WorldWideScience

Sample records for rail-transit passengers final

  1. Passenger flow analysis of Beijing urban rail transit network using fractal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Peiwen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger flow and the characteristics of an urban rail transit network, we introduce four radius fractal dimensions and two branch fractal dimensions by combining a fractal approach with passenger flow assignment model. These fractal dimensions can numerically describe the complexity of passenger flow in the urban rail transit network and its change characteristics. Based on it, we establish a fractal quantification method to measure the fractal characteristics of passenger follow in the rail transit network. Finally, we validate the reasonability of our proposed method by using the actual data of Beijing subway network. It has been shown that our proposed method can effectively measure the scale-free range of the urban rail transit network, network development and the fractal characteristics of time-varying passenger flow, which further provides a reference for network planning and analysis of passenger flow.

  2. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

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    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  3. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  4. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  5. Vulnerability analysis and passenger source prediction in urban rail transit networks.

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    Junjie Wang

    Full Text Available Based on large-scale human mobility data collected in San Francisco and Boston, the morning peak urban rail transit (URT ODs (origin-destination matrix were estimated and the most vulnerable URT segments, those capable of causing the largest service interruptions, were identified. In both URT networks, a few highly vulnerable segments were observed. For this small group of vital segments, the impact of failure must be carefully evaluated. A bipartite URT usage network was developed and used to determine the inherent connections between urban rail transits and their passengers' travel demands. Although passengers' origins and destinations were easy to locate for a large number of URT segments, a few show very complicated spatial distributions. Based on the bipartite URT usage network, a new layer of the understanding of a URT segment's vulnerability can be achieved by taking the difficulty of addressing the failure of a given segment into account. Two proof-of-concept cases are described here: Possible transfer of passenger flow to the road network is here predicted in the cases of failures of two representative URT segments in San Francisco.

  6. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Wang, Yanhui; Jia, Limin

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  7. The modeling of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network based on field theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Li

    Full Text Available Aimed at the complicated problems of attraction characteristics regarding passenger flow in urban rail transit network, the concept of the gravity field of passenger flow is proposed in this paper. We establish the computation methods of field strength and potential energy to reveal the potential attraction relationship among stations from the perspective of the collection and distribution of passenger flow and the topology of network. As for the computation methods of field strength, an optimum path concept is proposed to define betweenness centrality parameter. Regarding the computation of potential energy, Compound Simpson's Rule Formula is applied to get a solution to the function. Taking No. 10 Beijing Subway as a practical example, an analysis of simulation and verification is conducted, and the results shows in the following ways. Firstly, the bigger field strength value between two stations is, the stronger passenger flow attraction is, and the greater probability of the formation of the largest passenger flow of section is. Secondly, there is the greatest passenger flow volume and circulation capacity between two zones of high potential energy.

  8. The influence of passenger flow on the topology characteristics of urban rail transit networks

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    Hu, Yingyue; Chen, Feng; Chen, Peiwen; Tan, Yurong

    2017-05-01

    Current researches on the network characteristics of metro networks are generally carried out on topology networks without passenger flows running on it, thus more complex features of the networks with ridership loaded on it cannot be captured. In this study, we incorporated the load of metro networks, passenger volume, into the exploration of network features. Thus, the network can be examined in the context of operation, which is the ultimate purpose of the existence of a metro network. To this end, section load was selected as an edge weight to demonstrate the influence of ridership on the network, and a weighted calculation method for complex network indicators and robustness were proposed to capture the unique behaviors of a metro network with passengers flowing in it. The proposed method was applied on Beijing Subway. Firstly, the passenger volume in terms of daily origin and destination matrix was extracted from exhausted transit smart card data. Using the established approach and the matrix as weighting, common indicators of complex network including clustering coefficient, betweenness and degree were calculated, and network robustness were evaluated under potential attacks. The results were further compared to that of unweighted networks, and it suggests indicators of the network with consideration of passenger volumes differ from that without ridership to some extent, and networks tend to be more vulnerable than that without load on it. The significance sequence for the stations can be changed. By introducing passenger flow weighting, actual operation status of the network can be reflected more accurately. It is beneficial to determine the crucial stations and make precautionary measures for the entire network’s operation security.

  9. Mathematical modeling for optimizing skip-stop rail transit operation strategy using genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    "With skip-stop rail transit operation, transit agencies can reduce their operating costs and fleet size, : and passengers can experience reduced in-transit travel times without extra track and technological : improvement. However, since skip-stop op...

  10. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  11. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

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    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  12. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  13. Scheduling Additional Train Unit Services on Rail Transit Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhibin Jiang; Yuyan Tan; Özgür Yalçınkaya

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of scheduling additional train unit (TU) services in a double parallel rail transit line, and a mixed integer programming (MIP) model is formulated for integration strategies of new trains connected by TUs with the objective of obtaining higher frequencies in some special sections and special time periods due to mass passenger volumes. We took timetable scheduling and TUs scheduling as an integrated optimization model with two objectives: minimizing travel ti...

  14. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  15. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

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    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  16. Calculation Method for Load Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Station considering Cascading Failure

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    Jiajun Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The load capacity of urban rail transit station is of great significance to provide reference in station design and operation management. However, it is difficult to carry out quantitative calculation quickly and accurately due to the complex interaction among passenger behaviors, facility layout, and the limit capacity of single facility. In this paper, the association network of facilities is set up based on the analysis of passenger service chain in station. Then the concept of cascading failure is introduced to the dynamic calculation model of load capacity, which is established on the user-equilibrium allocation model. The solution algorithm is optimized with node attack strategy of complex network to effectively reduce the computational complexity. Finally, a case study of Lujiabang Road Station in Shanghai is carried out and compared with the simulation results of StaPass, verifying the feasibility of this approach. The proposed method can not only search for the bottleneck of capacity, but also help to trace the loading variation of facilities network in different scenarios, providing theoretical supports on passenger flow organization.

  17. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

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    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  18. Vulnerability Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Networks: A Case Study of Shanghai, China

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    Daniel (Jian Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit is developing rapidly in major cities of China and has become a key component of urban transport. Nevertheless, the security and reliability in operation are significant issues that cannot be neglected. In this paper, the network and station vulnerabilities of the urban rail transit system were analyzed based on complex network and graph theories. A vulnerability evaluation model was proposed by accounting metro interchange and passenger flow and further validated by a case study of Shanghai Metro with full-scale network and real-world traffic data. It is identified that the urban rail transit network is rather robust to random attacks, but is vulnerable to the largest degree node-based attacks and the highest betweenness node-based attacks. Metro stations with a large node degree are more important in maintaining the network size, while stations with a high node betweenness are critical to network efficiency and origin-destination (OD connectivity. The most crucial stations in maintaining network serviceability do not necessarily have the highest passenger throughput or the largest structural connectivity. A comprehensive evaluation model as proposed is therefore essential to assess station vulnerability, so that attention can be placed on appropriate nodes within the metro system. The findings of this research are of both theoretical and practical significance for urban rail transit network design and performance evaluation.

  19. Weighted Complex Network Analysis of Shanghai Rail Transit System

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    Yingying Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing passenger flows and construction scale, Shanghai rail transit system (RTS has entered a new era of networking operation. In addition, the structure and properties of the RTS network have great implications for urban traffic planning, design, and management. Thus, it is necessary to acquire their network properties and impacts. In this paper, the Shanghai RTS, as well as passenger flows, will be investigated by using complex network theory. Both the topological and dynamic properties of the RTS network are analyzed and the largest connected cluster is introduced to assess the reliability and robustness of the RTS network. Simulation results show that the distribution of nodes strength exhibits a power-law behavior and Shanghai RTS network shows a strong weighted rich-club effect. This study also indicates that the intentional attacks are more detrimental to the RTS network than to the random weighted network, but the random attacks can cause slightly more damage to the random weighted network than to the RTS network. Our results provide a richer view of complex weighted networks in real world and possibilities of risk analysis and policy decisions for the RTS operation department.

  20. Simulation and evaluation of urban rail transit network based on multi-agent approach

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    Xiangming Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such dynamic system should be given. This study therefore aims at using simulation approach to solve this problem for subway network. Design/methodology/approach: In this thesis a simulation model based on multi-agent approach has been proposed, which is a well suited method to design complex systems. The model includes the specificities of passengers’ travelling behaviors and takes into account of interactions between travelers and trains. Findings: Research limitations/implications: We developed an urban rail transit simulation tool for verification of the validity and accuracy of this model, using real passenger flow data of Beijing subway network to take a case study, results show that our simulation tool can be used to analyze the characteristic of passenger flow distribution and evaluate operation strategies well. Practical implications: The main implications of this work are to provide decision support for traffic management, making train operation plan and dispatching measures in emergency. Originality/value: A new and comprehensive method to analyze and evaluate subway network is presented, accuracy and computational efficiency of the model has been confirmed and meet with the actual needs for large-scale network.

  1. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  2. System and prospects of China's intercity rail transit technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ming

    2018-06-01

    City clusters and metropolitan areas in China are flourishing in the midst of the deepening urbanization in the country, thereby resulting in the emergence of intercity rail transit. Intercity railways connect mainline and urban railways for an integrated regional transportation system that underpins and leads the development of city clusters and metropolitan areas. This study explores the development mode and service characteristics of intercity rail transit, as well as proposes overviews on this system and prospects of its future technology in China.

  3. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  4. Study on transfer optimization of urban rail transit and conventional public transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Sun, Quan Xin; Mao, Bao Hua

    2018-04-01

    This paper mainly studies the time optimization of feeder connection between rail transit and conventional bus in a shopping center. In order to achieve the goal of connecting rail transportation effectively and optimizing the convergence between the two transportations, the things had to be done are optimizing the departure intervals, shorting the passenger transfer time and improving the service level of public transit. Based on the goal that has the minimum of total waiting time of passengers and the number of start of classes, establish the optimizing model of bus connecting of departure time. This model has some constrains such as transfer time, load factor, and the convergence of public transportation grid spacing. It solves the problems by using genetic algorithms.

  5. Sustainability and Displacement: Assessing the Spatial Pattern of Residential Moves Near Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rail transits association with gentrification has been a presence in the public discourse for some time and Los Angeles is no different. There is a prevailing public perception that Los Angeles' recent boom in rail transit development causes an in...

  6. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

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    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  7. Performance Analysis of Stop-Skipping Scheduling Plans in Rail Transit under Time-Dependent Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhichao; Yuan, Zhenzhou; Zhang, Silin

    2016-07-13

    Stop-skipping is a key method for alleviating congestion in rail transit, where schedules are sometimes difficult to implement. Several mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed in the literature, but very few performance comparisons are available. This study formulated train choice behavior estimation into the model considering passengers' perception. If a passenger's train path can be identified, this information would be useful for improving the stop-skipping schedule service. Multi-performance is a key characteristic of our proposed five stop-skipping schedules, but quantified analysis can be used to illustrate the different effects of well-known deterministic and stochastic forms. Problems in the novel category of forms were justified in the context of a single line rather than transit network. We analyzed four deterministic forms based on the well-known A/B stop-skipping operating strategy. A stochastic form was innovatively modeled as a binary integer programming problem. We present a performance analysis of our proposed model to demonstrate that stop-skipping can feasibly be used to improve the service of passengers and enhance the elasticity of train operations under demand variations along with an explicit parametric discussion.

  8. Application Analysis of BIM Technology in Metro Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bei; Sun, Xianbin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of urban roads, especially the construction of subway rail transit, it is an effective way to alleviate urban traffic congestion. There are limited site space, complex resource allocation, tight schedule, underground pipeline complex engineering problems. BIM technology, three-dimensional visualization, parameterization, virtual simulation and many other advantages can effectively solve these technical problems. Based on the project of Shenzhen Metro Line 9, BIM technology is innovatively researched throughout the lifecycle of BIM technology in the context of the metro rail transit project rarely used at this stage. The model information file is imported into Navisworks for four-dimensional animation simulation to determine the optimum construction scheme of the shield machine. Subway construction management application platform based on BIM and private cloud technology, the use of cameras and sensors to achieve electronic integration, dynamic monitoring of the operation and maintenance of underground facilities. Make full use of the many advantages of BIM technology to improve the engineering quality and construction efficiency of the subway rail transit project and to complete the operation and maintenance.

  9. Appraisal on Rail Transit Development: A Review on Train Services and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Hafiza binti; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Ghazali, Mohd Imran bin; Azis, Mohd Isom bin

    2017-08-01

    The ever increasing problems faced by population around the world have made demands that transportation need to be improved as an effective and efficient communication means. It is considered as a necessity especially when rapid development and economic growth of a country is the agenda. Among the transportation modes being focused as critical facilities are the bus system, rail system, road network, shipping system and air transportation system. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In Malaysia, the railway network has evolved tremendously since its inception in the early 19th century. It has grown proportionally with the national development. Railway network does not only mean for rural transportation, but it also considered as a solution to urban congestion challenges. Currently, urban rail transit is the most popular means of urban transportation system especially as big cities such as Kuala Lumpur. This paper presents the definition of rail transportation system and its role in urban or sub-urban operation. It also describes the brief history of world railway transportation including a discussion on Malaysian rail history perspective. As policy and standard are important in operating a railway system, this paper also illustrates and discusses some elements which have an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of train operation. Towards the end, this paper also shares the importance of railway safety based on real case studies around the world. Thus, it is hoped that this paper will enable the public to understand the rail transit development and appreciate its existence as a public transportation system.

  10. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

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    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  11. Do Urban Rail Transit Facilities Affect Housing Prices? Evidence from China

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    Xu Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit facilities play a critical role in citizen’s social activities (e.g., residence, work and education. Using panel data on housing prices and urban rail transit facilities for 35 Chinese cities for 2002 to 2013, this study constructs a panel data model to evaluate the effect of rail transit facilities on housing prices quantitatively. A correlation test reveals significant correlations between housing prices and rail transit facilities. Empirical results demonstrate that rail transit facilities can markedly elevate real estate prices. Quantitatively, a 1% increase in rail transit mileage improves housing prices by 0.0233%. The results highlight the importance of other factors (e.g., per capita GDP, land price, investment in real estate and population density in determining housing prices. We also assess the effects of expectations of new rail transit lines on housing prices, and the results show that expectation effects are insignificant. These findings encourage Chinese policy makers to take rail transit facilities into account in achieving sustainable development of real estate markets.

  12. Performance Analysis of Stop-Skipping Scheduling Plans in Rail Transit under Time-Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Cao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Stop-skipping is a key method for alleviating congestion in rail transit, where schedules are sometimes difficult to implement. Several mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed in the literature, but very few performance comparisons are available. This study formulated train choice behavior estimation into the model considering passengers’ perception. If a passenger’s train path can be identified, this information would be useful for improving the stop-skipping schedule service. Multi-performance is a key characteristic of our proposed five stop-skipping schedules, but quantified analysis can be used to illustrate the different effects of well-known deterministic and stochastic forms. Problems in the novel category of forms were justified in the context of a single line rather than transit network. We analyzed four deterministic forms based on the well-known A/B stop-skipping operating strategy. A stochastic form was innovatively modeled as a binary integer programming problem. We present a performance analysis of our proposed model to demonstrate that stop-skipping can feasibly be used to improve the service of passengers and enhance the elasticity of train operations under demand variations along with an explicit parametric discussion.

  13. Passenger Transportation and Travel Curriculum Guide. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lininger, Carol

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a course in passenger transportation and travel. The four-credit, competency-based program provides students with skills necessary to obtain employment in the aviation industry, travel agencies, hotel/motel management, and car rental agencies. An overview of vocational-technical education at the school…

  14. The influence of service planning decisions on rail transit success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Some United States metropolitan areas with rail transit systems enjoy ridership and productivity success while : others do not. This study examines the experiences of 11 U.S. metropolitan areas with between onr million and : five million persons to b...

  15. An automated system for rail transit infrastructure inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This project applied commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) : technologies such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), laser, GIS, and GPS to passenger rail : inspections. An integrated rail inspection system that can be mounted on hi...

  16. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  17. Impact of Train Schedule on Pedestrian Movement on Stairway at Suburban Rail Transit Station in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jiten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian flow takes place in confined environment on stairways under the influence of composition, direction of movement, and schedule of trains. During peak-period, alighting and boarding rate is quite high resulting in very high pedestrian movement from one platform to the other to catch the next train at interchange stations. The transfer of passengers from railway platforms through common undivided stairways becomes difficult, uncomfortable, and unsafe at times when pedestrian flow reaches the capacity level. Understanding of criteria defining quality of flow that affect the effectiveness of facilities like stairways in handling the pedestrian traffic is vital for planning and designing of such facilities to ensure the desired level of service as well as safety in case of emergency. The present paper is based on the study of pedestrian movement on stairways at busy suburban rail transit interchange station at Dadar in Mumbai, India. Pedestrian movements are captured through videography at two stairways and the effect of bidirectional movement on average walking speed is analyzed. The ascending flow in small proportion is found to be more influential in causing speed reduction on undivided stairways. The outcome of the study is useful for capacity and level of service analysis while planning and designing the transit station stairways.

  18. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  19. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  20. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  1. A Departure Time Choice for Morning Commute Considering Train Capacity of a Rail Transit Line

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Feng; Baohua Mao; Zhijie Chen; Yun Bai; Minggao Li

    2013-01-01

    Every commuter utilizing urban rail transit decides the departure time from home to a station according to individual judgment for the biggest possibility to board a train as soon as possible after the arrival. Therefore, the departure time choice behavior of the commuters is complicated especially when the transport capacity of this transit line cannot meet the travel demands of its users in rush hour. This research first develops a travel cost function mainly considering the travel time to ...

  2. Planning for Bike Share Connectivity to Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Greg Phillip; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2016-01-01

    Bike sharing can play a role in providing access to transit stations and then to final destinations, but early implementation of these systems in North America has been opportunistic rather than strategic. This study evaluates local intermodal plan goals using trip data and associated infrastructure such as transit stops and bike share station locations in Austin, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois. Bike sharing use data from both cities suggest a weak relationship with existing rail stations that could be strengthened through collaborative, intermodal planning. The study suggests a planning framework and example language that could be tailored to help address the linkage between bike sharing and transit. Rather than an exhaustive study of the practice, this study provides evidence from these two cities that identify opportunities to improve intermodal planning. Cities that are planning or expanding a bike sharing system should consider carefully how to leverage this mode with existing modes of transport. Regardless of a city’s status in implementing a bike sharing system, planners can leverage information on existing transport systems for planning at regional and local levels. PMID:27872554

  3. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles (LA, for many years a city with limited rail transit, is substantially expanding its public transit system. This paradigm change in transportation policy and investment creates new requirements for monitoring. One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel. Few studies have explored light rail’s role as a catalyst to increase overall transit use and achieve sustainability goals within an auto-oriented city like LA. Metro’s data show that trips taken on its bus and rail system dropped overall by 10.5% between 2009 and 2016, but its rail ridership grew 21% during the same period due to the debut of the Gold Line and Expo Line extensions. We analyze changes to bus service and associated ridership impacts that resulted from the opening of these two LRT lines in LA. The immediate effect of the city’s bus service changes along the Gold Line light rail extension appear to be associated with a net “bus plus rail” ridership decline in that corridor. In contrast, the Expo Line corridor experienced an initial increase in ridership during the two years immediately after its opening, possibly because the bus service was not reduced by the same magnitude as along the Gold Line extension. Our findings indicate that changes in bus service made to coincide with the introduction of new light rail transit (LRT can negatively affect the overall transit ridership in the corridor. Planners and policy makers should closely monitor changes in bus service and ridership associated with new rail transit to ensure investments results in an overall net increase in more sustainable travel.

  4. Online Open Circuit Fault Diagnosis for Rail Transit Traction Converter Based on Object-Oriented Colored Petri Net Topology Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For online open circuit fault diagnosis of the traction converter in rail transit vehicles, conventional approaches depend heavily on component parameters and circuit layouts. For better universality and less parameter sensitivity during the diagnosis, this paper proposes a novel topology analysis approach to diagnose switching device open circuit failures. During the diagnosis, the topology is analyzed with fault reasoning mechanism, which is based on object-oriented Petri net (OOCPN. The OOCPN model takes in digitalized current inputs as fault signatures, and dynamical transitions between discrete switching states of a circuit with broken device are symbolized with the dynamical transitions of colored tokens in OOCPN. Such transitions simulate natural reasoning process of an expert’s brain during diagnosis. The dependence on component parameters and on circuit layouts is finally eliminated by such circuit topology reasoning process. In the last part, the proposed online reasoning and diagnosis process is exemplified with the case of a certain switching device failure in the power circuit of traction converter.

  5. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  6. Impact of light rail transit on traffic-related pollution and stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sug; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2017-09-01

    This paper evaluates the changes in vehicle exhaust and stroke mortality for the general public residing in the surrounding area of the light rail transit (LRT) in Houston, Texas, after its opening. The number of daily deaths due to stroke for 2002-2005 from the surrounding area of the original LRT line (exposure group) and the control groups was analyzed using an interrupted time-series analysis. Ambient concentrations of acetylene before and after the opening of LRT were also compared. A statistically significant reduction in the average concentration of acetylene was observed for the exposure sites whereas the reduction was negligible at the control site. Poisson regression models applied to the stroke mortality data indicated a significant reduction in daily stroke mortality after the opening of LRT for the exposure group, while there was either an increase or a considerably smaller reduction for the control groups. The findings support the idea that LRT systems provide health benefits for the general public and that the reduction in motor-vehicle-related air pollution may have contributed to these health benefits.

  7. Regional collaboration in transport infrastructure provision : the case of Denver's FasTracks rail transit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Cities across the United States are grappling with a looming transportation crisis as a : result of ever-increasing passenger and freight transport demands and overburdened : networks of aging infrastructure. All levels of government, but particularl...

  8. Optimization study on multiple train formation scheme of urban rail transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaomei; Ding, Yong; Wen, Xin

    2018-05-01

    The new organization method, represented by the mixed operation of multi-marshalling trains, can adapt to the characteristics of the uneven distribution of passenger flow, but the research on this aspect is still not perfect enough. This paper introduced the passenger sharing rate and congestion penalty coefficient with different train formations. On this basis, this paper established an optimization model with the minimum passenger cost and operation cost as objective, and operation frequency and passenger demand as constraint. The ideal point method is used to solve this model. Compared with the fixed marshalling operation model, the overall cost of this scheme saves 9.24% and 4.43% respectively. This result not only validates the validity of the model, but also illustrate the advantages of the multiple train formations scheme.

  9. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  10. Agent Based Model in SAS Environment for Rail Transit System Alignment Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Indradjaja Brunner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Transit system had been proposed for the urban area of Honolulu. One consideration to be determined is the alignment of the transit system. Decision to set the transit alignment will have influences on which areas will be served, who will be benefiting, as well as who will be impacted. Inputs for the decision usually conducted through public meetings, where community members are shown numbers of maps with pre-set routes. That approach could lead to a rather subjective decision by the community members. This paper attempts to discuss the utilization of grid map in determining the best alignment for rail transit system in Honolulu, Hawaii. It tries to use a more objective approach using various data derived from thematic maps. Overlaid maps are aggregated into a uniform 0.1-square mile vector based grid map system in GIS environment. The large dataset in the GIS environment is analyzed and manipulated using SAS software. The SAS procedure is applied to select the location of the alignment using a rational and deterministic approach. Grid cells that are superior compared to the others are selected based on several predefined criteria. Location of the dominant cells indicates possible transit alignment. The SAS procedure is designed to allow a transient vector called the GUIDE (Grid Unit with Intelligent Directional Expertise agent to analyze several cells at its vicinity and to move towards a cell with the highest value. Each time the agent landed on a cell, it left a mark. The chain of those marks shows location for the transit alignment. This study shows that the combination of ArcGIS and SAS allows a robust analysis of spatial data and manipulation of its datasets, which can be used to run a simulation mimicking the Agent-Based Modelling. This study also opens up further study possibilities by increasing number of factors analyzed by the agent, as well as creating a composite value of multi-factors.

  11. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model.

  12. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  13. Optimal trajectory planning and train scheduling for urban rail transit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yihui; van den Boom, Ton; De Schutter, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book contributes to making urban rail transport fast, punctual and energy-efficient –significant factors in the importance of public transportation systems to economic, environmental and social requirements at both municipal and national levels. It proposes new methods for shortening passenger travel times and for reducing energy consumption, addressing two major topics: (1) train trajectory planning: the authors derive a nonlinear model for the operation of trains and present several approaches for calculating optimal and energy-efficient trajectories within a given schedule; and (2) train scheduling: the authors develop a train scheduling model for urban rail systems and optimization approaches with which to balance total passenger travel time with energy efficiency and other costs to the operator. Mixed-integer linear programming and pseudospectral methods are among the new methods proposed for single- and multi-train systems for the solution of the nonlinear trajectory planning problem which involv...

  14. Energy Saving Performance Analysis of An Inverter-based Regenerative Power Re-utilization Device for Urban Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Qiu, Zhiling; Hu, Leilei

    2018-04-01

    The inverter-based regenerative braking power utilization devices can re-utilize the regenerative energy, thus reduce the energy consumption of urban rail transit. In this paper the power absorption principle of the inverter-based device is introduced, then the key influencing factors of energy saving performance are analyzed based on the absorption model. The field operation data verified that the control DC voltage plays an important role and lower control DC voltage yields more energy saving. Also, the one year energy saving performance data of an inverter-based re-utilization device located in NanJing S8 line is provided, and more than 1.2 million kWh energy is recovered in the one year operation.

  15. Privatisation of fixed-rail transit systems : a case study of Malaysia's STAR and PUTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.R. [St. Malaysia Univ., (Malaysia). School of Housing, Building and Planning

    2006-06-15

    Malaysia was the first developing country to embrace the idea of privatizing its public utilities in an effort to reduce public expenditure and improve services. Many public utilities were sold in the early 1980s under Malaysia's privatization program. Some, however, have returned to government hands. Among them are the two light-rail transit (LRT) systems in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of privatization had been to expand transportation capabilities to keep pace with economic development. The private sector was allowed to construct various rail-based mass transportation systems to alleviate vehicular traffic congestion in the city. The STAR and PUTRA light-rail transit systems were built in the 1990s by 2 concession companies at a total cost of US$2.27 billion with the bulk of the expenditure going into infrastructure and rolling stock. Generous financial incentives were offered by the Malaysian government. However, the 2 LRTs suffered below-expectation ridership right from the beginning. Even a reduction in rates to promote greater public use, failed to meet projected ridership figures. The concession companies began defaulting on their loan servicing obligations within months of becoming operational. In 2002, the government took over the operation of the 2 LRT systems. The pre- and post-privatization events of both facilities were chronicled in this paper. It examined how the entire process was administered and tried to rationalize why private ownership of the 2 LRT systems was short-lived. Based on publicly available material, this paper argued that neither the quality of government negotiators nor the length of time devoted to negotiating could be attributed to the bailout. There was no indication that political favouritism and corruption were at play. Rather, the 2 projects proved to be financially unviable, despite the large financial incentives provided to the two concession companies. 83 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. 城市轨道交通项目融资风险动态评价%The Dynamic Evaluation of Urban Rail Transit Project Financing Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维庆; 邓少波; 顼志芬

    2016-01-01

    项目融资在解决城市轨道交通建设中所需资金问题的同时也面临高风险,为减少和避免投资者的损失,应对城市轨道交通项目融资风险进行准确客观的评价.本文对城市轨道交通项目融资过程中各阶段的风险因素进行识别,基于可拓理论,建立城市轨道交通项目融资风险评价模型,通过关联度的计算结果确定风险等级,进而反映各阶段风险因素的动态变化.结合案例分析,提出相应的风险管理措施.%Project financing in solving urban rail transit development facing money problems at the same time also faces high risks,in order to reduce and avoid the loss of investors,we should make accurate and objective evaluation for the urban rail transit project financing risk.This paper based on extension theory,from the dynamic perspective of urban rail transit project financing risk establishes a dynamic evaluation model which considers all phases in the process of urban rail transit project financing risk factors,and reflect the status and influence degree of various kinds of risk factors.

  17. The QoS Indicators Analysis of Integrated EUHT Wireless Communication System Based on Urban Rail Transit in High-Speed Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in urban rail transit systems, train wayside communication system uses Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN as wireless technologies to achieve safety-related information exchange between trains and wayside equipment. However, according to the high speed mobility of trains and the limitations of frequency band, WLAN is unable to meet the demands of future intracity and intercity rail transit. And although the Time Division-Long Term Evolution (TD-LTE technology has high performance compared with WLAN, only 20 MHz bandwidth can be used at most. Moreover, in high-speed scenario over 300 km/h, TD-LTE can hardly meet the future requirement as well. The equipment based on Enhanced Ultra High Throughput (EUHT technology can achieve a better performance in high-speed scenario compared with WLAN and TD-LTE. Furthermore, it allows using the frequency resource flexibly based on 5.8 GHz, such as 20 MHz, 40 MHz, and 80 MHz. In this paper, we set up an EUHT wireless communication system for urban rail transit in high-speed scenario integrated all the traffics of it. An outdoor testing environment in Beijing-Tianjin High-speed Railway is set up to measure the performance of integrated EUHT wireless communication system based on urban rail transit. The communication delay, handoff latency, and throughput of this system are analyzed. Extensive testing results show that the Quality of Service (QoS of the designed integrated EUHT wireless communication system satisfies the requirements of urban rail transit system in high-speed scenario. Moreover, compared with testing results of TD-LTE which we got before, the maximum handoff latency of safety-critical traffics can be decreased from 225 ms to 150 ms. The performance of throughput-critical traffics can achieve 2-way 2 Mbps CCTV and 1-way 8 Mbps PIS which are much better than 2-way 1 Mbps CCTV and 1-way 2 Mbps PIS in TD-LTE.

