adjacent to the crown-type recognition structure and separated from the cap by an alkyl chain. A DCD of this topology is expected to have an extended structure in the bound conformation (when the ammonium was coordinated to the crown). Several different macromer candidates were designed to allow access to DCDs with flexible alkyl chains between the ammonium binding site and the cap, and a number of synthetic routes were explored in an effort to access these challenging materials. While the first generation DCD structure proved to be unstable due to a labile ester linkage, work is continuing toward the development of several cap structures in an effort to replace the ester linkage with an ether linkage, which, in the second generation model systems, has proven much more stable

  7. Integration of uniform design and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization to the robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system under different wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lee, Cheng-Kang

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a systematic method, integrating the uniform design (UD) of experiments and quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO), to solve the problem of a robust design for a railway vehicle suspension system. Based on the new nonlinear creep model derived from combining Hertz contact theory, Kalker's linear theory and a heuristic nonlinear creep model, the modeling and dynamic analysis of a 24 degree-of-freedom railway vehicle system were investigated. The Lyapunov indirect method was used to examine the effects of suspension parameters, wheel conicities and wheel rolling radii on critical hunting speeds. Generally, the critical hunting speeds of a vehicle system resulting from worn wheels with different wheel rolling radii are lower than those of a vehicle system having original wheels without different wheel rolling radii. Because of worn wheels, the critical hunting speed of a running railway vehicle substantially declines over the long term. For safety reasons, it is necessary to design the suspension system parameters to increase the robustness of the system and decrease the sensitive of wheel noises. By applying UD and QPSO, the nominal-the-best signal-to-noise ratio of the system was increased from -48.17 to -34.05 dB. The rate of improvement was 29.31%. This study has demonstrated that the integration of UD and QPSO can successfully reveal the optimal solution of suspension parameters for solving the robust design problem of a railway vehicle suspension system.

  8. DC Cable for Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  9. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  10. Task forces for the European railway: trains and rail systems of the future; Task Force der EG: Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonk, W. [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General VII Transport

    1999-02-01

    To achieve greatest benefit from the R and D activities of the EC, the Commission introduced the concept to task forces in 1995. One of these is concerned with 'trains and rail systems of the future'. This was to be seen as an element in a far-reaching political framework guideline, so bringing together hitherto separate strands of railway-related transport with industrial and research policy, contributing to revival of the sector. The main objective of these joint efforts was to contribute to radical structural and cultural changes on the railway so as - on the basis of market orientation, quality demands and cost efficiency - to give greater weight among the population to future transport challenges. This article reviews the main results attained by way of the task force and how these will be implemented in the 5th framework programme of the European Community. (orig.) [German] Um mit den FuE-Aktivitaeten der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft groessten Nutzen zu erzielen, richtete die Kommission im Jahre 1995 das Konzept von Task Forces ein. Eine dieser Task Forces beschaeftigte sich mit dem Thema 'Zuege und Eisenbahnsysteme der Zukunft'. Es war als ein Element einer weitgesteckten politischen Rahmenrichtlinie anzusehen, wobei es die vorher getrennten Straenge der eisenbahngebundenen Verkehre mit der Industrie- und Forschungspolitik zusammenbrachte und dadurch zur Wiederbelebung des Sektors beitragen konnte. (orig.)

  11. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  12. Impacts from electric railway operation on the power supply system characteristic; Einfluss des elektrischen Bahnbetriebs auf das Tagesbelastungsdiagramm der Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, C. [Militaerhochschule fuer Verkehr ``Todor Kableshkov``, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    Some characteristic figures are derived from daily load diagrams of electric railways, analized and compared with those of public power supply load diagram, especially with regard to sharing in base - medium - peak load and in day - night times, and optimizations are proposed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer die Tagesbelastungsdiagramme elektrischer Bahnen werden einige Kennziffern gebildet, analysiert und mit denen des Tagesbelastungsdiagramms der Landesenergieversorgung verglichen, insbesondere hinsichtlich der Verteilung des Bahnenergiebedarfs auf Grund-, Mittel- und Spitzenlast sowie auf die verschiedenen Tages- und Nachtzeitzonen. Daraus werden Optimierungsvorschlaege abgeleitet. (orig.)

  13. Subcontracting Railway Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    railway infrastructure manager (InfraMan), whichis subcontracting maintenance tasks to other companies. InfraMan has implemented various central elements in managing their subcontractors. The latter are required to present a safety plan as part of their bid, they must be approved if they are to be awarded...

  14. Electromagnetic compatibility in railways. Analysis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogunsola, Ade [Parsons Group International, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Mariscotti, Andrea [Genoa Univ. (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) applied to railway systems. Focuses on the principles and application of EMC concepts to railway signalling, communications, power/traction and rolling stocks. Written by leading experts in the field. A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process from the beginning. The link is represented by standards and their correct application, as a support to analysis, testing and demonstration.

  15. A few discussion on expert system development for electrical power systems-optimization of an inverter-motor of a railway traction chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fezzani, D.; Piquet, H.; Foch, H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with the automatic design of static converters and electrical machines. Facing the multitude of such devices (converters-machines), the choice of the appropriate converter or machine is a delicate problem. A high level of expertise is required to determine the best structure for the considered application. This choice could be rapidly made if one had a system which incorporates a great knowledge of converters, machines and control methods. Firstly, the authors review the realized studies, then they propose this methodology for a concrete case in order to optimize an inverter-motor of a railway traction chain. Constraints are described in terms of input and output performances (losses, current,..). These data are analyzed by using design rules and methods which allow the decrease of the manufacture cost of the inverter-motor. Rules and methods are implemented on a workstation by means of an ''expert system shell'' SMECI. The article proposes several tracks which involve organization, methodology, confirmation and implementation of a tool supporting a method. This process of implementation is the most efficient to fit into a constant process of improvement which is supported by the return on experience and by the evolution of the state of the art. (orig.)

  16. Design of railway obstacle detection prototype

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xungu, Sipho A

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Survey Inspection Device (SID) test prototype platform to serve as an early warning system for locomotives and was to travel 2km ahead of a locomotive in order to inspect the railway for possible obstacles such as human beings, livestock and collisions...

  17. Design of test JIG for centralized interlock and protection module of ITER-India Gyrotron Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Vipal; Rao, S.L.; Edappala, Praveenlal; Rajpal, Rachana

    2017-01-01

    Fast Interlock and protection system plays very crucial role in ensuring the safe and reliable operation of high power RF sources such as a Gyrotron system. Critical Protection Interlocks are generally implemented using hardwired components and are required to have a response time as fast as < 10 μs. In this context, an Industrial grade prototype Centralized Interlock and Protection Module (CIM) based on ITER-India design has been developed successfully with the help of local industry. This paper presents the complete requirements, approach, detailed design concept and current status of Test JIG in detail

  18. Development of a super high speed railway and ML 100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Y

    1973-07-01

    A history of the development progress is given, followed by a discussion of the propulsion system for a super high speed railway-structure. Induction linear motors and synchronous linear motors are discussed in some detail. The maintenance system is then described (basic test apparatus-rotary type superconductive magnetic force maintenance system, etc.). Experiments using a linear running superconductive magnetic test car are discussed. Developments of super high speed railways in America, France, England, West Germany, etc. are described.

  19. 21 CFR 876.4590 - Interlocking urethral sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interlocking urethral sound. 876.4590 Section 876...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4590 Interlocking urethral sound. (a) Identification. An interlocking urethral sound is a device that consists of two metal sounds...

  20. National Synchrotron Light Source medical personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buda, S.; Gmuer, N.F.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1998-11-01

    This report is founded on reports written in April 1987 by Robert Hettel for angiography operations at the Stanford Synchrotron Research Laboratory (SSRL) and a subsequent report covering angiography operations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS); BNL Informal Report 47681, June 1992. The latter report has now been rewritten in order to accurately reflect the design and installation of a new medical safety system at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). Known originally as the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI), this system has been modified to incorporate other medical imaging research programs on the same beamline and thus the name has been changed to the more generic Medical Personnel Protection Interlock (MPPI). This report will deal almost exclusively with the human imaging (angiography, bronchography, mammography) aspects of the safety system, but will briefly explain the modular aspects of the system allowing other medical experiments to be incorporated. This MPPI report is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system. The general overview is presented in Section 1.0, MPPI Operational Mode and Procedures. The various MPPI components are described in detail in Section 2.0. Section 3.0 presents some simplified logic diagrams and accompanying text. This section was written to allow readers to become familiar with the logic system without having to work through the entire set of detailed engineering drawings listed in the Appendix. Detailed logic specifications are given in Section 4.0. The Appendix also contains copies of the current MPPI interlock test procedures for Setup and Patient Modes.

  1. Research and new technologies in transportation. Vol. 1. High-speed railway systems: Maglev technology. Forschung und neue Technologien im Verkehr. Bd. 1. Schnellbahnsysteme: Magnetbandtechnolgie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    High-speed magnetic levitation technology opens up a new dimension for long-distance passenger transport with speeds ranging between ground travel and flying. The status of development and test results of the German TRANSRAPID magnetic levitation system and corresponding activities abroad will be reported on. Both the new vehicle technology of the TRANSRAPID 07 and results of application studies at home and abroad will be presented. High-speed magnetic railway technology - status and development perspectives; readiness for service, safety and reliability, application studies. The book comprises 11 papers read at the symposium on the subject of high-speed trains. 14 papers have been recorded separately in this database. (orig./HW).

  2. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  3. Development of rubberized geopolymer interlocking bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar S Mohammed

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Waste tires contribute badly to the environment on a huge scale as they are bulky, non-biodegradable, and prone to fire and being a shelter for mosquitos and other insects. This paper reports on a novel approach towards the development of rubberized brick by utilizing crumb rubber as the sole fine aggregate in the production of geopolymer interlocking bricks. The response surface methodology (RSM from Design Experts software has been used to determine the numbers of trial mixes and their corresponding ingredients. A total of thirteen trial mixes were carried out and tested for compressive strength and the RSM model was developed to predict the design mix based on the targeted compressive strength. The mix design was obtained to be an 18 M for NaOH and 0.8 solution to fly ash ratio. The geopolymer interlocking rubberized bricks were then produced and tested for compressive strength, dimension, modulus of rupture, water absorption, initial rate of absorption, and efflorescence. The geopolymer interlocking rubberised bricks presented a low compressive and flexural strength and a high-water absorption capacity. The bricks were rated as non-effloresced and classified as 3rd class bricks which can be used as non-load bearing material. It is recommended to utilize nano silica in order to increase the strength of the brick. Keywords: Rubberized bricks, Crumb rubber, Interlocking bricks, Geopolymer, Response surface methodology

  4. Lattice modeling of aggregate interlocking in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliáš, Jan; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    roughness, i.e.what is termed aggregate interlocking. We demonstrate this enhancement via the simulation of mixed-mode experiments on concrete performed at a laboratory at the Technical University of Denmark. Double notched concrete specimens were initially pre-cracked in tension. Then, various combinations...

  5. Controls and interlocks for a prototype 1MHz beam chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, G.; Bishop, D.; Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1991-05-01

    A prototype 1 MHz beam chopper for the proposed KAON Factory at TRIUMF has been constructed. The chopper is an electric field device, driven by a tetrode based pulser, for deflecting a charged particle beam. Associated with the tetrode used in the prototype design are high voltage power supplies for the electrodes. We use an FET based grid pulser and a sequencer capable of accurate digital control of pulse timing to 0.4 ns. A safety interlock and control system using a programmable controller with fibre optic links has been built. This has given us the versatility required in a prototype system. (Author) 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Management of low adhesion on railway tracks in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Andersen, Henning Boje

    with purely technical aspects of e.g. braking and WSP systems, but focus on the implied requirements for organisations and drivers. The report is largely based on literature describing measures taken by existing railway organisations, comprising, besides a few journal article, largely reports by railway...... incident in 2011 in Denmark and the braking ability of a specific type of train (Havarikommissionen 2012), but since expanded to encompass general problems with low adhesion (Nielsen et al. 2012). This report thus addresses problems that are already well‐known to Danish railway organisations...

  7. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  8. Incorporation of safety interlocks in commercial robotics for handling of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, F.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current robotic systems have been developed primarily for the automotive and electronic industry. The adaptation of these commercial robotic systems to applications in the manufacturing of nuclear fuel requires the addition of safety interlocks as to the handling and accountability of nuclear materials. Also, additional safety interlocks are required when the robots are operated in containment enclosures that are environmentally sealed. Interlocks have been incorporated into a commercial robot. The robotic system has been installed in the containment enclosure as part of the pellet storage subsystem into the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) facility currently being built by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The system has been installed in the Fuel Cycle Plant and is scheduled for initial operational testing in 1986

  9. A modelling approach for railway overhead line equipment asset management

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsby, Paul; Remenyte-Prescott, Rasa; Andrews, John

    2017-01-01

    The Overhead Line Equipment (OLE) is a critical sub-system of the 25kV AC overhead railway electrification system. If OLE asset management strategies can be evaluated using a whole lifecycle cost analysis that considers degradation processes and maintenance activities of the OLE components, the investment required to deliver the level of performance desired by railway customers and regulators can be based on evidence from the analysis results. A High Level Petri Net (HLPN) model, proposed in ...

  10. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  11. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  12. Railway traffic noise pollution. Source, propagation and abatement systems; L'inquinamento acustico prodotto da traffico ferroviario. Origine, propagazione e sistemi di attenuazione. Progetto Apparati silenti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchi, M.; Salernitano, E. [ENEA, Div. Nuovi Materiali, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Noise pollution is one of the hardest environmental problems connected with railway transport system nowadays. The recent grow of the railways network has caused an increased attention to the acoustic levels along the rail tracks, especially in residential areas. This review aims to supply a synthesis of the issues related to railway noise pollution, including economical, social and medical aspects. Italian legislation about environmental noise and its effect on population is based on the law n. 447/1995 and establishes the fundamental principles on both outdoor and indoor environmental protection from acoustic pollution. Many norms followed this statutory law, trying to cover all areas of the noise related problems. A possible solution to the railway traffic noise mitigation should be based on the reduction of the noise produced by trains (active action on the noise sources) and on the use of acoustic barriers beside the track (passive systems). This work describes noise generation and propagation mechanisms as well as sound attenuation with natural and artificial obstacles. Many screening configurations are described and different materials are compared on the basis of technical (experimental measurements and analytical results), economical and feasibility considerations. [Italian] Il problema della rumorosita' connessa all'esercizio di veicoli ferroviari e' diventato di notevole importanza da quando, col diffondersi dei trasporti di mssa ad alta velocita', e' aumentata la sensibilita' della collettivita' al mantenimento di bassi livelli di inquinamento acustico, soprattutto in zone abitative e residenziali. Il presente lavoro si propone di fornire un quadro sintetico, ma esaustivo, delle problematiche connesse al rumore ferroviario, dalle implicazioni sociali, agli aspetti piu' prettamente tecnici. Viene innanzitutto affrontato il tema della normativa nel campo del fonoinquinamento prodotto da rotabili, con riferimento

  13. An economic evaluation of setting up physical barriers in railway stations for preventing railway injury: evidence from Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, C K; Yip, P S F

    2011-10-01

    Setting physical barriers, for example platform screen doors (PSDs), has been proven to be effective in preventing falls onto railway tracks, but its cost-effectiveness is not known. For economic evaluation of public health interventions, the importance of including non-health factors has been noted despite a lack of empirical studies. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of PSDs, which are installed in part of the Hong Kong railway system, for preventing railway injuries. Data on railway injuries from 1997 to 2007 were obtained from the railway operators. Poisson regression was used to examine the risk reduction. Two incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated to assess the cost-effectiveness based on (1) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) only and (2) DALYs with potential fare revenue and passengers' waiting time lost due to railway circulation collapse. The PSD installation has effectively reduced railway injuries (adjusted 5-year average percentage change: -68.8%, pfair and appropriate value of the intervention's cost-effectiveness is needed.

  14. Elaboration of the configuration and programming of the interlocks system of the TRIGA Mark III reactor; Elaboracion de la configuracion y programacion del sistema de interbloqueos del reactor Triga Mark III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia C, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    The modernization of the TRIGA Mark III reactor interlock system requires a system that provides high reliability, flexibility and ease of operation during reactor operation. With this modernization of the system, is intended to prevent, control and mitigate the causes of probable accidents reported in the reactor accident analysis. On the other hand, is foreseen the ease reactor operation in a simple, safe and efficient way. The programmable logic controller can be programmed by programming instructions using simple language and easy to develop, these can be modified from a computer using the programming software. In addition, another of the advantages offered by the controller is that can be modified from a touch screen (human-machine interface) that allows adjustment, without the need to use programming software and diagnostic functions during the process. As a result of the present work, a situation of improvement in the reactor operation was generated, facilitating the handling of the bridge and increasing the efficiency of the system in the execution of the operating conditions of the installations external to the reactor. A modern, more reliable and much less expensive system was achieved than the previous one, avoiding that the maintenance to the system generates high expenses. With respect to the development of the application programming, a control was implemented that allows to select a zone of the five that have inside the pool to carry out the displacement of automatic way and later to be located in that zone, having in this way a greater efficiency and ease in bridge control. (Author)

  15. Programmable controllers replace relays in MFTF-B personnel-safety interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branum, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for implementing personnel safety interlocks logic using industrial-type programmable controllers. The logic for all personnel safety interlocks except those totally internal to a subsystem is implemented in two non-redundant controllers. A high degree of fail-safe reliability is achieved by augmenting the protective features intrinsic to each controller with those provided by a small amount of external support hardware. The controllers are interfaced to the host computer system via fiber optic data links to enable display of interlock and overall system status on the control room graphic displays. When fully implemented, the controllers will perform the equivalent of over 2000 discreet relay functions

  16. A Bayesian Network methodology for railway risk, safety and decision support

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboob, Qamar

    2014-01-01

    For railways, risk analysis is carried out to identify hazardous situations and their consequences. Until recently, classical methods such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA) were applied in modelling the linear and logically deterministic aspects of railway risks, safety and reliability. However, it has been proven that modern railway systems are rather complex, involving multi-dependencies between system variables and uncertainties about these dependencies. For train ...

