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  1. Passenger Flow Forecast Algorithm for Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To exactly forecast the urban rail transit passenger flow, a multi-level model combining neural network and Kalman filter was proposed. Firstly, ELAN neural network model was introduced to implement a preliminary forecast of the passenger flow. Then the Kalman filter was used to correct the preliminary forecast results, so as to further improve the accuracy. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the passenger flow in Shanghai subway transport hub was observed and simulated. Experimental results showed that the proposed multi-level model reduced error by about 0.8% and had better actual effect compared with any single algorithm.

  2. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  3. A Screening Method for Passenger Flow Bottleneck in Rail Transit Station Based on Reverse Search%基于逆向搜索的轨道交通车站客流瓶颈筛选方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏荷香; 刘尔辉

    2015-01-01

    在城市轨道交通客流量急剧增加的同时,城市轨道交通车站的相关设施设备也暴露了严重的集散能力瓶颈问题。为了研究以设施疏散能力为基础的静态瓶颈识别方法,改善轨道交通车站客流组织方案内容,结合通行能力的理论计算方法,提出了一种基于逆向搜索筛选出车站客流瓶颈的方法:通过模拟乘客在车站的走行路径,结合各设备及通道等部位的通行能力,运用逆推的方法来找到车站疏散体系的瓶颈节点。最后,根据广州地铁三号线市桥站的车站空间结构和设施最大通行能力,进行了算法的实际应用。结果表明,该车站的客流瓶颈与实际观测的可能拥堵点相吻合,验证了方法的可用性和有效性。%While passenger traffic flow of urban rail transit increased dramatically, the related facilities and equipment of rail transit stations also emerged the serious bottleneck of distributed capacity. In or⁃der to study the static bottleneck identification method based on the evacuation ability of rail transit facil⁃ities and improve the organization program of passenger flow in rail transit station, a screening method for passenger flow bottleneck in rail transit station based on the reverse search was proposed combined with the theoretical calculation of traffic capacity. By simulating passengers′travelling routes in rail tran⁃sit station and considering the traffic capacity of the channel and equipment, the bottleneck nodes of sta⁃tion evacuation system could be found using the reverse method. Finally, the method was applied in actu⁃al according to the station space structures and facilities maximum traffic capacity of Shiqiao Station in Guangzhou Metro Line Three. The results show that the passenger flow bottlenecks coincide with the po⁃tential congestion points by actual observation. The availability and effectiveness of the method have been verified.

  4. 城市轨道交通车站客流瓶颈应对措施研究%The Measures For Passenger Flow Bottleneck in Rail Transit Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞亦舟

    2016-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通的发展,线网规模不断扩大,客流量急剧增加的同时也考验车站设备设施的运输通过能力。为了避免车站出现严重拥堵现象,保障乘客出行效率和安全,本文以即将开通的广州地铁6号线二期金峰站为例,通过模拟乘客走行路径,分析车站各关键节点通过能力,得出车站的客流瓶颈,并提出在设备能力有限的情况下车站的应对措施。%With the development of the urban rail transit, the scale of the line is increasing, the passenger flow has increased rapidly, but also test the transport capacity of the station equipment and facilities. In order to avoid serious congestion in the station, guarantee the efficiency and safety of passengers’travel, in the forthcoming opening of the Guangzhou Metro Line 6, the second phase of Jin Feng Station as an example, through simulating the passengers walk’s path and analysis the key points of transport capacity, finally draw the station’s passenger flow bottleneck, and put forward the corresponding measures.

  5. Linkage between passenger demand and surrounding land-use patterns at urban rail transit stations: A canonical correlation analysis method and case study in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a canonical correlation analysis method to quantify the linkage between urban rail transit station demand and the surrounding land-use patterns. It is used to identify key land use variables by evaluating their degrees of contribution to the rail transit station demand. A full month of IC card data and detailed regulatory land use plan from Chongqing, China are collected for model development and validation. The proposed model contributes to offering the capability of targeting key land use patterns and associating them with rail transit station boarding and alighting demand simultaneously. The proposed model can reveal underlying rules between rail transit station demand and land use variables and can be used to evaluate the Transit Oriented Development (TOD plans to improve land use and transit operational efficiency.

  6. National Standards for Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanshen; Qin Guodong; Zhang Suyan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we suggest the creation of passenger service standards for urban rail transit.We put forward standards suited for China's actual conditions,aimed at meeting an international level of service based on customer-oriented principles.

  7. 城市轨道交通超大客流网络拥挤传播研究%The Research on the Network Congestion for Large Passenger Flow of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆晨; 刘澜; 牛龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Effect of time to study the law of city rail transit transmission and different number of large pas-senger congestion site of rail transit network , from the spread of disease theory , established large passenger con-gestion network spread disease model of network congestion based on the model , and the use of Adams differenti-al equation numerical model was solved .Propagation characteristics of fitting SIR infectious disease model of this study of inversion parameters are applied to the rail transit network , and simulation through the initial amount of congestion in different sites .Research shows that morbid spread large passenger rail transportation by probability of infection, recovery probability , initial congestion stations , also provides a new research method for the large passenger congestion propagation .%为研究城市轨道交通超大客流传播的时间规律以及不同数量拥堵站点对整体轨道交通网络的影响,通过定义超大客流,引用疾病传播理论,建立了基于网络拥挤模型的超大客流拥堵网络疾病传播模型,并运用Adams微分方程数值进行模型求解。对反演参数得到的SIR传染病模型的传播特性拟合运用于轨道交通网络,并通过不同的初始拥堵站点数量进行仿真。研究表明:轨道交通超大客流的病态传播受传染概率、恢复概率、初始拥堵站点数影响,该联系为超大客流网络拥挤传播提供一种新的研究思路。

  8. Dwell Time Modelling and Optimized Simulations for Crowded Rail Transit Lines Based on Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

  9. Fare Optimality Analysis of Urban Rail Transit under Various Objective Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit fare strategies include fare structures and fare levels. We propose a rail transit line fare decision based on an operating plan that falls under elastic demand. Combined with the train operation plan, considering flat fare and distance-based fare, and based on the benefit analysis of both passenger flow and operating enterprises, we construct the objective functions and build an optimization model in terms of the operators’ interests, the system’s efficiency, system regulation goals, and the system costs. The solving algorithm based on the simulated annealing algorithm is established. Using as an example the Changsha Metro Line 2, we analyzed the optimized results of different models under the two fare structures system. Finally the recommendations of fare strategies are given.

  10. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  11. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  12. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  13. Application research of rail transit safety protection based on laser detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifei

    2016-10-01

    Platform screen door can not only prevent the passengers fell or jumped the track danger, to passengers bring comfortable waiting environment, but also has the function of environmental protection and energy saving. But platform screen door and train the full-length gap region is insecure in the system design of a hidden, such as passengers for some reason (grab the train) in the interstitial region retention, is sandwiched between the intercity safety door and the door, and such as the region lacks security detection and alarm system, once the passengers in the gap region retention (caught), bring more serious threat to the safety of passengers and traffic safety. This paper from the point of view of the design presents the physical, infrared, laser three safety protection device setting schemes. Domestic intelligence of between rail transit shield door and train security clearance processing used is screen door system standard configuration, the obstacle detection function for avoid passengers stranded in the clearance has strong prevention function. Laser detection research and development projects can access to prevent shield door and train gap clamp safety measures. Rail safety protection method are studied applying laser detection technique. According to the laser reflection equation of foreign body, the characteristics of laser detection of foreign bodies are given in theory. By using statistical analysis method, the workflow of laser detection system is established. On this basis, protection methods is proposed. Finally the simulation and test results show that the laser detection technology in the rail traffic safety protection reliability and stability, And the future laser detection technology in is discussed the development of rail transit.

  14. Study Rapid Rail Transit Plan in Shanghai%上海市快速轨道交通规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆锡明; 王祥

    2012-01-01

    上海市轨道交通快速发展,支撑了城市空间扩展、优化了用地布局;然而在其快速发展过程中也暴露了一些问题.首先评估了近10年上海市轨道交通规划、建设、实施情况,总结存在的主要问题,如功能层次单一、服务水平不高等;指出当前其面临的一个重大问题是,单一功能层次的轨道交通造成长距离出行时耗长,缺乏与小汽车的竞争优势,从而影响、制约郊区新城的发展.然后借鉴东京、巴黎等国际大城市快速轨道交通的建设、实施和运营组织经验,根据上海实际,分析其发展快速轨道交通的必要性.最后通过分析上海市轨道交通的客流特征,提出其快速轨道交通规划必须“连心”,并给出了服务标准、规划方案和预计达到的实施效果.%The rapid development of rail transit has supported the city expansion and optimized landuse development in Shanghai. However, some shortcomings have been exposed in the process of the rapid rail transit development. This paper first evaluates the 10-year development of Shanghai rail transit network, and then points out the main deficiencies in the rail transit plan and construction, such as the lack of multiple functionalities, low service level, and etc. It is known that the lack of multiple functionality makes long distance trips time consuming and less competitive with car, which limits the development of new community in suburban areas. By learning from Tokyo, Paris and other big international cities in their rapid rail transit plan and operations, the paper analyzes the necessity of the rapid rail transit construction in Shanghai. Finally, through the analysis of rail transit passenger flow characteristics, the paper points out that the rapid rail transit must "connect the city centers", proposes the service standards, and puts forward a conceptual design of Shanghai rapid rail transit system with the implemental plans.

  15. Land Value Capture and Multi-level Governance for Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta%跨市轨道交通溢价回收策略与多层级管治:以珠三角为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄斌; 杨家文; 李贵才; 刘龙胜; 栾晓帆; 陈文

    2016-01-01

    Under the context of rapid urbanization and motorization in urban China, the demand for multi-juris-dictional passenger transport is becoming increasingly significant for regional integrated development. Follow-ing this trend, inter-city passenger rail transit has been viewed by the local governments as an important alter-native to driving, particularly when issues of road congestion, land development and regional integration are considered. However, how to obtain the capital to cover huge constructive and operational costs is challenging inter-city passenger rail transit. Current literature has focused on funding for municipal passenger rail transit and the issue of value capture policies and distribution arrangement. The value capture setup for inter-city rail transit has rarely been discussed. In this research, we first review some perceived difficulties and strategies for value capture in China, and then we present a case study of Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta. The case study describes the relevant planning and development processes. In particular, it ex-plains how the funding for this project has evolved from a collaborative effort between Guangdong Provincial Government and The Ministry of Railways to that between the Provincial Government and the relevant munici-pal governments. The ending arrangement is a new value-capture mechanism for funding the inter-city passen-ger rail. The innovation of this funding mechanism and the concurrent implementation difficulties are valuable experience for other mega-regions where similar inter-city transport projects have been considered.%随着城市化和机动化的发展,跨市轨道交通建设成为应对交通拥堵,引导土地开发与通勤结构,促进区域一体化的策略。面对轨道交通巨额建设运营成本,多层级政府管治(Multi-level Governance)下的投融资模式和溢价回收(Value Capture)策略成为推动跨市轨道交通建设的基

  16. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  17. 轨道交通行业竣工决算系统设计%The System Design of Final Accounts of the Completed Projects for Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 陈科

    2014-01-01

    随着IT系统渗透到工程项目建设的预算、合同、支付、财务等方方面面,形成了一个庞大的工程建设数据中心,依托IT系统完成工程项目的竣工决算便应运而生了。该文以苏州轨道交通公司为例,探讨了轨道交通行业竣工决算系统设计的思路和要解决的主要问题。%Final accounts of the completed projects will emerge relying on the IT system with the IT system coming into budget, contract, payment, financial and other aspects of construction projects and a huge project data center formed. In this paper, the de-sign solutions and main problems for the final accounts of the completed projects for rail transit industry will be discuessed as we take Suzhou Rail Transit company as an example.

  18. Developments in Rail Transit:History and Future of Rail Transportation in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In the past ten years, the increase in the number of automobiles in Beijing, es-pecially private cars, has led to serious traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Given that urban rail transit is expedient, punctual, high in passenger

  19. Real-time Forecast of Passenger Crowd Index on Urban Rail Transit Station Platform Based on Test Data of Internet of Things%基于物联网设备检测数据的城市轨道交通车站站台多维度实时客流密集度指数预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李得伟; 尹浩东

    2014-01-01

    Accurate real-time forecast of passenger flow is the basis of passenger flow early warning and evacua-tion in urban rail transit.This article focused on the real-time station platform passenger crowd index on fore-cast problem present with urban rail transit.According to the intermittent feature of real-time passenger flow, the on-line real-time forecast models for 30 s,3 min and 15 min dimensions were built on the basis of 30 s cyc-ling of real test data.In view of practical needs,the ARIMA model for 30 s,the multi factor logistic model for 3 min and the integrated gray and move average model for 1 5 min were built to estimate forecast parameters re-spectively.On-line tests during morning and evening peak time and common time at more than 10 stations proved the correctness of the structrual models.Taking the Beij ing Metro Zoo Station for case study,the de-grees of accuracy corresponding to the three above-mentioned time dimensions were obtained as 9 7%,9 5% and 9 9%.The research results show that the proposed models are of good effects on predicting real-time passenger flow in urban rail transit stations.The models have been used in the demonstrative project of the Beijing Metro internet of things for safety and initial results have been achieved.%实时准确的客流预测是城市轨道交通客流预警和疏导的基础。本文针对城市轨道交通车站站台的实时客流密集度指数预测问题,根据实时客流的“间歇性”特点,依据30 s为周期的真实检测数据,分别构建低、中、高3个时间维度在线实时预测模型。根据应用需要,对30 s 低纬度预测采用自回归与移动平均整合模型(ARI-MA),对3 min左右中维度提出多因素logistic预测模型,15 min构建一种灰色与移动平均整合模型,并分别对预测参数进行估计。通过对10余个车站早晚高峰及平峰不同数据的大量在线实验验证模型的准确性,以北京地铁动物园站为例进行介绍,3

  20. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  1. Honolulu Rail Transit: International Lessons in Linking Form, Design, and Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Boeing, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The city of Honolulu, Hawaii is currently planning and developing a new rail transit system. While Honolulu has supportive density and topography for rail transit, questions remain about its ability to effectively integrate urban design and accessibility across the system. Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip from origins and to destinations: transportation planning must account for pedestrian safety, comfort, and access. Ildefons Cerda's 19th century utopian plan for Barcelona's Eixample district produced a renowned, livable urban form. The Eixample, with its well-integrated rail transit, serves as a model of urban design, land use, transportation planning, and pedestrian-scaled streets working in synergy to produce accessibility. This study discusses the urban form of Honolulu and the history and planning of its new rail transit system. Then it reviews the history of Cerda's plan for the Eixample and discusses its urban form and performance today. Finally it draws several lessons from Barc...

  2. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  3. 上海轨道交通8号线双休日运营组织模式优化%Optimization of Weekend Passenger Transport Organization on Shanghai Rail Transit Line 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡威; 陆志坚

    2016-01-01

    Shanghai metro Line 8 is a rapid N-S traffic aisle,it undertakes heavy passenger transport task every day.Because of the design deficiencies in early stage and rapid urban development,requests for present transport or-ganization mode keep on increasing. So, the operating company should consider the special and timely demands of passengers at different time periods to promote the opera-tion quality and service level after meeting the needs of dai-ly work.In this paper,some optimization plans to enhance operation quality based on weekend transit and passenger features,also on the space-time distribution analysis of Line 8 are proposed.%上海轨道交通8号线作为一条南北走向的城市快速通道,每天承担着繁重的客运任务。但由于先期设计缺陷及后期城市发展,给当下的日常运营组织提出了多方面的运营需求。作为运营企业在满足日常运量需求的基础上,更应积极考虑不同时段客运需求的特殊性与时效性,从而提升运营企业的运营质量及服务品质。针对当下8号线节假日运营客流出行特点及分布时空提出了运营组织优化方案,以提升运营质量。

  4. Review on the Traction System Sensor Technology of a Rail Transit Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Junfeng; Liao, Wu; Liu, Yong

    2017-06-11

    The development of high-speed intelligent rail transit has increased the number of sensors applied on trains. These play an important role in train state control and monitoring. These sensors generally work in a severe environment, so the key problem for sensor data acquisition is to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In this paper, we follow the sequence of sensor signal flow, present sensor signal sensing technology, sensor data acquisition, and processing technology, as well as sensor fault diagnosis technology based on the voltage, current, speed, and temperature sensors which are commonly used in train traction systems. Finally, intelligent sensors and future research directions of rail transit train sensors are discussed.

  5. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  6. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  7. Simulation and evaluation of urban rail transit network based on multi-agent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such dynamic system should be given. This study therefore aims at using simulation approach to solve this problem for subway network. Design/methodology/approach: In this thesis a simulation model based on multi-agent approach has been proposed, which is a well suited method to design complex systems. The model includes the specificities of passengers’ travelling behaviors and takes into account of interactions between travelers and trains. Findings: Research limitations/implications: We developed an urban rail transit simulation tool for verification of the validity and accuracy of this model, using real passenger flow data of Beijing subway network to take a case study, results show that our simulation tool can be used to analyze the characteristic of passenger flow distribution and evaluate operation strategies well. Practical implications: The main implications of this work are to provide decision support for traffic management, making train operation plan and dispatching measures in emergency. Originality/value: A new and comprehensive method to analyze and evaluate subway network is presented, accuracy and computational efficiency of the model has been confirmed and meet with the actual needs for large-scale network.

  8. Bottleneck Identification for the Gathering and Distributing Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Station%城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单征; 宋瑞; 李婷婷; 陈立扬

    2014-01-01

    The bottleneck for the gathering and distributing capacity of urban rail transit station leads to serious passenger traffic congestion and reduces the distribution performance of stations ,which affects the efficiency and safety of passenger travel .Based on the full analysis of the connotation and cause of the gathering and distributing capacity bottle-neck of urban rail transit station ,the bottleneck identification method based on the congestion level is put forward .First-ly ,the cumulative Logistic regression based on a congestion level measurement model is built .Then ,the model is calibra-ted and validated with the survey data .Finally ,by taking Beijing Dongzhimen Rail Transit Station as the study site ,the validity of the model is verified by using Anylogic dynamic simulation .Results show that the model can accurately reflect the bottleneck of the gathering and distributing capacity of urban rail transit station in real time .%城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈会导致车站内部分区域出现严重的客流拥堵现象,降低车站集散效能,影响乘客出行效率和安全。在分析城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈内涵和成因的基础上,提出了基于拥堵强度的瓶颈识别方法。构建基于累计 Logistic 回归的拥堵强度判别模型,结合调查数据对模型进行参数标定和验证。以北京地铁东直门站为例,结合 Anylogic 动态仿真,验证了模型的有效性,表明该模型能够准确、实时地识别出城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈。

  9. Modeling and Optimization of Collaborative Passenger Control in Urban Rail Stations under Mass Passenger Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban rail transit, the phenomenon of outburst passenger flows flocking to stations is occurring much more frequently. Passenger flow control is one of the main methods used to ensure passengers’ safety. While most previous studies have only focused on control measures inside the target station, ignoring the collaboration between stops, this paper puts emphasis on joint passenger control methods during the occurrence of large passenger flows. To provide a theoretic description for the problem under consideration, an integer programming model is built, based on the analysis of passenger delay and the processes by which passengers alight and board. Taking average passenger delay as the objective, the proposed model aims to disperse the pressure of oversaturated stations into others, achieving the optimal state for the entire line. The model is verified using a case study and the results show that restricted access measures taken collaboratively by stations produce less delay and faster evacuation. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted, from which we find that the departure interval and maximum conveying capacity of the train affect passenger delay markedly in the process of passenger control and infer that control measures should be taken at stations near to the one experiencing an emergency.

  10. Turnback Capacity Assessment and Delay Management at a Rail Transit Terminal with Two-Tail Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal capacity and performance have become a major concern for rail transit agencies in China due to the ever increasing passenger demand. This paper develops a mixed integer programming (MIP optimization model to estimate the turnback capacity and performance of a rail transit terminal with two-tail tracks. The capacity evaluation and delay propagation are described and assessed as an N-track integrated model with minimal time span and train delay. Operations and design parameters such as tail track allocation strategies, maximum layover time, headway pattern, buffer time distribution scheme, and primary delay are also considered in this model. The effectiveness of the model is tested by a case study with computation results drawn from one terminal station in Shanghai, China. The case study results show that unfixed platform time and flexible tail track allocation strategies can improve the capacity of turnback operation, and the strategy of allowing swapping of the tail tracks has a significantly positive impact on delay absorption.

  11. Towards automated model calibration and validation in rail transit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Seck, M.D.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    The benefit of modeling and simulation in rail transit operations has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the complex dynamics involved and the ever-changing environment in which rail systems evolve expose the limits of classical simulation. Changing environmental conditions and second or

  12. Modified stochastic user-equilibrium assignment algorithm for urban rail transit under network operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜; 胡昊; 徐瑞华; 洪玲

    2013-01-01

    Based on the framework of method of successive averages(MSA), a modified stochastic user-equilibrium assignment algorithm was proposed, which can be used to calculate the passenger flow distribution of urban rail transit(URT) under network operation. In order to describe the congestion’s impact to passengers’ route choices, a generalized cost function with in-vehicle congestion was set up. Building on the k-th shortest path algorithm, a method for generating choice set with time constraint was embedded, considering the characteristics of network operation. A simple but efficient route choice model, which was derived from travel surveys for URT passengers in China, was introduced to perform the stochastic network loading at each iteration in the algorithm. Initial tests on the URT network in Shanghai City show that the methodology, with rational calculation time, promises to compute more precisely the passenger flow distribution of URT under network operation, compared with those practical algorithms used in today’s China.

  13. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is still room to improve. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  14. Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Seamless Transfer Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li Fen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of urban rail transit network and traveler requirement of travel , the concept of rail seamless integration has been proposed. This paper analyzes the meaning of integration and seamless integration and the connotation and characteristics of urban rail transport were seamlessly transfer analysis. On this basis, the organization of urban rail transit traffic in different ways are discussed. According to Brighton G (Bou ladon G hypothesis, tranfer distance is devided into ideal, desirable, acceptable, tolerable, intolerable five levels and their corresponding standard values are quantized, getting the standard of transfer time and distance to evaluate the quality of rail integration and Seamless Transfer of proposeing the standards of integration time and distance.

  15. Real-time origin-destination matrices estimation for urban rail transit network based on structural state-space model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向明; 赵鹏; 禹丹丹

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this work was to establish a structural state-space model to estimate the dynamic origin-destination(O-D) matrices for urban rail transit network, using in- and out-flows at each station from automatic fare collection(AFC) system as the real time observed passenger flow counts. For lacking of measurable passenger flow information, the proposed model employs priori O-D matrices and travel time distribution from historical travel records in AFC system to establish the dynamic system equations. An arriving rate based on travel time distribution is defined to identify the dynamic interrelations between time-varying O-D flows and observed flows, which greatly decreases the computational complexity and improve the model’s applicability for large-scale network. This methodology is tested in a real transit network from Beijing subway network in China through comparing the predicted matrices with the true matrices. Case study results indicate that the proposed model is effective and applicative for estimating dynamic O-D matrices for large-scale rail transit network.

  16. Real-time origin-destination matrices estimation for urban rail transit network based on structural state-space model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向明; 赵鹏; 禹丹丹

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this work was to establish a structural state-space model to estimate the dynamic origin-destination (O-D) matrices for urban rail transit network, using in- and out-flows at each station from automatic fare collection (AFC) system as the real time observed passenger flow counts. For lacking of measurable passenger flow information, the proposed model employs priori O-D matrices and travel time distribution from historical travel records in AFC system to establish the dynamic system equations. An arriving rate based on travel time distribution is defined to identify the dynamic interrelations between time-varying O-D flows and observed flows, which greatly decreases the computational complexity and improve the model’s applicability for large-scale network. This methodology is tested in a real transit network from Beijing subway network in China through comparing the predicted matrices with the true matrices. Case study results indicate that the proposed model is effective and applicative for estimating dynamic O-D matrices for large-scale rail transit network.

  17. Appraisal on Rail Transit Development: A Review on Train Services and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Hafiza binti; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Ghazali, Mohd Imran bin; Azis, Mohd Isom bin

    2017-08-01

    The ever increasing problems faced by population around the world have made demands that transportation need to be improved as an effective and efficient communication means. It is considered as a necessity especially when rapid development and economic growth of a country is the agenda. Among the transportation modes being focused as critical facilities are the bus system, rail system, road network, shipping system and air transportation system. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In Malaysia, the railway network has evolved tremendously since its inception in the early 19th century. It has grown proportionally with the national development. Railway network does not only mean for rural transportation, but it also considered as a solution to urban congestion challenges. Currently, urban rail transit is the most popular means of urban transportation system especially as big cities such as Kuala Lumpur. This paper presents the definition of rail transportation system and its role in urban or sub-urban operation. It also describes the brief history of world railway transportation including a discussion on Malaysian rail history perspective. As policy and standard are important in operating a railway system, this paper also illustrates and discusses some elements which have an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of train operation. Towards the end, this paper also shares the importance of railway safety based on real case studies around the world. Thus, it is hoped that this paper will enable the public to understand the rail transit development and appreciate its existence as a public transportation system.

  18. Study on Job-Housing Relationship and Characteristic of Commuting in Shanghai:Based on the Perspective of Rail Transit Passenger Flow Data%上海市职住关系和通勤特征分析研究--基于轨道交通客流数据视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志榕

    2016-01-01

    交通卡刷卡数据、手机信令数据、空间定位信息(GPS)等大数据的出现为城市与人的行为研究提供了数据支撑。基于2015年4月上海市公共交通卡刷卡数据,创建一般出行及虚拟换乘规则,建立上海轨道交通出行数据模型,并结合轨道交通网络空间数据模型,识别基于地铁出行的城市居民居住地、就业地和包括通勤时间、距离、空间分布等在内的通勤特征信息,并对典型就业中心和大型居住社区周边站点进行应用分析。研究表明,基于地铁的通勤出行者有130多万持卡人,平均通勤时间34.82 min,平均通勤距离为12.4 km;居住地在内环内、内外环间及外环外各站的持卡人相差不多,但就业地则有近2/3分布于内环内;通勤出行方向呈现明显的向心性;典型就业中心辐射范围广泛,平均通勤时间越往市中心越低;各大型居住社区的地铁通勤量相差很大,通勤去向并不集中于内环内。%Big Data such as transportation card data, cell phone data, Global Position System provides data support for the study on the behavior of city and people. Using Shanghai public transportation card data in April 2015, and creating general travel rules and virtual transfer rules, this study establishes Shanghai rail transit trip data model. Combined with the spatial data of rail transit network, the study identiifes jobs-housing relationship and characteristics of commuting such as time, distance and spatial distribution in Shanghai. Then the study makes an application of analyzing typical employment centers and large-sized residential communities. The research identiifes more than 1.3 million commuters, with average commuting time of 34.82 minutes and average commuting distance of 12.4 kilometers. The number of residences is about the same in the inner ring, outside the outer ring and between the two rings. But the percentage of employment in the inner

  19. Asynchronous Dual-Rail Transition Logic for Enhanced DPA Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajath Srivathsav N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Asynchronous Dual–Rail Transition Logic (ADTL is proposed in this paper. The new logic style can be used in the encryption circuit of cryptography to counter the differential power analysis (DPA attacks. The resistance to the DPA attacks is achieved by randomizing the power dissipated in the circuit through Manchester input signal coding and unpredictable initial state of the toggle flip-flops (TFF. The proposed logic uses two wires to transmit the signal, in the form of a single transition on either one of the two wires to indicate the input logic value. T-FFs are employed to randomize the power dissipated by the circuit. The randomizing is made possible by making the initial states of the flip-flops un-deterministic. Furthermore, the clock is completely eliminated in the conceived design, thus realizing increased power randomization and resistance to the DPA attacks. The design is demonstrated through the systematic simulations on a typical encryption circuit. The validation of the ADTL is made through extensive comparisons with the existing Dual-rail Transition Logic (DTL for power, delay and the DPA resistance. Industry standard EDA tools with 90nm technology libraries provided by the UMC foundry have been employed in the designs.

  20. Comparative Analysis and Pedestrian Simulation Evaluation on Emergency Evacuation Test Methods for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijia Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergency evacuation test method of rail transit station not only affects the operation safety of the station, but it also has significant influence on the scale and cost of the station. A reasonable test method should guarantee both the safety of evacuation and that the investment is neither excessive nor too conservative. The paper compares and analyzes the differences of the existing emergency evacuation test methods of rail stations in China and other regions on the evacuation load, evacuation time calculation and the capacity of egress components, etc. Based on the field survey analysis, the desired velocity distribution of pedestrians in various station facilities and the capacity of egress components have been obtained, and then the parameters of pedestrian simulation tool were calibrated. By selecting a station for the case study, an evacuation simulation model has been established, where five evacuation scenarios have been set according to different specifications and the simulation results have been carefully analyzed. Through analyzing the simulation results, some modification proposals of the current emergency evacuation test method in the design manual have been considered, including taking into account the section passenger volume, walking time on escalators and stairs of the platform, and the condition in which the escalator most critical to evacuation should be considered as out of service.

  1. On Safety Requirements of Design for Urban Rail Transit Based on Operating Practice%从运营实践探讨城市轨道交通设计的安全要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周捷

    2012-01-01

    China's urban rail transit has come into a stage of rapid development and the design of safety standard has proved to be the guarantee of operating security. This paper, based on the operating practice of urban rail transit, categorized and analyzed the potential safety hazard in daily operating, which may be caused by designing discrepancy. It explored the actual operating situations that should be focused during the planning and designing stage of city rail transit and proposed that improving the designing of the equipment and facility of city rail transit will lay a solid foundation for the operating safety management and build a connection and inter-complement between the designing and operating, hence to form a well-balanced safety control system of city rail transit and to ensure the safety of passengers and the longevity of city rail transit.%中国城市轨道交通已进入飞速发展期,为保证运营安全必须从安全标准和设计源头抓起。基于城市轨道交通运营管理中的实践经验,对设计中考虑不周而造成的运营安全隐患进行归类、分析,探讨城市轨道交通在规划设计阶段需要关注的若干重要问题。通过对城市轨道交通设施设备进行设计优化,使整个城市轨道交通安全体系更趋完善、合理,形成平衡的城市轨道交通安全管控体系,从而达到为运营安全管理奠定基础的目的。

  2. Practice and Proposals for Vehicle Matching in Urban Rail Transit%我国城市轨道交通车辆选配实践及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林科; 刘卡丁

    2012-01-01

    The vehicle matching of rail transit vehicles in China mostly focuses on regular models. This is adaptable to the objective conditions and basic needs of the development of urban rail transit. However, some problems are still existing on vehicle matching which resulted in blindness of calculating passenger flows and competition with each other, failing to pay due attention to the total cost of owner (TCO) and maintaining a relatively moderate and appropriate scale and coordination etc. Therefore, the author proposes the strategy of preferential development and the theory that vehicles of rail transit should be classified and matched by line network levels, thereupon to provide ideas and reasonable working route for the future vehicle matching of urban rail transit.%分析国内轨道交通车辆选配的现状,指出车辆选配主要集中在常规制式车型上,虽与城市轨道交通发展的客观条件和基本需求相适应,但也存在基于预测客流选配车辆的盲目性、相互攀比性以及忽视车辆综合拥有成本、保持适度规模与适度组合等问题.因此,提出城市轨道交通车辆按线网层级划分的选配理论及优先发展策略,为今后的城市轨道交通车辆选配提供清晰的思路及合理的工作路径.

  3. Estimation Method of Path-Selecting Proportion for Urban Rail Transit Based on AFC Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the successful application of automatic fare collection (AFC system in urban rail transit (URT, the information of passengers’ travel time is recorded, which provides the possibility to analyze passengers’ path-selecting by AFC data. In this paper, the distribution characteristics of the components of travel time were analyzed, and an estimation method of path-selecting proportion was proposed. This method made use of single path ODs’ travel time data from AFC system to estimate the distribution parameters of the components of travel time, mainly including entry walking time (ewt, exit walking time (exwt, and transfer walking time (twt. Then, for multipath ODs, the distribution of each path’s travel time could be calculated under the condition of its components’ distributions known. After that, each path’s path-selecting proportion can be estimated. Finally, simulation experiments were designed to verify the estimation method, and the results show that the error rate is less than 2%. Compared with the traditional models of flow assignment, the estimation method can reduce the cost of artificial survey significantly and provide a new way to calculate the path-selecting proportion for URT.

  4. 城市轨道交通外部效益内部化分析%Studies on the Internalization of External Benefits of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆辉

    2012-01-01

    由于城市轨道交通有着明显的外部效益,其效益主要流向交通利用者、沿线房地产商或沿线居民,而轨道交通建设及运营的投资方却没有得到相应的外部效益。通过分析城市轨道交通外部效益存在着外溢效应,接着对外部效益内部化的模型进行研究,最后提出城市轨道交通外部效益内部化相关建议。%As the external benefit of urban rail transit is obvious,and the benefit belongs to traffic persons,the real estate business and residents along the rail lines.However,investors for construction and operation of urban rail transit don't get their own benefits.This thesis analyzes spill over effect of external benefits of urban rail transit.Then,it studies internal model of external benefits.Finally,the thesis provides some relevant suggestions.

  5. Alignment analysis of urban railways based on passenger travel demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Planning of urban railways like Metro and especially Light Rail Transit often result in multiple alignment alternatives from where it can be difficult to select the best one. Travel demand is a good foundation for evaluating a railway alignment for its ability to attract passengers. Therefore...... and can be applied as decision support in different stages of the urban railway alignment planning....

  6. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board.... 10902 for Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District (SMART), a Class III rail carrier, to acquire an...

  7. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  8. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  9. Building an Efficient Urban Rail Transit Network with Three Themes:Humanity, Technology and Greenness%用三大理念构建高效城市轨道交通网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 王燕凯; 孔令洋

    2011-01-01

    在近几年的北京市轨道交通网络规划、线路设计等前期工作中,通过践行"人文、科技、绿色"三大理念,构建集约、高效的城市轨道交通网络,取得初步成效.采取构建第二环线、创新郊区线的衔接原则、引入快线系统、完善换乘条件、做好交通衔接等措施,优化线网功能,以乘客服务为本,提高服务水平.在指挥调度、车辆基地、综合通信、界面标识等方面,通过科技创新,实现资源的集约利用.探索现代有轨电车、中低速磁浮等车辆制式的应用,引领未来绿色轨道交通系统的发展.%During the network planning and design of Beijing urban rail transit, three themes-humanity, technology and greenness-were applied to build an efficient urban rail transit network. Firstly, try to realize passenger-oriented rail transit system by setting a second loop line, innovating linking with suburban lines, introducing rapid lines and optimizing transfer and connection.Secondly, try to enforce resource sharing through technological innovations in operation control and management, car depots,integrated communication, interface and guiding signals. Thirdly, try to apply modern trams and medium-low-speed maglev trains, to guide the development of future green rail transit system.

  10. 城铁安全检查通过率分析及建模研究%Analysis and Modeling of Urban Rail Transit Safety Inspection Passing Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉姣; 刘凯

    2011-01-01

    Using queue theory, the paper elaborates on the principle and methods for the establishment of a queuing system model for urban rail transit passengers, focuses on optimizing the in-flowing passenger behavioral pattern and inbound queuing system to minimize expenditure, maximize operational benefit, and guarantee the passing capacity of incoming passenger safety inspection, and at the end applies the model to other of queuing system scenarios.%应用排队论原理,阐述建立乘客乘坐轨道交通过程的排队系统模型原理及思想,重点论述了高峰时期客流进站行为规律及进站排队系统的优化,以期最小的费用成本支出和最高的运营效益,解决进站安检通过能力问题,并应用该模型算法到其他服务问题的排队系统中.

  11. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  12. Web Design Based on Integrated and Supervision Control System in City Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xing, Yu; Zheng, Hengchao

    This paper presents a method of setting up WEB System to Integrated Supervision Control System for the requirements of city Rail Transit. First, basic platform and software/hardware architecture of WEB System are discussed. Then the function module, data flow and communication mechanisms are described and a design based on technologies of SVG and Ajax is proposed and the WEB video release function and system security are described. This design makes it possible that important information of Integrated Supervision Control System can be browsed and queried in external Web pages. Watching Real-time images of all cameras in internal network of Rail Transit is possible, which is providing remote viewing and management functions for metro managers.

  13. Passengers Preference and Satisfaction of Public Transport in Malaysia, Part II: A Comparative Analysis of Komuter and LRT Network

    OpenAIRE

    Rozmi Ismail; Mohammad Hesam Hafezi; Rahim Mohd Nor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a comparative analysis of passengers preference and satisfaction of two kinds of public transportation in Malaysia, namely, train commuter (KTM) and Light Rail Transit (LRT). One of the important issues regarding public transport is the passenger satisfaction. The main objective of this research is to describe traveler’s satisfaction and preference towards public transport with service quality attributes. Parameters in passenger preference and satisfaction on public transp...

  14. Research of Adjusting Alignments and Gradient Method of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通调线调坡方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮

    2014-01-01

    分析了引起城市轨道交通调线调坡的原因,提出了城市轨道交通调线调坡的测量要求及设计方法。以长沙市轨道交通2号线一期工程为例进行了调线调坡设计验证,总结了调线调坡及线路设计应注意的问题。%The paper analyzed causes for the urban rail transit adjustment of alignments and gradient, proposed the measurement requirements and the design methods of adjusting alignments and gradient. Taking the first-stage construction of Changsha urban rail transit number 2 line as an example,the pa-per verified the design of adjusting alignments and gradient,finally summarized some problems en-countered in the process of adjusting alignment,gradient and line design.

  15. The Role of Rail Transit Systems in Reducing Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The Case of The City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sanches de Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has established, by municipal law, a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions of the transport system by 20% until 2020 compared to 2005. In order to reach this goal, the city’s public transport has been restructured with an emphasis on rail transit systems. The city will host the 2016 Olympic Games and this has encouraged the transformation of public transportation. One of the new projects is the construction of a new metro line, Line 4, to connect the downtown area to the city’s fastest growing part, the western region, which will also be a venue for many events during the Olympic Games. This article presents and applies a procedure for calculating energy use and emissions avoided by Line 4 by attracting users from other transport modes in the period from 2016 to 2040. The procedure uses a detailed demand forecast for this period and considers the local transport profile and the different fuels used. The net amount of carbon dioxide avoided was 55,449 tonnes per year and 44.53 grams per passenger kilometer. The avoided energy reached 0.76 MJ per passenger kilometer.

  16. The Inter-city Rail Transit Planning Scheme for Jiangsu Cities Complex along Yangtze River%江苏省沿江城市群城际轨道交通线网规划方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振林

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通的规划建设是城市群发展的必然要求,江苏沿江城市群是我国城市化进程过程中重点发展的区域。根据沿江地区城市群的特征,把沿江地区城际轨道交通线网分为主骨架城际网和都市圈城际网两个层次进行规划,重点研究沿江地区都市圈内部中心城市之间以及中心城市与中小城市之间的城际轨道交通通勤线网。%Plan and construction of intercity rail transit is an inevitable demand for the development of urban complexes to meet the requirements of increasing demand of passengers and freight traffic.Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River is a key concern during the process of China’s urbanization process.Based on the economic characteristics of cities complex along Yangtze River,the urban rain transit network planning along Yangtze River is classified into two levels: backbone inter-city network and metropolitan area inter-city network,key research is carried out on the intercity rail way network among the center cities and between the central city and medium and small city of the metropolitan area along Yangtze River.This paper is designed to put forward a more reasonable network planning of inter-city rail transit for Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River,but also provides some reference for the inter-city rail transit network planning of other urban agglomerations,which has a positive theoretical and practical significance.