  18. LIGHT RAIL TRANSIT AND LAND USE IN QATAR: AN INTEGRATED PLANNING STRATEGY FOR AL-QASSAR’S TOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaello Furlan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The State of Qatar is presently facing the development of major transport infrastructure, to be finalized (A by 2022 for the planned FIFA World Cup and (B by 2030, as envisioned by the comprehensive national development planning strategy, also named Qatar National Vision (QNV-2030. The under-development metro system foresees the construction of four main lines. In addition, Doha, the capital city of the State of Qatar, is experiencing the progress of (1 prestigious mega projects and (2 several transit villages around the major metro stations. These projects are the manifestation of the deliberate attempt of Qatar to establish Doha as the service, economic and cultural hub of Middle East. Currently, traffic is considered a major concern: ‘Park-and-Ride’ facilities along train stations may reduce the general amount of vehicles on the road network and provide a ‘stress-free’ passenger experience when transitioning to and from the new Doha Metro System. Therefore, one of major challenges for urban planners is guaranteeing that all metro-stations and facilities (A are fully integrated within the urban context of their surroundings and (B provide multi modal transportation facilities. This urban planning strategy aims at reducing traffic through the design of compacted, mixed used transit villages, or Transit Oriented Developments (TODs. This paper explores the case of the neighborhood of Al-Qassar metro station. The exploration starts with the review of the relevant literature and the analysis of the site. Finally, the resultant planning-strategy for an integrated conceptual development of AL-Qassar-TOD envisions the development of a compact transit village, which contributes to reduce the traffic, to enhance pedestrian connectivity and to shape a liveable community.

  19. 城市轨道交通建设资金来源研究%Financing Sources for Urban Rail Transit Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽琴; 李明阳; 王忠微; 沈蕾

    2017-01-01

    随着国发[2014]43号文件的发布,我国地方政府债务资金筹措以及投资项目筹融资方式发生了深刻的变化,国家针对平台类企业融资监管日益趋严,融资重要性日益凸显.针对城市轨道交通项目建设,从政府主导的负债型投融资模式和市场化投融资模式两个角度分析城市轨道交通可能的资金来源.结合轨道交通行业具体融资实践,系统地梳理出政府主导的负债型投融资模式下三大政府资金来源和以银行贷款为主、多种融资产品组合的多元化债务资金来源,以及政府主导的市场化投融资模式下股权融资和债权融资来源,希望能够为城市轨道交通融资工作开展提供有益借鉴.%With the issuance of [2014] No.43 document of the State Council,the way of local government debt fimancing and the financing of investment projects have undergone profound changes.The financing regulation of the platform enterprises has become more and more tightened,and financing is becoming more and more important.For the construction of urban rail transit projects,this paper analyzes the possible sources of funding for urban rail transit from two perspectives:the government-led debt-investment and financing mode,the government-led market-oriented investment and financing mode.Aiming at the specific financing practice of rail transportation industry,this paper analyzes the government-led debt-investment and financing mode of three main government funds sources and a diversified debt fund source based on bank loans containing a variety of financing instntments,and the government-led market-oriented investment and financing mode of equity financing and debt fimancing sources,hoping to provide useful references for urban rail transit financing.

  20. Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri

    2016-01-01

    Airlines create value for employees, investors, governments, customers and consumers. This chapter focuses on the customers and consumers of the airline product. Airline customers, who include passengers and corporate travel providers, exert considerable market power in the air transport industry through their purchasing decisions and travel behaviour. As a purchaser of a commercial aviation product, customers are responsible for stimulating product and service innovation and their behaviour ...

  1. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  2. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  3. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  4. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  5. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  6. Operating subsidies for urban rail transit PPP projects%城市轨道交通PPP项目运营补贴测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张智慧; 张剑寒

    2016-01-01

    城市轨道交通(urban rail transit,URT,简称城轨)所具有的准经营性和准公共物品属性决定了政府和社会资本合作(public-private partnership,PPP)开发城轨项目具有一定的合理性.该文对采用PPP模式开发城轨项目进行分析,探讨开发城轨项目产生的外部效益与政府补贴之间的关系.在此基础上,参考政府指导性文件的要求,提出了城轨项目年度运营补贴的计算模型,对2012年北京地铁4号线政府运营补贴支出数额进行了测算;同时采用“有无对比法”,以2012年北京地铁4号线为例,对其外部效益进行了测算.结果表明:2012年北京地铁4号线政府运营补贴支出数额明显低于该项目同年各项外部效益之和,说明该项目的政府运营补贴合理.%The basic features of urban rail transit (URT) such as the shared operational responsibilities and the partial public ownership determine the public-private partnership (PPP) mode for developing URT projects.In this paper,the use of the PPP mode to develop URT projects is analyzed to study the relationship between the external benefits and government subsidies on the URT.Government regulations were used to develop a model for URT annual operating subsidies that was used to predict the government operating subsidies for Beijing subway line 4 in 2012.Then,the “with and without methods” were used to analyze Beijing subway line 4 in 2012 to determine the external benefits of this project.The results show that the government operating subsidies for Beijing subway line 4 in 2012 were significantly lower than the external benefits and that the government operating subsidies for this project are reasonable.

  7. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public

  8. Simulating and Predicting the Impacts of Light Rail Transit Systems on Urban Land Use by Using Cellular Automata: A Case Study of Dongguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyao Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Light Rail Transit systems (LRTs could exert considerable impacts on sustainable urban development. It is crucial to predict the potential land use changes since LRTs are being increasingly built throughout the world. While various land use and land cover change (LUCC models have been developed during the past two decades, the basic assumption for LUCC prediction is the continuation of present trends in land use development. It is therefore unreasonable to predict potential urban land use changes associated with LRTs simply based on earlier trends because the impacts of LRT investment may vary greatly over time. To tackle this challenge, our study aims to share the experiences from previous lines with newly planned lines. Dongguan, whose government decided to build LRTs around 2008, was selected as the study area. First, we assessed the impacts of this city’s first LRT (Line R2 on three urban land use types (i.e., industrial development, commercial and residential development, and rural development at different periods. The results indicate that Line R2 exerted a negative impact on industrial development and rural development, but a positive impact on commercial and residential development during the planning stage of this line. Second, such spatial impacts (the consequent land use changes during this stage were simulated by using artificial neural network cellular automata. More importantly, we further predicted the potential impacts of Line R1, which is assumed to be a newly planned line, based on the above calibrated model and a traditional method respectively. The comparisons between them demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, which can easily take advantage of the experiences from other LRTs. The proposed method is expected to provide technical support for sustainable urban and transportation planning.

  9. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Zuo, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM10. The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water. PMID:29522495

  10. 光伏发电技术在轨道交通客车中的应用%Application of Photovoltaic Power Generation in Rail Transit Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯霄; 卢衍伟; 朱丽媛; 张明顺

    2017-01-01

    轨道交通客车在载客运行的过程中消耗大量的电能.采用光伏发电技术后,蓄电池组将太阳能电池发出的电能存储,并随时与客车充电机进行电耦合,共同为客车供电.客车光伏电系统主要由光伏发电系统充电机、升降压斩波器、直流负载及供电控制系统组成.其中,光伏发电系统主要由光伏电池组件、发电控制器、蓄电池组及升降压斩波器组成.详细介绍了客车光伏供电系统的工作原理.%Rail transit vehicle consumes a great deal of electric energy in operation.When photovoltaic power technology is adopted,the storage battery will absorbe the energy genenrated by solar battery and provide power for the train by coupling with the vehicle charger.The photovoltaic power generation system consists of power generation system charger,buck chopper,DC load and control system.Among which,the solar cell array,controller,storage battery,buck chopper and so on are main components,the working principle of the photovoltaic power generation system are introduced in detail.

  11. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM10. The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  12. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Simulation of PM10 Dispersion Caused by Rail Transit Construction Activity: A Real Urban Street Canyon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Zuo, Jian; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-03-09

    Particle emissions derived from construction activities have a significant impact on the local air quality, while the canyon effect with reduced natural ventilation contributes to the highest particulate pollution in urban environments. This study attempted to examine the effect of PM 10 emissions derived from the construction of a rail transit system in an urban street canyon. Using a 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model based on a real street canyon with different height ratios, this study formulates the impact of height ratio and wind directions on the dispersion and concentration of PM 10 . The results indicate that parallel flow would cause the concentration of PM 10 at the end of the street canyons in all height ratios, and the trends in horizontal, vertical and lateral planes in all street canyons are similar. While in the condition of perpendicular flow, double-eddy circulations occur and lead to the concentration of PM 10 in the middle part of the street canyon and leeward of backwind buildings in all height ratios. Furthermore, perpendicular flow will cause the concentration of PM 10 to increase if the upwind buildings are higher than the backwind ones. This study also shows that the dispersion of PM 10 is strongly associated with wind direction in and the height ratios of the street canyons. Certain measures could, therefore, be taken to prevent the impact on people in terms of the PM 10 concentration and the heights of street canyons identified in this research. Potential mitigation strategies are suggested, include measurements below 4 m according to governmental regulations, dust shields, and atomized water.

  13. Evaluationon Rail Transit Connection Mode Selection Based on Interval DEA Model%基于区间DEA模型的轨道交通衔接模式选择评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文

    2012-01-01

    合理完善的不同层次的轨道交通线路衔接模式,对于发挥都市圈轨道交通网络的整体效率显得尤为重要.通过确定评价指标体系及其计算方法,建立了适用于轨道交通衔接模式的选择评价的模糊区间DEA(Data Envelopment Analysis)模型.以珠三角地区典型轨道交通线路为研究案例,应用模糊区间DEA模型对衔接模式进行评价分析.结果表明,模型计算结果与工程设计方案相一致,表明所建立的区间DEA模型在轨道交通衔接模式的选择评价中具有一定的适用性.%Reasonable and effective connection mode of rail transit at different levels is rather important to improve the overall efficiency of Metropolitan rail transit network. Based on the building index calculation system of the model, the paper develops a fuzzy interval DEA model of the special needs to evaluate the selections of connection mode of rail transit. Taking the Pearl River Delta region rail network in China as an example, the interval DEA models are tested. The model results matched well with the engineering design plan. It proves that the established interval DEA models is feasible and applicable in rail traffic convergence mode selection evaluation.

  14. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  15. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  16. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  17. Simulation-Based Dynamic Passenger Flow Assignment Modelling for a Schedule-Based Transit Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The online operation management and the offline policy evaluation in complex transit networks require an effective dynamic traffic assignment (DTA method that can capture the temporal-spatial nature of traffic flows. The objective of this work is to propose a simulation-based dynamic passenger assignment framework and models for such applications in the context of schedule-based rail transit systems. In the simulation framework, travellers are regarded as individual agents who are able to obtain complete information on the current traffic conditions. A combined route selection model integrated with pretrip route selection and entrip route switch is established for achieving the dynamic network flow equilibrium status. The train agent is operated strictly with the timetable and its capacity limitation is considered. A continuous time-driven simulator based on the proposed framework and models is developed, whose performance is illustrated through a large-scale network of Beijing subway. The results indicate that more than 0.8 million individual passengers and thousands of trains can be simulated simultaneously at a speed ten times faster than real time. This study provides an efficient approach to analyze the dynamic demand-supply relationship for large schedule-based transit networks.

  18. Integrated Profit Model of Rail Transit and Land Development%轨道交通与土地一体化开发的盈利模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛磊; 杨宇彤; 姜殿斌

    2011-01-01

    Based on its definition, the possibility and significance of integrated development of rail transit and land is analyzed. This paper takes the theory of "TOD" transit-oriented mode of city development, the theory of land value increment as well as an analysis on rail transportation externality as the theoretic basis for the implementation of integrated development. The land reserve can be controlled by strengthening the management of land demand and increasing government land reserve. Relevant laws and regulations should be formulated. The other essentials of integrated development are summarized as follows: Obtaining the right for integrated development along the line and the land resources for such development, paying attention to enhancing the level of integrated planning, choosing appropriate ways for integrated development, timing of integrated development and major regional development projects, management of developer-owned property and profit distribution. At present, the basic problem is to find a pilot project, to research and formulate proper policies, to establish a suitable integration development mode, and to solve problems of financing for rail transit projects. A new profit mode for rail transit property and a positive transformation mechanism of resources, assets and capital should be set up. Thus, benign circulation of capital will be achieved and the company will take on a balanced way of development.%通过对一体化开发的定义描述,分析其可能性及现实意义.通过基于TOD模式的城市发展理论、土地增值理论以及轨道交通外部性的分析,奠定了实施一体化开发的理论依据.阐明一体化开发中的政府意志及制度创新,阐述一体化开发的操作流程及重点内容.目前该模式的基本操作初步成型,关键是需要找到试点项目进行实际操作,提供一手资料,进而研究政策、制定政策,形成完善的一体化开发模式,解决轨道交通融资难题,打造轨

  19. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  20. A train dispatching model based on fuzzy passenger demand forecasting during holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou Dou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Purpose: The train dispatching is a crucial issue in the train operation adjustment when passenger flow outbursts. During holidays, the train dispatching is to meet passenger demand to the greatest extent, and ensure safety, speediness and punctuality of the train operation. In this paper, a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put up, then a train dispatching optimization model is established based on passenger demand so as to evacuate stranded passengers effectively during holidays. Design/methodology/approach: First, the complex features and regularity of passenger flow during holidays are analyzed, and then a fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model is put forward based on the fuzzy set theory and time series theory. Next, the bi-objective of the train dispatching optimization model is to minimize the total operation cost of the train dispatching and unserved passenger volume during holidays. Finally, the validity of this model is illustrated with a case concerned with the Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway in China. Findings: The case study shows that the fuzzy passenger demand forecasting model can predict outcomes more precisely than ARIMA model. Thus train dispatching optimization plan proves that a small number of trains are able to serve unserved passengers reasonably and effectively. Originality/value: On the basis of the passenger demand predictive values, the train dispatching optimization model is established, which enables train dispatching to meet passenger demand in condition that passenger flow outbursts, so as to maximize passenger demand by offering the optimal operation plan.

  1. International Passenger and Freight Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The International Passenger and Freight report is a summarization of all passengers and all freight transported between the U.S. and foreign countries combined, with...

  2. Passengers waste production during flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

    2017-12-20

    We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

  3. Relationship between Governance Development Models and Operational Efficiency of Urban Rail Transit%治理发展模式与城市轨道交通项目运营效率的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑寒

    2017-01-01

    在"集约、智能、绿色、低碳"的新型城镇化道路快速发展的影响下,中国很多城市都在大力发展城市轨道交通(以下简称城轨)系统.至关重要的是,城轨系统涉及其运营效率和治理开发模式,其中,治理开发模式对其运营过程将产生深远影响.本文概述了中国很多城轨项目发展所采用的公司化模式及政府和社会资本合作(PPP)模式.在运营效率分析中考虑了城轨项目运营所产生的社会效益,构建了城轨项目社会效益测算模型.应用数据包络分析(DEA)方法分析城轨各条线路治理发展模式和运营效率之间的关系.通过对北京市城轨各条线路运营效率的比较分析,结果表明,社会效益是评价城轨项目运营效率的一个重要产出指标,相比于在中国占主导地位的公司化模式,PPP模式对提高城轨运营效率有积极影响.%Influenced by the rapid development of a new type urbanization path which is intensive, smart, green and low-carbon, many cities in China are striving to develop urban rail transit systems (URTS). It is critical that URTS are concerned with their operational efficiency and the governance development models within which they are developed have a profound impact upon their process of operation. This paper outlines the corporatization model and the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) within which URTS in many cities in China are developed. In the analysis of operational efficiency, the social benefits of URTS are involved, the calculation models of URTS social benefits are presented. The relationship between governance development models and operational efficiency of several urban rail transit lines is analyzed through the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA). By the comparative analysis of operational efficiency of several urban rail transit lines in Beijing, it indicates that, the social benefit is an important indicator to evaluate the operational efficiency of URTS

  4. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  5. Designing Train Passenger Seat by Kansei Engineering in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsari Sakya Nabila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport adoption is still major problem in Indonesia. Integrating impression and emotion to service may change the image of public transport, leading to fast adoption rate. As product development technique, Kansei Engineering is well known to facilitate that integration. This paper communicates the implementation of Kansei Engineering (KE in designing train passenger seat in Indonesia. The train between Bandung-Solo (8 hours journey was chosen to be the investigated object. The train was selected to be refurbished by introducing a new passenger seat design, emphasizing on the improvement of passenger experience. As the first step of KE type I technique, travel experience of the existing passengers were taken into the consideration for selecting Kansei words. It was found that the relevant Kansei words to design passenger train seat in Indonesia were: comfort, people-friendly, multifunction, safe, soft, spacious, relaxing, superior, maintainable, strong, producible, minimalist, attractive, modern, unique, and durable. Upon understanding the semantic meaning of those words, physical properties and technical specification were produced by consulting to the related members. Finally, a passenger seat with synthetic leather cover, modular design, foldable table, individual power point, bluesilver color, and adjusted to Indonesian’s anthropometry data was proposed as the final design

  6. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original

  7. Framework for developing a spatial walkability index (SWI) for the light-rail transit (LRT) stations in Kuala Lumpur city centre using analytical network process (ANP) and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, Nabilah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-10-01

    In support to the nation's goal of developing a liveable city, Malaysian government aims to improve the mobility in Kuala Lumpur by providing good quality transit services across the city. However, the public starts to demand for more than just a connectivity between two points. They want their transit journey to be comfortable and pleasant from the very first mile. The key here is the first and last mile (FLM) of the transit service which defines their journey to access the station itself. The question is, does the existing transit services' FLM satisfy public's needs? Therefore, many studies had emerged in attempt to assess the pedestrian-friendliness. While most of them did base on the pedestrian's perceptions, there were also studies that spatially measured the connectivity and accessibility to various landuses and point of interests. While both can be a good method, their integration could actually produce a better assessment. However, till date, only a few studies had attempted to do so. This paper proposes a framework to develop a Spatial Walkability Index (SWI) by integrating a multicriteria evaluation technique, Analytical Network Process (ANP) and network analysis on geographical information system (GIS) platform. First, ANP will aggregate the degree of importance for each walkability criteria based on the pedestrian's perceptions. Then, the network analysis will use the weighted criteria as attributes to find the walkable routes within half mile radius from each station. The index will be calculated by rationing the total length of walkable routes in respect to the available footpath. The final outcome is a percentage of walkable FLM transit routes for each station which will be named as the SWI. It is expected that the developed framework can be applied in other cities across the globe. It can also be improvised to suit the demand and purpose there.

  8. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger or...

  9. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  11. NPS Transit System Passenger Boardings Study: Converting Ticket Sales to Passenger Boardings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the reporting of passenger boardings (unlinked passenger trips) by NPS transit systems that use a ticket sales conversion methodology. By studying and validating the park units' passenger boarding methodology from converting tick...

  12. Dynamic Passenger Assignment during Disruptions in Railway Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Goverde, R.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Passenger-oriented rescheduling problems receive increasing attention. However, the passenger assignment models used for evaluating the rescheduling solutions are usually simplified by many assumptions. To estimate passenger inconvenience more accurately, this paper establishes a dynamic passenger

  13. Econometric Forecasting Models for Air Traffic Passenger of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Suryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major benefits of the air transport services operating in bigger countries is the fact that they provide a vital social economic linkage. This study is an attempt to establish the determinants of the passenger air traffic in Indonesia. The main objective of the study is to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of panel data and to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of time series data. This research also predicts the upcoming number of air traffic passenger until 2030. Air transportation and the economic activity in a country are interdependent. This work first uses the data at the country level and then at the selected airport level for review. The methodology used in this study has adopted the study for both normal regression and panel data regression techniques. Once all these steps are performed, the final equation is taken up for the forecast of the passenger inflow data in the Indonesian airports. To forecast the same, the forecasted numbers of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product and population (independent variables were chosen as a part of the literature review exercise are used. The result of this study shows the GDP per capita have significant related to a number of passengers which the elasticity 2.23 (time-series data and 1.889 for panel data. The exchange rate variable is unrelated to a number of passengers as shown in the value of elasticity. In addition, the total of population gives small value for the elasticity. Moreover, the number of passengers is also affected by the dummy variable (deregulation. With three scenarios: low, medium and high for GDP per capita, the percentage of growth for total number of air traffic passenger from the year 2015 to 2030 is 199.3%, 205.7%, and 320.9% respectively.

  14. Passengers, Crowding and Complexity : Models for passenger oriented public transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Bouman (Paul)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractPassengers, Crowding and Complexity was written as part of the Complexity in Public Transport (ComPuTr) project funded by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO). This thesis studies in three parts how microscopic data can be used in models that have the potential

  15. 19 CFR 4.50 - Passenger lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Passengers on Vessels § 4.50 Passenger lists. (a) The master of... passenger and crew lists, as required by § 4.7(a) of this part. If the vessel is arriving from noncontiguous... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Passenger lists. 4.50 Section 4.50 Customs Duties...

  16. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  17. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  18. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... ferries was analysed retrospectively. Results: Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember patients were analysed. Passenger patients were generally older and more serious ill than...

  19. Determinants of injuries in passenger vessel accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tsz Leung; Jin, Di; Talley, Wayne K

    2015-09-01

    This paper investigates determinants of crew and passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Crew and passenger injury equations are estimated for ferry, ocean cruise, and river cruise vessel accidents, utilizing detailed data of individual vessel accidents that were investigated by the U.S. Coast Guard during the time period 2001-2008. The estimation results provide empirical evidence (for the first time in the literature) that crew injuries are determinants of passenger injuries in passenger vessel accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Passenger baggage object database (PBOD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittinger, Jaxon M.; Suknot, April N.; Jimenez, Edward S.; Spaulding, Terry W.; Wenrich, Steve A.

    2018-04-01

    Detection of anomalies of interest in x-ray images is an ever-evolving problem that requires the rapid development of automatic detection algorithms. Automatic detection algorithms are developed using machine learning techniques, which would require developers to obtain the x-ray machine that was used to create the images being trained on, and compile all associated metadata for those images by hand. The Passenger Baggage Object Database (PBOD) and data acquisition application were designed and developed for acquiring and persisting 2-D and 3-D x-ray image data and associated metadata. PBOD was specifically created to capture simulated airline passenger "stream of commerce" luggage data, but could be applied to other areas of x-ray imaging to utilize machine-learning methods.

  1. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  2. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  3. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  4. Analysis of bus passenger comfort perception based on passenger load factor and in-vehicle time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xianghao; Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Hu, Baoyu

    2016-01-01

    Although bus comfort is a crucial indicator of service quality, existing studies tend to focus on passenger load and ignore in-vehicle time, which can also affect passengers' comfort perception. Therefore, by conducting surveys, this study examines passengers' comfort perception while accounting for both factors. Then, using the survey data, it performs a two-way analysis of variance and shows that both in-vehicle time and passenger load significantly affect passenger comfort. Then, a bus comfort model is proposed to evaluate comfort level, followed by a sensitivity analysis. The method introduced in this study has theoretical implications for bus operators attempting to improve bus service quality.

  5. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  6. Radiation Exposure of Passengers to Cosmic Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salah El-Din, T.; Gomaa, M.A.; Sallah, N.

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to review exposure of Egyptian passengers and occupational workers to cosmic radiation during their work. Computed effective dose of passengers by computer code CARI-6 using during either short route, medium route or long route as well as recommended allowed number of flights per year

  7. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  8. “Good passengers and not good passengers:” Adolescent drivers’ perceptions about inattention and peer passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. Design & Methods We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. Results The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (sd 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7 days (sd 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) “Good and not good” passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. Conclusions While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. Practical Implications An understanding of teens’ perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. PMID:27496828

  9. Optimal Path Choice in Railway Passenger Travel Network Based on Residual Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger’s optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  10. Parents as passengers during pediatric transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M M; Holditch-Davis, D; Brunssen, S

    1997-01-01

    The transport environment presents a unique setting in which the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of passengers accompanying a patient must be assessed carefully. The purpose of this study was to describe the current practice of including parents as passengers during pediatric interfacility transport. One-hundred-eighty-eight critical care transport programs in the United States responded to a voluntary mail survey, providing information about current policies, practices, and crew perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of carrying parents as passengers. Extra seating for passengers was available in 96% of ambulances, 86% of fixed-wing aircraft, and 54% of helicopters used for pediatric transport. Parents traveled as passengers in all types of vehicles; most frequently in ambulances and fixed-wing aircraft. Twenty percent of helicopter programs allowed parent passengers on more than half of their pediatric transports in this vehicle. Advantages of parent passengers included emotional benefit for the parent and child, availability of parents for history and consent, good public relations, and having the parent present if the child dies. Disadvantages included potential parent anxiety, crew distraction, and space limitations. This study reflects the widely diverse policies, practices, and opinions relevant to this topic and confirms a need for further study.

  11. PASSENGER FLOWS PREDICTION IN MAJOR TRANSPORTATION HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ozerova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An effective organization of passenger traffic, due to the reliability prediction of traffic flow in passenger transport hubs. In order to determine the parameters of prospective passenger transport areas it is essential to analyze the impact of various factors and determine the most influential ones. Methodology. The article presents the method of paired linear correlation for a more influential factors on passengers in intercity and commuter and possible use in predicting the linear regression equations. Passenger transport vessel areas and branches of industry are interconnected and are in the ratio of passengers and production. Findings. It is found that the coefficient of correlation is in complex dependence on the duration of the period of retrospective analysis. Evaluation of reliability correlation coefficients and coefficients of predictive models led to the conclusion that the population gives the most accurate prediction of passenger flows, providing account of changes in Ukraine during the period of transformation. Originality. Equations of dependence on the impact of macroeconomic indicators were obtained and the evaluation of the reliability results was received. Practical value. The results of analysis and calculations will make short-term forecasting of traffic flow.

  12. Access improvement to aircraft passengers' hand luggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberda, W; Kampinga, O; Kassels, R; van Kester, R; Noriega, J; Vink, P

    2015-01-01

    Efficient use of space and passenger comfort in aircraft interiors are major issues. There is not much research available about the flying experience regarding passengers' personal belongings. The objective of this study is to explore concepts within the current aircraft seats which improve the passenger experience related to their personal belongings like wallets, mobile phones and laptops. Through on-site observations, interviews and online questionnaires, data regarding the number of personal belongings taken into the airplane and opinions about access to hand luggage were gathered. These data were used to develop different concepts to optimize the aircraft interior, which were evaluated by passengers. Almost every passenger carries a phone (88%), wallet (94%), travel documents (98%) and keys (76%) with them and they like to have these stored close by. Passengers rate the concept that provides integrated storage in the tray table of the aircraft seat the best. Extra storage possibility in the table-tray seems a promising solution according to the passengers.

  13. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  14. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  15. 46 CFR 115.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The route specified on the Certificate of Inspection and the SOLAS Passenger Ship Safety Certificate... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 115.910 Section 115... MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  16. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  17. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  18. 75 FR 26839 - Metrics and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... and Standards for Intercity Passenger Rail Service under Section 207 of the Passenger Rail Investment... performance and service quality of intercity passenger train operations. In compliance with the statute, the... Intercity Passenger Rail Service,'' on the FRA's Web site. Simultaneously, the FRA published a notice in the...

  19. Passenger bus industry weather information application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Adverse weather significantly affects the United States national transportation system, including commercial companies : that rely on highways to support their enterprises. The Passenger Bus (Motorcoach) Industry (PBI) is one such affected : user who...

  20. Salmonella outbreak among railway and airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakka, M

    1992-01-01

    A widespread outbreak by Salmonella infantis, infecting a total of 226 people, occurred in Finland at the beginning of August 1986. Of those infected, 107 were railway passengers, 91 were airline passengers and 28 were employed in a food processing establishment. The outbreak among the railway passengers was caused by egg sandwiches, the airline passengers were infected by a meal served on board and the catering employees by the breakfast served in the establishment. The outbreak was caused by food prepared in the establishment's kitchen. The employees' breakfasts had probably been contaminated by an employee who was a symptom-free Salmonella infantis carrier, and a number of the employees subsequently became infected, leading to widespread contamination of the food prepared in the establishment. The spread of the outbreak was further influenced by a heatwave at the time and by shortcomings in the cold storage facilities. The kitchen's hygiene supervision and the quality control of its output were reorganized after the outbreak.

  1. Intercity Passenger Parametric Analysis: Overview: Maglev Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-02

    This document provides information intended to clarify consideration of some of the technically-based questions which arise in connection with intercity passenger transportation, and to provide insight into the characteristics and potential roles o...