  17. Study on high reliability safety valve for railway vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Ruikun; Zhang, Shixi; Xu, BuDu

    2017-09-01

    Now, the realization of most of the functions of the railway vehicles rely on compressed air, so the demand for compressed air is growing higher and higher. This safety valve is a protection device for pressure limitation and pressure relief in an air supply system of railway vehicles. I am going to introduce the structure, operating principle, research and development process of the safety valve designed by our company in this document.

  18. Distributed optical fiber sensors for integrated monitoring of railway infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minardo, Aldo; Coscetta, Agnese; Porcaro, Giuseppe; Giannetta, Daniele; Bernini, Romeo; Zeni, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    We propose the application of a distributed optical fiber sensor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering, as an integrated system for safety monitoring of railway infrastructures. The strain distribution was measured dynamically along a 60 meters length of rail track, as well as along a 3-m stone arch bridge. The results indicate that distributed sensing technology is able to provide useful information in railway traffic and safety monitoring.

  19. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Railways Analysis and Management

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunsola, Ade

    2013-01-01

    A railway is a complex distributed engineering system: the construction of a new railway or the modernisation of a existing one requires a deep understanding of the constitutive components and their interaction, inside the system itself and towards the outside world. The former covers the various subsystems (featuring a complex mix of high power sources, sensitive safety critical systems, intentional transmitters, etc.) and their interaction, including the specific functions and their relevance to safety. The latter represents all the additional possible external victims and sources of electromagnetic interaction. EMC thus starts from a comprehension of the emissions and immunity characteristics and the interactions between sources and victims, with a strong relationship to electromagnetics and to system modeling. On the other hand, the said functions are achieved and preserved and their relevance for safety is adequately handled, if the related requirements are well posed and managed throughout the process f...

  20. High speed railway track dynamics models, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lei, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically summarizes the latest research findings on high-speed railway track dynamics, made by the author and his research team over the past decade. It explores cutting-edge issues concerning the basic theory of high-speed railways, covering the dynamic theories, models, algorithms and engineering applications of the high-speed train and track coupling system. Presenting original concepts, systematic theories and advanced algorithms, the book places great emphasis on the precision and completeness of its content. The chapters are interrelated yet largely self-contained, allowing readers to either read through the book as a whole or focus on specific topics. It also combines theories with practice to effectively introduce readers to the latest research findings and developments in high-speed railway track dynamics. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, postgraduates and engineers in the fields of civil engineering, transportation, highway & railway engineering.

  1. Value for railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sameni, Melody Khadem; Preston, John M.

    2012-01-01

    to analyze the efficiency of operators in transforming inputs of allocated capacity of infrastructure and franchise payments into valuable passenger service outputs while avoiding delays. By addressing operational and economic aspects of capacity utilization simultaneously, the paper deviates from existing...... DEA work on the economic efficiency of railways by considering a new combination of input-output that also incorporates quality of service. The constant and variable returns to scale models are applied to the case study of franchised passenger operators in Great Britain. The follow-up Tobit regression...

  2. Case for railway electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, A.N.

    1981-06-10

    The publication earlier this year of the joint BR-DTp final report of the review of main line electrification represented the culmination of over two years work; the study is almost certainly the most complex and comprehensive of this type ever undertaken. Heavy reliance on computer models allowed business analysis over the 34-year timespan of the review to extend to a level of detail that was not expected at the time of the last such investigation, the 1931 Weir Report of the Committee on Main Line Railway Electrification. It is encouraging that, despite the sweeping changes in both technology and economic conditions during the intervening years, the verdict remains highly favourable.

  3. An innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allotta, B.; D'Adamio, P.; Malvezzi, M.; Pugi, L.; Ridolfi, A.; Rindi, A.; Vettori, G.

    2014-11-01

    In modern railway automatic train protection and automatic train control systems, odometry is a safety relevant on-board subsystem which estimates the instantaneous speed and the travelled distance of the train; a high reliability of the odometry estimate is fundamental, since an error on the train position may lead to a potentially dangerous overestimation of the distance available for braking. To improve the odometry estimate accuracy, data fusion of different inputs coming from a redundant sensor layout may be used. The aim of this work has been developing an innovative localisation algorithm for railway vehicles able to enhance the performances, in terms of speed and position estimation accuracy, of the classical odometry algorithms, such as the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT). The proposed strategy consists of a sensor fusion between the information coming from a tachometer and an Inertial Measurements Unit (IMU). The sensor outputs have been simulated through a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle. The work has provided the development of a custom IMU, designed by ECM S.p.a, in order to meet their industrial and business requirements. The industrial requirements have to be compliant with the European Train Control System (ETCS) standards: the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), a project developed by the European Union to improve the interoperability among different countries, in particular as regards the train control and command systems, fixes some standard values for the odometric (ODO) performance, in terms of speed and travelled distance estimation. The reliability of the ODO estimation has to be taken into account basing on the allowed speed profiles. The results of the currently used ODO algorithms can be improved, especially in case of degraded adhesion conditions; it has been verified in the simulation environment that the results of the proposed localisation algorithm are always compliant with the ERTMS requirements

  4. A Statistical Approach to Planning Reserved Electric Power for Railway Infrastructure Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Brabec, M. (Marek); Pelikán, E. (Emil); Konár, O. (Ondřej); Kasanický, I. (Ivan); Juruš, P. (Pavel); Sadil, J.; Blažek, P.

    2013-01-01

    One of the requirements on railway infrastructure administration is to provide electricity for day-to-day operation of railways. We propose a statistically based approach for the estimation of maximum 15-minute power within a calendar month for a given region. This quantity serves as a basis of contracts between railway infrastructure administration and electricity distribution system operator. We show that optimization of the prediction is possible, based on underlying loss function deriv...

  5. DOMAINS OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC, WHICH NEED THE SAFETY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Procházková

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the railway accidents sources in the Czech Republic on the basis of knowledge on complex system behaviour. It derives seven categories of sources of railway accidents. The individual categories include the accident sources from the same field domain. These domains are: technical related to rail traffic vehicles; technical related to rail infrastructure and railway station; railway operation control – organizational causes; railway operation control – cyber causes; control of rail traffic vehicles; attack on the train; domain legislative and other. The results show that for railway traffic safety improvement, it is necessary to pay attention to all categories, and especially to these that lead to organizational accidents origination.

  6. ECONOMIC EFFECT OF INTRODUCTION OF MODULAR TECHNOLOGY IN RAILWAY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Bilous

    2015-11-01

    rolling stock. Practical implications. The introduction of a modular system in the design, manufacture and operation of rolling stock will lead to a significant breakthrough in the development of the railway sector, reduce the cost of production and maintenance of railway equipment. Together with the inter-company exchange of technology and experience it will contribute to intensification of production and the development of new trends in the railway sector. Value/originality. These data show that the modular technology of the production construction has broad application prospects, while it does not require a significant capital investment. This approach can be applied to various types of rolling stock, as well as, potentially, to other industries. The achievements obtained in the railway sector will find their application in other fields of transport engineering.

  7. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  8. NDT of railway components using induction thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netzelmann, U.; Walle, G.; Ehlen, A.; Lugin, S.; Finckbohner, M.; Bessert, S.

    2016-02-01

    Induction or eddy current thermography is used to detect surface cracks in ferritic steel. The technique is applied to detect surface cracks in rails from a moving test car. Cracks were detected at a train speed between 2 and 15 km/h. An automated demonstrator system for testing railway wheels after production is described. While the wheel is rotated, a robot guides the detection unit consisting of inductor and infrared camera over the surface.

  9. Developing noise control strategies for entire railway networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertli, Jakob

    2006-06-01

    The EU Environmental Noise Directive (2002/49) requires member states to deliver noise maps to the commission by 2007 and action plans by 2008 both for agglomerations as well as for major roads, railways and airports. Noise mitigation projects resulting from action plans are usually very expensive and therefore may threaten the economic viability of the railways in the current harsh competitive transport market, thus hindering sustainable transport policies. It is therefore of vital interest that the action plans and the resulting projects are designed in the most cost-effective way possible. The EU and Union of Railways (UIC) sponsored project Strategies and Tools to Assess and Implement noise Reducing measures for Railway Systems (STAIRRS) recognized this need and developed a tool, with which such optimal solutions can be obtained for entire railway networks. Since data collection is the most expensive part of the analysis, noise mapping data is ideally collected in such a way that it can be used for the calculation of the different scenarios, from which the most cost-effective action plans are chosen. The paper shows how the STAIRRS tool is used for this purpose and how cost-effectiveness considerations have led to optimal railway noise mitigation strategies in Switzerland and have given a basis for noise related decision making in Luxembourg.

  10. Development of Interlocking Masonry Bricks and its’ Structural Behaviour: A Review Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fakih, Amin; Mohammed, Bashar S.; Nuruddin, Fadhil; Nikbakht, Ehsan

    2018-04-01

    Conventional bricks are the most elementary building materials for houses construction. However, the rapid growth in today’s construction industry has obliged the civil engineers in searching for a new building technique that may result in even greater economy, more efficient and durable as an alternative for the conventional brick. Moreover, the high demands for having a speedy and less labour and cost building systems is one of the factor that cause the changes of the masonry conventional systems. These changes have led to improved constructability, performance, and cost as well. Several interlocking bricks has been developed and implemented in building constructions and a number of researches had studied the manufacturing of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour as load bearing and non-load bearing element. This technical paper aims to review the development of interlocking brick and its structural behaviour. In conclusion, the concept of interlocking system has been widely used as a replacement of the conventional system where it has been utilized either as load bearing or non-load bearing masonry system.

  11. Railway noise annoyance on the railway track in northwest slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pultznerova, Alzbeta; Eva, Panulinova; Kucharova, Daniela; Argalasova, Lubica

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of noise caused by railway traffic in a large high-loaded railway track in Northwest Slovakia. The measurements of noise levels generated by trains passing through residential neighborhoods were taken. Noise maps were also calculated showing noise pollution generated by the train traffic. In addition, the annoyance level and sleep disturbance of residents affected by railway noise were evaluated by a validated questionnaire on a pilot sample of 107 respondents living near the important railway track. The measurements indicated that the noise levels generated by the passage of the train were extremely high especially at night, clearly exceeding the nighttime limits of equivalent sound pressure level established by the Decree of the Slovak Ministry of Health (No.549/2007) (L Aeq  = 55 dB). Measurements at one point during the night exceeded the limit values of up to 17.4 dB. The residents reported feeling affected by the noise generated by passing trains, which caused irritability, headache, poor concentration, and insomnia. In addition, 19.64% of the residents claimed that nocturnal noise pollution was the most distressing. The results of bivariate analysis showed a higher risk of annoyance especially for railway noise [OR MH  = 7.80 (4.02-15.14)] and the noise from industry [OR MH  = 3.08 (1.72-5.50)] in the exposed location. The effects of railway traffic on annoyance/sleep and psychosocial well-being were evaluated in a few studies. In accordance with our results the railway noise mostly disturbs sleep and rest of the respondents. The pilot survey showed the importance of sleep and rest disturbance by railway noise and the possibilities of getting worse health condition in the future. Noise abatement measures and strategies should, therefore, be implemented in an effective and manageable way increasing the environmental advantages of rail transport.

  12. A Survey on Robustness in Railway Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Bull, Simon Henry

    2018-01-01

    Planning problems in passenger railway range from long term strategic decision making to the detailed planning of operations.Operations research methods have played an increasing role in this planning process. However, recently more attention has been given to considerations of robustness...... in the quality of solutions to individual planning problems, and of operations in general. Robustness in general is the capacity for some system to absorb or resist changes. In the context of railway robustness it is often taken to be the capacity for operations to continue at some level when faced...... with a disruption such as delay or failure. This has resulted in more attention given to the inclusion of robustness measures and objectives in individual planning problems, and to the providing of tools to ensure operations continue under disrupted situations. In this paper we survey the literature on robustness...

  13. Engineering Task Plan for Hepa Filter Differential Pressure (DP) Fan Interlock Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMONS, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a plan for installation of Differential Pressure (DP) fan interlocks on the primary ventilation systems in selected Tank Farm facilities. This plan contains the engineering tasks required for installation and is summarized by the Acceptance for Beneficial Use list. Individuals responsible for each task are identified and scheduled accordingly

  14. The RF-Station Interlock for the European X-ray laser

    CERN Document Server

    Grevsmühl, T; Duval, P; Hensler, O; Kahl, J; Kaiser, F R; Kretzschmann, A; Rehlich, K; Schwendicke, U; Simrock, S; Weisse, S

    2004-01-01

    The RF-station interlock for the European X-ray laser will be based on a 19"- 3U crate incorporating a controller with the 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor (ALTERA). The main task of the interlock system is to prevent any damage from the components of the RF station and connected cavities. The interlock system must also guarantee a maximum time of operation of the RF stations which implies the implementation of self diagnostics and repair strategies on a module basis. Additional tasks are: collection and temporary storage of status information of the individual channels of the interlock system, transfer of this information to the control system, slow control functions (e.g. HV setting and monitoring) and control of inputs and outputs from and to other subsystems. In this paper we present the implementation using an ALTERA-FPGA running a 32-bit RISC NIOS-processor. Connection to the accelerator main control is provided by Ethernet using BSD-style socket routines based on ALTERA's plugs-library. The layout o...

  15. Rolling Stock Rescheduling in Passenger Railways: Applications in short-term planning and in disruption management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractModern society is highly dependent on a reliable railway system for workforce mobility and easy access to the cities. However, the daily operations of a large passenger railway system are subject to unexpected disruptions such as rolling stock breakdowns or malfunctioning infrastructure.

  16. Estimating Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten W.; Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    Several parameters of importance for estimating emissions from railway traffic are discussed, and typical results presented. Typical emissions factors from diesel engines and electrical power generation are presented, and the effect of differences in national electrical generation sources...

  17. Future Emissions from Railway Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.

    1998-01-01

    In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered. An estim......In investigation of the expected development in factors which influence railway energy consumption and emissions. Traffic factors such as train speed, load, an occupancy were considered. Tehcnical factors such an emissions factors, fleet composition and train weight were also considered...

  18. A DUAL NETWORK MODEL OF INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphry Hung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes an integrative framework for the study of interlocking directorates by using an approach that encompasses the concepts of multiple networks and resource endowment. This serves to integrate the traditional views of interorganizational linkages and intra-class cohesion. Through appropriate strategic analysis of relevant resource endowment of internal environment and external networks of organizations and corporate elites, this article argues that the selection of directors, if used effectively, can be adopted as a strategic device to enhance the corporation's overall performance.

  19. UML-based testcase- and system model for railway process control- and safety engineering; UML-basierte Testfall- und Systemmodelle fuer die Eisenbahnleit- und -sicherungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knollmann, V.