  17. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  18. Research on the Station Spacing of Rail Transit Based on Travel Time%基于出行时间的轨道交通站间距探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡璇

    2012-01-01

    轨道交通站间距的大小对于出行者的出行时间具有重要的影响.通过Wardrop用户平衡原则揭示出出行者选择最短出行时间的行为特征.引用了基于出行时间最小的轨道交通站间距模型,指出了模型中假设乘客从起点到出发站和从出发站到目的地均采用步行方式不合实际出行状况.并且对于不同的到站距离,乘客采取的到站方式也是不同的.在此基础上提出合理的轨道交通的站间距能减少乘客出行时间,方便乘客出行.并通过案例进行了定量分析.%The station spacing of rail transit is important to travelers' travel time. According to the Ward-rop balance principle, travelers choose the shortest travel time for their travels. The rail transit station spacing model is based on the minimum travel time. It would be wrong to assume that passengers arrive and leave the station by foot in the model. In addition, for different places, passengers' choices may be different. Hence,it is pointed out that a reasonable station spacing can shorten the passengers' travel time for their convenience. A quantitative analysis is also given with a case.

  19. 浅析共线运营在我国城轨交通中的合理运用%On the Utilization of Joint Operation in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞文韬

    2011-01-01

    共线运营可分为支线形式和非支线形式两种类型。作为一种城市轨道交通的运营模式,共线运营可以在有限的路线长度上大幅增加运营总里程,提高城轨输送效率。在规划运营方案,确定采用哪种运营模式时,应考虑城市轨道建设的实际和可以具备的条件。广州地铁4、5、8号线和北京地铁2、13号线的共线运营线路可作相应的改进。%Compared with other forms of urban rail transit,joint operation can improve the efficiency of transporting passengers.Based on an analysis of current joint operation both at home and abroad,and also on contrastive studies between domestic projects of urban rail network,the paper explores effective ways of combining joint operation and rail transit network with a view to offer some help to improve urban rail construction.

  20. 基于复杂网络的城市轨道交通线网评价与优化%Evaluation and Optimization of Urban Rail Transit Network Based on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祝清; 韩亚品

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban rail transit network based on the complex network theory and evaluates rail transit network by means of an established complex network model to compute and analyze the eigenvalues. With reference to the planning rail transit network in Wuhan to the year of 2021, the most stressful traffic stations and intervals of the network are determined, and optimization programs are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are as follows. The key stations in rail transit network include not only multi-line transfer stations, but stations with large betweeness. Easing traffic pressure of key stations can not be simply fulfilled by adding more lines, but should be done by increasing peripheral passage connections with the consideration of the entire network structure. Rather than only pursuing network efficiency, the passenger flow capacity of single stations and intervals from the perspective of network structure should be taken into account when constructing the network.%采用复杂网络理论对城市轨道交通线网进行分析,建立复杂网络模型,进行特征值计算分析,对轨道交通网络进行评价。以武汉市规划2021年轨道交通线网为例,确定网络中交通压力最大的车站和区间,提出优化方案并进行评价比较。研究结论为:在轨道交通线网中重要的车站不仅是多线换乘站,还应包括介数较大的车站;疏解重要站点客流压力不能简单增加线路,而应考虑整个网络结构,增加外围的通道连接;在构筑网络时,不能仅追求网络效率,更应从网络结构的角度考虑单个车站或区间的客流承受能力。

  1. The Platform of Network Operation Assistant Decision Making andEmergency for Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通网络化运营辅助决策与应急平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 王富章; 李平

    2012-01-01

    根据城市轨道交通网络化运营特点和需求,构建城市轨道交通网络化运营辅助决策与应急平台.按照轨道交通运营管理模式,建立3级递阶的系统结构,通过标准化的接口技术实现多源异构信息的交互和融合.以监控信息衍生支持分级分类预警、行车监控分段关联转换即时定位、线网动态客流分析等关键技术为基础生成共享信息源,为轨道交通换乘站运力协调、交通枢纽接驳疏散、应急状态下的资源调配等提供决策支持.实现了专业化的信息共享和多种通讯传输的软硬件与业务的应用集成.工程应用表明,平台提高了城市轨道交通网络化运营与应急管理的便捷性和高效性.%On the basis of the characteristics and requirements of network operation management in urban rail transit, this paper builds a multilevel hierarchical platform of network operation assistant decision making and emergency for urban rail transit. Three-level hierarchical structure is established according to operation and management mode of urban rail transit system. It relies on respective exchange and fusion between multi-resource information with diverse structure by employing standardized interface program. It focuses on supervision information deployed to match corresponding warning classification, sections of monitoring trains related to real-time positioning, and analysis for dynamic passengers flow in network. These crucial techniques are developed in order to produce data sharing resource for further decision making, including establishing transportation capacity coordination in transfer stations, access evacuation in transport hub and rescue resources deployment in the state of emergency. The platform has realized the integration of professional information sharing, common used communication of software and hardware, and business applications. The practical project indicates that the platform has improved the convenience and

  2. Impacts of Light Rail Transit Tram on the Voltage and Unbalance of the Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the three-phase voltage and unbalance analysis for the distribution system with the loading of a light rail transit (LRT tram. To investigate the dynamic responses of the system voltage and current, this paper adopts the Alternative Transients Program (ATP software to model and simulate a multigrounded four-wire distribution system with an LRT loading. Two different definitions about unbalance are used to evaluate the problem. In this paper, the traction supply substation (TSS with a single-phase transformer configuration is designed first for providing the electric power to the trams of LRT. However, it may result in the significant neutral line current and unbalance phenomenon to deteriorate the power quality of the distribution system. A Le-Blanc connection transformer in the TSS is therefore proposed to solve the problems.

  3. Assessment on the Cohesion Pattern of Rail Transit: Integration of Rough Set and Grey Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing project assessment relies on expert scoring, whose precision can be deteriorated by personal subjectivity. This paper presents an assessment method to compare the advantages and disadvantages of three cohesion patterns between suburban and urban rail transit network, which reduces the influence of subjective score. A modified rough set – grey correlation model is developed as a core of this assessment, based on the integration of rough set theory and grey correlational analysis, where an index system is set up for model calculation. A case study using the network in Ningbo is applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the results show that the method is more effective using discretely distributed data sensitive to sample size. The consistency of the results in comparison with marginal cost analysis can be a preliminary verification of the model.

  4. Development and evaluation of light rail transit signal priority strategies. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.; Mechemehl, R.

    1998-08-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) signal priority strategies are often considered LRT vehicle delay reduction tools. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate LRT signal priority strategies to determine which strategies are most likely to produce significant delay reductions. A simulated median running LRT route in Austin, Texas is used for this case study. Both active and passive priority strategies are simulated using CORSIM with a Run-Time Extension (RTE). The RTE is used to provide the active priority signal timing changes associated with a green signal extension for the LRT phase. The results indicate that passive priority strategies are more effective in reducing delay. Among the passive methods, prohibition of left turns across the LRT tracks and one-way progression segmented to account for stops at LRT stations yield the best results.

  5. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur’s Public Urban Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality’s closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network’s growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks. PMID:26448645

  6. Design on Simply-Supported Box Beam in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit%珠三角城际轨道交通简支箱梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建军; 邓运清

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通是联系城市群间的快速铁路客运专线,主要满足经济发达的人口稠密地区中短途旅客运输需要,对景观设计要求较高.珠三角城际轨道交通桥梁形式采用了流线形箱梁,在箱梁外侧设置大圆弧,小曲线的梁端加宽等处理更加体现了城际轨道交通桥梁中景观设计要素.其常用简支箱梁根据线间距变化,设计分为双线箱梁、单线箱梁和组合箱梁3种形式.从箱梁设计的技术标准、桥面布置、截面选型等方面进行介绍.%In developed and populous areas, the intercity rail transit is the rapid passenger-dedicated line of urban agglomeration in order to meet the needs of passenger traffic within middle distance and short distance, with the higher requirements on landscape. So the box beam bridges with streamline shape were employed in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit, in which the large arc shape was utilized along the lateral surface of the box beam, and the girder ends on sharp curve were widened to reflect more landscape elements of intercity rail transit bridge design. Moreover, in the design, according to the various distances between the track centers, the usual simply-supported box beam s were divided into three types; the box beam with double tracks, box beam with single track, and the composite box beam. The technical standards, bridge deck arrangement, cross-section selection and other aspects in box beam design are introduced in this paper.

  7. Ningbo Rail Transit Investment and Financing Mode of Ningbo Rail Transit Project with Some Suggestions%宁波轨道交通投融资思考与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林轶琼

    2015-01-01

    Rail transit projects take up large amount of construction funds, bring a heavy burden to the government. The financing source for Ningbo rail transit project is traditional pattern of "government + bank". This pattern cannot change the situation of too narrow financing channel for rail transit project, and the government still has to bear heavy pressure form project investment, rail operation and debt paying. However, Public-private partnership (PPP) mode has already been applied to rail transit projects and has left over good experience. PPP mode lets social capitals undertake the task of construction and operation for profitable parts of public projects, which takes advantage of social capitals’more professional at company management and risk taking,so that the government can return to the initial role of market supervision and social service.%轨道交通项目需要占用大量建设资金,给政府带来沉重的财政负担。宁波的轨道交通项目资金来源为传统的“政府+银行”模式。该模式无法改变宁波轨道交通投融资渠道狭窄的局面,政府依然承载投资、经营及还债的沉重压力。公私合作的PPP模式在轨道交通上已有良好的实践经验,该模式通过让社会资本承担轨道交通项目可营利部分的建设与运营,发挥了社会资本擅长经营、擅长承担风险的优势,让政府回到市场监督与社会服务的最初角色。

  8. The new prevalence of public-private partnerships in the production of Light Rail Transit Systems in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    To understand why all new light rail transit (LRT) projects under development in Canada are carried out in public-private partnership (P3) rather than through the traditional mode (public administration) that prevailed in the past, this research explores three light rail projects currently underway in Edmonton, Ottawa and Toronto. We study the arguments surrounding each decision leading to the choice of the P3 governance model. We show that in all cases, it is possible to observe the mechanis...

  9. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  10. Phase I of the Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The results of Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program are summarized. This phase of the program ws a study leading to the preliminary design of a 5-passenger hybrid vehicle utilizing two energy sources (electricity and gasoline/diesel fuel) to minimize petroleum usage on a fleet basis. This report presents the following: overall summary of the Phase I activity; summary of the individual tasks; summary of the hybrid vehicle design; summary of the alternative design options; summary of the computer simulations; summary of the economic analysis; summary of the maintenance and reliability considerations; summary of the design for crash safety; and bibliography.

  11. Urban rail transit of fire risk assessment and countermeasures%城市轨道交通火灾事故风险评估及对策措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一姝; 白建平; 易俊

    2012-01-01

    The article through the city traffic situations and existing problems of analysis and based on the fire risk assessment method which provides an evidence and support in preventing, placing on occupants'safety. In order to track traffic accident fire accident happens is as an example, the fault tree of safety evaluation method of rail transit operation fire accident risk evaluation process, thus find cause fire the main reason of the accident, and combined with Chongqing light rail line NO:2 door station in an emergency river personnel evacuation calculation, light rail line no. 2 judge river door the station fire accident and emergency, whether in the limited time within the safe evacuation, ensuring passenger safety, and combining the actual situation rail transit are corresponding countermeasures, reduce the possibility of accident happening and serious degree, which ensure that people's life safety and property from losses.%运用故障树安全评价的方法和火灾风险评估中的定量分析方法,以人员安全为出发点,对轨道交通运营过程火灾事故风险进行评估.并对重庆市轻轨2号线临江门车站进行紧急情况下人员疏散计算,判断轻轨临江门车站发生火灾等紧急事故时,能否确保乘客的人身安全.结合轨道交通现状给出相应对策措施,降低事故发生的可能性,确保乘客生命安全和财产不受损失.

  12. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  13. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  14. Quantification of evaporative running loss emissions from gasoline-powered passenger cars in California. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClement, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect evaporative running emissions data from a cross section of in-use, light-duty passenger cars. Forty vehicles were procured and tested using the 'LA-4' cycle (the EPA Urban Dynamometer Driving Cycle (UDDS)) and the New York City Cycle (NYCC). The LA-4 cycle was run three times with a two minute idle period between the first two runs. The NYCC was run six times with a two minute idle between the first five runs of the cycle. Tests were performed at 95 and 105 degrees Farenheit, and using 7.5 and 9.0 Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) fuel. The report describes two types of running losses - Type 1 where emissions are emitted at a constant, low level (typical of late model, properly operating vehicles), and Type II emissions, where there is a high rate of emissions (typical in uncontrolled vehicles).

  15. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices A and B. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    In this report vehicle use patterns or missions are defined and studied. The three most promising missions were found to be: all-purpose city driving which has the maximum potential market penetration; commuting which requires mainly a two-passenger car; and family and civic business driving which have minimal range requirements. The mission selection process was based principally on an analysis of the travel patterns found in the Nationwide Transportation Survey and on the Los Angeles and Washington, DC origin-destination studies data presented by General Research Corporation in Volume II of this report. Travel patterns in turn were converted to fuel requirements for 1985 conventional and hybrid cars. By this means the potential fuel savings for each mission were estimated, and preliminary design requirements for hybrid vehicles were derived.

  16. Management of Rail-transit Operational Materials Purchasing Based on Supply Chain%基于供应链的轨道交通运营物资采购管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宇虹; 李文兴

    2012-01-01

    以供应链理论为依托,对城市轨道交通运营物资采购管理问题进行了深入研究,明确了轨道交通运营企业在供应链中所处位置及运营物资采购管理过程中的矛盾和问题,提出了创新供应模式,加强供应商管理,协调企业内外部关系等优化措施.%Using supply chain theories, the paper studies in-depth the management of operational materials purchasing for urban rail-transit systems, ascertains the position of rail-transit operators within the supply chain as well as the conflicts and other problems in the purchasing process, and finally suggests optimizing measures such as innovating supply mode, strengthening supplier management and coordinating corporate internal and external relations.

  17. 轨道交通建设沿线建(构)筑物调查实践%The Survey of the Buildings and Structures Along Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海奎; 武鑫; 李忠杰; 吴凯

    2014-01-01

    For the survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,this paper analyzed the survey contents , the operating methods ,the research process ,tidying results and other aspects ,presented the technological scheme of sur-vey to use to survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,and explained and evaluated the preparation ,the sur-vey,the query of data,tidying results and other aspects.Finally,we got the exact and satisfied survey results of the build-ings and structures .%针对城市轨道交通建设沿线的建(构)筑物调查实践,对调查内容、作业方法、调查流程、成果整理等方面进行了分析,提出了调查技术方案,应用在乌鲁木齐市轨道交通沿线的建(构)筑物调查作业中,同时对前期准备、外业调查、资料查询、内业整理和成果提交形式等实施环节进行了内容说明和评价,得到了的准确、可靠的建(构)筑物调查成果。

  18. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  19. 中国城市轨道交通法律法规体系研究%The Legal System of China' s Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子栋; 苗彦英

    2012-01-01

    Law-based management is the basis and regulation safeguard of effective and sustained management of the urban rail transit system. However, development of the legal system for urban rail transit in China is far too behind the construction process. This paper summarizes the existing deficiencies in China' s legal system of urban rail transit by analyzing the laws and regulations at both the state and local levels. By learning experience of the legal systems of urban rail transit in Japan, Taiwan rail industry, the paper develops a conceptual framework and legislation recommendations for the legal system of urban rail transit in China.%法制化管理是城市轨道交通管理机制良性运行的根本性制度保证,但中国城市轨道交通法律体系建设严重滞后于行业的高速发展.通过对中国中央层面和地方层面法律法规的现状分析,总结出目前城市轨道交通法律体系存在的不足,同时借鉴日本铁路、中国台湾捷运和内地铁路行业法律体系构建的经验,提出了中国城市轨道交通法律体系构想和立法建议.

  20. Urban Rail Transit National Economic Benefit Evaluation of Based on the Multi-Level Fuzzy Appraisement%基于多层次模糊评判模型的城市轨道交通国民经济效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆辉

    2012-01-01

    城市轨道交通具有财务效益和国民经济效益两种属性,而国民经济效益的优劣成为修建城市轨道交通的决定条件。首先分析城市轨道交通国民经济效益评价的工作流程,接着论述多层次模糊评判模型的基本思路,最后用该模型论证成都地铁2号线一期工程国民经济效益评价为“较满意”。%The urban rail transit has two properties of the financial benefit and the national economic benefit, but the pros and cons of national economic benefit become the decision condition, which makes the urban rail transit. Firstly,this thesis analyzes the workflow of the urban rail transit. Then, it studies the main idea of the Multi-level fuzzy Appraisement. Finally using a case analysis demonstrates the model.

  1. Urban Rail Transit Cost Control%城市轨道交通工程造价控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建群

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of large capacity,fast and environmental transportation,rail transit has been widely used in big cities worldwide.Now,subway construction in our big cities has entered in a big wave.This paper analyzed and researched the problems that too high rail transit project cost,low initiative and poor measure of cost control,etc.Then,this paper presented the project cost overall process control idea and corresponding control measures in each stage.%轨道交通作为一种大运量、快捷、环保的交通工具,在全世界范围内的大城市已经广泛应用,目前我国各大城市进入地铁建设高潮期。此文针对全国轨道交通工程造价过高、造价控制的主动性不强及措施不利等问题进行分析与研究,提出工程造价全过程控制理念和各阶段控制造价的相应措施。

  2. Cost Control Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Project%城市轨道交通工程造价控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定涓

    2015-01-01

    随着当前社会经济的快速发展,轨道交通在城市的发展当中发挥着举足轻重的作用。城市轨道交通因其容量大、速度快、安全、环保、准时、舒适等特点,成为一种有效解决城市交通问题必不可少的交通工具。城市轨道交通建设速度及规模不断加大,截止2014年末,我国累计有22个城市建成投运城轨线路101条,运营线路长度3155公里。但因为城市轨道交通造价太大,一定程度上制约了其建设与发展,因此分析研究城市轨道交通工程造价的控制具有重要的现实性意义。%With the current rapid social and economic development, the rail transit plays a pivotal role in development of city. For its large capacity, high speed, safety, environmental protection, punctuality and comfort features, urban rail transit has become an effective and indispensable means for solving the urban transport problems. The construction speed and scale of urban rail transit continues to increase, and at the end of 2014, China's 22 cities has built 101 urban rail transit lines, and the total length of lines reaches 3155 km. But because of the large cost of urban rail transit, its construction and development is restricted to a certain extent, so the analysis of urban rail transit project cost control has important practical significance.

  3. Optimal trajectory planning and train scheduling for urban rail transit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yihui; van den Boom, Ton; De Schutter, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book contributes to making urban rail transport fast, punctual and energy-efficient –significant factors in the importance of public transportation systems to economic, environmental and social requirements at both municipal and national levels. It proposes new methods for shortening passenger travel times and for reducing energy consumption, addressing two major topics: (1) train trajectory planning: the authors derive a nonlinear model for the operation of trains and present several approaches for calculating optimal and energy-efficient trajectories within a given schedule; and (2) train scheduling: the authors develop a train scheduling model for urban rail systems and optimization approaches with which to balance total passenger travel time with energy efficiency and other costs to the operator. Mixed-integer linear programming and pseudospectral methods are among the new methods proposed for single- and multi-train systems for the solution of the nonlinear trajectory planning problem which involv...

  4. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicles offer the potential of greatly reduced petroleum consumption, compared to conventional vehicles, without the disadvantages of limited performance and operating range associated with purely electric vehicles. This report documents a hybrid-vehicle design approach which is aimed at the development of the technology required to achieve this potential - in such a way that it is transferable to the auto industry in the near term. The development of this design approach constituted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid-Vehicle Program. The major tasks in this program were: (1) Mission Analysis and Performance Specification Studies; (2) Design Tradeoff Studies; and (3) Preliminary Design. Detailed reports covering each of these tasks are included as appendices to this report and issued under separate cover; a fourth task, Sensitivity Studies, is also included in the report on the Design Tradeoff Studies. Because of the detail with which these appendices cover methodology and both interim and final results, the body of this report was prepared as a brief executive summary of the program activities and results, with appropriate references to the detailed material in the appendices.

  5. Development Strategies for Suburban Rail Transit in Beijing%北京市郊轨道交通发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑锋; 冯爱军; 王静; 贺鹏; 邓进

    2014-01-01

    构建适应不同需求层次、多模式有机融合的轨道交通体系已成为服务北京都市圈交通需求的必然抉择。首先分析北京市现状轨道交通网络规模、功能层次以及与城市空间扩展的适配性。按照服务水平和层次多样的出行需求特征,将北京都市圈范围内轨道交通划分为4个主要功能层次并分析其功能和服务范围。针对轨道交通发展模式单一的现状,提出北京市郊轨道交通发展策略,即规划范围应打破行政边界,重视市郊轨道交通对中心城轨道交通网络运能的缓解作用及对城市发展的引导,以及市郊轨道交通与中心城衔接、既有国铁资源利用、建设时序和投资模式等。%Developing a geographically integrated rail transit system to accommodate different travel needs and a variety of customer expectations for travel service has become inevitable for urban transportation sys-tem in Beijing metropolitan area. This paper first analyzes the scale and functionalities of Beijing rail tran-sit network and its role in urban spatial expansion. Based on level of service and diversified travel de-mands, the paper discusses the four functional and service levels of Beijing rail transit system within the metropolitan area. Aiming at current development of single mode rail transit, the paper proposes develop-ment strategies for Beijing suburban rail transit in several aspects: planning scope beyond administrative boundary;recognizing the role of suburban rail transit in enhancing the capacity of central rail transit net-work and in guiding urban development;and emphasizing the connection between suburban rail transit and urban central district, utilization of existing state railway resources, time scheduling of construction and invest-ment modes.

  6. Privatisation of fixed-rail transit systems : a case study of Malaysia's STAR and PUTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.R. [St. Malaysia Univ., (Malaysia). School of Housing, Building and Planning

    2006-06-15

    Malaysia was the first developing country to embrace the idea of privatizing its public utilities in an effort to reduce public expenditure and improve services. Many public utilities were sold in the early 1980s under Malaysia's privatization program. Some, however, have returned to government hands. Among them are the two light-rail transit (LRT) systems in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of privatization had been to expand transportation capabilities to keep pace with economic development. The private sector was allowed to construct various rail-based mass transportation systems to alleviate vehicular traffic congestion in the city. The STAR and PUTRA light-rail transit systems were built in the 1990s by 2 concession companies at a total cost of US$2.27 billion with the bulk of the expenditure going into infrastructure and rolling stock. Generous financial incentives were offered by the Malaysian government. However, the 2 LRTs suffered below-expectation ridership right from the beginning. Even a reduction in rates to promote greater public use, failed to meet projected ridership figures. The concession companies began defaulting on their loan servicing obligations within months of becoming operational. In 2002, the government took over the operation of the 2 LRT systems. The pre- and post-privatization events of both facilities were chronicled in this paper. It examined how the entire process was administered and tried to rationalize why private ownership of the 2 LRT systems was short-lived. Based on publicly available material, this paper argued that neither the quality of government negotiators nor the length of time devoted to negotiating could be attributed to the bailout. There was no indication that political favouritism and corruption were at play. Rather, the 2 projects proved to be financially unviable, despite the large financial incentives provided to the two concession companies. 83 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. 基于城市轨道交通的常规公交线网优化调整%Optimal Adjustment of Conventional Public Transportation Network Based on Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡列格; 段胜楠; 唐量; 王佳

    2015-01-01

    为推动公交优先发展战略全面实施,充分发挥大运量城市轨道交通在公共交通系统中的骨干作用和常规公交的辅助协调作用,需要围绕城市轨道交通对常规公交做出优化调整。该文从城市轨道交通影响范围内的常规公交客流的变化情况入手,对常规公交线网优化调整问题进行描述,建立以直达能力最大为目标函数,以线路长度、非直线系数、公交线网密度等为约束条件的常规公交线网优化模型;构造算例,应用遗传算法进行优化模型求解分析,其结果表明对常规公交线网优化的效果明显。%In order to promote the full implementation of public transport priority development strate‐gy ,make the large capacity backbone role of the urban rail transit and assistance coordinating role of con‐ventional bus transit in to full play ,it is necessary to adjust conventional bus transport to urban rail tran‐sit .Putting the passenger flow changes of the conventional bus transit into consideration ,this paper de‐scribed the optimal adjustment problems on bus transit under the influence of urban rail transit ,established an optimizing model of conventional bus transit network and solved it via genetic algorithm with maximum of non‐stop capacity as its objective function ,the line length ,non‐linear coefficient and public transport net‐work density as its constraints .

  8. Study on Evaluation of Metropolis Commuter Rail Transit Planning Based on Grey Weight Relation Model%基于灰色加权关联度的市域通勤轨道线网方案优选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静

    2013-01-01

    With the development of cities and mega cities,the metropolis commuter traffic volume is getting much larger, so it is important to plan the metropolis commuter rail transit. Based on an analysis of the characteristics of metropolis commuter,the grey weight relation model is put forward to evaluate the planning. The index system for evaluating the metropolis commuter rail transit is built;the Entropy Method is applied to decide the weight of each index. Finally an example is given to apply the method to optimize three preset schemes and to decide which is the best one.%随着大城市、特大城市不断发展,市域通勤交通流量日增,使市域通勤轨道交通线网合理规划的重要性不容忽视.结合市域通勤轨道交通的特点,提出“灰色加权联度”的评价优选模型,建立市域通勤轨道交通线网评价方案的指标体系,采用“熵值法”确定各个指标的权重,对各个线网规划的预选模型进行综合评价,并结合案例对某大城市的3个市域通勤轨道交通线网预选方案进行分析,选出最佳方案.

  9. 基于熵权模糊物元的轨道交通运营安全评价%Operation Safety Assessment of Rail Transit Based on Entropy Weight Fuzzy Matter Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪勇; 吴丽霞; 蔡明

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve issues of quantization of qualitative indexes and scope definition of hierar-chical values in the rail transit operation safety evaluation process, an evaluation model which combined entropy weight (EW) with fuzzy matter-element (FME) to evaluate rail transit operation safety indicators was established. It was based on fuzzy matter-element model by introducing entropy method to finalize index weight and selecting the idea of Euclid approach degree to reflect the extent of closeness between the unvalued safety results and standard safety results. On the basis of previous studies, indexes of urban rail transit operation safety evaluation system were divided into four levels, including excellent, good, fair, and bad. Besides, the range of each level was also provided. Taking Chongqing rail transit Line 3 as an example, compared to method of extension matter-element (EME), the EW-FME model were ana-lyzed. The results showed that the EW-FME model evaluation index was 0.5889 and the EME level of risk evaluation was 3, which both reached to the degree of good safety. The study indicates that EW-FME model can solve the problem of non-quantitative evaluation effectively. The precision of evaluation is further improved in comparison with EME model.%为解决轨道交通运营安全评价过程中定性指标难以量化以及分级量值范围界定模糊等问题,在模糊物元分析的基础上,引入熵值法确定指标权重,并利用欧氏贴近度反映待评安全结果与标准安全结果互相接近的程度,建立了一种评价轨道交通运营安全指数的熵权模糊物元模型.在总结前人研究成果的基础上,将城市轨道交通运营安全评价指标体系中的各指标划分成"优"、"良"、"一般"、"差"4个评判等级,并给出了各等级的适用范围.以重庆市轨道交通3号线为例,对比可拓物元法进行分析,结果显示熵权模糊物元法评价指标值为0.588 9,可拓物

  10. Analysis on Cost of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通成本构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文兴; 尹帅

    2012-01-01

    现今,城市轨道交通以其安全舒适、快捷高效、节能环保等优点,成为解决城市交通拥挤问题最有效的途径之一.但是轨道交通项目成本造价高,运营维护费用贵,以及运行带来的诸如噪声污染与电磁干扰等社会问题,成为制约轨道交通健康发展的“瓶颈”.本文以北京市地铁4号线为例,系统地分析研究了城市轨道交通的内部成本和外部成本.依据价值链理论,把内部成本细化为前期规划设计成本、建设成本和运营成本;把外部成本分为空气污染、交通事故和噪声污染三个方面,并且将外部成本定量化.该研究有助于准确计算出城市轨道交通的总成本,为政府制定票价提供依据;同时使城市轨道交通满足经济资源、社会资源和环境资源的可持续发展.%Nowadays,urban rail transit has been the most effective solution to traffic congestion because of its fast,efficient,safe,energy saving and environmental protecting characteristics. However,the high cost of rail projects and the operation maintenance, together with the social problems brought by the urban rail transit such as noise pollution, traffic accidents and air pollution have become the "bottleneck" of its healthy development. This paper systematically analyzes the internal and the external costs of Beijing Subway line 4 as an example. Based on the value chain theory, the internal cost is divided into preliminary planning and designing cost,constructing cost and operating cost. On the other hand,the external cost is classified into the cost of air pollution,traffic accident and noise pollution. The external cost is quantified,incorporated into the total cost of rail transportation as well. This research provides the basis for the government to formulate the fare by accurate calculation of the total cost of urban rail transit. Moreover, this research promotes the sustainable development of economic resources,social resources and

  11. Research on Urban Rail Transit Network Planning Evaluation Method%市域轨道交通线网规划方案评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭辉; 王芳

    2011-01-01

    为评价市域轨道交通线网规划方案的可行性,通过研究建立起适合市域轨道交通线网规划方案的评价指标体系,同时构建FAHP—TOPSIS决策模型对备选方案进行优选,以获取最优方案。通过实例验证,该评价方法效果良好,具有一定的应用价值。%To evaluate the feasibility of the urban rail transit network planning, the evaluation index system that is suitable for urban rail transit network planning is established. At the same time, the FAHP - TOPSIS decision- making mode is set up to get the best plan. Through the example, this evaluation method has good effect and application value.

  12. 城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系%Risk Warning System for Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维庆; 臧耐娟

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Urban rail transit is developing rapidly in China. In the large-scale urban rail transit construction projects, due to the increase in risk points, risk monitoring, assessment, early warning and management are very important. In order to reduce the loss of project risk and protect the project construction, this paper analyzes the connotation of urban rail transit project risk early warning system, investigates the composition of the system, and establishes a risk early warning system consisting of a risk warning system and organizational system to provide a reference for risk management of urban rail transit project.%在大规模的城市轨道交通工程建设过程中,由于风险点的增多,风险的监测、评估、预警和管理日益重要。为了实现减小项目风险损失和保障项目顺利建设的目的,基于风险预警的基本原理,对城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系的内涵进行分析,在此基础上建立了由风险预警信息采集系统、风险预警传导系统、风险预警管理信息系统和风险预警组织系统组成的城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系。

  13. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix C: preliminary design data package. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccolo, R.

    1979-07-31

    The assumptions made, analysis methods used, and preliminary results of research to determine the design specifications for a hybrid electric-powered and internal combustion engine-powered vehicle that would optimize the fuel economy of passenger automobiles are described. Information is included on body and component design, selection of spark-ignition engine and Ni-Zn batteries, life-cycle costs and life-cycle fuel consumption. (LCL)

  14. Summary of Pricing Strategy for Suzhou Rail Transit Network%苏州轨道交通线网收费策略综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明保; 陈莹; 施毅; 张宁

    2011-01-01

    为最大程度地发挥轨道交通的社会和经济效益,系统研究轨道交通收费策略.阐述苏州轨道交通线网收费策略的研究思路,在收费原则和运营阶段划分的基础上,详细分析票制、票种、票价等具体收费方法,建立轨道交通线网收费策略的理论体系.就收费策略对城市交通的影响进行研究,以期指导和不断调整收费策略.%In order to bring social and economic benefits of rail transit into full play, systematic research on its pricing strategy is imperative. This paper elaborates the guiding thoughts of pricing strategy for Suzhou rail transit network, analyzes the detailed pricing methods such as fare collection pattern, ticket type, price, etc. in line with pricing principles and operation stages, and establishes the theoretical system of the pricing strategy for rail transit network. The influence of the pricing strategy on urban traffic is also analyzed in order to guide and adjust the strategy constantly.

  15. 金融IC卡在轨道交通领域的应用研究%Application of Financial IC card in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李煜平

    2012-01-01

    In order to apply the contactless financial IC card in urban rail transit, the general structure, transaction process, amount clearing and safety design of this system are analyzed. The result indicates that conlactless financial IC card can be used in urban rail transit after some co -construction of the related systems, and some main rebuilt contents in urban rail transit system are explained.%介绍了非接触式金融IC卡在城市轨道交通中的应用前景,分析了该应用方案的系统总体结构、交易流程、资金清算及安全体系等.分析表明,经过各相关单位相关应用系统的协调建设,可以实现非接触式金融IC卡在城市轨道交通中的应用.并根据具体案例,介绍了城市轨道交通应用金融IC卡时相关系统的主要改造内容.

  16. 城市轨道交通车辆可靠性分配及预测%Distribution and Forecast of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle' s Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱凤; 薛淑胜

    2013-01-01

    Reliability design is the extension of traditional designs, and can be used to evaluate the randomness of the fault state of a product. Urban rail transit always requires high reliability indexes, which could be achieved by applying the reliability design. In this paper, the basic principles in reliability design are introduced, design methods and the prediction of urban rail transit vehicles are put forward, including the basic principles and methods to decompose the functions and allocate the reliability of urban rail transit vehicles.%可靠性设计是传统设计的延伸,可用于定量评估产品故障状态的随机性.城市轨道交通车辆通常对可靠性指标有很高的要求,采用可靠性设计能更好地保证指标要求的实现.介绍了可靠性设计的基本思路,以及城市轨道车辆可靠性设计和预测的方法.

  17. Landscape Design of the Public Space at Urban Rail Transit Station%城市轨道交通车站公共空间景观设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晟宇; 阮如舫

    2013-01-01

    Rail transit construction in China is booming, but the landscape design of the public space at rail transit stations is still inadequate, many of them could not reflect the aesthetic qualities of the surrounding environment. The successful design of Taiwan Gaoxiong metro stations could be used as a reference, in order to enhance the landscape aesthetic perception in the design of the public space at many mainland rail transit stations.%我国城市轨道交通建设正在蓬勃地发展,但其车站公共空间景观设计仍有不足,在环境塑造上并未体现美学特质.以设计较为成功的台湾高雄为例进行研究,作为我国大陆城市轨道交通车站公共空间设计提升景观美学的借鉴与启示.

  18. Passengers Preference and Satisfaction of Public Transport in Malaysia, Part II: A Comparative Analysis of Komuter and LRT Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmi Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a comparative analysis of passengers preference and satisfaction of two kinds of public transportation in Malaysia, namely, train commuter (KTM and Light Rail Transit (LRT. One of the important issues regarding public transport is the passenger satisfaction. The main objective of this research is to describe traveler’s satisfaction and preference towards public transport with service quality attributes. Parameters in passenger preference and satisfaction on public transportation network are facilities, comfortness and quality of services. A survey was conducted public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia through a self questionnaire. They were 312 respondents voluntarily participated in this study. Result showed that passenger’s preference and satisfaction in the LRT services are better than Komuter. The application of this study suggested Komuter service need to improve their quality of service to attract more passengers.

  19. Exploring and Thinking about Construction of Rail Transit%论城市轨道交通建设提升城市发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪近林; 汪楠

    2012-01-01

    The rail transit plays a decisive role in adjusting the urban layout, enhancing the land value, raising the utilization rate of land, transforming the business operation pattern, optimizing the urban traffic structure, relieving traffic congestion, reducing the environmental pollution and saving energy consumption. The construction of rail transit, which has a profound impact, needs a huge investment and a long time limit for the project. Some problems about operation and management in the urban rail transit construction are to be studied and discussed to meet the requirements of resource conservation, environment-friendly design, technology innovation, safe operation and convenient travel under the guide of the outlook of scientific development.%城市轨道交通对调整城市布局、提升土地价值、提高土地利用率、改变商业形态、优化城市交通结构、缓解交通拥挤、减少交通环境污染和交通资源消耗等,均具有很大影响或决定性作用。城市轨道交通建设投资巨大、建设工期长、影响深远,需要以科学发展观为指导,紧紧围绕资源节约、环境友好、技术创新和安全便捷的总体要求,研究、探讨我国城市轨道交通建设、运营和管理中的一些问题。

  20. 大数据视野下的城市轨道交通网络分析研究%Based On The Analysis Of Big Data Of Urban Rail Transit Network Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡朝阳; 严建伟

    2016-01-01

    随着大数据时代的来临,大数据技术逐渐成为城市轨道交通网络研究的新的分析工具。通过分析大数据与传统数据的区别以及大数据在轨道交通网络中的应用,探讨基于大数据的城市轨道交通网络的技术经济优势,提出大数据背景下城市轨道交通网络规划建设的相关建议,以期充分发挥大数据的应用价值,推动城市轨道交通的发展。%Along with the coming of the era of big data, big data technology has gradualy become the new analysis of urban rail transit network research tools. By analyzing the diference between the big data and traditional data as wel as the big data in the application of rail transit network, discusses the urban rail transit network technology based on big data economic advantage, put forward under the background of big data of urban rail transit network planning and construction of relevant suggestions, in order to give ful play to the big data application value, promote the development of urban rail transit.

  1. Shunting Process Analysis of the 3-Girder-Switch with Fixed Rotating Center for Rail Transit%城市轨道交通用三段定心式道岔的转辙过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亦竑

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国内首组城市轨道交通用三段定心式道岔在研制过程中的转辙分析过程.以三开道岔为例,通过自编程序对道岔转辙过程进行模拟,得到了转辙全过程中道岔各梁段的运动情况,找到了转辙过程中加速度变化的最大位置,为道岔转辙机构的具体设计提供了参考.%This article made a brief introduction to shunting process analysis in developing the 3-girder-switch with fixed rotating center of the Chinas first group for rail transit. Taking a 3 - way switch as an example, we simulated shunting process by the software which was developed by ourselves. We gained the kinematics conditions of all the girders during the shunting process of the switch, and finally found out the place where the maximum of the acceleration changing rate was located. The results can provide a reference for the specific design of the shunting device of the switch.

  2. Reviewing the Hot Spots of 2010 China Rail Transit Security Market%我国城布轨道交通安全防范市场热点回顾和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟

    2011-01-01

    In large cities and metropolises of China, urban rail transit has become the first choice in public transportation, and obviously the safety and security measures are crucial for rail transit. This paper mainly reviews the rail transit security market of China in 2010 and expounds the development trend.%在特大型和大型城市中,城市轨道交通已成为公共交通的首选,其安全防范的重要性是显而易见的.阐述了2010年我国城市轨道交通安全防范系统的市场热点,并展望了生物技术,多级网联结构,数字技术等在安防中的发展趋势.

  3. 地下轨道交通结构噪声与振动频率特性分析%Structural Noise and Vibration Frequency Characteristics Caused by Underground Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中平; 郭建辉

    2014-01-01

    frequency correlation analysis of noise and vibration on the results,we came to a conclusion of low frequency sound transmission pollution feature caused by the underground rail transit operation structure.The tests showed that the sound and vibra-tion pollution energy caused by underground rail transit operation mainly concentrated in 500 hz low frequency part and the peak ap-peared in 40 ~60 hz.We compared the results with the existing national or local standards,put forward the discrimination base of u-sing characteristic frequency,evaluated the final measurement results in the form of low frequency data,and finally summarized the discharge frequency characteristic of actual underground rail transit and look forward to the measuring method.