  2. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  3. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  4. The seated bus passenger--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, J A

    1978-09-01

    The paper describes the inter-relationship of anthropometry, rig studies and dynamic testing of aspects related to problems of the seated bus passenger. It seeks to draw together sub-sections of a very large study sponsored by the government through the Transport and Road Research Laboratory and undertaken by the Human Factors Group of Leyland Truck and Bus. It is relevant to all those designing passenger carrying transport systems.

  5. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  6. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Mao, B. H.; Bai, Y.

    2016-03-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial domain. Ten cluster groups were identified, indicating a hierarchical urban polycentric structure composed of large concentrated flows at urban activity centers. These empirical findings provide insights regarding urban human mobility patterns within a large subway network.

  7. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  8. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  9. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhang

    Full Text Available How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big

  10. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  11. An Integrated Rolling Stock Planning Model for the Copenhagen Suburban Passenger Railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...... to take into account, rolling stock plans are often constructed in a step-by-step manner, taking some requirements into consideration in each step. This may make it difficult in the final step to produce a plan that is feasible with regard to all of the requirements and at the same time economically...... attractive. This paper proposes an integrated rolling stock planning model that simultaneously takes into account all practical requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The model is then used to improve existing rolling stock plans...

  12. An integrated rolling stock planning model for the Copenhagen suburban passenger railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...... to take into account, rolling stock plans are often constructed in a step-by-step manner, taking some requirements into consideration in each step. This may make it difficult in the final step to produce a plan that is feasible with regard to all of the requirements and at the same time economically...... attractive. This paper proposes an integrated rolling stock planning model that simultaneously takes into account all practical requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The model is then used to improve existing rolling stock plans...

  13. E-Services and Positioning of Passenger Ports in the Context of Cruise Tourism Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriela Vitić-Ćetković

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper positions the passenger sea ports in the context of cruise tourism on the basis of e-services they offer. The e-services of eleven passenger ports are categorized and then quantitatively evaluated by binary and ranking approaches. In general, the port e-services might be categorized according to their functionality as navigational, ship and passenger-related ones, logistics, business, marketing, entertainment, security, safety, environmental, etc. These services can be bidirectional informational and/or transactional. In this paper, only those port e-services related directly to the passengers’ needs, within the frame of cruise tourism, are taken into consideration and categorized as core, or as value-added ones, and as informational and/or transactional ones. Then, each of them is assigned an appropriate binary value (0/1, depending on whether the considered passenger port offers the related e-service or not. These values are employed in the evaluation of the analyzed passenger port e-services offered, and as a base for their positioning. The appropriate weights coefficients, obtained by ranking (Saaty method, were used in the process of the considered port final positioning on the cruise tourism e-market. Some additional analyses and recommendations in the direction of further positioning and promotion of the port of Kotor (Montenegro, as rising cruise tourism port (destination, are given as well.

  14. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  15. Predicting Passenger Survival Rates on the Titanic

    OpenAIRE

    Prateek Chanda

    2017-01-01

    The sinking of the RMS Titanic is one of the most infamous shipwrecks in history. On April 15, 1912, during her maiden voyage, the Titanic sank after colliding with an iceberg, killing 1502 out of 2224 passengers and crew. This sensational tragedy shocked the international community and led to better safety regulations for ships. One of the reasons that the shipwreck led to such loss of life was that there were not enough lifeboats for the passengers and crew. Although there was some el...

  16. Mortality of German travellers on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Herzog, Jan; Püschel, Klaus; Harth, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In the past two decades, more and more Germans decided to spend their holidays on a passenger vessel. This study examined the frequencies and causes of deaths of German travellers aboard passenger vessels of all flags. The shipboard deaths of all German travellers within the time period from 1998 to 2008 were counted using the German civil central register in Berlin. The available documentation in this register provides information on frequencies, circumstances and causes of deaths on ships. In the above-mentioned period of time, the total cohort of German travellers on cruise ships is estimated to be 5.97 million persons. During the 11-year examination period, 135 shipboard deaths of German passengers [102 males (75.6%) and 33 females (24.4%)] were recorded. Out of these travellers, 110 died on cruise ships. When considering only the passengers on cruise ships (without those on ferries) an average crude mortality rate of 1.8 per 100,000 German passengers was calculated. The crude mortality rate of shipboard death for males and females was 2.5 and 0.8 per 100,000 German passengers with a mean age of 71.2 years [standard deviation (SD) 16.0 years] and 73.3 years (SD 16.0 years), respectively. Significantly, more deceased travellers older than 70 years were observed on traditional cruise ships and resort vessels than on passenger ferries (P = 0.001). The causes of death were documented in 85 cases (63.0%). Out of these documented deaths, 82 (96.5%) cases were regarded to be natural causes (particularly circulatory diseases) and 3 (3.5%) as unnatural causes (twice drowning and once an accidental fall). In spite of the large proportion of unknown causes of death, this study argues for a high significance of internal causes of deaths among German passengers. Thus, ship's doctors-particularly those on traditional cruise ships-should be well experienced in internal and geriatric medicines. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  17. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro

    2000-01-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  18. Cosmic radiation exposure to airline flight passenger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Mitsuhiro [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-08-01

    At the high altitudes, airline flight passengers can be exposed to some levels of cosmic radiation. The purpose of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure. Cosmic radiation was measured during 5 flights using a personal dosimeter (PDM-102, Aloka). Cosmic radiation equivalent dose rates ranged from 0.7 to 1.43 microsieverts per hour, the average rate was 1.08. For the passenger who travels only occasionally, the cosmic radiation levels are well below occupational limits, and the risks are extremely small. (author)

  19. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  20. Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Passengers' attitudes and behaviour towards motorcycle helmet use in Ilorin, ... Remember me ... The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of motorcycle passengers to helmet use in Ilorin metropolis, ...

  1. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  2. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat, of...

  3. Rescheduling of Railway Rolling Stock with Dynamic Passenger Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to

  4. 46 CFR 71.75-5 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 71.75-5 Section 71.75-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND... Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are required to have a...

  5. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    /or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...

  6. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject to... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5...

  7. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  8. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  9. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  10. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  11. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  12. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.M. Lentink (Ramon); M.J.C.M. Vromans (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms

  13. A new simulation model for assessing aircraft emergency evacuation considering passenger physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Weijie; Huang, Hong-Zhong; Li, Yanfeng; Yang, Yuanjian

    2014-01-01

    Conducting a real aircraft evacuation trial is oftentimes unaffordable as it is extremely expensive and may cause severe injury to participants. Simulation models as an alternative have been used to overcome the aforementioned issues in recent years. This paper proposes a new simulation model for emergency evacuation of civil aircraft. Its unique features and advantages over the existing models are twofold: (1) passengers' critical physical characteristics, e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, which impact the movement and egress time of individual evacuee from a statistical viewpoint, are taken into account in the new model. (2) Improvements are made to enhance the accuracy of the simulation model from three aspects. First, the staggered mesh discretization method together with the agent-based approach is utilized to simulate movements of individual passengers in an emergency evacuation process. Second, each node discretized to represent cabin space in the new model can contain more than one passenger if they are moving in the same direction. Finally, each individual passenger is able to change his/her evacuation route in a real-time manner based upon the distance from the current position to the target exit and the queue length. The effectiveness of the proposed simulation model is demonstrated on Boeing 767-300 aircraft. - Highlights: • A new simulation model of aircraft emergency evacuation is developed. • Some critical physical characteristics of passengers', e.g. waist size, gender, age, and disabilities, are taken into account in the new model. • An agent-based approach along with a multi-level fine network representation is used. • Passengers are able to change their evacuation routes in a real-time manner based upon distance and length of queue

  14. Direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in China: A dynamic panel quantile regression approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue-Jun; Peng, Hua-Rong; Liu, Zhao; Tan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    The transport sector appears a main energy consumer in China and plays a significant role in energy conservation. Improving energy efficiency proves an effective way to reduce energy consumption in transport sector, whereas its effectiveness may be affected by the rebound effect. This paper proposes a dynamic panel quantile regression model to estimate the direct energy rebound effect for road passenger transport in the whole country, eastern, central and western China, respectively, based on the data of 30 provinces from 2003 to 2012. The empirical results reveal that, first of all, the direct rebound effect does exist for road passenger transport and on the whole country, the short-term and long-term direct rebound effects are 25.53% and 26.56% on average, respectively. Second, the direct rebound effect for road passenger transport in central and eastern China tends to decrease, increase and then decrease again, whereas that in western China decreases and then increases, with the increasing passenger kilometers. Finally, when implementing energy efficiency policy in road passenger transport sector, the effectiveness of energy conservation in western China proves much better than that in central China overall, while the effectiveness in central China is relatively better than that in eastern China. - Highlights: • The direct rebound effect (RE) for road passenger transport in China is estimated. • The direct RE in the whole country, eastern, central, and western China is analyzed. • The short and long-term direct REs are 25.53% and 26.56% within the sample period. • Western China has better energy-saving performance than central and eastern China.

  15. Short-Term Bus Passenger Demand Prediction Based on Time Series Model and Interactive Multiple Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bus passenger demand prediction has attracted increased attention during recent years, limited research has been conducted in the context of short-term passenger demand forecasting. This paper proposes an interactive multiple model (IMM filter algorithm-based model to predict short-term passenger demand. After aggregated in 15 min interval, passenger demand data collected from a busy bus route over four months were used to generate time series. Considering that passenger demand exhibits various characteristics in different time scales, three time series were developed, named weekly, daily, and 15 min time series. After the correlation, periodicity, and stationarity analyses, time series models were constructed. Particularly, the heteroscedasticity of time series was explored to achieve better prediction performance. Finally, IMM filter algorithm was applied to combine individual forecasting models with dynamically predicted passenger demand for next interval. Different error indices were adopted for the analyses of individual and hybrid models. The performance comparison indicates that hybrid model forecasts are superior to individual ones in accuracy. Findings of this study are of theoretical and practical significance in bus scheduling.

  16. Train Dwell Time Models for Rail Passenger Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San Hor Peay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more studies had been conducted about train dwell time as it is a key parameter of rail system performance and reliability. This paper draws an overview of train dwell time models for rail passenger service from various continents, namely Asia, North America, Europe and Australia. The factors affecting train dwell time are identified and analysed across some rail network operators. The dwell time models developed by various researches are also discussed and reviewed. Finally, the contributions from the outcomes of these models are briefly addressed. In conclusion, this paper suggests that there is a need to further study the factors with strong influence upon dwell time to improve the quality of the train services.

  17. The Danish national passenger model – Model specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  18. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun Jing; Ning Bin; Li Keping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station. Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track. Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered. One is the scheme of 'pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track'. The other is the scheme of 'two tracks play the same role'. We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic. Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced. Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values. This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model. (general)

  19. Clustering method for counting passengers getting in a bus with single camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Yanning; Shao, Dapei; Li, Ying

    2010-03-01

    Automatic counting of passengers is very important for both business and security applications. We present a single-camera-based vision system that is able to count passengers in a highly crowded situation at the entrance of a traffic bus. The unique characteristics of the proposed system include, First, a novel feature-point-tracking- and online clustering-based passenger counting framework, which performs much better than those of background-modeling-and foreground-blob-tracking-based methods. Second, a simple and highly accurate clustering algorithm is developed that projects the high-dimensional feature point trajectories into a 2-D feature space by their appearance and disappearance times and counts the number of people through online clustering. Finally, all test video sequences in the experiment are captured from a real traffic bus in Shanghai, China. The results show that the system can process two 320×240 video sequences at a frame rate of 25 fps simultaneously, and can count passengers reliably in various difficult scenarios with complex interaction and occlusion among people. The method achieves high accuracy rates up to 96.5%.

  20. Energy saving and CO2 mitigation through restructuring Jordan's transportation sector: The diesel passenger cars scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hinti, I.; Al-Ghandoor, A.; Akash, B.; Abu-Nada, E.

    2007-01-01

    The transportation sector is responsible for 37% of the total final energy consumption in Jordan, with passenger cars taking a share of 57% in this sector. Improvement of the energy efficiency of the transportation sector can help in alleviating socio-economic pressures resulting from the inflating fuel bill and in lowering the relatively high CO 2 emission intensity. Current legislations mandate that all passenger cars operating in Jordan are to be powered with spark ignition engines using gasoline fuel. This paper examines potential benefits that can be achieved through the introduction of diesel cars to the passenger cars market in Jordan. Three scenarios are suggested for implementation and investigated with a forecasting model on the basis of local and global trends over the period 2007-2027. It is demonstrated that introducing diesel passenger cars can slow down the growth of energy consumption in the transportation sector resulting in significant savings in the national fuel bill. It is also shown that this is an effective and feasible option for cutting down CO 2 emissions

  1. Driverless operation for public passenger transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, R. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Verkehrstechnik

    2001-07-01

    The author presents the automation of new and existing lines as a possible solution to the twin problems of the growing need for public transport and the threat of collapse facing many public transport systems in the big conurbations as they wrestle against overloading. It emerges that automatic, driverless operation is a suitable approach to making systems more flexible and more attractive. Automation can increase the capacities of existing systems significantly and thus help them gain more passengers. (orig.)

  2. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ...The Department of Transportation is clarifying its notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010, which, among other issues, solicits comments on options to provide greater access to air travel for persons with peanut allergies. The June 8 document also proposes action to strengthen the rights of air travelers in the event of oversales, flight cancellations and long delays, and to ensure that passengers have accurate and adequate information to make informed decisions when selecting flights.

  3. 75 FR 45562 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...This action extends the comment period for an NPRM on enhancing airline passenger protections that was published in the Federal Register on June 8, 2010. The Department of Transportation is extending the period for interested persons to submit comments on this rulemaking from August 9, 2010, to September 23, 2010. This extension is a result of requests from a number of airline associations, one airport association, and two airlines to extend the comment period for the proposal.

  4. Integrated Intermodal Passenger Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, Ryan; Owens, David; Schwartz, Henry; Plencner, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Modern transportation consists of many unique modes of travel. Each of these modes and their respective industries has evolved independently over time, forming a largely incoherent and inefficient overall transportation system. Travelers today are forced to spend unnecessary time and efforts planning a trip through varying modes of travel each with their own scheduling, pricing, and services; causing many travelers to simply rely on their relatively inefficient and expensive personal automobile. This paper presents a demonstration program system to not only collect and format many different sources of trip planning information, but also combine these independent modes of travel in order to form optimal routes and itineraries of travel. The results of this system show a mean decrease in inter-city travel time of 10 percent and a 25 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions over personal automobiles. Additionally, a 55 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is observed for intra-city travel. A conclusion is that current resources are available, if somewhat hidden, to drastically improve point to point transportation in terms of time spent traveling, the cost of travel, and the ecological impact of a trip. Finally, future concepts are considered which could dramatically improve the interoperability and efficiency of the transportation infrastructure.

  5. QoS-Aware Resource Allocation for Network Virtualization in an Integrated Train Ground Communication System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hongli

    2018-01-01

    Urban rail transit plays an increasingly important role in urbanization processes. Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) Systems, Passenger Information Systems (PIS), and Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) are key applications of urban rail transit to ensure its normal operation. In existing urban rail transit systems, different applications are deployed with independent train ground communication systems. When the train ground communication systems are built repeatedly, limited wireless sp...

  6. How Important is the Integration of Public Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrníková Michaela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The significance of the issue of an effective mode of passenger transport is currently increasing. On the one hand, there is the increasing economic demand of public passenger transport, on the other hand, there is the growing traffic share of individual automobile transport. The objective of the paper is to analyze public passenger transport without mutual integration of individual transport systems resulting in the fact that it is not sufficiently able to compete with individual automobile transport. It is proposed the integration of different modes of public passenger transport as a way to increase the competitiveness of public passenger transport. Aim of this paper is to analyze the individual elements of integration systems and describe why integration of public passenger transport systems is needed.

  7. Principles of Logistics Applied to Railway Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtek Martin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main challenge of logistics is delivering right assortment of products in exact amount, to exact place, in exact time, ecologically and for exact price. Logistics deals with freight transport but when the word ‘products’ is changed to ‘passengers’, then many principles can be applied to passenger transport. Railway passenger transport is the key part of passenger transport system, so it is necessary to optimize it on logistics philosophy at first.

  8. Analysing passenger arrivals rates and waiting time at bus stops

    OpenAIRE

    Kaparias, I.; Rossetti, C.; Trozzi, V.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the rather under-explored topic of passenger waiting times at public transport facilities. Using data collected from part of London’s bus network by means of physical counts, measurements and observations, and complemented by on-site passenger interviews, the waiting behaviour is analysed for a number of bus stops served by different numbers of lines. The analysis employs a wide range of statistical methods and tools, and concentrates on three aspects: passenger...

  9. ISSUES OF ORGANIZING THE PASSENGER TRANSPORTATION ON US RAILWAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Korobiova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper focuses on a study of the US railway transport organization management during passenger transportation. Methodology. Studies were carried out on the basis of the analysis of literature sources and reporting data on passenger transportation in the USA. Findings. Negative trends in the work of the passenger complex of the Ukrainian railways are the slowdown in the volumes of transportation, the progressive aging of the rolling stock and the overall activity running at a loss for Ukrzaliznytsia. In this regard, the actual task for domestic rail transport is the implementation of industry reforms. Therefore, the paper presented the study of the experience of organizing the passenger transportation on US railways, whose peculiarity is the extremely high degree of competition between modes of transport. As a result of the conducted analysis for working conditions of the US and Ukrainian railways, the general conditions for the functioning of the railways in both countries connected with passenger transportation securing have been established. It was found that general condition for execution of railway passenger transportation for the United States and Ukraine is the subsidization of this activity and combined use of infrastructure for the freight and passengers’ transportations. In this connection, when developing approaches to reforming the passenger economy of Ukraine's railways, it is advisable to use the experience of the United States in assessing the social effectiveness of rail transport, the impact of passenger transportation on the conditions of freight trains handling, and combined use of railway infrastructure by freight and passenger companies. Originality. The author determined the general trends in the development of passenger railway transportation in the US and Ukraine. Practical value. The resulted methods of organizing the operation of the US railway passenger transportation complex can be adapted to solve

  10. Analyzing injury severity of bus passengers with different movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Duo; Zhao, Yifei; Bai, Qiang; Zhou, Bei; Ling, Hongbiao

    2017-07-04

    Though public transport vehicles are rarely involved in mass casualty accidents, when they are, the number of injuries and fatalities is usually high due to the high passenger capacity. Of the few studies that have been conducted on bus safety, the majority focused on vehicle safety features, road environmental factors, as well as driver characteristics. Nevertheless, few studies have attempted to investigate the underlying risk factors related to bus occupants. This article presents an investigation aimed at identifying the risk factors affecting injury severity of bus passengers with different movements. Three different passenger movement types including standing, seated, and boarding/alighting were analyzed individually using classification and regression tree (CART) method based on publicly available accident database of Great Britain. According to the results of exploratory analyses, passenger age and vehicle maneuver are associated with passenger injury severity in all 3 types of accidents. Moreover, the variable "skidding and overturning" is associated with injury severity of seated passengers and driver age is correlated with injury severity of standing and boarding/alighting passengers. The CART method shows its ability to identify and easily explain the complicated patterns affecting passenger injury severity. Several countermeasures to reduce bus passenger injury severity are recommended.

  11. Study of LH2 fueled subsonic passenger transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G. D.; Morris, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of using liquid hydrogen as fuel in subsonic transport aircraft was investigated to explore an expanded matrix of passenger aircraft sizes. Aircraft capable of carrying 130 passengers 2,780 km (1500 n.mi.); 200 passengers 5,560 km (3000 n.mi.); and 400 passengers on a 9,265 km (5000 n.mi.) radius mission, were designed parametrically. Both liquid hydrogen and conventionally fueled versions were generated for each payload/range in order that comparisons could be made. Aircraft in each mission category were compared on the basis of weight, size, cost, energy utilization, and noise.

  12. Trends in passenger transport and freight energy use in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendiluce, Maria; Schipper, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides for the first time a complete analysis of recent trends in activity, carbon emissions, modal shares, energy intensities, vehicle use and fuels in the Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008 and discusses policy options. Passenger and freight activities have increased in Spain and are projected to continue, presenting a challenge for sustainable mobility efforts; emissions have increased, mainly fueled by the rise in activity; modal shares have pulled away from public transport, with a decrease in bus and rail, towards an increase in car and air travel; energy intensities, though initially decreasing, are currently increasing; and fuel use has taken over 37% of Spanish final energy consumption. To target these issues the Spanish government has focused its efforts in targeting energy efficiency through dieselization, which has not led to positive results. More recently policies and measures have been directed towards redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. Little has been done to reduce activity besides some anecdotic public awareness campaigns. Activity reduction may be achieved with regulations, restrictions and mobility plans; by increasing high speed rail and rail freight transport; by improving intermodality and tying the Spanish rail network with the EU; and with more urban transport planning at local level. - Highlights: → Complete analysis of recent trends in Spanish transport system from 1990 to 2008. → Passenger and freight activities have driven GHG emissions increase. → Modal shares have pulled away from public transport. → Policy efforts targeted energy efficiency and redirecting modal shares and diversifying the fuel mix. → Little has been done to reduce activity.

  13. THE FUTURE OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT – VERY LARGE AIRCRAFT AND OUT KEY HUMAN FACTORS AFFECTING THE OPERATION AND SAFETY OF PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Skolilova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines some human factors affecting the operation and safety of passenger air transport given the massive increase in the use of the VLA. Decrease of the impact of the CO2 world emissions is one of the key goals for the new aircraft design. The main wave is going to reduce the burned fuel. Therefore, the eco-efficiency engines combined with reasonable economic operation of the aircraft are very important from an aviation perspective. The prediction for the year 2030 says that about 90% of people, which will use long-haul flights to fly between big cities. So, the A380 was designed exactly for this time period, with a focus on the right capacity, right operating cost and right fuel burn per seat. There is no aircraft today with better fuel burn combined with eco-efficiency per seat, than the A380. The very large aircrafts (VLAs are the future of the commercial passenger aviation. Operating cost versus safety or CO2 emissions versus increasing automation inside the new generation aircraft. Almost 80% of the world aircraft accidents are caused by human error based on wrong action, reaction or final decision of pilots, the catastrophic failures of aircraft systems, or air traffic control errors are not so frequent. So, we are at the beginning of a new age in passenger aviation and the role of the human factor is more important than ever.

  14. New fuel consumption standards for Chinese passenger vehicles and their effects on reductions of oil use and CO2 emissions of the Chinese passenger vehicle fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhao; Jin Yuefu; Wang Michael; Wei Wu

    2010-01-01

    A new fuel consumption standard for passenger vehicles in China, the so-called Phase 3 standard, was approved technically in 2009 and will take effect in 2012. This standard aims to introduce advanced energy-saving technologies into passenger vehicles and to reduce the average fuel consumption rate of Chinese new passenger vehicle fleet in 2015 to 7 L/100 km. The Phase 3 standard follows the evaluating system by specifying fuel consumption targets for sixteen individual mass-based classes. Different from compliance with the Phases 1 and 2 fuel consumption standards, compliance of the Phase 3 standard is based on corporate average fuel consumption (CAFC) rates for individual automobile companies. A transition period from 2012 to 2014 is designed for manufacturers to gradually adjust their production plans and introduce fuel-efficient technologies. In this paper, we, the designers of the Phase 3 standard, present the design of the overall fuel consumption reduction target, technical feasibility, and policy implications of the Phase 3 standard. We also explore several enforcement approaches for the Phase 3 standard with financial penalties of non-compliance as a priority. Finally, we estimate the overall effect of the Phase 3 standard on oil savings and CO 2 emission reductions.

  15. Defense Transportation Regulation. Part I: Passenger Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    indicates apart action and the "N" in the special handling block identifies the passenger as a no-show. NAME RIC CHANL MSN- NBR /TVL-PD STS...will be retained and annotated with the origin, destination, ticket or token number(s) (when issued), and date issued to traveler. A rubber stamp...J. D. Pierce, TO. The use of a rubber stamp signature of the person authorized to sign GTRs is strictly prohibited. b. Other person(s) (acting TOs

  16. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...... aims to provide a detailed description of the model, which can be used as a guide to the future development of similar models. Also, an application of the model in a study of road pricing in denmark is described. This gives the reader an idea of how such a policy measure can be modelled as well...

  17. Air passenger transport and the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, M.

    2004-11-01

    The commercial aviation sector accounts for 2.5 % of total worldwide anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Water vapour (H 2 O) and NO x emissions, the formation of condensation trails and increased formation of cirrus clouds due to altitude (indirect effects) also accentuate the greenhouse effect. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that the effects apart from CO 2 emissions are relatively higher for aviation than for other human activities. For one tonne of CO 2 emissions, the radiative forcing of aviation is twice as important as other activities. On this basis, a Paris-New York return trip for one passenger on a charter flight corresponds to a quarter of the total climate impact caused by the annual consumption of a French person. Increased mobility and a rise in international tourism suggest that past trends in the growth of air passenger transport will continue. The improvements in energy efficiency achieved are seemingly not sufficient to prevent a significant increase in the impact of air transport on climate change. (author)

  18. Integrating passenger and freight transportation : model formulation and insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghilas, V.; Demir, E.; Woensel, van T.

    2013-01-01

    Integrating passenger and freight ows creates attractive business opportunities because the same transportation needs can be met with fewer vehicles and emissions. This paper seeks an integrated solution for the transportation of passenger and freight simultaneously, so that fewer vehicles are

  19. Delay Management with Re-Routing of Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis); M.E. Schmidt (Marie); A. Schöbel (Anita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe question of delay management is whether trains should wait for a delayed feeder train or should depart on time. In classical delay management models passengers always take their originally planned route. In this paper, we propose a model where re-routing of passengers is

  20. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  1. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  2. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  3. Ocean passenger vessels : migrating south for the winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In response to consumer demand, the passenger vessels that operate from seaports along the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts alternate between north and south. Passenger vessels that sail out of ports such as New York, Baltimore and Seattle in the s...

  4. Deduction of passengers' route choice from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Hurk, Evelien; Kroon, Leo; Maroti, Gabor; Vervest, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choice from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate passenger service. Especially in case of disruptions when route choice models may not be valid this is an advantage. This paper proposes a method for deducing the chosen route of

  5. Deduction of passengers' route choices from smart card data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hurk, E.; Kroon, L.G.; Maroti, G.; Vervest, P.

    2015-01-01

    Deducing passengers' route choices from smart card data provides public transport operators the opportunity to evaluate and improve their passenger service. Particularly in the case of disruptions, when traditional route choice models may not be valid, this is an advantage. This paper proposes a

  6. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  7. 75 FR 78063 - Passenger Weight and Inspected Vessel Stability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... for determining the maximum passenger capacity of small passenger pontoon vessels either by: Dividing.... 176.110 explicitly calling attention to the OCMI's prerogative to consider a vessel's suitability for... factors to which vessel masters should give special attention in both sections, and a requirement in Sec...

  8. Getting Frustrated: Modelling Emotion Contagion in Stranded Passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, C. Natalie; Couwenberg, Maik; Bosse, T.

    2017-01-01

    Train passengers can get stranded due to a variety of events, such as a delay, technical malfunctioning or a natural disaster. Stranded passengers can get frustrated, which could escalate in misbehaviours. Examples are verbal and physical violence or dangerous behaviours such as opening emergency

  9. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.

  10. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    When looking at railway planning, a discrepancy exists between planners who focus on the train operations and publish fixed railway schedules, and passengers who look not only at the schedules but also at the entirety of their trip, from access to waiting to on-board travel and egress. Looking...... with fluctuating passenger demand. A key aspect is the robustness of railway timetables. Empirical evidence indicates that passengers give more importance to travel time certainty than travel time reductions, as passengers associate an inherent disutility with travel time uncertainty. This disutility may...... be broadly interpreted as an anxiety cost for the need for having contingency plans in case of disruptions, and may be looked at as the motivator for the need for delay-robust railway timetables. Interestingly, passenger-oriented optimisation studies considering robustness in railway planning typically limit...

  11. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  12. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  13. Methods to estimate railway capacity and passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    that an evaluation of passenger delays obtained with simulation software (in this case RailSys) and the passenger delay model is comparable with the daily operation of the Copenhagen suburban railway network. Using a microscopic simulation model, the thesis demonstrates that it is possible to compare travel times...... of additional travel time. The differences between the different kinds of delay (train delays, passenger delays and scheduled waiting time) are illustrated through simple, but representative, case examples in CHAPTER 10. The examples demonstrate that 3rd generation passenger delay models are more realistic than...... depend on the given infrastructure and timetable and can result in longer travel times for trains and passengers. Furthermore, the thesis shows that the network effects can result in reduced capacity as some trains or train services can make it impossible to operate other planned/desired trains or train...

  14. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  15. Building Airline Passenger Loyalty Through an Understanding of Customer Value: A Relationship Segmentation of Airline Passengers

    OpenAIRE

    Leick, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores means of restoring profitability to the airline industry by cultivating intrinsically motivated brand loyalty between passengers and airlines in today’s fragile environment. The air transport industry is caught up in traditional transaction-based strategies. Airlines rely on archaic frequent flyer programs (FFPs) to maintain loyalty which deter customers from choosing alternative airlines by increasing the cost associated with switching. In contrast, oth...