    2007-12-15

    The continuous introduction of more sophisticated and more complex automation systems is of high relevance for operations- and control devices for railway applications. One example of this trend is the European Train Control System (ETCS). I is harmonized for all European member states and currently deployed for commercial use on selected lines. Applications like ETCS take responsibility for passengers, environment and the rolling stock material. For this reason, the development of those applications is characterized by high demands on testing, documentation and quality assurance. Unfortunately, real projects have proven to achieve these high demands only with tremendous efforts as long as they stick to their traditional development processes and methods. Therefore, a wide spread exploration for new concepts regarding planning, implementation and - most of all - testing of safety relevant systems is under its way. This thesis contributes to the search for new design methods for such systems. It combines recent achievements in the environment of the Unified Modeling Language (UML) to an integrated approach for a consistent testcase- and system description in a single UML model. The model comprises the UML profiles SysML (System Modeling Language) and U2TP (UML 2 Testing Profile), which are officially specified and released by the Object Management Group (OMG). This thesis shows how based on these two profiles - a single, combined system- and testcase model can be build - relationships between requirements, implementation- and testcase can be established - requirement relationships can be evaluated automatically to ensure model consistency and to determine implementation and testcase coverage - C++-code can be generated directly from the model - TTCN-3-code (Testing and Test Control Notation, Version 3) can be derived automatically from the model - a toolchain can be set up which supports all mentioned functions. In order to prove the feasibility of this approach, a

  20. Nonlinear Dynamic Characteristics of the Railway Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyulan, Çağlar; Gokasan, Metin

    2017-06-01

    The nonlinear dynamic characteristics of a railway vehicle are checked into thoroughly by applying two different wheel-rail contact model: a heuristic nonlinear friction creepage model derived by using Kalker 's theory and Polach model including dead-zone clearance. This two models are matched with the quasi-static form of the LuGre model to obtain more realistic wheel-rail contact model. LuGre model parameters are determined using nonlinear optimization method, which it's objective is to minimize the error between the output of the Polach and Kalker model and quasi-static LuGre model for specific operating conditions. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation attitude and stable/unstable motion of the railway vehicle in the presence of nonlinearities which are yaw damping forces in the longitudinal suspension system are analyzed in great detail by changing the vehicle speed. Phase portraits of the lateral displacement of the leading wheelset of the railway vehicle are drawn below and on the critical speeds, where sub-critical Hopf bifurcation take place, for two wheel-rail contact model. Asymmetric periodic motions have been observed during the simulation in the lateral displacement of the wheelset under different vehicle speed range. The coexistence of multiple steady states cause bounces in the amplitude of vibrations, resulting instability problems of the railway vehicle. By using Lyapunov's indirect method, the critical hunting speeds are calculated with respect to the radius of the curved track parameter changes. Hunting, which is defined as the oscillation of the lateral displacement of wheelset with a large domain, is described by a limit cycle-type oscillation nature. The evaluated accuracy of the LuGre model adopted from Kalker's model results for prediction of critical speed is higher than the results of the LuGre model adopted from Polach's model. From the results of the analysis, the critical hunting speed must be resolved by investigating the track tests

  1. Binding of anions in triply interlocked coordination catenanes and dynamic allostery for dehalogenation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linlin; Jing, Xu; An, Bowen; He, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Duan, Chunying

    2018-01-28

    By synergistic combination of multicomponent self-assembly and template-directed approaches, triply interlocked metal organic catenanes that consist of two isolated chirally identical tetrahedrons were constructed and stabilized as thermodynamic minima. In the presence of suitable template anions, the structural conversion from the isolated tetrahedral conformers into locked catenanes occurred via the cleavage of an intrinsically reversible coordination bond in each of the tetrahedrons, followed by the reengineering and interlocking of two fragments with the regeneration of the broken coordination bonds. The presence of several kinds of individual pocket that were attributed to the triply interlocked patterns enabled the possibility of encapsulating different anions, allowing the dynamic allostery between the unlocked/locked conformers to promote the dehalogenation reaction of 3-bromo-cyclohexene efficiently, as with the use of dehalogenase enzymes. The interlocked structures could be unlocked into two individual tetrahedrons through removal of the well-matched anion templates. The stability and reversibility of the locked/unlocked structures were further confirmed by the catching/releasing process that accompanied emission switching, providing opportunities for the system to be a dynamic molecular logic system.

  2. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons.

  3. Structural damage monitoring of harbor caissons with interlocking condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, Thanh Canh; Lee, So Young; Nauyen, Khac Duy; Kim, Jeong Tae

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to monitor the health status of harbor caissons which have potential foundation damage. To obtain the objective, the following approaches are performed. Firstly, a structural damage monitoring(SDM) method is designed for interlocked multiple caisson structures. The SDM method utilizes the change in modal strain energy to monitor the foundation damage in a target caisson unit. Secondly, a finite element model of a caisson system which consists of three caisson units is established to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. In the finite element simulation, the caisson units are constrained each other by shear key connections. The health status of the caisson system against various levels of foundation damage is monitored by measuring relative modal displacements between the adjacent caissons

  4. Experimental Investigation About Stamping Behaviour of 3D Warp Interlock Composite Preforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Clément; Wang, Peng; Boussu, François; Soulat, Damien

    2014-10-01

    Forming of continuous fibre reinforcements and thermoplastic resin commingled prepregs can be performed at room temperature due to its similar textile structure. The "cool" forming stage is better controlled and more economical. The increase of temperature and the resin consolidation phases after the forming can be carried out under the isothermal condition thanks to a closed system. It can avoid the manufacturing defects easily experienced in the non-isothermal thermoforming, in particular the wrinkling [1]. Glass/Polypropylene commingled yarns have been woven inside different three-dimensional (3D) warp interlock fabrics and then formed using a double-curved shape stamping tool. The present study investigates the in-plane and through-thickness behaviour of the 3D warp interlock fibrous reinforcements during forming with a hemispherical punch. Experimental data allow analysing the forming behaviour in the warp and weft directions and on the influence of warp interlock architectures. The results point out that the layer to layer warp interlock preform has a better stamping behaviour, in particular no forming defects and good homogeneity in thickness.

  5. Railway clearance intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingfang; Guo, Baoqing; Wei, Wei

    2018-03-01

    In the stage of railway construction and operation, objects intruding railway clearance greatly threaten the safety of railway operation. Real-time intrusion detection is of great importance. For the shortcomings of depth insensitive and shadow interference of single image method, an intrusion detection method with binocular stereo vision is proposed to reconstruct the 3D scene for locating the objects and judging clearance intrusion. The binocular cameras are calibrated with Zhang Zhengyou's method. In order to improve the 3D reconstruction speed, a suspicious region is firstly determined by background difference method of a single camera's image sequences. The image rectification, stereo matching and 3D reconstruction process are only executed when there is a suspicious region. A transformation matrix from Camera Coordinate System(CCS) to Track Coordinate System(TCS) is computed with gauge constant and used to transfer the 3D point clouds into the TCS, then the 3D point clouds are used to calculate the object position and intrusion in TCS. The experiments in railway scene show that the position precision is better than 10mm. It is an effective way for clearance intrusion detection and can satisfy the requirement of railway application.

  6. Experimental Stress Analysis at Railway Inspection Pit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicuşor Laurentiu Zaharia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Railway inspection pits are used in railway halls. The purpose of inspection pits is to allow the working under the vehicle. Inspection pits can be found in locomotive depots, factories etc. The new design for a inspection pit in a railway hall involve tests in purpose of homologations the railway infrastructure. Before the homologation committee meeting, tests are made; after the test, a testing report is made which it will be part at homologation documents.

  7. Modeling and Control of Switching Max-Plus-Linear Systems : Rescheduling of railway traffic and changing gaits in legged locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    The operation of many systems can be described by the timing of events. When the system behavior can be described by equations that are "linear'' in the max-plus algebra, which has maximization and addition as its basic operations, the system is called a max-plus-linear system. In many of these

  8. Fail-safe computer-aided operations control system for the transrapid maglev high-speed railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkert, S [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Eilers, H [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Freitag, V [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany); Knigge, R [Siemens AG, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The wide variety of control and safety functions for the Transrapid need to be interlinked in the operations control system. These functions are grouped according to their main focus and located in the subsystems `operations control centre`, `decentralised operations control system` and `on-board operations control system`. The paper describes the operations control system OCS. (HW)

  9. RESTRUCTURING INDONESIAN RAILWAY – INTEGRATION OR SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utut Widyanto

    2013-05-01

    The study found that the separation model is still the best approach for restructuring Indonesian railway but if looking at the Indonesian railway current condition with its problem of backlog assets it would be better that the separation approach is used in the development of railway in other islands. Keywords: Restructuration, separation, funds, operator.

  10. Capacity gain with an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2014-01-01

    , such as 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE). T his paper describe s how to adapt the reversible multi - chain/channel queuing system to model an LTE cell serving ETCS - equipped trains . It is proposed to use the multiple user chains available in the model to represent varying bitrate in LTE radio access network....... Usin g this model , LTE and GSM - R are compare d in terms of capacity on an example at Copenhagen Main Train Station . The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the benefits that railway operators and infrastructure managers can expect from the introduc tion of LTE , as a telecommunication technology...... Control System (ETCS) signaling , the capacity of GSM - R turns out to be insufficient . GSM - R cannot ful fill the railway requirements , in terms of the number of simultaneous ETCS connections . This is why , alternative , more efficient communication technologies should be considered by railways...

  11. Safety of Transmission in Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franekova

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of data security in safety - related transmission systems defined within railway process. It is intent on summary of treats and security tools against them within closed and open security systems. In details is analysed possibility of using channel coding techniques and cryptography mechanisms, which are defined according to norms EN 50159. For chosen security mechanisms are deal mathematical apparatus of probability of undetected error determination for channel decoders, relations for determination decipher encoder's complexity and error probability of cryptography code word.

  12. Viscoelastic dynamic models of resilient elements used in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents selected theoretical aspects concerning viscoelastic dynamic modelling of resilient elements used in railway tracks. In order to characterize the research methodology for resilient mats in railway tracks, German Standards [1-4] are used herein. The main goal of the paper is to demonstrate the procedure of insertion loss calculation for a single degree of freedom truck system containing under-ballast mats. Selected results of certain dynamic characteristics of resilient truck systems (transmissibility, Bode and Nyquist plots etc. are also discussed. The results of calculations visualized in graphs, were obtained by using own applications written in programming language MATLAB.

  13. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Operating Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This procedure is used when it is necessary to operate the solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench detection system. Note that a separate procedure exists for operating the solenoid 'cryogenic' systems. Only D0 Control Room Operators or the Project Electrical Engineer are qualified to execute these procedures or operate the solenoid system. This procedure assumes that the operator is familiar with using the Distributed Manufacturing Automation and Control Software (DMACS).

  14. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizjak Karmen Fifer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment of railway bridge materials using UHPFRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizjak, Karmen Fifer; Šajna, Aljoša; Slanc, Katja; Knez, Friderik

    2016-10-01

    The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world's total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.

  16. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [Mobile .MP4 (480x320/29.97fps/13.9MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  17. Breath Alcohol Ignition Interlock Devices : Policy and Implementing Implications [SD .MP4 (640x424/29.97fps/22.6MB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project is to perform a systematic review of breath alcohol ignition interlock devices (BAIID or IID) to understand how other states have integrated such systems into administrative and judicial practice and to make recommendations f...

  18. Acoustic energy propagation around railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizkova, Petra

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with the issues of acoustic energy propagation around railways. The research subject was noise emission spreading into the surroundings during the passage of trains over a directly travelled steel bridge construction. Noise emissions were measured using direct measurements in the field. The measurements were performed in two measurement profiles. The noise exposures A LAE measured near the steel bridge construction were compared against the noise exposures A LAE captured on an open track. From the difference of these data, the noise level of the steel bridge structure was determined. Part of the research was to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction of the railway track superstructure on the acoustic situation in the given section of the railway track. The article describes the methodology of measurements, including the processing and evaluation of measured data. The article points out the noise levels of the steel bridge construction and assesses changes in the acoustic situation after the reconstruction.

  19. Big data for risk analysis: The future of safe railways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueres Esteban, M.

    2016-07-01

    New technology brings ever more data to support decision-making for intelligent transport systems. Big Data is no longer a futuristic challenge, it is happening right now: modern railway systems have countless sources of data providing a massive quantity of diverse information on every aspect of operations such as train position and speed, brake applications, passenger numbers, status of the signaling system or reported incidents.The traditional approaches to safety management on the railways have relied on static data sources to populate traditional safety tools such as bow-tie models and fault trees. The Big Data Risk Analysis (BDRA) program for Railways at the University of Huddersfield is investigating how the many Big Data sources from the railway can be combined in a meaningful way to provide a better understanding about the GB railway systems and the environment within which they operate.Moving to BDRA is not simply a matter of scaling-up existing analysis techniques. BDRA has to coordinate and combine a wide range of sources with different types of data and accuracy, and that is not straight-forward. BDRA is structured around three components: data, ontology and visualisation. Each of these components is critical to support the overall framework. This paper describes how these three components are used to get safety knowledge from two data sources by means of ontologies from text documents. This is a part of the ongoing BDRA research that is looking at integrating many large and varied data sources to support railway safety and decision-makers. (Author)

  20. Analysis of interlocking performances on non-oriented electrical steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Hsiang; Liu, Lee-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    In order to reduce energy loss in motor, applications of high-efficiency non-oriented electrical steel sheets and optimal laminating process are both important elements. The motor core loss deterioration is influenced by a number of factors, such as flux distribution, stress and strain, space harmonics, temperature, and short circuits between lamination. In conventional clamping method, steel sheets are laminated via interlocking or welding in general manner. The measured energy loss by welding was much larger than that by interlocking. Therefore, interlocking is well known and usually employed with benefit of easy conducting. The protuberance shapes affected the fastening strength. Generally, the intensity of rectangular type is stronger than the circular counterparts. However, the circular interlocking has better magnetic characteristics. To clarify the method effectiveness, interlocking performances regarding fastened strength and magnetic deterioration by lamination were investigated. The key parameters of protuberance shape and forming depth were designed. Precisely manufacturing operation was applied to avoid interlocking failure. Magnetic properties largely influenced by clamping method are crucial to minimizing the magnetic deterioration during laminating procedure. Several experiments for various processing conditions were undertaken, and the quantification results showed the rectangular interlocking had better fastened strength but worsened iron loss comparing with the circular arrangement. To acquire the comprehensive mechanical and electrical identities for electrical steel lamination, deliberate producing conditions regarding minimizing the magnetic deterioration should be adopted prudently.

  1. Subsidence Evaluation of High-Speed Railway in Shenyang Based on Time-Series Insar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Wei, Lianhuan; Li, Jiayu; Liu, Shanjun; Mao, Yachun; Wu, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    More and more high-speed railway are under construction in China. The slow settlement along high-speed railway tracks and newly-built stations would lead to inhomogeneous deformation of local area, and the accumulation may be a threat to the safe operation of high-speed rail system. In this paper, surface deformation of the newly-built high-speed railway station as well as the railway lines in Shenyang region will be retrieved by time series InSAR analysis using multi-orbit COSMO-SkyMed images. This paper focuses on the non-uniform subsidence caused by the changing of local environment along the railway. The accuracy of the settlement results can be verified by cross validation of the results obtained from two different orbits during the same period.

  2. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  3. Research on an optoelectronic measurement system of dynamic envelope measurement for China Railway high-speed train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyue; Gan, Xiaochuan; Zou, Zhi; Ma, Liqun

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic envelope measurement plays very important role in the external dimension design for high-speed train. Recently there is no digital measurement system to solve this problem. This paper develops an optoelectronic measurement system by using monocular digital camera, and presents the research of measurement theory, visual target design, calibration algorithm design, software programming and so on. This system consists of several CMOS digital cameras, several luminous targets for measuring, a scale bar, data processing software and a terminal computer. The system has such advantages as large measurement scale, high degree of automation, strong anti-interference ability, noise rejection and real-time measurement. In this paper, we resolve the key technology such as the transformation, storage and calculation of multiple cameras' high resolution digital image. The experimental data show that the repeatability of the system is within 0.02mm and the distance error of the system is within 0.12mm in the whole workspace. This experiment has verified the rationality of the system scheme, the correctness, the precision and effectiveness of the relevant methods.

  4. Detection of failures of axle-bearings of railway vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bižić Milan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure of axle-bearing is one of the most common causes of derailments of railway vehicles which are usually accompanied by huge material damage and human casualties. Modern railways are working intensively on the development and implementation of appropriate systems for early detection of axlebearing malfunctions, which are typically manifested by increasing of its temperature. The most common approach is based on the use of wayside systems or checkpoints located in certain places along the track. There is also an innovative approach that involves using the system for continuous measuring and online monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The main aim is to provide early detection of malfunctions of the axle-bearing and prevention of the potential derailment. This paper analyses the existing solutions for the detection of axle-bearings malfunctions with special emphasis on the working principle and the main advantages and disadvantages. The paper presents the basics of the one newly developed wireless measuring system for on-line monitoring of axle-boxes temperature. The measuring system was tested in real conditions and can be successfully applied to the commercial railway vehicles. The main conclusion is that systems for on-line monitoring of axle-bearings temperatures are far more efficient than wayside systems. Obtained results may be important for those who deal with these and similar problems, problems of development, exploitation and maintenance of railway vehicles, strategies, regulations, etc.

  5. EMC Specific Problems of Frequency Converters Used at Interlocking Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Novak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of frequency control drive of electromotive switch actuator of railway switch. The frequency converter with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM and the output sinus filter are used for feeding of the asynchronous motor of the switch actuator. This drive is operated in an insulated system of feeding voltages. The drive is fed by a frequency converter with an unshielded cable with length up to 1.2 km. The EMC problems occurring at development and operating of the drive are analyzed in this paper. The used solution of these problems and experience with EMC of the given system from real operation are described in this paper as well.

  6. Synthesis of railway-signaling plans using reachability games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasting, Patrick Frederik Soelmark; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    (the control system) controls signals and points and the universal player (the antagonistic environment) controls movement of trains. A winning strategy for the existential player provides a signaling plan that will safely guide trains through the network. The concepts from the railway network model......In this work, we show the feasibility of using functional programming (more specifically F#) in connection with gamebased methods for synthesis of correct-by-construction controllers (also called signaling plans) for railway networks. This is a massively resource-demanding application. A model...

  7. Towards the Internet of Smart Trains: A Review on Industrial IoT-Connected Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Castedo, Luis

    2017-06-21

    Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e.g., LTE, 5G, IEEE 802.11ad) and the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for the railway environment are also explained together with the strategic roadmap to ensure a smooth migration from GSM-R. Furthermore, this survey focuses on providing a holistic approach, identifying scenarios and architectures where railways could leverage better commercial IIoT capabilities. After reviewing the main industrial developments, short and medium-term IIoT-enabled services for smart railways are evaluated. Then, it is analyzed the latest research on predictive maintenance, smart infrastructure, advanced monitoring of assets, video surveillance systems, railway operations, Passenger and Freight Information Systems (PIS/FIS), train control systems, safety assurance, signaling systems, cyber security and energy efficiency. Overall, it can be stated that the aim of this article is to provide a detailed examination of the state-of-the-art of different technologies and services that will revolutionize the railway industry and will allow for confronting today challenges.