  4. 城市轨道交通车站动态瓶颈识别方法研究%Identification of Dynamic Bottlenecks of Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄令海; 李海鹰; 许心越

    2015-01-01

    瓶颈识别是城市轨道交通车站规划设计和运营管理亟待解决的难题。本文在既有静态瓶颈和动态瓶颈的基础上,按动态瓶颈产生原因将其细化为原发性瓶颈及继发性瓶颈;研究瓶颈的动态传播特性,提出关联瓶颈与瓶颈簇理论,以此刻画瓶颈传播机理,并在此基础上构建车站动态瓶颈识别方法;以瓶颈簇理论为支撑,定量分析单个设备能力对车站集散能力的影响程度,提出基于灵敏度分析的瓶颈疏解策略。最后,对北京地铁某车站进行案例分析,验证该瓶颈识别方法的有效性与实用性。案例表明,该方法能够有效识别车站瓶颈,明确瓶颈之间的依附关系以及瓶颈的重要程度。与既有方法相比减少66.7%的仿真次数,可以明显提高识别效率。%Bottleneck identification is an urgent issue that needs to be addressed in the planning,design and op-eration management of urban rail transit stations.Based on the concepts of existing static bottlenecks and dy-namic bottlenecks,dynamic bottlenecks were classified into two categories,i.e.primary bottlenecks and sec-ondary bottlenecks,according to the causes of dynamic bottlenecks.The dynamic bottleneck transmission characteristics were studied,and the correlation bottleneck and bottleneck cluster concepts were proposed to describe the bottleneck transmission mechanism,whereby a new bottleneck identification method was pro-posed.Supported by bottleneck cluster concept,quantitative analysis was conducted on the effect of the capaci-ty of an individual facility on collection and distribution capacity of the station,and sensitivity analysis-based bottleneck relief strategy was proposed.Finally,a case study of a station in Beijing subway was implemented to verify the validity and practicability of the proposed method.The results showed that this method can identi-fy the bottlenecks of a station effectively,and define the dependence

  5. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaobing Ding; Shengrun Zhang; Zhigang Liu; Hua Hu; Xingfang Xu; Weixiang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven...

  6. Analysis on Rationality of Spatial Arrangement of Inter-city Rail Transit Network in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone:Based on Basic Spatial Economics Principle%成渝经济区城际轨道交通网空间布局合理性分析——基于空间经济学原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳芳; 蒲勇健

    2011-01-01

    According to the center-local theory and the basic spatial economics principle, this paper sets up a spatial diamond model in which four city circles, namely Chongqing. Chengdu plain ,Chuannan,Chuandongbei, are taken as the support point and the iceberg-type transportation cost is introduced. Then it analyzes the influences of different transport costs on industrial agglomeration. Finally,it explains the rationality of spatial arrangement of inter-city rail transit network in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone through combining the spatial arrangement of intercity rail transit network with the spatial diamond model. The results show that the spatial arrangement of inter-city rail transit network in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone helps to reduce the interregional transport costs among city circles,furthermore promote specialized division, industrial agglomeration and integration process in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.%根据中心地理论及空间经济学的基本原理,首先通过引入冰山运输成本建立了一个以重庆、川南、川东北、成都平原四个城市圈为支撑点的空间菱形经济模型,然后分析了不同的运输成本对产业集聚的影响,最后将成渝经济区城际轨道交通网的空间布局与城市圈的空间菱形模型相结合,阐释了城际轨道交通网规划的合理性.结果表明,城际轨道交通网的空间布局可降低各城市圈之间的运输成本,从而促进经济区内专业化分工和产业集聚、加快成渝城市群一体化进程.

  7. 太阳能光伏发电在城市轨道交通中的应用%Application of Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超

    2013-01-01

    分析将太阳能光伏发电应用到城市轨道交通的必要性,介绍光伏发电系统的原理、组成及应用现状.结合城市轨道交通的特点,提出适合城市轨道交通的光伏发电系统方案,并指出在应用中需注意的相关问题,为太阳能光伏发电在城市轨道交通中的应用提供指导.%On the basis of analyzing the necessity of applying solar photovoltaics to generate electricity for urban rail transit systems, the paper introduces the principles, composition and application of solar photovoltaics system. Considering the characteristics of urban rail transit, this paper proposes the options of solar photovoltaic technology adaptable to urban rail transit, and points out relevant issues to be addressed. This will provide effective guidance for the application of solar photovoltaic system in urban rail transit.

  8. 基于模糊实物期权的城市轨道交通项目投资价值%The Investment Value of the Urban Rail Transit Project Based on Fuzzy Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文彬; 张飞涟; 马超群

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the real option characteristics of an urban rail transit project,and the full consideration to the uncertainty of investment returns,management flexibility and other factors,this paper proposes that the investment value of the urban rail transit project can be regarded as the sum of a call option value and the discounted value of a net cash flow.According to the extended B-S model and the fuzzy theory,we construct the fuzzy real option pricing model for the urban rail transit project.The example shows that the fuzzy real option analysis method can accurately evaluate the investment value of the urban rail transit project,and will provide a more effective reference for the investment decisions.%考虑到城市轨道交通项目投资决策的不可逆性、投资回报的不确定性和管理柔性等因素,提出了利用模糊理论与实物期权相结合的方法来评价城市轨道项目的投资价值。实例分析表明,模糊实物期权方法能准确地对项目投资价值进行评价,从而更有效地指导投资者作出正确决策。

  9. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  10. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  11. 城市轨道交通混合逆变装置的应用%Application of Hybrid Inverter Equipment in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳艳; 孙才勤

    2011-01-01

    Urban rail transit trains will produce electricity when take braking, there are several treatment programs for renewable energy, such as flywheen return, hybrid inverter etc. According to China's industrial level, the article describes how to make full use of the renewable energy,then introduces the hybrid inverter program and its composition of working principles in detail.%城市轨道交通的运行列车制动时会产生电能.再生电能的处理有电容储能或飞轮储能、逆变回馈法、混合逆变法等几种方案.根据我国的工业水平,提出了能够尽量利用再生电能的混合逆变方案.对混合逆变的原理和构成作了详细的介绍.

  12. Discussion on RAMS Management Pattern in Urban Rail Transit Construction%国内城市轨道交通建设RAMS管理模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少林; 庄运杰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it describes the definition and necessity of the RAMS management pattern in urban rail transit construction. Taking the reference of domestic standard of GB/T 21562-2008, it presents the general contents, process, core phase and duty segregation regarding the RAMS management work. Based on the management pattern and experience in Shenzhen Metro line 3, it discusses the RAMS management pattern being appropriate for domestic urban rail transit construction in China.%鉴于国外及先进地区的RAMS(可靠性、可用性、维修性、安全性)管理经验,国内开始摸索适合于自身城市轨道交通建设的RAMS管理模式.文章阐述了RAMS管理定义及必要性,再以GB/T 21562-2008为参照,解析了RAMS管理的一般工作内容及流程,提出了RAMS管理工作的核心阶段及职责划分.以深圳地铁3号线RAMS管理模式和经验为例,探讨并提出了适合国内城轨建设的RAMS管理模式,为国内轨道交通建设开展RAMS管理工作可起到借鉴和推动作用,同时为国内轨道交通建设健康快速发展提供了保障.

  13. Recycle of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle Braking Energy%城市轨道交通车辆再生制动能量的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何治新

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the recycle of urban rail transit vehicle braking energy,3 main systems are enumerated:the consumption type,energy storage type and feedback inverter type,their economic and technical characters are compared.The feedback inverter type is mainly analyzed,in which the mature technique,localization level and economic benefit could meet the needs of rail transit construction and development in China,and thus has a broad application prospect:In determining a recycle scheme,it is necessary to make a technical comparison in order to ensure social and economic benefits.%介绍了城市轨道交通车辆再生制动能量回收利用方式中的消耗型、储能型和逆变回馈型三种系统方案,并比较分析了三种系统方案的经济技术性.重点分析了逆变回馈型车辆再生制动能量回收利用方案.采用逆变回馈型车辆制动能量回收装置,在技术成熟度、国产化水平、经济效益等方面均适合我国城市轨道交通工程建设运营的发展需要,是工程应用的方向.在确定车辆制动能量回收装置设置方案时,应进行经济技术比较,以确定合理的设置方案,保证社会效益与经济效益均优.

  14. Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traversi, M.; Barbarek, L.A.C.

    1979-04-20

    Studies are described which were performed for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program to determine passenger car usage patterns and to correlate these trip mission characteristics with vehicle design and performance specifications. (LCL)

  15. 城市土地利用对轨道交通运营的影响——以纽约地铁为例%Impact of Urban Land Use Development on the Rail Transit Operation: A Case Study of New York City Subway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛来芳; 宋彦

    2012-01-01

    纽约地铁历经100多年的建设和运营,其高峰时段的过度拥挤和财务亏损一直是困扰纽约市政府和居民的难题.结合纽约城市扩张中土地利用形态的演化,重新梳理纽约地铁的建设和运营历程,并从票制、客运量、运营组织模式以及土地利用四个角度分析纽约地铁的运营绩效特征.通过考虑规模效应和“峰值效应”,发现纽约城市扩张过程中土地利用形态的演化是影响其运营绩效的根本原因.最后,借鉴纽约地铁的经验教训,指出中国城市在推进城市轨道交通与土地利用一体化发展时应着重注意的问题.%During the past more than 100 years, the heavy congestion in peak hour and persistent deficits in subway operation have puzzled the New York City government and residents alike. Examining the evolution of land use patterns during the urban sprawl, this paper reviews the construction and operation of New York City Subway and analyzes the operating characteristics in four aspects: fare system, passenger volume, operating strategies, and land use. The paper identifies that the land use development during the urban sprawl is the root cause of the deficit problem for the New York City subway system considering the scale effect and peak effect of rail transit. Learning from the lessons of New York City subway, the paper points out several noticeable problems in the integrated development of urban rail transit and land use in China.

  16. The Analysis and Calculation Method of Urban Rail Transit Carrying Capacity Based on Express-Slow Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban railway transport that connects suburbs and city areas is characterized by uneven temporal and spatial distribution in terms of passenger flow and underutilized carrying capacity. This paper aims to develop methodologies to measure the carrying capacity of the urban railway by introducing a concept of the express-slow mode. We first explore factors influencing the carrying capacity under the express-slow mode and the interactive relationships among these factors. Then we establish seven different scenarios to measure the carrying capacity by considering the ratio of the number of the express trains and the slow trains, the station where overtaking takes place, and the number of overtaking maneuvers. Taking Shanghai Metro Line 16 as an empirical study, the proposed methods to measure the carrying capacity under different express-slow mode are proved to be valid. This paper contributes to the literature by remodifying the traditional methods to measure the carrying capacity when different express-slow modes are applied to improve the carrying capacity of the suburban railway.

  17. Transfer benefit model between rail transit and bus transit%轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 严新平; 李旭宏; 吴超仲

    2011-01-01

    为给公共交通票价票制的整合提供决策参考,从理论上研究了轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠问题。根据福利经济学理论,分析了轨道交通与常规公交运营协调系统的消费者剩余和生产者剩余;并以社会福利最大化为目标,建立了换乘优惠的非线性规划模型,同时给出了模型求解步骤,以确定轨道交通与常规公交运营协调方向、换乘优惠率、同步发车间隔和车辆衔接富余时间等决策变量。结合算例,对比分析了协调控制情况下换乘优惠实施前后换乘网络的运营效果。结果表明,实行换乘优惠能增加整个运营系统的社会福利,其中消费者剩余和生产者剩余分别增加了7.13%和2.95%。%Transfer benefit between rail transit and bus transit is studied in theory for providing a reference for the integration of public transport fares.According to the theory of welfare economics,the consumer surplus and producer surplus of coordination system between rail transit and bus transit are analyzed.And taking maximizing social welfare as the target,a nonlinear programming model for transfer benefit is proposed.At the same time,the steps to solve the model are introduced to determine the decision-making variables such as coordination direction,transfer discount rate,common headway and slack time.Based on the example,the comparative analysis is performed on operation effect of transfer network before and after the implementation of transfer benefit under coordination control.The results show that the implementation of transfer benefit can increase social welfare of operation system,the consumer surplus and producer surplus are increased 7.13% and 2.95% respectively.4 tabs,12 refs.

  18. Passengers, Information, and Disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van der Hurk (Evelien)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Passengers traveling in public transport generate a detailed digital track record of their journey through using automated fare collection systems and carrying mobile devices. This information on passenger behavior has only recently become available to public transport

  19. 基于GIS的城市轨道交通与土地利用协调研究%Study on Coordination between Urban Rail Transit and Land Use Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭沙沙; 吴小萍; 梅盛

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: At present, the construction of rail transit is into peak period in China. However, the research on coordination between rail transit network and land use is relatively backward. This paper offers a coordinating evaluation system to help make a plan of reasonable rail transit network and develop the land along the rail transit.Research conclusions: At first, two appraisal target systems for urban rail transit network and land use were put forward. Based on these appraisal target systems, with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) a coordination degree model was established. Then taking VB2005 as the platform, the GIS - based coordinating evaluation system between urban rail transit network and land use was established by making the secondary development with AreGIS Engine9. 2. For the plan and construction of the rail transit of the Changsha - Zhuzhou - Xiangtan city cycle, the six decision units were used to calculate the coordination degrees between the rail transit plan and the land use with coordinating evaluation system.We can draw a conclusion from the analysis that the coordinating value is less than 6, it is out of line; the coordinating value is in 0.6 -0.8 in 2009,2013 and 2014, it is in the basic coordinating status; the coordinating value is more than 0.8 in 2015, it is in the coordinating status.%研究目的:目前国内轨道交通进入建设高峰期,但轨道交通线网规划与土地利用之间的协调研究却相对滞后.本文通过研究建立协调评价系统,有助于轨道交通线网合理规划和沿线土地合理开发.研究结论:本文首先提出城市轨道交通线网与土地利用各自的评价指标体系,基于这两个指标体系,用数据包络分析方法(DEA)构建协调度模型.然后以VB2005为平台、结合ArcGIS Engine9.2组件技术进行二次开发,建立了基于地理信息系统(GIS)的城市轨道交通与土地利用协调评价系统.以长株潭城际轨道交通的规划建设为实

  20. 服务轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台构建研究*%Service Rail Transit Industry Cluster of Zhuzhou City Logistics Information Platform Construction Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2013-01-01

    Construction of rail transit industry cluster of zhuzhou city logistics information platform,in zhuzhou city economic development plays an important role.Based on the path of the city logistics information platform to build,to refine the service under the rail transit industry cluster of city logistics information platform structure mode.%构建轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台,对于株洲市经济的发展具有重要作用。文中通过对市级物流信息平台的路径构建,提炼了服务轨道交通产业集群下的市级物流信息平台结构模型。

  1. 基于熵理论的河北省可持续发展水平评价研究%Risk Warning System for Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志慧; 宋志艳

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Urban rail transit is developing rapidly in China. In the large-scale urban rail transit construction projects, due to the increase in risk points, risk monitoring, assessment, early warning and management are very important. In order to reduce the loss of project risk and protect the project construction, this paper analyzes the connotation of urban rail transit project risk early warning system, investigates the composition of the system, and establishes a risk early warning system consisting of a risk warning system and organizational system to provide a reference for risk management of urban rail transit project.%根据2000-2009年国家统计年鉴中河北省的有关数据,选取有代表性的指标,构造评价可持续发展水平的指标体系,并采用熵理论确定各指标的权重,以观察近10年来河北省经济社会可持续发展的具体情况。实证研究结果表明:河北省正逐渐迈向可持续发展的道路,但任重道远。根据省际具体情况,在实证研究的基础上,就河北省经济社会的长期可持续发展提出了若干建议。

  2. Research on Minimum Curve Radius of Urban Rail Transit in Different Operating Modes%不同运行模式下的市域轨道交通最小曲线半径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华玮; 韩春华

    2016-01-01

    市域轨道交通在我国尚处于起步阶段,实际工程运用较少,国内各种规范均不适用,对市域轨道交通线路最小曲线半径进行研究具有重要意义。在传统的线路设计参数计算方法的基础上,基于不同的运营模式和乘坐模式,分不同速度匹配模型进行研究,并通过与其他常规轨道交通制式进行对比,结合舒适度分析,对市域轨道交通的计算结果进行优化改正,给出不同速度下线路最小曲线半径的建议值。%In view of the fact that the domestic urban rapid rail transit is still in its infancy with few practical engineering application and none of the available norms are applicable, the research on the minimum curve radius of urban rail transit lines is of great significance. Based on the traditional circuit design parameter calculation method, the paper conducts the modeling of different operating and riding modes in terms of different speeds, and optimizes the calculation results of urban rail transit by means of comparison with other conventional rail transit systems and riding comfort analysis. The minimum curve radiuses for lines under different speeds are recommended.

  3. 浅谈城市轨道交通管理的组织模式%Introduction to the Organization Pattern of the Management of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉莹

    2014-01-01

    The organizing pattern of urban rail transit management, namely the establishment of operating manage-ment pattern and system of the adaption and interaction between the investing and financing management and con-struction management system, give full play to the sustainable development and social benefit. This paper mainly de-scribes the mode selection between the integrated model and the separation model on the basis of detailed analysis of them, which provides some guiding for selection of current railway traffic management mode.%城市轨道交通管理的组织模式,即与投融资管理、建设管理体系适应和互动的运营管理模式和体系的确立,对轨道交通项目可持续发展,充分发挥社会效益具有重要作用。文中重点分析了一体化、分离模式,简述了中间模式的选择,提供了当前轨道交通管理模式选择的方向。

  4. Comparing the capitalisation benefits of light-rail transit and overlay zoning for single-family houses and condos by neighbourhood type in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson-Palombo, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus walk-and-ride (WAR) station and overlay zoning interrelate. Hedonic models estimate capitalisation effects of LRT-related accessibility and overlay zoning on single-family houses and condos in different neighbourhoods for the system in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Impacts differ by housing and neighbourhood type. Amenity-dominated mixed-use neighbourhoods-predominantly WAR communities-experience premiums of 6 per cent for single-family houses and over 20 per cent for condos, the latter boosted an additional 37 per cent by overlay zoning. Residential neighbourhoods-predominantly PAR communities-experience no capitalisation benefits for single-family houses and a discount for condos. The results suggest that land use mix is an important variable to select comparable neighbourhoods.

  5. 轨道交通工程建设风险管理的研究%Construction Of Rail Transit Project Risk Management Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 雷斌

    2012-01-01

    由于轨道交通工程所处地层工程地质、水文地质条件及工程环境复杂,不可预见因素较多,前期工作量大,工作难度大等特点,使工程施工风险性增加.通过对矿山法、盾构法、明挖法、高架桥修建轨道交通工程建设应注意问题进行分析总结,从而得出规避风险的对策,提出强化工程建设管理应采取的举措.%Due to the formation of rail traffic engineering engineering geology, hydrogeology and engineering environment is complex, unpredictable factors, the workload, working difficulty is great wait for a characteristic, make engineering construction risk increase. Based on the mining method, shield method, the open-cut method, the viaduct rail transit construction engineering construction should pay attention to the problem were analyzed, thus to avoid risk, put forward to strengthen the project construction and management measures.

  6. Design of High Frequency Auxiliary Converters for Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通高频辅助变流器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾波; 陈杰; 朱恺; 杜会卿; 刘志刚

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied in - depth the localization of auxiliary converters of urban rail transit and proposed the structure of dual DC/DC modular series plus static inverter through comparing advanced structures in China and abroad, together with the control techniques of the structure. Simulation approach was adopted to verify the feasibility of the control techniques, which proved the correctness of the structure and control techniques through experimental waveforms and photographs.%针对城市轨道交通辅助变流器的国产化问题进行深入研究.对比国内外辅助变流器的先进结构,在此基础上提出双DC/DC模块化串联加静止逆变器的结构,并针对这种结构研究控制方法.为验证控制方法的可行性,采取仿真手段对其进行分析,通过实验波形和实物照片,充分说明这种结构和控制方法的正确.

  7. Calculation for the Benefit of Travel Time in Urban Rail Transit Based on GDP%基于国内生产总值的城市轨道交通项目节约时间效益计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福贵

    2011-01-01

    旅行时间节约的效益是新建交通项目最为显著的社会效益.为了更准确地衡量城市轨道交通项目的节约时间效益,基于国内生产总值的内涵和测算方法,对目前城市轨道交通项目经济评价中几种常见的单位时间价值取值进行剖析;提出采用生产法确定单位时间价值,作为项目节约时间效益的计算基础;希望能为今后城市轨道交通项目的经济评价提供参考.%The benefit of travel time saving is the main benefit gained from transport construction projects. To measure the benefit accurately, this paper analyzes the average value of travel time saving for the economic evaluation of urban rail transit,through quantification and surveying methods of gross domestic product, then proposes the appropriate method of manufacturing for the time saving benefit of urban rail transit, in the hope of facilitating the perfection of economic evaluation theory for urban rail transit project.

  8. Report on requests by General Motors and Ford to reduce fuel econoMY standards for my 1981-85 passenger automobiles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The 1981-84 Fuel Economy Standards for Passenger Automobiles were issued in June, 1977. However, in December, 1978 General Motors and Ford began claiming that reduced standards would result in a slower rate of car price increases that would save consumers money. After a review of the GM and Ford information the NHTSA concluded that initiating rulemaking to reduce the standards was not warranted.

  9. 我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进:由等级到协同%Evolution of Metropolitan Rail Transit Network Structure in China:From Hierarchy to Synergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小君

    2015-01-01

    大都市区轨道交通网络在新型城镇化、工业化、运输化快速推进过程中的基础作用毋庸置疑。而针对目前我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进过程中存在服务半径与大都市区交通需求分布不一致的问题,应重视从协同发展视角而非等级视角来明晰轨道交通网络结构中线路与节点的转变内容及特征,重新确立市郊铁路及重要节点在我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进过程中的地位与作用,补充完善我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演变的指标内容,以期推进我国大都市区轨道交通网络演进过程的顺利进行。%Metropolitan rail transit network plays a foundational role in promoting the fast development of new-type urbanization ,industrialization and transportation .In response to the inconsistency between the service radius and the distribution of metropolitan transportation needs the evolution of metropolitan rail transit network in China ,this paper argues that the perspective of synergy rather than that of hierarchy shall be taken to fulfill three purposes ,namely ,to clarify the transformation and features of the lines and the nodes in rail transit network ,to re-establish the status and functions of suburban railway and important nodes and to complete the index system of the structural evolution of metropolitan rail transit network .It is hoped thus the evolution of metropolitan rail transit network in China can be promoted .

  10. Effect of Regional Settlement on Urban Rail Transit Construction and Countermeasures%区域沉降对城市轨道交通建设的影响及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运明

    2016-01-01

    当轨道交通穿越沉降漏斗区和沉降带时,会对城市轨道交通线路的建设及运营产生非常大的破坏影响。为使测量技术更好地为城市轨道交通工程建设服务,本文以北京地铁14号线工程建设的实际测量作业为背景,通过分析、研究与总结,从高程贯通误差公式设计依据、地面沉降对高程贯通误差的影响、考虑地面沉降的高程贯通误差计算、建设阶段实际地面沉降影响及应对措施等几个部分进行阐述。区域沉降对城市轨道交通建设的影响及应对措施是在工程实践中通过研究分析得出的成果,对今后我国各城市的城市轨道交通工程建设的测量具有参考和指导意义。%When the rail transit through the settlement funnels area and the seduction zone, it will have a very big impact on the con-struction and operation of urban rail transit line.In order to make the better service for urban rail transit construction with measurement technology, this paper takes Beijing metro line 14 as the background, through the analysis, research and summary, and expounds from the Elevation breakthrough error formula design basis, the impact of ground subsidence on the height through error calculation, Con-sidering the ground subsidence on the elevation breakthrough error calculation, the actual ground subsidence impact during construc-tion phase and response measures, The effect of regional settlement on the construction of urban rail transit and its countermeasures are the results obtained from the research and analysis in engineering practice, It is of reference and guiding significance to the measure-ment of urban rail transit engineering construction in the future.

  11. 城市轨道交通数字化管理技术方案研究%STUDY ON A TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR DIGITALISATION MANAGERNENT OF URBAN RAIL TRANSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟; 李玉建

    2014-01-01

    There is still certain difference in regard to digitalisation management of urban rail transit comparing with the developed countries at present.How to enhance further the management efficiency for the construction and operation of domestic urban rail transit has become a pursuit of goal in domestic urban rail transit industry.Digitalisation management is an effective way to reach the goal.In this paper we discuss and plan an overall software architecture of urban railway transit information construction,and propose a technical solution which realises the integration of production information system,communication network and the application of enterprise management information resource,all for urban railway transit lines.The solution has the application characteristics of multi-line single-centre,multi-net in-one and multi-system integration,thus makes the digitalisation management of urban rail transit cover many application functions such as commanding, scheduling,operation,services,management and etc.It is an important development trend for the digitalisation construction of modern urban rail transit.%目前国内城市轨道交通的数字化管理水平相比发达国家仍存在一定的差距。如何进一步提高国内城市轨道交通建设和运营的管理效率已成为国内城市轨道交通行业的追求目标。数字化管理是实现这一目标的有效途径。探讨和规划城市轨道交通信息化建设的总体软件构架,提出实现集城市轨道交通线路生产信息系统、通信网络和企业管理信息资源应用于一体的技术解决方案。该方案具有多线一中心、多网合一和多系统集成的应用特点,使城市轨道交通数字化管理覆盖指挥、调度、运营、服务和管理等诸多应用功能,是现代城市轨道交通数字化建设的重要发展趋势。

  12. 轨道交通用高温超导直线感应电机的设计与测试%The Design and Test of High Temperature Superconducting Linear Induction Motor for Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方进; 申政

    2013-01-01

    高温超导直线感应电机对于城市轨道交通的发展具有重要意义.参考常规铜绕组直线感应电机的设计理论,对高温超导直线感应电机进行设计.结合高温超导带材的特性,设计超导绕组线圈的结构并选择单层整距集中绕组结构的方式对线圈在初级铁芯上进行排列,采用无磁材料制作薄壁杜瓦,最后将各个部分整体组装成高温超导直线感应电机试验样机.运用有限元分析软件ANSOFT对所设计的电机建模并进行仿真计算.制作铜绕组试制样机并搭建直线电机牵引测试平台对制作的电机样机进行测试,将试验结果和仿真结果进行对比分析,验证设计的合理性与可行性.%High temperature superconducting linear induction motor (HTS LIM) is significant for the development of urban rail transit.The HTS LIM was designed,using design theory of conventional copper windings linear induction motor as a reference.Combined with the properties of high temperature superconducting tapes,the structure of the superconducting coils was designed and the coils were arranged adopting the single layer concentrated structure in the primary core.The Dewar was manufactured by adopting non magnetic material.Finally,various parts were assembled into HTS LIM test prototype.The model of HTS LIM was built and the simulation was executed by finite element analysis software ANSOFT.The copper windings trial prototype was manufactured and the linear motor traction test platform was set up to test the performance of the motor prototype testing.The test results and simulation results were analyzed to verify the rationality and feasibility of the design.

  13. 广佛环线对珠三角地区城际轨道交通网通达性的影响%The Effect of the Guangfo Circle Line on the Accessibility of Inter City Rail Transit Network in Zhusanjiao Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰鹏

    2011-01-01

    Guangfo circle line is the inter city circle line in Guangfo area,which belongs to the geometric categories of the rail traffic network's spheres and layers.It connects a great number of important transit hubs;and joins eight inter city rail transit lines.It is the most important circle line in the "three circle"of the line network.Through analyzing the function and calculation for the accessibility of the Guangfo circle line,it shows that:the Guangfo circle line not meets the passenger flow requirements and promotes the process of the Guangfo city,but also improves the accesibility of the line network and service efficiency.%广佛环线属于轨道交通网络中图层的几何范畴,为广佛都市圈的城际环线.该线连接了广佛地区重要的交通枢纽,并与珠三角地区城际轨道交通线网规划中8条城际轨道交通线路衔接,是珠三角地区城际轨道交通网"三环"中最为重要的"一环".通过对广佛环线功能定位分析和通达性计算表明:该线不仅满足了沿线地区客流需求,推动了广佛同城化进程,同时还将以广州为中心的放射形线路紧密的组合在一起,提高了珠三角地区城际轨道交通线网的通达性,提升了线网服务效率.

  14. Discussion of Urban Rail Transit Engineering Cost Management Measures%城市轨道交通工程造价管理措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志年

    2012-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通建设的快速发展,其投资占基础设施建设的比例不断增加,为进一步做好工程投资控制、质量控制、工期控制和合同管理,以及安全管理等方面的工作,充分发挥投资的经济效益和社会效益,对目前工程造价管理中存在的主要问题进行分析,对各阶段工程造价管理方法进行论述和探讨。通过分析与探讨提出进一步加强和完善工程造价管理的措施与建议。%With the rapid development of urban rail transit construction, the proportion of its investment accounts in infrastructure construction increases constantly. In order to promote engineering investment control, qual- ity control, time limit control, contract management, and safety management work, give full play to the investment's economic efficiency and the social efficiency, the main problems existing in the current engi- neering cost management are analyzed, and engineering cost management method in each stage is de- scribed and discussed. Through the analysis and studies, measures and suggestions on further strengthe- ning and perfecting engineering cost management are put forward.

  15. On Debt Repayment of Urban Rail Transit Construction Projects%城市轨道交通建设项目债务偿还方式思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马季华

    2013-01-01

    Low-fare policy of urban rail transit results in project construction fund essentially relying on the city government subsidies. The principal of the loans should be paid in annual installments and the interests are also to be paid by amortization. Compared with principal repayment with grace period, annual amortization has stronger binding effect on companies so that they can act according to their capabilities, control risks and apportion their debt burdens. It is a safe and fair long-term mechanism for investment and financing.%城市轨道交通的低票价政策决定了项目建设资金最终依靠城市政府投入与个人住房采取按揭贷款“超前消费”的模式类似,城市轨道交通建设项目适合采取借钱“超前建设”的模式.建议城市轨道交通建设项目的债务实行本金按年分期偿还的方式,即不但利息要按年支付,本金也要按年分期偿还.本金按年分期偿还方式与本金设置宽限期偿还方式相比,具有更强的约束性,有利于实现量力而行、控制风险和均衡负担,是安全、公平的投融资长效机制.

  16. Passenger Information System Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Botha, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This thesis goes through the development process of a Passenger Information System simulator for a customer to test their route information databases on before distributing these to the rolling stock. The paper starts by describing the basic components and devices of a Mitron passenger information system and the purpose of the passenger information system simulator ordered by the customer. The paper continues by describing the initial design that was offered to the customer. The 11 ma...

  17. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  18. Dynamic Model Design of Stakeholders Management in Urban Rail Transit PPP Projects---Take Xuzhou Rail Transit Line 1 as an Example%PPP模式下轨道交通项目干系人动态管控--以徐州轨道交通项目1号线为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余慕溪; 陆瑶

    2016-01-01

    公私合营 PPP模式作为基础设施项目融资建设的新方式,在城市轨道交通项目中的应用已成为新的研究热点。PPP项目结构复杂、参与方众多,决策和设计阶段的干系人管理对项目顺利实施有较大影响。根据利益相关者理论,在识别徐州城市轨道交通项目干系人,并对其进一步细分的基础上,详细分析了徐州城市轨道交通项目各干系人的期望与要求,提出了基于全寿命周期的项目干系人动态管控,可从主体识别、参与动力、参与过程以及绩效评价机制4个方面提高管理效率,为 PPP模式下项目干系人管理策略决策提供一种新思路,对于同类项目管理实践具有一定指导意义。%Public‐Private‐Partnership as a new w ay of infrastructure project financing ,its application in urban rail transit project has become a new research focus .For complex structure and numerous participants ,stakeholder management of PPP projects has a greater effect on success in the decision‐making phase .Based on the stakeholder theory ,this paper sys‐tematically identifies and subdivides the stakeholders of Xuzhou rail transit line 1 .With detailed analysis ,dynamic model of stakeholder management in full life cycle is conceptually built ,including subject identification mechanism ,coordination mechanism ,resource sharing mechanism and feedback mechanism ,w hich provides a innovative idea to stakeholder man‐agement in PPP projects .

  19. Optimal boarding method for airline passengers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab

    2008-02-01

    Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo optimization algorithm and a computer simulation, I find the passenger ordering which minimizes the time required to board the passengers onto an airplane. The model that I employ assumes that the time that a passenger requires to load his or her luggage is the dominant contribution to the time needed to completely fill the aircraft. The optimal boarding strategy may reduce the time required to board and airplane by over a factor of four and possibly more depending upon the dimensions of the aircraft. I explore some features of the optimal boarding method and discuss practical modifications to the optimal. Finally, I mention some of the benefits that could come from implementing an improved passenger boarding scheme.

  20. Fast Passenger Tracks Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s fast passenger tracks network consists of four parts:express rail- way with speeds between 300km/h and 350 kin/h,passenger rail lines with speeds between 200 km/h and 250 km/h,intercity high-speed railways that run

  1. 轨道交通线网规划实施对地下水环境影响分析%Analysis on the Impacts of Rail Transit Network Planning Implementation on Groundwater Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱侠; 杨晓婷

    2011-01-01

    结合西安市城市轨道交通线网与地下水层的关系,分析轨道交通线网规划实施对地下水补给、径流和排泄的影响途径.采用数值模拟方法,利用Visual MODFLOW软件模拟轨道交通线网建设对地下水流场的影响.结果表明:轨道交通线网对地下水的影响主要发生在潜水层,在该水层形成多个封闭的"井"字形区域,在一定程度上减少了含水层的过水断面,导致局部区域地下水位壅高,局部区域地下水位下降,在水位抬升区或水位下降区,潜水位的变幅仅为0~1.25 m.%Considering the relationships between rail transit networks and groundwater aquifers in the city of Xi'an, the effects of rail transit network planning implementation on ground recharge,runoff and discharge were analyzed. The impacts of rail transit network construction on groundwater flow fields were simulated using Visual MODFLOW. The results show that influences occur in the unconfined aquifer and thus several enclosed square-formed areas are formed. It can reduce wetted area of the aquifer to some extent and lead to variations of ground water level in some areas. But whether in elevated areas or declined areas of water level, the groundwater level ranges from 0 to 1.25 m.

  2. 城市轨道交通项目政府融资模式风险分析%Risk Analysis of Government Financing Patterns in Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志伟

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,urban rail transit are built in many big cities in China.As the city public infrastructure,urban rail transit has some characteristics:funds invested large,long construction period,high operating cost,low project investment return,long investment recovery period,greater the potential risk.Therefore,it is difficult to attract businesses to participate in the investment and construction,so the government is mainly responsible for raising capital financing of city rail transit project.This paper introduces the financing channel of government financing mode,puts forward corresponding measures to prevent risks based on the recognition of government financing risk factors.%近年来,我国很多大城市都正在兴建城市轨道交通,城市轨道交通项目作为城市的公益性基础设施,资金投入量巨大,建设周期长、运营成本高,项目自身投资回报率低,投资回收期长,潜在风险较大,因此,很难吸引企业参与投资建设,政府是城市轨道交通项目资金融资筹措的主要承担者.本文介绍了政府融资模式的筹资渠道,在对政府融资风险因素识别的基础上,提出了相应的风险防范措施.

  3. Walking Affect Area of Rail Transit Station Based on Multinomial Logit Model%基于多项Logit模型的轨道交通站点步行接驳范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 戴洁; 张晓军

    2012-01-01

    To determine the reasonable walking access area of rail transport station, it is necessary to analyze the walking environment, travel time, cost, comfort and other factors. The multinomial Logit model is used to establishment a model of transportation choice which will link all the factors and determine the pedestrian area of rail transit station based on the principle of equal utility. On the surveyed data of a rail transit station in Nanjing City, and by using the TRANSCAD software, the walking area of metro station is calculated. Through a comparison between the traditional walking areas and the surveyed data, it is clear that the model is effective and reasonable, and could provide references for the planning, selection and evaluation of urban rail transit.%在分析步行环境、出行时间、出行费用等出行特征影响因素的基础上,运用多项Logit模型建立了居民出行方式选择模型,根据效用相当原则确定城市轨道交通步行接驳范围.根据某城市的某个轨道交通站点的调查数据,利用本文提出的方法计算该站点的步行接驳范围,与传统的接驳范围经验取值及意向调查结果进行比较,发现计算结果与调查统计结果较为一致.计算结果表明,该计算方法是有效合理的,能够为城市轨道交通站点的规划、选址和评价提供依据.

  4. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  5. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

    2015-01-01

    People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

  6. 轨道交通综合监控仿真培训系统数据交互模块的设计%Design of the Data Interaction Module for Rail Transit Integrated Supervisory Simulation Training System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祁; 崔伟; 谢向阳

    2016-01-01

    为了实现轨道交通综合监控仿真培训系统与各种综合监控系统的有效连接和信息交互,设计了一种数据交互模块.该模块具备便利的管理接口、多种数据存储单元及配套的读写接口,并且具有一个通信协议池,支持多种通信协议接口与综合监控系统进行数据交互.该模块成功地连接了轨道交通综合监控系统与仿真模拟器,具有很好的实用性和扩展性.%In order to realize the effective links and information interaction between rail transit integrated supervisory system and various kinds of integrated monitoring systems,a data interaction module is design. The module is equipped with convenient management interface,a variety of data storage units,as well as the matched interface for read and write. In addition,communication protocols pool is possessed to support multiple communication protocol interfaces for data interacting with integrated monitoring systems. The module connects the integrated supervisory system of rail transit and the simulator successfully,and has very good practicability and extensibility.

  7. Research Progress of the Impact of Rail Transit on the Real Estate Value%轨道交通对房地产价值影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓; 赵强

    2016-01-01

    The paper selects relevant literature about the impact of rail transit on real estate value during the last years at home and abroad,and summarizes the range,the temporal effect,the sub-market effect and the quantitative analysis method of rail transit impact. On this basis,forecasts the future research trends and new issues of concern,in order to deepen the research.%选取近几年来国内外关于轨道交通对房地产价值影响的相关文献,从轨道交通影响的范围、时效性、分市场效应和定量分析方法等方面进行总结评述。在此基础上,就未来的研究趋势以及值得关注的新问题作出展望,以供深化和拓展研究。

  8. Rational recent construction scale of urban rapid rail transit network in Changsha%长沙市轨道交通近期建设合理规模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璇

    2012-01-01

    本文应用交通需求推算法和基础设施投资资金控制法对长沙市近期轨道交通建设规模进行匡算,并采用轨道工程实施进度控制,确定了长沙市轨道交通近期合理建设规模;同时根据长沙市过江通道规划及跨江客流预测,对跨江轨道交通通道合理规模进行了研究.%The theory of urban traffic demand and urban infrastructural investment control were applied to obtain the rational recent construction scale, coordinating with the progress of urban rapid rail transit project implemen tation. According to the cross - river passage planning of Changsha and cross - river flow prediction, the reasona ble scale of cross - river urban rapid rail transit passage was also studied in the paper.

  9. Exploration on Development Strategy of Urban Rail Transit Industry in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co.,Ltd.%北车大连所公司城市轨道交通产业发展战略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安帮贤

    2013-01-01

    随着国内城市轨道交通快速发展以及城市化进程日益加快,为轨道交通装备行业发展带来带来千载难逢的机遇,中国北车大连所公司城轨车产品种类、数量等方面亟待改善,作者试图对大连所公司城轨发展战略做出研究,以期为提高竞争力提出一点建议.%With the rapid development of urban rail transit as well as the ever-accelerating process of urbanization, it brings once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for the development of rail transportation equipment industry, product type, quantity and other aspects in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd. need to improve. The authors tries to carry out the research on development strategy of urban rail transit industry in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd., so as to make some recommendations to improve competitiveness.