  16. Emergency medicine and the airline passenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, S. R.; Nicogossian, A.; Margulies, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Problems related to immediate medical care in case of in-flight emergencies are discussed with reference to such critical types of medical emergencies as obstructed airway, cardiac dysfunction, trauma, hemorrhage, hypoxia, and pain. It is shown that training flight attendants to deal with in-flight medical emergencies and to use first-aid support equipment and essential and useful drugs may later help with stabilization of a victim and allow continuing the flight to the scheduled destination without the need for a diverted landing. Among the steps suggested in order to upgrade inflight welfare and safety of passengers are the development of an advisory circular by the FAA covering standardized training for flight attendants, regulatory action requiring upgrading of the present rudimentary first-aid kit, and the enactment of Good Samaritan legislation by the U.S. Government.

  17. Sound design for diesel passenger cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belluscio, Michele; Ruotolo, Romualdo [GM Powertrain Europe, Torino (Italy); Schoenherr, Christian; Schuster, Guenter [GM Europe, Ruesselsheim (Germany); Eisele, Georg; Genender, Peter; Wolff, Klaus; Van Keymeulen, Johan [FEV Motorentechnik GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    With the growing market contribution of diesel passenger cars in Europe, it becomes more important to create a brand and market segment specific vehicle sound. Beside the usually considered pleasantness related topics like diesel knocking and high noise excitation, it is important to fulfil also the requirements regarding a dynamic vehicle impression. This impression is mainly influenced by the load dependency of the engine induced noise, which is reduced for diesel engines due to the missing throttle valve and the damping effect of the turbocharger and the diesel particulate filter. By means of a detailed noise transfer path analysis the contribution with dynamic potential can be identified. Furthermore the load dependency itself of a certain noise contribution can be strengthened, which allows for a dynamic sound character comparable to sporty gasoline vehicles. (orig.)

  18. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  19. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  20. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  1. Comparative study of liberalization process of passengers railway market in Spain and England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Morote, G.; Ortuño Padilla, A.; Fernandez Aracil, P.

    2016-07-01

    This article provides an overview of the privatization of railway passengers market in Spain through a background to the most relevant cases studies in Europe, particularly the liberalization process in England. The English case study is a paradigmatic example to assess how the liberalization process was developed and its effect in the present. This assessment has been undertaken to analyse the railway franchise structure, ticketing measures, role of national and regional authorities, etc. and possible analogies to be adapted to the case of Spain. Firstly, this article reviews the origin of the privatization of the railway market in both Spain and England, describing every phase of the liberalization and the success of every stage. Secondly, a critical approach assessment exposes those market failures of the liberalization process in England that caused negative impacts on society. In addition, the role of the Government is analysed to measure their implication in order to solve that situation. Furthermore, the paper expounds a wide analysis of the rail ticketing in England, its effects on increased passenger number. Finally, this article proposes some measures to be followed on the privatization of passenger rail market in Spain, as well as some key concepts to guarantee its success as taken from the case studies that have been reviewed. (Author)

  2. Ecological Pressure of Carbon Footprint in Passenger Transport: Spatio-Temporal Changes and Regional Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger transport has become a significant producer of carbon emissions in China, thus strongly contributing to climate change. In this paper, we first propose a model of ecological pressure of the carbon footprint in passenger transport (EPcfpt. In the model, the EPcfpt values of all the provinces and autonomous regions of China are calculated and analyzed during the period of 2006–2015. For the outlier EPcfpt values of Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, the research areas are classified into two scenarios: the first scenario (all the provinces and autonomous regions and the second scenario (not including Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. The global spatial autocorrelation analysis of the first scenario shows that the EPcfpt might be randomly distributed, while it shows positive spatial autocorrelation in the second scenario. Furthermore, we carry out the local spatial autocorrelation analysis of the second scenario, and find that the low aggregation areas are the most common type and are mainly located in the west of China. Then the disparities in EPcfpt between China’s Eight Comprehensive Economic Zones are further analyzed. Finally, we put forward a number of policy recommendations in relation to the spatio-temporal changes and the regional disparities of EPcfpt in China. This study provides related references for proposing effective policy measures to reduce the ecological pressure of carbon emissions from the passenger transport sector.

  3. Urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential: A case study for Tianjin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Binbin; Du, Huibin; Ma, Shoufeng; Fan, Ying; Broadstock, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential to reduce urban passenger transport is projected between 2010 and 2040. • Four scenarios reflecting different policy mixes are considered. • The potential for energy conservation and emission reductions are obtained. • Vehicle population regulation is most effective in energy saving and reducing overall GHG. • Emission standards are the most effective measure to reduce pollutant emissions. - Abstract: With rapid growth of the vehicle population, urban passenger transport in China is largely responsible for increases in energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and also atmospheric pollutants (NO x , CO, HC, PM). In this paper, we first develop an urban passenger transport energy saving and emission reduction potential evaluation model using the “Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP)” tool; and then take Tianjin city as an empirical case to evaluate the reduction potential of final energy consumption, GHG emissions and pollutants emissions of Tianjin’s urban passenger transport sector between 2010 and 2040 under four scenarios, i.e. BAU (business as usual) scenario, PP (the 12th five-year plan policy) scenario, CP (comprehensive policy) scenario and HP (hybrid policy of PP and CP) scenario. The results show that due to the public transport promotion, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in 2040 can be reduced by 22% and 22.6% in the PP scenario, compared to BAU. The largest reductions in energy consumption, CO 2 and atmospheric pollutants emissions can be achieved under CP scenario, in which vehicle population regulation is the most effective to be implemented. Emissions standard regulation is the most effective measure to reduce atmospheric pollutant emissions in all the scenarios and green energy promotion is especially effective to reduce NO x and PM

  4. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  5. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    modifications of the timetable during the vehicle scheduling phase. This planning approach is referred to as the Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is solved using a large neighbourhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...

  6. The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan AVRAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

  7. Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing the availability of urban passenger transport on objective control data ... mathematical modeling, probability theory and mathematical statistics, expert ... intended for development of methods and means of operative management of ...

  8. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  9. Research on the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guanglei; Cao, Jianxiao; Liu, Tao; Yang, Na; Zhao, Hongguang

    2017-05-01

    To study the compressive strength of a passenger vehicle roof, this paper makes the simulation test on the static collapse of the passenger vehicle roof and analyzes the stress and deformation of the vehicle roof under pressure in accordance with the Roof Crush Resistance of Passenger Cars (GB26134-2010). It studies the optimization on the major stressed parts, pillar A, pillar B and the rail of roof, during the static collapse process of passenger vehicle roof. The result shows that the thickness of pillar A and the roof rail has significant influence on the compressive strength of the roof while that of pillar B has minor influence on the compressive strength of the roof.

  10. Intercity passenger rail : financial performance of Amtrak's routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-14

    Since it began operations in 1971, the National Railroad Passenger Corporation : (Amtrak) has never been profitable and has received about $21 billion in federal : subsidies for operating and capital expenses. In December 1994, at the : direction of ...

  11. Ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schau, Kyle; Masory, Oren

    2013-10-01

    The following report details the findings of a series of experiments and simulations performed on a commercially available, shuttle style golf cart during several maneuvers involving rapid accelerations of the vehicle. It is determined that the current set of passive restraints on these types of golf carts are not adequate in preventing ejection of a rear facing passenger during rapid accelerations in the forward and lateral directions. Experimental data and simulations show that a hip restraint must be a minimum of 13 in. above the seat in order to secure a rear facing passenger during sharp turns, compared to the current restraint height of 5 in. Furthermore, it is determined that a restraint directly in front of the rear facing passenger is necessary to prevent ejection. In addressing these issues, golf cart manufacturers could greatly reduce the likelihood of injury due to ejection of a rear facing, golf cart passenger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Passengers' perception of the safety demonstration on board an aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruenruoy, Ratchada

    The cabin safety demonstration on board an aircraft is one of the methods to provide safety information for passengers before aircraft takeoff. However, passengers' enthusiasm toward safety demonstrations is normally low. Therefore, the study of passengers' perception toward safety briefings on board an aircraft is important in increasing the safety awareness for the travelling public on commercial aircraft. A survey was distributed to measure the perceptions of Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU) faculty and staff, Aerospace students, and international students who have traveled in the last year. It was generally found that watching the cabin safety demonstration before aircraft takeoff was believed to be important for passengers. However, the attention to the safety demonstration remained low because the safety briefings were not good enough in terms of clear communication, particularly in the recorded audio demonstration and the live safety demonstration methods of briefing.

  13. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to : the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects : varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares : first the absolute climate impacts of current passenge...

  14. Crippling test of a Budd Pioneer passenger car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    This research program was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development in support of the advancement of improved safety standards for passenger rail vehicles. FRA and the Volpe National Transportation Syst...

  15. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  16. High-speed and intercity passenger rail testing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This high-speed and intercity passenger rail (HSIPR) testing strategy addresses the requirements for testing of high-speed train sets and technology before introduction to the North American railroad system. The report documents the results of a surv...

  17. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...... unattended. A description of the problem together with a mathematical model is presented. The objective is to maximize the quality of service by scheduling as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving...... the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution which in each step is transformed to an actual schedule by use of a greedy heuristic. Local search is performed on the abstract representation using advanced neighborhoods which modify large parts...

  18. Estimating bus passenger waiting times from incomplete bus arrivals data

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, F.N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of estimating bus passenger waiting times at bus stops using incomplete bus arrivals data. This is of importance to bus operators and regulators as passenger waiting time is a key performance measure. Average waiting times are usually estimated from bus headways, that is, time gaps between buses. It is both time-consuming and expensive to measure bus arrival times manually so methods using automatic vehicle location systems are attractive; however, these syste...

  19. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  20. Influence of Unsteady Aerodynamics on Driving Dynamics of Passenger Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, J.; Stickel, T.; Sagan, E.; Schwarz, M.; Wall, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with CFD-Methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared to steady state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore innovative vehicle concepts like electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve...

  1. Determiantion of elasticity coefficient of demand for suburban passenger transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The regularity of changes in demand for suburban passenger road transport, depending on the value, is investigated. The results of the survey of passengers about changes of fare on the chosen route are given. It is built the curve of elasticity of demand for suburban bus transport use in labor and cultural and social movements. The equilibrium tariff for suburban road transport is defined

  2. An Optimization Method of Passenger Assignment for Customized Bus

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Cao; Jian Wang

    2017-01-01

    This study proposes an optimization method of passenger assignment on customized buses (CB). Our proposed method guarantees benefits to passengers by balancing the elements of travel time, waiting time, delay, and economic cost. The optimization problem was solved using a Branch and Bound (B&B) algorithm based on the shortest path for the selected stations. A simulation-based evaluation of the proposed optimization method was conducted. We find that a CB service can save 38.33% in average tra...

  3. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ...This document announces a public meeting on a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary passenger revenues, computation of mishandled baggage rates, and collection of separate statistics for mishandled wheelchairs and scooters used by passengers with disabilities. During the public meeting, DOT staff will provide a summary of the proposals in the NPRM and seek input on costs and benefits associated with the implementation of the proposals.

  4. Complex Security System for Premises Under Conditions of Large Volume of Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubov Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsystems of the design of a complex security system for premises under conditions of large volume of passenger traffic are considered. These subsystems provide video- and thermal imaging control, radio wave tomography, and gas analysis. Simultaneous application of all examined variants will essentially increase the probability of timely prevention of dangerous situations with the probability of false alarm as low as possible. It is important that finally, this will provide protection of population and will facilitate the work of intelligence services.

  5. Real-time passenger counting by active linear cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudour, Louahdi; Duvieubourg, Luc; Deparis, Jean-Pierre

    1996-03-01

    The companies operating subways are very much concerned with counting the passengers traveling through their transport systems. One of the most widely used systems for counting passengers consists of a mechanical gate equipped with a counter. However, such simple systems are not able to count passengers jumping above the gates. Moreover, passengers carrying large luggage or bags may meet some difficulties when going through such gates. The ideal solution is a contact-free counting system that would bring more comfort of use for the passengers. For these reasons, we propose to use a video processing system instead of these mechanical gates. The optical sensors discussed in this paper offer several advantages including well defined detection areas, fast response time and reliable counting capability. A new technology has been developed and tested, based on linear cameras. Preliminary results show that this system is very efficient when the passengers crossing the optical gate are well separated. In other cases, such as in compact crowd conditions, reasonable accuracy has been demonstrated. These results are illustrated by means of a number of sequences shot in field conditions. It is our belief that more precise measurements could be achieved, in the case of compact crowd, by other algorithms and acquisition techniques of the line images that we are presently developing.

  6. Energy consumption and environmental effects of passenger transport modes. A life cycle study on passenger transport modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalenoja, H.

    1996-01-01

    Energy consumption and environmental effects of different passenger transport modes vary on the different stages of the fuel chain and during the production and maintenance of vehicles and infrastructure. Energy consumption and the environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage depend strongly on the vehicle occupancy. The properties of transport modes on urban areas and on the long distance transport have been evaluated in this study. The energy consumption and environmental effects calculated per passenger mileage have been assessed for passenger car, bus, tram, train, airplane and ferry. The emissions have been evaluated during the whole fuel chain. In this study only the airborne emissions have been taken into account. In the energy consumption calculations the energy content of vehicles and the infrastructure, energy consumption during the fuel chain and during the end use have been taken into consideration. (au)

  7. 49 CFR 659.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle for the purpose of travel. Passenger Operations means the period of time when any aspect of rail... Transportation. Hazard means any real or potential condition (as defined in the rail transit agency's hazard...

  8. Alighting and Boarding Time Model of Passengers at a LRT Station in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hor Peay San

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to study the factors affecting the alighting and boarding rate of passengers and establish a prediction model for alighting and boarding time of passengers for a passenger rail service in Malaysia. Data was collected at the KL Sentral LRT station during the morning and evening peak hours for a period of 5 working days. Results show that passenger behaviour, passenger volume, crowdedness in train and mixture of flow has significant effects on the alighting and boarding time though mixture of flow is not significant in the prediction model produced due to the passenger behaviour at the platform.

  9. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  10. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  11. A Study of Airline Passenger Susceptibility to Atmospheric Turbulence Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2000-01-01

    A simple, generic, simulation math model of a commercial airliner has been developed to study the susceptibility of unrestrained passengers to large, discrete gust encounters. The math model simulates the longitudinal motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin, (2) fuselage flexibility, (3) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, and (4) unsteady lift effects. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths of a simulated mountain rotor. A comparison of the model-predicted responses to data from three accidents indicates that the accelerations in actual accidents are sometimes much larger than the simulated gust encounters.

  12. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  13. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  14. ANALYTICAL AND SIMULATION PLANNING MODEL OF URBAN PASSENGER TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Borisovich Nikolaev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article described the structure of the analytical and simulation models to make informed decisions in the planning of urban passenger transport. Designed UML diagram that describes the relationship of classes of the proposed model. A description of the main agents of the model developed in the simulation AnyLogic. Designed user interface integration with GIS map. Also provides simulation results that allow concluding about her health and the possibility of its use in solving planning problems of urban passenger transport.

  15. Changes in the Trade and Promotion of Passenger Air Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Passenger air carriers will be able to systematically overbook transport capacities on certain aerial routes due to the quick adaptation to modern trading means, to the modern promotion of services and to the modern means of information of potential travellers. Though ticket booking in aerial transport made its debut as a simple process of automation of ticket sale, it soon turned into a strong marketing instrument with unexpected effects on competitiveness on the market of tourism aerial transport. The use of modern ways of operating Computer Reservation Systems and Billing Settlement Plans by passenger air companies and by tour operators improves service standards.

  16. Comparing data quality and cost from three modes of on-board transit passenger surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the findings from a research project investigating the relative data quality and administration costs for three : different modes of surveying bus passengers that produce results generalizable to the full passenger population. Th...

  17. High Speed Vessels to Market : Comparative Case Studies in the Passenger Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    The Volpe Center chose to study several existing catamarans and high speed monohulls in comparison to representative SWATH family craft, including the SLICE 400 (passenger) and SLICE 600 (passenger/90 car) variants, the former similar in size and per...

  18. Forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro applying artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.V.; Natsional'nyj Issledovatel'skij Yadernyj Univ. MIFI, Moscow; FKU Rostransmodernizatsiya, Moscow

    2016-01-01

    Methods for the forecasting of passenger traffic in Moscow metro have been developed using artificial neural networks. To this end, the factors primarily determining passenger traffic in the subway have been analyzed and selected [ru

  19. Multiple imputation of missing passenger boarding data in the national census of ferry operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This report presents findings from the 2006 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO) augmented with imputed values for passengers and passenger miles. Due to the imputation procedures used to calculate missing data, totals in Table 1 may not corresp...

  20. HRTPO strategic campaign and vision plan for passenger rail : phase 1 overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    SUBJECT: : TEMS (Transportation Economics & Management Systems, Inc.), the consultant specializing in : passenger rail planning, was secured by the HRTPO and its partner DRPT to evaluate the potential : passenger rail service alternative defined by t...

  1. A Model of Bus Bunching under Reliability-based Passenger Arrival Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzone, Achille; Schmöcker, Jan-Dirk; Liu, Ronghui

    2015-01-01

    If bus service departure times are not completely unknown to the passengers, non-uniform passenger arrival patterns can be expected. We propose that passengers decide their arrival time at stops based on a continuous logit model that considers the risk of missing services. Expected passenger waiting times are derived in a bus system that allows also for overtaking between bus services. We then propose an algorithm to derive the dwell time of subsequent buses serving a stop in order to illustr...

  2. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Dingjun Chen; Shaoquan Ni; Chang’an Xu; Hongxia Lv; Simin Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model i...

  3. Influence patterns of transportation parameters in suburban traffic on fatigue of passengers during bus waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Михайлівна Григорова

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of transport fatigue of suburban traffic passengers during waiting transport waiting is investigated. The results of the processing site examinations allow defining the regularities of the influence of parameters of transportation process of passengers to change index activity of regulatory systems in passenger waiting at stopping points of suburban traffic. The discovered patterns were mathematically formalized

  4. 75 FR 16552 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; Enhancing intercity travel options; Ensuring a state of good repair of key intercity passenger rail assets... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail... selections for the High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program. This notice builds on the program...

  5. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ...: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of...) instituted investigation No. 332-523, U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES... concluded negotiations to modify the FTA, including certain provisions relating to the passenger vehicle...

  6. 77 FR 24381 - Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-AA87 Security Zone; Passenger Vessel SAFARI EXPLORER Arrival/ Departure, Kaunakakai Harbor, Molokai, HI... channel's entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai... entrance during the arrival and departure of the Passenger Vessel Safari Explorer in Kaunakakai Harbor...

  7. 46 CFR 25.45-2 - Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire... REQUIREMENTS Cooking, Heating, and Lighting Systems § 25.45-2 Cooking systems on vessels carrying passengers for hire. (a) No fuel may be used in any cooking system on any vessel carrying passengers for hire...

  8. 49 CFR 223.17 - Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars and cabooses. 223.17 Section 223.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.17 Identification of equipped locomotives, passenger cars and cabooses. Each locomotive, passenger car and caboose that is fully equipped with glazing...

  9. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  10. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying motor...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit. However...

  12. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  13. 78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... authorized by the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21), Public Law 112- 141, July 6... accommodate walk-on passengers. 2. Eligible Projects Under this competitive program, eligible projects are... the number of trips (passengers and vehicles), the number of walk-on passengers, and transfers to...

  14. Relieving the Impact of Transit Signal Priority on Passenger Cars through a Bilevel Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit signal priority (TSP is an effective control strategy to improve transit operations on the urban network. However, the TSP may sacrifice the right-of-way of vehicles from side streets which have only few transit vehicles; therefore, how to minimize the negative impact of TSP strategy on the side streets is an important issue to be addressed. Concerning the typical mixed-traffic flow pattern and heavy transit volume in China, a bilevel model is proposed in this paper: the upper-level model focused on minimizing the vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction while ensuring acceptable delay variation in transit priority direction, and the lower-level model aimed at minimizing the average passenger delay in the entire intersection. The parameters which will affect the efficiency of the bilevel model have been analyzed based on a hypothetical intersection. Finally, a real-world intersection has been studied, and the average vehicle delay in the nonpriority direction decreased 11.28 s and 22.54 s (under different delay variation constraint compared to the models that only minimize average passenger delay, while the vehicle delay in the priority direction increased only 1.37 s and 2.87 s; the results proved the practical applicability and efficiency of the proposed bilevel model.

  15. Development of a Novel System to Measure a Clearance of a Passenger Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Oizumi, J.; Matsuoka, R.; Takeda, H.; Okukura, H.; Ooya, A.; Koike, A.

    2016-06-01

    Clearances of a passenger platform at a railway station should be appropriately maintained for safety of both trains and passengers. In most Japanese railways clearances between a platform and a train car is measured precisely once or twice a year. Because current measurement systems operate on a track, the closure of the track is unavoidable. Since the procedure of the closure of a track is time-consuming and bothersome, we decided to develop a new system to measure clearances without the closure of a track. A new system is required to work on a platform and the required measurement accuracy is less than several millimetres. We have adopted a 3D laser scanner and stop-and-go operation for a new system. The current systems on a track measure clearances continuously at walking speed, while our system on a platform measures clearances at approximately ten metres intervals. The scanner controlled by a PC acquires a set of point data at each measuring station. Edge points of the platform, top and side points of two rails are detected from the acquired point data. Finally clearances of the platform are calculated by using the detected feature points of the platform and the rails. The results of an experiment using a prototype of our system show that the measurement accuracy by our system would be satisfactory, but our system would take more time than the current systems. Since our system requires no closure of a track, we conclude that our system would be convenient and effective.

  16. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  17. Modeling of passengers' safety perception for buses on mountainous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Hooi Ling; Ahmed, Muaid

    2018-04-01

    This study had developed a passenger safety perception model specifically for buses taking into consideration the various factors, namely driver characteristics, environmental conditions, and bus characteristics using Bayesian Network. The behaviour of bus driver is observed through the bus motion profile, measured in longitudinal, lateral, and vertical accelerations. The road geometry is recorded using GPS and is computed with the aid of the Google map while the perceived bus safety is rated by the passengers in the bus in real time. A total of 13 variables were derived and used in the model development. The developed Bayesian Network model shows that the type of bus and the experience of the driver on the investigated route could have an influence on passenger's perception of their safety on buses. Road geometry is an indirect influencing factor through the driver's behavior. The findings of this model are useful for the authorities to structure an effective strategy to improve the level of perceived bus safety. A high level of bus safety will definitely boost passenger usage confidence which will subsequently increase ridership. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 55335 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... provides that the proposed pilot program would not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity... operation; provisions for accommodating the traveling public, including proposed arrangements for stations... program developed by this part will not be made available to more than two Amtrak intercity passenger rail...

  19. Distribution pattern of public transport passenger in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra, Alfa; Malkhamah, Siti; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2018-03-01

    The arrival and departure distribution pattern of Trans Jogja bus passenger is one of the fundamental model for simulation. The purpose of this paper is to build models of passengers flows. This research used passengers data from January to May 2014. There is no policy that change the operation system affecting the nature of this pattern nowadays. The roads, buses, land uses, schedule, and people are relatively still the same. The data then categorized based on the direction, days, and location. Moreover, each category was fitted into some well-known discrete distributions. Those distributions are compared based on its AIC value and BIC. The chosen distribution model has the smallest AIC and BIC value and the negative binomial distribution found has the smallest AIC and BIC value. Probability mass function (PMF) plots of those models were compared to draw generic model from each categorical negative binomial distribution models. The value of accepted generic negative binomial distribution is 0.7064 and 1.4504 of mu. The minimum and maximum passenger vector value of distribution are is 0 and 41.

  20. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The

  1. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  2. Fast Heuristics for Delay Management with Passenger Rerouting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDelay management models determine which connections should be maintained in case of a delayed feeder train. Recently, delay management models are developed that take into account that passengers will adjust their routes when they miss a connection. However, for large-scale real-world

  3. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  4. Trends in passenger transport energy use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Jiyong; Schipper, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Having a clear understanding of transport energy use trends is crucial to identifying opportunities and challenges for efficient energy use for the transport sector. To this date, however, no detailed analysis has been conducted with regard to rapidly growing passenger transport energy use in South Korea. Using bottom-up data developed from a variety of recent sources, we described the trends of transport activity, energy use, and CO 2 emissions from South Korea's transport sector since 1986 with a particular focus on its passenger transport. By decomposing the trends in passenger transport energy use into activity, modal structure, and energy intensity, we showed that while travel activity has been the major driver of the increase in passenger transport energy use in South Korea, the increase was to some extent offset by the recent favorable structural shift toward bus travel and away from car travel. We also demonstrated that while bus travel has become less energy intensive since the Asian Financial Crisis, car travel has become increasingly energy intensive.

  5. Reasons and remedies of inland passenger vessels accidents in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Cdr Kaosar; Islam, Muhammad Rabiul

    2017-12-01

    The waterways are very important means of communication in Bangladesh. Every year over 95 million passengers are carried through this route. But, this important mode of transport is ridden with tragic disasters every year, incurring a heavy toll of human lives. In last twenty years (1994 to 2014), around 5,500 people have died and 1,500 gone missing in 658 launch disasters. The inland routes of Barisal, Bhola, Chandpur and Patuakhali and their connected water ways to Dhaka and Chittagong are found to be more accident prone. Lack of Awareness, boundless operation of unfit vessels, overloading of passengers, recruitment of unskilled crews, poor capacity of relevant bodies and low standard maintenance of Inland Water Transport (IWT) channels, poor weather forecasting, profit centered attitude of vessel owners and corruption are initiating these deadly accidents. Despite of a number of initiatives by the government, concerned departments and foreign consultants, the safety aspect of the inland passenger vessels still remains in dark. Combined effort of Department of Shipping, BIWTA, and the attitude of vessels owners as well as passengers are very essential in this respect.

  6. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  7. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  8. Factor Analysis of Passenger Cars Using as a Taxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deriugin O.V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to select passenger cars has been proposed. The procedure helps substantiate choice of effective transportation means in accordance with taxi class to meet consumption requirements of those taking part in transportation process from the viewpoint of comfort, safety, and minimum expenditures in the context of such transportation type.

  9. Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    This business plan describes the methods by which the Iowa Department of Transportation (DOT will partner with Iowa counties and cities to fund Iowas share of the operating and maintenance cost for the Chicago-Iowa City passenger-rail service, an ...

  10. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  11. Choosing the tariff for city passenger transportation in Kiev

    OpenAIRE

    Pilipenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with basic problems of tariff policy of city passenger transportations by busses fleets of communal pattern ownership in Kiev. Principles of perfection of method of calculation of tariffs have been offered by introduction of rout and unique tariff.

  12. Causal analysis of passenger train accidents on freight rail corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of economic, technical and political factors have limited the development of new, dedicated, very-high-speed rail systems in North America. Consequently, most, near-term development of improved or expanded passenger rail service in the U.S. ...

  13. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-07-01

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 31 CFR 515.569 - Foreign passengers' baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.569 Foreign passengers' baggage. The importation of Cuban-origin goods, otherwise prohibited by this part, brought into the United States as baggage by any person arriving in the United States other than a citizen or resident of the United States is hereby...

  15. 76 FR 41726 - Reporting Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ...., third checked bag or more) Overweight/Oversized Baggage/Sports Equipment Carry-On Baggage 4. In-Flight Medical Equipment 5. In-Flight Entertainment/Internet Access 6. Sleep Sets 7. In-Flight Food/Non Alcoholic... baggage performance is outdated. Airline passengers would [[Page 41728

  16. APPLICATION OF NFC TECHNOLOGY IN PASSENGER RAIL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk KOMSTA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the possibility of the application of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport. The NFC (Near Field Communication technology is a wireless and contactless technology of transmission of radio data over short distances (max. 5 cm. This technology is very similar to the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology. It is assumed that this technology will spread rapidly and that already in 2015 around 85% of the payments in the EU will be made via mobile phones. This paper presents a research of passenger interest in this method of payment for tickets in the passenger rail transport in Slovakia. Further, an analysis of the applications of the NFC technology as a system of selling tickets in passenger rail transport, including the protection of data in mobile phones, the processes in case of losing a mobile phone and ensuring the communication between both parties was presented in the article. The last part of this analysis shows the possibility of purchasing tickets regardless of the carrier and the transport type.

  17. Practice Oriented Algorithmic Disruption Management in Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractHow to deal with a disruption is a question railway companies face on a daily basis. This thesis focusses on the subject how to handle a disruption such that the passenger service is upheld as much as possible. The current mathematical models for disruption management can not yet be

  18. Developing a Risk Model for Fire in Passenger Ships - Based on Bayesian Belief Network

    OpenAIRE

    Dokmo, Hanne Bjørkås

    2016-01-01

    Passenger ships, especially cruise ships, are rapidly increasing in size. With larger vessels, comes a greater risk to the passengers if something where to happen. A fire on a passenger vessel can spread quickly, and with as much as thousands of people needing to be evacuated many things could go wrong. The issue of the safety on board is therefore crucial to consider, seeing as the consequences could be tremendous. There are three types of passenger ships; Passenger vessel, RoPax vessel and ...