  8. Towards the Internet of Smart Trains: A Review on Industrial IoT-Connected Railways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Castedo, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the railway industry is in a position where it is able to exploit the opportunities created by the IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) and enabling communication technologies under the paradigm of Internet of Trains. This review details the evolution of communication technologies since the deployment of GSM-R, describing the main alternatives and how railway requirements, specifications and recommendations have evolved over time. The advantages of the latest generation of broadband communication systems (e.g., LTE, 5G, IEEE 802.11ad) and the emergence of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for the railway environment are also explained together with the strategic roadmap to ensure a smooth migration from GSM-R. Furthermore, this survey focuses on providing a holistic approach, identifying scenarios and architectures where railways could leverage better commercial IIoT capabilities. After reviewing the main industrial developments, short and medium-term IIoT-enabled services for smart railways are evaluated. Then, it is analyzed the latest research on predictive maintenance, smart infrastructure, advanced monitoring of assets, video surveillance systems, railway operations, Passenger and Freight Information Systems (PIS/FIS), train control systems, safety assurance, signaling systems, cyber security and energy efficiency. Overall, it can be stated that the aim of this article is to provide a detailed examination of the state-of-the-art of different technologies and services that will revolutionize the railway industry and will allow for confronting today challenges. PMID:28635672

  9. Waiting experience in railway environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hagen, M.; Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2014-01-01

    At railway stations, waiting time is usually an unavoidable aspect of the journey for train passengers. According to the attentional model of time, pleasant surroundings and other forms of distraction reduce perceived waiting time. Not every individual reacts identically in the same surroundings.

  10. Refining the maintenance techniques for Interlocking Concrete Paver GIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface clogging adversely affects the performance of Interlocking Concrete Pavements (ICP) by reducing their ability to infiltrate stormwater runoff. The clogging rate is a function of pavement type, traffic loading, surrounding physical environment and maintenance treatments. ...

  11. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  12. Monitoring of railway bridges in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Komon, Kazuki; Narumoto, Asao; Sugidate, Masao; Mori, Takeshi; Miki, Chitoshi

    2000-06-01

    In Japan, some monitoring systems have been introduced to evaluate conditions of the railway structures. In this work, we introduce the monitoring systems of railway bridges. Here, for example, we show the abstraction of fatigue damage monitoring system. The crack propagation properties of a side notched SUS304 thin sheet, which is affixed to a fatigue test specimen, is studied to develop a fatigue damage monitoring sensor. When cyclic loads are applied to the fatigue specimen, the side notched thin sheet behaves as a displacement controlled condition. The stress intensity factor (Delta) K is expressed by the following equation; (Delta) K equals (Delta) (sigma) (root)GL/2 where GL is the gauge length of the thin sheet. The thin sheet is fatigue pre-cracked, stress- relieved and affixed to a specimen. The results of fatigue crack propagation tests show that the crack propagation rate is dependent on stress range and gauge length, but not on crack length. Under sufficient mean stress conditions, the fatigue crack propagation rate is well expressed by a power low of (Delta) K even at such a low stress range as 20 MPa. Fatigue damage accumulated during a monitoring period can be estimated from crack propagation during the period. The sensitivity of the sensor is controlled through the gauge length of the sensor.

  13. RISK VIP: Evaluation of Flood Risk on the French Railway Network Using an Innovative GIS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding can have significant direct and indirect negative effects on a railway network affecting both infrastructure and rail operations. Such impacts include the delaying or cancelling of train services, damage to railway structures or the implementation of costly maintenance and monitoring programs to ensure the safety and performance of the railway system. Identifying sections of railway line at risk from flooding allows appropriate actions to be targeted at specific areas and contributes to an effective asset management plan. Flooding of railway infrastructure can have numerous sources including surface water run-off, insufficient capacity of hydraulic structures or the inundation of embankments located in floodplains. Consequences of flooding include the destabilisation of structures (surface erosion of embankments or the undermining of bridge foundations, differential settlement of structures and damage to the track structure. This paper details an innovative approach developed at the SNCF using a Geographic Information System (GIS model to identify zones of the railway network at risk of different types of flooding. The GIS model RiskVIP has been constructed through the assessment of three distinct components of risk: “Vulnerability” (assessment of the susceptibility of the railway infrastructure to flood conditions, Intensity’ (capacity of a catchment to generate a flood flow, Probability’ (probability of a rainfall event.Through the application of decision trees, the component ‘Intensity’ has been characterised in the model by the physical properties of the catchment intercepted by the railway line (surface area of the catchment, slope and land cover characteristics and “Vulnerability” by the infrastructure itself (type, geometry and the presence of hydraulic structures. In order to evaluate its efficiency at identifying sites at risk of flooding, the model has been tested in the region of Languedoc-Roussillon in France

  14. Effective Development and Verification of Railway Control Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This document presents a method for effective development of software for a product line of similar railway control systems. The software is constructed in three steps: first a specifications in a domain-specific language is created, then a formal behavioural controller model is automatically...

  15. Strategy for predicting railway-induced vibrations in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Peter; Persson, Kent; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2016-01-01

    Urban densification is a way of accommodating population growth. Land adjacent to railways is used for constructing residences and other buildings, and new tramway systems are planned. Under these circumstances, nearby buildings will be exposed to vibrations and noise that may become a nuisance...

  16. The present condition and projection of construction of railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The railway net of the Danube-Morava corridor, together with the road net represent the central section of the Pan-European transport corridor X. According to the traffic and economic standards, the railway net represents the second main traffic direction of this corridor as the area-functioning system of the territory of Serbia. Main railway lines have favourable positions as they are located along prominent geographical features, namely river valleys thus enabling considerable flow of goods, passengers and information. The paper presents some characteristics of the present condition of the railway net, its functioning and safety, with certain ideas of its future construction and expected exploitation till 2015. Traffic infrastructure represents the initial factor of overall development of a state and its connection with the surrounding countries. It is considered to be of strategic importance for a country to built railway net. Improvement and additional construction of railway lines is of the greatest priority for the purpose of enlargement of overall mobility and quality of life of population, to make urban areas closer, to improve connections, functions efficiency and level of services of railway system, reduction of negative influence on other economic systems and human environment, better safety etc.

  17. A Focus on Triazolium as a Multipurpose Molecular Station for pH-Sensitive Interlocked Crown-Ether-Based Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutrot, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    The control of motion of one element with respect to others in an interlocked architecture allows for different co-conformational states of a molecule. This can result in variations of physical or chemical properties. The increase of knowledge in the field of molecular interactions led to the design, the synthesis, and the study of various systems of molecular machinery in a wide range of interlocked architectures. In this field, the discovery of new molecular stations for macrocycles is an attractive way to conceive original molecular machines. In the very recent past, the triazolium moiety proved to interact with crown ethers in interlocked molecules, so that it could be used as an ideal molecular station. It also served as a molecular barrier in order to lock interlaced structures or to compartmentalize interlocked molecular machines. This review describes the recently reported examples of pH-sensitive triazolium-containing molecular machines and their peculiar features.

  18. Artificial nanomachines based on interlocked molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Credi, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    The extension of the concept of machine to the molecular level is of great interest for the growth of nanoscience and the development of nanotechnology. A molecular machine can be defined as an assembly of a discrete number of molecular components (that is, a supramolecular structure) designed to perform a function through the mechanical movements of its components, which occur under appropriate external stimulation. Hence, molecular machines contain a motor part, that is a device capable of converting energy into mechanical work. Molecular motors and machines operate via nuclear rearrangements and, like their macroscopic counterparts, are characterized by the kind of energy input supplied to make them work, the manner in which their operation can be monitored, the possibility to repeat the operation at will, i.e., establishing a cyclic process, the timescale needed to complete a cycle of operation, and the performed function. Owing to the progresses made in several branches of chemistry, and to the better understanding of the operation mechanisms of molecular machines of the biological world, it has become possible to design and construct simple prototypes of artificial molecular motors and machines. Some examples based on rotaxanes, catenanes, and related interlocked molecules will be described

  19. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting for Railway Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradai S.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Safe localization of trains via GPS and wireless sensors is essential for railway traffic supervision. Especially for freight trains and because normally no power source is available on the wagons, special solutions for energy supply have to be developed based on energy harvesting techniques. Since vibration is available in this case, it provides an interesting source of energy. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, the existing vibration needs to be investigated. In this paper, we focus on the characterization of vibration parameters in railway application. We propose an electromagnetic vibration converter especially developed to this application. Vibration profiles from a train traveling between two German cities were measured using a data acquisition system installed on the train’s wagon. Results show that the measured profiles present multiple frequency signals in the range of 10 to 50 Hz and an acceleration of up to 2 g. A prototype for a vibration converter is designed taking into account the real vibration parameters, robustness and integrability requirements. It is based on a moving coil attached to a mechanical spring. For the experimental emulation of the train vibrations, a shaker is used as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor in feedback. A maximum voltage of 1.7 V peak to peak which corresponds to a maximum of 10 mW output power where the applied excitation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the converter which corresponds to 27 Hz.

  20. Impact of service quality management (SQM) practices on Indian railways : study of South Central Railways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to present a framework developed for assisting Railways to monitor and : control the quality of services provided to passengers. The study evaluated the passenger Rail Service quality of : Indian Railways by develo...

  1. Real-time Railway Traffic Management : Dispatching in complex, large and busy railway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corman, F.

    2010-01-01

    Railway is an important and sustainable transportation mode, which despite good potentials results in a limited attractiveness, mostly due to the perceived consequences of unreliability. In fact, busy railway networks with frequent and heterogeneous services are highly sensitive to delay

  2. Novel Repair Concept for Composite Materials by Repetitive Geometrical Interlock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zaremba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Material adapted repair technologies for fiber-reinforced polymers with thermosetting matrix systems are currently characterized by requiring major efforts for repair preparation and accomplishment in all industrial areas of application. In order to allow for a uniform distribution of material and geometrical parameters over the repair zone, a novel composite interlock repair concept is introduced, which is based on a repair zone with undercuts prepared by water-jet technology. The presented numerical and experimental sensitivity analyses make a contribution to the systematic development of the interlock repair technology with respect to material and geometrical factors of influence. The results show the ability of the novel concept for a reproducible and automatable composite repair.

  3. Annoyance and activity disturbance induced by high-speed railway and conventional railway noise: a contrastive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Guo-Qing; Lin, Qi-Li; Li, Zheng-Guang; Kang, Jian

    2014-03-07

    High-speed railway (HR, Electrified railway with service speed above 200 km/h.) noise and conventional railway (CR, Electrified railway with service speed under 200 km/h.) noise are different in both time and frequency domain. There is an urgent need to study the influence of HR noise and consequently, develop appropriate noise evaluation index and limits for the total railway noise including HR and CR noise. Based on binaural recording of HR and CR noises in a approximate semi-free field, noise annoyance and activity disturbance induced by maximal train pass-by events in China were investigated through laboratory subjective evaluation. 80 students within recruited 102 students, 40 males and 40 females, 23.9 ± 2.1 years old, were finally selected as the subjects. After receiving noise stimulus via headphone of a binaural audio playback system, subjects were asked to express the annoyance or activity disturbance due to railway noise at a 0-100 numerical scale. The results show that with the same annoyance rating (A) or activity disturbance rating (D), the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (LAeq) of CR noise is approximately 7 dB higher than that of HR noise. Linear regression analysis between some acoustical parameters and A (or D) suggests that the coefficient of determination (R2) is higher with the instantaneous fast A-weighted sound pressure level (LAFmax) than that with LAeq. A combined acoustical parameter, LHC = 1.74LAFmax + 0.008LAFmax(Lp-LAeq), where Lp is the sound pressure level, was derived consequently, which could better evaluate the total railway noise, including HR and CR noise. More importantly, with a given LHC, the noise annoyance of HR and CR noise is the same. Among various acoustical parameters including LHC and LAeq, A and D have the highest correlation with LHC. LHC has been proved to be an appropriate index to evaluate the total railway noise, including both HR and CR. However, it should be pointed out that this study provides

  4. PERSPECTIVES OF UKRAINIAN RAILWAY TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ON NARROW-GAUGE LINES OF ZAKARPATTIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kuznetsov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.The purpose of the paper is: (1 the definition of perspectives development of Ukrainian railway tourism on the narrow gauge lines of Zakarpattia; 2 technical condition analysis of Borzhava narrow gauge railway for the project to restore the effective functioning of mountain railways track, width 750 mm in the Carpathian region, with the possibility of their accession to the distributed travel network; 3 the study of the modern state and tendencies of development of tourist industry of Ukraine and the passenger economy of national railways; 4 clarification of the role and place of the railway tourism in the transportation system. Methodology. The expert group has carried out field inspections and field investigations of facilities track facilities and passenger infrastructure, rolling stock and ancillary industries involved in the functioning narrow-gauge railway. It was estimated the overall technical condition of the railway track and engineering structures section of narrow-gauge Railways in the Carpathian region. Findings. In the framework of on-site examinations of the expert group found that the objects of tracks, passenger and freight infrastructure, rolling stock and ancillary industries involved in the operation of narrow-gauge Railways are in poor condition and require significant updates and major repairs. But the routes of passenger trains remain fit for participation in the project of development of railway tourism of Ukraine Originality. For the first time the state of the narrow-gauge railway for further implementation of the project on the development of rail tourism in Ukraine was realized. The analysis of foreign experience of organization of railway tourism has been carried out. The modern state and tendencies of development of tourist industry of Ukraine was studied, the factors of competitiveness of rail transport for providing tourist transport in Ukraine were identified and systematized.Practical value. The recovery

  5. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  6. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  7. Composites reinforced via mechanical interlocking of surface-roughened microplatelets within ductile and brittle matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libanori, R; Carnelli, D; Rothfuchs, N; Binelli, M R; Zanini, M; Nicoleau, L; Feichtenschlager, B; Albrecht, G; Studart, A R

    2016-04-12

    Load-bearing reinforcing elements in a continuous matrix allow for improved mechanical properties and can reduce the weight of structural composites. As the mechanical performance of composite systems are heavily affected by the interfacial properties, tailoring the interactions between matrices and reinforcing elements is a crucial problem. Recently, several studies using bio-inspired model systems suggested that interfacial mechanical interlocking is an efficient mechanism for energy dissipation in platelet-reinforced composites. While cheap and effective solutions are available at the macroscale, the modification of surface topography in micron-sized reinforcing elements still represents a challenging task. Here, we report a simple method to create nanoasperities with tailored sizes and densities on the surface of alumina platelets and investigate their micromechanical effect on the energy dissipation mechanisms of nacre-like materials. Composites reinforced with roughened platelets exhibit improved mechanical properties for both organic ductile epoxy and inorganic brittle cement matrices. Mechanical interlocking increases the modulus of toughness (area under the stress-strain curve) by 110% and 56% in epoxy and cement matrices, respectively, as compared to those reinforced with flat platelets. This interlocking mechanism can potentially lead to a significant reduction in the weight of mechanical components while retaining the structural performance required in the application field.

  8. Low-complexity Behavioral Model for Predictive Maintenance of Railway Turnouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkhordari, Pegah; Galeazzi, Roberto; Tejada, Alejandro de Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Maintenance of railway infrastructures represents a major cost driver for any infrastructure manager since reliability and dependability must be guaranteed at all times. Implementation of predictive maintenance policies relies on the availability of condition monitoring systems able to assess...

  9. Quantitative sensing of bridges, railways, and tunnels with autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-04

    Managing a growing population of deteriorated transportation infrastructure : systems (i.e. bridges, railways, tunnels) is one of biggest challenges faced by the nation. : Traditional inspection and monitoring techniques (e.g., visual inspection, mec...

  10. Railway cognitive radio to enhance safety, security, and performance of positive train control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Robust and interoperable wireless communications are vital to Positive Train Control (PTC). The railway industry has started adopting software-defined radios (SDRs) for packet-data transmission. SDR systems realize previously fixed components as reco...

  11. Railway noise reduction by the application of CHFC material on the rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita ALTENBAHER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most widespread source of environmental noise. Railway noise has become increasingly common in urban areas in the past few decades. Therefore environmental requirements for railway operations regarding noise are becoming very strict and will become even tighter in future. In the present paper we present actual track-based field test performed on Slovenian Railways. The significant noise reduction (up to 30dBA was achieved by the application of CHFC material on the rail using CL-E1 top anti noise system.

  12. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vičan, Josef; Gocál, Jozef; Odrobiňák, Jaroslav; Koteš, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  13. Existing Steel Railway Bridges Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vičan Josef

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes general principles and basis of evaluation of existing railway bridges based on the concept of load-carrying capacity determination. Compared to the design of a new bridge, the modified reliability level for existing bridges evaluation should be considered due to implementation of the additional data related to bridge condition and behaviour obtained from regular inspections. Based on those data respecting the bridge remaining lifetime, a modification of partial safety factors for actions and materials could be respected in the bridge evaluation process. A great attention is also paid to the specific problems of determination of load-caring capacity of steel railway bridges in service. Recommendation for global analysis and methodology for existing steel bridge superstructure load-carrying capacity determination are described too.

  14. 76 FR 59482 - The New Brunswick Railway Company-Continuance in Control Exemption-Maine Northern Railway Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for Eastern Maine Railway, a Class III rail common carrier to continue in... Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.; Maine Northern Railway Company--Modified Rail...