  10. Study on Scheme for Thermal Capacity Test on Traction System of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle%城轨列车牵引系统热容量试验方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 陆阳; 王志峰; 王延哲

    2013-01-01

    Taking the type test of urban rail transit vehicle for AL Mashaaer AL Mugaddassah metro project as an example,testing points arrangement was studied and the scheme for the thermal capacity test on the traction system of urban rail transit was designed based on the analysis of traction system composition,heat source distribution and the arrangement of cooling devices for urban rail transit vehicles.In the thermal capacity test of traction system,traction motor temperature,heat sink and internal air temperature of traction inverter,brake resistor and its outlet temperature,axle box bearing temperature and environment temperature were measured.Besides,electrical parameters including supply voltage,input and output current of traction inverter,brake resistor voltage were monitored at the same time to verify the working conditions of all equipment in the traction system of urban rail transit vehicle.Preinstalled temperature sensors and sensors specially arranged before test were used for temperature measurement.Current and voltage sensors installed were used to measure electrical parameters.Running schedule with stops at all stations was adopted and working cycle including starting and acceleration,constant speed operation and stop with speed regulating braking was applied.The thermal capacity test for the traction system of urban rail transit vehicle for AL Mashaaer AL Mugaddassah metro project was successfully conducted according to the designed scheme.%结合沙特麦加城轨列车型式试验,在分析城轨列车牵引系统的组成及其热源分布和冷却设备布置的基础上,研究测点布置,设计城轨牵引系统热容量试验方案.牵引系统热容量试验主要对牵引电机、牵引逆变器的散热片和箱体内部空气、制动电阻及其出风口、轴箱轴承以及环境等的温度进行监测,另外还要对供电电压、牵引逆变器的输入和输出电流以及制动电阻的电压等电参数进行监测,据此确认城轨

  11. PPP模式下的城市轨道交通项目投资策略研究%Project Investment in the Field of Urban Rail Transit under the PPP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智星; 申金升; 王传涛

    2016-01-01

    PPP模式在国内城市轨道交通领域的应用前景广阔。社会投资机构与政府在城市轨道交通领域的项目合作,本质上是一种投资决策分析,核心在于研究社会投资机构的投资决策规律。本文在PPP模式下,通过分析PPP项目的基本博弈关系,模拟作为理性人的社会投资机构参与政府择优选择项目合作伙伴的特征,基于Bayesian博弈构建模型,提出博弈主体的效用水平和目标函数,并研究在博弈均衡结果下,无投资偏好和有投资偏好条件的报价特点及最佳策略,旨在为应用PPP模式促进城市轨道交通项目建设提供理论参考,最大程度减少因投资评价不准确、不合理而造成项目失败的风险。%The PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode will be very popular in the urban rail transit in China. In essence, the project cooperation between social investors and government department in the field of urban rail transit is a kind of investment decision. Its core is studying the investment decisions of the social investing institution. Under the PPP mode, this paper analyzes the basic game relationship in the PPP project, and simulates that investing institutions and government departments select as rational persons outstanding project partners. A Bayesian game model is constructed. It is proposed that the utility level as well as the objective function of the game player. In addition, this paper researches on quotation characteristics and the optimal strategies with investment preference of investing institutions or without investment preference in the game equilibrium. It purposes to provide a theoretical reference for the application of the PPP mode in the project of urban rail transit, and reduce the failure of projects due to inaccurate or unreasonable investment evaluation.

  12. Incentive Mechanism of Public-private Partnership Rail Transit Project from the Perspective of Multitask Principal-agent Model%PPP轨道交通项目多任务委托代理监管激励机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易欣

    2016-01-01

    To design an effective PPP rail transit project supervision incentive mechanism, and to improve current government regulatory system defects, a new PPP rail transit project supervision organization structure is proposed in this paper. According to the responsibility of supervision organization for economic and quality supervising tasks in the PPP rail transit project, the incentive mechanism with multi-task principal-agent model is constructed, which includes government, project supervision organization and SPV. Solution of the model is got in accordance with the incentive compatibility and participation constraint. The results show that the most effective incentive mechanism is that government should make rewards and punishments to the supervision organization with reasonable presuppose supervising goals, which enforce the supervision organization intensify supervising the SPV. Based on feedback information from the supervision organization, government can take the corresponding strategies and measures to the SPV.%为设计有效的PPP轨道交通项目监管激励机制,分析了现行项目监管体系弊端,提出了完善PPP轨道交通项目监管组织的建议。依据监管机构需承担的经济和质量监管责任,构建了包括政府、监管机构和项目公司的多任务委托代理激励模型。根据激励相容和参与约束条件对模型进行了求解。结果表明,最有效的激励机制是政府预设合理监管目标值对监管机构进行奖惩,督促监管机构对项目公司加大监管力度。政府则根据监管机构反馈的监管信息,对项目公司采取相应的策略和措施。

  13. 上海迎世博轨道交通快速发展的碳减排效益%Effects of accelerated development of urban rail transit in Shanghai before the World Expo on greenhouse gas emission reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立峰; 胡静; 邵丹

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the effects of accelerated development of Shanghai's urban rail transit since 2007 on GHG emission reduction, based on analysis of the annual changes of traffic modes and GHG emissions further comparison was made between the real scenario (accelerated development of rail transit) and the Business-As-Usual scenario (normal development of rail transit). The results showed that the rail transit absorbed 50% of the total increment of commuting volume since 2007, which (1) helped to relieve the stress of congestion and pollution related to car growth, (2) slowed down the growth rate of GHG emissions from Shanghai's commuting system even though the traffic volume was growing rapidly at the same time. In the real scenario, the total GHG emissions (CO2-c) from inside-city commuting from the beginning of 2007 to the end of October, 2010 was 789,000 tons lower than those in the BAU scenario. This not only made great contribution to Shanghai Expo to offset part of its GHG emissions before closing and to achieve its Low-Carbon Expo target, but also piloted in Shanghai's transformation toward a low-carbon city.%为研究2007年以来上海轨道交通建设提速带来的温室气体减排效益,对上海市内出行结构与碳排放量历年变化进行了分析,并进-步采用情景分析法,对实际情景(轨道交通加速发展)与基准情景(轨道交通常速发展)下市内出行碳排放进行了对比.结果表明,2007年以来轨道交通吸收了全市客运增长量的50%,不仅缓解了个体机动车迅速增长带来的拥堵和污染等问题,也使得整个上海市内客运交通在客运量迅速攀升的同时,碳排放总量增长速度却有了明显放缓.与基准情景相比,2007年1月初至2010年10月底世博会结束这段时期内,实际情景下上海轨道交通的快速发展使市内出行碳排放总量相对减排了78.9万tCO2当量.

  14. Error Proofing Technology Applied to Urban Rail Transit Operation Management%防错技术在城市轨道交通运营管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张标

    2012-01-01

    城市轨道交通的系统构成和运营组织结构的特点包括专业多、覆盖面广、联动性强等,这些特点给保持长期的安全平稳运营带来很大挑战,反思各地城市轨道交通运营的事故案例,发现人为错误是最易出现也是最难控制的.从防错技术的提出、人为错误机理、防错核心思想入手,分析防错技术在城市轨道交通中应用的重要性;依据运营实际需求,提出防错技术应用的原则和推广实施“三阶六步”法,并结合运营实践进行案例分析.%An urban rafl transit system and its operation organization structure involve many different disciplines and joint efforts among different work departments in different places. Therefore, maintaining long-term safe and smooth operation constitutes a very big ehalbnge. By reviewing operation accidents in urban rail transit, it has been found that human errors are probably the most common to occur and the most difficult to control. This article introduces the error proofing technology. Starting from human error mechanism and the key idea for error proofing, the author analyzes the importance of applying the error proofing technology to urban rail transit system. In line with the actual operation needs for the proposed error proofing technology, the implementation principles are formulated and a "three-stage and six-step" method is proposed, with the operation practice of case studies presented.

  15. Passenger rail security, planning, and resilience: application of network, plume, and economic simulation models as decision support tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Lioy, Paul; Ozbas, Birnur; Mantell, Nancy; Isukapalli, Sastry; Lahr, Michael; Altiok, Tayfur; Bober, Joseph; Lacy, Clifton; Lowrie, Karen; Mayer, Henry; Rovito, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    We built three simulation models that can assist rail transit planners and operators to evaluate high and low probability rail-centered hazard events that could lead to serious consequences for rail-centered networks and their surrounding regions. Our key objective is to provide these models to users who, through planning with these models, can prevent events or more effectively react to them. The first of the three models is an industrial systems simulation tool that closely replicates rail passenger traffic flows between New York Penn Station and Trenton, New Jersey. Second, we built and used a line source plume model to trace chemical plumes released by a slow-moving freight train that could impact rail passengers, as well as people in surrounding areas. Third, we crafted an economic simulation model that estimates the regional economic consequences of a variety of rail-related hazard events through the year 2020. Each model can work independently of the others. However, used together they help provide a coherent story about what could happen and set the stage for planning that should make rail-centered transport systems more resistant and resilient to hazard events. We highlight the limitations and opportunities presented by using these models individually or in sequence.

  16. Effect of Urban Rail Transit Transfer Nodes on Network Performance%城市轨道交通换乘节点与网络运行效率关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明高; 杜鹏; 朱宇婷; 史芮嘉; 冯旭杰

    2015-01-01

    换乘节点是城市轨道交通不同线路间转乘的必经场所,对城市轨道交通系统运行有重要影响。本文基于复杂网络理论,将平均路径长度、网络局部效率和网络全局效率作为网络运行效率的评价指标,研究了换乘节点比例、换乘节点衔接线路数及换乘节点分布与网络运行效率的变化关系。研究表明,网络平均路径长度随换乘节点比例、换乘节点衔接线路数增加呈幂函数降低;网络局部效率随换乘节点比例增加呈指数下降,网络全局效率随换乘节点比例增加呈对数增加且换乘效率越高,增长越明显;换乘节点衔接线路数的增加会降低网络局部效率,增加网络全局效率;换乘节点在各线路分布越均匀,网络全局效率越高。%Transfer nodes, which are the place while transferring between urban rail transit lines, have great influence to urban rail transit network performance. In this paper, the average path length, network local efficiency and network global efficiency are proposed as the network performance indexes based on complex theory. Then, the effect of transfer nodes proportion, transfer nodes connecting lines and transfer nodes distribution on the urban rail transit network performance is studied. The results show that the average path length decreases by power relate to the transfer nodes proportion and transfer nodes connecting lines. The local efficiency decline by exponential as the transfer nodes proportion increases, while the global efficiency has logarithmic growth as the transfer nodes proportion increases. Transfer efficiency may affect the global efficiency and the higher the transfer efficiency is, the effect of the transfer nodes on global efficiency is more remarkable. Moreover, the local efficiency has inverse correlation with the transfer nodes connecting lines while the global efficiency has positive correlation with the transfer nodes connecting lines

  17. 14 CFR 91.1035 - Passenger awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... require passenger compliance with lighted passenger information signs and no smoking placards, prohibit...) Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems: Each passenger must be briefed... appropriate, that the regulations require passenger compliance with the lighted passenger information sign and...

  18. 城轨交通高架线环境振动的仿真与预测%Simulation and prediction for environment vibration induced by urban rail transit with elevated line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹤年; 孙广俊; 肖军华; 李雄威

    2013-01-01

    基于轮轨相互作用原理,建立了城轨交通高架线路列车振动荷载激励函数。将该激励力作用在有限元软件建立的三维轨道支承结构和土体传播路径计算模型上,对地铁运行引起的周边环境振动响应进行了仿真模拟,并利用现场实测数据进行了比较和验证。进一步,分析了列车运行速度和场地土特性对环境振动的参数影响。在对各参数的影响特征进行了定量分析的基础上,通过统计分析,建立了城市轨道交通高架线路环境振动的振级预测公式,并利用现场实测数据进行了验证。研究表明,仿真模拟和预测结果能够较为真实的反映城轨交通高架线路运行引起的环境振动的实际情况。%Firstly, on the basis of wheel-track interaction theory, a function of exciting force of moving train on elevated line is established. Then, the exciting force is acted on the three-dimensional numerical models of rail structure, elevated line and soil foundation by utilizing the finite element software. The surrounding environment vibration response caused by train operation is simulated;and the numerical results are compared and verified by the field measurement data. Furthermore, the parameter effects of length of bridge span, train speed and soil properties on environment vibration are studied. On the basis of investigation of parameter influence characters and according to the statistical analysis, a prediction formula of vibration level on ground induced by urban rail transit with elevated line is presented and validated by the field experiments. The research results show that the numerical simulation and prediction can truly reflect the actual environment vibration caused by urban rail transit with elevated line.

  19. Application of micro tremor technology in urban rail transit survey%微动勘探技术在城市轨道交通勘察中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建清; 熊永红; 李鹏

    2016-01-01

    Micro tremor, as an exploration method based on natural source, has the advantages of convenient, low cost, envi-ronmental friendly, so its application in the urban rail transit project becomes increasingly extensive. Test and research on micro-tremor were carried out in a pre-stage exploration of Wuhan rail transit site by using S-FLEX high-fidelity wireless 3-D seismic data acquisition system. The micro tremor data was collected through the arrangement of circular array, and the frequency dispersion curve of micro tremor data was extracted by SPAC method to inverse underground media S wave velocity profile. The results of the experiment indicate that the micro tremor is suitable for geological-detection in the complex environment of urban site and the magnetic environment, the data acquisition is convenient and velocity stratification is accuracy and reliable.%微动勘探作为基于天然源的面波勘探方法,具有方便快捷、低成本、不破坏环境等优点,在城市轨道交通工程勘察中的应用越来越广泛. 以武汉某轨道交通前期勘探工作为例,开展了微动勘探试验研究,采用S-FLEX高保真度无线三维地震勘探数据采集系统,通过布置圆形台阵采集微动数据,借助SPAC法提取微动数据的频散特性从而反演地下介质视S波速度剖面. 试验结果表明,微动探测适合于城市复杂场地环境和地磁环境的地质体探测,数据采集方便快捷,速度分层准确可靠.

  20. Quantified Estimation of Profitable Property of Urban Rail Transit Under PPP Model%城市轨道交通公私合作模式经营性量化测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟亚

    2012-01-01

    对城市轨道交通公私合营项目社会投资人的投资回报模型进行分析,并对项目公益性和经营性的双重属性进行深入研究,提出一种基于投资额、运营成本、票款收入、补贴金额等数据对项目的经营性进行量化测算的方法,得出项目经营性量化测算的基本原则——使超过传统模式的融资成本部分等于运营期各项支出的节约部分,并在北京地铁4号线公私合营项目中进行应用.%Through analysis of social investors' return on investment under public -private-partnership (PPP) model and in-depth study on the rail transit industry' s profitable and non-profitable properties, a quantified estimation method based on investment, operating costs, income and financial subsidy is proposed, and it is concluded that the basic principle of the quantified estimation method is to make the excess cost of financing equal to the cost savings in the operation period. An empirical research on Beijing metro Line 4 is presented in the end.

  1. 城市轨道交通供电无功补偿设备安装及容量确定%Installation Mode and Capacity Determination of Reactive Power Compensation Equipment at City Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿亮; 虞苍璧; 刘宝诚

    2012-01-01

    City rail transit power supply system exists serious reactive power problem.According to the different characteristic of system reactive power during different period,adopt the centralized compensation way to installing a SVG device to solute this problem.A capacity determination method of SVG equipment and a practical example are provided in this paper,at the same time,analysis the direct and indirect economic benefit.Through install SVG equipment can better solve the problem of reactive power compensation and improve the reliability of power supply.%城市轨道交通供电系统存在较严重的无功功率问题,针对不同时段系统产生的无功性质不同,提出采用集中补偿方式安装SVG设备解决方法,给出了SVG设备容量确定方法和一个具体算例,分析了产生的直接和间接经济效益。安装SVG设备可较好的解决城市轨道交通供电无功功率补偿问题,提高供电可靠性。

  2. Control of Vertical Force in Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Linear Motor for Urban Rail Transit Applications%城轨交通用磁通反向永磁直线电机的垂向力控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文祥; 刘虎; 吉敬华; 徐亮

    2013-01-01

    磁通反向永磁直线( FRPML)电机是一种新型的初级永磁体直线电机。在分析其电机结构特点与工作原理基础上,推导并建立了数学模型。 FRPML电机的垂向力会对其效率等产生不利影响。分析了垂向力的组成与特性,得到解析表达式。提出了电机的垂向力最优控制,使FRPML电机保持正常推力下,提高电机性能。研究结果表明,所提出的优化控制策略正确有效。%The flux-reversal permanent magnet linear ( FRPML) machine is a new class of primary permanent magnet linear machine. It can be manufactured easily and installed expediently, suitable for the long stator applications, such as urban rail transit. The mathematical model was built based on its operation principles. The vertical force would reduce the motor efficiency. Therefore, according to the physical characteristics analyses of the vertical force, its analytical model was derived. The optimal control was obtained, hence improving the motor performance. The results verified the proposed control strategy.

  3. Theoretical Study and Test on Noise Reduction Effect of the U-shaped Beams on Urban Rail Transit Elevated Lines%城市轨道交通高架线U型梁降噪理论与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕然

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the characteristics of traditional box beams with U-shaped beams,analysis was carried out for noise control problems of the traditional box beams,and basic principles and specific measures of noise control for U-shaped beams were put forward.Different methods were adopted to calculate,analyse and simulate the noise reduction effect of Ushaped beams,which was verified by noise tests in construction.In order to promote the urban rail transit elevated lines which have low construction and operation costs and safety risks,the research on the environment-friendly technology of elevated lines becomes very important.%通过对比传统箱型梁与U型梁的特点,分析传统箱型梁噪声治理存在的问题,提出U型梁降噪的基本原理及具体措施.同时,采用不同的方法对U型梁的降噪效果进行计算分析与模拟预测,并通过工程噪声测试进行验证.在城市轨道交通建设中,推广应用建设与运营成本低、安全风险小、环保的高架线路及高架技术成为一个重要的研究方向.

  4. 基于本体的轨道交通应急信息共享与辅助决策%Emergency Information Sharing and Decision Aid of Urban Rail Transit Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珂; 韩宝明

    2011-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of information in emergency management operation and the requirements of information share in urban rail transit, the ontology theory has been introduced in standardization of emergency information. Authors established a model of ontology description through dividing emergency process into several stages and related objects to construct an identical frame of expression for emergency information sharing, and set up rules to construct identification and mapping for information ontology and logic of operation. Semantic matching and relevancy expansion were applied to optimize the treatment scheme suitable for the layout of the scene, to realize decision-making based on information integration.%针对城市轨道交通应急管理业务的信息特征及信息共享需求,将本体论引入应急信息标准化;根据应急处置流程划分阶段及其业务对象,建立本体知识表达模型,构建共享所需的规范化框架,设立规则对信息本体、业务逻辑进行辨识和映射.应用语义匹配、关联扩展策略,制订和修正处置方案来用于现场布局,以实现信息集成对应急决策的支撑.

  5. Appreciable Problems in Construction Stage of Urban Rail Transit from the Operation Angle%从运营角度分析城市轨道交通建设阶段需重视的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕湘利

    2012-01-01

    分析了城市轨道交通网络化运营面临的主要问题,从运营角度提出了建设阶段必须关注的总体设计、标准化设计、国产化和信息化等问题.分析了忽视这些问题对网络化运营的安全性、可靠性和效率的影响,阐述了总体设计、标准化设计、国产化设计和信息化设计在建设阶段应关注的重点.%The main problems facing urban rail transit network operation are analyzed, an overall design, the standard design, localization and information technology are emphasized in the construction stage from the operation angle. Since the effect of these problems to the security, reliability and efficiency of networking operation are often neglected, more attention should be given to them in the whole construction stage, including the overall design, standard design, localization design and information design.

  6. 轨道交通不同声屏障降噪效果和投资效益分析%Analysis on Noise Reduction Effect and Investment Benefits of Different Rail Transit Sound Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 张艳君; 翟国庆

    2013-01-01

    以宁波市轨道交通1号线高架段声屏障为例,基于Cadna/A噪声预测软件进行声学建模,对比分析双侧直立式、近似全封闭式声屏障降噪效果,并结合工程投资,分析投资效益,为科学决策、合理选择声屏障类型提供依据。%Sound barriers of the elevated rail transit line 1 of Ningbo City was chosen as an example and the acoustical model was established by using noise prediction software (Cadna/A). Both noise reduction effect and investment benefits were compared and analyzed between bilateral upright sound barrier and approximately enclosed sound barrier, which could provide a foundation for scientific decision-making and rational selection when choosing different sound barriers.

  7. Comparison and Selection of TBM in Urban Rail Transit Project%城市轨道交通全断面岩石掘进机的机型分析比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄银钉

    2012-01-01

    以岩石地层为主的城市轨道交通修建过程中,为避免传统钻爆法爆破施工造成的粉尘、废气、噪音及振动等污染,并提高施工技术水平,应研究采用全断面岩石掘进机进行施工.全断面岩石掘进机分为敞开式和护盾式两类,其中护盾式又分为单护盾、双护盾等机型.主要从地质适应性、各种机型自身特点等方面出发,对全断面岩石掘进机各种机型进行了分析比选.%In urban rail transit construction on mainly rock strata of a city, to avoid the blasting dust, exhaust gas, noise and vibration pollution caused by traditional drill and blast method, improve the construction technology, the full-face rock tunnel boring machine shall be adopted. This kind of machine has two types: the open tunnel borer and the shield tunnel borer, the latter is further divided into single shield and double shield models. Their geological suitability and respective characteristics are analyzed and compared in this paper.

  8. Elementary Study On The Public Space Design Of The Integration Of Urban Rapid Rail Transit Architecture%城市轨道交通建筑一体化公共空间设计初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏华

    2016-01-01

    With the development of Urban Rapid Rail Transit in China, more and more problems such as the disunity of public space and the incoordination of overal building function uncoordinated began to emerge in Built buildings, and one of the main cause is the deficiency of the public space design. This paper Starting from the City property of public space and analyze its spatial characteristics, and than, summarizes its design methods and key points in conjunction with the case.%随着我国城市轨道交通建设的不断推进,已建成站域建筑逐渐暴露出空间脱节、整体功能不协调等问题,对其公共空间设计的不足是一个重要原因。本文从其一体化公共空间的城市性角度出发,剖析其空间特性,并结合案例总结其设计方法要点。

  9. Multi-Level Maintenance Facility for Urban Rail Transit Vehicle%城市轨道交通车辆立体检修工艺设施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis on inspection and maintenance process for urban rail transit electric vehicles of third rail powered type. The study on overhaul trench, maintenance operating platform and power supply facilities are carried out, based on maintenance characteristics and maintenance requirements, it proposes multi-level and highly integrated overhaul maintenance facilities. Through operating practices, it can greatly improve efficiency of maintenance of the vehicles.%通过分析城市轨道交通三轨受电车辆的双周三月检检修工艺,针对其检修特点和检修要求,对检修地沟、作业平台、供电设施进行研究,提出了具有高度集成的全方位立体检修工艺设施,通过运营实践,可大大提高车辆检修效率。

  10. Discussion on Some Problems of Aerodynamics in Urban Rail Transit%城市快速轨道交通空气动力学相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炜; 高慧翔; 彭金龙

    2011-01-01

    With the high-speed development of urban rail transit, the target maximum train velocity has exceeded the velocity range specified in the current metro design codes. Some aerodynamic phenomena which could be ignored under the lower velocities have become very prominent under the high speed. This paper presents relative aerodynamic phenomena concerned with the blockage ratio and qualitatively analyzes some alleviation measures accounting for the specialties of subway.%随着城市轨道交通的快速发展,其设定的最高速度目标值突破了现行地铁相关规范最高速度的适用范围,许多在低速时可以忽略的空气动力学现象在快速时就变得不容忽视.结合目前的隧道阻塞比,给出城市快速轨道交通所出现的由空气动力学效应引起的相关现象,并结合地铁自身特点进行定性分析,提出相应的减缓措施,以期对进一步的研究提供参考方向,对类似工程有所帮助.

  11. Getting passengers out : evacuation behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.

    2003-01-01

    When disaster strikes, mass transportation means mass evacuation. The issue is especially urgent if, despite precautions, a train comes to a stop in a tunnel and there is a fire. Adequate behaviour of passengers is a major success factor of an evacuation. Passengers should replace their original (tr

  12. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database - Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  13. 新形势下的基础设施投融资改革初探--城市轨道TOD实践带来的启示%Reform of Investment and Financing System of Infrastructures in Mainland China:Experience from TOD of Urban Rail Transit Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓兵

    2014-01-01

    基础设施项目建设对国民经济的拉动效应显而易见,轨道交通建设给城市发展带来更多的机遇和挑战。地方政府在轨道建设前期如何前瞻规划、统筹安排和有效整合沿线资源,探索适合的建设模式对实现项目的可持续发展至关重要。以深圳地铁6号线为例,借鉴香港“轨道+物业”轨道发展经验,通过优化轨道交通沿线土地利用布局和开发强度,实践轨道交通TOD开发模式。阐述城轨TOD与香港地铁“轨道+物业”的理念,分析香港地铁“轨道+物业”模式在大陆应用存在的问题,介绍“轨道+物业”理念在深圳地铁6号线规划研究中的应用成果,将“轨道+物业”的模式与传统模式进行对比,总结城市轨道交通TOD模式成功实施的重要条件。最后对国内城轨TOD成功实施提出一些建议:创新城市轨道交通沿线土地出让和储备机制,探索城市轨道交通和城市空间规划接驳机制,完善城市轨道交通管理体制机制,完善政策及技术规范支撑,加强法规制度保障等。%It is obvious that the construction of infrastructures has great boosting effect on the national economy and that the construction of rail transit works brings more opportunities and challenges to the development of cities.The fact that the local government has a proper planning of the rail transit works,a proper coordination of the resources along the alignment of the rail transit works and a proper construction organization mode of the rail transit works has great importance for the sustainable development of the rail transit works.In the planning of Line 6 of Shenzhen Metro,the experience of“Rail +Property”of Hong Kong is referred to,the development of the land along the alignment of the Metro line is optimized and the TOD mode of the rail transit works is realized.In the paper,the mode of TOD and the concept of“Rail +Property”of Hong Kong

  14. The EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) System and Human Rights : Transferring Passenger Data or Passenger Freedom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission presented the ‘EU Passenger Name Record (PNR) system’ in 2007 as a tool in the fight against terrorism and organised crime. One of the proposed instruments of this system is the Framework Decision on the use of PNR, which provides for the storage and exchange of passenger dat

  15. 14 CFR 91.517 - Passenger information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger information. 91.517 Section 91... Multiengine Airplanes and Fractional Ownership Program Aircraft § 91.517 Passenger information. (a) Except as... belts and when smoking is prohibited. (c) If passenger information signs are installed, no passenger...

  16. "Good Passengers and Not Good Passengers:" Adolescent Drivers' Perceptions About Inattention and Peer Passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    The purpose of this qualitative focus group elicitation research study was to explore teen driver perceptions of peer passengers and driver inattention. We utilized focus groups for data collection and content analysis to analyze the data, both of which were guided by the theory of planned behavior. We conducted 7 focus groups with 30 teens, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤1year to examine attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms related to driving inattention and peer passengers. The sample was 50% male, mean age 17.39 (SD 0.52) with mean length of licensure 173.7days (SD 109.2). Three themes emerged: 1) "Good and not good" passengers; 2) Passengers and technology as harmful and helpful; and 3) The driver is in charge. While passengers can be a source of distraction, our participants also identified passenger behaviors that reduced risk, such as assistance with technology and guidance for directions. An understanding of teens' perceptions of peer passengers can contribute to the development of effective interventions targeting teen driver inattention. Nurses are well-positioned to contribute to these teen crash prevention efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 244, 250, 253, 259 and 399 RIN No. 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... certain requirements adopted in an April 25, 2011 final rule on enhancing airline passenger protections... boarding compensation airlines must pay to passengers bumped from flights, and the requirement to disclose...

  18. 75 FR 17050 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Extension of Compliance Date for Posting of Flight Delay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... date of the provision in its final rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections'' that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This extension is in response to...

  19. 轨道交通对周边住宅房地产价格影响研究%Study on the Impact of Urban Rail Transit on the Price of Residential Real Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 陈胜男; 熊珊珊

    2014-01-01

    交通便捷状况历来都是购房者购房过程中比较关注的因素。交通因素,尤其是城市轨道交通( URRT)对周边房价的影响巨大,对其影响的研究显得非常必要。本文以运营成熟的武汉轻轨为研究对象,研究武汉市URRT对周边房价的影响,旨在发现各站点的影响范围,揭示URRT对房价影响的空间效应。结果表明:URRT对沿线房价变化的影响范围并不是单一的值,而是随着至市中心的距离变化而变化的。在市中心附近的轻轨站点的影响范围比较小,随着站点距市中心距离的逐步增大,影响范围呈明显递增的趋势。而通过广义交通成本模型研究各站点可能的最大增值空间,发现楼盘距离市中心越远,其房价的最大增值空间就越大。研究结论可为政府制定相关政策提供依据,也为轨道交通公司、房地产开发商、购房者提供参考意见。%The convenient traffic condition is the significant factor in the process of buying house. Traffic factors, especially the urban rail transport, have tremendous impact on the surrounding housing prices, so it is very necessary to analyze the impact. Based on the mature operation of Wuhan urban rapid rail transit, this paper analyze the impacts of URRT on housing markets. The purpose of this paper is to find the influence area of each station and the spatial effect of the impact on the price of housing markets by URRT. The results show that the scope of influence is not a single value but varies with the distance to the city center. The station of rail transit closed to the city center are affected slightly. With the increase of the distance from station to the city center, the scope of influence presents with progressive tendency, and through the research of generalized transportation cost model for largest possible value-added space in this district, the study found the farther distance from the houses to the center city, the

  20. 轨道交通车辆操作类学生学业评价方法的探讨%Discussion on the Academic Evaluation Methods of Rail Transit Vehicle Operation Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2015-01-01

    从世界范围来看,工业生产发展的趋势为集约化、标准化、精益化。因此,职业教育愈来愈重视培养有创造性以及问题解决能力的高素质技术人才。而考核评价是职业教育教学过程中非常重要的环节,在教育教学过程中起着指挥棒的作用。本文总结了德国职业教育中对学生行为方式的考评方法,重点将学习文件夹评价法应用于轨道交通车辆操作类学生的学业考评,通过对学生学习轨迹的追踪、整理,促进了学生的学习和专业的发展,对职业教育教学和人才培养带来了积极影响。%Worldwide, the development trend of industrial production is intensive, standardized and lean production. Therefore, vocational education puts more focus on cultivating high-quality talents with creativity and problem-solving ability. As a significant link of the vocational education teaching process, academic evaluation is crucial. This paper summarizes the academic evaluation methods of vocational education in Germany, focusing on employing portfolio assessment to the academic evaluation of rail transit vehicle operation students, which method promotes students’ development through keeping tracks of the students’ academic career, thus bringing an positive inlfuence on vocational education and talents cultivation.

  1. 轨道交通车载ATC数据监控系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Vehicle ATC Data Recording System of the Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 郭秀清; 霍勇

    2011-01-01

    A system for recording the vehicle ATC data with huge data recording capacity, comprehensive data information and ATC device reconnecting function. The system based on ATmegal28 micro controller, SD card as storage media, DS12887A for real time information. It directly uses the 110V DC power supply of the vehicle and its size meets the train's frame structure. The ATC data recorded has real time information and stored in txt file, easy for analysis. The system solved the problem of low data recording capacity, incomplete data information of ATC device and improved the efficiency of maintenance of the rail transit.%研制了一种用于监控车载ATC数据的系统,具有数据记录量大、记录信息全面、ATC设备掉线重连等特点.该系统以ATmega128芯片为主控,SD卡为存储介质,DS12887A提供实时时间信息.系统直接使用110V机车直流电源,尺寸符合列车车头机架结构,安装方便.记录的ATC数据采用带有时间信息的文本文件方式存储,便于上位机回放分析.解决了ATC设备数据记录量小、记录数据不全等不足,提高了轨道交通的维护保障效率.

  2. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria

  3. 78 FR 71785 - Passenger Train Emergency Systems II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 78 Friday, No. 230 November 29, 2013 Part III Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 238 and 239 Passenger Train Emergency Systems II; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No....

  4. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 269 RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot... proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure... develops this pilot program in conformance with the statutory directive. DATES: This final rule is...

  5. Passenger Perspectives in Railway Timetabling: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Parbo; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    their emphasis on passengers to the consideration of transfer maintenance. Clearly, passengers’ travel behaviour is far more complex and multi-faceted and thus several other aspects should be considered, as becoming more and more evident from passenger surveys. The current literature review starts by looking...... at the parameters that railway optimisation/planning studies are focused on and the key performance indicators that impact railway planning. The attention then turns to the parameters influencing passengers’ perceptions and travel experiences. Finally, the review proposes guidelines on how to reduce the gap between...

  6. 城市轨道交通列车交路方案优化模型研究%Research on the Model about the Optimization of Train Routing in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize the urban rail transit train routing scheme ,two models are established , which are nonlinear program-ming model and multi-objective programming model .The nonlinear programming model takes minimum rolling stocks as the optimization goal, and synthetically optimize reentry of trains and quantity of trains effectively , but it is hard to solve this problem , so it is just suitable for optimization study of train routing problem .While the multi-objective programming model takes practical situations into account suffi-ciently, firstly, the reentry points of trains are determined , or some alternative schemes of reentry points of trains are provided;and then the optimum solution is achieved by calculating the optimum number of running trains of each train routing using multi -objective program-ming method.At last, an example is given, which verifies the effectiveness of the multi-objective programming model.%为了对城市轨道交通列车交路方案进行优化,建立非线性规划模型及多目标规划模型。非线性规划模型以最少的运用车底数为优化目标,有效地将列车交路折返点及列车开行数量进行综合优化,但该模型求解难度较大,仅适合对列车交路方案优化做理论分析。多目标规划模型则充分考虑了实际情况,首先确定列车折返点,或者提供几种备选形式,再运用多目标规划求解各交路最优列车开行对数,得出列车交路方案的最优解。最后用算例验证了多目标规划模型的有效性。

  7. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  8. 78 FR 38101 - Passenger Vessels Accessibility Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... vessels. The proposed guidelines would afford these individuals equal opportunity to travel on passenger vessels for employment, transportation, public accommodation, and leisure. The proposed guidelines would... individuals equal opportunity to travel on passenger vessels for employment, transportation,...

  9. Econometric Forecasting Models for Air Traffic Passenger of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Suryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major benefits of the air transport services operating in bigger countries is the fact that they provide a vital social economic linkage. This study is an attempt to establish the determinants of the passenger air traffic in Indonesia. The main objective of the study is to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of panel data and to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of time series data. This research also predicts the upcoming number of air traffic passenger until 2030. Air transportation and the economic activity in a country are interdependent. This work first uses the data at the country level and then at the selected airport level for review. The methodology used in this study has adopted the study for both normal regression and panel data regression techniques. Once all these steps are performed, the final equation is taken up for the forecast of the passenger inflow data in the Indonesian airports. To forecast the same, the forecasted numbers of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product and population (independent variables were chosen as a part of the literature review exercise are used. The result of this study shows the GDP per capita have significant related to a number of passengers which the elasticity 2.23 (time-series data and 1.889 for panel data. The exchange rate variable is unrelated to a number of passengers as shown in the value of elasticity. In addition, the total of population gives small value for the elasticity. Moreover, the number of passengers is also affected by the dummy variable (deregulation. With three scenarios: low, medium and high for GDP per capita, the percentage of growth for total number of air traffic passenger from the year 2015 to 2030 is 199.3%, 205.7%, and 320.9% respectively.

  10. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  11. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  12. 基于云计算技术的城市轨道交通信息系统统一开发测试平台应用架构浅析%The Application Architecture Analysis of Unified Development and Test Platform based on Cloud Computing Technology for Rail Transit Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光军

    2015-01-01

    Based on Cloud computing technology and SOA architecture, by establishing Virtulization-based infrastructure service (Iaas) and unified software project application service (SaaS) in SOA, an Unified development and test platform for Rail transit information system is established. By resource integration and standardized management, the reliability, delivery quality and process management capability of the information system for Rail transit systemis improved.%基于云计算技术和SOA架构,从基于建立虚拟化的基础设施服务(IaaS)和SOA架构下的统一软件项目管理应用服务(SaaS)入手,搭建城市轨道交通信息系统统一开发测试管理平台。通过整合资源、规范管理,提高城市轨道交通信息系统软件平台的可靠性、交付质量和过程管理能力。

  13. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. Methods: Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical Data from the journals for one year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical responsible officers on passenger...... ferries was analysed retrospectively. Results: Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember Two hundred and fourteen RM records, 73% among passenger and 27% among crewmember patients were analysed. Passenger patients were generally older and more serious ill than...

  14. Impact Factors and Rail Transit Effects of Urban Housing Prices in Beijing%北京市住宅价格的影响因素和轨道交通效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹; 金凤君

    2014-01-01

    environmental factors , the distance to commercial facilities is negatively related to housing prices, and the distance to industrial zone and the park is positively correlated to housing prices separately . In addition, rail transit effects of the house price is quite obvious .The impact of rail traffic on housing prices is higher than the two features of the distance from Tiananmen Square and the highway .The impact of the built sub-way on housing prices is higher than the building subway .The distance to the nearest built and building subway sta -tions was reduced 1 km, the average housing prices are increased 1 313 and 502 yuan per square meters respective -ly.

  15. Discussion on Design of Track Joining of Departure and Arrival Track of Vehicle Depot of Urban Rail Transit%轨道交通车辆段出入线接轨方案设计探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    considered for selection of the track joining mode of the departure and arrival track. In addition, the factors of the depot site, the main track conditions, the station scale, the traffic conditions, the operational conditions and investment should be considered to select the reasonable track joining mode in the design of the urban rail transit. According to the layout of the station, the train has the function of changing direction if possible. When selecting the track joining mode of the departure and arrival track of the depot, the factors of the regional plan and the social and economic benefits also should be considered to decide the most reasonable scheme.

  16. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in The Netherlands, respectively. Finally, we address the integration of the re-scheduling processes of the timetable, and the resources rolling stock and crew....

  17. Development of Passenger Air Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Diminik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the development of carriers in passengerair traffic, and the focus is on the development and operationsof carriers in chartered passenger transport. After the SecondWorld War, there were only scheduled air carriers. The need formass transport of tourists resulted in the development of chartercarriers or usage of scheduled carriers under different commercialconditions acceptable for tourism. Eventually also low-costcarriers appeared and they realize an increasing share in thepassenger transport especially in the aviation developed countries.

  18. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any of this information changes. (e) Each passenger railroad carrier and rail transit system required... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating light...

  19. Aircraft acoustics. II - Cabin noise in passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies of cabin noise and noise on the fuselage of passenger aircraft are presented, and methods of noise reduction are discussed. The discussion covers the principal noise sources, such as the gas jet, compressor, turbulent boundary layer, propeller, engine vibration, and air conditioning system. Cabin noise reduction methods discussed include sound and vibration insulation and sound and vibration absorption. Finally, methods for calculating cabin noise are presented.

  20. Network structure of subway passenger flows

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Qi; Bai, Yun

    2016-01-01

    The results of transportation infrastructure network analyses have been used to analyze complex networks in a topological context. However, most modeling approaches, including those based on complex network theory, do not fully account for real-life traffic patterns and may provide an incomplete view of network functions. This study utilizes trip data obtained from the Beijing Subway System to characterize individual passenger movement patterns. A directed weighted passenger flow network was constructed from the subway infrastructure network topology by incorporating trip data. The passenger flow networks exhibit several properties that can be characterized by power-law distributions based on flow size, and log-logistic distributions based on the fraction of boarding and departing passengers. The study also characterizes the temporal patterns of in-transit and waiting passengers and provides a hierarchical clustering structure for passenger flows. This hierarchical flow organization varies in the spatial doma...

  1. 城市轨道交通PPP项目融资模式的探讨--以徐州地铁2号线为例%Discussion on PPP Project Financing Mode of Urban Rail Transit:Taking Xuzhou Metro Line 2 as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of the level of urbanization in China, the traffic congestion in big cities is becoming more and more serious. Therefore, the development of urban rail transit will be the most ideal way to solve the urban traffic. Rail transportation has the advantages of big volume, fast speed, safe and reliable and punctuality but it also has the characteristics of long construction cycle, low profitability, enormous investment and so on. At present, most of the urban rail transit construction use PPP mode. Wheather the project financing can be successfully achieved under this model is the key factor of the project. This paper mainly takes PPP project of the first-stage construction of Xuzhou Metro Line 2 as an example to analyze the characteristics of financing model under the innovative mode. At last, the financing mode of urban rail transit project in PPP mode is summarized.%随着我国城市化水平不断提高,大城市的交通拥挤状况日趋严重,因此,发展轨道交通将成为解决城市交通紧张状况最理想的交通方式。轨道交通有其运量大、速度快、安全可靠、准点的优点,但也同时具有建设周期长、盈利水平低、投资巨大等特点。目前大多数城市的轨道交通建设以PPP模式运作,在该模式下能否顺利实现项目融资将成为项目成败的关键因素。本文主要以徐州地铁2号线一期工程PPP项目为例,分析其创新运作模式下融资模式特点,最后对PPP模式下城市轨道交通项目的融资模式进行总结。

  2. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  3. A shared " passengers & goods " city logistics system

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Many strategic planning models have been developed to help decision making in city logistics. Such models do not take into account, or very few, the flow of passengers because the considered unit does not have the same nature (a person is active and a good is passive). However, it seems fundamental to gather the goods and the passengers in one model when their respective transports interact with each other. In this context, we suggest assessing a shared passengers & go...