  19. Passenger train emergency systems : development of prototype railEXODUS software for U.S. passenger rail car egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), is sponsoring a research program, which includes investigation of the applicability of time-based egress performance requirements to U.S. passenger rail cars. Th...

  20. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  1. 14 CFR 382.133 - What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices that assist passengers with respiration in the... What are the requirements concerning the evaluation and use of passenger-supplied electronic devices... to use in the passenger cabin during air transportation, a ventilator, respirator, continuous...

  2. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    neighborhoods. Finally, there is a need for an institution to judge alleged cases of employees not handing over demanded revenues to their employer. Conclusions The causes of WPV lie in problems regarding money, behavior, environment, organization and crime. Suggestions for prevention include education, control to avoid critical situations, and a judicial system to assess malpractices. Further research in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique and similar settings is warranted.

  3. An instrument to measure passenger satisfaction of a public transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Leite Dias de Mattos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an instrument, based on fuzzy logic, to measure the satisfaction with the public transport. It is based on previous studies, expert opinion and results of two surveys conducted among the data samples of the studied population: a university community. Qualitative techniques (questionaries and interviews were used for validating content, while the construct validation uses quantitative techniques (Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis. An experiment is also performed to define some properties of fuzzy controllers: membership function and method of defuzzification. The final instrument consists of twenty items in four dimensions, namely: service, stops/terminals, vehicle and safety. It is considered valid and reliable by the present study. It can be used as a tool to understand the satisfaction of the passengers of public transport system investigated. It can also provide subsidies for managers to improve their work quality.

  4. CONCERNING THE PROBLEM OF SEMANTIC CONTRADICTIONS ARISING WHEN USING THE TERMS “INTERMODAL” AND “MULTIMODAL” PASSENGER CARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norayr Oganesovich Bludyan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Russian and foreign regulatory documents, concerning the issues of intermodal/multimodal passenger carriages, shows the essence of intermodal transportation in passenger transport, includes the analysis of various approaches to the concepts of “intermodal passenger transportations” and “multimodal passenger transportations” and contains proposals for legislative consolidation of the mentioned terms and for the implementation of intermodal technologies in passenger transport.

  5. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  6. Small passenger car transmission test-Chevrolet 200 transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    The small passenger car transmission was tested to supply electric vehicle manufacturers with technical information regarding the performance of commerically available transmissions which would enable them to design a more energy efficient vehicle. With this information the manufacturers could estimate vehicle driving range as well as speed and torque requirements for specific road load performance characteristics. A 1979 Chevrolet Model 200 automatic transmission was tested per a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J651b) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. The transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the mid-eighty percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. Torque, speed and efficiency curves map the complete performance characteristics for Chevrolet Model 200 transmission.

  7. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...... principle of sustainable transit and advance the vision “every accident is one too many”. Methods Bus accident data were retrieved from the national accident database for the period 2002–2011. A generalized ordered logit model allows analyzing bus accident severity and a logistic regression enables...... examining occurrence of injury to bus passengers. Results Bus accident severity is positively related to (i) the involvement of vulnerable road users, (ii) high speed limits, (iii) night hours, (iv) elderly drivers of the third party involved, and (v) bus drivers and other drivers crossing in yellow or red...

  8. Passenger head in impact with frontal airbag in OOP postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovidiu Soica, Adrian; Toganel, George-Radu

    2017-10-01

    Road accidents represent an aspect of road traffic that may lead negative consequences. In order to solve the problems associated with such events, interdisciplinary knowledge is called for, complex teams of engineers, doctors, lawyers, experts working together in order to reduce the severity of such events. Road safety is a continuous concern for both experts and various government organizations with the aim of protecting the lives of the participants in traffic. It has been estimated that the costs of traffic accidents account for 1-3% of a country GDP, depending on the level of country development [26]. In this paper we analyze a particular class of cases of injuries caused to passengers caused by the inflation of the frontal airbag when they are with the passenger out of position. Head kinematics, accelerations, as well as the severity of injuries expressed by HIC, as related to the AIS scale have been analysed.

  9. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  10. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  11. Small passenger car transmission test; Chevrolet LUV transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    A 1978 Chevrolet LUV manual transmission tested per the applicable portions of a passenger car automatic transmission test code (SAE J65lb) which required drive performance, coast performance, and no load test conditions. Under these test conditions, the transmission attained maximum efficiencies in the upper ninety percent range for both drive performance tests and coast performance tests. The major results of this test (torque, speed, and efficiency curves) are presented. Graphs map the complete performance characteristics for the Chevrolet LUV transmission.

  12. Materials for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoro, G.; Moussa, A.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the selection of cushioning foam and upholstery fabric materials for aircraft passenger seats. Polyurethane, polychloroprene, polyimide, and polyphosphazene are the foam materials considered; and a variety of commercial and developmental fabrics (including wool, cotton, synthetics, and blends) are examined. Viable approaches to the design of fire-resistant seat assemblies are indicated. Results of an experimental laboratory study of fabrics and fabric/foam assemblies exposed to external point-source radiative heat flux are discussed.

  13. Evaluating efficiency of passenger railway stations: a DEA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Preston, John; Khadem Sameni, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Stations are bottlenecks for railway transportation as they are where traffics merge and diverge. Numerous activities such as passengers boarding, alighting and interchanging, train formation and technical checks are also done at these points. The number of platforms is limited and it is vital to do all the work efficiently. For the first time in the literature, we implement a methodology based on data envelopment analysis which is benchmarked from ports and airport efficiency studies. It can...

  14. A Numerical Study on Rear-spoiler of Passenger Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu-xia Hu; Eric T. T. Wong

    2011-01-01

    The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoi...

  15. Development Of Fiber Optics For Passenger Car Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, R. E.; Schmitt, H. J.

    1987-12-01

    The benefits of fiber optics for telecommunications and Local Area Networks (LANs) are well documented. The benefits to passenger car applications are not as clearly defined. This paper examines the differences between Telecommunications, LAN, and automotive point to point and network applications. Current production automotive applications of optics and fiber optics, automotive data communications trends, and both functional and non-functional requirements and constraints will be described.

  16. Concept of accident and injury of air passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efforts from the international community to create an unified liability regime in Private International Air Law, there are still significant hurdles to be overcome. Many essential rules from this legal regime are vague and open to interpretation. The role of judges is crucial in order to give them their intended meaning. Thus, this paper examines jurisprudence concerning carrier liability in case of death or injury of passengers.

  17. PASSENGER TRAFFIC MOVEMENT MODELLING BY THE CELLULAR-AUTOMAT APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mikhaylovskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of passenger traffic movement developed on the basis of the cellular-automat approach is considered. The program realization of the cellular-automat model of pedastrians streams movement in pedestrian subways at presence of obstacles, at subway structure narrowing is presented. The optimum distances between the obstacles and the angle of subway structure narrowing providing pedastrians stream safe movement and traffic congestion occurance are determined.

  18. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands. PMID:29505585

  19. Design of limited-stop service based on the degree of unbalance of passenger demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hu; Zhao, Shuzhi; Liu, Huasheng; Liang, Shidong

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a limited-stop service for a bus fleet to meet the unbalanced demand of passengers on a bus route and to improve the transit service of the bus route. This strategy includes two parts: a degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand and an optimization of the limited-stop service. The degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand, which is based on the different passenger demand between stations and the unbalance of passengers within the station, is used to judge whether implementing the limited-stop service is necessary for a bus route. The optimization of limited-stop service considers the influence of stop skipping action and bus capacity on the left-over passengers to determine the proper skipping stations for the bus fleet serving the entire route by minimizing both the waiting time and in-vehicle time of passengers and the running time of vehicles. A solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is also presented to evaluate the degree of unbalanced passenger demand and optimize the limited-stop scheme. Then, the proper strategy is tested on a bus route in Changchun city of China. The threshold of degree assessment of unbalanced passenger demand can be calibrated and adapted to different passenger demands.

  20. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  1. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Nijkamp, P. [Systems and Control Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Marine Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)] Smokers, R.T.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for West-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a baseline case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario it is outlined how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various existing and future transport technologies and the corresponding modal split. Based on this information, expected energy consumption features of the various transport modes are described, data on the present fuel supply and electricity generation system are provided, and estimations of the future energy system are given. Then, the energy consumption and CO2 emissions associated with the future passenger transport systems are calculated and these impacts are compared with the current system. The conclusion is that a large-scale reduction of CO2 emissions is possible in several ways, but that each option will cause many problems because drastic policy measures will have to be introduced, which may affect economic growth and the lifestyles of individuals. 4 figs., 11 tabs., 22 refs.

  2. Noise in the passenger cars of high-speed trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Cha, Yongwon; Jeon, Jin Yong

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of both room acoustic conditions and spectral characteristics of noises on acoustic discomfort in a high-speed train's passenger car. Measurement of interior noises in a high-speed train was performed when the train was operating at speeds of 100 km/h and 300 km/h. Acoustic discomfort caused by interior noises was evaluated by paired comparison methods based on the variation of reverberation time (RT) in a passenger car and the spectral differences in interior noises. The effect of RT on acoustic discomfort was not significant, whereas acoustic discomfort significantly varied depending on spectral differences in noise. Acoustic discomfort increased with increment of the sound pressure level (SPL) ratio at high frequencies, and variation in high-frequency noise components were described using sharpness. Just noticeable differences of SPL with low- and high-frequency components were determined to be 3.7 and 2.9 dB, respectively. This indicates that subjects were more sensitive to differences in SPLs at the high-frequency range than differences at the low-frequency range. These results support that, for interior noises, reduction in SPLs at high frequencies would significantly contribute to improved acoustic quality in passenger cars of high-speed trains.

  3. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  4. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2017-12-01

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  5. Experimental verification of numerical calculations of railway passenger seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligaj, B.; Wirwicki, M.; Karolewska, K.; Jasińska, A.

    2018-04-01

    The construction of railway seats is based on industry regulations and the requirements of end users, i.e. passengers. The two main documents in this context are the UIC 566 (3rd Edition, dated 7 January 1994) and the EN 12663-1: 2010+A1:2014. The study was to carry out static load tests of passenger seat frames. The paper presents the construction of the test bench and the results of experimental and numerical studies of passenger seat rail frames. The test bench consists of a frame, a transverse beam, two electric cylinders with a force value of 6 kN, and a strain gauge amplifier. It has a modular structure that allows for its expansion depending on the structure of the seats. Comparing experimental results with numerical results for points A and B allowed to determine the existing differences. It follows from it that higher stress values are obtained by numerical calculations in the range of 0.2 MPa to 35.9 MPa.

  6. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  7. Logistic system as an essential element of modern organization of railway passenger traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Khodoskina

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role and place of passenger transport services in the modern structure of rail transportation is considered. The need for approach to rail passenger transport as a logistics system, which is characterized by a set of parameters corresponding to the concept of logistics system in general and taking into account the peculiarities of railway passenger transportation is determined. The features of formation of such a system, taking into account the generally accepted theoretical approach and the specifics of rail transport are also presented. The concept of logistic system for railway vehicles is given; its overall structure is reviewed. The structure of the particular transport is defined by rail freight and in passenger traffic. Is an example of a mathematical model of the logistics system of rail passenger services on the basis of sets of incoming and outgoing parameters is determined. The structure of technologic process for goods and passenger transportation by rail from the perspective of logistics is characterized.

  8. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  9. Potential development of an intercity passenger transit system in Texas : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report describes the findings of a research study of the potential for development of an intercity rail and : express bus system in the state of Texas. Rather than focus on regional commuter or light rail systems : radiating from urban areas, th...

  10. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  11. Analyzing Factors Of In-flight Services Of Garuda Indonesia And Batik Air Towards Passengers Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand; Tulandi, Victor Michael

    2014-01-01

    Transportation services play an important role in supporting any activity, of human. Various types of the transportation that we use. Among them, are air transportation or airplane. Talk about the satisfaction of airline passenger, nowadays many airlines competing to provide the best service for the passengers, one of the things that can influence passenger satisfaction is through airline service especially in-flight service. The objective of this research is to identify the factors of in-fli...

  12. Passenger choice attributes in choosing a secondary airport: A study of passenger attributes in using Lanseria International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kriel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport. Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport. Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport. Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started

  13. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  14. Normobaric hypoxia inhalation test vs. response to airline flight in healthy passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Paul T; Swanney, Maureen P; Frampton, Chris; Seccombe, Leigh M; Peters, Matthew J; Beckert, Lutz E

    2006-11-01

    There is little data available to determine the normal response to normobaric hypoxia inhalation testing (NHIT) and air travel. Quantifying a healthy response may assist in the evaluation of passengers considered at risk for air travel. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the degree of desaturation in healthy subjects during a NHIT and air travel; and (2) assess the validity of the NHIT when compared with actual in-flight responses. There were 15 healthy adults (age 23-57; 10 women) who volunteered for this study. Preflight tests included lung function, arterial blood gas, pulse oximetry (SpO2), and NHIT (inspired oxygen 15%). SpO2 and cabin pressure were measured continuously on each subject during a commercial air flight (mean cabin altitude 2178 m; range 1719-2426 m). In-flight oxygenation was compared with the preflight NHIT. Lung function testing results were normal. There was significant desaturation (SpO2) during the NHIT (pre: 98 +/- 2%; post: 92 +/- 2%) and at cruising altitude (pre: 97 +/- 1%; cruise: 92 +/- 2%). There was no difference between the final NHIT SpO2 and the mean in-flight SpO2. There was a significant difference between the lowest in-flight SpO2 (88 +/- 2%) vs. the lowest NHIT SpO2, (90 +/- 2%). Oxygen saturation decreases significantly during air travel in normal individuals. In this group of healthy passengers the NHIT approximates some, but not all, aspects of in-flight oxygenation. These results can be used to describe a normal response to the NHIT and air-travel.

  15. [Comfort of crew and passengers and atmospheric pressure, noise, wind speed in high-speed train of Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi-biao; Huo, Wei; Liu, Qiao-ying; Chen, Bao-shan; Zhang, Jin-long; Shi, Lei

    2012-11-01

    To explore the crew and passengers' comfort on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line and physical factors, such as air pressure, noise, wind speed. Comfort investigation of all the crew (n = 244) and passengers (n = 377) on the Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan passenger dedicated line at speed of 250 km/h and 200 km/h and the detection of the air pressure, noise and wind speed were performed in 2011. Significantly higher ratio of comfortable feeling, lower ratio of seriously discomfortable feeling were observed in crew and passengers at 200 km/h compared with those at 250 km/h (P noise in passengers at 200 km/h. No significant difference was observed in ear discomfort induced by air pressure and noise among crew, and the duration of disappearance of discomfortable feeling among passengers between 200 km/h and 250 km/h. The noise in carriages exceeded the related standard when the high-speed train passing through the tunnels. The individuals feel more comfortable at 200 km/h than 250 km/h in this line., which may be related with rapid variation of wind speed and noise when the train passes through the tunnels with high speed.

  16. Solar-ships, solar passenger vessels in public passenger traffic; Solarschiffe, Solarfahrgastschiffe im oeffentlichen Personenverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T. [Ingenieurbuero Schiffbau und Meerestechnik, Inst. fuer Solarschiffbau, Berlin und Hameln (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    It should first be said that solar boats are nothing other than electrically powered boats with their own independent, silent and clean power generator with which to recharge the storage batteries with free solar energy. There are only very few connection points to the public electricity grid on the open sea, on inland waterways and along their shores and banks. This fact has resulted in the many battery- and photo-voltaic-powered beacons and buoys that are so common today. But people who live aboard inland vessels, yachts, space stations and house boats are equally dependent on energy provided by electric storage batteries. Solar electricity generators are reliable, robust and perform their given task without requiring major maintenance work. This has resulted in ever more areas of application for solar electricity, also favoured by constantly falling prices and ever improving technology. Some of the currently available photo-voltaic modules are already pliable enough to form a single unit with the roof of a boat (see photo of the Aquabus 1050). Electric motors are older and more reliable than combustion engines. The motor can always be started just as long as the storage batteries have been recharged, i.e. the tank is full, and an electrical current is applied. In actual fact, such electric motors are in widespread use as nearly every cruise liner, submarine and even torpedo is equipped with electric drives. There are various reasons for this, such as a low degree of oscillation, silent operation and reliability. Large passenger-carrying vessels, however, do not use storage batteries but rather generate their electricity directly using numerous smaller diesel engines. (orig.) [German] Solarboote sind eigentlich nur Elektroboote, die ueber ihr eigenes unabhaengiges sauberes Kraftwerk verfuegen, das mit kostenloser Energie von der Sonne die Akkus auflaedt, ohne Kraftstoffe zu benoetigen. Auf den Meeren und Binnengewaessern sowie entlang ihrer Ufer gibt es nur

  17. The importance of high vehicle power for passenger car emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, David C.; Williams, Martin L.; Tate, James E.; Beevers, Sean D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we use a quantile regression technique to explore the emissions characteristics of petrol and diesel passenger cars to reveal the importance of high vehicle power on exhaust emissions. A large database of ≈67,000 passenger cars from vehicle emission remote sensing data was used from surveys from several campaigns around the UK. Most previous remote sensing studies have focused on presenting mean emission estimates by vehicle type over time. However, as shown in the current work, considerably more insight can be gained into vehicle emission characteristics if techniques are used that can describe and model the full distribution of vehicle emissions as a function of important explanatory variables. For post-2000 model year (Euro 3-5) diesel cars it is shown that there is a strong dependence of vehicle specific power for emissions of NOx that was absent in earlier models and is absent for other pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbons and 'smoke'. Furthermore, we also find a stronger dependence on vehicle specific power for older catalyst-equipped petrol vehicles (Euro 1/2) on emissions of NOx that is less important for other emissions such as CO and hydrocarbons. Moreover, it is shown that while the rated maximum power output of petrol cars has remained almost constant over the past 15-20 years, the power output from diesel cars has increased markedly by about 50%. These results suggest that changes to vehicle technology, driving conditions and driver behaviour have become more important determinants of passenger car NOx emissions in recent years and may help explain why urban ambient concentrations of NOx have not decreased as much as anticipated.

  18. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  19. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M L; Berger, L R

    2002-12-01

    To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%-21%. Rates for infants (71%-80%) far exceeded rates for 1-4 year old children (5%-14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores.

  20. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition......Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...

  1. 9. Anti-vibration Design of a Passenger Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuo, Umezaki; Mikihiro, Kobayashi; Hioshi Kohkawa, Kohkawa; Hiroyuki, Mizuno; Shin-ichi, Nishimura; Takayuki, Okayasu; Kazuhisa, Yanagi; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Ltd; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. Ltd; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Nagasaki Research and Development Center

    1992-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks in designing a passenger ship is to make it vibration free while keeping the hull structure very light for stability reason. In order to accomplish this for the 23,000 GT cruise ship the particulars of which are shown in Table l, special attention was paid to the alignment of structures during layout design, and analyses and experiments of vibration were carried out through every stage of design and construction. This paper describes outlines of these tasks and...

  2. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    used, the result being the loss of optimality. The talk will present a new, integrated rolling stock planning model in which the many requirements are handled all at the same time. Preliminary results from DSB S-tog, the suburban train operator of the City of Copenhagen will also be presented.......A central issue for operators of passenger trains is providing sufficient number of seats while minimising operating costs. This process must be conducted taking a large number of practical, railway oriented requirements into account. Because of this complexity, a stepwise solution was previously...

  3. Panorama 2009 - trends and challenges in passenger mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Current demand for mobility encourages people to seek fast, individual means of transport. The automobile accounts for the bulk of passenger travel worldwide. This mode of transport is a source of annoying and harmful effects including noise, accidents, deteriorating infrastructure, traffic congestion and pollution (local and atmospheric). Some of these issues are now under regulation and have become less acute, but traffic congestion and greenhouse gas emissions are still major problems. Before assessing any policy undertaken to curb nuisance levels and harmful effects, one must be familiar with global mobility trends and the challenges involved

  4. Economic and demographic impacts of passenger rail systems : the impact of intercity passenger rails on population and employment change in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This research examines the impact of intercity passenger rails on change in population and employment at the county level in the continental United States from 2000 to 2010. This research adopts an integrated spatial regression approach that incorpor...

  5. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  6. Present and future energy consumption for passenger transportation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhne, M.; Wolffram, U.

    1981-01-01

    Passenger transportation in Germany was investigated in order to determine real energy consumption. For typical passengers, energy consumption for overland travel and charter flights was studied. The energy needed for air traffic was compared with that for transportation overland (railway, car, bus), taking into account transportation to the airport or railway station. Transportation makes up about 17% of German primary energy consumption, i.e., road traffic 14%, railway traffic 1.6%, and air traffic 1%. Specific energy consumption (overland travel) of intercity trains, airplanes and cars is in the proportion 1.0 to 3.7 to 4.0 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 2.4 to 3.1 by the year 2000. For holiday trips, specific energy consumption for bus, train, car and airplane travel is in the proportion 1.0 to 1.4 to 3.6 to 3.4 (1980) and is expected to be 1 to 1.4 to 2.5 to 2.9 by 2000. (ESA)

  7. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  8. Modeling Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure to Support Passenger Vehicles †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Muratori

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The year 2014 marked hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs first becoming commercially available in California, where significant investments are being made to promote the adoption of alternative transportation fuels. A refueling infrastructure network that guarantees adequate coverage and expands in line with vehicle sales is required for FCEVs to be successfully adopted by private customers. In this paper, we provide an overview of modelling methodologies used to project hydrogen refueling infrastructure requirements to support FCEV adoption, and we describe, in detail, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s scenario evaluation and regionalization analysis (SERA model. As an example, we use SERA to explore two alternative scenarios of FCEV adoption: one in which FCEV deployment is limited to California and several major cities in the United States; and one in which FCEVs reach widespread adoption, becoming a major option as passenger vehicles across the entire country. Such scenarios can provide guidance and insights for efforts required to deploy the infrastructure supporting transition toward different levels of hydrogen use as a transportation fuel for passenger vehicles in the United States.

  9. Auralization of Accelerating Passenger Cars Using Spectral Modeling Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reto Pieren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the technique of auralization has been in use for quite some time in architectural acoustics, the application to environmental noise has been discovered only recently. With road traffic noise being the dominant noise source in most countries, particular interest lies in the synthesis of realistic pass-by sounds. This article describes an auralizator for pass-bys of accelerating passenger cars. The key element is a synthesizer that simulates the acoustical emission of different vehicles, driving on different surfaces, under different operating conditions. Audio signals for the emitted tire noise, as well as the propulsion noise are generated using spectral modeling synthesis, which gives complete control of the signal characteristics. The sound of propulsion is synthesized as a function of instantaneous engine speed, engine load and emission angle, whereas the sound of tires is created in dependence of vehicle speed and emission angle. The sound propagation is simulated by applying a series of time-variant digital filters. To obtain the corresponding steering parameters of the synthesizer, controlled experiments were carried out. The tire noise parameters were determined from coast-by measurements of passenger cars with idling engines. To obtain the propulsion noise parameters, measurements at different engine speeds, engine loads and emission angles were performed using a chassis dynamometer. The article shows how, from the measured data, the synthesizer parameters are calculated using audio signal processing.

  10. Turbulence Hazard Metric Based on Peak Accelerations for Jetliner Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric C.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations are made of the approximate hazard due to peak normal accelerations of an airplane flying through a simulated vertical wind field associated with a convective frontal system. The calculations are based on a hazard metric developed from a systematic application of a generic math model to 1-cosine discrete gusts of various amplitudes and gust lengths. The math model simulates the three degree-of- freedom longitudinal rigid body motion to vertical gusts and includes (1) fuselage flexibility, (2) the lag in the downwash from the wing to the tail, (3) gradual lift effects, (4) a simplified autopilot, and (5) motion of an unrestrained passenger in the rear cabin. Airplane and passenger response contours are calculated for a matrix of gust amplitudes and gust lengths. The airplane response contours are used to develop an approximate hazard metric of peak normal accelerations as a function of gust amplitude and gust length. The hazard metric is then applied to a two-dimensional simulated vertical wind field of a convective frontal system. The variations of the hazard metric with gust length and airplane heading are demonstrated.

  11. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  12. Analysis of Passenger Car Emission Factors in RDE Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pielecha Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study on emission measurements in passenger cars in tests conducted under real traffic conditions – Real Driving Emissions using a Portable Emission Measurement System type of equipment. A special feature of the outlined RDE tests is that they were performed in Polish road conditions, and thus their parameters may differ from their counterparts adopted in most European Union countries. Based on the findings vehicle emission conformity factors were developed, characterized as the fractional increase (or decrease of traffic emissions during the homologation test or under normal operation conditions in relation to the emission limit standards (for chosen emission class of the vehicle. Conducted research and the calculated conformity factors allowed for the environmental impact assessment of the vehicles of various emission classes, while also allowing early actions to restrict the emissions of selected components in passenger vehicles. The methods and measures used can also be applied to other types of vehicles (e.g. heavy duty or off-road vehicles or vehicles powered by other fuels.

  13. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  14. Radon exposure of passengers in the Prague metro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of radon concentration monitoring in the carriages and at some stations of the Prague Metro network. The measurements revealed that radon levels in the Metro are relatively low in comparison to those normally encountered in dwellings in the Prague region. On average, the radon concentrations in the air inside the carriages have been found to be about 11 - 12 Bq m -3 while the levels at most stations reached values between 10 and 15 Bq m -3 . The Metro is intensively ventilated by means of powerful blowers and fans; the piston effect of the moving trains also contributes to air exchange. The ventilation rate is typically 3-4 h -1 . The highest rate is in line C, where the air in all underground areas is completely exchanged 6 times within each hour. These results demonstrate that Metro passengers receive about the same effective dose as passengers using surface transport. The doses from radon in the metro are only slightly higher than radon-related doses in the open air, while exposure due to external photon radiation seems to be a few percent lower than dose rates common in typical Czech houses. (author)

  15. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF UNSTEADY HEAT EXCHANGE IN A PASSENGER CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Khomenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Existing mathematicalmodelsofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercardonotsatisfytheneedofthedifferentconstructivedecisionsofthelifesupportsystemefficiencyestimation. They also don’t allow comparing new and old life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditions. Moreoverquite frequently unsteady heat exchange processes were studied at the initial car motion stage. Due to the new competitive engineering decisionsof the lifesupportsystemthe need of a new mathematical instrument that would satisfy the mentioned features and their influence on the unsteadyheatexchangeprocesses during the whole time of the road appeared. The purpose of this work is creation of the mathematicalmodel ofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarthatcan satisfythe above-listed requirements. Methodology. Fortheassigned task realizationsystemofdifferentialequationsthatcharacterizesunsteadyheatexchangeprocessesinapassengercarwascomposed; forthesystemof equationssolution elementary balance method was used. Findings. Computational algorithm was developed andcomputer program for modeling transitional heat processes in the car was designed. It allows comparing different life support system constructions influence on the inner environment conditionsand unsteady heat exchange processes can be studied at every car motion stage. Originality.Mathematicalmodelofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwasimproved. That is why it can be used for the heat engineering studying of the inner car state under various conditions and for the operation of the different life support systems of passenger cars comparison. Mathematicalmodelingofunsteadyheatexchangeinapassengercarwas made by the elementary balance method. Practical value. Created mathematical model gives the possibility to simulate temperature changes in passenger car on unsteady thermal conditions with enough accuracy and to introduce and remove additional elements to the designed model. Thus different

  16. Research on some auxiliary mechanisms used in passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonescu, Daniela; Iozsa, Daniel; Antonescu, Ovidiu; Fratila, Gh.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of researches on the topological structure and geometrical analysis of the planar mechanisms with articulated bars, which are used for actuating the doors of cars. The main five types of car doors with rotate movement (folding) are presented, being described both as constructive structure and mode of operation, through suitable kinematic schemes. Some innovative solutions for vehicle door actuating mechanisms aim to use as little space as possible, which is beneficial for car parking. There are three types of car door movements: rotation, sliding and planar rotational-sliding. Most of the cars are equipped with folding doors, where the rotate movement is limited and operates horizontally. Almost all sliding doors are placed on the rear of the car (only for passengers, not for driver). Unlike rotate doors, the sliding doors require a minimum lateral space, which is an advantage, especially in parking places. In the end of the paper, a kinematic analysis of the canopy 4-bar mechanism has been performed, in order to increase the passenger comfort on the access into the vehicle.

  17. An observational comparison of the older and younger bus passenger experience in a developing world city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves-González, Carlos; May, Andrew; Cook, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    This study was an unobtrusive observational analysis of 333 older and younger bus passengers in Guadalajara, Mexico. A set of data were collected for each observed passenger, as well as more general observations related to driver behaviour, bus design and bus service characteristics. There were significant differences between older and younger passengers in terms of boarding and alighting times, use of handrails, seat location preferences, passenger stability and coping strategies in order to maintain postural stability. The conditions of travel are conducive to a poor passenger experience for the older passengers in particular. Although the problems may be attributed to bus design and driver behaviour typical of that in developing countries, they are also influenced by the wider transport infrastructure, and a lack of a regulatory regime which places drivers under time pressure and in direct competition with each other. Practitioner Summary: Bus services must cater for all ages of passengers, including the elderly. This unobtrusive observational study investigated the passenger experience in a developing world city. Bus and wider service design were found to compromise the journey experience, with the older users being particularly negatively impacted. Design recommendations are provided.