  15. A PROPOSAL FOR MAKING A RISK MAP OF ROCKFALL BY EVALUATING THE INFLUENCE TO RAILWAY TRACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukata, Takahiro; Mori, Taiki; Shibuya, Satoru

    An incident of rockfall may trigger serious damage to the safety as well as the after-the-event maintenance of railway transportation. In an attempt to minimize such damage caused by rockfall incident, the railway companies regularly in spect the concerned slopes along the railway, and take necessary measures. In the current practice, however, it is very difficult to make a full control of slopes in danger spreading over the wide area due to the limited human and financial resources. Accordingly, it is urgently needed for the railway firms to establish cost-effective as well as reliable system for the slope management. A risk map based on the impact statement of rockfall to railway track is of great use for not only enhancing the efficiency of slope inspection, but also planning the disaster prevention of railway. In this paper, a methodology for establishing a risk map by considering the impact statement to railway truck in a quantitative manner is proposed. In so doing, the rockfall movement on a slope was numerically simulated in match with each categorized type of slopes. The applicability of this proposed method for the slope management practice is examined based on a number of case histories.

  16. Estimating emissions from railway traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, M.W.; Sorenson, C.

    1997-07-01

    The report discusses methods that can be used to estimate the emissions from various kinds of railway traffic. The methods are based on the estimation of the energy consumption of the train, so that comparisons can be made between electric and diesel driven trains. Typical values are given for the necessary traffic parameters, emission factors, and train loading. Detailed models for train energy consumption are presented, as well as empirically based methods using average train speed and distance between stop. (au)

  17. Damage Detection in Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers using Acoustic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A.; Kaewunruen, S.; Janeliukstis, R.; Papaelias, M.

    2017-10-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) are safety-critical elements in railway tracks that distribute the wheel loads from the rails to the track support system. Over a period of time, the concrete sleepers age and deteriorate in addition to experiencing various types of static and dynamic loading conditions, which are attributable to train operations. In many cases, structural cracks can develop within the sleepers due to high intensity impact loads or due to poor track maintenance. Often, cracks of sleepers develop and present at the midspan due to excessive negative bending. These cracks can cause broken sleepers and sometimes called ‘center bound’ problem in railway lines. This paper is the world first to present an application of non-destructive acoustic emission technology for damage detection in railway concrete sleepers. It presents experimental investigations in order to detect center-bound cracks in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. Experimental laboratory testing involves three-point bending tests of four concrete sleepers. Three-point bending tests correspond to a real failure mode, when the loads are not transferred uniformly to the ballast support. It is observed that AE sensing provides an accurate means for detecting the location and magnitude of cracks in sleepers. Sensor location criticality is also highlighted in the paper to demonstrate the reliability-based damage detection of the sleepers.

  18. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Javed, S.; Khan, G.N.; Aziz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Results: Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function. (author)

  19. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  20. A concept of vehicle-based collision prevention in self-organized railway systems (SOG); Konzept zur fahrzeuggestuetzten Kollisionsvermeidung im selbstorganisierenden Gueterverkehr (SOG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallee, H.

    2002-07-01

    Self-organizing vehicles are a revolution in railway transport: They find their own way in the available railway network, and they detect and solve conflicts encountered on the way. - The report presents the algorithms for conflict identification and solution. Conflicts are mapped according to the number of conflict sites, the travelling direction of the vehicles in the conflict sites, and particularities of the programmed destinations. Solution schemes are presented for each type of conflict. The applicability of the algorithms is illustrated by a simulation and in trial operation of real vehicles. [German] Selbstorganisierend verkehrende Fahrzeuge revolutionieren den Schienengueterverkehr. Sie suchen ihren Fahrweg durch das ihnen zur Verfuegung stehende Gleisnetz selbst. Sie erkennen und loesen Konflikte innerhalb der von ihnen gewaehlten Fahrwege. - In dieser Arbeit werden die Algorithmen fuer die Konflikterkennung und Konfliktloesung beschrieben. Konflikte werden in Konfliktarten eingeteilt. Kriterien dafuer sind die Anzahl der Konfliktorte, die Fahrtrichtungen der Fahrzeuge innerhalb der Konfliktorte sowie Besonderheiten der programmierten Zielorte. Fuer jede Konfliktart werden schematisierte Loesungen angegeben. Die Tauglichkeit der Algorithmen wurde in einer Simulation und einem Testbetrieb mit realen Fahrzeugen gezeigt. (orig.)

  1. Analysis of operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock in lead-cooled fast reactor simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Wang, Jianye; Yang, Minghan; Wang, Weitian; Bai, Yunqing; Song, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We development an operator support method based on intelligent dynamic interlock. • We offer an integrated aid system to reduce the working strength of operators. • The method can help operators avoid dangerous, irreversible operation. • This method can be used in the fusion research reactor in the further. - Abstract: In nuclear systems, operators have to carry out corrective actions when abnormal situations occur. However, operators might make mistakes under pressure. In order to avoid serious consequences of the human errors, a new method for operators support based on intelligent dynamic interlock was proposed. The new method based on full digital instrumentation and control system, contains real-time alarm analysis process, decision support process and automatic safety interlock process. Once abnormal conditions occur, necessary safety interlock parameter based on analysis of real-time alarm and decision support process can be loaded into human-machine interfaces and controllers automatically, and avoid human errors effectively. Furthermore, the new method can make recommendations for further use and development of this technique in nuclear power plant or fusion research reactor.

  2. Modern techniques for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngigi, R W; Pislaru, C; Ball, A; Gu, F

    2012-01-01

    A modern railway system relies on sophisticated monitoring systems for maintenance and renewal activities. Some of the existing conditions monitoring techniques perform fault detection using advanced filtering, system identification and signal analysis methods. These theoretical approaches do not require complex mathematical models of the system and can overcome potential difficulties associated with nonlinearities and parameter variations in the system. Practical applications of condition monitoring tools use sensors which are mounted either on the track or rolling stock. For instance, monitoring wheelset dynamics could be done through the use of track-mounted sensors, while vehicle-based sensors are preferred for monitoring the train infrastructure. This paper attempts to collate and critically appraise the modern techniques used for condition monitoring of railway vehicle dynamics by analysing the advantages and shortcomings of these methods.

  3. Poly[n]catenanes: Synthesis of molecular interlocked chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Rauscher, Phillip M.; Lang, Xiaolong; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; de Pablo, Juan J.; Hore, Michael J. A.; Rowan, Stuart J.

    2017-12-01

    As the macromolecular version of mechanically interlocked molecules, mechanically interlocked polymers are promising candidates for the creation of sophisticated molecular machines and smart soft materials. Poly[n]catenanes, where the molecular chains consist solely of interlocked macrocycles, contain one of the highest concentrations of topological bonds. We report, herein, a synthetic approach toward this distinctive polymer architecture in high yield (~75%) via efficient ring closing of rationally designed metallosupramolecular polymers. Light-scattering, mass spectrometric, and nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of fractionated samples support assignment of the high-molar mass product (number-average molar mass ~21.4 kilograms per mole) to a mixture of linear poly[7-26]catenanes, branched poly[13-130]catenanes, and cyclic poly[4-7]catenanes. Increased hydrodynamic radius (in solution) and glass transition temperature (in bulk materials) were observed upon metallation with Zn2+.

  4. THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF RAILWAY WHEEL DAMAGES AND TIRES IN OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Grischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The dependence analysis of structural changes in the metal of railway wheels and tires from indicated influences in operation, for the further development of strategy of service reliability growth. Methodology. Test materials are the details selected from railway wheels which were taken out of operation beforehand because of various damages. Micro-structural researches were made with the use of light microscope Epiquant and electron microscope. The sizing of structural elements was done by using the methods of quantitative metallography. Findings. Over the past few decades the rapid development of industry was supported by the steady growth of intensity of using railway transport. In this case simultaneous increase of load at wheel set axle, with the increase of speed was accompanied by natural increase of the amount of cases of premature wheels and tires’ withdrawing out of operation. Railway wheel, except the formation of metal layer at rolling surface with the high defects concentration of crystal structure and first of all dislocations, falls under thermal influence from interaction with break blocks. The nature of joint influence (cold deformation and heating on the metal rim of a wheel is conditioned by the appearance of sufficiently high gradients of structural changes that can be considered as the influence on the level of internal residual stresses. In case of the rise of volume part of carbide phase at a constant ferrite grain size, it is achieved only by the increasing of dislocation nucleation sources without changing the number of annihilation positions. In this case the accumulation of dislocations at the initial stages of plastic deformation (in metal volume in front of delta arm crack will lead to the formation of cementite globes around certain interlocked dislocation density. In contrast the sharp increase of deformation hardening carbon steel parameters is observed. Originality. During the braking of locomotive the

  5. The keys to Europe : regulating railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the railways in Europe in the middle of the nineteenth century quickly raised new questions about harmonizing standards to allow them to travel over national borders. Negotiations regarding how to run international railways involved entrepreneurs, engineers, and politicians from

  6. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...

  7. Railway timetabling from an operations research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); D. Huisman (Dennis); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe Operations Research (OR) models and techniques that can be used for determining (cyclic) railway timetables. We discuss the two aspects of railway timetabling: ($i$) the determination of arrival and departure times of the trains at the stations and other

  8. The Network effects of Railway Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sten; Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.

    2006-01-01

    Network effects is when a change at one place in the railway network results in changes elsewhere in the network – maybe even far away from the original change. Railway investments have network effects, and therefore, this paper describes the network effects and how these network effects can...

  9. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  10. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  11. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  12. Life cycle assessment of railways and rail transports - Application in environmental product declarations (EPDs) for the Bothnia Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stripple, Haakan; Uppenberg, Stefan

    2010-09-15

    Environmental aspects are today highly important issues in the transport sector especially from a society perspective. Most likely, our society is facing considerable changes in the transport sector due to changes in the energy/environmental situation in the future. Strategic decisions concerning the development of the transport sector must be based on solid facts concerning both the transport infrastructure and the transport traffic on the infrastructure. The transport infrastructure is often complex and difficult to analyse but of great interest in a society perspective. In this project, we have performed a comprehensive view of a modern railway infrastructure system including the traffic on the infrastructure. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology has been used for the study and several LCA models of the railway system have been designed. Due to the complexity of the models, several general railway component models have been developed. The component models can then be integrated to form a large model of an entire railway system. The component models (sub-models) are: 'Railway track foundation model', 'Railway track model', 'Railway electric power and control system model', 'Railway tunnel model', 'Railway bridge model', 'Railway passenger station and freight terminal model', 'Passenger and freight train model including train operation'. The LCA models have then been used to analyse the environmental performance of the Bothnia Line and to develop Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs) for the Bothnia Line

  13. Study on Electromagnetic Interference of high-speed railway EMU

    OpenAIRE

    CHENG Qiang; LIU Jin-jiang; CHENG Ning

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation generated by pantograph-catenaries detachment is one of the inevitable problems with the development of high-speed railway this paper is focusing on the generating mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic noise caused by pantograph-catenaries system. Based on previous research, we build an integrated model of catenaries and locomotive system, and study the electromagnetic disturbance characteristics using software FEKO. The simulation experiment results in th...

  14. Logistic management materials-technical support railway enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dykan, V.; Borozenetc, T.

    2014-01-01

    The essence of logistics management. Determine the feasibility of applying the principles of logistics management in organizing the logistics of railway transport. Discussed measures to develop suppliers in the implementation of logistics management logistics. Identified the need to develop and implement regulatory and methodical system to improve materials-technical support through the introduction of modern logistics principles. Applied systemic campaign to organize the materials-technical ...

  15. Automated vehicle for railway track fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, M.; Sujay, S.; Tushar, B.; Chitra, P.

    2017-11-01

    For the safety reasons, railroad tracks need to be inspected on a regular basis for detecting physical defects or design non compliances. Such track defects and non compliances, if not detected in a certain interval of time, may eventually lead to severe consequences such as train derailments. Inspection must happen twice weekly by a human inspector to maintain safety standards as there are hundreds and thousands of miles of railroad track. But in such type of manual inspection, there are many drawbacks that may result in the poor inspection of the track, due to which accidents may cause in future. So to avoid such errors and severe accidents, this automated system is designed.Such a concept would surely introduce automation in the field of inspection process of railway track and can help to avoid mishaps and severe accidents due to faults in the track.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Benefit of High-Speed Railway in Terms of Carbon Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yanbing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper calculates the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway based on the carbon dioxide tax policy. We define the carbon dioxide emission system boundary for high-speed railway in its whole life cycle and estimate the life cycle carbon dioxide inventories during its construction, application, and recovery stages. And then we establish a theoretical model to calculate the life cycle carbon dioxide mitigation quantity for high-speed railway when compared with road transport and then calculate its carbon dioxide mitigation benefit. The numerical example shows that the carbon dioxide mitigation benefit of high-speed railway is better than that of road transport from the whole life cycle perspective.

  17. High Speed Railway Environment Safety Evaluation Based on Measurement Attribute Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qizhou Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to rationally evaluate the high speed railway operation safety level, the environmental safety evaluation index system of high speed railway should be well established by means of analyzing the impact mechanism of severe weather such as raining, thundering, lightning, earthquake, winding, and snowing. In addition to that, the attribute recognition will be identified to determine the similarity between samples and their corresponding attribute classes on the multidimensional space, which is on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance measurement function in terms of Mahalanobis distance with the characteristics of noncorrelation and nondimensionless influence. On top of the assumption, the high speed railway of China environment safety situation will be well elaborated by the suggested methods. The results from the detailed analysis show that the evaluation is basically matched up with the actual situation and could lay a scientific foundation for the high speed railway operation safety.

  18. Impact of the traffic load on performance of an alternative LTE railway communication network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sniady, Aleksander; Soler, José

    2013-01-01

    communication infrastructure supporting railway signaling. This work is based on OPNET realistic network simulations, which show the relation between the traffic load (the number of trains transmitting and receiving data in an LTE cell) and the delay performance of the European Train Control System (ETCS......Although many countries only now begin to invest in deployment of GSM-Railways (GSM-R) networks, this technology is already obsolete and reveals its significant shortcomings. The most troublesome one is the insufficient number of communication channels offered by GSM-R. This is a major problem...... obstructing railway operations at big train stations and junctions. Hence, other technologies, such as Long Term Evolution (LTE), need to be considered as an alternative to GSM-R. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the capacity increase that railways can expect, from the introduction of LTE as internal...

  19. Comparison of Annoyance from Railway Noise and Railway Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögren, Mikael; Gidlöf-Gunnarsson, Anita; Smith, Michael; Gustavsson, Sara; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2017-07-19

    The aim of this study is to compare vibration exposure to noise exposure from railway traffic in terms of equal annoyance, i.e., to determine when a certain noise level is equally annoying as a corresponding vibration velocity. Based on questionnaire data from the Train Vibration and Noise Effects (TVANE) research project from residential areas exposed to railway noise and vibration, the dose response relationship for annoyance was estimated. By comparing the relationships between exposure and annoyance for areas both with and without significant vibration exposure, the noise levels and vibration velocities that had an equal probability of causing annoyance was determined using logistic regression. The comparison gives a continuous mapping between vibration velocity in the ground and a corresponding noise level at the facade that are equally annoying. For equivalent noise level at the facade compared to maximum weighted vibration velocity in the ground the probability of annoyance is approximately 20% for 59 dB or 0.48 mm/s, and about 40% for 63 dB or 0.98 mm/s.

  20. Assessing The Impact Of Railway Restructuring In Nigeria | Ibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study presents railway restructuring as a solution option to railway problems in Nigeria. It aims at ascertaining the efficiency of the critical input factors of Nigerian Railway corporation (NRC) while comparing it with that of the restructured developed and best practices railways to establish the basis for restructuring.

  1. 49 CFR 236.340 - Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking between electrical and mechanical levers. In electro-mechanical interlocking machine, locking between electric and mechanical levers shall be maintained so that mechanical... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electromechanical interlocking machine; locking...

  2. Control algorithms for single inverter dual induction motor system applied to railway traction; Commande algorithmique d'un systeme mono-onduleur bimachine asynchrone destine a la traction ferroviaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Eguiluz, R.

    2002-11-15

    The goal of this work concerns the modelling and the behaviour characterisation of a single inverter dual induction motor system applied to a railway traction bogie (BB36000) in order to concept its control. First part of this job is dedicated to the detailed description of overall system. The influence analysis of the internal perturbations (motor parameters variation) and, external perturbations (pantograph detachment, adherence loss, stick-slip) of the system have made considering the field oriented control applied to each motor of the bogie (classical traction structure). vi In a second part, a novel propulsion structure is proposed. It is composed by a single pulse-width modulated two level voltage source inverter. It supplies two parallel connected induction motors, which generate the transmitted traction force to the bogie wheels. The locomotive case represents the common load for the two motors. Several co-operative control strategies (CS) are studied. They are: the mean CS, the double mean CS, the master - slave switched CS and, the mean differential CS. In addition, an appropriated electric modes observer structure for these different controls has studied. These controls have validated applying the perturbations to the models using the solver SABER. This special approach is equivalent to quasi-experimentation, because the mechanical and the electrical system components have modelled using MAST language and, the sample control has created by a C code programme in the SABER environment. Third part is dedicated to the mechanical sensor suppression and, its adaptation in the cooperative control strategies. The partial speed reconstruction methods are: the fundamental frequency relation, the mechanical Kalman filter, the variable structure observer and the MRAS. Finally, the hardware system configuration of the experimental realisation is described. (author)

  3. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  4. Board and auditor interlocks and voluntary disclosure in annual reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, G.J.M.; Borghans, L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to explore whether interlock ties between the board of directors and the external auditors facilitate the cross-firm diffusion of voluntary disclosures in annual reports. Design/methodology/approach – Using a sample of 149 non-financial companies publicly

  5. 78 FR 56769 - South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways-Intra-Corporate Family...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Cooper and Berkeley Railroad Company South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35762] South Carolina Division of Public Railways, d/b/a Palmetto Railways--Intra-Corporate Family Transaction Exemption--The...