  4. Optimal path choice in railway passenger travel network based on residual train capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Yan, Kai; Huang, Yakun; Wang, Li; Jia, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Passenger's optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  5. 北京市轨道交通网络化发展问题及对策研究--基于职住分离的背景%Problems of Beij ing Urban Rail Transit Network Development and Their Countermeasures---A Study in View of the Separation of Workplace and Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛婧; 张梅青

    2016-01-01

    轨道交通网络化发展对北京职住分离的改善及城市空间结构向多中心转变具有重要意义。当前北京轨道交通网络功能层级缺失,尚未适应现有职住空间格局;覆盖范围有限、空间形态不合理,无法有效引导城市空间结构优化;市郊线路规划为非贯穿式放射形态,远期将加剧职住空间失配;融资结构单一,无法支撑未来大规模网络化建设。因此,应完善轨道交通网络功能层级、基于远景规划审慎扩大网络范围、优化市郊线路空间布局、加强新城局域级网络及综合枢纽建设、实现多层次融资体系构建及物业联合开发。%Developing urban rail transit network has great significance for solving the problems of workplace-residence separation and optimizing urban spatial structure in Beij ing.At present,Beij ing rail transit network has several disadvantages.First,it fails to adapt to the separation of citizens' workplace and residence.Second,the coverage of the current transit network is small and the spatial allocation irrational.As a result,the network is ineffective in optimizing the urban spatial structure. Third,the suburban lines in plan are non-penetrating and will worsen the workplace-residence separa-tion problems in the long run.Fourth,the financing source of the rail transit is undiversified and una-ble to support the development of urban rail transit network in the future.To solve these problems, this article argues that measures must to be taken from several perspectives.First,the network struc-ture should be improved;second,the coverage of the network shall be expanded with discretion and long-term planning;third,the spatial layout of suburban lines in the planning ought to be optimized;fourth,the construction of the network and the comprehensive transportation hub in the suburb shall be strengthened;fifth,a multi-level investment and financing mode should be established and the net-work should be

  6. Ticket Pricing in Railway Passenger Transport:Bi-level Programming Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZiyouGao; JianhuaChen

    2004-01-01

    Besides of considering of the maximization of public interest, the benefit of passengers and railway enterprises are both considered and a bi-level programming approach is presented in order to seek the optimal railway passenger-ticket pricing strategy under the condition of competition among different intercity traffic modes. There are two bi-level programming problems. One bi-level problem is to determine a railway passenger-ticket average price strategy to meet .the objective of maximizing the consumer surplus under the condition of multi-modal transportation with elastic demand. The other bi-level problem is to determine the price of different kinds of the passenger trains to meet the objective of maximizing the railway revenue where the average price and the demand of the railway is determined. A heuristic algorithm for the two bi-level programming models is also proposed. Finally the applications of the model and its algorithm are illustrated with a numerical example.

  7. The Driving Factors of Passenger Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, G.C.; Van de Riet, O.A.W.T.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few decades passenger transport has grown rapidly resulting in a multitude of problems including severe traffic congestion and pollution. It is expected that passenger transport will continue to grow rapidly in the future, which will worsen the situation even further. The traditional

  8. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  9. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

  10. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance

  11. Young drivers and their young passengers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    More than one-third of all fatalities among car passengers occurs in the 10-24-year age group. The majority of these young passengers die in a car driven by an 18 to 24-year old. Compared with the composition of the population, these are high proportions, yet the exposure (for example in distance tr

  12. Should Passengers Be Responsible For Drunk Drivers?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In late September, China’s Ministry of Public Security expanded its nationwide campaign against drunk driving by releasing a document suggesting that passengers sharing a car with a drunk driver be punished together with the driver and that passengers who do not prevent drunk driving be fined.

  13. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  14. Prediction of Railway Passenger Traffic Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The current situation of the railway passenger traffic (RPT) andthe traffic marketing is analyzed. The grey model theory is adopted to establish a prediction model for the railway passenger traffic volume (RPTV). The RPTV from 2001 to 2005 is predicted with the proposed model, and a few suggestions are put forward.

  15. 77 FR 38248 - Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 239 Passenger Train Emergency Preparedness AGENCY: Federal... (NPRM). SUMMARY: FRA is proposing to revise its regulations for passenger train emergency preparedness... responders during emergency situations receive initial and periodic training and are subject to operational...

  16. Train Timetable Evaluation from the Viewpoints of Passengers by Microsimulation of Train Operation and Passenger Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimatsu, Taketoshi; Hirai, Chikara; Tomii, Norio

    In order to evaluate train timetables from passengers' points of view, it is indispensable to estimate the disutilities of passengers. This can be done by estimating the movements of passengers and trains accurately. In particular, when there are many passengers, an interaction between the passengers and trains must be considered. To this end, we have developed a microsimulation system to simulate both train operation and passengers' train choice behavior. The system can simulate train choice behaviors of more than one million passengers as well as their positions in trains. It is possible to estimate the delays caused by congestion in trains as well. The system is based on models of different attitudes of the passengers with respect to the train choice behavior, with includes the choice of the earliest train, transfer avoidance, and congestion avoidance; a passengers' train choice behavior reflects his/her preferences. We applied this system to an actual railway line in a metropolitan area and evaluated two train schedules by calculating the generalized cost that reflects each passenger's disutility in his/her experience. Through the numerical experiments, we have confirmed that the proposed method is very useful for evaluating timetables from passengers' points of view.

  17. The effect of male teenage passengers on male teenage drivers: findings from a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Pradhan, Anuj K; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Divekar, Gautam; Mehranian, Hasmik; Fisher, Donald L

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that teenage drivers are less attentive, more frequently exhibit risky driving behavior, and have a higher fatal crash risk in the presence of peers. The effects of direct peer pressure and conversation on young drivers have been examined. Little is known about the impact on driving performance of the presence of a non-interacting passenger and subtle modes of peer influence, such as perceived social norms. The goal of this study was to examine if teenagers would engage in more risky driving practices and be less attentive in the presence of a passenger (vs. driving alone) as well as with a risk-accepting (vs. risk-averse) passenger. A confederate portrayed the passenger's characteristics mainly by his non-verbal attitude. The relationship between driver characteristics and driving behavior in the presence of a passenger was also examined. Thirty-six male participants aged 16-17 years old were randomly assigned to drive with a risk-accepting or risk-averse passenger. Main outcomes included speed, headway, gap acceptance, eye glances at hazards, and horizontal eye movement. Driver characteristics such as tolerance of deviance, susceptibility to peer pressure, and self-esteem were measured. Compared to solo driving, the presence of a passenger was associated with significantly fewer eye glances at hazards and a trend for fewer horizontal eye movements. Contrary to the hypothesis, however, Passenger Presence was associated with waiting for a greater number of vehicles to pass before initiating a left turn. Results also showed, contrary to the hypothesis, that participants with the risk-accepting passenger maintained significantly longer headway with the lead vehicle and engaged in more eye glances at hazards than participants with the risk-averse passenger. Finally, when driving with the passenger, earlier initiation of a left turn in a steady stream of oncoming vehicles was significantly associated with higher tolerance of deviance and

  18. Optimal Path Choice in Railway Passenger Travel Network Based on Residual Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Dou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger’s optimal path choice is one of the prominent research topics in the field of railway passenger transport organization. More and more different train types are available, increasing path choices from departure to destination for travelers are unstoppable. However, travelers cannot avoid being confused when they hope to choose a perfect travel plan based on various travel time and cost constraints before departure. In this study, railway passenger travel network is constructed based on train timetable. Both the generalized cost function we developed and the residual train capacity are considered to be the foundation of path searching procedure. The railway passenger travel network topology is analyzed based on residual train capacity. Considering the total travel time, the total travel cost, and the total number of passengers, we propose an optimal path searching algorithm based on residual train capacity in railway passenger travel network. Finally, the rationale of the railway passenger travel network and the optimal path generation algorithm are verified positively by case study.

  19. Occupant safety in modern passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fildes, B N; Vulcan, A P; Lenard, J

    1992-06-01

    A study was undertaken recently for the Federal Office of Road Safety in Australia of 150 modern vehicle crashes where at least one of the vehicle occupants was admitted to hospital. The types of injuries sustained by occupants of modern Australian passenger cars involved in road crashes (including points of contact within the vehicle) were assessed to provide direction for future improvements in occupant protection. Seat belt performance in all seating positions was of particular interest. While the limited number of cases did not permit a full and detailed statistical analysis of these data, the findings nevertheless show there is scope for improving occupant protection for drivers and passengers of modern passenger cars.

  20. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma.

  1. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  3. 14 CFR 136.7 - Passenger briefings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS COMMERCIAL AIR TOURS AND NATIONAL PARKS AIR TOUR MANAGEMENT National Air Tour Safety Standards § 136.7 Passenger briefings. (a)...

  4. 76 FR 23109 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... in this pilot project to discover the best ways to use Web 2.0 and social networking technologies to... negative an impact on international passengers as they were already planning on spending a...

  5. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tomeš Zdeněk; Jandová Monika

    2016-01-01

    Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market) and regulated competition (competition for the market). Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed an...

  6. 面向低碳经济城市地下空间/轨交地铁的节能减排与环保问题%Energy Saving,Carbon Emission Reduction and Environment Protection in Underground Space/Rail Transit Works in Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钧

    2011-01-01

    通过对地下空间/轨交地铁建设、运营现状的分析,认为其在节能减排、环境保护、面向低碳经济、实现城市可持续发展方面,有相当大的改善和提高空间,可以有所作为;而且就目前自然能源短缺现状,提出地下空间/轨交地铁的节能环保问题,应早日提上议事日程。从4个方面提出了目前地下空间/轨交地铁实现更加节能、环保应采用和借鉴的新技术,存在的问题及解决建议:1)积极稳妥而有步骤地视条件逐步开发太阳能光伏发电;2)努力推广智能型LED节能灯具和其他新型照明光源;3)采用隧道照明新技术的其他方面,如:基于数码技术的洞外亮度测试技术、隧道照明节能成套技术、LED新型无级调光技术等;4)其他几项节能环保新技术的研究和开发,如:太阳光光纤导入照明系统、新型超级节能灯具(荧光灯)、自然采光、智能照明技术等。同时介绍了在无锡建成的全球最大光伏低能耗大楼的有益经验及上海市虹桥综合交通枢纽的绿色策略与节能技术供隧道、地铁与地下空间建设参考、借鉴。%The author analyzes the construction and operation status of underground space/rail transit works and believes that great progress has been made in the energy saving,carbon emission reduction,environment protection and low-carbon,economical and sustainable development of underground space/rail transit works.Due to the shortage of natural resources,energy saving and environment protection of underground space/rail transit works should be strengthened.The author makes 4 suggestion on energy saving and environment protection,including: 1) Developing solar energy power generation step by step;2) Popularizing intelligent LED light and other new types of lights;3) Adopting other tunnel lighting technology,such as out-tunnel lightness testing technology,a suit of tunnel lighting and energy saving technology and

  7. Level of service at airport passenger terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Tamara D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport terminals are designed by level of service standards which are regulated by International Air Transport Association (IATA. Level of service offered to passengers, regarding to the primary processes, is not necessarily equivalent to the level of service perceived by them. The fact that passengers spending longer times in terminals makes the secondary processes more important in passenger experience. Aiming to improving airport attractiveness, and business success, passenger perception is approached by paying close attention. This paper discusses the two aspects of level of service. Concept of level of service used in air traffic industry with purpose of designing and planning of passenger terminal is derived from the Highway Capacity Manual. Subject of the paper regards last changes which have been introduced during 2014. Second part of the paper explains the needs of examining and analyzing passenger perception from the management point of view, and gives overview of methods which are conducted during researches. Similarities and differences are shown among measurements of level of service and perceived level of service, including the importance of these aspects mutual complementing.

  8. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovovic, Vladimir [Gentherm Incorporated, Azusa, CA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Gentherm began work in October 2011 to develop a Thermoelectric Waste Energy Recovery System for passenger vehicle applications. Partners in this program were BMW and Tenneco. Tenneco, in the role of TIER 1 supplier, developed the system-level packaging of the thermoelectric power generator. As the OEM, BMW Group demonstrated the TEG system in their vehicle in the final program phase. Gentherm demonstrated the performance of the TEG in medium duty and heavy duty vehicles. Technology developed and demonstrated in this program showed potential to reduce fuel consumption in medium and heavy duty vehicles. In light duty vehicles it showed more modest potential.

  9. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  10. 旧城区轨道交通站点周边土地利用调控及动因——以北京市中心城储备用地的规划调整为例%LAND USE CONTROL AROUND RAIL TRANSIT STATION IN OLD URBAN DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF RESERVED LAND PLAN ADJUSTMENT IN BEIJING'S INNER CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坚; 宋丽青; 马晨越

    2011-01-01

    传统研究认为,轨道交通站点影响下周边土地利用方式将呈现“方式经营化、面积大型化、高强度随距离降低”,但对旧城区未必尽然.本文在比较北京市中心城区1999年、2006年控制性详细规划的基础上,对轨道交通站点周边储备用地进行实地调查分析.结果表明:就北京市中心城储备用地的规划调整而言,除土地利用方式经营化外,并未出现其他情形,以微调为主,但仍可分出开发阻力型、公益建设型、原址改造型、旧城保护型和集中拆建型等类型,各自规划调整特征有别.究其原因:(1)北京旧城区轨道交通晚于城市建设,属补偿性建设;(2)历史风貌用地比例大,保护要求高;(3)土地权属复杂,利益主体需要协调平衡.%Previous study shows that the land use of area around rail transit station tends to be more commercialized, larger in size and attenuated in intensity by distance. However, the rules are not suitable for the old urban district. Based on the comparison of regulatory detailed plan of Beijing inner city between 1999 and 2006, this paper conducts a field study on the reserved land around rail transit station. The result only shows the commercialization of land use. To understand the phenomenon, five types of planning regulation are discussed and three reasons are found: (1) the rail program is initiated later than the urban construction in old city, which is compensatory development; (2) the high ratio of historic sites requires high level of conservation; (3) the complication of land ownership calls for balance among interest groups.

  11. 北京城市轨道交通60kg/m钢轨12号单开道岔的设计研究%Design and Research of No.12 Single Turnout with 60 kg/m Rail Used on Beijing Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东风; 蒋昕; 侯爱滨

    2012-01-01

    Turnout is the key equipment which restricts trains' running speed. In order to advance the transportation efficiency of Beijing Urban Rail Transit, improve the speed of passing through a turnout, enhance the turnaround ability of the train, and change the current situation in Beijing Urban Rail Transit in which only unitary type of turnouts is put to use, the new No. 12 single turnout with 60 kg/m rail has been studied and manufactured. For this new turnout, based on a full set of research method in national railways, adopting the mature technique in national railways, absorbing the high-speed turnouts experience, the joint-design between maintenance and electricity was completed, and trial-manufacture, trial laying and trial testing along with the manufactory were also completed. The new No. 12 turnout has been applied in Yi zhuang Railway in Beijing, and the application effect was good.%道岔是制约列车运行速度的关键设备.为全面提升北京城市轨道交通运输效率,提高列车过岔速度和折返能力,改变北京城市轨道交通道岔类型单一的现状,新研制了60 kg/m钢轨12号单开道岔.该道岔的研究以国铁一整套研究方法为基础,同时结合北京城市轨道交通的特点,采用国铁成熟技术,借鉴高速道岔设计技术,实现了工电一体化联合设计,并与生产厂商共同完成试制、试铺及测试工作.新研制的60 kg/m钢轨12号道岔已在北京亦庄线实际工程中应用,使用效果良好.

  12. Mathematical modelling and research of passenger flows in marine passenger port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Fetisov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern passenger terminals are characterized by dynamic processes variability, diverse options consideration, taking into account the criteria of safety, reliability analysis and the continuous research of passenger processing. For any modern marine passenger terminal it is necessary to use the tool to simulate passenger flows. In this way it is possible to obtain the analytical information and use it for decision-making when solving the problem of the amount of personnel required for passenger services.in line with the original ship arrival schedule, to solve problems of forecasting groups at the terminal. Of particular relevance is the choice of the mathematical transport model and the practical conditions for the implementation of the model in the real terminal operation. In this article the analysis technique of simulation-based terminal services, provides a mathematical model of passenger movement inside the terminal. Also, the conditions of implementation of the transportation model during the operation of marine passenger terminal are examined. The object of the research is the marine Passenger Port of St. Petersburg "Marine Facade". The paper discusses advantages of using such systems and their introduction in the early stages of operation of the terminal. In addition, the conclusion about the effectiveness of such systems for the analysis of the correctness of internal space of the marine terminal. The study represents an example of analytical information used for the forecast of the terminal operations, the analysis of the workload and efficiency of the organization of the marine terminal.

  13. Post-occupancy Evaluation for Commercial Complex Space in Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通综合体商业空间调查及使用后评价研究﹡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Junctions for railway traffic have the highest flow intensity, density and turnover frequency, with a commercial advantage which other nodes do not have. Relying on railway traffic site for business development is the key of city commercial development. Meanwhile, turning traffic flow to commercial flow is a subject worthy of further study. This article is based on the theory of post-occupancy evaluation. From the user's point of view, this article evaluates the construction of Beijing Metro junction's commercial space,s using effectiveness. Combined with evaluation results, this article analyzes the outstanding problems and severe shortage of subway commercial development. Then, the optimization design recommendations are proposed in order to enhance the attractiveness of subway commerce and to prompt subway passenger flow,s turning to commercial traffic.%  轨道交通枢纽人流强度、密度和周转频率最高,具有其他的交通节点不具备的商业优势,依托轨道交通站点进行商业综合开发是大都市商业开发的重点,然而如何将交通客流尚有效引导为商业客流,是值得深入研究的课题。本文运用使用后评价理论,从使用者感受的角度,对已建成的北京地铁枢纽商业空间进行使用成效评价,结合评价结果,分析地铁商业开发中存在的突出问题和严重不足,并提出相应的优化设计建议,以期提高地铁商业的吸引力,促进地铁客流转化为商业客流。

  14. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihai; Wang, Zhiyang

    2016-01-01

    How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big data analysis in

  15. Modeling passenger flows in public transport stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Kırlangıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many architectural design parameters for public transport stations which include urban and station level studies. Each station must be designed in accordance with the basic passenger requirements such as accessibility, safety, comfort, satisfaction and etc. Circulation spaces must be formed and sized to meet the minimum movement needs of passengers. For an underground station; main entrance region, position of gates, location and number of turnstiles, escalators, stairs, ramps, passageways, intermediate concourses and platforms must be arranged to minimize walking distances and to prevent congestion. In this study, circulation of passengers is simulated in a quantitatively verifiable manner, taking into account how individuals interact with each other and with the physical obstacles in their environment in a metro station. Virtual experiments are performed to see the continuity and density of pedestrian flow at different levels of Haram Area East Metro Station of the first metro line of Madinah Al-Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia. According to the predictions, more than 40.000 passengers are expected to use this station in one hour after a Friday prayer during Ramadan period in the year of 2040. That means a critically high travel demand and it is really significant to design the most convenient underground station for these passengers to fulfil the necessary requirements.

  16. An Integrated Rolling Stock Planning Model for the Copenhagen Suburban Passenger Railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...... to take into account, rolling stock plans are often constructed in a step-by-step manner, taking some requirements into consideration in each step. This may make it difficult in the final step to produce a plan that is feasible with regard to all of the requirements and at the same time economically...... attractive. This paper proposes an integrated rolling stock planning model that simultaneously takes into account all practical requirements for rolling stock planning at DSB S-tog, the suburban passenger train operator of the City of Copenhagen. The model is then used to improve existing rolling stock plans...

  17. E-Services and Positioning of Passenger Ports in the Context of Cruise Tourism Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriela Vitić-Ćetković

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper positions the passenger sea ports in the context of cruise tourism on the basis of e-services they offer. The e-services of eleven passenger ports are categorized and then quantitatively evaluated by binary and ranking approaches. In general, the port e-services might be categorized according to their functionality as navigational, ship and passenger-related ones, logistics, business, marketing, entertainment, security, safety, environmental, etc. These services can be bidirectional informational and/or transactional. In this paper, only those port e-services related directly to the passengers’ needs, within the frame of cruise tourism, are taken into consideration and categorized as core, or as value-added ones, and as informational and/or transactional ones. Then, each of them is assigned an appropriate binary value (0/1, depending on whether the considered passenger port offers the related e-service or not. These values are employed in the evaluation of the analyzed passenger port e-services offered, and as a base for their positioning. The appropriate weights coefficients, obtained by ranking (Saaty method, were used in the process of the considered port final positioning on the cruise tourism e-market. Some additional analyses and recommendations in the direction of further positioning and promotion of the port of Kotor (Montenegro, as rising cruise tourism port (destination, are given as well.

  18. Passenger train scheduling on a single-track or partially double-track railway with stochastic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Keping

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates a scheduling problem for passenger trains on a single or partially double-track railway in which the total passengers' trip time with a penalty function is minimized. Owing to the uncertainty of the real traffic system, the number of passengers boarding (leaving) the train at each station is treated as a random variable. Three kinds of criteria are introduced to compute the total passengers' trip time, including the expected value criterion, the pessimistic value criterion and the optimistic value criterion. A 0-1 mixed integer programming model is constructed for the problem, and a branch-and-bound algorithm is also designed to solve the model, in which two strategies are introduced to resolve the conflicts on tracks. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the performance of the model and the algorithm.

  19. THE PROBLEMS OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS IN AN INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic aspects of international passenger transportations in Ukraine are represented. The analysis of present situation in these transportations is carried out. Some variants of solving the problems of passenger transportations in an international communication are considered.

  20. Economic Impact of Cruise Ship Passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Gabe, Todd; Lynch, Colleen; McConnon, James; Allen, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    This report examines the economic impact of cruise ship passengers in Bar Harbor, Maine. In 2002, 64 cruise ships docked in Bar Harbor carrying about 120,000 passengers and crewmembers. The analysis presented in the report is based on 1,080 passenger surveys conducted between August and October of 2002. Economic impact figures are based on a total of 97,190 passengers, which is the capacity of the 64 cruise ships that were scheduled to visit Bar Harbor in 2002.

  1. 基于旅客列车开行及停站方案的客流分配%Passenger Assignment on the Base of Passenger Train and Stop Schedule Plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫铭; 翟轲; 周博拓

    2009-01-01

    客流分配是评价旅客列车开行方案的一个重要方面.通过分析旅客对列车选择行为的影响因素,旅客根据自己的意愿选择出行方案,考虑旅客乘坐列车的消费水平及拥挤费用,消费层次较高的旅客选择费用较高、旅行时间较短的乘车方案,消费层级较低的旅客选择费用较小的乘车方案,最终每个路段上的客流达到一个平衡状态.通过构造基于开行方案及停站方案的换乘网络,根据路段路径阻抗,利用梯度映射法进行求解该网络的客流分配模型,最终获得各OD对之间的多条出行路径方案.%Passenger assignment is one of an important respect which appraises the passenger train plan. Through analyzing the influence factor of the passenger choose behavior on the train, the passenger will chooses their own scheme to go out according to one's own will. Considering the passenger's consumption level and the crowded expenses, the passenger with higher consumption will chooses train scheme which is of shorter traveling time and higher expenses and lower consumption level passenger choose cheaper scheme train. Finally, passenger flow of each highway section reach balanced state. Based on passenger train plan and stop schedule plan passenger transfer network is structured. According to path impedance of highway section and utilizing gradient projection, passenger assignment model of the network is solved. Finally we can get multiple path scheme between every Original and Destination.

  2. 49 CFR 541.5 - Requirements for passenger motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. 541.5... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 541.5 Requirements for passenger motor vehicles. (a) Each passenger motor vehicle subject...

  3. 14 CFR 135.113 - Passenger occupancy of pilot seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. 135.113... Operations § 135.113 Passenger occupancy of pilot seat. No certificate holder may operate an aircraft type certificated after October 15, 1971, that has a passenger seating configuration, excluding any pilot seat,...

  4. Rescheduling of Railway Rolling Stock with Dynamic Passenger Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); G. Maróti (Gábor); L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTraditional rolling stock rescheduling applications either treat passengers as static objects whose influence on the system is unchanged in a disrupted situation, or they treat passenger behavior as a given input. In case of disruptions however, we may expect the flow of passengers to

  5. Modelling expected train passenger delays on large scale railway networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. Relatively recently it has become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays by a passenger regularity model for the operation already carried out. First...

  6. Simulating disturbances and modelling expected train passenger delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    Forecasts of regularity for railway systems have traditionally – if at all – been computed for trains, not for passengers. It has only relatively recently become possible to model and evaluate the actual passenger delays. This paper describes how it is possible to use a passenger regularity model...

  7. A Passenger Travel Demand Model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; Jovicic, Goran

    2003-01-01

    The passenger travel model for Copenhagen is a state-of-practice nested logit model in which the sub-models - i.e. generation, distribution and mode choice models - are connected via measure of accessibility. The model includes in its structure a large set of explanatory variables at all three...

  8. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234, 244, 250,253, 259, and 399 RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without...

  9. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, Jorge Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and the

  10. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Julie Jespersen; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...

  11. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and

  12. Real-time passenger counting in buses using dense stereovision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, Tarek; Khoudour, Louahdi; Meurie, Cyril

    2010-07-01

    We are interested particularly in the estimation of passenger flows entering or exiting from buses. To achieve this measurement, we propose a counting system based on stereo vision. To extract three-dimensional information in a reliable way, we use a dense stereo-matching procedure in which the winner-takes-all technique minimizes a correlation score. This score is an improved version of the sum of absolute differences, including several similarity criteria determined on pixels or regions to be matched. After calculating disparity maps for each image, morphological operations and a binarization with multiple thresholds are used to localize the heads of people passing under the sensor. The markers describing the heads of the passengers getting on or off the bus are then tracked during the image sequence to reconstitute their trajectories. Finally, people are counted from these reconstituted trajectories. The technique suggested was validated by several realistic experiments. We showed that it is possible to obtain counting accuracy of 99% and 97% on two large realistic data sets of image sequences showing realistic scenarios.

  13. Core elements of public-private partnership in urban rail transit:case of Beijing metro line M%城市轨道交通PPP模式核心要点研究——北京地铁M号线案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟亚; 王盈盈; 丁慧平

    2012-01-01

    The urban rail transit in China is still facing several problems,such as huge fund demand,great financing difficulty and low operation efficiency.Beijing Metro Line M,as the first PPP project using social capital in the country's urban rail transit industry,has successfully entered the operation period.It is necessary to post-evaluate Beijing Metro Line M by analyzing its core elements,lessons learnt and strategic advices obtained for future PPP projects.The composite PPP model structure,PPP program structure and implementation effect are summarized.A list of implementation elements are identified by means of literature review,case studies and expert interviews.A questionnaire survey is conducted to determine the nature,and four core elements are both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed.The results show that Beijing Metro Line M has 12 important elements,one significant element of which is the government support.The four core elements of PPP project implementation should be focused in future applications of the PPP model.%目前我国城市轨道交通建设仍存在资金需求大、融资难、效率低等问题,北京地铁M号线作为全国城市轨道交通行业首个引入社会资本的PPP项目,已成功建成并进入运营期,有必要对其进行后评价,分析其核心要点并总结经验教训,为PPP模式在未来城市轨道交通的推广应用提出战略建议。首先对北京地铁M号线的PPP模式结构、PPP项目结构及其实施效果进行总结;再运用文献阅读、案例分析、专家访谈等方法识别实施要点清单;最后,运用问卷调查、数理统计等方法判定要点性质,并对其中的核心要点进行定性分析。结果表明北京地铁M号线具有12个实施要点,其中,政府支持力度是PPP项目实施的前提要点,而投融资结构和组合PPP模式、收益动态分配及调整机制、政府监管的法制化和体系化、PPP公司的股权结构和组织架构是PPP项目实施的

  14. Design and Study on No.9 Single Turnout of 60 kg/m Rail of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通60 kg/m钢轨9号单开道岔设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道通; 程保青; 田苗盛

    2013-01-01

    Research purposes:The No.9 turnout of 60 kg/m is usually used in urban rail transit's main track and auxiliary track.There are mainly two types of turnouts used in the urban rail transit,namely the turnouts with the straight switch rail and the curve switch rail.The turnout with straight switch rail is available for the siding speed of 30km/h and the turnout with curve switch rail is available for the speed of 35 km/h.In order to improve the service level,the turnout with curve switch rail is used in the new-built metro.But the turnout with curve switch rail has its disadvantage,such as the serious wear of the switch rail and many non-standard parts.In order to give the paly of the single turnout with straight switch rail,a new type of single turnout available for the siding speed of 35 km/h is presented in this paper,with the features of the simple structure and long service life.Research conclusions:(1) This new type of single turnout of the 60 kg/m rail has the straight switch rail,straight frog,and circular curve,with the simple structure.(2) Two switch rails are symmetrical,and can be pulled flexibly.(3) This turnout is available for the siding speed of 35 km/h,with less maintenance.(4) This research result has obvious advantages in the mature technology,reliability and security,and it is available for the metro,light rail and trolley car.%研究目的:城市轨道交通工程正线及辅助线采用的道岔一般为60 kg/m钢轨9号,目前应用于我国城轨的该道岔主要有两种类型,即直线尖轨和曲线尖轨.直线尖轨道岔的侧向通过速度为30 km/h,曲线尖轨道岔的侧向通过速度为35 km/h,为提高地铁服务水平,新建地铁工程一般采用曲线尖轨道岔.而曲线尖轨道岔存在诸多弊端,如尖轨磨耗严重,非标零部件多等.为发挥直线尖轨道岔优越性,本文研究一种新型道岔,侧向通过速度为35 km/h,同时具有结构简单、寿命长等特点.研究结论:(1)新型60 kg/m钢轨9

  15. 城市轨道交通建设对沿线古建(构)筑影响分析及保护对策研究%City Rail Transit Construction on the ancient building (structure) to build along the impact analysis and Protection Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅亦民

    2012-01-01

    Urban rail transit construction on the surrounding formation and surrounding hexiang (structure) build content's influence is inevitable. Through the analysis of shield tunneling construction on the surrounding soil and the influence factors of influence in the region (structure) hexiang buihl for stratigrapbic disturbance brings safety risk, pointed research and put forward the shield construction of cultural relics building (structure) built protection and control measures, as far as possible to avoid and reduce the shield construction on hexiang (structure) building material disturbance and damage, in order to ensure the safety of cultural relics, to realize the urban construction and the historical cuhural resources protection coordination and sustainable development.%城市轨道交通建设对周围地层和周边古建(构)筑物的影响是不可避免的。通过分析隧道盾构施工对周围土体的影响因素及处于影响区域内古建(构)筑因地层扰动带来的安全风险,针对性地研究并提出盾构施工对文物建(构)筑的保护和控制措施,尽可能规避和减少盾构施工对古建(构)筑物的扰动和损害,以保证文物安全,实现城市建设与历史文化资源保护的协调和可持续发展。

  16. Discussion on the Evaluation Standards of Electro-magnetic Ambient Effect for Electrified Railways and Urban Rail Transit Construction Projects%电气化铁路及城市轨道交通建设项目电磁环境影响评价标准探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹坚

    2011-01-01

    Author reviewed the evaluation standards and their application of electro-magnetic ambient effect for electrified railways and urban rail transit construction projects, and by contrasting to the international mainstream protection standards, analysed current domestic standards and existing problems in the application including that technical principles of electro-magnetic protection are not scientifical, limiting values are too strict, errors exist in introducing CCIR standards for the evaluation of TV reception effect, lack of specialization. Then the author proposes to improve the current standards following the principles of prevention protection techniques, referring to the international standards guidelines, to establish acurate application standards for evaluating the TV reception effect, with related parameters and standard values specified.%对电气化铁路、城市轨道交通建设项目电磁环境影响评价标准及其应用进行了回顾.对照国际主流电磁防护标准,分析了现行标准及其应用中存在的问题,包括电磁辐射防护标准技术原则不科学、标准限值过严,电视接收影响评价引用CCIR标准有误、规范性欠缺.提出遵循预防性防护技术原则、参照国际标准导则修订完善现有标准的建议,要求有关电视接收的影响评价正确引用标准,规范相关参数和标准值.

  17. 77 FR 45415 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for the Redlands; Passenger Rail Project in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...--Light Rail Transit, Alternative 5--Bus Rapid ] Transit, Design Option 1--Train Layover Facility... River, east of Waterman Avenue, and immediately north of the rail corridor. Design Option 2--Use of.... Department of Transportation Act of 1966, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Executive Order 12898 (Federal...

  18. Analysis of Passenger Ride Comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagiz N.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of vehicle vibrations on human beings is investigated. The computations were made with the help of a simulation program using a full vehicle model with driver and the results were evaluated using international ISO 2631 standard. The physical model of the investigated system is formed by a full-vehicle model and a driver. The road roughness is used as an input to the system and the responses are compared with the related standard. Finally, the results are discussed.

  19. The Danish national passenger model – Model specification and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Hansen, Christian Overgaard

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes the structure of the new Danish National Passenger model and provides on this basis a general discussion of large-scale model design, cost-damping and model validation. The paper aims at providing three main contributions to the existing literature. Firstly, at the general level......, the paper provides a description of a large-scale forecast model with a discussion of the linkage between population synthesis, demand and assignment. Secondly, the paper gives specific attention to model specification and in particular choice of functional form and cost-damping. Specifically we suggest...... a family of logarithmic spline functions and illustrate how it is applied in the model. Thirdly and finally, we evaluate model sensitivity and performance by evaluating the distance distribution and elasticities. In the paper we present results where the spline-function is compared with more traditional...

  20. Approaches to Czech Passenger Railway Market Liberalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeš Zdeněk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition on the Czech railway passenger market has been developing recently. It is possible to distinguish two types of competition – unregulated competition (competition on the market and regulated competition (competition for the market. Competition on the market is present on the Prague–Ostrava route and competition for the market has been applied in a few public tenders for subsidised services. However, the substantial part of the Czech railway passenger market has remained closed and there is a question how to proceed with the competition development – whether to promote competition on the market or competition for the market. Based on European and modelling experience, there is an argument for more competition for the market.

  1. Validating the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgård, Christian Hansen; VUK, Goran

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive validation procedure for the passenger traffic model for Copenhagen based on external data from the Danish national travel survey and traffic counts. The model was validated for the years 2000 to 2004, with 2004 being of particular interest because the Copenhagen...... Metro became operational in autumn 2002. We observed that forecasts from the demand sub-models agree well with the data from the 2000 national travel survey, with the mode choice forecasts in particular being a good match with the observed modal split. The results of the 2000 car assignment model...... matched the observed traffic better than those of the transit assignment model. With respect to the metro forecasts, the model over-predicts metro passenger flows by 10% to 50%. The wide range of findings from the project resulted in two actions. First, a project was started in January 2005 to upgrade...

  2. Serviceability of passenger trains during acquisition projects

    OpenAIRE

    Parada Puig, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring assets that can be serviced cost effectively is a fundamental goal during large acquisition projects at NS, the largest railway company in the Netherlands. Buying passenger trains and providing their required services requires important strategic decisions involving both the trains and their technical service system. This thesis studies how serviceability is considered during acquisition projects in practice, and explores means to support decisions that intend to improve serviceabil...

  3. A Novel Method for Designing and Selecting Connection Scheme Between Suburban Line and Urban Rail Transit Network%市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接的设计比选方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴放; 顾保南

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage approach was proposed to solve the problem of connecting suburban rail line to urban rail network based on the current model' s impracticability. Focusing on the first stage, the paper articulates how the set of connection design schemes is generated. A greedy search based heuristic algorithm was designed to solve the optimization problem of connecting suburban lines and urban rail network. And optimum connection scheme set was sorted out from the perspectives respectively regarding optimization searching process and different transfer coefficients that reveal the dominance of transfer in path length. High quality of connection design schemes can be ensured by these optional designs, which can also cover various connection modes of different station spacing, providing solid basis for evaluation and selection in the second stage. Finally, the aforementioned method was implemented in an example, generating an optimized connection design set, which proves the applicability of this novel design method in large scale rail network connection problem.%分析了现有数学模型对市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接设计问题的不适用性,在此基础上提出两阶段设计方法,并着重对第一阶段——衔接方案集的生成方法进行了阐述.设计了一个以贪婪搜索思想为基础的启发式算法,求解市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接的优化方案.从寻优过程和换乘主导性两个角度分别生成了较优的可选设计方案集合.这些备选方案保证了较高的方案设计质量,并能覆盖不同站间距的郊区线衔接模式,为下一阶段的方案评价比选提供基础.最后通过一个算例实现了所提出的备选衔接方案集合生成方法,证明了这一方法在大规模轨道网络中的适用性.

  4. [Air transport biomechanical risk: reduced mobility passengers' handling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draicchio, F; Campoli, G; Silvetti, A; Badellino, E; Forzano, F; Ranavolo, A; Iavicoli, S; Campagna, G; Raffaele, G; Gismondi, M

    2012-01-01

    As the airport traffic increases there is a continuous increase of passengers with different motor disabilities. Disabled passenger's assistance causes a biomechanical overload in airport workers. Some disabled passengers are classified by IATA as WCHC (wheel chair in cabin or Charlie). Our study, was performed in one of the most important Italian airport on Charlie passengers (about 10% of all assistances). We identified four critical points: 1) wheelchair and baggage moving (unstable load), 2) inclined ramps with worker's backwards steps and braked wheelchair to prevent passenger tipping or falling, 3) transfer from standard wheelchair to bicycle wheelchair, specifically designed for the aisle; 4.) transfer from bicycle wheelchair to aircraft seat. The last two points required sometimes to lift passengers over the armrest and positioning them on a window side seat, causing a serious increase of biomechanical load. For each critical point we have proposed technical and organizational measures to reduce airport worker's biomechanical risk.

  5. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. We propose a planning approach which seeks to obtain a favorable trade-off between the conflicting objectives passenger service and operating cost, by allowing some moderate...... by the express-bus network in the Greater Copenhagen Area. The results are encouraging and indicate a potential decrease of passenger waiting times in the network of 10-20%, with the vehicle scheduling costs remaining largely unaffected....

  6. August Passenger and Cargo Numbers Set New Highs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Passenger and cargo numbers set new highs in August, the second consecutive month that both areas of operation at Dragonair posted record figures. The airline flew 444,498 passengers in August to record its third consecutive monthly record. The number was 7.7%higher than in July, with travel in both months driven by holiday traffic. August 15 saw a new daily mark set, with 17,220passengers carried on the day.

  7. Health risk equations and risk assessment of airborne benzene homologues exposure to drivers and passengers in taxi cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaokai; Feng, Lili; Luo, Huilong; Cheng, Heming

    2016-03-01

    Interior air environment and health problems of vehicles have attracted increasing attention, and benzene homologues (BHs) including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and styrene are primary hazardous gases in vehicular cabins. The BHs impact on the health of passengers and drivers in 38 taxis is assessed, and health risk equations of in-car BHs to different drivers and passengers are induced. The health risk of in-car BHs for male drivers is the highest among all different receptors and is 1.04, 6.67, and 6.94 times more than ones for female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, respectively. In-car BHs could not lead to the non-cancer health risk to all passengers and drivers as for the maximal value of non-cancer indices is 0.41 and is less than the unacceptable value (1.00) of non-cancer health risk from USEPA. However, in-car BHs lead to cancer health risk to drivers as for the average value of cancer indices is 1.21E-04 which is 1.21 times more than the unacceptable value (1.00E-04) of cancer health risk from USEPA. Finally, for in-car airborne benzene concentration (X, μg/m(3)) to male drivers, female drivers, male passengers, and female passengers, the cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.48E-06X, Y = 1.42E-06X, Y = 2.22E-07X, and Y = 2.13E-07X, respectively, and the non-cancer health risk equations are Y = 1.70E-03X, Y = 1.63E-03X, Y = 2.55E-04X, and Y = 2.45E-04X, respectively.