  18. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... transportation modes such as auto, air travel, intercity bus, and existing rail and the physical characteristics... alternatives to provide higher speed passenger rail service to meet future intercity travel demand and to... truck traffic demand, intercity truck traffic demand, and passenger travel demand compete for highway...

  19. 46 CFR 72.15-20 - Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shown that a natural system will provide adequate ventilation. However, vessels which trade regularly in... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger spaces. 72... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-20 Ventilation for crew quarters and passenger...

  20. CAD/CAE-technologies application for assessment of passenger safety on railway transport in emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipin, D. Ya; Shorokhov, S. G.; Bondarenko, O. I.

    2018-03-01

    A possibility of using current software products realizing CAD/CAE-technologies for the assessment of passenger safety in emergency cases on railway transport has been analyzed. On the basis of the developed solid computer model of an anthropometric dummy, the authors carried out an analysis of possible levels of passenger injury during accident collision of a train with an obstacle.

  1. How to mix per-flight and per-passenger based airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czerny, A.I.; Zhang, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the questions of why carriers advocate for higher per-passenger airport charges and lower per-flight charges, and whether and when this proposal is welfare-enhancing. Specifically, the paper compares the optimal mix of per-flight and per-passenger based airport charges from

  2. 14 CFR 250.5 - Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of denied boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. 250.5 Section 250.5 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... boarding compensation for passengers denied boarding involuntarily. (a) Subject to the exceptions provided...

  3. The effect on road load due to variations in valid coast down tests for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensch, P. van; Ligterink, N.E.; Cuelenaere, R.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Real-world CO2 emissions of passenger cars very often deviate from the Type Approval value. The Type Approval value for CO2 emissions of passenger cars is based on a chassis dynamometer test in a laboratory. The total vehicle resistance of a vehicle, or 'road load', is simulated on the chassis

  4. Analysis of network-wide transit passenger flows based on principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, D.; Cats, O.; van Lint, J.W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Transit networks are complex systems in which the passenger flow dynamics are difficult to capture and understand. While there is a growing ability to monitor and record travelers' behavior in the past decade, knowledge on network-wide passenger flows, which are essentially high-dimensional

  5. 49 CFR 1242.45 - Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45). 1242.45 Section 1242.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.45 Passenger and other revenue equipment (account XX-27-45...

  6. Passenger oriented railway disruption management by adapting timetables and rolling stock schedules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelenturf, L.P.; Kroon, L.G.; Maróti, G.

    2017-01-01

    In passenger railway operations, unforeseen events require railway operators to adjust their timetable and their resource schedules. The passengers will also adapt their routes to their destinations. When determining the new timetable and rolling stock schedule, the railway operator has to take

  7. Cosmic radiation during air travel: trends in exposure of aircrews and airline passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; LSO

    2004-01-01

    An unfavourable effect of flying is the enhanced exposure of both passengers and aircrew to cosmic radiation at high altitudes. On the basis of a detailed survey on passengers arriving at or departing from Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the 1988-1997 period, estimates of individual effective dose for

  8. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  9. Spatial-Temporal Similarity Correlation between Public Transit Passengers Using Smart Card Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Faroqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of public transit smart card data has enabled several studies to focus on identifying passengers with similar spatial and/or temporal trip characteristics. However, this paper goes one step further by investigating the relationship between passengers’ spatial and temporal characteristics. For the first time, this paper investigates the correlation of the spatial similarity with the temporal similarity between public transit passengers by developing spatial similarity and temporal similarity measures for the public transit network with a novel passenger-based perspective. The perspective considers the passengers as agents who can make multiple trips in the network. The spatial similarity measure takes into account direction as well as the distance between the trips of the passengers. The temporal similarity measure considers both the boarding and alighting time in a continuous linear space. The spatial-temporal similarity correlation between passengers is analysed using histograms, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hexagonal binning. Also, relations between the spatial and temporal similarity values with the trip time and length are examined. The proposed methodology is implemented for four-day smart card data including 80,000 passengers in Brisbane, Australia. The results show a nonlinear spatial-temporal similarity correlation among the passengers.

  10. Diarrhea and related factors among passengers on world cruises departing from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Michiyo; Sasai, Megumi; Kasai, Yosuke; Tsuda, Toshihide; Suzuki, Etsuji

    2018-01-25

    Despite growth in the number of cruises worldwide, evidence about diarrhea experienced by cruise ship passengers remains sparse. We investigated rates of diarrhea and related factors among passengers on world cruises departing from Japan. Targeting passengers on five world cruises (n = 4180) from 2012 to 2013 (85-103 travel days), we calculated rates of health seeking behavior for diarrhea by sex, age group, and number of roommates for each cruise. We estimated rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using the group aged 20-39 years, women, and 2-4 roommates as referent categories. We found 5.04-6.00 cases per 10,000 person-days in the five cruises, with an elevated number after calling at ports. Older passengers (>60 years) and passengers with fewer roommates had an elevated risk of health seeking behavior for diarrhea, although passengers aged 60 years and without roommates. Older passengers and passengers with fewer roommates may be more likely to seek medical treatment for diarrhea during travel on a world cruise, and should take preventive measures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effect of extended periodic inspection of passenger cars and vans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Ninette; Bernhoft, Inger Marie

    The purpose of this note is to perform a calculation of the costs and benefits of extended period-ic inspection of passenger cars and vans in Denmark, provided that the first inspection of pas-senger cars and vans is performed after four years, then one inspection after two years and thereafter...

  12. ANALYTICAL ESTIMATION OF MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM TIME EXPENDITURES OF PASSENGERS AT AN URBAN ROUTE STOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper deals with the problem related to the definition of average time spent by passengers while waiting for transport vehicles at urban stops as well as the results of analytical modeling of this value at traffic schedule unknown to the passengers and of two options of the vehicle traffic management on the given route.

  13. 49 CFR 176.166 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on....166 Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials on passenger vessels. (a) Only the following Class 1 (explosive) materials may be transported as cargo on passenger vessels: (1) Division 1.4 (explosive...

  14. 76 FR 27897 - Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0342] Security and Safety Zone Regulations, Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Captain of the Port Columbia River... will enforce the security and safety zone in 33 CFR 165.1318 for large passenger vessels operating in...

  15. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  17. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter W...

  18. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  19. Headway Deviation Effects on Bus Passenger Loads : Analysis of Tri-Met's Archived AVL-APC Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the relationship between transit service headway deviations and passenger loads, using archived data from Tri-Met's automatic vehicle location and automatic passenger counter systems. The analysis employs twostage...

  20. Passenger Flow Forecasting Research for Airport Terminal Based on SARIMA Time Series Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziyu; Bi, Jun; Li, Zhiyin

    2017-12-01

    Based on the data of practical operating of Kunming Changshui International Airport during2016, this paper proposes Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model to predict the passenger flow. This article not only considers the non-stationary and autocorrelation of the sequence, but also considers the daily periodicity of the sequence. The prediction results can accurately describe the change trend of airport passenger flow and provide scientific decision support for the optimal allocation of airport resources and optimization of departure process. The result shows that this model is applicable to the short-term prediction of airport terminal departure passenger traffic and the average error ranges from 1% to 3%. The difference between the predicted and the true values of passenger traffic flow is quite small, which indicates that the model has fairly good passenger traffic flow prediction ability.

  1. Passenger transportation problems of the public limited liability company “Lietuvos Geležinkeliai”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys DAILYDKA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of passenger transportation on local and international routes by the Lithuanian railways. It identifies the reasons due to which passenger transportation has become increasingly loss-making. Also, factors that may encourage a greater number of people to travel by train are disclosed. The development of this sector up to 2030 is reviewed, i.e. a forecast for increasing the number of passengers, a perspective for the development of electric, diesel trains, passenger wagon fleet, and the levels of estimated investments are provided. It was established that after implementation of the measures envisaged, losses in the passenger transportation field could be cut by 2–3 times.

  2. Modernisation of passengers stock deposit at the regional division Braşov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SIMA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the latest accomplishments at the Regional Division Brasov regarding the modernisation of stock depot for passengers but also future programs that will continue this process. The rolling stock used in passenger transport was followed: passenger wagons, sleeping wagons, diesel engines, electric engines.   Passenger transport organisation should aim the accomplishment of the following requirements: ensuring passengers’ security on the route and in stations; reducing travel time (by increasing trains’ speed, choosing the best routes, reducing stops at stations, ensuring certain fast links at railway junctions; intensive usage of rolling stock, of fixed installations; the appropriate combination of freight with passenger transport, passengers’ good serving at stations and trains, especially by ensuring a timetable which would provide convenient hours and reliable connections at railway junctions.

  3. Natural selection shaped the rise and fall of passenger pigeon genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Gemma G R; Soares, André E R; Novak, Ben J; Schaefer, Nathan K; Cahill, James A; Baker, Allan J; Demboski, John R; Doll, Andrew; Da Fonseca, Rute R; Fulton, Tara L; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Heintzman, Peter D; Letts, Brandon; McIntosh, George; O'Connell, Brendan L; Peck, Mark; Pipes, Marie-Lorraine; Rice, Edward S; Santos, Kathryn M; Sohrweide, A Gregory; Vohr, Samuel H; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth

    2017-11-17

    The extinct passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, and possibly the world. Although theory predicts that large populations will be more genetically diverse, passenger pigeon genetic diversity was surprisingly low. To investigate this disconnect, we analyzed 41 mitochondrial and 4 nuclear genomes from passenger pigeons and 2 genomes from band-tailed pigeons, which are passenger pigeons' closest living relatives. Passenger pigeons' large population size appears to have allowed for faster adaptive evolution and removal of harmful mutations, driving a huge loss in their neutral genetic diversity. These results demonstrate the effect that selection can have on a vertebrate genome and contradict results that suggested that population instability contributed to this species's surprisingly rapid extinction. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. 76 FR 28947 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ...-0015] RIN 2132-AB01 Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight, and... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) regarding the calculation of average passenger weights and test vehicle... passenger weights and actual transit vehicle loads. Specifically, FTA proposed to change the average...

  5. 46 CFR 25.25-17 - Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger... Survival craft requirements for uninspected passenger vessels of at least 100 gross tons. (a) Each uninspected passenger vessel of at least 100 gross tons must have adequate survival craft with enough capacity...

  6. 49 CFR 39.93 - What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may passengers with a disability bring onto a passenger vessel? 39.93 Section 39.93 Transportation Office of the... and Services to Passengers With Disabilities § 39.93 What wheelchairs and other assistive devices may...

  7. 49 CFR 39.43 - May PVOs impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services required...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to passengers with a disability are available only in a type or class of service or part of a vessel that are more expensive than the type or class of service or part of a vessel that the passenger... of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER...

  8. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger....122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger...

  9. 49 CFR 1580.3 - Terms used in this part.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... track over which goods may be transported throughout the Nation and passengers may travel between cities.... Intercity passenger train service means both “train, long-distance intercity passenger” and “train, short-distance intercity passenger” as defined in 49 CFR 238.5. Light rail transit means service provided by self...

  10. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist... railroad carrier hosting an operation described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (3) Each tourist... transit line, and route, as applicable. (4) Origination and termination locations for the affected...

  11. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  12. THE RATIONALE FOR EXTENDING THE SERVICES OF PASSENGER CARS WITH POCKETS OF CORROSION IN THE CENTER SILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work supposed: 1 the search of accounting ways of the local corrosion damages influence to the car design, that were expired the appointed time, for the purpose of renewal; 2 experimental verification of conformity of material construction requirements of the normative documentation and justification for extending the services of passenger cars with pockets of corrosion after 30 years of operation; 3 the conformity assessment of residual life of the structure of car bodies operating pressures in the next 5 years of use. Methodology. The developed algorithm of technical diagnostics of cars with pockets of corrosion of the center sill contains several stages. First, a survey of technical condition of structures is conducted by a visual-optical method and nondestructive control methods, and the degree of damage is determined. In the next phase the experimental verification of conformity of the structure and mechanical properties of the center sill of the car with the pockets of corrosion to regulatory requirements are executed. Next, the study of strength of the supporting structures of car bodies on the basis of experimental static and impact tests of strength is executed. Finally, the endurance tests are conducted on the effect of the longitudinal forces and the evaluation and prediction of compliance resource car bodies for the next period are executed. Findings. The actual work is completed by obtaining the experimental data on the feasibility of extending the service life of passenger cars as from the point of view of an operating time of load-bearing elements of the car body to the resource, and from the point of view of chemical composition, structure and mechanical properties of the center sill with pockets of corrosion. The presence of local corrosion damages of the center sill of the presented size is not a threat to the structural strength and safety. Originality. The authors conducted a comprehensive study to

  13. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  14. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out

  15. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varvara A; Westacott, Sandra; Nichols, Gordon; Riemer, Tobias; Skipp, Mel; Bartlett, Christopher L R; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2010-03-10

    Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU) countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS) and European Free Trade Association countries. Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48) and the creation of legislation (n = 44); response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6%) of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2%) for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6%) of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44). The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44) of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5%) declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6%) and 39 (81.3%) authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48) of the responding authorities and 20.8% (10 out of 48) of the port

  16. Hygiene inspections on passenger ships in Europe - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartlett Christopher LR

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hygiene inspections on passenger ships are important for the prevention of communicable diseases. The European Union (EU countries conduct hygiene inspections on passenger ships in order to ensure that appropriate measures have been taken to eliminate potential sources of contamination which could lead to the spread of communicable diseases. This study was implemented within the framework of the EU SHIPSAN project and it investigates the legislation applied and practices of hygiene inspections of passenger ships in the EU Member States (MS and European Free Trade Association countries. Methods Two questionnaires were composed and disseminated to 28 countries. A total of 92 questionnaires were completed by competent authorities responsible for hygiene inspections (n = 48 and the creation of legislation (n = 44; response rates were 96%, and 75.9%, respectively. Results Out of the 48 responding authorities responsible for hygiene inspections, a routine programme was used by 19 (39.6% of these to conduct inspections of ships on national voyages and by 26 (54.2% for ships on international voyages. Standardised inspection forms are used by 59.1% of the authorities. A scoring inspection system is applied by five (11.6% of the 43 responding authorities. Environmental sampling is conducted by 84.1% of the authorities (37 out of 44. The inspection results are collected and analysed by 54.5% (24 out of 44 of the authorities, while 9 authorities (20.5% declared that they publish the results. Inspections are conducted during outbreak investigations by 75% and 70.8% of the authorities, on ships on national and international voyages, respectively. A total of 31 (64.6% and 39 (81.3% authorities conducted inspections during complaint investigations on ships on international and on national voyages, respectively. Port-to-port communication between the national port authorities was reported by 35.4% (17 out of 48 of the responding authorities

  17. Improving public transportation systems with self-organization: A headway-based model and regulation of passenger alighting and boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreón, Gustavo; Gershenson, Carlos; Pineda, Luis A

    2017-01-01

    The equal headway instability-the fact that a configuration with regular time intervals between vehicles tends to be volatile-is a common regulation problem in public transportation systems. An unsatisfactory regulation results in low efficiency and possible collapses of the service. Computational simulations have shown that self-organizing methods can regulate the headway adaptively beyond the theoretical optimum. In this work, we develop a computer simulation for metro systems fed with real data from the Mexico City Metro to test the current regulatory method with a novel self-organizing approach. The current model considers overall system's data such as minimum and maximum waiting times at stations, while the self-organizing method regulates the headway in a decentralized manner using local information such as the passenger's inflow and the positions of neighboring trains. The simulation shows that the self-organizing method improves the performance over the current one as it adapts to environmental changes at the timescale they occur. The correlation between the simulation of the current model and empirical observations carried out in the Mexico City Metro provides a base to calculate the expected performance of the self-organizing method in case it is implemented in the real system. We also performed a pilot study at the Balderas station to regulate the alighting and boarding of passengers through guide signs on platforms. The analysis of empirical data shows a delay reduction of the waiting time of trains at stations. Finally, we provide recommendations to improve public transportation systems.

  18. Air quality inside the passenger compartment of a bus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E Z; Silva, M C; Viegas, D X

    1997-01-01

    The indoor air quality in the passenger compartment of an intercity bus is studied. A system used for the remotion of the contaminants from the compartment, based on an extraction duct, was projected using a simple, unidimensional flow model with capability to predict the air exchange rate as a function of the vehicle velocity. Some tests using tracer gan methods were performed in a real vehicle with the contaminant remotion system mounted, in order to validate the calculation model and evaluate the performances of the system. A good agreement between the predicted and the experimental results was verified and the obtained air exchange rate was quite reasonable when compared with the former situation, without extraction duct.

  19. Passenger Rail SOEs as Domestic Institutional Market Actors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup Christensen, Lene

    2018-01-01

    sectorial challenges. In Sweden, this role has a new public governance form as the monopoly over time is fully dismantled. In Denmark, over time marketization is put on hold due to problems with the SOE as a market actor, but the SOE is nevertheless safeguarded in a new Weberian model as a sector......Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical-based conceptualization of the contemporary domestic state-owned enterprises (SOEs) as domestic institutional market actors (IMAs) in the marketization of public service delivery. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based...... on a qualitative comparative case study of the SOEs in passenger rail in Denmark and Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Findings: The paper shows how marketization results in a layered institutional set-up of public service delivery based on both competition and monopoly where the SOE becomes what we call an IMA bridging...

  20. Mode, load, and specific climate impact from passenger trips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje

    2013-07-16

    The climate impact from a long-distance trip can easily vary by a factor of 10 per passenger depending on mode choice, vehicle efficiency, and occupancy. In this paper we compare the specific climate impact of long-distance car travel with coach, train, or air trips. We account for both, CO2 emissions and short-lived climate forcers. This particularly affects the ranking of aircraft's climate impact relative to other modes. We calculate the specific impact for the Global Warming Potential and the Global Temperature Change Potential, considering time horizons between 20 and 100 years, and compare with results accounting only for CO2 emissions. The car's fuel efficiency and occupancy are central whether the impact from a trip is as high as from air travel or as low as from train travel. These results can be used for carbon-offsetting schemes, mode choice and transportation planning for climate mitigation.

  1. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Husna, Iksiroh; Unzilatirrizqi, Rizal D. Yan El; Karyanto, Yudi; Sunoko, Henna R.

    2018-02-01

    Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR). The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR) on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  2. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  3. Computation of thermal comfort inside a passenger car compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezrhab, A.; Bouzidi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical model to study the behaviour of thermal comfort inside the passenger car compartment according to climatic conditions and materials that compose the vehicle. The specifically developed numerical model is based on the nodal method and the finite difference method. Its specificities are: (i) the transient mode, (ii) the taking into account of the combined convection, conduction and radiation heat transfer, (iii) the coupling of two spectral bands (short-wave and long-wave radiation) and two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse). The compartment is subdivided in several solid nodes (materials constituting the compartment) and fluid nodes (volumes of air inside the compartment). The establishment of the heat balance for each node gives the evolution of its temperature. Effects of solar radiation, types of glazing, car colour and radiative properties of materials constituting the compartment are investigated

  4. The risk of airborne influenza transmission in passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, L D; Morawska, L; Bell, S C

    2012-03-01

    Travel in passenger cars is a ubiquitous aspect of the daily activities of many people. During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic a case of probable transmission during car travel was reported in Australia, to which spread via the airborne route may have contributed. However, there are no data to indicate the likely risks of such events, and how they may vary and be mitigated. To address this knowledge gap, we estimated the risk of airborne influenza transmission in two cars (1989 model and 2005 model) by employing ventilation measurements and a variation of the Wells-Riley model. Results suggested that infection risk can be reduced by not recirculating air; however, estimated risk ranged from 59% to 99·9% for a 90-min trip when air was recirculated in the newer vehicle. These results have implications for interrupting in-car transmission of other illnesses spread by the airborne route.

  5. Indoor Air Pollution in Non Ac Passenger Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Husna Iksiroh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger buses have been one of favorite means of transportation in Indonesia due to its affordability and flexibility. Intensity of human activities during the trip in the buses have a potential of causing indoor air pollution (polusi udara dalam ruang; PUDR. The indoor air pollution has an impact of 1000-time bigger than outdoor air pollution (polusi udara luar ruang; PULR on lung. This study aimed to find out indoor air pollution rate of non air conditioned buses using an approach to biological agent pollutant source. The study applied an analysis restricted to microorganisms persistence as one of the sources of the indoor air pollution. The media were placed in different parts of the non AC buses. This study revealed that fungs were found in the non AC buses. They became contaminants and developed pathogenic bacteria that caused air pollution.

  6. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  7. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  8. An Evacuation Model for Passenger Ships That Includes the Influence of Obstacles in Cabins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baocheng Ni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger behavior and ship environment are the key factors affecting evacuation efficiency. However, current studies ignore the interior layout of passenger ship cabins and treat the cabins as empty rooms. To investigate the influence of obstacles (e.g., tables and stools on cabin evacuation, we propose an agent-based social force model for advanced evacuation analysis of passenger ships; this model uses a goal-driven submodel to determine a plan and an extended social force submodel to govern the movement of passengers. The extended social force submodel considers the interaction forces between the passengers, crew, and obstacles and minimises the range of these forces to improve computational efficiency. We drew the following conclusions based on a series of evacuation simulations conducted in this study: (1 the proposed model endows the passenger with the behaviors of bypassing and crossing obstacles, (2 funnel-shaped exits from cabins can improve evacuation efficiency, and (3 as the exit angle increases, the evacuation time also increases. These findings offer ship designers some insight towards increasing the safety of large passenger ships.

  9. The Research of China's Civil Aviation Passenger Multi-Channel Service Technology Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhibing, Xue; Xinming, Wang

    IATA is promoting Simplifying the Business. The traditional passenger services and business process, such as ticketing, airport counters, had a great influence. The airlines have the passenger service and convenience as the next product development requirements. With civil aviation industry and their company's products construction, the authors propose a solution of passenger multi-channel service product platform. The solution is to streamline the business as the breakthrough point, around the convenience of passengers travel services to travelers as the center, using the current mainstream and the latest IT technology to establish passenger service product platform. The solution will promote DCS e-ticketing business development and service channel diversity. In this paper, the research results have been applied in the product platform construction of the authors' company. The practice shows that through traditional business with the latest IT technologies, traditional passenger services into the emerging service model, passenger service product platform has strong advantages and characteristics. Based on the platform, various types of service products is growing rapidly.

  10. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of WBV on standing and seated passengers during off-peak operation in KL monorail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnan, K.; Bakhsh, Q.; Ahmed, A.; Ali, D.; Jamali, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) was analyzed on the standing and seated passenger during off-peak operating hours when train was on the track. The experiments were conducted on two car train at one constant location (bogie-1, which is near to driver’s cabin) during downward direction from KL sentral station towards Titiwangsa station. The aim of this study was to analyze that, in which posture of passenger’s exposures the maximum level of WBV. Since, one passenger was performed the whole journey in standing posture whereas, the other passenger was in seated posture. The result obtained from experiments for the RMS accelerations (Arms), maximum acceleration (Amax) and minimum acceleration (Amin) during the trip. As per standard ISO 2631-1, the daily vibration exposure (A8), Vibration Dose value (VDV) and Crest Factor (CF) of this trip for both standing and sitting orientations were calculated. Results shows that the seated passenger was exposed to longer periods of continuous vibration as compared to the standing passenger. Whereas, the Vibration Dose value (VDV) value was greater than the action value as per ISO 2631-1 and within the limit values. The study concluded that whole body vibration transmitted towards both passengers either standing or seated during their journey. But in overall results comparison of both orientations, the seated passengers gained higher vibration than the standing one.

  12. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bus-stop Based Real Time Passenger Information System - Case Study Maribor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čelan, Marko; Klemenčič, Mitja; Mrgole, Anamarija L.; Lep, Marjan

    2017-10-01

    Real time passenger information system is one of the key element of promoting public transport. For the successful implementation of real time passenger information systems, various components should be considered, such as: passenger needs and requirements, stakeholder involvement, technological solution for tracking, data transfer, etc. This article carrying out designing and evaluation of real time passenger information (RTPI) in the city of Maribor. The design phase included development of methodology for selection of appropriate macro and micro location of the real-time panel, development of a real-time passenger algorithm, definition of a technical specification, financial issues and time frame. The evaluation shows that different people have different requirements; therefore, the system should be adaptable to be used by various types of people, according to the age, the purpose of journey, experience of using public transport, etc. The average difference between perceived waiting time for a bus is 35% higher than the actual waiting time and grow with the headway increase. Experiences from Maribor have shown that the reliability of real time passenger system (from technical point of view) must be close to 100%, otherwise the system may have negative impact on passengers and may discourage the use of public transport. Among considered events of arrivals during the test period, 92% of all prediction were accurate. The cost benefit analysis has focused only on potential benefits from reduced perceived users waiting time and foreseen costs of real time information system in Maribor for 10 years’ period. Analysis shows that the optimal number for implementing real time passenger information system at the bus stops in Maribor is set on 83 bus stops (approx. 20 %) with the highest number of passenger. If we consider all entries at the chosen bus stops, the total perceived waiting time on yearly level could be decreased by about 60,000 hours.

  14. METHODICAL APPROACH TO DEFINING INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT OF THE COSTS FOR THE PARTICULAR PASSENGER TRAIN TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the scientific paper a methodical approach concerning determining the infrastructure component of the costs for traffic of the particular passenger train should be developed. It takes into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Methodology. To achieve the research purposes was used a method which is based on apportionment of expenses for the traffic of a particular passenger train taking into account the factors affecting the magnitude of costs. This methodology allows allocating properly infrastructure costs for a particular train and, consequently, to determine the accurate profitability of each train. Findings. All expenditures relating to passenger traffic of a long distance were allocated from first cost of passenger and freight traffic. These costs are divided into four components. Three groups of expenses were allocated in infrastructure component, which are calculated according to the certain principle taking into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Originality. The allocation method of all passenger transportation costs of all Ukrzaliznytsia departments for a particular passenger train was improved. It is based on principles of general indicators formation of each department costs, which correspond to the main influential factors of operating trains. The methodical approach to determining the cost of infrastructure component is improved, which takes into account the effect of the speed and weight of a passenger train on the wear of the railway track superstructure and contact network. All this allows allocating to reasonably the costs of particular passenger train traffic and to determine its profitability. Practical value. Implementing these methods allows calculating the real, economically justified costs of a particular train that will correctly determine the profitability of a particular passenger train and on this basis it allows to make management

  15. Synchronized dial-a-ride transportation of disabled passengers at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. The problem of transporting these passengers is in some cases a multi-modal transportation problem with synchronization constraints. A description of the problem together with a mathematical...... model is presented. The objective is to schedule as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution...

  16. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  17. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  18. Prospects of introduction of innovative technology overhead passenger traffic on the basis of the passenger ropeways for the modernization of the public transport system of the Bryansk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In relation to the current situation in the field of public transport in the Bryansk city was shown the main problems in the implementation of innovative technology for the aerial passenger transport on the basis of suspended passenger ropeways (Cable metro. Shows the advantages of the cable metro-based mechatronic technology transportation compared to the traditional suspended passenger ropeways. Was made the technical and economic feasibility analysis of the construction of the cable metro in conditions of a highly urbanized urban environment of large cities, metropolises and urban agglomerations. Presented the statistical data on the development of vehicles in the Bryansk city in the period 2004-2016 years and based on the analysis of these data shows the feasibility of the development of aerial passenger transport as the most high-speed and environmentally friendly mode of transport compared with automobile and electric transport. Considered the possible sources of financing of design and construction works and shows the commercial attractiveness of the project to potential investors in the framework of public-private partnerships. For existing urban development and major transport flows of the Bryansk city was formulated proposals for the location of future transport cable metro lines, order their gaskets, the formation routes of movement of the rolling stock. Made the estimation of labor and financial costs for the implementation of the project of modernization of the public transport system of the city of Bryansk on the basis of the suspended passenger ropeways. The proposed option has the following characteristics: the number of transport lines - 6, total length - 54.8 km, total number of passenger boarding stations - 26, hub passenger stations – 6, the total number of intermediate supports – 100...110 pieces with a span between supports of 400...600 m. the cost of construction of transport lines and the purchase of necessary

  19. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  20. Revisiting factors associated with the success of ballot initiatives with a substantial rail transit component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the replication of an MTI study conducted in 2001 by Peter Haas and Richard Werbel.1 That research, itself a continuation of an earlier project completed in 2000, included an analysis of transportation tax elections in 11 urban a...

  1. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  2. 77 FR 28421 - Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Central Corridor Light Rail Transit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ..., and disposition of information. Consistent with this goal and with principles of economy and... distribute only electronic copies of the NEPA document. A complete printed set of the environmental document...

  3. Assessment of the impact of dipped guideways on urban rail transit systems: Ventilation and safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The ventilation and fire safety requirements for subway tunnels with dipped profiles between stations as compared to subway tunnels with level profiles were evaluated. This evaluation is based upon computer simulations of a train fire emergency condition. Each of the tunnel configurations evaluated was developed from characteristics that are representative of modern transit systems. The results of the study indicate that: (1) The level tunnel system required about 10% more station cooling than dipped tunnel systems in order to meet design requirements; and (2) The emergency ventilation requirements are greater with dipped tunnel systems than with level tunnel systems.