  6. Estimation of Structure-Borne Noise Reduction Effect of Steel Railway Bridge Equipped with Floating Ladder Track and Floating Reinforced-Concrete Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsutomu; Sogabe, Masamichi; Asanuma, Kiyoshi; Wakui, Hajime

    A number of steel railway bridges have been constructed in Japan. Thin steel members used for the bridges easily tend to vibrate and generate structure-borne noise. Accordingly, the number of constructions of steel railway bridges tends to decrease in the urban areas from a viewpoint of environmental preservation. Then, as a countermeasure against structure-borne noise generated from steel railway bridges, we have developed a new type of the steel railway bridge equipped with a floating-ladder track and a floating reinforced-concrete (RC) deck. As a result of train-running experiment, it became apparent that the new steel railway bridge installed by double floating system has reduced a vibration velocity level by 10.5 dB(A) at main girder web as compared with a steel railway bridge installed by directly fastened track. This reduction effect was achieved by the ladder track and RC deck supported by resilient materials.

  7. ANALYSIS OF RAILWAY USER TRAVEL BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa AKIYAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been requirments for a transport environment that will foster the development of safe, comfortable townships. The study of urban activities amid an aging society and effective use of public transport modes in addressing environmental problems have become particularly important issues. This study analyzes travel behaviour patterns of varying age groups using urban railways in order to examine the relationship between urban public transport use and urban activities. specifically, it analyzes the composition of urban activity and travel behaviour patterns among urban railway users in the Keihanshin (Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. This paper looks at urban activities within aging societies and identifies the differences in travel behaviour of railway users by separating them into young, middle aged and senior citizen age groups. Analysis makes particular use of the Railway station Database, which is a compilation of existing studies into attributes of railway stations and their surroundings, and results of person trip surveys. Rail use behaviour characteristics have been sorted by age group because mobility via urban railway systems is varied by age group. As a result, differences in railway usage patterns (travel objectives, distance and time, and number of transfers, etc. have been identified and so too have differences in urban activity patterns related to free activities (shopping, recreation. Furthermore, the study developed a travel behaviour pattern estimation model which is capable of categorizing specific transport behaviour patterns and estimating rail users and transport behaviour patterns from the relationship with areas surrounding railway stations to ensure future mobility by public transport for older age groups. The results make it possible to put forward proposals for urban rail services that will facilitate urban activities for the different age groups. Eventually, it will be possible to understand

  8. Evaluation of cyclic battery ageing for railway vehicle application

    OpenAIRE

    Sigle, Sebastian; Kaimer, Stefan; Dittus, Holger; Barai, Anup; McGordon, Andrew; Widanage, W. Dhammika

    2017-01-01

    Mobile transportation systems rely heavily on hydrocarbon based internal combustions engines (ICE) as the prime mover of vehicles. For rail applications electrification of the route provides an opportunity to improve efficiency and eliminate local emissions at point of use. However, route electrification is not always cost effective for secondary routes which see lower passenger volumes and less frequent trains; there is therefore an increasing interest in railway vehicles being equipped with...

  9. Strengthening of a railway bridge with NSMR and CFRP tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders; Danielsson, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of structures with CFRP is today considered an accepted method to upgrade concrete structures. In this paper two different CFRP strengthening systems are combined to give extended service life to a Swedish double-trough-double-track railway bridge, constructed in concrete with a 10 ....... Sensors on bars and tubes display proofs of utilization of the CFRP while displacement sensors and strain gauges on the steel reinforcement due to the small loads in the service limit state show minor effect....

  10. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  11. Combined Effects of High-Speed Railway Noise and Ground Vibrations on Annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoshima, Shigenori; Morihara, Takashi; Sato, Tetsumi; Yano, Takashi

    2017-07-27

    The Shinkansen super-express railway system in Japan has greatly increased its capacity and has expanded nationwide. However, many inhabitants in areas along the railways have been disturbed by noise and ground vibration from the trains. Additionally, the Shinkansen railway emits a higher level of ground vibration than conventional railways at the same noise level. These findings imply that building vibrations affect living environments as significantly as the associated noise. Therefore, it is imperative to quantify the effects of noise and vibration exposures on each annoyance under simultaneous exposure. We performed a secondary analysis using individual datasets of exposure and community response associated with Shinkansen railway noise and vibration. The data consisted of six socio-acoustic surveys, which were conducted separately over the last 20 years in Japan. Applying a logistic regression analysis to the datasets, we confirmed the combined effects of vibration/noise exposure on noise/vibration annoyance. Moreover, we proposed a representative relationship between noise and vibration exposures, and the prevalence of each annoyance associated with the Shinkansen railway.

  12. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Qin, Shun-Quan; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains.

  13. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.

  14. Intelligent control for braking-induced longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Wei-Lian; Tu, Jian-Weia; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Qiang; Qin, Shun-Quan; Cheng, Haibin; Pi, Yong-Lin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent control method and its engineering application in the control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration of floating-type railway bridges. Equations of motion for the controlled floating-type railway bridges have been established based on the analysis of the longitudinal vibration responses of floating-type railway bridges to train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. For engineering applications of the developed theory, a full-scale 500 kN smart magnetorheologic (MR) damper has been designed, fabricated and used to carry out experiments on the intelligent control of braking-induced longitudinal vibration. The procedure for using the developed intelligent method in conjunction with the full-scale 500 kN MR dampers has been proposed and used to control the longitudinal vibration responses of the deck of floating-type railway bridges induced by train braking and axle-loads of moving trains. This procedure has been applied to the longitudinal vibration control of the Tian Xingzhou highway and railway cable-stayed bridge over the Yangtze River in China. The simulated results have shown that the intelligent control system using the smart MR dampers can effectively control the longitudinal response of the floating-type railway bridge under excitations of braking and axle-loads of moving trains

  15. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  16. SURVEY RESULTS AND TESTING OF RAILWAY BRIDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. H. Haniiev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the survey and testing of railway bridges by the State Joint-Stock Railway Company «Uzbekiston Temir Yollari» («Uzbekistan Railways». It is stated that in the existing rules on determination of the capacity of bridges the recommendations on taking into account the cumulative deflection to the moment of technical diagnostics of spans on the bridge capacity are absent. The author states on the need to develop a method for determining the wear of spans on restriction of the residual deflection in the bridge floor slabs.

  17. The Effects of Liberalisation of the Passenger Railway Market on the Situation of Regional Rail Connections in Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taczanowski Jakub

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Liberalisation of railway market can be an important instrument for increasing the attractiveness of local rail services and consequently for making the railways more competitive with other means of transport, which could result in changing the modal share in the favour of railways. The differences in the railway liberalisation level as well as in the policies towards rail transport between Central and Eastern European countries are vast, hence the present situation and the future prospects of regional services are diverse. Whereas there is only one railway line in Slovakia which is not operated by the state railway company ZSSK, a few private local connections which complement a very dense network of ČD state railways are in service in the Czech Republic. Poland, by contrast, is a country where liberalisation of railway market is most advanced as several different companies are responsible for transport in the regions. However, the results of this large scale liberalisation are ambiguous as the positive effects (reopening of some lines are balanced by isolation of the new regional government-owned systems from each other. In Austria, by contrast, the existence of several private and regional government-owned local railways which are an indispensable part of the regional transport networks has contributed to maintain an effective transport system. Although the effects of liberalisation on the local railway networks can often be ambiguous, several cases from the Czech Republic, Austria and Poland show that privatisation and municipalisation may have a positive effect on the railway service as it has enabled to maintain the service on many sections which were at risk of closure. However, the most important condition of the effective transport development seems to be an active cooperation between the railway operators and the local governments as an expression of appropriate transport policy.

  18. Phase-based Planning for Railway Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui

    2017-01-01

    is important in terms of economy and rail operations. This study presents two types of Phase-based Decision Support System (PDSS), i.e. Functional Phase-Based Planning Approach (F-PBPA) and Process-Oriented Phase-Based Planning Approach (PO-PBPA). They are used for decision support for the planning...... of the railway infrastructure maintenance activities at the strategic planning level. The objective is to achieve better economy, as well as improve cost efficiency. F-PBPA consists of ve main phases: Data Collection, Technical Optimization (TeO), Economic Optimization (EcO), Constrained Optimization (Co...... the costs. Finally, constrained optimization (CoO) includes additional constraints and it allows the railway expert to adjust input parameters, thereby to obtain alternative maintenance plans. PO-PBPA contains another systematic phase based process. With a focus on Life Cycle Cost (LCC), PO-PBPA can guide...

  19. Local cyclic deformation behavior and microstructure of railway wheel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walther, F.; Eifler, D.

    2004-01-01

    The current investigations concentrate on the relation between the loading and environmental conditions, the local microstructure and the fatigue behavior of highly stressed railway wheel and tire steels. Experiments under stress control and total strain control were performed at ambient temperature with servohydraulic testing systems. Superimposed mean loadings allow an evaluation of cyclic creep and mean stress relaxation effects. Strain, temperature and electrical measuring techniques were used to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of specimens from different depth positions of the cross-sections of UIC-specified wheel components (UIC: International Railway Union). The measured values show a strong interrelation. The microstructural characterization of the different material conditions was done by light and scanning electron microscopy together with digital image processing

  20. BOTTOM TO TOP APPROACH FOR RAILWAY KPI GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto VILLAREJO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synony-mous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the de-velopment of key performance indicators (KPIs linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such ques-tions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  1. Bottom to Top Approach for Railway KPI Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, Roberto; Johansson, Carl-Anders; Leturiondo, Urko; Simon, Victor; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego

    2017-09-01

    Railway maintenance especially on infrastructure produces a vast amount of data. However, having data is not synonymous with having information; rather, data must be processed to extract information. In railway maintenance, the development of key performance indicators (KPIs) linked to punctuality or capacity can help planned and scheduled maintenance, thus aligning the maintenance department with corporate objectives. There is a need for an improved method to analyse railway data to find the relevant KPIs. The system should support maintainers, answering such questions as what maintenance should be done, where and when. The system should equip the user with the knowledge of the infrastructure's condition and configuration, and the traffic situation so maintenance resources can be targeted to only those areas needing work. The amount of information is vast, so it must be hierarchized and aggregated; users must filter out the useless indicators. Data are fused by compiling several individual indicators into a single index; the resulting composite indicators measure multidimensional concepts which cannot be captured by a single index. The paper describes a method of monitoring a complex entity. In this scenario, a plurality of use indices and weighting values are used to create a composite and aggregated use index from a combination of lower level use indices and weighting values. The resulting composite and aggregated indicators can be a decision-making tool for asset managers at different hierarchical levels.

  2. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for structural and railway applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, H. Y.; Liu, S. Y.; Guan, B. O.; Chung, W. H.; Chan, T. H.; Cheng, L. K.

    2005-02-01

    Historically, due to the high cost of optical devices, fiber-optics sensor systems were only employed in niche areas where conventional electrical sensors are not suitable. This scenario changed dramatically in the last few years following the explosion of the Internet which caused the rapid expansion of the optical fiber telecommunication industry and substantially driven down the cost of optical components. In recent years, fiber-optic sensors and particularly fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted a lot of interests and are being used in numerous applications. We have conducted several field trials of FBG sensors for railway applications and structural monitoring. About 30 FBG sensors were installed on the rail tracks of Kowloon-Canton Railway Corp. for train identification and speed measurements and the results obtained show that FBG sensors exhibit very good performance and could play a major role in the realization of "Smart Railway". FBG sensors were also installed on Hong Kong's landmark TsingMa Bridge, which is the world longest suspension bridge (2.2 km) that carries both trains and regular road traffic. The trials were carried out with a high-speed (up to 20 kHz) interrogation system based on CCD and also with a interrogation unit that based on scanning optical filter (up to 70 Hz). Forty FBGs sensors were divided into 3 arrays and installed on different parts of the bridge (suspension cable, rocker bearing and truss girders). The objectives of the field trial on the TsingMa Bridge are to monitor the strain of different parts of the bridge under railway load and highway load, and to compare the FBG sensors' performance with conventional resistive strain gauges already installed on the bridge. The measured results show that excellent agreement was obtained between the 2 types of sensors.

  3. High-speed railways in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyotani, Y.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of conventional railways in Japan, leading up to the Shinkansen line, which at present runs at speeds up to 210km/h, and will in the future be speeded up to 260km/h. It then goes on to review the development of a superconductive, magnetically levitated train, which will constitute the next generation of railways, running at speeds of up to 500km/h. (author)

  4. The liberalisation of the railways in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Trampus, Francesca

    2000-01-01

    It is certainly high time to talk about policy for the railways not only in the Russian Federation but also in Europe, where the railways are vital part of the Community transport sector and need to be promoted and revitalized, especially considering the increasing air-traffic and railroad congestion, the environmental problems, the traffic noise, the accidents and the growing opposition to the unchecked development of the new road infrastructure. Railtrack’s business is supported by state-fu...

  5. Integral Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation for Railway Traction Drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garramiola, Fernando; Del Olmo, Jon; Poza, Javier; Madina, Patxi; Almandoz, Gaizka

    2018-05-13

    Due to the increasing importance of reliability and availability of electric traction drives in Railway applications, early detection of faults has become an important key for Railway traction drive manufacturers. Sensor faults are important sources of failures. Among the different fault diagnosis approaches, in this article an integral diagnosis strategy for sensors in traction drives is presented. Such strategy is composed of an observer-based approach for direct current (DC)-link voltage and catenary current sensors, a frequency analysis approach for motor current phase sensors and a hardware redundancy solution for speed sensors. None of them requires any hardware change requirement in the actual traction drive. All the fault detection and isolation approaches have been validated in a Hardware-in-the-loop platform comprising a Real Time Simulator and a commercial Traction Control Unit for a tram. In comparison to safety-critical systems in Aerospace applications, Railway applications do not need instantaneous detection, and the diagnosis is validated in a short time period for reliable decision. Combining the different approaches and existing hardware redundancy, an integral fault diagnosis solution is provided, to detect and isolate faults in all the sensors installed in the traction drive.

  6. Metal-organic frameworks with dynamic interlocked components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, V. Nicholas; Harris, Kristopher J.; Zhu, Kelong; Schurko, Robert W.; Loeb, Stephen J.

    2012-06-01

    The dynamics of mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes have been studied in solution as examples of rudimentary molecular switches and machines, but in this medium, the molecules are randomly dispersed and their motion incoherent. As a strategy for achieving a higher level of molecular organization, we have constructed a metal-organic framework material using a [2]rotaxane as the organic linker and binuclear Cu(II) units as the nodes. Activation of the as-synthesized material creates a void space inside the rigid framework that allows the soft macrocyclic ring of the [2]rotaxane to rotate rapidly, unimpeded by neighbouring molecular components. Variable-temperature 13C and 2H solid-state NMR experiments are used to characterize the nature and rate of the dynamic processes occurring inside this unique material. These results provide a blueprint for the future creation of solid-state molecular switches and molecular machines based on mechanically interlocked molecules.

  7. Design of responsive materials using topologically interlocked elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molotnikov, A; Gerbrand, R; Qi, Y; Simon, G P; Estrin, Y

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel approach to designing responsive structures by segmentation of monolithic plates into an assembly of topologically interlocked building blocks. The particular example considered is an assembly of interlocking osteomorphic blocks. The results of this study demonstrate that the constraining force, which is required to hold the blocks together, can be viewed as a design parameter that governs the bending stiffness and the load bearing capacity of the segmented structure. In the case where the constraining forces are provided laterally using an external frame, the maximum load the assembly can sustain and its stiffness increase linearly with the magnitude of the lateral load applied. Furthermore, we show that the segmented plate with integrated shape memory wires employed as tensioning cables can act as a smart structure that changes its flexural stiffness and load bearing capacity in response to external stimuli, such as heat generated by the switching on and off an electric current. (paper)

  8. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  9. External jig in the placement of distal interlocking screws | Ikem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde (52.2%) was the commonest surgical approach used for femur. The main indication for SIGN interlocking surgery was recent fracture 77.8%. Open reduction 97.8% was the commonest method of reduction used. The mean±SD bone union time was 3.58±0.56 months and range 3-5 months. Distal screw insertion ...

  10. Effects of Interlocking and Supporting Conditions on Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Geetimukta; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-02-01

    Concrete Block Paving (CBP) is widely used as wearing course in flexible pavements, preferably under light and medium vehicular loadings. Construction of CBP at site is quick and easy in quality control. Usually, flexible pavement design philosophy is followed in CBP construction, though it is structurally different in terms of small block elements with high strength concrete and their interlocking aspects, frequent joints and discontinuity, restrained edge etc. Analytical solution for such group action of concrete blocks under loading in a three dimensional multilayer structure is complex and thus, the need of conducting experimental studies is necessitated for extensive understanding of the load—deformation characteristics and behavior of concrete blocks in pavement. The present paper focuses on the experimental studies for load transfer characteristics of CBP under different interlocking and supporting conditions. It is observed that both interlocking and supporting conditions affect significantly on the load transfer behavior in CBP structures. Coro-lock block exhibits better performance in terms of load carrying capacity and distortion behavior under static loads. Plate load tests are performed over subgrade, granular sub-base (GSB), CBP with and without GSB using different block shapes. For an example case, the comparison of CBP with conventional flexible pavement section is also presented and it is found that CBP provides considerable benefit in terms of construction cost of the road structure.