  8. Dynamic analysis of rail transit elevated bridge with ladder track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He XIA; Yushu DENG; Yongwei ZOU; Guido DE ROECK; Geert DEGRANDE

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a dynamic analysis model of an elevated bridge with ladder tracks under moving train load is established. The whole process of a train running through an elevated bridge at different speeds is simulated.The dynamic responses of the elevated bridge with ladder track and the running safety and comfort index of train vehicles are evaluated. Compared with the dynamic responses of an elevated bridge with ordinary non-ballasted slab track, the ladder track's effect on reducing the vibration of an elevated bridge is analyzed. The analysis results show that the ladder track has good vibration reduction characteristics as compared to ordinary non-ballasted track.

  9. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Jing; NING Bin; LI Ke-Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station.Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track.Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered.One is the scheme of "pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track".The other is the scheme of "two tracks play the same role".We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced.Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values.This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.

  10. Implementing Composite Superstructures in Large Passenger Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karatzas, Vasileios; Berggreen, Christian; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher;

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the structural response of the part of the superstructure of a RoPax ferry that has been redesigned using composite materials. The composite superstructure is presented and subsequently compared to the existing steel design considering different loading conditions by the use...... of FE modelling.Results indicate that it is not the structural response of the superstructure that inhibits the implementation of composites in the superstructures of large passenger ships but the complicated design procedure and the acceptance of such solutions by the regulatory bodies....

  11. Telemedical Advice to Long Distance Passenger Ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Bøggild, Niels Bo; Kristensen, Søren

    with morphine. The NSAID drugs were supplied from the other passengers. Among the patients with visceral pain 1 was treated with NSAID and 22 with opioids. Of the 23 patients treated with opioids, 19 had sublingual Buprenorphine, 3 morphine injections and 1 used his personal codeine tablets. No problems were...... reported from resorption of the Buprenorphine resoriblets, which therefore seemed to work well. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. Conclusions: The paramedical assistance and the medicine chest content were considered insufficient in The paramedical...

  12. Non-seatbelt use and associated factors among passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Seatbelt use is the most effective way to save lives and reduce severe injuries. However, the percentage of non-seatbelt use is still high among drivers and passengers. Although the factors related to non-seatbelt use among drivers have been widely studied, the factors associated with non-seatbelt use among passengers have not been well documented. In addition, recent surveys showed that the driver's attitude has a significant impact on the passenger's seatbelt use. However, the lower response rate and less accurate of self-reported seatbelt use in survey studies, especially among participants who had a high level perception of penalty for non-seatbelt use. Therefore, we examined the association between passenger's seatbelt use and driver's seatbelt use with a statewide injury surveillance system. 36,012 passengers who were involved in motor vehicle crashes (MVC) in 2004-2013 were included in this study. Our results showed that if a driver wore a seatbelt, 92.6% of his/her passengers also wore seatbelts while if a driver did not wear a seatbelt, only 19.1% of his/her passengers wore seatbelts. Compared to the passenger whose driver wore a seatbelt, the passenger had a significantly higher probability of non-seatbelt use (odds ratio = 46.7; 95% confidence intervals, 42.7-51.1) if his/her driver did not wear a seatbelt. The driver has the greatest influence on the passenger's seatbelt use. The findings will provide important information for future public health practices to increase seatbelt use at the highest possible rate for passengers, such as educational interventions for drivers and seatbelt reminders use.

  13. 75 FR 7599 - Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission... Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility Program. DATES: The due date for submitting a request to... make presentations concerning the Commission's passenger vessel financial responsibility program. The...

  14. 19 CFR 122.85 - Final airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final airport. 122.85 Section 122.85 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Procedures for Residue Cargo and Stopover Passengers § 122.85 Final airport. When an aircraft enters at the last domestic airport of discharge, the traveling general...

  15. Video surveillance of passengers with mug shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming Kai; Lee, Ting N.; Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    The authority officer relies on facial mug-shots to spot suspects among crowds. Passing through a check point, the facial displays and printouts operate in low resolution fixed poses. Thus, a databases-cuing video is recommended for real-time surveillance with Aided-Target Recognition (AiTR) prompting the inspector taking a closer second look at a specific passenger. Taking advantage of commercial available Face Detection System on Chips (SOC) at 0.04sec, we develop a fast and smart algorithm to sort facial poses among passengers. We can increase the overlapping POFs (pixels on faces) in matching mug shots at arbitrary poses with sorted facial poses. Lemma: We define the long exposure as time average of facial poses and the short exposure as single facial pose in a frame of video in 30 Hz. The fiduciary triangle is defined among two eyes and nose-top. Theorem Self-Reference Matched Filtering (Szu et al. Opt Comm. 1980; JOSA, 1982) to Facial-Pose: If we replace the desirable output of Weiner filter as the long exposure, then the filter can select a short exposure as the normal view. Corollary: Given a short exposure as normal view, the fiduciary triangle can decide all poses from left-to-right and top-to-down.

  16. Cardiovascular emergencies in cruise ship passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaro, Gian M; Bush, Howard S; Fromkin, Kenneth R; Shen, Michael Y; Helguera, Marcelo; Pinski, Sergio L; Asher, Craig R

    2010-01-15

    More than 10 million people, many elderly and likely to harbor cardiovascular (CV) disease, embark on cruise ship travel worldwide every year. The clinical presentation and outcome of CV emergencies presenting during cruise ship travel remain largely unknown. Our department provides contracted cardiology consultations to several large cruise lines. We prospectively maintained a registry of all such consultations during a 2-year period. One hundred consecutive patients were identified (age 66 +/- 14 years, range 18 to 90, 76% men). The most common symptom was chest pain (50%). The most common diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome (58%; ST elevation in 21% and non-ST elevation in 37%). On-board mortality was 3%. Overall, 73% of patients required hospital triage. Of the 25 patients triaged to our institution, 17 underwent a revascularization procedure. One patient died. Ten percent of patients had cardiac symptoms in the days or weeks before boarding; all required hospital triage. Access to a baseline electrocardiogram would have been clinically useful in 23% of cases. In conclusion, CV emergencies, such as acute coronary syndrome and heart failure, are not uncommon on cruise ships. They are often serious, requiring hospital triage and coronary revascularization. A pretravel medical evaluation is recommended for passengers with a cardiac history or a high-risk profile. Passengers should be encouraged to bring a copy of their electrocardiogram on board if abnormal. Cruise lines should establish mechanisms for prompt consultation and triage.

  17. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide ...

  18. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for Westy-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a base-line case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario we sketch how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various

  19. Child Passenger Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-29

    Proper installation and use of car seats and booster seats for child passengers can save their lives. CDC recommends drivers ensure children are always buckled up. In this podcast, Bethany West discusses how to keep young passengers as safe as possible.  Created: 9/29/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 9/29/2016.

  20. CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO CREATE CONTROL MECHANISM BY PASSENGER COMMUTATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Zadoya

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the basic approaches of improving a management mechanism for passenger suburban railway transportations are considered, and the classification of reformation models for passenger suburban railway transportations depending on scales, degree of independence, department subordination and amount of proprietors of future company is offered.

  1. Flexible connections in PESP models for cyclic passenger railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); L.W.P. Peeters (Leon); J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe how rolling stock and passenger connections in a cyclic railway timetable can be modeled in a flexible way within the model for the Periodic Event-Scheduling Problem (PESP). Usually, PESP models assume that the constraints for rolling stock or passenger connecti

  2. Energy scenarios for European passenger transport in the year 2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.A.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper four energy scenarios for Westy-European passenger transport are developed. To start with, the present transport system as a base-line case is described and analysed. Next, for each scenario we sketch how the passenger transport system may look like in terms of the use of various exist

  3. Multiobjective Gate Assignment Based on Passenger Walking Distance and Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger walking distance is an important index of the airport service quality. How to shorten the walking distance and balance the airlines' service quality is the focus of much research on airport gate assignment problems. According to the problems of airport passenger service quality, an optimization gate assignment model is established. The gate assignment model is based on minimizing the total walking distance of all passengers and balancing the average walking distance of passengers among different airlines. Lingo is used in the simulation of a large airport gate assignment. Test results show that the optimization model can reduce the average walking distance of passenger effectively, improve the number of flights assigned to gate, balance airline service quality, and enhance the overall service level of airports and airlines. The model provides reference for the airport gate preassignment.

  4. Manikin families representing obese airline passengers in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanjun; Park, Woojin; Kim, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft passenger spaces designed without proper anthropometric analyses can create serious problems for obese passengers, including: possible denial of boarding, excessive body pressures and contact stresses, postural fixity and related health hazards, and increased risks of emergency evacuation failure. In order to help address the obese passenger's accommodation issues, this study developed male and female manikin families that represent obese US airline passengers. Anthropometric data of obese individuals obtained from the CAESAR anthropometric database were analyzed through PCA-based factor analyses. For each gender, a 99% enclosure cuboid was constructed, and a small set of manikins was defined on the basis of each enclosure cuboid. Digital human models (articulated human figures) representing the manikins were created using a human CAD software program. The manikin families were utilized to develop design recommendations for selected aircraft seat dimensions. The manikin families presented in this study would greatly facilitate anthropometrically accommodating large airline passengers.

  5. Telemedical advice to long-distance passenger ferries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf C; Bo Bøggild, Niels; Kristensen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Radio medical (RM) advice for seafarers and traveling passengers is important and can be crucial for the optimal medical treatment on board ships. The aim of this study was to analyze the data from consultations with passenger ferries to identify areas for possible improvements. METHODS......: Data from the journals for 1 year from Radio Medical Denmark consultations with the medical officers on passenger ferries were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen RM records, 73% pertaining to passengers and 27% for crew members, were analyzed. Passenger patients were generally...... complaints, and more than half of these involved severe or considerable pain. Only acetaminophen (paracetamol) and opioids were in the ferry medicine chest. At least 77 patients would have benefited from use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The paramedical assistance and the medicine...

  6. Is passenger vehicle incompatibility still a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Nolan, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    Passenger cars often are at a disadvantage when colliding with light trucks (sport utility vehicles [SUVs] and pickups) due to differences in mass, vehicle structural alignment, and stiffness. In 2003, vehicle manufacturers agreed to voluntary measures to improve compatibility, especially in front-to-front and front-to-side crashes, with full adherence to be achieved by September 2009. This study examined whether fatality rates are consistent with the expected benefit of this agreement. Analyses examined 2 death rates for 1- to 4-year-old passenger vehicles during 2000-2001 and 2008-2009 in the United States: occupant deaths per million registered vehicle years in these vehicles and deaths in other cars that collided with these vehicles in 2-vehicle crashes per million registered vehicle years. These rates were computed for each study period and for cars/minivans (referred to as cars), SUVs, and pickups by curb weight (in 500-pound increments). The latter death rate, referred to as the car crash partner death rate, also was computed for front-to-front crashes and front-to-side crashes where the front of the 1- to 4-year-old vehicle struck the side of the partner car. In both study periods, occupant death rates generally decreased for each vehicle type both with increasing curb weight and over time. SUVs experienced the greatest declines compared with cars and pickups. This is due in part to the early fitment of electronic stability control in SUVs, which drastically reduced the incidence of single-vehicle rollover crashes. Pickups had the highest death rates in both study periods. Car crash partner death rates generally declined over time for all vehicle categories but more steeply for SUVs and pickups colliding with cars than for cars colliding with cars. In fact, the car crash partner death rates for SUVs and cars were nearly identical during 2008-2009, suggesting that the voluntary design changes for compatibility have been effective. Car crash partner death

  7. Swiss fuel cell passenger and pleasure boats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Affolter, J.-F.

    2000-07-01

    This paper published by the University of Applied Science in Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, looks at the development of electrically driven small boats that are powered by fuel cells. The various implementations of the test boats are described. Starting with a 100-watt PEM fuel cell built by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the University of Applied Science in Solothurn, Switzerland, for educational purposes, a small pedal-boat was electrified. The paper describes the development of four further prototypes and introduces a new project for a 6-passenger leisure boat powered by a 2 kW PEFC fuel cell. Apart from the fuel cells, various other components such as propellers and control electronics are discussed as are the remaining problems still to be solved before the cells and boats can be marketed. Since they were carried out at a technical university, these projects are said to have provided an excellent way of teaching new technologies to students.

  8. Inferring Passenger Type from Commuter Eigentravel Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Legara, Erika Fille

    2015-01-01

    A sufficient knowledge of the demographics of a commuting public is essential in formulating and implementing more targeted transportation policies, as commuters exhibit different ways of traveling. With the advent of the Automated Fare Collection system (AFC), probing the travel patterns of commuters has become less invasive and more accessible. Consequently, numerous transport studies related to human mobility have shown that these observed patterns allow one to pair individuals with locations and/or activities at certain times of the day. However, classifying commuters using their travel signatures is yet to be thoroughly examined. Here, we contribute to the literature by demonstrating a procedure to characterize passenger types (Adult, Child/Student, and Senior Citizen) based on their three-month travel patterns taken from a smart fare card system. We first establish a method to construct distinct commuter matrices, which we refer to as eigentravel matrices, that capture the characteristic travel routines...

  9. Disruption Management in Passenger Railway Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen-Groth, Julie; Potthoff, Daniel; Clausen, Jens

    This paper deals with disruption management in passenger railway transportation. In the disruption management process, many actors belonging to different organizations play a role. In this paper we therefore describe the process itself and the roles of the different actors. Furthermore, we discuss...... the three main subproblems in railway disruption management: timetable adjustment, and rolling stock and crew re-scheduling. Next to a general description of these problems, we give an overview of the existing literature and we present some details of the specific situations at DSB S-tog and NS....... These are the railway operators in the suburban area of Copenhagen, Denmark, and on the main railway lines in the Netherlands, respectively. Since not much research has been carried out yet on Operations Research models for disruption management in the railway context, models and techniques that have been developed...

  10. Explore the TOD Planning Mode at Inter-city Rail Transit Site-- Take the District Planning and Design of the Inter-city Rail "Qingyuan Station” from Guangzhou to Qingyuan as an Example%城际轨道交通站点地区TOD规划模式初探--以广清城际轨道“清远站”片区规划设计为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊青

    2014-01-01

    China is entering the peak period of rail transit construction. This article embraces on the subject of how to make the harmonious development and mutual promotion of traffic facilities and urban development construction, and carr-ies on the preliminary discussion of the planning design meth-od at the intercity rail site area on the basis of summarizing the concept and characteristics of TOD development model, thro-ugh the design example.%我国正进入轨道交通建设的高峰期,本文在围绕如何使交通设施与城市的开发建设协调发展、互相促进这一课题,在总结 TOD 开发模式概念及特征的基础上,通过设计案例,对城际轨道站点片区的规划设计方法进行了初步地探讨。

  11. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.;

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired......Passengers using public transport systems often experience waiting times when transferring between two scheduled services. In this paper we propose a planning approach that seeks to obtain a favourable trade-off between the two contrasting objectives, passenger service and operating cost...

  12. 75 FR 42115 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... concerning the Passenger and Crew Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System-APIS). This request for... Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System-APIS). OMB Number: 1651-0088. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) is an automated method in which U.S. Customs and...

  13. 78 FR 55279 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... the Passenger and Crew Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System). This request for comment is... Manifest (Advance Passenger Information System) OMB Number: 1651-0088 Form Number: None Abstract: The Advance Passenger Information System (APIS) is an automated method in which U.S. Customs and Border...

  14. The provision of on street passenger information via real time passenger information; a case study of Dublin

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Brian; O'MAHONY, MARGARET MARY

    2004-01-01

    PUBLISHED In June 2001 Dublin Bus introduced a real time passenger information (RTPI) system on the first of its eleven quality bus corridors (QBC), on the Lucan QBC. The introduction is part of a three-year pilot programme called 'Q-time', which was established to test RTPI on three QBCs before deciding on the roll out of the system across the Dublin Bus network. This system displays, passenger information with regard to the estimated wait time on passenger information displays at bus sto...

  15. The usability of passenger delay models in socio-economic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel

    The following paper discusses how a passenger delay model can be used in socio-economic calculations. At present passenger delays are often omitted in the modeling phase and therefore not included in the analysis. By using a passenger delay model passenger delays can be included in a cost......-benefit analysis. Including passenger delays in the cost-benefit analysis will increase the level of details and thereby improve the accuracy of socio-economic analysis. In this paper the third generation passenger delay model is used. This model is the newest and most detailed passenger delay model created so far....... The main problem when including passenger delays is to determine the value of time for passenger delays and how to include the delays in a socio-economic analysis. This is due to the fact that passenger delays are not defined unambiguously. In general, delays can occur on different parts of a journey...

  16. Safety on Passenger Ferries from Catering Crew's Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ljung, M; Oudhuis, Margareata

    2016-01-01

    ... staff’s experiences and perceptions of safety practice on board passenger ferries. The methods are semi-structured interviews and a qualitative content analysis of official documents and research articles. Results...

  17. Some issues of passenger choice of suburban transport mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the passenger choice of transport mode for moving to suburban is discussed. The analysis of methods of Transport Management in suburban transportation showed that they did not fully take into account the effect of the transport process parameters on the passenger choice of transport mode for travel. The aim of research is to determine the value of the factors that influence passenger choice of suburban transport. The study was conducted on the basis of passenger survey on the factors affecting the choice of transport mode, and the importance of these factors. Kendall's coefficient of concordance its statistical significance were used to evaluate the consistency of expert opinion. The main factors for choosing the mode of suburban transport are identified. The identified factors can then be used in determining selection patterns of suburban transport mode.

  18. Just-in-Time Information Delivery System for Passenger Assistance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    NOZUE, Michiko; OZAKI, Naoya; TSUCHIYA, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    ... and integrate them to make their travel decisions. We first provide a brief overview of an intermodal passenger support system called "CyberGuide," then propose an intelligent and just-in-time information retrieval agent that takes into consideration...

  19. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    increased likelihood of exposure to workplace violence in the road passenger transport ..... content and administration; understanding ethical issues, such as respect for privacy while .... Statistical significance was assumed at a p-value < 0.05.

  20. Fuzzy Temporal Logic Based Railway Passenger Flow Forecast Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. PMID:25431586

  1. Fuzzy temporal logic based railway passenger flow forecast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Fei; Jia, Limin; Wang, Li; Xu, Jie; Huang, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Passenger flow forecast is of essential importance to the organization of railway transportation and is one of the most important basics for the decision-making on transportation pattern and train operation planning. Passenger flow of high-speed railway features the quasi-periodic variations in a short time and complex nonlinear fluctuation because of existence of many influencing factors. In this study, a fuzzy temporal logic based passenger flow forecast model (FTLPFFM) is presented based on fuzzy logic relationship recognition techniques that predicts the short-term passenger flow for high-speed railway, and the forecast accuracy is also significantly improved. An applied case that uses the real-world data illustrates the precision and accuracy of FTLPFFM. For this applied case, the proposed model performs better than the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models.

  2. Environmental Performance Evaluation of Ro-Ro Passenger Ferry Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard; Hagemeister, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    With increasing focus on the environmental performance of different transport modes (for example trucks, trains, ships and aircraft) it is of utmost importance that the different transport modes are compared on an equal basis so that the environmental impact, defined as energy demand and....../or emissions per transport unit, is related to the same unit for the different transport forms. For Ro-Ro passenger ferries it can be difficult to find a suitable common transport unit, as they often transport a mix of cargo, such as passengers, passenger cars, trucks, lorries, busses and other rolling...... transport units. In this paper a method for determination of a common transport unit for Ro-Ro passenger ships will be described....

  3. Equilibrium analysis of mixed passengers in urban railway network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璐; 吴建军; 孙会君

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed to describe the passengers’ route choice behaviors in urban railway traffic with stochastic link capacity degradation by considering two types of demand, sensitive and insensitive passenger. The insensitive passengers choose their route without paying much attention to congestion. To the contrary, sensitive passengers who consider route congestion choose travel route based on generalized cost. An equilibrium state is given by variational inequalities in terms of travel generalized cost, which is represented by the combinations of mean and variance of total travel time. The diagonalization algorithm is given to solve this programming. Results show that insensitive passengers have large effects on the path choice than sensitive ones, especially for the larger demand.

  4. Bus Passenger Recognition and Track of Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Zhou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is a research aiming at realizing making a statistics on passenger flow volume of bus, which not only helps traffic services center rationally schedule vehicles, but also can avoid overload. The system makes machine vision technology and digital image processing technique applied in customer counting of bus. The key questions in the study include effective collection of video image, effective extraction of moving object in sequence images, recognition of moving targets, trace and count of moving objects. The paper makes deep analysis on relevant technology from the perspective of the theory and practical application of the algorithm, and the study makes achievements. The theoretical algorithm for the study on bus passenger recognition and track of video sequence is distinctive. The practical experiments indicate that the system can satisfy the real-time requirements, and can accurately make statistics on the number of passengers, which has great application value.

  5. Complete transection of the trunk of passengers in car accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadjem, H; Ropohl, D

    1996-06-01

    Traumatic amputation of extremities and complete severance of the trunk have been reported in extra-urban collisions between passenger cars and pedestrians at collision speeds of > 80-100 km/h (50-62 mi/h). In car passengers, such extreme types of injuries are very rare. Two cases are presented in which the cars had a lateral collision with road trees near the right B column (column between front and back door), as a result of which the car was torn into two parts just in front of the rear axle near the back seats. Under these circumstances, the trunk of the back passenger on the side of the collision was completely severed. Both accidents happened in left-hand bends and the speed of collisions amounted to 120 and 180 km/h (74 and 111 mi/h), respectively. All passengers were flung out of the cars.

  6. Combustion characteristics of coal and refuse from passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu-min, Ren; Feng, Yue; Ming, Gao; Min, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Refuse from passenger trains is becoming a significant issue with the development of the Chinese railway. Co-firing is regarded as a promising thermal technology, both environmentally and economically, in reducing the quantity of refuse. The co-firing property of passenger train refuse with coal, however, may differ due to the differences in the composition of the refuse. In the present study, combustion properties of refuse from passenger train samples and the mixture of refuse with coal were studied in a tube furnace. Thermo analysis methods, such as thermogravimetry (TG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) analyses were employed to evaluate combustion performance. We found that the mixture of passenger train refuse and coal at a ratio of 1:1 has a lower ignition and burnout temperature than the coal-only sample. Moreover, refuse from railway passenger trains has more reactive combustion properties than the coal-only sample, and the addition of railway passenger train refuse to coal can promote the reactivity of coal.

  7. Types of solutions improving passenger transport interconnectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika BĄK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to present different types of solutions which could improve interconnectivity of passenger transport especially within interconnections between long and short transport distance. The topic has particular relevance at the European level because the European transport networks’ role as integrated international networks is compromised by poor interconnectivity and because the next generation of European transport policies will have to be sensitive to the differences between short, medium and long-term transport markets and the market advantages of each transport mode. In this context, a realistic assessment of intermodal opportunities is a key ingredient to future policy development.Effective interconnection requires the provision of integrated networks and services which are attractive to potential users and this is likely to require co-operation between a range of authorities and providers in the public and private sectors and may necessitate a wider vision than might otherwise prevail.The paper is based on the results of the project realised by the team of the University of Gdansk in the EU funded 7 Framework Programme - INTERCONNECT (Interconnection between short- and long-distance transport networks with partners in the UK, Germany, Denmark, Poland, Spain and Italy. Different types of solutions will be summarized in the paper including e.g. local link infrastructure solutions, improved local public transport services, improvements at the interchange, solutions involving improved procedures for check-in or luggage transfer & documentation, pricing and ticketing solutions, solutions involving marketing, information and sales.

  8. Hand-movement-based in-vehicle driver/front-seat passenger discrimination for centre console controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Langnickel, Mirko; Kraetzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Successful user discrimination in a vehicle environment may yield a reduction of the number of switches, thus significantly reducing costs while increasing user convenience. The personalization of individual controls permits conditional passenger enable/driver disable and vice versa options which may yield safety improvement. The authors propose a prototypic optical sensing system based on hand movement segmentation in near-infrared image sequences implemented in an Audi A6 Avant. Analyzing the number of movements in special regions, the system recognizes the direction of the forearm and hand motion and decides whether driver or front-seat passenger touch a control. The experimental evaluation is performed independently for uniformly and non-uniformly illuminated video data as well as for the complete video data set which includes both subsets. The general test results in error rates of up to 14.41% FPR / 16.82% FNR and 17.61% FPR / 14.77% FNR for driver and passenger respectively. Finally, the authors discuss the causes of the most frequently occurring errors as well as the prospects and limitations of optical sensing for user discrimination in passenger compartments.

  9. Study on Stakeholders’Appeal in Regulatory Planning Adjustment:A Case Study of Plan Adjustment of Reservation Land around Rail Transit Station in Beijing’s Inner City%控制性详细规划调整中的利益相关者诉求研究*--以北京市中心城轨道交通站点储备用地的规划调整为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋丽青; 林坚; 马晨越

    2014-01-01

    基于公共产品理论和利益相关者理论,以北京市中心城轨道交通站点储备用地1999年、2006年控制性详细规划调整为切入点,分析政府、开发单位、公众、设计单位等利益主体的权力分配与利益诉求。构建多元利益主体博弈的一般框架,指出旧城区控制性详细规划调整过程中以权力分配倾斜化、关注对象区别化、利益诉求差别化为特征的不均衡现状,建议我国旧城区控制性详细规划实践注重:划定底线,制定针对性的保护原则;设施先行,提升土地开发潜力;制度为本,明确可能的利益主体的权责。%According to public goods theory and stakeholder theory, the adjustments of Beijing’s regulatory detailed planning on reservation land around rail transit station in inner city between 1999 and 2006 are analyzed, which shows the power and appeal of the stakeholders. The frame of games between stakeholders is made, which indicates three identities of regulatory detailed planning adjustment in old city: the imbalanced power, the diverse object and the different interest. Suggestions are put forward for the practice of regulatory detailed planning in old city.

  10. Aircraft passenger comfort experience: underlying factors and differentiation from discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpour, Naseem; Robert, Jean-Marc; Lindgaard, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies defined passengers' comfort based on their concerns during the flight and a set of eight experiential factors such as 'peace of mind', 'physical wellbeing', 'pleasure', etc. One Objective of this paper was to determine whether the factors underlying the passengers' experience of comfort differ from those of discomfort. Another objective was to cross-validate those factors. In the first study, respondents provided written reports of flight comfort and discomfort experiences separately and gave ratings on the impact of the eight factors on each experience. Follow up interviews were also conducted. Significant difference was found between comfort and discomfort ratings for two factors of 'pleasure', denoted by one's concern for stimulation, ambience and exceeded expectations, and 'physical wellbeing' characterized in terms of bodily support and energy. However, there were no significant differences between the comfort and discomfort ratings on the other six factors. The evidence does not support the proposition that passenger comfort and discomfort are underline by different sets of factors. It is therefore suggested that the evaluation of overall passenger comfort experience, as a whole, employ one spectrum ranging from extreme comfort to discomfort. In study two, a pool of comfort descriptors was collected. Those that were less relevant to passenger comfort were eliminated in a number of steps. Factor analysis was used to classify the remaining descriptors, using respondents' ratings on their potential impact on passenger comfort. Seven factors corresponded to the pre-determined passenger comfort factors from previous research, validating those with an exception of 'proxemics' (concerning one's privacy and control over their situation) but it was argued that this is due to the nature of the factor itself, which is context dependent and generally perceived unconsciously.

  11. Airline policy for passengers requiring supplemental in-flight oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jacqueline; Kelly, Paul T; Beckert, Lutz

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current Australian/New Zealand airline policy on supplemental in-flight oxygen for passengers with lung disease. Fifty-four commercial airlines servicing international routes were surveyed. Information was gathered from airline call centres and web sites. The survey documented individual airline policy on in-flight oxygen delivery, approval schemes, equipment and cost. Of the 54 airlines contacted, 43 (81%) were able to support passengers requiring in-flight oxygen. The majority (88%) of airlines provided a cylinder for passengers to use. Airline policy for calculating the cost of in-flight oxygen differed considerably between carriers. Six (14%) airlines supplied oxygen to passengers free of charge; however, three of these airlines charged for an extra seat. Fifteen airlines (35%) charged on the basis of oxygen supplied, that is, per cylinder. Fourteen airlines (33%) had a flat rate charge per sector. This study confirmed that most airlines can accommodate passengers requiring supplemental oxygen. However, the findings highlight inconsistencies in airline policies and substantial cost differences for supplemental in-flight oxygen. We advocate an industry standardization of policy and cost of in-flight oxygen.

  12. Convenient Airports: Point of View of the Passengers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Adival Aparecido, Jr.; Alves, Claudio Jorge Pinto

    2003-01-01

    The competition among airlines or among airports aiming at to increase the demand for its services has been more and more incited. Knowledge the perception of the users for the offered services means to meet the customer's needs and expectations in order either to keep the customer, and therefore keep a significant advantage over competitors. The passenger of the air transportation wants rapidity, security and convenience. Convenience can be translated by comfort that the passenger wants for the price that he can pay. In this paper had been identified. as a result of a survey achieved in six Brazilian airports during 2002, the best indicators in the passenger's perception. These indicators among any others were listed m the handbook of Airports Council International (ACI). Distinctive perceptions were observed among passengers with different travel motivations. This survey had been carried through in the airports of Brasilia, Porto Alegre, Salvador. Fortaleza, Curitiba and Bel6m. Considering this survey we can identified the most attractive airport among them. This work is a way to help improve quality of service, in particular, m these six airports of the Brazilian network. The results should be published and made available to all the parties concerned (airport authority, airlines and service providers) and should lead to corrective action when the passenger is not satisfied with the service.

  13. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  14. Safety climate and safety behavior in the passenger ferry context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Yang, Chung-Shan

    2011-01-01

    This research empirically evaluates safety climate and safety behavior in the passenger ferry context. Using survey data collected from 155 respondents working for passenger ferry companies in Taiwan, hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the effects of safety climate on self-reported safety behaviors. Confirmatory factor analysis identified five main dimensions of safety climate as measured on a passenger ferry safety climate scale: safety policy, safety motivation, emergency preparedness, safety training, and safety communication. Further, safety training and emergency preparedness were found to positively affect self-reported safety behaviors with respect to safety compliance and safety participation. The study also revealed positive associations among respondents' age, ferry capacity, and safety compliance. Implications of the study findings for increasing safety in ferry operations and their contribution to the development of safety management are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of Air Passenger Transportation in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an air route mile is, of course, entirely different from that of a road or rail route mile. An air route is a direct service between two cities. The too-rapid development of the air route system must inevitably result in an average intensity of operations on the route, and this means the frequencies are low or high, or the airplanes used are profitable or unprofitable. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize air passenger dynamics in Romania and to calculate specific indicators regarding this calculation for the airports in eastern Romania in 2011t., this, because the air passenger featurea indicator passenger – kilometer, starting with 2009 no longer calculate for aviation and shipping.

  16. Dynamic Pricing for Airline Revenue Management under Passenger Mental Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusheng Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental accounting is a far-reaching concept, which is often used to explain various kinds of irrational behaviors in human decision making process. This paper investigates dynamic pricing problems for single-flight and multiple flights settings, respectively, where passengers may be affected by mental accounting. We analyze dynamic pricing problems by means of the dynamic programming method and obtain the optimal pricing strategies. Further, we analytically show that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the flight’s expected revenue for the single flight and numerically illustrate that the passenger mental accounting depth has a positive effect on the optimal prices for the multiple flights.

  17. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  18. Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The aim of Real-Time Mass Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. The solution of such a problem is relevant to future transportation options involving large scale real-time routing of shared-ride fleet transit vehicles. However, the g...

  19. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intercity passenger rail ridership growth. In the FY 2010 DOT Appropriations Act, Congress built upon the..., maintenance of equipment, transportation (train movement), passenger traffic and services (marketing... corridor program to promote economic development, including contributions to a sustainable...

  20. 75 FR 22675 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    .... Terminal restroom design. Terminal restroom remodel. Terminal elevator upgrades. Terminal flight... passenger loading bridge. PFC consultation. Passenger terminal remodeling. Pavement management system.... Rehabilitation of taxilane K-1. Design and implement noise mitigation measures. Brief Description of...

  1. 78 FR 76382 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... firefighting personnel. Acquire Americans with Disabilities Act passenger boarding ramp. Install common use flight information system. DECISION DATE: May 13, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Neil Kumar, San... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...

  2. 78 FR 73876 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... about passengers and crew onboard inbound and outbound international flights before their arrival in or... Total Annual Burden Hours: 307,245. Estimated Costs: $68,361,719. Commercial Airline Passengers...

  3. Short-Term Forecasting of Railway Passenger Flow Based on Clustering of Booking Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minshu Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For railway companies, the benefits from revenue management activities, like inventory control, dynamic pricing, and so forth, rely heavily on the accuracy of the short-term forecasting of the passenger flow. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relevance between final booking amounts and shapes of the booking curves, a novel short-term forecasting approach, which employs a specifically designed clustering algorithm and the data of both historical booking records and the bookings on hand, is proposed. The empirical study with real data sets from Chinese railway shows that the proposed approach outperforms the advanced pickup model (one of the most popular models in practice during the early and middle stages of booking horizon when bookings are not concentrated in the final days before departure.

  4. 上海国内航空客运市场特征分析%Analysis of Shanghai Domestic Air Passenger Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周健; 李擎; 王晓东

    2012-01-01

    为深入了解上海航空客运市场特征,在分析上海航空运输市场发展环境的基础上,根据需求规模将上海航空客运市场细分为快线、大客流、中客流和低客流四类,并对每类细分市场分别从总体规模、航线机型匹配以及收益水平进行定量分析。结果表明,快线市场需求巨大供给充足,市场格局已经形成,大客流市场表现不稳定,中客流市场规模小,收益水平一般,而低客流市场收益良好,市场前景广阔。最后,根据市场特征给出航空公司进入上海市场的策略性建议。%In order to insight into the characteristics of Shanghai domestic air passenger market, four market segments is divided according to air line annual passenger flow, which are express market, large passenger flow market, medium passenger flow market and low passenger market. Meanwhile, this paper has a quantitative analysis of each market segment on the term of the overall size, aircraft type matching and the benefits. The results showed that the express market is a well developed and its demand tends to be intensive. The scale of the large passenger flow market and the medium passenger flow market is rising rapidly but small. The low passenger market is potential. Finally, some suggests are provided to the airlines who intend to enter ShangHai air passenger market.

  5. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests...

  6. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with...

  7. 36 CFR 1005.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. 1005.4 Section 1005.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. Passenger-carrying...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1316 - Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... passengers by motor vehicles. 13.1316 Section 13.1316 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... National Park General Provisions § 13.1316 Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles. Commercial transport of passengers by motor vehicles on Exit Glacier Road is allowed without a written permit....

  9. 49 CFR 238.303 - Exterior calendar day mechanical inspection of passenger equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) The shock absorber is not broken or leaking oil or other fluid; and (vii) Each air bag or other... paragraph (f) of this section, each passenger car and each unpowered vehicle used in a passenger train shall... passenger car shall also receive a daily inspection pursuant to the requirements of § 229.21 of this chapter...

  10. 77 FR 60672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger Vehicles), Palo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-04

    ... establish a special-purpose subzone at the electric passenger vehicle manufacturing facilities of Tesla... electric passenger vehicles and related powertrain components at the Tesla Motors, Inc., facilities located... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Tesla Motors, Inc., (Electric Passenger...

  11. 75 FR 18255 - Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Passenger Facility Charge Database System for Air Carrier Reporting AGENCY... interested parties of the availability of the Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) database system to report PFC..., 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jane Johnson, Financial Analysis and Passenger Facility Charge...

  12. 76 FR 36138 - Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Passenger Vessel CHICAGO'S LEADING LADY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Certificate of Alternative Compliance for the Passenger Vessel CHICAGO'S LEADING LADY... Alternative Compliance was issued for the passenger vessel CHICAGO'S LEADING LADY. DATES: The Certificate of... passenger vessel CHICAGO'S LEADING LADY. The vessel's primary purpose is to give architectural tours on the...

  13. 78 FR 51812 - Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Grants; Passenger Ferry Grant Program AGENCY... Project Proposals for the Passenger Ferry Grant Program. SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Discretionary Passenger Ferry Grant program. This grant opportunity will be funded using $29.9 million in FY...

  14. EVs and post 2020 CO2 targets for passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smokers, R.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Zyl, S. van

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses what post 2020 targets may be necessary for the European CO2 legislation for passenger cars in order to reach the overall sectoral goal of 60% reduction of transport's greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 relative to 1990, as defined in the European Commission's White Paper. The requ

  15. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    provide seating capacity according to the passenger demand and provide an even distribution of flexible space for bicycles etc.; Planned shunting operations in the depot should have sucient personnel on duty; Train units must undergo interior and exterior cleaning, surface foil application and winter...

  16. Models for Train Passenger Forecasting of Java and Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartono

    2017-04-01

    People tend to take public transportation to avoid high traffic, especially in Java. In Jakarta, the number of railway passengers is over than the capacity of the train at peak time. This is an opportunity as well as a challenge. If it is managed well then the company can get high profit. Otherwise, it may lead to disaster. This article discusses models for the train passengers, hence, finding the reasonable models to make a prediction overtimes. The Box-Jenkins method is occupied to develop a basic model. Then, this model is compared to models obtained using exponential smoothing method and regression method. The result shows that Holt-Winters model is better to predict for one-month, three-month, and six-month ahead for the passenger in Java. In addition, SARIMA(1,1,0)(2,0,0) is more accurate for nine-month and twelve-month oversee. On the other hand, for Sumatra passenger forecasting, SARIMA(1,1,1)(0,0,2) gives a better approximation for one-month ahead, and ARIMA model is best for three-month ahead prediction. The rest, Trend Seasonal and Liner Model has the least of RMSE to forecast for six-month, nine-month, and twelve-month ahead.

  17. 77 FR 25105 - Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Parts 234 and 241 RIN 2139-AA13 Reporting of Ancillary Airline Passenger... (NPRM) issued on July 15, 2011. The NPRM proposed changes regarding reporting of airline ancillary... collect airline ancillary revenue information in a more detailed manner, change the way mishandled baggage...

  18. Ultrafine particle air pollution inside diesel-propelled passenger trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramesko, Victoria; Tartakovsky, Leonid

    2017-04-05

    Locomotives with diesel engines are used worldwide and are an important source of air pollution. Pollutant emissions by locomotive engines affect the air quality inside passenger trains. This study is aimed at investigating ultrafine particle (UFP) air pollution inside passenger trains and providing a basis for assessing passenger exposure to this pollutant. The concentrations of UFPs inside the carriages of push-pull trains are dramatically higher when the train operates in pull mode. This clearly shows that locomotive engine emissions are a dominant factor in train passengers' exposure to UFPs. The highest levels of UFP air pollution are observed inside the carriages of pull trains close to the locomotive. In push mode, the UFP number concentrations were lower by factors of 2.6-43 (depending on the carriage type) compared to pull mode. The UFP concentrations are substantially lower in diesel multiple-unit trains than in trains operating in pull mode. A significant influence of the train movement regime on the UFP NC inside a carriage is observed.

  19. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... receptacle fire extinguishers, and Halon 1211 extinguishers; Improving cabin interior flammability standards... air carriers to limit the size and amount of carry-on baggage that each passenger may bring onboard... spent by the substituting flightcrew member applies towards daily duty time limits and is...