  4. Preliminary concept for statewide intercity bus and rail transit system : priority corridor ranking and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    This product summarizes the preliminary concept and priority corridors for development of a potential : statewide intercity bus and rail network. The concept is based upon the results of Tasks 1 through 5 of Texas : Department of Transportation Proje...

  5. Series-Connected High Frequency Converters in a DC Microgrid System for DC Light Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Ren Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies and presents a series-connected high frequency DC/DC converter connected to a DC microgrid system to provide auxiliary power for lighting, control and communication in a DC light rail vehicle. Three converters with low voltage and current stresses of power devices are series-connected with single transformers to convert a high voltage input to a low voltage output for a DC light rail vehicle. Thus, Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs with a low voltage rating and a turn-on resistance are adopted in the proposed circuit topology in order to decrease power losses on power switches and copper losses on transformer windings. A duty cycle control with an asymmetric pulse-width modulation is adopted to control the output voltage at the desired voltage level. It is also adopted to reduce switching losses on MOSFETs due to the resonant behavior from a leakage inductor of an isolated transformer and output capacitor of MOSFETs at the turn-on instant. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed circuit have been verified by a laboratory prototype with a 760 V input and a 24 V/60 A output.

  6. An Evaluation of the Low-Carbon Effects of Urban Rail Based on Mode Shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail is widely considered to be a form of low-carbon green transportation, but there is a lack of specific quantitative research to support this. By comparing the mode, distance, and corresponding energy consumption of residents before and after the opening of rail transit, this paper establishes a carbon reduction method for rail transit. A measurement model takes the passenger carbon emissions before the line is opened as the baseline and compares them with the standard after the opening, determining the carbon emissions reduction. The model requires a combination of a large amount of research data, transit smart card data, and GIS network measurement tools as measured data and parameters. The model is then applied to rail transit lines that have opened in Beijing in recent years. The emissions reductions of four different routes are estimated and the carbon emissions reduction effect of rail transit is evaluated.

  7. Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This final report for the Hybrid Ventilation Centre at Aalborg University describes the activities and research achievement in the project period from August 2001 to August 2006. The report summarises the work performed and the results achieved with reference to articles and reports published...

  8. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  9. ON PROBABILITY FUNCTION OF TRIP ROUTE CHOICE IN PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nefedof

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical processing of experimental research data in Kharkiv, aimed at determining the relation between the passenger trip choice probability and the actual vehicles waiting time at bus terminals are presented.

  10. Sled Tests Using the Hybrid III Rail Safety ATD and Workstation Tables for Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Hybrid III Rail Safety (H3-RS) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) is a crash test dummy developed in the United Kingdom to evaluate abdomen and lower thorax injuries that occur when passengers impact workstation tables during train accidents. The ...

  11. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), passenger traffic and services (marketing, ticketing, station, and on- board services), and general... retention, ``green'' environmental outcomes, potential energy savings, and effects on community livability. Program Management Approach--A phased program implementation strategy including a preliminary description...

  12. A role for Aurora C in the chromosomal passenger complex during human preimplantation embryo development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, Margarida Avo; van de Werken, Christine; de Vries, Marieke; Jahr, Holger; Vromans, Martijn J. M.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Fauser, Bart C.; Kops, Geert J.; Lens, Susanne M.; Baart, Esther B.

    BACKGROUND: Human embryos generated by IVF demonstrate a high incidence of chromosomal segregation errors during the cleavage divisions. To analyse underlying molecular mechanisms, we investigated the behaviour of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) in human oocytes and embryos. This important

  13. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.

    2008-12-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics, where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty.

  14. A statistical mechanics model for free-for-all airplane passenger boarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    I discuss a model for free-for-all passenger boarding which is employed by some discount air carriers. The model is based on the principles of statistical mechanics where each seat in the aircraft has an associated energy which reflects the preferences of travelers. As each passenger enters the airplane they select their seats using Boltzmann statistics, proceed to that location, load their luggage, sit down, and the partition function seen by remaining passengers is modified to reflect this fact. I discuss the various model parameters and make qualitative comparisons of this passenger boarding model with those that involve assigned seats. The model can be used to predict the probability that certain seats will be occupied at different times during the boarding process. These results might provide a useful description of this boarding method. The model is a relatively unusual application of undergraduate level physics and describes a situation familiar to many students and faculty

  15. 75 FR 9415 - Notice of Hearing Schedule; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Inc...... Charles A. Robertson, 15 Chairman & Chief Executive Officer. Carnival Corporation & PLC..... David Bernstein, Senior 15 Vice President & Chief Financial Officer. Crystal Cruises, Inc Ann G. Miller... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Hearing Schedule; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility...

  16. The Chicago to Iowa City intercity passenger rail route : business plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    Business Plan Highlights : -No Iowa General Fund or RIIF appropriations : -State/local partnership : -Funds operation for the first 10 years : -Local cash commitment to passenger rail : -Conservative and practical financial forecasts : -Three compone...

  17. An Airline-Based Multilevel Analysis of Airfare Elasticity for Passenger Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Lorenzo; Ukovich, Walter; Pesenti, Raffaele

    2003-01-01

    Price elasticity of passenger demand for a specific airline is estimated. The main drivers affecting passenger demand for air transportation are identified. First, an Ordinary Least Squares regression analysis is performed. Then, a multilevel analysis-based methodology to investigate the pattern of variation of price elasticity of demand among the various routes of the airline under study is proposed. The experienced daily passenger demands on each fare-class are grouped for each considered route. 9 routes were studied for the months of February and May in years from 1999 to 2002, and two fare-classes were defined (business and economy). The analysis has revealed that the airfare elasticity of passenger demand significantly varies among the different routes of the airline.

  18. 78 FR 57822 - Lease and Interchange of Vehicles; Motor Carriers of Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... available to Google Android users and Apple iPhone and iPad users from the respective App Stores, or by... placard, sign, or other permanent or removable device on the right (curb) side of the passenger-carrying...

  19. Comparison of interior crashworthiness observed in passenger train accidents and 8G dynamic seat sled tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    The Office of Research and Development of the Federal Railroad Administration conducts engineering research to address protection of passengers and crew during train accidents. This research includes accident investigations and dynamic seat testing t...

  20. CO2 emissions change from the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars: Korean case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Suk Jae; Kim, Kyung Sup; Park, Jin-Won

    2009-01-01

    The climatic change is a matter of grave concern to the whole world. As a countermeasure against the climatic change convention, the Korean government has authorized the sale of diesel passenger cars since 2005. In this paper, we analyze the effects of the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars in its role as a countermeasure. Their share, carbon emissions, and pollutant emissions of each type of passenger car are analyzed using system dynamics. The result is that the carbon emissions are decreased by 5.4% but the pollutant emissions are increased by 5%. If the pollutant emissions are controlled, the sales authorization of diesel passenger cars would be a good countermeasure against the climatic change convention.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  2. Grade Crossing Protection in High-Speed, High-Density, Passenger-Service Rail Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The report is a preliminary examination of special aspects of grade crossing protection for operation of high-speed passenger trains in rail corridors for which complete grade separation is not possible. Overall system needs and constraints are indic...

  3. Effects of vehicle power on passenger vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hu, Wen

    2017-07-04

    During the past 2 decades, there have been large increases in mean horsepower and the mean horsepower-to-vehicle weight ratio for all types of new passenger vehicles in the United States. This study examined the relationship between travel speeds and vehicle power, defined as horsepower per 100 pounds of vehicle weight. Speed cameras measured travel speeds and photographed license plates and drivers of passenger vehicles traveling on roadways in Northern Virginia during daytime off-peak hours in spring 2013. The driver licensing agencies in the District of Columbia, Maryland, and Virginia provided vehicle information numbers (VINs) by matching license plate numbers with vehicle registration records and provided the age, gender, and ZIP code of the registered owner(s). VINs were decoded to obtain the curb weight and horsepower of vehicles. The study focused on 26,659 observed vehicles for which information on horsepower was available and the observed age and gender of drivers matched vehicle registration records. Log-linear regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on mean travel speeds, and logistic regression estimated the effects of vehicle power on the likelihood of a vehicle traveling over the speed limit and more than 10 mph over the limit. After controlling for driver characteristics, speed limit, vehicle type, and traffic volume, a 1-unit increase in vehicle power was associated with a 0.7% increase in mean speed, a 2.7% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the speed limit by any amount, and an 11.6% increase in the likelihood of a vehicle exceeding the limit by 10 mph. All of these increases were highly significant. Speeding persists as a major factor in crashes in the United States. There are indications that travel speeds have increased in recent years. The current findings suggest the trend toward substantially more powerful vehicles may be contributing to higher speeds. Given the strong association between travel speed and crash

  4. Effects of passengers on bus driver celeration behavior and incident prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Af Wåhlberg, A E

    2007-01-01

    Driver celeration (speed change) behavior of bus drivers has previously been found to predict their traffic incident involvement, but it has also been ascertained that the level of celeration is influenced by the number of passengers carried as well as other traffic density variables. This means that the individual level of celeration is not as well estimated as could be the case. Another hypothesized influence of the number of passengers is that of differential quality of measurements, where high passenger density circumstances are supposed to yield better estimates of the individual driver component of celeration behavior. Comparisons were made between different variants of the celeration as predictor of traffic incidents of bus drivers. The number of bus passengers was held constant, and cases identified by their number of passengers per kilometer during measurement were excluded (in 12 samples of repeated measurements). After holding passengers constant, the correlations between celeration behavior and incident record increased very slightly. Also, the selective prediction of incident record of those drivers who had had many passengers when measured increased the correlations even more. The influence of traffic density variables like the number of passengers have little direct influence on the predictive power of celeration behavior, despite the impact upon absolute celeration level. Selective prediction on the other hand increased correlations substantially. This unusual effect was probably due to how the individual propensity for high or low celeration driving was affected by the number of stops made and general traffic density; differences between drivers in this respect were probably enhanced by the denser traffic, thus creating a better estimate of the theoretical celeration behavior parameter C. The new concept of selective prediction was discussed in terms of making estimates of the systematic differences in quality of the individual driver data.

  5. Are the Costs of Reducing Greenhouse Gases from Passenger Vehicles Negative?

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Ian W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Energy models suggest that the cost of reducing carbon emissions from the transportation sector is high relative to other sectors, such as electricity generation. However, this paper shows that taxes to reduce passenger vehicle emissions produce large net benefits, rather than costs, when account is taken of (a) their impact on reducing non-carbon externalities from passenger vehicle use, and (b) interactions with the broader fiscal system. Both of these considerations also strengthen the cas...

  6. Research on Multi-leg Inventory Control Based on Passenger Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Su, Qiubo; Ip, Wai Hung

    2014-01-01

    To remedy the lack of mathematical programming and the Expected Marginal Seat Revenue (EMSR) model for multi-leg seat inventory control, this paper proposes a method based on passenger choice. Except for data about which seats passengers decide to opt for, there is no need to obtain distributions of passengers’ demands or other “a priori” information. The proposed method can discover the real factors that affect passengers’ choices, and then estimate the probabilities of seat choices and the ...

  7. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    OpenAIRE

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design ...

  8. Rationalization of Public Road Passenger Transport by Merging Bus Lines on the Example of Zadar County

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Kos; Predrag Brlek; Igor Franolić

    2012-01-01

    This study consists of the analysis of public passenger transport in Zadar County, that is, transport on the County and school lines and suggestions of transport rationalization. The rationalization comprises the application of the County and school lines integration, as well as suggestions of other measures which aim to reduce transport costs financed by Zadar County. The objectives to rationalize public passenger transport have been defined, all County transport lines of schoolchildren and ...

  9. Regional disparity of urban passenger transport associated GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions in China: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Han; Geng, Yong; Wang, Hewu; Ouyang, Minggao

    2014-01-01

    With China’s urbanization and motorization, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from urban passenger transport increased rapidly over recent years. As we estimated, China’s urban passenger transport associated motorized travel, energy consumption and lifecycle GHG emissions reached 2815 billion passenger kilometers (pkm), 77 million tons of oil equivalent (toe) and 335 million ton CO 2 equivalent in 2010, over half of which were located in eastern provinces. Over national level, GHG emissions by private passenger vehicles, business passenger vehicles, taxis, motorcycles, E-bikes, transit buses and urban rails accounted for 57.7%, 13.0%, 7.7%, 8.6%, 1.8%, 10.5% and 0.7% of the total. Significant regional disparity was observed. The province-level per capita GHG emissions ranged from 285 kg/capita in Guizhou to 1273 kg/capita in Beijing, with national average of 486 kg/capita. Depending on province context and local policy orientation, the motorization pathways of China’s several highest motorized provinces are quite diverse. We concluded that motorization rate and transport structure were the substantial factors determining urban passenger transport associated GHG emissions. Considering the great potential of urban passenger transport growth in China, policies guiding the optimization of transport structure should be in place with priority in eastern provinces. - Highlights: • Province-leveled motorized travel, energy consumption and GHG emissions in China were studied. • Significant regional disparities on urban passenger transport were observed. • Region-specific sustainable transport energy policies were discussed

  10. Influence of driving style on fuel consumption and Emissions in diesel-powered passenger car

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca González, Natalia Elizabeth; Casanova Kindelán, Jesús; Espinosa Zapata, Felipe

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of a study on the influence of driving style on fuel consumption and pollutant emissions of diesel passenger car in urban traffic. Driving styles (eco, normal or aggressive) patterns were based on the “eco-driving” criteria. The methodology is based on on-board emission measurements in real urban traffic in the city of Madrid. Five diesel passenger cars, have been tested. Through a statistical analysis, a Dynamic Performance Index was defined for die...

  11. In-flight Meals, Passengers- Level of Satisfaction and Re-flying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zahari; M. S; Salleh; N. K.; Kamaruddin; M. S. Y; Kutut; M. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Service quality has become a centerpiece for airline companies in vying with one another and keeps their image in the minds of passengers. Many airlines have pushed service quality through service personalization which includes both ground and on board especially from the viewpoint of retaining satisfied passengers and attracting new ones. Besides those, in-flight meals/food service is another important aspect of the airline operation. The in flight meals/food services now are seen as part of...

  12. [Injuries sustained by bus passengers in the municipality of Odense 1996-1999].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, T; Faergemann, C; Larsen, L B

    2001-10-22

    Owing to several recent bus-related accidents in Denmark, we wished to investigate injuries sustained by passengers. From our ongoing registration of patients treated in the casualty department at Odense University Hospital, we identified all residents of Odense Municipality who had sustained injuries as bus passengers from 1996 to 1999. Market analysis and demographic information were used to calculate the incidence and risk. Over this four-year period, 327 consecutive injuries had been sustained by 246 bus passengers, 72 men and 174 women, mean ages 44 and 53 years. The incidence rate was 3.3 injured per 10,000 inhabitants per year, with no increasing tendency during the study period. The risk was 2.2 injured per 1,000,000 bus passengers per year, highest in women and increasing with age. Injuries most frequently occurred when the bus stopped (31%), as passengers were boarding or alighting (23%), or during collision with another vehicle (20%). Most commonly injured areas were the lower (30%) and upper (28%) extremities and the head or neck (27%). Contusions and sprains were the most common injuries (59%). The most common fractures were those of the humerus and hip region. Bus passenger injuries are not a growing problem. The incidence increases with age.

  13. Effect of passenger position on fear of danger experienced during sudden bus stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Takeo; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of bus passengers' positions on their fear of danger when a bus stopped suddenly. A temporary bus running course with one bus stop was set up on the campus of the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT). The bus ran the course 14 times with the bus stopping twice during the course, once at the bus stop and again just after re-starting from the bus stop. The driver was asked to brake more strongly than usual when stopping. Sixteen students (15 males and 1 female) between the ages of 18 and 21 years participated. In turn, all participants were asked to take 14 different postures in the bus. Participants were also asked to report their level of fear on a rating scale each time the bus stopped. The study showed that (1) passengers' fear of danger at the first sudden stop was typically higher than that at the second stop, (2) standing passengers who held hand straps experienced more fear than those who held fixed safety devices, (3) bus passengers sitting on the centre of the rear seat had a great risk of injury if the bus stopped suddenly, and (4) when passengers faced the window and stood transversely with respect to from the moving direction of the bus and the bus stopped suddenly, passengers' fear of danger was affected by the side of the bus on which they stood as well as which hand they used to grasp a safety device.

  14. Investigating risky, distracting, and protective peer passenger effects in a dual process framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Brijs, Kris; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert

    2016-08-01

    Prior studies indicated higher collision rates among young novice drivers with peer passengers. This driving simulator study provided a test for a dual process theory of risky driving by examining social rewards (peer passengers) and cognitive control (inhibitory control). The analyses included age (17-18 yrs, n=30; 21-24 yrs, n=20). Risky, distracting, and protective effects were classified by underlying driver error mechanisms. In the first drive, participants drove alone. In the second, participants drove with a peer passenger. Red-light running (violation) was more prevalent in the presence of peer passengers, which provided initial support for a dual process theory of risk driving. In a subgroup with low inhibitory control, speeding (violation) was more prevalent in the presence of peer passengers. Reduced lane-keeping variability reflected distracting effects. Nevertheless, possible protective effects for amber-light running and hazard handling (cognition and decision-making) were found in the drive with peer passengers. Avenues for further research and possible implications for targets of future driver training programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A data mining approach to investigate the factors influencing the crash severity of motorcycle pillion passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Motorcycle passengers comprise a considerable proportion of traffic crash victims. During a 5 year period (2006-2010) in Iran, an average of 3.4 pillion passengers are killed daily due to motorcycle crashes. This study investigated the main factors influencing crash severity of this group of road users. The Classification and Regression Trees (CART) method was employed to analyze the injury severity of pillion passengers in Iran over a 4 y ear period (2009-2012). The predictive accuracy of the model built with a total of 16 variables was 74%, which showed a considerable improvement compared to previous studies. The results indicate that area type, land use, and injured part of the body (head, neck, etc.) are the most influential factors affecting the fatality of motorcycle passengers. Results also show that helmet usage could reduce the fatality risk among motorcycle passengers by 28%. The findings of this study might help develop more targeted countermeasures to reduce the death rate of motorcycle pillion passengers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining Passenger Flow Choke Points at Airports Using Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy R.; Madhavan, Poomima

    2011-01-01

    The movement of passengers through an airport quickly, safely, and efficiently is the main function of the various checkpoints (check-in, security. etc) found in airports. Human error combined with other breakdowns in the complex system of the airport can disrupt passenger flow through the airport leading to lengthy waiting times, missing luggage and missed flights. In this paper we present a model of passenger flow through an airport using discrete event simulation that will provide a closer look into the possible reasons for breakdowns and their implications for passenger flow. The simulation is based on data collected at Norfolk International Airport (ORF). The primary goal of this simulation is to present ways to optimize the work force to keep passenger flow smooth even during peak travel times and for emergency preparedness at ORF in case of adverse events. In this simulation we ran three different scenarios: real world, increased check-in stations, and multiple waiting lines. Increased check-in stations increased waiting time and instantaneous utilization. while the multiple waiting lines decreased both the waiting time and instantaneous utilization. This simulation was able to show how different changes affected the passenger flow through the airport.

  17. Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R

    2018-07-04

    The objective of this study was to identify and quantify the motorcycle crash population that would be potential beneficiaries of 3 crash avoidance technologies recently available on passenger vehicles. Two-vehicle crashes between a motorcycle and a passenger vehicle that occurred in the United States during 2011-2015 were classified by type, with consideration of the functionality of 3 classes of passenger vehicle crash avoidance technologies: frontal crash prevention, lane maintenance, and blind spot detection. Results were expressed as the percentage of crashes potentially preventable by each type of technology, based on all known types of 2-vehicle crashes and based on all crashes involving motorcycles. Frontal crash prevention had the largest potential to prevent 2-vehicle motorcycle crashes with passenger vehicles. The 3 technologies in sum had the potential to prevent 10% of fatal 2-vehicle crashes and 23% of police-reported crashes. However, because 2-vehicle crashes with a passenger vehicle represent fewer than half of all motorcycle crashes, these technologies represent a potential to avoid 4% of all fatal motorcycle crashes and 10% of all police-reported motorcycle crashes. Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems.

  18. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  19. Tripartite equilibrium strategy for a carbon tax setting problem in air passenger transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Qiu, Rui; Tao, Zhimiao; Xie, Heping

    2018-03-01

    Carbon emissions in air passenger transport have become increasing serious with the rapidly development of aviation industry. Combined with a tripartite equilibrium strategy, this paper proposes a multi-level multi-objective model for an air passenger transport carbon tax setting problem (CTSP) among an international organization, an airline and passengers with the fuzzy uncertainty. The proposed model is simplified to an equivalent crisp model by a weighted sum procedure and a Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) transformation method. To solve the equivalent crisp model, a fuzzy logic controlled genetic algorithm with entropy-Bolitzmann selection (FLC-GA with EBS) is designed as an integrated solution method. Then, a numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practicality and efficiency of the optimization method. Results show that the cap tax mechanism is an important part of air passenger trans'port carbon emission mitigation and thus, it should be effectively applied to air passenger transport. These results also indicate that the proposed method can provide efficient ways of mitigating carbon emissions for air passenger transport, and therefore assist decision makers in formulating relevant strategies under multiple scenarios.

  20. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  2. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinis, Panos [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  3. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  4. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  5. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  6. The measurement of dynamic radii for passenger car tyre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghelache, G.; Moisescu, R.

    2017-10-01

    The tyre dynamic rolling radius is an extremely important parameter for vehicle dynamics, for operation of safety systems as ESP, ABS, TCS, etc., for road vehicle research and development, as well as for validation or as an input parameter of automotive simulations and models. The paper investigates the dynamic rolling radii of passenger car tyre and the influence of rolling speed and inflation pressure on their magnitude. The measurement of dynamic rolling radii has been performed on a chassis dynamometer test rig. The dynamic rolling radii have been measured indirectly, using longitudinal rolling speed and angular velocity of wheel. Due to the subtle effects that the parameters have on rolling radius magnitude, very accurate equipment has to be used. Two different methods have been chosen for measuring the wheel angular velocity: the stroboscopic lamp and the incremental rotary encoder. The paper shows that the stroboscopic lamp has an insufficient resolution, therefore it was no longer used for experimental investigation. The tyre dynamic rolling radii increase with rolling speed and with tyre inflation pressure, but the effect of pressure is more significant. The paper also makes considerations on the viability of simplified formulae from literature for calculating the tyre dynamic rolling radius.

  7. Behavioral pattern of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the travel behavior of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire. A total of 84 samples were used as representative population, while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significant. The results that were obtained indicated that a positive correlation exists between frequency of   travel and commuters income in Lagos Metropolis and also that a positive correlation exists between frequency of travel and distance covered by commuters in Lagos Metropolis. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were also adopted to present the socio-economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that about 57% of sampled population are male, 62 % are civil servants, 48% of respondents travel for business purposes. Also, that majority of the respondents (50% said that the commercial public transport is highly prone to accident, while about 64% of the respondents commute on daily basis. It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.

  8. High prevalence of Legionella in non-passenger merchant vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S L; Stevenson, D; Mentasti, M; Shaw, A; Johnson, A; Crossley, L; Willis, C

    2017-03-01

    There is a paucity of information on the risk from potable water in non-passenger merchant vessels (NPMVs) particularly with regard to Legionella and other bacteria. This retrospective study examined water samples from 550 NPMVs docked in eight UK ports. A total of 1027 samples from 412 NPMVs were examined for total aerobic colony counts (ACC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci; 41% of samples yielded ACC above the action level (>1 × 103 c.f.u./ml) and 4·5% contained actionable levels (>1 c.f.u./100 ml) of faecal indicator bacteria. Eight hundred and three samples from 360 NPMVs were cultured specifically for Legionella and 58% of vessels proved positive for these organisms with 27% of samples showing levels greater than the UK upper action limit of 1 × 103 c.f.u./l. Cabin showers (49%) and hospital shower (45%) were frequently positive. A subset of 106 samples was analysed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Legionella and identified a further 11 Legionella-positive NPMVs, returning a negative predictive value of 100%. There was no correlation between NPMV age or size and any microbial parameters (P > 0·05). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from 46% of NPMVs and sequence-based typing of 17 isolates revealed four sequence types (STs) previously associated with human disease. These data raise significant concerns regarding the management of microbial and Legionella risks on board NPMVs and suggest that better guidance and compliance are required to improve control.

  9. Backyard Spaceships - Passenger-Related Microlights for Hobby Rocketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivier, D.

    The FINDS and CATS prizes have introduced to contemporary astronautics the competitive spirit, which led to such spectacular advances in the fledgling aviation industry. This pioneering spirit is also shared by present day microlight aircraft enthusiasts. If the expected expansion of commercial passenger spaceflight with mass space tourism occurs, then it may create a demand for extreme short-range crewed rockets as a new form of leisure craft, just as microlight aircraft recreate the experience of large aircraft flight on a smaller scale. If the technologies, materials and procedures used in microlight and balloon aviation are applied to those of high power solid propellant rocketry, then similar `microlight' rockets with a mass of 500 kg, powered by 20 kg of fuel and able to reach altitudes of c.3,200 m, may be a possibility. Apart from the leisure and sporting opportunities offered by such craft, which would also encourage technological experimentation and progress, they would also greatly benefit astronautical education by adding the practical human experience of rocket flight to ground studies' curricula.

  10. Child Passenger Safety Training for Pediatric Interns: Does it Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Dina; Riese, Alison; Violano, Pina; Lapidus, Garry; Baird, Janette; Mello, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Evaluate the efficacy of a child passenger safety (CPS) educational intervention on the CPS-related knowledge, attitude and anticipatory guidance behaviors of pediatric interns. All subjects were surveyed at baseline and 6 months. Intervention interns attended a CPS training module which included viewing an educational video, observing a car seat inspection appointment, hands-on practice and completion of a post-intervention survey. All 16 intervention interns completed the initial survey, the intervention and the immediate-post questionnaire. Thirteen (81%) completed the 6-month follow-up. The baseline survey was completed by 27/40 (67%) of control interns, 28/40 (70%) submitted a follow-up. The proportion of intervention interns who self-reported giving CPS guidance at all well-child visits increased by 31.3% (95% CI 6.1,56.5%); the control group had no change. Similar results were seen with self-reported knowledge and attitude. A CPS training module increases pediatric interns' knowledge, improves attitudes, and self-reported behaviors regarding CPS-related anticipatory guidance.

  11. The dynamics of parabolic flight: Flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 s of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 s of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity." Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  12. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  13. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  14. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  15. Peer Passenger Norms and Pressure: Experimental Effects on Simulated Driving Among Teenage Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pradhan, Anuj K; Li, Kaigang; Almani, Farideh; Falk, Emily B; Shope, Jean T; Buckley, Lisa; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Albert, Paul S

    2016-08-01

    Serious crashes are more likely when teenage drivers have teenage passengers. One likely source of this increased risk is social influences on driving performance. This driving simulator study experimentally tested the effects of peer influence (i.e., risk-accepting compared to risk-averse peer norms reinforced by pressure) on the driving risk behavior (i.e., risky driving behavior and inattention to hazards) of male teenagers. It was hypothesized that peer presence would result in greater driving risk behavior (i.e., increased driving risk and reduced latent hazard anticipation), and that the effect would be greater when the peer was risk-accepting. Fifty-three 16- and 17-year-old male participants holding a provisional U.S., State of Michigan driver license were randomized to either a risk-accepting or risk-averse condition. Each participant operated a driving simulator while alone and separately with a confederate peer passenger. The simulator world included scenarios designed to elicit variation in driving risk behavior with a teen passenger present in the vehicle. Significant interactions of passenger presence (passenger present vs. alone) by risk condition (risk-accepting vs. risk-averse) were observed for variables measuring: failure to stop at yellow light intersections (Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=2.16; 95% Confidence Interval [95CI]=1.06, 4.43); higher probability of overtaking (IRR=10.17; 95CI=1.43, 73.35); shorter left turn latency (IRR=0.43; 95CI=0.31,0.60); and, failure to stop at an intersection with an occluded stop sign (IRR=7.90; 95CI=2.06,30.35). In all cases, greater risky driving by participants was more likely with a risk-accepting passenger versus a risk-averse passenger present and a risk-accepting passenger present versus driving alone. Exposure of male teenagers to a risk-accepting confederate peer passenger who applied peer influence increased simulated risky driving behavior compared with exposure to a risk-averse confederate peer

  16. The Application of Online Check-in in the Process of Passenger Handling in Air Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Adamčík

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Passenger handling is one of the most important activities any passenger is obliged to carry out prior to boarding the plane to depart. For the handling process to be safeguarded, it is inevitable to perform the services involved in it fast and efficiently so as to prevent idle times or delays during the procedures potentially resulting in delay of flight. By gradual development of the so-called web-based information technologies, some of the activities involved in the handling process can be delegated to the passengers themselves, thereby achieving a faster course of the passenger handling process. In this contribution the authors are dealing with the status quo of the on-line web-based check-in process in air transportation forecasting the expected course of events in these services in the future. Next, based on analyzing functions and characteristics of similar solutions available in the market, the authors are putting forward their new proposal of their own design of a self-service, on-line system of passenger handling with the aim to simplify and expedite the entire handling process. It is the aim of the authors to develop a competitive design in terms of costs as well as new function and services not offered by the hitherto existing with emphasis on improving efficiency of passenger handling at the airports. The resulting solution thanks to internet based technologies is platform independent and fully applicable to the process of airport passenger handling. To an equal extent, the solutions are being applied by the authors to the educational process, as a training tool for the preparation of the aviation personnel and also as part of simulation models for research in the field of airport processes optimization.