  11. Determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this article was to identify the main determinants of Board Interlocking in the Brazilian capital market. As the theoretical structure, the Agency theory and Corporate Governance, the Resource Dependence theory and the Board of Administrators and the Characteristics of Board Interlocking. The sample consists of 58 Brazilian companies that participate in the Bovespa Index (Ibovespa. An empirical analytic study was undertaken. With regard to the objectives, it is characterized as exploratory and, with regard to the procedures, a documentary research was undertaken. The data on the Boards of Administrators were collected from the Reference Forms available on the website of the São Paulo Stock Exchange (BM&FBOVESPA. The results found demonstrate the generalized presence of Board Interlocking in these companies, normally associated with four factors: (1 economic group formation; (2 governmental control; (3 formation of pension funds; and (4 presence of professionals with acknowledged market experience. The results also suggest that the first three factors give rise to long-lasting links and that these connections are hard to break. On the other hand, the links established through professionals with market experience tend to be more unstable because the presence of these professionals is highly demanded to serve on the board of different companies.

  12. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  13. Opinions of the commuters to receive oral health messages in South central railway zone India: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Parthasarathi Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The railroads of India are the fourth most heavily used system in the world. Railways are one of the main modes of transport and millions of people travel by train daily. Aim: To know the opinions of commuters in receiving oral health messages in railways station through various methods and also their knowledge and practice regarding oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Using convenient sampling method data from the commuters was obtained by a pretested questionnaire through interview method from 14 railway stations of South Central Railway zone. Pearson Chi-square test was used to compare the opinions of commuters based on their gender to receive oral health messages. Results: A total of 596 (97.3% responded to the survey; a maximum of 297 (49.8% subjects strongly agreed to the statement that railway platforms should have informative posters on oral health. A maximum of 188 (31.5% commuters strongly agreed that prerecorded messages on oral health if played before the announcement of arrival and departure of train will be helpful to spread oral health awareness. Majority of 43% commuters (255 preferred to receive oral hygiene instructions printed on back side of the ticket followed by messages on television and through posters. Conclusion: Majority of the commuters preferred to receive oral health information in railways stations. Hence, efforts can be directed in spreading oral health information among public through railways.

  14. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF RAILWAYS BOLSTER-BEAM UNDER COMMERCIAL OPERATION CONDITIONS: OVER-TRACTION AND OVER-BRAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. MARTINOD

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the operation of railway systems are closely related to the increase of the commercial demand; as a consequence, the performance of the structural elements of railways changes. The present paper focuses on a study of the structural behaviour of bolster-beams under commercial operation conditions of railway systems, specifically in the dynamic conditions generated in events of over-traction and over-braking on the vehicle running. The proposed work is constructed based on the following phases: (i analysis of the kinematics of the vehicle; (ii development of numerical models, a model based on the multibody theory, and a Finite Elements model; (iii development of experimental field tests; and (iv development of simulations for a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour for a study of the strain distribution in the main bolster-beam. This study is applied to a particular case of a railway system that provides commercial service to passengers.

  15. A Harmonic Resonance Suppression Strategy for a High-Speed Railway Traction Power Supply System with a SHE-PWM Four-Quadrant Converter Based on Active-Set Secondary Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runze Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pulse width modulation (PWM technology is widely used in traction converters for high-speed railways. The harmonic distribution caused by PWM is quite extensive, and increases the possibility of grid–train coupling resonance in the traction power supply system (TPSS. This paper first analyzes the mechanism of resonance, when the characteristic harmonic frequency of a four-quadrant converter (4QC current that injects into the traction grid matches the resonant frequency of the traction grid, which may result in resonance in the system. To suppress resonance, this paper adopts specific harmonic elimination–pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM technology combined with a transient direct current control strategy to eliminate the harmonics in the resonant frequency, which may suppress the grid–train coupling resonance. Due to the fact that the SHE-PWM process with multiple switching angles contains complex transcendental equations, the initial value is difficult to provide, and is difficult to solve using ordinary iterative algorithms. In this paper, an active-set secondary optimization method is used to solve the equation. The algorithm has the benefits of low dependence on initial values, fast convergence and high solution accuracy. Finally, the feasibility of the resonant suppression algorithm is verified by means of Matlab simulation.

  16. Fault Detection and Diagnosis of Railway Point Machines by Sound Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonguk; Choi, Heesu; Park, Daihee; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Yoon, Sukhan

    2016-01-01

    Railway point devices act as actuators that provide different routes to trains by driving switchblades from the current position to the opposite one. Point failure can significantly affect railway operations, with potentially disastrous consequences. Therefore, early detection of anomalies is critical for monitoring and managing the condition of rail infrastructure. We present a data mining solution that utilizes audio data to efficiently detect and diagnose faults in railway condition monitoring systems. The system enables extracting mel-frequency cepstrum coefficients (MFCCs) from audio data with reduced feature dimensions using attribute subset selection, and employs support vector machines (SVMs) for early detection and classification of anomalies. Experimental results show that the system enables cost-effective detection and diagnosis of faults using a cheap microphone, with accuracy exceeding 94.1% whether used alone or in combination with other known methods. PMID:27092509

  17. Mitigation of landslide area around railway tunnel, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toha, M. Taufik; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Komar, Syamsul; Bochori, Ghadafi, Moamar A.; Adiwarman, Mirza; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    Adequate and safe railway line infrastructures as well as facilities are required to support the rail transport system in South Sumatra. The slope stability along railway line of Lahat-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra were studied during landslide that occured on January 23th, 2016. The landslide occurred on the mouth of railway tunnel in Gunung Gajah Village, Lahat District that causing the railway transportation system had to be stopped for a few days. A comprehensive research was conducted to analyze the causes of the landslide and to identify other landslide risky areas along the railway line Lahat-Lubuk Linggau. The research activities included surveying, sampling, laboratory testing, investigating condition of geology, geotechnics, hydrogeology/hydrology, morphology and land use. The factors that cause landslide in the past studies were found to be morphology, structural geology, physical and mechanical characteristics, hydrogeology, hydrology, external forces (train vibration, earthquake). Results back analysis of slope stability when the landslide occurred showed that the value Safety Factor (SF) = 1, angle of friction = 0°, and cohesion = 0.49 kg/cm2 (49 kPa). Based on the observation and analysis of the condition of the morphology and orientation of the structure of the rock layers, there was a location prone to landslide (labile) in the surrounding area of the landslide. Mitigations to potential landslide in adjacent area were building a retaining wall, draining channels, and shortcrete at the rock wall after landslides and maintaining the land use around the slopes.

  18. Fuel rod fixing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    This is a reusable system for fixing a nuclear reactor fuel rod to a support. An interlock cap is fixed to the fuel rod and an interlock strip is fixed to the support. The interlock cap has two opposed fingers, which are shaped so that a base is formed with a body part. The interlock strip has an extension, which is shaped so that this is rigidly fixed to the body part of the base. The fingers of the interlock cap are elastic in bending. To fix it, the interlock cap is pushed longitudinally on to the interlock strip, which causes the extension to bend the fingers open in order to engage with the body part of the base. To remove it, the procedure is reversed. (orig.) [de

  19. Railway diagnosis of electric transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov Vladimir Sergeevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in noise level at cities is increasing the requirements to functional interaction of road users - pedestrians and drivers - with the parameters of the environment as a leading component of Afferentation synthesis in the complicated complex of locomotive activity. City noise is one of the most widespread factors of unfavorable living and working conditions. The noise of high intensity provokes diseases, lowers labor activity. At present, many large cities pay much attention to electric vehicles. The authors present an analysis of the poor state of tram track in areas of high noise and vibration of car and under-sleeper base design. A negative effect of noise and vibration on the formation of urban areas environment is shown as well as the impact of these conditions on the person. The advantages of the application of electric transport are specified, noise displacement curve of railway and under sleeper base is plotted depending on the frequency of the applied load and the modulus of elasticity, as well as under sleeper base vibroacceleration depending on time. The authors offer a systematic study on the basis of a mathematical model of the sources of noise in the process of a tram motion.

  20. A tutorial on fundamental model structures for railway timetable optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrod, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure, and whe......This guide explains the role of railway timetables relative to all other railway scheduling activities, and then presents four fundamental timetable formulations suitable for optimization. Timetabling models may be classified according to whether they explicitly model the track structure...

  1. Bio-inspired ``jigsaw''-like interlocking sutures: Modeling, optimization, 3D printing and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, I. A.; Mirkhalaf, M.; Barthelat, F.

    2017-05-01

    Structural biological materials such as bone, teeth or mollusk shells draw their remarkable performance from a sophisticated interplay of architectures and weak interfaces. Pushed to the extreme, this concept leads to sutured materials, which contain thin lines with complex geometries. Sutured materials are prominent in nature, and have recently served as bioinspiration for toughened ceramics and glasses. Sutures can generate large deformations, toughness and damping in otherwise all brittle systems and materials. In this study we examine the design and optimization of sutures with a jigsaw puzzle-like geometry, focusing on the non-linear traction behavior generated by the frictional pullout of the jigsaw tabs. We present analytical models which accurately predict the entire pullout response. Pullout strength and energy absorption increase with higher interlocking angles and for higher coefficients of friction, but the associated high stresses in the solid may fracture the tabs. Systematic optimization reveals a counter-intuitive result: the best pullout performance is achieved with interfaces with low coefficient of friction and high interlocking angle. We finally use 3D printing and mechanical testing to verify the accuracy of the models and of the optimization. The models and guidelines we present here can be extended to other types of geometries and sutured materials subjected to other loading/boundary conditions. The nonlinear responses of sutures are particularly attractive to augment the properties and functionalities of inherently brittle materials such as ceramics and glasses.

  2. Environmental impact of oil transportation by tankers, pipelines, railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitskishvili, M.S.; Chelidze, M.A.; Kaviladze, I.; Chkhartishvili, A.G.; Tsitskishvili, L.B.; Ninua, T.L.; Kordzaxia, G.I.; Gavasheli, L.; Petriashvili, E.T.; Alania, M.L.; Gigolashvili, Sh.Z.; Kordzakhia, M.O.; Chankotadze, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Considering all types of risks (technical, operational, natural hazards (e.g. geo-hazards) and third party intrusion), the underground pipelines constructed in accordance with the international standards are the most safe and reliable system for oil transportation. Statistical data provided by CONCAWE and US Department of Transportation confirms that the pipeline related spills are rare and mainly related to the old pipelines. Georgia's experience yet confirms the general sound guess that the situation in our countries is not the same as in western Europe or USA and accordingly the CONCAWE statistical data can not be applied mechanically. Two spills (although small and manageable), during the recent 4 years and some discovered illegal hot-taps on the Baku-Supsa pipeline indicate that the issue of third party intrusion risks is much higher in the region and well organized security system is required to protect the pipeline from intentional damage. Of course the pipeline system can not function isolated and it is integrated with the other systems of oil transportation, mainly with off-shore terminals and tankers. The most significant of the recorded pollution damages are related to the tanker collisions (like Prestige and Exxon Valdez cases). The basic fact, which we would like to stress, is that the environmental risks related to the tanker collisions are much higher for such confined or semi-confined systems as Black and Caspian seas. The overloading of the Black Sea transportation capacity and especially its limiting narrow point - the Bosporus will inevitably lead in future to the implementation of the restrictive measures limiting transportation of oil by tankers in the Black Sea. Therefore, the role of the BTC pipeline as major transportation system will increase significantly. We consider that responsibility of the scientific society is to facilitate this process as soon as the BTC pipeline is functional. The railway transportation of oil is quite

  3. Vertical interlocks of executives and performance of affiliated firms in state owned Chinese business groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin; Na, Chaohong

    . Further, the positive effects of vertically interlocking chairmen decrease as the number of pyramidal layers increases or regional marketization index improves. Such positive effects of interlocks, however, become greater as the divergence between cash flow rights and control rights of business groups...... increases. Our findings are consistent with the hypotheses that vertically interlocking executives can increase firm value by providing better protection against political interference and expropriation by the ultimate controllers of business groups. Our study sheds new light in the role and function...... of interlocks and adds to a small body of literature on the dynamics of state owned business groups in emerging markets generally and China particularly....

  4. OOA composite structures applicable in railway industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusnáková Soňa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite sandwich structures offers several advantages over conventional structural materials such as lightweight, high bending and torsional stiffness, superior thermal insulation and excellent acoustic damping. In the aerospace industry, sandwich composites are commonly manufactured using the autoclave process which is associated with high operating cost. Out-of-autoclave (OOA manufacturing has been shown to be capable of producing low cost and high performance composites. In this paper we present results of experimental testing of various sandwich materials according various standards and actual requirements in transport industry. We compared the different types of surface and paint systems, because these layers are the most important in contact with the surrounding environment and load conditions. In the experimental measurements were used various materials. For the core of the sandwich structure were selected aluminium honeycomb, aramid honeycomb and PET (Polyethylene terephthalate foam core. Support layers were chosen two kinds of predimpregnated materials. The conditions of measurements were requirements for strength and rigidity, safety - flame resistance and reflectivity resistance. The samples were tested at the 3 - point bending test according to standard EN ISO 178, by modified test to determine the force required to rapture threaded insert, by test of reflectivity according to UIC CODE 844-4 R and according to standard EN 45545-2 fire protection of railway vehicles.

  5. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  6. 20 CFR 202.15 - Railway labor organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...

  7. Effect of Different Structure Type Traffic On Railway Line Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleba Radosław

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article points to methods of analyzing railway traffic conditions based on two parameters: capacity and delay of trains. The impact of the differentiated railway type structure on the capacity of the railway line was presented. Particular attention has been paid to the assessment of commonly used simplifications in analyzes.

  8. Travel Models for Corridors of Metropolitan Areas Served by Railways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brzeziński A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years adverse processes of suburbanization have been observed in cities. It has become a serious challenge for urban and transport planners, as it influences largely the quality of space, the quality of life, and the cost of running the city. This paper is dedicated to travel models in areas serviced by a railway system, and is based on a real-life survey example of the Błonie community, a district belonging to the Warsaw metropolitan area. Research carried out in 2014 focused on combined travels behaviors recorded using GPS locators as well as quantitative research (volumes of users across various transport systems.

  9. Mechanical modelling and application of vibroacoustic isolators in railway tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbiciak Artur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents systematization and description of vibroacoustic isolators used in railway tracks (due to track structure type, with special attention paid to resilient mats. As in the second part of the paper the state-space mechanical model of a system with Under-Ballast Mat is formulated. Also some numerical problems arising from the mass matrix singularity are discussed. The poles of the system were calculated by using Matlab. Moreover, the influence of various parameters on the system’s insertion loss and its transmissibility was visualized in figures.

  10. D0 Central Tracking Solenoid Energization, Controls, Interlocks and Quench Protection Initial Validation Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierny, W.; Hance, R.

    1998-01-01

    This note presents the inspection and tests to be performed on the DZERO solenoid energization, controls, interlocks and quench protection system before it is energized for the first time. This test is to be performed with a 5000A jumper at the end of the bus instead of the solenoid. This system is based in DZERO room 511. A copy of this note shall be annotated, signed and dated by the person coordinating the procedure; and filed with the system maintenance records. Annotations shall include comments about any aspect of the procedure that is abnormal or unsuccessful. The following inspections and tests shall be performed by persons knowledgeable about the system. Each individual test step should be reviewed and understood before proceeding with that step.

  11. Influence of vertical holes on creep and shrinkage of railway prestressed concrete sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-09-01

    Railway prestressed concrete sleepers (or railroad ties) must successfully perform two critical duties: first, to carry wheel loads from the rails to the ground; and second, to secure rail gauge for dynamic safe movements of trains. The second duty is often fouled by inappropriate design of the time-dependent behaviors due to their creep, shrinkage and elastic shortening responses of the materials. In addition, the concrete sleepers are often modified on construction sites to fit in other systems such as cables, signalling gears, drainage pipes, etc. Accordingly, this study is the world first to investigate creep and shrinkage effects on the railway prestressed concrete sleepers with vertical holes. This paper will highlight constitutive models of concrete materials within the railway sleepers under different environmental conditions over time. It will present a comparative investigation using a variety of methods to evaluate shortening effects in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will improve material design, which is very critical to the durability of railway track components.

  12. [Clinical application of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Li-Guo; Fang, Zhi-Song; Luo, Cong-Feng; Wang, Qing-Feng; Ma, Yi-Ping; Gao, Hong; Fu, Guo-Hai; Hu, Cheng-Ting

    2012-07-01

    To introduce the clinical method of blocking screws and rooting technique in the treatment of distal tibial fracture with interlocking intramedullary nails. From June 2006 to March 2011, 26 patients with distal tibial fracture were treated with interlocking intramedullary nails using blocking screws and rooting technique, included 18 males and 8 females with an average age of 46.2 years old ranging from 24 to 64 years. According to AO classification: 10 cases of type A1, 4 cases of type A2, 8 cases of type B1, 4 cases of type B2. The average distance of the fractures end to the ankle joint was 85 mm ranging from 55 to 125 mm, the mean time between injured and operation was 4.5 days. The patients were evaluated with pain, range of motion, walking. All cases were followed-up for 6 to 22 months (averaged 15 months). According to Iowa ankle joint grading system,the score was improved from preoperative (66.8 +/- 8.2) to postoperative (94.6 +/- 4.8). All fractures had united, and got satisfactory reduction and stable fixation with no complications had happen such as breakage of screw. Fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail using blocking screws and rooting technique in treating distal tibial fracture, is a safe and effective technique for the improvement of stability.