  20. The Simultaneous Vehicle Scheduling and Passenger Service Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne Løhmann; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2013-01-01

    , by modifying the timetable. The planning approach is referred to as the simultaneous vehicle scheduling and passenger service problem (SVSPSP). The SVSPSP is modelled as an integer programming problem and solved using a large neighborhood search metaheuristic. The proposed framework is tested on data inspired...

  1. Harnessing innovation in passenger transport research in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the framework proposed by the newly established Built Environment Unit of CSIR, a public institution, to provide foresight driven research input into the passenger transport domain. This is modelled on the mandate of the CSIR...

  2. Consumer preferences in the design of airport passenger areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oel, C.J.; Van den Berkhof, F.W.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, commercial developments have become increasingly important for the overall profit of airports. However, little is known about consumer preferences regarding the design of passenger areas, which is striking as the design of terminal buildings affects consumers' emotional state and

  3. 14 CFR 29.807 - Passenger emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... a crash landing must be extremely remote. (d) Ditching emergency exits for passengers. If certification with ditching provisions is requested, ditching emergency exits must be provided in accordance... shown through analysis, ditching demonstrations, or any other tests found necessary by the...

  4. Allocation of Railway Rolling Stock for Passenger Trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.W.V. van den Berg (Bianca); L.G. Kroon (Leo); M. Salomon (Marc); E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor a commercially operating railway company, providing a high level of service for the passengers is of utmost importance. The latter requires a high punctuality of the trains and an adequate rolling stock capacity. Unfortunately, the latter is currently (2002) one of the bottlenecks in

  5. Disruption Management of Rolling Stock in Passenger Railway Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.K. Nielsen (Lars Kjaer); G. Maróti (Gábor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with real-time disruption management of rolling stock in passenger railway transportation. We present a generic framework for modeling disruptions in railway rolling stock schedules. The framework is presented as an online combinatorial decision problem where the

  6. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling

  7. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The

  8. Emergency evacuation : how better interior design can improve passenger flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, L.C.; Skjong, R.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents some conclusions from the EU basic research project "MEPdesign" relevant for design of ship interiors. The findings are discussed with regard to passenger flow as a function of design parameters. The paper explains that current evacuation analyses may be overly optimistic. The con

  9. Maintenance in Railway Rolling Stock Rescheduling for Passenger Railways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Wagenaar (Joris); L.G. Kroon (Leo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the Rolling Stock Rescheduling Problem (RSRP), while taking maintenance appointments into account. After a disruption, the rolling stock of passenger trains has to be rescheduled in order to maintain a feasible rolling stock circulation. A limited number of rolling s

  10. 19 CFR 122.156 - Release of passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Service or by a Customs officer acting on behalf of that agency. ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of passengers. 122.156 Section 122.156 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. Development of road passenger transportation based on life cycle theory%基于生命周期理论的道路客运发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文浩; 王芳; 杨阳

    2014-01-01

    将生命周期理论应用到道路客运中,提出了道路客运生命周期理论。该理论将客运发展分为进入期、成长期、成熟期和衰退期4个阶段,并建立 Gompertz模型来定量分析道路客运的发展规律,分析了道路客运在各个阶段的表现形式和相应阶段应采取的发展策略。最后以某省为例,将该理论运用到实际案例中,拟合出符合实际的 Gompertz曲线,验证了该理论在道路客运发展研究中的有效性。%Life cycle theory is applied to the road passenger transportation,road passenger transportation life cycle theory is proposed,and passenger transportation development can be divided into four stages:including enter period,growth period,maturity period and de-cline period.And the Gompertz model is established to quantitatively analyze the road pas-senger transportation in keeping with the development law of life cycle theory.After it is an-alyzed that the forms of road passenger transport at various stages in the life cycle and de-velopment strategy should be taken at each stage.Finally,an example of a certain province is given,this theory is applied into practice,fitting realistic Gompertz curve.It verify the va-lidity of the theory in the development research of road passenger transportation.

  12. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  13. 基于复杂列车服务网络的客流分配方法研究%Research on Passenger Flow Assignment Method Based on Complex Train Service Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟璐; 聂磊; 付慧伶

    2012-01-01

    The attritutes and constructing method of the complex train service network (CTSN) formed on the basis of passenger train plans were studied. By analyzing multi-level passengers' choice behavior, the arc resistance of CTSN was determined. The passenger flow assignment model of CTSN reflecting diversified passengers' travel demand was estabished. The model was made to take the maximized passenger travel utility as the objective. The multi-constraint conditions of passenger travel routes were set by respectively restricting the number of transfer times and the transfer time of passengers with different travel distances and different levels of travel demand. The hybrid algorithm consisting of the improved ant colony and Frank-Wolfe algorithms was designed to solve the model. In order to match the choice of rail passenger behavior,strengthening of passenger flow was assigned by rules of OD traffic, trip distance and priority. Finally,case study on passenger train plans of part of the network centered by the Beijing-Shanghai High-speed Railway was made to accomplish passenger traffic assignments and the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm was proved.%研究旅客列车开行方案形成的复杂列车服务网络属性及其构造方法,在分析多层次客流选择行为基础上,确定列车服务网络弧段阻抗.建立体现差异性服务水平需求的复杂列车服务网络客流分配模型,该模型以旅客出行效益最大化为目标,通过分别限制不同出行距离、不同层次旅客的换乘次数及换乘时间,设置旅客出行径路的多约束条件.设计改进的蚁群算法和Frank-Wolfe算法构成的混合算法进行求解,为更加符合旅客的选择行为,按OD客流量、出行距离、优先级等规则进行流量加载.以京沪高速铁路旅客列车开行方案为例进行客流分配,验证模型和算法的有效性.

  14. Drivers' and conductors' views on the causes and ways of preventing workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillgren Per

    2011-10-01

    neighborhoods. Finally, there is a need for an institution to judge alleged cases of employees not handing over demanded revenues to their employer. Conclusions The causes of WPV lie in problems regarding money, behavior, environment, organization and crime. Suggestions for prevention include education, control to avoid critical situations, and a judicial system to assess malpractices. Further research in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique and similar settings is warranted.

  15. An instrument to measure passenger satisfaction of a public transport system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Leite Dias de Mattos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an instrument, based on fuzzy logic, to measure the satisfaction with the public transport. It is based on previous studies, expert opinion and results of two surveys conducted among the data samples of the studied population: a university community. Qualitative techniques (questionaries and interviews were used for validating content, while the construct validation uses quantitative techniques (Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis. An experiment is also performed to define some properties of fuzzy controllers: membership function and method of defuzzification. The final instrument consists of twenty items in four dimensions, namely: service, stops/terminals, vehicle and safety. It is considered valid and reliable by the present study. It can be used as a tool to understand the satisfaction of the passengers of public transport system investigated. It can also provide subsidies for managers to improve their work quality.

  16. Implementation of a Real Time Passenger Information System

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, K; Kuri, Joy; Dagale, Haresh; Sudhakar, G; Sanyal, Sugata

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are gaining recognition in developing countries like India. This paper describes the various components of our prototype implementation of a Real-time Passenger Information System (RTPIS) for a public transport system like a fleet of buses. Vehicle-mounted units, bus station units and a server located at the transport company premises comprise the system. The vehicle unit reports the current position of the vehicle to a central server periodically via General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). An Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) algorithm running on the server predicts the arrival times of buses at their stops based on real-time observations of the buses' current Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. This information is displayed and announced to passengers at stops using station units, which periodically fetch the required ETA from the server via GPRS. Novel features of our prototype include: (a) a route creator utility which automatically creates new routes from scra...

  17. Toward a Shared Urban Transport System Ensuring Passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London. The research frame of this paper is the ANR C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners , and will end on 2011.

  18. STUDY ON DYNAMIC CURVING BEHAVIOR OF TILTING PASSENGER CARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    By using tilting carbodies, train can negotiate at a higher speed without reducing the passenger's ride quality.This is a good method to allow a significant increase in speed at existing track to improve the railway transportation capa-bility, and to enhance the competition ability of railways with other transportation systems. With the increase of the curvenegotiation speed, the wheel-rail lateral forces and wheel-rail wear of the tilting train will increase. The self-steering radialbogie is an effective way to solve the problem. The dynamic model of the tilting passenger car with self-steering bogies isestablished in detail, and the curving performance of the car is investigated.

  19. Bus accident severity and passenger injury: evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Bus safety is a concern not only in developing countries, but also in the U.S. and Europe. In Denmark, disentangling risk factors that are positively or negatively related to bus accident severity and injury occurrence to bus passengers can contribute to promote safety as an essential...... picture of the bus safety situation in Denmark and suggest the necessity of further research into bus drivers’ attitudes and perceptions of risks and road users’ perceptions of bus operations. Moreover, these findings sug- gest the need for further training into bus drivers’ hazard recognition skills...... light. Occurrence of injury to bus passengers is positively related to (i) the involvement of heavy vehicles, (ii) crossing intersections in yellow or red light, (iii) open areas, (iv) high speed limits, and (v) slippery road surface. Conclusions The findings of the current study provide a comprehensive...

  20. Energy efficiency in passenger transportation: What the future may hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation very briefly projects future impacts of energy efficiency in passenger transportation. Continuing expansion of the U.S. transportation sector, with a corresponding increased dependency on imported oil, is noted. Freight trucks and air fleets are targeted as having the greatest potential for increased energy efficiency. The light duty vehicle is identified as the only technology option for major efficiency increases. 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Emission factors for passenger cars: application of instantaneous emission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Peter; Keller, Mario

    This paper discusses the use of 'instantaneous' high-resolution (1 Hz) emission data for the estimation of passenger car emissions during real-world driving. Extensive measurements of 20 EURO-I gasoline passenger cars have been used to predict emission factors for standard (i.e. legislative) as well as non-standard (i.e. real-world) driving patterns. It is shown that emission level predictions based upon chassis dynamometer tests over standard driving cycles significantly underestimate emission levels during real-world driving. The emission characteristics of modern passenger cars equipped with a three-way catalytic converter are a low, basic emission level on the one hand, and frequent emission 'peaks' on the other. For real-world driving, up to one-half of the entire emission can be emitted during these short-lasting peaks. Their frequency depends on various factors, including the level of 'dynamics' (speed variation) of the driving pattern. Because of this, the use of average speed as the only parameter to characterize emissions over a specific driving pattern is not sufficient. The instantaneous emissions approach uses an additional parameter representing engine load in order to resolve the differences between driving patterns with comparable average speeds but different levels of 'dynamics'. The paper includes an investigation of different statistical indicators and discusses methods to further improve the prediction capability of the instantaneous emission approach. The fundamental differences in emission-reduction strategies between different car manufacturers make the task of constructing a model valid for all catalyst passenger cars seemingly impossible, if the model is required to predict both fleet-averaged emission levels and emission factors for driving patterns of short duration for individual vehicles simultaneously.

  2. How Should Passenger Travel in Mexico City Be Priced?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical-simulation model to examine the optimal extent and welfare effects of pricing reforms for passenger transportation in Mexico City. The model incorporates travel by auto, microbus, public bus, and rail, plus externalities from local and global air pollution, traffic congestion, and road accidents. In our benchmark case, the optimal gasoline tax is $2.72 (29.6 pesos) per gallon, or 16 times the current tax. However, a per-mile toll would reduce traffic congestion, ...

  3. How Should Passenger Travel in Mexico City Be Priced?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses an analytical-simulation model to examine the optimal pricing of the passenger transportation system in Mexico City. The model incorporates travel by auto, microbus, public bus, and rail, as well as externalities from local and global air pollution, traffic congestion, and road accidents. In our benchmark case, the optimal gasoline tax is $2.72 per gallon, or 16 times the current tax. However, a per mile toll would reduce traffic congestion, the largest externality, more direc...

  4. Modelling the full trip costs of urban intermodal passenger transport

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Chao-Fu; Papon, Francis

    2011-01-01

    To face the competition of private motorized vehicles, intermodal transport becomes a successful condition to encourage public transport and non-motorized modes and to reasonably control the continual growth of individual motorized vehicles in the city area. Therefore, the objective of this research intends to develop a comparable calculating model combining the private, public and external costs of passenger urban transport networks. Private costs consist in the operational-private costs bor...

  5. Reaction of passengers to public service vehicle ride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, M. J.; Oborne, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of questionnaire studies is described, which was carried out on passengers in public service vehicles in the United Kingdom particularly cross-channel hovercraft, helicopter and train. The effectiveness of the different rating techniques employed is examined and it is demonstrated that useful and reliable information can be obtained on the effects of such physical parameters as vibration, vehicle motion and noise using rating methods which involve no external standards. Some results obtained from analysis of the survey returns are presented.

  6. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    OpenAIRE

    Pauna Dan

    2011-01-01

    A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers ...

  7. Airline Passenger Profiling Based on Fuzzy Deep Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Jun; Sheng, Wei-Guo; Sun, Xing-Ming; Chen, Sheng-Yong

    2016-09-27

    Passenger profiling plays a vital part of commercial aviation security, but classical methods become very inefficient in handling the rapidly increasing amounts of electronic records. This paper proposes a deep learning approach to passenger profiling. The center of our approach is a Pythagorean fuzzy deep Boltzmann machine (PFDBM), whose parameters are expressed by Pythagorean fuzzy numbers such that each neuron can learn how a feature affects the production of the correct output from both the positive and negative sides. We propose a hybrid algorithm combining a gradient-based method and an evolutionary algorithm for training the PFDBM. Based on the novel learning model, we develop a deep neural network (DNN) for classifying normal passengers and potential attackers, and further develop an integrated DNN for identifying group attackers whose individual features are insufficient to reveal the abnormality. Experiments on data sets from Air China show that our approach provides much higher learning ability and classification accuracy than existing profilers. It is expected that the fuzzy deep learning approach can be adapted for a variety of complex pattern analysis tasks.

  8. Passenger Perception towards E-ticketing Services, Airline Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Nail Reshidi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the critical dominant incidents and key instigators that influence on usage or lack of usage of e-ticketing by Kosovo Air Passengers. The research at hand utilizes the Grounded Theory of Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, and the Critical Incident Technique in order to identify the factors that influence on the (diss satisfaction of the travellers in using e-ticketing. For the purpose of this paper, the empirical data were gathered through interviews by using open ended questions. Among 93 interviews with the random selected passengers, 13 interviews were deemed as invalid. The empirical results highlighted the need for raising the consciousness regarding the efficacy and the advantages of eticketing. On the other hand, many other passengers cannot conceive the possibility of travelling without use of e-ticketing, given that in the past they spent much time in finding the right agent, desired destination, purchase difficulties in making reservation, confirmation, changes, or they had to carry large amounts of cash money to buy tickets which raised insecurity concerns. Research is limited only to the description of critical incidents that occurred in Prishtina International Airport. Majority of the respondents were highly-educated with high income status. These characteristics create a bias and constrain our ability to extrapolate from the findings. Nevertheless, the study serves as a point for more in-depth analysis and discussion on e-ticketing behaviour in Airline industry.

  9. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  10. Commercial suborbital space tourism-proposal on passenger's medical selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Götz; Stern, Claudia; Trammer, Martin; Chaudhuri, Indra; Tuschy, Peter; Gerzer, Rupert

    2013-12-01

    Commercial human spaceflight has excellent economic and technical perspectives in the next decades. Passengers will be persons from a general population differing from culture, age, gender and health status. They all will have to withstand physical loads of spaceflight such as acceleration and deceleration forces, microgravity, vibration, noise and radiation. There is a necessity to mitigate all negative impacts on the passengers' health. Besides precautionary measures in construction and equipment, a diligent medical selection and pre-flight training is recommended. To ensure an easy and at the same time qualified selection procedure, it is necessary to define medical selection criteria and training methods. As experiences with suborbital spaceflight of private passengers are still few we recommend to implement in the beginning of this new era maximum safety standards. Having performed a satisfactory number of successful flights, some of the selection criteria and training sessions might be loosened or modified. This judicious approach is in the interest of the spaceflight participants as well as of the providing companies. As a guideline we propose a four step approach that allows a quick decision concerning the fitness of participants to fly as well as an intensive preparation of the passengers. For the first two steps positive experiences from medical screening and examination of professional pilots can be utilised. According to JAR-FCL 3 (Joint Aviation Requirements-Flight Crew Licensing, Chapter 3) a questionnaire with medical interview targeting the medical background of the respective person and including no-go criteria provides a first estimation for applicants and medical examiners whether there will be a chance to be accepted as a passenger. The second step of selection comprises the physical examination of the applicant adjusted to the professional pilot's examination procedure. As the physical challenges of the suborbital flight will exceed the impact

  11. Human Factors Engineering in Designing the Passengers' Cockpit of the Malaysian Commercial Suborbital Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Mettauer, Adrian; Abu, Jalaluddin; Hassan, Mohd Roshdi; Ismail, Anwar Taufeek; Othman, Jamaluddin; Shaari, Che Zhuhaida; Nasron, Nasri

    2010-09-01

    The design of the passengers’ cabin or cockpit of commercial suborbital spaceplane is a new and exciting frontier in human factors engineering, which emphasizes on comfort and safety. There is a program to develop small piloted 3 seats commercial suborbital spaceplane by a group of Malaysians with their foreign partners, and being relatively small and due to its design philosophy, the spaceplane does not require a cabin, but only a cockpit for its 2 passengers. In designing the cockpit, human factors engineering and safety principles are given priority. The cockpit is designed with the intention to provide comfort and satisfaction to the passengers without compromising the safety, in such a way that there are passenger-view wide angled video camera to observe the passengers at all time in flight, “rear-view”, “under-the-floor-view” and “fuselage-view” video cameras for the passengers, personalized gauges and LCDs on the dashboard to provide vital and useful information during the flight to the passengers, and biomedical engineered products which not only entertain the passengers, but also provide important information on the passengers to the ground crews who are responsible in the comfort and safety of the passengers. The passenger-view video-camera, which record the passengers with Earth visible through the glass canopy as the background, not only provides live visual of the passengers for safety reason, but also provide the most preferred memorable video collection for the passengers, while other video cameras provide the opportunity to view at various angles from unique positions to both the passengers and the ground observers. The gauges and LCDs on the dashboard provide access to the passengers to information such as the gravity, orientation, rate of climb and flight profile of the spaceplane, graphical presentation of the spaceplane in flight, and live video from the onboard video cameras. There is also a control stick for each passenger to

  12. Passenger choice attributes in choosing a secondary airport: A study of passenger attributes in using Lanseria International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmarie Kriel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The economic deregulation of the airline industry in South Africa in 1991 was a landmark event and brought about various changes in the air transport market, both locally and internationally. One important after-effect of deregulation was the entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs in 2001, which increased competition in the market and offered passengers the freedom to choose between full-cost carriers and LCCs. It is generally accepted that LCCs have been very successful across the globe, and the main reason for this lies in their simplified lower cost business models. One way of achieving lower costs is for LCCs to operate from secondary or alternative airports. This trend is observed in most regions of the world. In South Africa, and more specifically the Gauteng province, Lanseria International Airport is considered as an alternative airport to OR Tambo International Airport (the main international airport of South Africa and located about 30 km east of the Johannesburg Central Business District [CBD]. Currently, two LCCs operate from this airport with a third LCC airline indicating that it will shortly begin operations from this airport.Objectives: The research presented here reflects on the aspects passengers consider when selecting a secondary airport for their travel needs. It also compares the research findings of passenger attributes when choosing Lanseria Airport as a secondary airport in 2010 to a similar study in 2013 after another LCC commenced operations from the airport.Method: In this exploratory research a face-to-face survey was used as the quantitative data collection method in order to identify the factors that influenced passengers’ airport choice decisions at Lanseria International Airport.Results: From this research it emerged that when airports in a metropolitan area are close to one another, one of the main considerations for passengers is access time when selecting an airport. Even after a second LCC started

  13. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cause changes to the threat landscape . Several methods are used to assess the risk to passenger rail systems. A short discussion of these methods...accessibility of passenger rail facilities are attractive to adversaries. This thesis reviews the current approach to risk assessment used by system...14. SUBJECT TERMS passenger rail security, decision making, risk assessment , rail systems, metro, mass transit, subway, risk management, game

  14. A Conceptual Model to Optimize Operating Cost of Passenger Ships in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-long Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate more convenient travel as the economy of Macau expands, the government of Macau has allowed shipping companies to add passenger ships and shipping lines. This paper demonstrates how shipping companies can reduce costs by optimizing passenger ships and crew size. It analyzes operating conditions for each shipping depot, including transit time, ships, and volume of passengers. A series of integer programming models is proposed. After a practical demonstration using Excel to solve the LP model, we show that the reduction in the number of passenger ships and crew size could reach 22.6% and 29.4%, respectively.

  15. Influence of seat pitch on passenger injury criteria in regional railway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maršálek, Pavel; Horyl, Petr; Karásek, Tomáš; Ferfecki, Petr

    2017-07-01

    Passenger safety is one of the key issues of transport industry. In the case of increase in a passengers comfort (more space for knees and for relaxing) the pitch between seats is made longer. This brinks along higher impact velocities of passengers in case of crash and unfortunately lower passive safety. In this paper we present how to determine maximum railway seat pitch based on the fulfilment of injury criteria by computer modelling method. This work was created on the basis of practical requirements from industry and the obtained results will be reflected in the design of new types of regional and long distance passenger seats.

  16. A trade-off analysis design tool. Aircraft interior noise-motion/passenger satisfaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1977-01-01

    A design tool was developed to enhance aircraft passenger satisfaction. The effect of aircraft interior motion and noise on passenger comfort and satisfaction was modelled. Effects of individual aircraft noise sources were accounted for, and the impact of noise on passenger activities and noise levels to safeguard passenger hearing were investigated. The motion noise effect models provide a means for tradeoff analyses between noise and motion variables, and also provide a framework for optimizing noise reduction among noise sources. Data for the models were collected onboard commercial aircraft flights and specially scheduled tests.

  17. Life-cycle cost analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work on the life cycle cost (LCC) analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered urban passenger vehicles. The purpose of the work is to support the Division in making sound economic comparisons between conventional and fuel cell/battery powered buses, passenger vans, and cars for strategic analysis of programmatic R&D goals. The LCC analysis can indicate whether paying a relatively high initial capital cost for advanced technology with low operating and/or environmental costs is advantageous over paying a lower initial cost for conventional technology with higher operating and/or environmental costs. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it does not always result in technology penetration in the marketplace. The LCC analysis model developed under this contract facilitates consideration of all perspectives. Over 100 studies have been acquired and analyzed for their applicability. Drawing on prior work by JPL and Los Alamos National Laboratory as primary sources, specific analytical relationships and cost/performance data relevant to fuel cell/battery and intemal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles were selected for development of an LCC analysis model. The completed LCC model is structured around twelve integrated modules. Comparative analysis is made between conventional gasoline and diesel vehicles and fuel cell/battery vehicles using either phosphoric acid fuel cells or proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. In all, seven base vehicle configuration cases with a total of 21 vehicle class/powertrain/fuel combinations are analyzed. The LCC model represents a significant advance in comparative economic analysis of conventional and fuel cell/battery powered vehicle technologies embodying several unique features which were not included in prior models.

  18. Measurement and Assessment of Noise Within Passenger Trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    HARDY, A. E. J.

    2000-03-01

    Railways are becoming increasingly market-driven. Consequently, it is important that passengers are provided with a comfortable environment that reflects the operator's desired image for the service. A major factor in determining how passengers perceive the environment within trains is the level and nature of sound to which they are exposed. Unfortunately, the subject of noise within railway vehicles has had less attention in recent years, and is therefore less well developed, than external “environmental” noise. Two specific areas that merit investigation are methods for its quantification and assessment. A variety of criteria are used for assessing the noise environment within buildings, and may be considered appropriate for the quantification of internal train noise. These include “noise criteria” (NC), “preferred noise criteria” (PNC), “noise rating” (NR), and “room criterion” (RC). Recently, the automotive industry has also been using loudness level. Simple descriptors, such as the A-weighted sound level, have not been found to correlate well with perceived acoustic comfort. A complicating factor when considering internal rail vehicle noise is that its level and quality is not constant, with significant variability likely to occur over the duration of a journey. This difficulty is compounded by acoustic spatial variation within a vehicle. The paper considers the problems inherent in the quantification of noise within rail vehicles, and in the determination of the relationship between this noise and passenger response. Methods by which these problems may be overcome are discussed, drawing on real data and on long experience of study in this field.

  19. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  20. Transport illumination: health risks for personnel and passengers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hygienic aspects of the transport illumination and the risks of the negative impact of LED lighting on the health of operators, drivers and passengers have been investigated. The transport illumination is a subject of the longitudinal research of the light effect of the beam and signal lights on driver’s reaction and dazzle. The study of the vehicles’ light effect on passengers’ health was not carried out because for the illuminating of the passenger compartments the incandescent bulbs were used, the characteristics of which are well known. Increasing of the duration of trips, their intensity and the replacement of incandescent lamps to LED lamps makes these studies more urgent. Particular attention is drawn on the fact that the transport system transports millions of passengers and children who are regularly exposed to excessive doses of blue light. The blue light time exposure is more than an hour per trip within the city and more than 5 hours during travel between the cities. The specialists of N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS have indicated that modern white LEDs have expressed emission band in blue spectrum 440-460 nm that is entirely attributable to the spectrum of action of retinal photochemical damage and its pigment epithelium. Such extensive emission poses a hazard to the eyes of children and adolescents, because their crystalline lenses are almost twice as transparent in the dark-blue and blue spectrum area than those in adults. Retinal photochemical damage develops in distant time and can cause gradual, irreversible visual impairment. The risks of negative impact especially increase in the application of blue LED for interior lighting passenger vehicles. It was demonstrated that at the retinal cells’ affection by the excessive dose of the blue light the consequences have delayed character. The results of the accelerated assessment of the retina damage in Japanese quils (Сoturnix japonica. The eyes of

  1. Integrated Rolling Stock Planning for Suburban Passenger Trains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per

    A central issue for operators of passenger trains is providing sufficient number of seats while minimising operating costs. This process must be conducted taking a large number of practical, railway oriented requirements into account. Because of this complexity, a stepwise solution was previously...... used, the result being the loss of optimality. The talk will present a new, integrated rolling stock planning model in which the many requirements are handled all at the same time. Preliminary results from DSB S-tog, the suburban train operator of the City of Copenhagen will also be presented....

  2. A 174 passenger aircraft pylon design and analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Vinicius Pirrho Loureiro

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this work is to verify the pylon design of a 174 passenger aircraft. This aircraft was studied by the fourth class of Embraer's Engineer Specialization Program (PEE 4). The engine of this aircraft is located below the wing and its model is GE CFM-56. The fan size was increased in order to reach a higher air passage ratio. This pylon concept presented here was studied and adopted by the group as the better option for this type of airplane. Due to the short time allowable to this st...

  3. Baseline tests of the EPC Hummingbird electric passenger vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, R. J.; Maslowski, E. A.; Sargent, N. B.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1977-01-01

    The rear-mounted internal combustion engine in a four-passenger Volkswagen Thing was replaced with an electric motor made by modifying an aircraft generator and powered by 12 heavy-duty, lead-acid battery modules. Vehicle performance tests were conducted to measure vehicle maximum speed, range at constant speed, range over stop-and-go driving schedules, maximum acceleration, gradeability limit, road energy consumption, road power, indicated energy consumption, braking capability, battery charger efficiency, and battery characteristics. Test results are presented in tables and charts.

  4. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  5. Attempted Depletion of Passenger Leukocytes by Irradiation in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Chih Tai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft/xenograft rejection is associated with “passenger leukocyte” migration from the organ into recipient lymph nodes. In Study 1, we attempted to deplete leukocytes from potential kidney “donor” pigs, using two regimens of total body irradiation. A dose of 700 cGy was administered, followed by either 800 cGy (“low-dose” or 1,300 cGy (“high dose” with the kidneys shielded. Neither regimen was entirely successful in depleting all leukocytes, although remaining T and 8 cell numbers were negligible. Study 2 was aimed at providing an indication of whether near-complete depletion of leukocytes had any major impact on kidney allograft survival. In non-immunosuppressed recipient pigs, survival of a kidney from a donor that received high-dose irradiation was compared with that of a kidney taken from a non-irradiated donor. Kidney graft survival was 9 and 7 days, respectively, suggesting that depletion had little impact on graft survival. The lack of effect may have been related to (i inadequate depletion of passenger leukocytes, thus not preventing a direct T cell response, (ii the presence of dead or dying leukocytes (antigens, thus not preventing an indirect T cell response, or (iii constitutive expression of MHC class II and B7 molecules on the porcine vascular endothelium, activating recipient T cells.

  6. Traveller's thrombosis: airlines still not giving passengers the WRIGHT advice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurr, J R H; Ahmad, N; Thavarajan, D; Fisher, R K

    2010-10-01

    This study has examined the impact of the World Health Organization's Research into Global Hazards of Travel (WRIGHT) Project's phase 1 report on the information given by airlines to their passengers regarding traveller's thrombosis. Official websites of all airlines flying from Heathrow (UK) and John F Kennedy (USA) were located through links on the websites of these two busy international airports. In June 2007, each site was scrutinized by three independent researchers to identify if traveller's thrombosis and its risk factors were discussed and what methods of prevention were advised. This exercise was repeated a year after the publication of the WRIGHT report. One hundred and nineteen international airlines were listed in 2007 (12 were excluded from analysis). A quarter (27/107) of airlines warned of the risk of traveller's thrombosis. A year later, five airlines were no longer operational and there had been no increase in the discussion of traveller's thrombosis (23/102). Additional risk factors discussed in June 2007 versus September 2008: previous venous thromboembolism (16%, 15%); thrombophilia (14%, 15%); family history (11%, 9%); malignancy (12%, 14%); recent surgery (19%, 16%); pregnancy (17%, 16%) and obesity (11%, 12%). Prophylaxis advice given in June 2007 versus September 2008: in-flight exercise (34%, 42%); Hydration (30%, 34%); medical consultation prior to flying (20%, 18%); graduated compression stockings (13%, 12%); aspirin (airlines continue to fail to warn of the risk of traveller's thrombosis or offer appropriate advice. Alerting passengers at risk gives them an opportunity to seek medical advice before flying.

  7. Willingness to Pay of Air Passengers for Carbon-Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Jou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An important source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the air transport sector, which accounts for approximately 2% of global GHG emissions. Therefore, reducing GHG emissions from aircrafts has become a major challenge for transportation authorities worldwide. In recent years, much research has focused on tax ideas related to the CO2 emissions produced by air transport, such as the voluntary carbon offset (VCO. This study investigates the willingness of economy class air passengers to pay to compensate for the CO2 emissions produced during their journeys from Taiwan to Hong Kong. Together with the Spike model, a framework known as the contingent valuation (CV method offers a way to investigate how much the air passenger would be willing to pay to offset a journey’s airplane-generated CO2 emissions. The Spike model was applied to address the problem of zero willingness to pay (WTP. The results obtained in this study are consistent with the results found in previous studies and therefore can provide valuable insights into pricing strategies for airlines.

  8. PESTE Analysis of the Romanian National Passenger Airline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauna Dan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A PESTE analysis is a view over the external environment of a company, business or an economical sector, and it plays an important part in the resource management and in a future decision making process. PESTE analysis places emphasis on the impact of each factor. At international level, different structures, from the governmental ones to well-known companies and not only, choose to analyze the important factors that disturb the good functioning of these entities. In the sector of passengers and freight air transport, the majority of airline operators have chosen to investigate the external environment in which they operate by using analytical methods. For instance, we can mention SWOT and PESTE analysis of the leading low-cost Air Asia, Malaysia's second carrier, that wishes to enter the Australian aviation market, PESTE analysis of Air Arabia - a new company in the Gulf that intends to corner the market of well-known companies such as Emirates Airlines, Gulf Air and Air China. Air Arabia, in order to implement TMQ (Total Management Qualities, has used a PESTE study. In this respect, the approach to monitor the external environment of Tarom national airline is essential in the world economic crisis and globalization activities in the passengers transport, under the conditions of deregulation of the airspace.

  9. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  10. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  11. Passenger ride quality within a noise and vibration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Drezek, A. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subjective response to noise and vibration stimuli was studied in a ride quality simulator to determine their importance in the prediction of passenger ride quality. Subjects used category scales to rate noise discomfort, vibration discomfort, both noise and vibration discomfort, and overall discomfort in an effort to evaluate parametric arrangements of noise and vibration. The noise stimuli were composed of octave frequency bands centered at 125, 250, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, each presented at 70, 75, 80, and 85 dB(A). The vertical vibration stimuli were 5 Hz bandwidth random vibrations centered at 3, 5, 7, and 9 Hz, each presented at 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, and 0.12 grms. Analyses were directed at (1) a determination of the subject's ability to separate noise and vibration as contributors to discomfort, (2) an assessment of the physical characteristics of noise and vibration that are needed for prediction of ride quality in this type of multifactor environment, and (3) an evaluation of the relative contribution of noise and vibration to passenger ride quality.

  12. Seat inventory control methods for Chinese passenger railways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包云; 刘军; 马敏书; 孟令云

    2014-01-01

    Railway seat inventory control strategies play a crucial role in the growth of profit and train load factor. The railway passenger seat inventory control problem in China was addressed. Chinese passenger railway operation features and seat inventory control practice were analyzed firstly. A dynamic demand forecasting method was introduced to forecast the coming demand in a ticket booking period. By clustering, passengers’ historical ticket bookings were used to forecast the demand to come in a ticket booking period with least squares support vector machine. Three seat inventory control methods:non-nested booking limits, nested booking limits and bid-price control, were modeled under a single-fare class. Different seat inventory control methods were compared with the same demand based on ticket booking data of Train T15 from Beijing West to Guangzhou. The result shows that the dynamic non-nested booking limits control method performs the best, which gives railway operators evidence to adjust the remaining capacity in a ticket booking period.

  13. Toward a shared urban transport system passengers & Goods Cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Trentini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents radical new urban transportation system concepts, potentially allowing changing the economic and environmental costs of passenger and freight transportation. The driver focuses on the concept of sharing, which means to make a joint use of transport resources, between passengers and goods flows. From a field observation of several existing solutions, an inductive reasoning enables us to move from a set of specific facts to establish an archetype for a radical new urban transportation system. Once the archetype defined, it is translated in real life through the example of the On Route proposal for London.The research frame of this paper is the ANR ( French National Research Agency C-Goods (City Goods Operation Optimization using Decision support System project. Started in February 2009 the project involves four partners, (The multi-disciplinary French engineer school EIGSI (Ecole d’Ingénieurs en Génie des Systèmes Industriels, the French university ENMP (Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, the Poitiers Urban Community (CAP, and the consulting service Interface Transport, specialized in transport economy and will end on 2012.

  14. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I... forms of information. Title: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form...

  15. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  16. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  17. 19 CFR 4.64 - Electronic passenger and crew member departure manifests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic passenger and crew member departure manifests. 4.64 Section 4.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Customs and Border Protection (CBP) an electronic passenger departure manifest and an electronic...

  18. 49 CFR 238.15 - Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cutting out of secondary brake systems; (B) Inoperative or otherwise defective handbrakes or parking... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of passenger equipment with power brake... § 238.15 Movement of passenger equipment with power brake defects. Beginning on January 1, 2002,...

  19. 36 CFR 5.4 - Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... motor vehicles. 5.4 Section 5.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.4 Commercial passenger-carrying motor vehicles. (a) The commercial transportation of passengers by motor vehicles except as authorized under a contract...

  20. 75 FR 11075 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Response to Requests To Extend Compliance Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 234 RIN No. 2105-AE00 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections... rule entitled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' published December 30, 2009, and effective April 29, 2010, that requires airlines to publish flight delay information on their Web sites. This...

  1. PERFORMANCE SECURITY PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM SERVQUAL AND INTEGRATED EVALUATION OF THE COMPETITIVENESS OF

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the article essence of category is considered "consumer value" and structure of consumer values; given the model of SERVQUAL, adapted for the use in the field of railway passenger transportations; the location of indexes of safety is determined in the model of SERVQUAL and their meaningfulness in the estimation of competitiveness of passenger transport. 

  2. Shifts in manufacturing: an illustrative study on passenger car production location.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, E.J.; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent the international transfer of production activities is real or generalisable by analysing the location shifts in passenger car manufacturing since 1997. The findings illustrate that there is no conclusive evidence that passenger car manufacturing is relocated from

  3. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  4. Motion induced passenger dislocations in life raft and life boat configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Andersen ,O.; Reinke, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the European project SafeCrafts, dealing with the safe abandoning of ships, the dislocation of passengers aboard life boats and rafts has been considered to be a risk regarding passenger survival at sea. To get an idea about the risks and the affecting factors involved, we studied the effects

  5. 75 FR 57283 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew Manifest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... System-APIS). OMB Number: 1651-0088. Form Number: None. Abstract: The Advance Passenger Information... SECURITY U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger and Crew... Information System- APIS). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was previously...

  6. ANALYTICAL ESTIMATION OF MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM TIME EXPENDITURES OF PASSENGERS AT AN URBAN ROUTE STOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper deals with the problem related to the definition of average time spent by passengers while waiting for transport vehicles at urban stops as well as the results of analytical modeling of this value at traffic schedule unknown to the passengers and of two options of the vehicle traffic management on the given route.

  7. Cosmic radiation during air travel: trends in exposure of aircrews and airline passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; LSO

    2004-01-01

    An unfavourable effect of flying is the enhanced exposure of both passengers and aircrew to cosmic radiation at high altitudes. On the basis of a detailed survey on passengers arriving at or departing from Amsterdam Schiphol Airport in the 1988-1997 period, estimates of individual effective dose for

  8. Dragonair- Year-on-Year Rises Continue For Passengers And Cargo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Passenger numbers at Dragonair rose 13.2% while cargo volumes climbed 23.9%in April compared with the same month in 2004. The airline flew 431,860 passengers last month, 50,274 more than one year ago,and 7.3% up on March.

  9. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations.

  10. An integrated rolling stock planning model for the Copenhagen suburban passenger railway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Per; Larsen, Jesper; Laumanns, Marco

    2015-01-01

    A central issue for operators of passenger railways is providing sufficient number of seats for passengers while at the same time minimising operating costs. This is the task of rolling stock planning. Due to the large number of practical, railway specific requirements that a rolling stock plan has...

  11. 19 CFR 4.68 - Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. 4.68 Section 4.68 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT... Clearances § 4.68 Federal Maritime Commission certificates for certain passenger vessels. No vessel...

  12. Survivin mediates targeting of the chromosomal passenger complex to the centromere and midbody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vader, G; Kauw, JJW; Medema, RH; Lens, SMA

    2006-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) coordinates chromosomal and cytoskeletal events of mitosis. The enzymatic core of this complex (Aurora-B) is guided through the mitotic cell by its companion chromosomal passenger proteins, inner centromere protein (INCENP), Survivin and Borealin/Dasra-B, ther

  13. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  14. 49 CFR 238.17 - Movement of passenger equipment with other than power brake defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the condition involves a running gear defect, the defective equipment is not used in passenger service and is moved in a non-revenue train; (2) If the condition involves a non-running gear defect, the defective equipment may be used in passenger service in a revenue train provided that a...

  15. Passengers, Participants, Partners and Practitioners. Working with Risk To Empower Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Participant responsibility in outdoor education programs is placed on a continuum from passenger status through participant and partner to practitioner. Corresponding leader roles are directive, coaching, supporting, and delegating. The disempowering effects of the passenger approach to risk management and the value of teaching a group to manage…

  16. The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lerner, Neil; Singer, Jeremiah

    2005-11-01

    The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult). At a nearby site, the speed and headway of passing traffic were recorded using video and LIDAR technology. Teenage drivers drove faster than the general traffic and allowed shorter headways, particularly in the presence of a male teenage passenger. Both male and female teenage drivers allowed shorter headways (relative to no passenger or a female passenger) in the presence of a male teenage passenger, while the presence of a female teenage passenger resulted in longer headways for male teenage drivers. Overall, the observed rate of high risk driving (defined as speed > or =15 mph or more above the posted speed limit and/or headway of teenage passengers was associated with risky driving behavior among teenage drivers.