  17. Towards Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Alternative Passenger Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable transportation and mobility are key components and central to sustainable development. This research aims to reveal the macro-level social, economic, and environmental impacts of alternative vehicle technologies in the U.S. The studied vehicle technologies are conventional gasoline, hybrid, plug-in hybrid with four different all-electric ranges, and full battery electric vehicles (BEV. In total, 19 macro level sustainability indicators are quantified for a scenario in which electric vehicles are charged through the existing U.S. power grid with no additional infrastructure, and an extreme scenario in which electric vehicles are fully charged with solar charging stations. The analysis covers all life cycle phases from the material extraction, processing, manufacturing, and operation phases to the end-of-life phases of vehicles and batteries. Results of this analysis revealed that the manufacturing phase is the most influential phase in terms of socio-economic impacts compared to other life cycle phases, whereas operation phase is the most dominant phase in the terms of environmental impacts and some of the socio-economic impacts such as human health and economic cost of emissions. Electric vehicles have less air pollution cost and human health impacts compared to conventional gasoline vehicles. The economic cost of emissions and human health impact reduction potential can be up to 45% and 35%, respectively, if electric vehicles are charged through solar charging stations. Electric vehicles have potential to generate income for low and medium skilled workers in the U.S. In addition to quantified sustainability indicators, some sustainability metrics were developed to compare relative sustainability performance alternative passenger vehicles. BEV has the lowest greenhouse gas emissions and ecological land footprint per $ of its contribution to the U.S. GDP, and has the lowest ecological footprint per unit of its energy consumption. The

  18. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  19. Predictive NO x emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.; Andreasson, K.

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x±38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr-1. The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x, CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships.

  20. Predictive NOx emission monitoring on board a passenger ferry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.A.; Andreasson, K.

    1999-01-01

    NO x emissions from a medium speed diesel engine on board a servicing passenger ferry have been indirectly measured using a predictive emission monitoring system (PEMS) over a 1-yr period. Conventional NO x measurements were carried out with a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) at the start of the study to provide historical data for the empirical PEMS function. On three other occasions during the year the CEMS was also used to verify the PEMS and follow any changes in emission signature of the engine. The PEMS consisted of monitoring exhaust O 2 concentrations (in situ electrochemical probe), engine load, combustion air temperature and humidity, and barometric pressure. Practical experiences with the PEMS equipment were positive and measurement data were transferred to a land-based office by using a modem data communication system. The initial PEMS function (PEMS1) gave systematic differences of 1.1-6.9% of the calibration domain (0-1725 ppm) and a relative accuracy of 6.7% when compared with CEMS for whole journeys and varying load situations. Further improvements on the performance could be obtained by updating this function. The calculated yearly emission for a total engine running time of 4618 h was 316 t NO x ± 38 t and the average NO x emission corrected for ambient conditions 14.3 g kWh corr -1 . The exhaust profile of the engine in terms of NO x , CO and CO 2 emissions as determined by CEMS was similar for most of the year. Towards the end of the study period, a significantly lower NO x emission was detected which was probably caused by replacement of fuel injector nozzles. The study suggests that PEMS can be a viable option for continuous, long-term NO x measurements on board ships. (author)

  1. Natural gas passenger vehicles: challenges and way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahari, B. B.; Hamouda, A. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Natural gas vehicles have been used in the world for many years: at present, there are about 3 million vehicles running on natural gas and many governments and vehicle manufactures are involved in programs for further developing the market for natural gas vehicles. In comparison to other forms of energy for vehicles, natural gas (NG) engenders low pressures on the environment. At the same time, because of its technical characteristics, NG is very suitable for motor use. The economic advantage of converting a vehicles (NGVs) would be expected to attract the interest of a great number of people, and achieve rapid and widespread diffusion. On the contrary, traditional fuels still dominate the scene, and show no sign of going out of fashion. The use of natural gas as automotive fuel has become of national and worldwide interests particularly so with the recent increase in petrol price, depleting petrol reserves and stringent control of exhaust emission levels. For automotive applications, shifting from petrol to gas needs technological research and development. Within the framework of the reciprocating piston based engine this development is very challenging with technological issues of low range, refueling infrastructure, heavy fuel storage, safety, emissions control and gas operating pressures. Other issues include available expertise and experience in research management. This paper describes the advances being made with passenger vehicles natural gas engines worldwide and in Malaysia more specific. The significant milestones in the development of NGV in Malaysia and the rationale behind the choice of NGV industry including the NGV vehicle population growth, the development of service station as well as the expansion of the sales volume will be illustrated. The presentation presents also development stages and advances in development, fabrication and testing a Compressed Natural Gas Direct Injection vehicle and NGV refueling station. This presentation discuses the

  2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  3. Experimental Investigation of the Dietary Ecology of the Extinct Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J. Novak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For tens of thousands of years, passenger pigeons (Ectopistes migratorius were a dominant member of eastern North American forest communities, with megaflocks comprising up to several billion individuals. The extinction of passenger pigeons in the early twentieth century undoubtedly influenced associated species and ecosystems as interactions stemming from the pigeons disappeared suddenly. Here, we strive to better understand what was probably one of the most significant of these interactions—that between passenger pigeons and seed bearing trees. Using the band-tailed pigeon (Patagioenas fasciata and the rock dove (Columba livia as physical and ecological proxies, we evaluated passenger pigeon dietary range and potential to disperse seeds. Our findings suggest that the passenger pigeon's dietary range, observed historically to be taxonomically broad, was constrained to certain seed sizes due to bill gape size. In addition, we conclude that the digestive process invariably destroyed consumed seeds but the potential for a nutrition/dispersal mutualism might still have existed via regurgitation and post-mortem release of crop contents. Our results highlight the range of ecological interactions that can be lost with species' extinction and the inherent challenge of understanding the consequences of those interactions.

  4. [The peculiar features of conducting comprehensive expertises of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetisov, V A; Gusarov, A A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with the problem of forensic medical diagnostics of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during motor vehicle accidents. The authors place special emphasis on the fact of a significant increase in the number of road traffic accidents (RTA) with such consequences throughout the world. The modern automobile industry pays much attention to the enhancement of the car safety features by significantly improving the design of passenger compartments. It accounts for a change in the traditional character of the injuries to both the driver and the passengers resulting from motor vehicle accidents. This, in turn, creates difficulties for the forensic medical experts as regards personality identification of the subjects who happened to be inside the car at the moment of the collision especially in the case of unascertainable circumstances of the accident and/or the involvement of several victims. The authors describe peculiarities of the injuries inflicted inside the passenger car compartment during road traffic accidents including such that result from bringing the driver and the passengers closer to the construction elements of the car (stage I), their direct contact with these elements (stage II), and subsequent displacement (stage III).

  5. The Dependence of Airport Profit on Passenger Satisfaction and Operational Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Vokáč

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the airports are in fact commercial companies, their main objective is to make profit. Therefore, it is important for the airports to identify the business activities that may increase the income as well as those that may reduce the costs. The terminal process, handling the passengers’ baggage both on their departure and arrival, is a basic process at all airports that are intended for the commercial air transport. The quality of the terminal process provided by the airports has a significant impact on the passengers especially in terms of their satisfaction. In this text, the passenger satisfaction is regarded as a key factor of the terminal process affecting a whole range of other areas. Its high efficiency leads to cost reduction from the perspective of the airport. As it is proposed here, there is a connection between the passenger satisfaction and the process efficiency. For example, the queues that form due to the check-in process may be a result of the imbalance between the passenger arrival rate and the service rate. Therefore, there is a necessity of improving not only the passenger satisfaction but also the process efficiency.

  6. Optimizing Bus Passenger Complaint Service through Big Data Analysis: Systematized Analysis for Improved Public Sector Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng-Kun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply–demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan, was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector–transportation company–passenger supply chain.

  7. Child passenger injury risk in sibling versus non-sibling teen driver crashes: a US study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senserrick, Teresa M; Kallan, Michael J; Winston, Flaura K

    2007-06-01

    Several international jurisdictions allow family exemptions to graduated driver licensing passenger restrictions. The objective of this research was to examine differences in injury risk to US child passengers in crashes involving sibling versus non-sibling teen drivers, and to compare outcomes with crashes involving adult drivers. Insurance claim and telephone survey data were collected on 16 233 child passengers (representing 289 329 children) in 17 US jurisdictions. There was a trend toward higher restraint non-use by child passengers in the non-sibling group than in the sibling group (9.6% vs 4.7%; p = 0.08). Children in the sibling group had a 40% lower risk of injury than those in the non-sibling group (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.90); however, injury risk was higher in the sibling group than in children traveling with adults (adjusted OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.26). Child passengers riding with sibling teen drivers may be safer than those riding with non-sibling teens, but not as safe as those riding with adult drivers.

  8. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Robert C. [Texas A& M University; Kamon, Teruki [Texas A& M University; Toback, David [Texas A& M University; Safonov, Alexei [Texas A& M University; Dutta, Bhaskar [Texas A& M University; Dimitri, Nanopoulos [Texas A& M University; Pope, Christopher [Texas A& M University; White, James [Texas A& M University

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  9. Compact gasoline fuel processor for passenger vehicle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Christopher; Pischinger, Stefan; Ogrzewalla, Jürgen

    Due to the increasing demand for electrical power in today's passenger vehicles, and with the requirements regarding fuel consumption and environmental sustainability tightening, a fuel cell-based auxiliary power unit (APU) becomes a promising alternative to the conventional generation of electrical energy via internal combustion engine, generator and battery. It is obvious that the on-board stored fuel has to be used for the fuel cell system, thus, gasoline or diesel has to be reformed on board. This makes the auxiliary power unit a complex integrated system of stack, air supply, fuel processor, electrics as well as heat and water management. Aside from proving the technical feasibility of such a system, the development has to address three major barriers:start-up time, costs, and size/weight of the systems. In this paper a packaging concept for an auxiliary power unit is presented. The main emphasis is placed on the fuel processor, as good packaging of this large subsystem has the strongest impact on overall size. The fuel processor system consists of an autothermal reformer in combination with water-gas shift and selective oxidation stages, based on adiabatic reactors with inter-cooling. The configuration was realized in a laboratory set-up and experimentally investigated. The results gained from this confirm a general suitability for mobile applications. A start-up time of 30 min was measured, while a potential reduction to 10 min seems feasible. An overall fuel processor efficiency of about 77% was measured. On the basis of the know-how gained by the experimental investigation of the laboratory set-up a packaging concept was developed. Using state-of-the-art catalyst and heat exchanger technology, the volumes of these components are fixed. However, the overall volume is higher mainly due to mixing zones and flow ducts, which do not contribute to the chemical or thermal function of the system. Thus, the concept developed mainly focuses on minimization of those

  10. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Joao Filipe Paiva; Larsen, Allan; van der Hurk, Evelien

    In this talk, we deal with a generalization of the well-known Vehicle Scheduling Problem(VSP) that we call Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem with Flexible Dwell Times (SVSPSP-FDT). The SVSPSP-FDT generalizes the VSP because the original timetables of the trips can...... be changed (i.e., shifted and stretched) in order to minimize a new objective function that aims at minimizing the operational costs plus the waiting times of the passengers at transfer points. Contrary to most generalizations of the VSP, the SVSPSP-FDT establishes the possibility of changing trips' dwell...... times at important transfer points based on expected passenger ows. We introduce a compact mixed integer linear formulation of the SVSPSP-FDT able to address small instances. We also present a meta-heuristic approach to solve medium/large instances of the problem. The e ectiveness of the proposed...

  11. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  12. NASA Green Flight Challenge: Conceptual Design Approaches and Technologies to Enable 200 Passenger Miles per Gallon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Douglas P.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Flight Challenge is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Centennial Challenges designed to push technology and make passenger aircraft more efficient. Airliners currently average around 50 passenger-miles per gallon and this competition will push teams to greater than 200 passenger-miles per gallon. The aircraft must also fly at least 100 miles per hour for 200 miles. The total prize money for this competition is $1.65 Million. The Green Flight Challenge will be run by the Comparative Aircraft Flight Efficiency (CAFE) Foundation September 25 October 1, 2011 at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in California. Thirteen custom aircraft were developed with electric, bio-diesel, and other bio-fuel engines. The aircraft are using various technologies to improve aerodynamic, propulsion, and structural efficiency. This paper will explore the feasibility of the rule set, competitor vehicles, design approaches, and technologies used.

  13. The contribution to the greenhouse effect by passenger cars and heating is increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchereau, J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Between 1990 and 1998, the domestic sector contribution to the greenhouse effect increased from 25 % to 27 %. During this period, there was a 20 % rise in greenhouse gas emissions from passenger cars. These emissions amounted to 20 million tonnes of carbon equivalent out of a total of 175 million tonnes in 1998 (all sectors taken together). Carbon dioxide emissions from the tertiary sector increased by 2,3 % annually between 1980 and 1998, particularly as a result of increased road freight transport. Although technological progress has been made on fuel consumption of vehicles, greater use of passenger cars combined with decreasing running costs has led to gross emissions in France being 2 % more in 1998 than in 1990. In 1998, the transport sector (passenger cars and freight transport) was responsible for three-quarters of this increase. (author)

  14. Assessment of a rail vehicle running with the damaged wheel on a ride comfort for passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dižo Ján

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain conditions rail vehicles wheels can be during operation damaged. Then, the profile of wheels is no longer circular, but it is changed depending on the type and severity of defects. When such rail vehicle with the damaged wheel operates, the quality of a ride comfort for passenger is degraded. This article is focused on the assessment of ride comfort for passenger based on results obtained from dynamic analyses. Simulations and calculations were carried out in commercial multibody software. In our research we considered one type of the railway wheel untrueness – wheel-flat. This type of wheel damaging is relatively common and has such influence on the ride comfort for passenger worsening, which needs to be detected and investigated.

  15. Improvement of the directional stability of passenger car trailer couplings with actively controlled steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desens, Jens

    The stabilization of pendulum oscillations of passenger car trailer couplings, using active steering, was examined. A linear model of the couplings was presented. Each axle was provided with a controller. The controllers were optimized, with regard to necessary sensors, in order to minimize costs. The rear and the front axles were provided with a control unit in order to compute the potential prevailing in the active steering of several axles. It was shown that the passenger car rear axle was the most suitable for coupling stabilization. The experiment was simulated, using a complex coupling model. The developed controller allowed the passenger car trailer to be driven at a speed higher than 150 km per hour.

  16. What makes a space invader? Passenger perceptions of personal space invasion in aircraft travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura; Patel, Harshada; D'Cruz, Mirabelle; Cobb, Sue

    2017-11-01

    The invasion of personal space is often a contributory factor to the experience of discomfort in aircraft passengers. This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated how air travellers are affected by invasions of personal space and how they attempt to adapt to, or counter, these invasions. In support of recent findings on the factors influencing air passenger comfort, the results of this study indicate that the invasion of personal space is not only caused by physical factors (e.g. physical contact with humans or objects), but also other sensory factors such as noise, smells or unwanted eye contact. The findings of this study have implications for the design of shared spaces. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents a questionnaire study which investigated personal space in an aircraft environment. The results highlight the factors which affect the perception of personal space invasion in aircraft and can therefore inform the design of aircraft cabin environments to enhance the passenger experience.

  17. The Research on Safety Management Information System of Railway Passenger Based on Risk Management Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenmin; Jia, Yuanhua

    2018-01-01

    Based on the risk management theory and the PDCA cycle model, requirements of the railway passenger transport safety production is analyzed, and the establishment of the security risk assessment team is proposed to manage risk by FTA with Delphi from both qualitative and quantitative aspects. The safety production committee is also established to accomplish performance appraisal, which is for further ensuring the correctness of risk management results, optimizing the safety management business processes and improving risk management capabilities. The basic framework and risk information database of risk management information system of railway passenger transport safety are designed by Ajax, Web Services and SQL technologies. The system realizes functions about risk management, performance appraisal and data management, and provides an efficient and convenient information management platform for railway passenger safety manager.

  18. On the development of the new harmonised damage stability regulations for dry cargo and passenger ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Eliopoulou, Eleftheria

    2008-01-01

    This paper outlines the methodological background and presents a summary of the main results of a series of undertaken international, IMO-led studies, on the harmonisation of the new probabilistic, risk-based regulations with the currently in-force regulatory provisions for assessing the damage stability of dry cargo and passenger ships. It reviews the historical development of the new regulations, to be applied to all new buildings on January 1, 2009, and the anticipated impact of the new rules on the design and indirect operation of various subcategories of dry cargo and passenger ships. It identifies certain loopholes in the existing regulations that appear cured by the new ones, though certain compromises adopted in the development of the new regulations, particularly those related to large passenger ships' survivability, have left some open issues to be addressed in the near future

  19. Probabilistic Analysis of Collision Damages with Application to ro-Ro Passenger Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Hansen, Peter Friis; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    1997-01-01

    To quantify the risks involved in Ro-ro passenger vessel traffic, rational criteria for prediction and evaluation of collision accidents have to be developed. This implies that probabilities as well as the inherent consequences have to be analyzed and assessed.The present report outlines a method...... for evaluation of the probability of a Ro-Ro passenger vessel on a given route being struck by another ship. Given a collision has taken place the spatial distribution of the collision damages is calculated. Results are presented in terms of probability distributions, for indentation depth, length and height...... of the holes and for the vertical location. The main benefit of the formulated procedure is that it allows comparisons of various navigation routes by assessing the relative frequencies of collisions. The derived procedure is applied to two typical Ro-Ro passenger vessel routes....

  20. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ...-haul passenger service from Australia to other countries. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0030] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  1. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    detailed research on space thermodynamics as future passengers to the ISS must be assured of their physiologic comfort and safety before they could accept to pay the huge cost for the space travels. The presentation of the paper is divided into the following four basic sections: (a) Take-off or Blast-off (b) Cruising and SpaceWalk (c) Re-entry into the Terrestial Atmosphere, and (d) Landing and Rescue Operations. Experience shows that each of the above four distinct stages of space travel demands a careful assessment of the micro-climate of the indoor spacecraft and these will each be investigated to ensure that relevant micro - climate information that will maintain effective physiologic comfort level of astronauts and specimen will be attained. Finally, the paper discusses a method to predict indoor weather condition in spacecrafts based on observed ambient data especially temperature and humidity and micro-indoor air circulation for differenct timescales during space shuttles to the ISS. An active multidisciplinary research in which Engineers, Meteorologists, Medical Experts, etc., will work together collaboratively on the problem on ambient indoor space weather for increased human population during proposed International Space Station shuttle missions later this century is strongly recommended.

  2. Assessment of Passenger Satisfaction with Public Bus Transport Services: A Case Study of Lucknow City (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is threefold. First, it tries to assess the passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city of Lucknow in India. Second, it tries to examine the service quality attributes that influence the passenger satisfaction. Third, it tries to evaluate the relative importance of service quality attributes to find out the priority for service quality improvements to enhance passenger satisfaction. The study is based on a survey of objective as well as subjective questions conducted between May and July 2014. Five major bus stops of Lucknow were selected for the survey. Total 148 respondents were randomly selected to elicit their overall satisfaction and factors that influence their satisfaction in the use of public bus transport services in Lucknow using a self-rated questionnaire. The collected sample of responses is subjected to principal component analysis, a statistical technique for dimensionality reduction of the dataset, and descriptive analysis. The result of theses analyses shows that passengers are mostly dissatisfied with public bus transport services in Lucknow. Using principal component analysis, five underlying factors were extracted that influenced passenger satisfaction with public bus transport services in the city. Out of these five factors, comfort and safety has the greatest impact on overall satisfaction, followed by the adequacy of capacity of public bus transport services, orderly and clean environment inside buses, elegant design of buses and bus stops, and accessibility to public bus transport services in the city. The study thus provides a direction for public bus transport administration in the city to understand the gaps that exist and try to fill them to improve its services so that passenger satisfaction can be enhanced and consequently more people can be attracted towards public bus transport.

  3. Modeling the effect of operator and passenger characteristics on the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli Kashani, Ali; Rabieyan, Rahim; Besharati, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In Iran more than 25% of crash fatalities belong to motorcycle operators and passengers in the recent years, from which about 20% are related to passenger fatalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the motorcycle operator and passenger characteristics as well as other contributory factors that may affect the fatality risk of motorcyclists involved in traffic crashes. To this end, motorcycle crash data between 2009 and 2012 was extracted from Iran traffic crash database and a logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio estimates for each of the study variables. The fatality risk of motorcyclists has a direct relationship with the number of pillion passengers carried. Results also indicate that the amount of increase in the likelihood of having a fatality in a motorcycles crash is considerably higher when the operator is accompanied by a male passenger of the same age. Furthermore, results showed that if the crash is occurred in the darkness, on curves, in rural areas and on highways, then the crash would be more likely to be fatal. Moreover, the head-on collisions, older operators, unlicensed operators and not using a safety helmet were found to increase the likelihood of a fatality in a motorcycle crash. Preventative measures such as, imposing stricter rules regarding safety helmet usage and confining the number of pillion passengers to one, might be implemented to reduce the fatality risk in motorcycle crashes. In addition, more appropriate infrastructures for penalizing offending motorcyclists could also reduce the frequency of law violations such as not wearing helmet or riding without motorcycle license, which in turn, would result into a reduction in the fatality risk of motorcycle crashes. © 2016 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  4. Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Ming; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Zink, Robert M; Liu, Wei-Chung; Chu, Te-Chin; Huang, Wen-San; Li, Shou-Hsien

    2014-07-22

    To assess the role of human disturbances in species' extinction requires an understanding of the species population history before human impact. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in the world, with a population size estimated at 3-5 billion in the 1800s; its abrupt extinction in 1914 raises the question of how such an abundant bird could have been driven to extinction in mere decades. Although human exploitation is often blamed, the role of natural population dynamics in the passenger pigeon's extinction remains unexplored. Applying high-throughput sequencing technologies to obtain sequences from most of the genome, we calculated that the passenger pigeon's effective population size throughout the last million years was persistently about 1/10,000 of the 1800's estimated number of individuals, a ratio 1,000-times lower than typically found. This result suggests that the passenger pigeon was not always super abundant but experienced dramatic population fluctuations, resembling those of an "outbreak" species. Ecological niche models supported inference of drastic changes in the extent of its breeding range over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. An estimate of acorn-based carrying capacity during the past 21,000 y showed great year-to-year variations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that ecological conditions that dramatically reduced population size under natural conditions could have interacted with human exploitation in causing the passenger pigeon's rapid demise. Our study illustrates that even species as abundant as the passenger pigeon can be vulnerable to human threats if they are subject to dramatic population fluctuations, and provides a new perspective on the greatest human-caused extinction in recorded history.

  5. An open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for the global air network in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhuojie; Wu, Xiao; Garcia, Andres J; Fik, Timothy J; Tatem, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    The expanding global air network provides rapid and wide-reaching connections accelerating both domestic and international travel. To understand human movement patterns on the network and their socioeconomic, environmental and epidemiological implications, information on passenger flow is required. However, comprehensive data on global passenger flow remain difficult and expensive to obtain, prompting researchers to rely on scheduled flight seat capacity data or simple models of flow. This study describes the construction of an open-access modeled passenger flow matrix for all airports with a host city-population of more than 100,000 and within two transfers of air travel from various publicly available air travel datasets. Data on network characteristics, city population, and local area GDP amongst others are utilized as covariates in a spatial interaction framework to predict the air transportation flows between airports. Training datasets based on information from various transportation organizations in the United States, Canada and the European Union were assembled. A log-linear model controlling the random effects on origin, destination and the airport hierarchy was then built to predict passenger flows on the network, and compared to the results produced using previously published models. Validation analyses showed that the model presented here produced improved predictive power and accuracy compared to previously published models, yielding the highest successful prediction rate at the global scale. Based on this model, passenger flows between 1,491 airports on 644,406 unique routes were estimated in the prediction dataset. The airport node characteristics and estimated passenger flows are freely available as part of the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) project at: www.vbd-air.com/data.

  6. Analyzing the Effect of Passenger-Requested Unscheduled Stops on Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Paliska

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of unscheduled stops requestedby passengers on bus transit demand and presents theresults of its study. In the research a set of regression modelsthat estimate the route-level demand were developed using datacollected with Automatic Passenger Counters and AutomaticVehicle Location systems installed on buses, and demographic,socio-economic and land use information from other sources.The results obtained indicate that the number of rider-requestedunscheduled stops have no significant effect on demand,suggesting that the company policy which tolerates unscheduledstops is inadequate for attracting new riders.

  7. The Passenger Satisfaction Survey in the Regional Integrated Public Transport System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Valaskova

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Quality criteria Method of the Servicesin the Integrated Public Transport System in Slovak Republic.The proposed method is based on the detailed list of theQuality criteria of the Services in Public Transport from theview of passengers. The criteria are determined based on theSlovak Technical Norm STN EN 138 16 which is related toquality of transport. The method has been applied in RegionalIntegrated Public Transport System of Zilina (ZRIDS in theform of Passenger Quality Satisfaction Survey.

  8. Time series behaviour of the number of Air Asia passengers: A distributional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrah, Norhaidah Mohd; Djauhari, Maman Abdurachman

    2013-09-01

    The common practice to time series analysis is by fitting a model and then further analysis is conducted on the residuals. However, if we know the distributional behavior of time series, the analyses in model identification, parameter estimation, and model checking are more straightforward. In this paper, we show that the number of Air Asia passengers can be represented as a geometric Brownian motion process. Therefore, instead of using the standard approach in model fitting, we use an appropriate transformation to come up with a stationary, normally distributed and even independent time series. An example in forecasting the number of Air Asia passengers will be given to illustrate the advantages of the method.

  9. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyse and to compare the data from consultations and evacuations from merchant ships...... Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2). The distribution of symptoms, accidents and diseases, treatments/actions taken, evacuations and the communication forms were analysed. RESULTS: One thousand ninety-five contacts for seafarers from merchant ships and 651 passenger patients from Swedish ferries were...

  10. Passenger Vessel Damage Stability Study for 1990 SOLAS Amendments. Volume 2. Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    0.1 Note: Drafts are measured at A.P. and F.P alang ship’s centertine GE SUMMARY (Bvaluated per IKO (SOLAB󈨞) Rules for Passenger Ships) Available...Drafts are measured at A.P. and F.P alang ship’s centertine 03 SUNMIRY (Nvaluated per liO (8OLA1󈨞) Rules for Passenger Ships) Available Required...156.0 ------------------------------------ i- ------------ Note: Drafts are mesured at A.P. and F.P alang ship’s center ,Irw GZ SUMMARY (2valuateG per

  11. 46 CFR 115.620 - Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE... ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Hull and Tailshaft Examinations § 115.620 Description of the Alternative Hull Examination (AHE) Program for certain passenger vessels. The Alternative...

  12. 14 CFR 382.129 - What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be disassembled for stowage... Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.129 What other requirements apply when passengers' wheelchairs, other mobility aids, and other assistive devices must be...

  13. 3 CFR - Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck Tires From the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle and light truck tires from the People's Republic of China (China) are being imported into the... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light Truck... Presidential Determination No. 2009-28 of September 11, 2009 Imports of Certain Passenger Vehicle and Light...

  14. 49 CFR 39.39 - How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible cabins? 39.39 Section 39.39 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... to Services § 39.39 How do PVOs ensure that passengers with disabilities are able to use accessible...

  15. 29 CFR 500.104 - Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... holding on an incline. Brake systems shall be free of leaks. (c) Tires. Tires shall have at least 2/32... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Department of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and... of Labor standards for passenger automobiles and station wagons and transportation of seventy-five...

  16. 49 CFR 1331.5 - Additional standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. 1331.5 Section 1331.5 Transportation Other Regulations... standards for retaining antitrust immunity by passenger bus industry rate bureaus. (a) Rate bureaus must... tariff structure modifies in a relatively non-uniform fashion the relationship between most rates...

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(i), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel...

  18. Design for air-to-air refuelling operations; new passenger and tanker aircraft design for AAR scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Air-to-air refuelling is a way to improve fuel efficiency of the overall transport system without waiting for the improvement of basic aviation technology. To take full advantage of such an operation, both passenger aircraft and tanker aircraft (which deliver required fuel to the passenger aircraft

  19. 14 CFR 382.31 - May carriers impose special charges on passengers with a disability for providing services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... passengers with a disability for providing services and accommodations required by this rule? 382.31 Section... a disability for providing services and accommodations required by this rule? (a) Except as...) If your web site that passengers use to make reservations or purchase tickets is not accessible to a...

  20. 26 CFR 1.280F-2T - Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). 1.280F-2T Section 1.280F-2T Internal... TAXES Items Not Deductible § 1.280F-2T Limitations on recovery deductions and the investment tax credit for certain passenger automobiles (temporary). (a) Limitation on amount of investment tax credit—(1...