  13. 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David; Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Iida, Masanobu; Nelson, James; Thompson, David; Tielkes, Thorsten; Towers, David; Vos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The book reports on the 11th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held on 9 – 13 September, 2013, in Uddevalla, Sweden. The event, which was jointly organized by the Competence Centre Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) and the Departments of Applied Mechanics and Applied Acoustics at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, covered a broad range of topics in the field of railway noise and vibration, including: prospects, legal regulations and perceptions; wheel and rail noise; prediction, measurements and monitoring; ground-borne vibration; squeal noise and structure-borne noise; and aerodynamic noise generated by high-speed trains. Further topics included: resilient track forms; grinding, corrugation and roughness; and interior noise and sound barriers. This book, which consists of a collection of peer-reviewed papers originally submitted to the workshop, not only provides readers with an overview of the latest developments in the field, but also offers scientists and engineers essent...

  14. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  15. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Updating for Railway Bridges Based on Local Inspection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Robin E; Suh, Wonho; Park, Kiwon

    2017-04-24

    Railway bridges are exposed to repeated train loads, which may cause fatigue failure. As critical links in a transportation network, railway bridges are expected to survive for a target period of time, but sometimes they fail earlier than expected. To guarantee the target bridge life, bridge maintenance activities such as local inspection and repair should be undertaken properly. However, this is a challenging task because there are various sources of uncertainty associated with aging bridges, train loads, environmental conditions, and maintenance work. Therefore, to perform optimal risk-based maintenance of railway bridges, it is essential to estimate the probabilistic fatigue life of a railway bridge and update the life information based on the results of local inspections and repair. Recently, a system reliability approach was proposed to evaluate the fatigue failure risk of structural systems and update the prior risk information in various inspection scenarios. However, this approach can handle only a constant-amplitude load and has limitations in considering a cyclic load with varying amplitude levels, which is the major loading pattern generated by train traffic. In addition, it is not feasible to update the prior risk information after bridges are repaired. In this research, the system reliability approach is further developed so that it can handle a varying-amplitude load and update the system-level risk of fatigue failure for railway bridges after inspection and repair. The proposed method is applied to a numerical example of an in-service railway bridge, and the effects of inspection and repair on the probabilistic fatigue life are discussed.

  16. 76 FR 6517 - Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35461] Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc.--Lease and Operation Exemption-- Norfolk Southern Railway Company Carolina Coastal Railway, Inc. (CLNA), a Class III carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.41 to...

  17. Bunker door interlock limit issues of K-130 cyclotron, VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srihari, K.; Ravishankar, R.; Mitra, M.S.; Mishra, S.K.; Bandyopadhyay, T.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    The K-130 cyclotron is in operation at VECC, Kolkata. Recently modernization of the cyclotron has taken place. Central region modification has increased reasonable internal beam current. During the tuning of the projectiles, loss of beam is unavoidable and projectiles hitting different parts of the machine inside the vacuum chamber . These interactions produce prompt radiation comprising neutron and gamma. However machine bunker is not accessible during the operation of the machine. The induced activity produced because of interactions of the primary and secondary radiation a radiation hazardous environment during the shut down for the related maintenance work. Area radiation monitors placed at machine bunker room have the interlock with massive shield door of the bunker. Area radiation monitors are set to specified limiting value, lower than that will allow to open the shield door in normal condition. As, the internal beam current being increased and the probability of beam spread being more. Consequently generation of induced activity is also high leading to delay in machine bunker door opening because of the interlock settings. Radiation dose mapping after a long operation of the machine was done for the different strategic points (The locations mainly people access immediate after shut down). Different consequences and remedial measures being presented in paper to raise the dose rate limit level for the interlocks between the area radiation monitors with machine bunker door, keeping in mind of the regulatory requirements. Raising the limit of dose rate limiting value will minimize the waiting time to access the machine bunker which will increase the duty factor of the machine. (author)

  18. Emergent Strain Stiffening in Interlocked Granular Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Denis; Houze, Maurine; Rambach, Paul; Salez, Thomas; Patinet, Sylvain; Damman, Pascal

    2018-02-01

    Granular chain packings exhibit a striking emergent strain-stiffening behavior despite the individual looseness of the constitutive chains. Using indentation experiments on such assemblies, we measure an exponential increase in the collective resistance force F with the indentation depth z and with the square root of the number N of beads per chain. These two observations are, respectively, reminiscent of the self-amplification of friction in a capstan or in interleaved books, as well as the physics of polymers. The experimental data are well captured by a novel model based on these two ingredients. Specifically, the resistance force is found to vary according to the universal relation log F ˜μ √{N }Φ11 /8z /b , where μ is the friction coefficient between two elementary beads, b is their size, and Φ is the volume fraction of chain beads when semidiluted in a surrounding medium of unconnected beads. Our study suggests that theories normally confined to the realm of polymer physics at a molecular level can be used to explain phenomena at a macroscopic level. This class of systems enables the study of friction in complex assemblies, with practical implications for the design of new materials, the textile industry, and biology.

  19. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2014-09-02

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame. A plurality of individual male alignment features and a plurality of individual female alignment features are included on each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by multiple individual male alignment features on a first module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules fitting into and being surrounded by corresponding individual female alignment features on a second module of the adjacent photovoltaic modules. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  20. Photovoltaic module and interlocked stack of photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Brian S.

    2012-09-04

    One embodiment relates to an arrangement of photovoltaic modules configured for transportation. The arrangement includes a plurality of photovoltaic modules, each photovoltaic module including a frame having at least a top member and a bottom member. A plurality of alignment features are included on the top member of each frame, and a plurality of alignment features are included on the bottom member of each frame. Adjacent photovoltaic modules are interlocked by the alignment features on the top member of a lower module fitting together with the alignment features on the bottom member of an upper module. Other embodiments, features and aspects are also disclosed.

  1. Shutdown channels and fitted interlocks in atomic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Landauer, C.

    1968-01-01

    This catalogue consists of tables (one per reactor) giving the following information: number and type of detectors, range of the shutdown channels, nature of the associated electronics, thresholds setting off the alarms, fitted interlocks. These cards have been drawn up with a view to an examination of the reactors safety by the 'Reactor Safety Sub-Commission', they take into account the latest decisions. The reactors involved in this review are: Azur, Cabri, Castor-Pollux, Cesar-Marius-2, Edf-2, EL3, EL4, Eole, G1, G2-G3, Harmonie, Isis, Masurca, Melusine, Minerve, Osiris, Pegase, Peggy, PAT, Rapsodie, SENA, Siloe, Siloette, Triton-Nereide, and Ulysse. (authors) [fr

  2. Causal Analysis of Railway Running Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Harrod, Steven

    Operating delays and network propagation are inherent characteristics of railway operations. These are traditionally reduced by provision of time supplements or “slack” in railway timetables and operating plans. Supplement allocation policies must trade off reliability in the service commitments...... Denmark (the Danish infrastructure manager). The statistical analysis of the data identifies the minimum running times and the scheduled running time supplements and investigates the evolution of train delays along given train paths. An improved allocation of time supplements would result in smaller...

  3. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  4. Railway power supply - free of crises and independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigert, E.

    1981-01-01

    The German Federal Railway realizes 84% of its transport performance by electric traction. The prevailing primary energy source of the railway electric power supply is coal, but the DB uses also furnace gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric power. The shave of mineral oil lies by about 5%. The public utilities deliver about 15%. The dispersed situation of the power stations and converter stations over the whole supply area offers the advantage of short transport distances. Therefore the 110-kV-railway mains especially meets distribution demands. Very useful is the compound operation with the Austrian Federal Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways. (orig.) [de

  5. Analysis of the distribution of temperature fields in the braked railway wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchánek Andrej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with detection of reduced stress in a braked railway wheel, based on thermal transient analysis on virtual models, which influence the characteristics of the railway wheels. Structural analysis was performed by means of the ANSYS Multiphysics program system package. Thermal transient analysis deals with detection of temperature fields which are a result of braking by brake block. The applied heat flux represents the heat generated by friction of brake block. It is applied to a quarter model of the wheel to speed up the calculation. This analysis simulates two braking processes with subsequent cooling. Distribution of the equivalent stress was detected in the railway wheel cross section, at selected points. The input parameters were taken from the thermal transient analysis. These equivalent stresses result from thermal load.

  6. Dynamic Characteristics of a New Machine for Fatigue Testing of Railway Axles – Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel FRYDRÝŠEK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There were done some proposal calculations for a new testing machine. This new testing machine is determined for a dynamic fatigue testing of railway axles. The railway axles are subjected to bending and rotation (centrifugal effects. For the right proposition of a new machine is very important to know the basic dynamic characteristics of whole system. These dynamic characteristics are solved via FEM (MSC.Marc/Mentat software in combination with SBRA (Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment Method (probabilistic Monte Carlo approach, Anthill and Python software. The proposed dimensions and springs of a new machine for fatigue testing of railway axles were used for manufacturing. Application of the SBRA method connected with FEM in these areas is a new and innovative trend in mechanics. This paper is continuation of former work (i.e. easier deterministic approach already presented in this journal in 2007.

  7. Influence of Surface Abrasion on Creep and Shrinkage of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2017-10-01

    Ballasted railway track is very suitable for heavy-rail networks because of its many superior advantages in design, construction, short- and long-term maintenance, sustainability, and life-cycle cost. The sleeper, which supports rail and distributes loads from rail to ballast, is a very important component of rail track system. Prestressed concrete is very popular used in manufacturing sleepers. Therefore, improved knowledge about design techniques for prestressed concrete (PC) sleepers has been developed. However, the ballast angularity causes differential abrasions on the soffit or bottom surface of sleepers. Furthermore, in sharp curves and rapid gradient change, longitudinal and lateral dynamics of rails increase the likelihood of abrasions in concrete sleepers. This paper presents a comparative investigation using a variety of methods to evaluate creep and shrinkage effects in railway prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this study will improve the material design, which is very critical to the durability of railway track components.

  8. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  9. Impact of traffic noise on railway traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko TOŠ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic noise is one of the dominant factors of ergo-assessment. The harmful impact of traffic noise on the engine driver as target group can be studied in isolation from other ergo-assessment factors only in the initial phase of research. The simultaneous action of several related factors in the system of ergo-assessment factors has cumulative effect on the perception and psychomotoric status of the railway traffic participants in the appropriate traffic situation. The initial partial research of traffic noise by a combination of several scientific methods needs to be eventually upgraded by studying the relations among several concurrent important or dominant ergo-assessment factors.

  10. In search of a railway Europe : transnational railway developments in interwar Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anastasiadou, E.

    2009-01-01

    Most conventional histories that address the creation and development of railway networks start from national developments. Recent scholarship on this topic, however, has stressed the importance of formulating a transnational perspective on technological developments and infrastructural developments

  11. Development of Human Factor Management Requirements and Human Error Classification for the Prevention of Railway Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Sang Log; Park, Chan Woo; Shin, Seung Ryoung

    2008-08-01

    Railway accident analysis results show that accidents cased by human factors are not decreasing, whereas H/W related accidents are steadily decreasing. For the efficient management of human factors, many expertise on design, conditions, safety culture and staffing are required. But current safety management activities on safety critical works are focused on training, due to the limited resource and information. In order to improve railway safety, human factors management requirements for safety critical worker and human error classification is proposed in this report. For this accident analysis, status of safety measure on human factor, safety management system on safety critical worker, current safety planning is analysis

  12. Existing Noise Level at Railway Stations in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidan Shahiron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Railway transportation known as one of the most environmental friendly transportation mode. However, the significance problems of railway transportation are noise pollution and negatively impact the wellbeing of the whole community. Unfortunately, there has been lack of public awareness about the noise level produce by the railway transportation in Malaysia. This study investigates the noise level produced by railway transportation in Malaysia specifically by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad (KTMB. Methods of collecting existing noise level at railway stations in Malaysia are briefly discussed in this study. The finding indicates that the noise level produced by the railway transportation in Malaysia which is by KTMB is considered as dangerous to human being and also exceed the noise limit that has been assigned by Department of Environment Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia. A better noise barrier and improved material should be developed to mitigate the existing noise level produced by railway transportations in Malaysia.

  13. Research on noise and vibration reduction at DB to improve the environmental friendliness of railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Werning, B.; Beier, M.; Degen, K. G.; Stiebel, D.

    2006-06-01

    One of the most prominent keywords relating to the environmental friendliness of railway traffic is noise reduction. Thus, the research and development programme "Low Noise Railway" of Deutsche Bahn (DB) is under way to treat the noise of the vehicles and infrastructure. The noise reduction of the trains and the rail/wheel system are being tackled within several projects. The direct noise experienced by railway-lineside residents due to train movements on the track can be reduced by minimising the sound radiation directly at the source. This is the first-choice solution, as it proves to be the most effective countermeasure regarding a cost-benefit relation. The limit values for the noise emission as specified in the technical specification for interoperability are an essential criterion to be confirmed during the procurement process of railway vehicles. A recently developed acoustical quality management scheme establishes systematic noise management to complete the vehicle procurement process in the phases of concept, design, construction and manufacturing. In freight traffic quiet railway wheels for block brake operation will play an important role in the future to meet the goal of a low-noise railway system. A first attempt to realise successfully the low-noise potential of such optimised wheels was performed, even if with mixed results. To show ways of reducing the noise of the cooling ventilation in locomotives, DB is a partner in a development project led by Siemens. A notable 8 dB(A) noise reduction was measured. Concerning bridge noise, a project was started based on an effective and cost-efficient combination of experiments and simulations in order to develop specifications for the construction of generic low-noise bridges.

  14. A semi-empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini Ciampoli, Luca; Tosti, Fabio; Benedetto, Andrea; Alani, Amir M.; Loizos, Andreas; D'Amico, Fabrizio; Calvi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The first step in the planning for a renewal of a railway network consists in gathering information, as effectively as possible, about the state of the railway tracks. Nowadays, this activity is mostly carried out by digging trenches at regular intervals along the whole network, to evaluate both geometrical and geotechnical properties of the railway track bed. This involves issues, mainly concerning the invasiveness of the operations, the impacts on the rail traffic, the high costs, and the low levels of significance concerning such discrete data set. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can represent a useful technique for overstepping these issues, as it can be directly mounted onto a train crossing the railway, and collect continuous information along the network. This study is aimed at defining an empirical model for the prediction of fouling in railway ballast, by using GPR. With this purpose, a thorough laboratory campaign was implemented within the facilities of Roma Tre University. In more details, a 1.47 m long × 1.47 m wide × 0.48 m height plexiglass framework, accounting for the domain of investigation, was laid over a perfect electric conductor, and filled up with several configuration of railway ballast and fouling material (clayey sand), thereby representing different levels of fouling. Then, the set of fouling configurations was surveyed with several GPR systems. In particular, a ground-coupled multi-channel radar (600 MHz and 1600 MHz center frequency antennas) and three air-launched radar systems (1000 MHz and 2000 MHz center frequency antennas) were employed for surveying the materials. By observing the results both in terms of time and frequency domains, interesting insights are highlighted and an empirical model, relating in particular the shape of the frequency spectrum of the signal and the percentage of fouling characterizing the surveyed material, is finally proposed. Acknowledgement The Authors thank COST, for funding the Action TU1208 "Civil

  15. Influence of interlocked transactions on gum arabic production and marketing in Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujawamariya, G.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Interlocked relationships are characterised by traders’ supply of inputs and cash to producers on credit, to be reimbursed at sale time based on a pre-defined price which is often lower than the prevailing market price. The study analyses determinants of choice of interlocking in the gum sector in

  16. Interlocking Boards and Firm Performance: Evidence from a New Panel Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Non (Marielle); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn interlock between two firms occurs if the firms share one or more directors in their boards of directors. We explore the effect of interlocks on firm performance for 101 large Dutch firms using a large and new panel database. We use five different performance measures, and for each

  17. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in...

  18. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  19. Application of FMEA method in railway signalling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmel Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the FMEA method application, which is relevant in verification of design of two separated railway signalling systems. The efficiency of the method at the stage of the design was discussed. The method was identified as an important element of safety management process and as safety analysis method, which is included in the Safety Case and is applied for the sake of safety arguments and its assessment. Safety process management comprises several phases and appropriate actions, linked with each other in the way to create safety life cycle consistent with system life cycle. The safety case is a set of documents demonstrating that the product is compliant with defined safety requirements including analysis that indicates the correctness of the design and the correct reaction of the system to the failures, with appropriate and requested fail-safe reaction. It is necessary that railway signalling system should fulfil SIL4 requirement and remain safe in case of occurrence any kind of single failure of the equipment considered as possible.

  20. The State of the Railways in SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the railways at many key points in Natal and the ... feking to a point just north of the Orange River on the Cape Main Line ... occupied to a point some three miles north of .... All photographs supplied by the Publicity and Travel Department of the.