  17. 49 CFR 391.68 - Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.68 Private motor carrier of passengers (nonbusiness). The following rules in this part...

  18. 49 CFR 391.69 - Private motor carrier of passengers (business).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Private motor carrier of passengers (business... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Exemptions § 391.69 Private motor carrier of passengers (business). The provisions of § 391.21 (relating...

  19. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  20. 75 FR 4560 - Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Notice of Public Hearing; Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility AGENCY: Federal Maritime Commission... to receive public testimony concerning the Commission's Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility... responsibility in the event of nonperformance of a contracted cruise from a U.S. port. Comments received from the...

  1. 75 FR 4558 - Notice of Inquiry Regarding Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Notice of Inquiry Regarding Passenger Vessel Financial Responsibility December 3, 2009. AGENCY: Federal... requirements by which passenger vessel operators establish proof of financial responsibility in the event of... administers Chapter 441 of Title 46 of the U.S. Code, entitled Evidence of Financial Responsibility for...

  2. 33 CFR 105.285 - Additional requirements-passenger and ferry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and ferry facilities. 105.285 Section 105.285 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 105.285 Additional requirements-passenger and ferry facilities. (a) At all MARSEC Levels, the owner or operator of a passenger or ferry facility must ensure, in coordination with a vessel moored at the facility...

  3. Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service (TMAS) to Swedish merchant and passengers ships 1997-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlund, Karin; Attvall, Stig; Nilsson, Ralph;

    2016-01-01

    % for passengers of the contacts. Evacuations for passengers were mainly in the diagnostic groups: unspecific (A), digestive (D), cardiology (K), musculoskeletal (L) and neurology (N). The use of VHF, radio communications and fax machines have been greatly reduced while the use of e-mail and satellite phone...

  4. 46 CFR 178.310 - Applicability based on length and passenger capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability based on length and passenger capacity. 178.310 Section 178.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL....310 Applicability based on length and passenger capacity. (a) A vessel of not more than 19.8...

  5. Mechanical Unfolding of an Autotransporter Passenger Protein Reveals the Secretion Starting Point and Processive Transport Intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baclayon, Marian; van Ulsen, Peter; Mouhib, Halima; Shabestari, Maryam Hashemi; Verzijden, Timo; Abeln, Sanne; Roos, Wouter H; Wuite, Gijs J L

    2016-01-01

    The backbone of secreted autotransporter passenger proteins generally attains a stable β-helical structure. The secretion of passengers across the outer membrane was proposed to be driven by sequential folding of this structure at the cell surface. This mechanism would require a relatively-stable in

  6. Passenger flow statistics across the field of view based on the depth map of the double Xtion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhang-qin; Gu, Guo-hua; Bai, Xiao-feng; Zhao, Tie-kun; Chen, Hai-xin

    2013-08-01

    It introduces a new method to achieve the passenger flow statistics in stereo vision according to the original depth image output by the monocular Xtion sensor, aiming at the problem of algorithm with large amounts of data and realization of single field with dual camera on the basis of stereo vision. Double Xtion sensors are used to expand the range of view angle because of the monocular Xtion sensor's limitations, whose view range is 45°*58° with small transverse view range and can't meet the passenger flow statistics. Due to the characteristics of constant physical space dimensions, use the improved SIFT (Scale Invariant Features Transform) feature algorithm to realize the auto - stereoscopic splice of binocular original depth images. Firstly, the feature points of the reference image (the image to be matched) and the subsequent image (the image to be matched with the reference image) are obtained by SIFT algorithm, getting the location, scale and direction of the feature points and the feature points are described by means of the 128-dimensional vector .Secondly, complete the match of the feature points of the two images to calculate overlapping area, using the nearest neighbor method. Finally, image stitching is completed based on multi-resolution wavelet transform, which contains three-dimensional spatial information of the human body, thus use a method to analysis comprehensively the depth image for field detection and tracking based on the features such as the head shape, the head area the spatial position relation of the human head and shoulder and so on. The experimental results show that this method not only improve the detection accuracy and efficiency, reduce the amount of operation data, so that the system is simple in structure, but also solve many problems of passenger flow statistics based on video stream in the system, accuracy up to 93%, having high and practical application value.

  7. New auroras on the roles of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex in cytokinesis: implications for cancer therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo eD'Avino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC, composed of a kinase component, Aurora B, the scaffolding subunit Inner Centromeric Protein (INCENP, Borealin, and Survivin, is a key regulator of cell division. It controls multiple events, from chromosome condensation in prophase to the final separation or abscission of the two daughter cells. The essential functions of the CPC during metaphase, however, have always hindered an accurate study of its role during cytokinesis. The recent development of small molecule inhibitors against Aurora B and the use of elegant technologies such as chemical genetics have offered new approaches to study the functions of the CPC at the end of cell division. Here we review the recent findings about the roles of the CPC in controlling the assembly of the cleavage furrow, central spindle and midbody. We will also discuss the crucial function of this complex in controlling abscission timing in order to prevent abscission when lagging chromatin is present at the cleavage site, thereby avoiding the formation of genetically abnormal daughter cells. Finally, we offer our perspective on how to exploit the potential therapeutic applications of inhibiting CPC activity during cytokinesis in cancer cells.

  8. Self-Propelled Pedestrian Dynamics Model: Application to Passenger Movement and Infection Propagation in Airplanes

    CERN Document Server

    Namilae, S; Mubayi, A; Scotch, M; Pahle, R

    2016-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  9. High-Speed Train Stop-Schedule Optimization Based on Passenger Travel Convenience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingjun Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-schedules for passenger trains are important to the operation planning of high-speed trains, and they decide the quality of passenger service and the transportation efficiency. This paper analyzes the specific manifestation of passenger travel convenience and proposes the concepts of interstation accessibility and degree of accessibility. In consideration of both the economic benefits of railway corporations and the travel convenience of passengers, a multitarget optimization model is established. The model aims at minimizing stop cost and maximizing passenger travel convenience. Several constraints are applied to the model establishment, including the number of stops made by individual trains, the frequency of train service received by each station, the operation section, and the 0-1 variable. A hybrid genetic algorithm is designed to solve the model. Both the model and the algorithm are validated through case study.

  10. Effect of Synthesized Propeller Vibration on Passenger Annoyance in a Turboprop Interior Noise Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of synthesized propeller vibration on passenger annoyance to aircraft noise was investigated in passenger ride quality apparatus. Passenger reactions of annoyance to a wide range of potential turboprop interior noise environments were obtained under three simulated vibration conditions: no vibration, armrest vibration, and armrest plus cabin vibration. The noises, ranging from 71 to 95 dB(A) consisted of a turbulent boundary layer with a factorial combination of five blade passage frequencies (50 to 200 Hz), two harmonic roll offs, and three tone to noise ratios. Results indicate that passenger annoyance to noise in the presence of armrest vibration did not significantly change. However, those passengers exposed to cabin plus armrest vibration while being exposed to noise lower rating for the combined cabin vibration and noise environment compared with the rating for the noise along environment. This result is predicted by the ride quality model.

  11. Self-propelled pedestrian dynamics model: Application to passenger movement and infection propagation in airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namilae, S.; Srinivasan, A.; Mubayi, A.; Scotch, M.; Pahle, R.

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of contacts between passengers on an airplane can potentially curb the spread of infectious diseases. In this paper, a social force based pedestrian movement model is formulated and applied to evaluate the movement and contacts among passengers during boarding and deplaning of an airplane. Within the social force modeling framework, we introduce location dependence on the self-propelling momentum of pedestrian particles. The model parameters are varied over a large design space and the results are compared with experimental observations to validate the model. This model is then used to assess the different approaches to minimize passenger contacts during boarding and deplaning of airplanes. We find that smaller aircrafts are effective in reducing the contacts between passengers. Column wise deplaning and random boarding are found to be two strategies that reduced the number of contacts during passenger movement, and can potentially lower the likelihood of infection spread.

  12. 14 CFR 135.122 - Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....122 Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger service equipment during aircraft movement on the surface... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stowage of food, beverage, and passenger... when any food, beverage, or tableware furnished by the certificate holder is located at any passenger...

  13. 78 FR 45999 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2005 Jaguar XKR Passenger Cars Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Nonconforming 2005 Jaguar XKR Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... nonconforming 2005 Jaguar XKR passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable....S.- certified version of 2005 Jaguar XKR passenger cars) and they are capable of being readily...

  14. 78 FR 24463 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... information placard. Standard No. 111 Rearview Mirrors: replacement of the passenger side rearview mirror with... system and installation of U.S.-model airbags, sensors, front passenger and rear seat belts, child seat... Nonconforming 2005-2007 BMW 5 Series Passenger Cars Manufactured Before September 1, 2006 are Eligible for...

  15. 78 FR 75442 - Emergency Order Under 49 U.S.C. 20104 Establishing Requirements for Controlling Passenger Train...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... of more than 20-mph in the maximum authorized passenger train speed. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... signal systems to enable warning and enforcement of passenger train speeds at the identified locations. 3... Controlling Passenger Train Speeds and Staffing Locomotive Cabs at Certain Locations on the Metro-North...

  16. 8 CFR 231.2 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.64 (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.75a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.75b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard departing vessels and aircraft. 231.2 Section 231.2 Aliens...

  17. 8 CFR 231.1 - Electronic manifest and I-94 requirement for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 231 of the Act are set forth in 19 CFR 4.7b (passengers and crew members onboard vessels) and in 19 CFR 122.49a (passengers onboard aircraft) and 122.49b (crew members onboard aircraft). (b... for passengers and crew onboard arriving vessels and aircraft. 231.1 Section 231.1 Aliens...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  19. 14 CFR 382.55 - May carriers impose security screening procedures for passengers with disabilities that go beyond...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... procedures for passengers with disabilities that go beyond TSA requirements or those of foreign governments... with disabilities that go beyond TSA requirements or those of foreign governments? (a) All passengers... impose security screening procedures for passengers with disabilities that go beyond those mandated by...

  20. 78 FR 44621 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... Nonconforming 2004 BMW 760I Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... BMW 760I passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal....- certified version of the 2004 BMW 760I passenger car) and they are capable of being readily altered...

  1. 78 FR 19364 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series Passenger Cars are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway... that nonconforming 1992-1994 BMW 3-Series passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to... safety standards (the U.S.-certified version of the same 1992-1994 BMW 3- Series passenger cars) and...

  2. Methods for analysis of passenger trip performance in a complex networked transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Danyi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of the Air Transportation System (ATS) is to provide safe and efficient transportation service of passengers and cargo. The on-time performance of a passenger's trip is a critical performance measurement of the Quality of Service (QOS) provided by any Air Transportation System. QOS has been correlated with airline profitability, productivity, customer loyalty and customer satisfaction (Heskett et al. 1994). Btatu and Barnhart have shown that official government and airline on-time performance metrics (i.e. flight-centric measures of air transportation) fail to accurately reflect the passenger experience (Btatu and Barnhart, 2005). Flight-based metrics do not include the trip delays accrued by passengers who were re-booked due to cancelled flights or missed connections. Also, flight-based metrics do not quantify the magnitude of the delay (only the likelihood) and thus fails to provide the consumer with a useful assessment of the impact of a delay. Passenger-centric metrics have not been developed because of the unavailability of airline proprietary data, which is also protected by anti-trust collusion concerns and civil liberty privacy restrictions. Moveover, the growth of the ATS is trending out of the historical range. The objectives of this research were to (1) estimate ATS-wide passenger trip delay using publicly accessible flight data, and (2) investigate passenger trip dynamics out of the range of historical data by building a passenger flow simulation model to predict impact on passenger trip time given anticipated changes in the future. The first objective enables researchers to conduct historical analysis on passenger on-time performance without proprietary itinerary data, and the second objective enables researchers to conduct experiments outside the range of historic data. The estimated passenger trip delay was for 1,030 routes between the 35 busiest airports in the United States in 2006. The major findings of this research are listed as

  3. Simulation of a Collision between Passenger Car and Child Pedestrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Schejbalová

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Forensic Experts in Transportation at the Faculty of Transportation Sciences performed a second set of dynamic passive safety tests of a passenger car (M1 category - Škoda Octavia II in a child pedestrian collision. The initial and test conditions were similar to those of the first set of tests in September 2009 (Škoda Roomster. The deformations of the contact zones on the frontal vehicle surface were analyzed by a 3D scanning technology (3D handy scanner. Head, thorax and pelvic resultant acceleration, acceleration of knee joint in sagittal direction and contact force on the femoral structure of the dummy (P6 dummy, 1.17m; 22kg were measured. The aim of these tests is to provide a detailed description of pedestrian kinematics and comparison of primary and secondary impact seriousness.KEY WORDSpassenger car, child pedestrian, primary and secondary impact, dummy instrumentation, injury criteria, 3D scanning

  4. The influence of passenger demographics on airport attribute evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Carstens

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available It is imperative for airport operators and airlines to have a clear understanding of the factors which influence the passenger’s decision with regard to which airport/airline combination to use in a multi-airport scenario. Interactions between demographic variables, such as gender and purpose of travel, and the choice attributes in the decision-making process exist. The extent to which specific attributes influence the passenger’s decision could be invaluable to service providers (airport operators and airlines in allocating and employing limited resources. The purpose of this article is to investigate the extent of the interactions between passenger demographics and attribute evaluation by taking into account the ordinal nature of the measurement scale.

  5. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...... of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... operations are becoming available. The use of advanced planning and recovery methods in the railway industry currently gains momentum. The current paper gives a short overview over the methods used for planning and disruption management in the airline industry. The situation regarding railway optimization...

  6. Cell division control by the Chromosomal Passenger Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waal, Maike S. van der; Hengeveld, Rutger C.C.; Horst, Armando van der; Lens, Susanne M.A., E-mail: s.m.a.lens@umcutrecht.nl

    2012-07-15

    The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.

  7. Disruption Management in Passenger Transportation - from Air to Tracks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 10 years there has been a tremendous growth in air transportation of passengers. Both airports and airspace are close to saturation with respect to capacity, leading to delays caused by disruptions. At the same time the amount of vehicular trac around and in all larger cities...... of the world has show a dramatic increase as well. Public transportation by e.g. rail has come into focus, and hence also the service level provided by suppliers ad public transportation. These transportation systems are likewise very vulnerable to disruptions. In the airline industry there is a long tradition...... for using advanced mathematical models as the basis for planning of resources as aircraft and crew. These methods are now also coming to use in the process of handling disruptions, and robustness of plans has received much interest. Commercial IT-systems supplying decision support for recovery of disrupted...

  8. Factors related to seatbelt-wearing among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Choy Peng; Law, Teik Hua; Wong, Shaw Voon; Kulanthayan, S

    2013-01-01

    The benefit of wearing a rear seatbelt in reducing the risk of motor vehicle crash-related fatalities and injuries has been well documented in previous studies. Wearing a seatbelt not only reduces the risk of injury to rear-seat passengers, but also reduces the risk of injury to front-seat occupant who could be crushed by unbelted rear-seat passengers in a motor vehicle crash. Despite the benefits of wearing a rear seatbelt, its rate of use in Malaysia is generally low. The objective of this study was to identify factors that are associated with the wearing of a seatbelt among rear-seat passengers in Malaysia. Multinomial logistic regression analysis of the results of a questionnaire survey of 1651 rear-seat passengers revealed that rear-seat passengers who were younger, male, single and less educated and who had a perception of a low level of legislation enforcement, a lower risk-aversion and less driving experience (only for passengers who are also drivers) were less likely to wear a rear seatbelt. There was also a significant positive correlation between driver seatbelt and rear seatbelt-wearing behaviour. This implies that, in regards to seatbelt-wearing behaviour, drivers are more likely to adopt the same seatbelt-wearing behaviour when travelling as rear-seat passengers as they do when driving. These findings are crucial to the development of new interventions to increase the compliance rate of wearing a rear seatbelt.

  9. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Quan Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  10. Forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway with neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway.

  11. Observation, simulation and optimization of the movement of passengers with baggage in railway station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2015-03-01

    To propose method that can optimize the movement efficiency of passengers in the railway station and then guarantee the personal security under emergency case, we did experimental and modeling research on the movement behavior and characteristics of the passengers in a railway station. Observation experiments were conducted to analyze the process of passengers catching trains and leaving the station, through which, the phenomena of lane changing and dislocation were found in a straight channel, and seven categories of baggage were also identified in the crowd. Analysis shows that personal speed would rise as the increasing size of the baggage. A modified lattice gas model focus on the passengers carrying baggage was further built to study passengers movement characteristics. Using this model, the effect of pause probability of passengers and the effect of channel width on movement efficiency were analyzed, according to which, a management strategy to promote the flow rate of crowd in railway station was proposed. This study may be useful to study on evacuation of the railway station, control of the passengers and formulate pre-proposal on emergency evacuation.

  12. The scope and nature of injuries to rear seat passengers in NSW using linked hospital admission and police data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E

    2014-01-01

    To compare the pattern of injuries to front and rear seat occupants and test the hypothesis that rear seat passengers of different ages sustain different patterns of injury. Patients admitted to a hospital following involvement in a crash in New South Wales (NSW) Australia between 2005 and 2007 were identified using International Classification of Diseases (10th edition [ICD10]) codes. Hospital admissions data were linked with NSW police crash data using probabilistic techniques. The profiles and patterns of injury of front and rear seat passengers were compared. Logistic regression was used to examine how age influenced the pattern of injury among rear seat passengers. Sixty-three percent of hospital admissions were linked with police records. One in 5 passengers were rear seat passengers. There were more unrestrained occupants in the rear (7%) compared to drivers (3%) and front seat passengers (2%). Younger (9-15 years) injured passengers were seated in the rear more often than in the front passenger position and older injured passengers (>50 years) were seated more often in the front passenger position than in the rear (15% rear compared to 5% front aged 9-15 years; 22% rear compared to 37% front aged >50 years; χ(2), P injuries among rear seat passengers (10%) than among drivers (5%) and front seat passengers (6%), and the pattern of injury between front and rear passengers also varied. Rear seat passengers had more head and abdominal injuries and fewer thoracic and knee/lower leg injuries than front seat passengers. After adjusting for vehicle age, restraint status, travel speed, and whether or not a fatality occurred in the crash, older (>50 years) rear passengers had 6.3 times the odds of sustaining thoracic injuries (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-15.0) and lower odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.4, 95% CI, 0.2-0.9) of sustaining abdominal/lumbar injuries than the youngest occupants (9-15 years).The odds of sustaining a head injury did not vary with age, and

  13. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF PASSENGER TRAFFIC SERVICE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF RAILWAY ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rudenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. At the present stage of development of Ukraine’s economy, passenger traffic service quality management of railway enterprises became one of the main tasks to ensure their efficient operation. In terms of railway re-forms and increased competition in the transport market, the discrepancies between the technological level of traffic and the growing needs of society and the quality standards of transport services, the priority is the establishment of quality management system for passenger traffic services in rail transport. This question should be considered in the paper. Methodology. To achieve this goal and ensure a high quality level of passenger traffic services in rail trans-port, which involves a combination of approaches to the position of consumers (determination of their satisfaction and railway enterprises (measurement of results and formation processes of service quality, the paper proposed a passenger traffic service quality management system. The proposed methodical approach to formation of the passenger traffic service quality management system in rail transport implements a principally new scheme of interaction of elements during provision of services, where the inter-related resources (human, material, financial, information, means, instruments and processes result in creation of quality transport service. Findings. The efficiency of the passenger traffic service quality management system allows detecting the dynamic of improvement of the services provided by the railway enterprises and building the system which is self-learning on the principles of continuous improvement. The paper grounded new principles of the passenger traffic quality management, which were formed on the basis of general management principles, quality management principles and railway transport management principles. Originality. The work presents the developed passenger traffic service quality management system targeted to meet the expectations of

  15. Information management in passenger traffic supporting system design as a multi-criteria discrete optimization task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuszka Adam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a concept of an Integrated System of Supporting Information Management in Passenger Traffic (ISSIMPT. The novelty of the system is an integration of six modules: video monitoring, counting passenger flows, dynamic information for passengers, the central processing unit, surveillance center and vehicle diagnostics into one coherent solution. Basing on expert evaluations, we propose to present configuration design problem of the system as a multi-objectives discrete static optimization problem. Then, hybrid method joining properties of weighted sum and ε-constraint methods is applied to solve the problem. Solution selections based on hybrid method, using set of exemplary cases, are shown.

  16. Assessment of the vibration on the foam legged and sheet metal-legged passenger seat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dahil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was aim ed to decrease the vibration reaching to passenger from the legs of vehicle seats. In order to determine the levels of vibrations reaching at passengers, a test pad placed under the passenger seat was used, and HVM100 device was used for digitizing the information obtained. By transferring the vibration data to system by using HVM100 device, the acceleration graphics were prepared with Blaze software. As a result, it was determined that the acceleration values of seat legs made of foam material were lower than that of seat legs made of 2 mm thick sheet metal, so they damped the vibration better.

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of a wheelchair for transfer of disabled passengers at a large airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmert, W; Löwenthal, I; Rückert, A

    1990-01-01

    Transferring disabled passengers to the aircraft, both arriving and departing, is one passenger service at a big airport. We use different ergonomic research methods (registration of heart rate, AET job analysis as well as a standardized questionnaire) to evaluate the present wheelchair design. Due to e.g. the high wheelchair backrest, the forces needed to handle the chair and other facts, the current wheelchair causes a strain bottleneck. The results of the AET analysis and the rating of the perceived exertion confirm this finding. A redesigned wheelchair based on ergonomic principles, which reduces stress on the employees and offers more comfort to disabled passengers, is presented.

  18. Ballistic Resistance of Armored Passenger Vehicles: Test Protocols and Quality Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey M. Lacy; Robert E. Polk

    2005-07-01

    This guide establishes a test methodology for determining the overall ballistic resistance of the passenger compartment of assembled nontactical armored passenger vehicles (APVs). Because ballistic testing of every piece of every component of an armored vehicle is impractical, if not impossible, this guide describes a testing scheme based on statistical sampling of exposed component surface areas. Results from the test of the sampled points are combined to form a test score that reflects the probability of ballistic penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

  19. Synchronized dial-a-ride transportation of disabled passengers at airports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    2013-01-01

    model is presented. The objective is to schedule as many of the passengers as possible, while ensuring a smooth transport with short waiting times. A simulated annealing based heuristic for solving the problem is presented. The algorithm makes use of an abstract representation of a candidate solution......The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. The problem of transporting these passengers is in some cases a multi-modal transportation problem with synchronization constraints. A description of the problem together with a mathematical...

  20. Application of grey prediction model to short-time passenger flow forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Zhan

    2017-05-01

    The forecast of passenger flow related to the economic and social benefits of transit enterprise is one of the vehicle dispatching problems which should be solved. This paper put forward a time-division forecasting method of passenger flow. Combining this method with grey system theory, we build a grey prediction model GM(1,1). Its correctness has been tested by some residual test and posterior-variance-test. The method is suitable to the passenger flow forecast of a trip, with high prediction accuracy.

  1. Onshore catering increases the risk of diarrhoeal illness amongst cruise ship passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R E; Selvey, L; Crome, M; Beers, M

    2001-01-01

    Of 134 Queensland passengers on a cruise, 91 (67.9%) people reported various illnesses including 41 (30.6%) who reported diarrhoeal symptoms. Queensland passengers who ate while onshore at non-Australian ports were significantly more at risk of developing diarrhoeal symptoms than those who did not. Passengers were particularly at risk when they ate onshore while undertaking a tour compared with those who did not undertake this tour. Travellers should be warned of the possibility of contracting diarrhoeal illness from onshore catering.

  2. Multi-level Extensible Synthetic Evaluation of the Quality of Passenger Transport Service of High-speed Rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Fu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study establishes the evaluation index system of the quality of passenger transport service of highspeed rail based on the characteristics of passenger transport and determines the index weights with the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. In order to make up for the deficiencies of present quality evaluation method of passenger transport service of high-speed rail, this study develops the multi-level extensible synthetic evaluation model of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail with the core of extension method based on the questionnaire survey to the passengers. This study tests the model with the data surveyed in a passenger station of high-speed rail, which can not only expand extension application areas, but also provide new ideas and means for the evaluation of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail.

  3. Developing neuro-fuzzy hybrid networks to aid predicting abnormal behaviours of passengers and equipments inside an airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ali H.; Tarter, Alex

    2009-05-01

    The terrorist attack of 9/11 has revealed how vulnerable the civil aviation industry is from both security and safety points of view. Dealing with several aircrafts cruising in the sky of a specific region requires decision makers to have an automated system that can raise their situational awareness of how much a threat an aircraft presents. In this research, an in-flight array of sensors has been deployed in a simulated aircraft to extract knowledge-base information of how passengers and equipment behave in normal flighttime which has been used to train artificial neural networks to provide real-time streams of normal behaviours. Finally, a cascading of fuzzy logic networks is designed to measure the deviation of real-time data from the predicted ones. The results suggest that Neural-Fuzzy networks have a promising future to raise the awareness of decision makers about certain aviation situations.

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States 201207 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  5. 76 FR 43370 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ..., phase 3. Security system construction. Terminal lighting and ceiling rehabilitation. Terminal boiler.../rehabilitation. Terminal passenger services area improvements. Terminal Americans with Disabilities Act improvements. Install runway guard lights. North quadrant general aviation ramp. Taxiway G widening and...

  6. Railroad and Bus Passenger Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Amtrak intercity railroad and bus passenger terminals in the United States. There are no Amtrak stations in Alaska or Hawaii. The data are a...

  7. 77 FR 69539 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2007 Chevrolet Corvette Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...--Rearview Mirrors: Installation of a U.S.-model passenger side rearview mirror, or inscription of ] the required warning statement on the face of the existing mirror. Standard No. 208--Occupant Crash...

  8. Modeling and simulation of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Cheng-Xuan; Xu Yan; Li Ke-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a new formula of the real-time minimum safety headway based on the relative velocity of consecutive trains and present a dynamic model of high-speed passenger train movements in the rail line based on the proposed formula of the minimum safety headway.Moreover,we provide the control strategies of the high-speed passenger train operations based on the proposed formula of the real-time minimum safety headway and the dynamic model of highspeed passenger train movements.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategies of the passenger train operations can greatly reduce the delay propagation in the high-speed rail line when a random delay occurs.

  9. Modeling the Effect of Enlarging Seating Room on Passengers' Preference of Taiwan's Domestic Airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Long; Tsai, Li-Non

    2003-01-01

    This study addresses the need for measuring the effect of enlarging seating room in airplane on passengers' preferences of airline in Taiwan. The results can assist Taiwan's domestic air carriers in better understanding their customers' expectations. Stated choice experiment is used to incorporate passengers' trade-offs in the preferred measurement, and three major attributes are taken into account in the stated choice experiment: (1) type of seat (enlarged or not), (2) price, and (3) brand names of airlines. Furthermore, a binary logit model is used to model the choice behavior of air passengers. The findings show that the type of seat is a major significant variable; price and airline's brand are also significant as well. It concludes that air carriers should put more emphasis on the issue of improving the quality of seat comfort. Keywords: Passengers' preference, Enlarged seating room, Stated choice experiment, Binary logit model.

  10. Mortality reduction with air bag and seat belt use in head-on passenger car collisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crandall, C S; Olson, L M; Sklar, D P

    2001-01-01

    To assess the efficacy of occupant protection systems, the authors measured the mortality reduction associated with air bag deployment and seat belt use for drivers involved in head-on passenger car...

  11. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. A. Gabrinets; I. V. Tytarenko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology...

  12. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ...--design. Master plan update completion/airport geographic information system. Brief Description of Project... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...). Construction of snow removal equipment building (geothermal heat system). Hangar taxi lane improvements. Hangar...

  13. 75 FR 16562 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... councils and planning organizations, neighboring States, railroads, transportation modal partners... proposals for Federally-led multi- state passenger rail corridor planning demonstration projects. SUMMARY... used for planning activities. The appropriations act permits the Secretary of Transportation to...

  14. The potential cost from passengers and how it impacts railway maintenance and renewal decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rui; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    To plan Maintenance and Renewals (M&R) for the heavy railway lines, scheduling work possession time and deciding the closure of railway line are quite challenging for Infrastructure Manager (IM) at tactical planning level. As usual, the direct costs such as the materials costs, man power price...... and machinery costs are the important factors for IM to evaluate all the alternative schedules. At the same time, the potential cost from passengers is also crucial to minimize the impacts to the society. A phase-based planning toolkit is developed to help IM to plan and compare project proposals from a wider...... cost scope, integrating the passenger loss and direct costs into the comparison at planning stage. Passenger loss is estimated basing on the potential delay time values. The case study shows the potential cost from passengers is one of the key factors impacting the rank of M&R options. It even...

  15. 77 FR 74452 - Bus Testing: Calculation of Average Passenger Weight and Test Vehicle Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... passenger weight estimations then underway by the Federal Aviation Administration and the United States... Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) (Pub. L. 112-141). Section 20014 of...

  16. 75 FR 79077 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... accounts for less than 1 percent of the total annual enplanements at Quad City International Airport. Brief... Hebert, Manager, Financial Analysis and Passenger Facility Charge Branch. BILLING CODE 4910-13-M...

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Enhancing Passenger Cabin Comfort Using PCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; Valarmathi, T. N.; Dada Mohammad, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine a cost effective way to enhance passenger cabin comfort by analyzing the effect of solar radiation of a open parked vehicle, which is exposed to constant solar radiation on a hot and sunny day. Maximum heat accumulation occurs in the car cabin due to the solar radiation. By means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, a simulation process is conducted for the thermal regulation of the passenger cabin using a layer of phase change material (PCM) on the roof structure of a stationary car when exposed to ambient temperature on a hot sunny day. The heat energy accumulated in the passenger cabin is absorbed by a layer of PCM for phase change process. The installation of a ventilation system which uses an exhaust fan to create a natural convection scenario in the cabin is also considered to enhance passenger comfort along with PCM.

  18. Investigation of lateral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification method for fly-by-wire passenger airliners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Zhao; Wang Lixin; Lin Jiaming; Ai Junqiang

    2014-01-01

    A new identification method is proposed to solve the problem of the influence on the loaded excitation signals brought by high feedback gain augmentation in lateral-directional aerody-namic parameters identification of fly-by-wire (FBW) passenger airliners. Taking for example an FBW passenger airliner model with directional relaxed-static-stability, through analysis of its signal energy distribution and airframe frequency response, a new method is proposed for signal type selec-tion, signal parameters design, and the appropriate frequency relationship between the aileron and rudder excitation signals. A simulation validation is presented of the FBW passenger airliner’s lat-eral-directional aerodynamic parameters identification. The validation result demonstrates that the designed signal can excite the lateral-directional motion mode of the FBW passenger airliner ade-quately and persistently. Meanwhile, the relative errors of aerodynamic parameters are less than 5%.

  19. 76 FR 70807 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... emergency radio dispatch system is used for both eligible (aircraft rescue and firefighting and aviation... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Monthly notice of PFC approvals...

  20. A survey of the occurrence of motion sickness amongst passengers at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawther, A; Griffin, M J

    1988-05-01

    A questionnaire survey of motion sickness occurrence on board passenger ferries has been conducted. Data were collected from 20,029 passengers on 114 voyages on 9 vessels: 6 ships, 2 hovercraft, and 1 jetfoil. Information was obtained about feelings of illness, the occurrence of vomiting, the taking of anti-seasickness tablets, the consumption of alcoholic drinks, regularity of travel by sea, age, and sex. Overall, 7% of passengers reported vomiting at some time during the journey, 21% said they felt "slightly unwell," 4% felt "quite ill," and a further 4% felt "absolutely dreadful." Both vomiting incidence and illness rating were greater in females than in males, and there was a slight decrease in sickness occurrence with increasing age. The incidence of vomiting was related to the taking of tablets and the drinking of alcohol; there were also some interaction effects with other variables. Anecdotal information from passengers is reported and consideration is given to the effects of environmental variables.

  1. ON PROBABILITY FUNCTION OF TRIP ROUTE CHOICE IN PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nefedof

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical processing of experimental research data in Kharkiv, aimed at determining the relation between the passenger trip choice probability and the actual vehicles waiting time at bus terminals are presented.

  2. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  3. THE REVIEW OF PRESENT TRENDS ON THE RUSSIAN PASSENGER AIR TRANSPORTATION MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Borisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of the macroeconomic environment on the demand for passenger air travel in Russia. It substantiates the thesis of the limited influence of gross domestic product growth of air traffic in 2012-2014. The analysis of the impact on consumer demand of other macroeconomic indicators, in particular, the dynamics of wages and exchange rates was done. The mutual influence of the passenger air traffic with substitutes - the long-distance trains has been established.

  4. Estimation of Congestion Cost of Private Passenger Car Users in Malioboro, Yogyakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Sutomo H.; Munawar A.; Malkhamah S.; Sugiyanto G.

    2010-01-01

    Congestion is the condition when the hourly traffic demand exceeds the maximum sustainable hourly throughout of the link. The aim of this research is to estimate the congestion cost of private passenger car users in central business district along the corridor of Malioboro, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The amount of the congestion cost is the difference between perceived and actual generalized cost in traffic jam condition. In this paper, only the congestion costs of private passenger car users are...

  5. Cruise medicine: the dental perspective on health care for passengers during a world cruise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Bernhard A J; John, Mike T; Nitschke, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Although more than 100 million passengers have taken a cruise since 1980, it is not known what dental treatment needs occur at sea. The routine dental documentation of a 2-month period at sea on a cruise ship carrying 1,619 passengers was analyzed. The subjects for the study were 57 passengers (3.5% of 1,619), with a mean age of 71 years (+/-9.8 y). Age, gender, number of natural teeth and implants, prosthetic status, diagnosis, treatment performed, percentage of emergency and routine procedures, number of appointments, duration of appointment, time since last visit to the dentist, and cabin category as indicator of socioeconomic status were extracted. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile. Passengers had a mean number of 20 natural teeth plus substantial fixed and removable prosthodontics. Emergency dental treatment accounted for 97% of the chairside time. The three most frequent emergency diagnoses were defective restorations (36%), pulpal disease (20%), and defective prosthesis and caries (both 11.5%). Common emergency therapies provided were complex surgical-prosthodontic rehabilitation, various endodontic treatments, and extractions. Per 1,000 persons/month, passengers required 21.6 emergency plus 2.5 routine appointments; 49% of passengers had seen a dentist within 3 months before going to sea. Passengers do attend their dentist for routine care/checkups before the voyage, yet experience complex dental emergencies. This is due to the presence of a high number of restorations that fail unexpectedly. Some failures are so severe that they would have forced the passenger to abort the cruise had there been no dental service available. The ease of access to quality dental care may explain the relatively low level of perceived problems as characterized by OHRQoL scores.

  6. Accidental decapitation: an unusual injury to a passenger in a vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibayashi, K; Yonemitsu, K; Honjyo, K; Tsunenari, S

    1999-01-01

    A case of decapitation of a vehicle passenger in an accident on a highway is reported. Evaluation of roadside evidence and the deceased's injuries revealed that the victim was partially ejected from a broken passenger-side window as the vehicle spun out of control, decapitation being due to the impact of his head against a barrier stanchion on the shoulder of the road. An unfastened seat-belt, high-speed driving and the construction of the road barrier were contributory factors.

  7. Passenger Flow Prediction of Subway Transfer Stations Based on Nonparametric Regression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger flow is increasing dramatically with accomplishment of subway network system in big cities of China. As convergence nodes of subway lines, transfer stations need to assume more passengers due to amount transfer demand among different lines. Then, transfer facilities have to face great pressure such as pedestrian congestion or other abnormal situations. In order to avoid pedestrian congestion or warn the management before it occurs, it is very necessary to predict the transfer passenger flow to forecast pedestrian congestions. Thus, based on nonparametric regression theory, a transfer passenger flow prediction model was proposed. In order to test and illustrate the prediction model, data of transfer passenger flow for one month in XIDAN transfer station were used to calibrate and validate the model. By comparing with Kalman filter model and support vector machine regression model, the results show that the nonparametric regression model has the advantages of high accuracy and strong transplant ability and could predict transfer passenger flow accurately for different intervals.

  8. Passenger thermal comfort and behavior: a field investigation in commercial aircraft cabins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, W; Wu, T; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Passengers' behavioral adjustments warrant greater attention in thermal comfort research in aircraft cabins. Thus, a field investigation on 10 commercial aircrafts was conducted. Environment measurements were made and a questionnaire survey was performed. In the questionnaire, passengers were asked to evaluate their thermal comfort and record their adjustments regarding the usage of blankets and ventilation nozzles. The results indicate that behavioral adjustments in the cabin and the use of blankets or nozzle adjustments were employed by 2/3 of the passengers. However, the thermal comfort evaluations by these passengers were not as good as the evaluations by passengers who did not perform any adjustments. Possible causes such as differences in metabolic rate, clothing insulation and radiation asymmetry are discussed. The individual difference seems to be the most probable contributor, suggesting possibly that passengers who made adjustments had a narrower acceptance threshold or a higher expectancy regarding the cabin environment. Local thermal comfort was closely related to the adjustments and significantly influenced overall thermal comfort. Frequent flying was associated with lower ratings for the cabin environment.

  9. CONCEPT OF THE MINIMUM ENERGY PASSENGER CAR WITH USE OF UNCONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gabrinets

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper is aimed to consider the concept of creation of the minimum energy passenger car with use of nonconventional energy sources and the walls that have enhanced thermal insulation properties. Мethodology. The types of heat losses, as well as their value were analyzed. The alternative sources of energy are considered for heating. Their potential contribution to the overall energy balance of the passenger car is analyzed. Impact on the car design of the enhanced wall thermal insulation, solar energy inflow through the transparent windows and energy release of passengers are quantitatively evaluated. Findings. With the maximum possible use of all unconventional energy sources and the rational scheme solutions of conditioning and heating systems energy the costs for these needs for a passenger car can be reduced by 40-50%. Originality. New types of energy to maintain the heat balance of the car in the winter period is proposed to use firstly. New schematics solutions for environmental control system of the car both in winter and in summer periods were offered. Practical value. Introduction of the proposed scheme solutions and approaches to ensure the comfortable conditions for passengers may be implemented on an existing park of passenger cars and do not require a major re-equipment of systems that have already been installed.

  10. Crystal Structure of the Passenger Domain of the Escherichia coli Autotransporter EspP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shekeb; Mian, Hira S.; Sandercock, Linda E.; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y.; Pai, Emil F. (Toronto); (OCI)

    2013-03-07

    Autotransporters represent a large superfamily of known and putative virulence factors produced by Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of an N-terminal 'passenger domain' responsible for the specific effector functions of the molecule and a C-terminal '{beta}-domain' responsible for translocation of the passenger across the bacterial outer membrane. Here, we present the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of the passenger domain of the extracellular serine protease EspP, produced by the pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 and a member of the serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs). Like the previously structurally characterized SPATE passenger domains, the EspP passenger domain contains an extended right-handed parallel {beta}-helix preceded by an N-terminal globular domain housing the catalytic function of the protease. Of note, however, is the absence of a second globular domain protruding from this {beta}-helix. We describe the structure of the EspP passenger domain in the context of previous results and provide an alternative hypothesis for the function of the {beta}-helix within SPATEs.

  11. PASSENGER SERVICE QUALITY PARAMETERS ASSESSMENT AT TRANSPORT INTERCHANGE HUBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov Pavel Igorevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a quality assessment method for transport decisions made in transport interchange hubs. Analysis of domestic regulatory documentation and international experience on this subject is performed. It is stated that the domestic regulatory documentation lacks such method of assessment. Special attention is paid to study of pedestrian flows in interchange complexes of intermodal transport interchange hubs. The aim of the study is development of the Level of Service comprehensive assessment criterion by analogy with the international practice. The authors propose to use the queueing theory with elements of the theory of graphs, techniques and regularities that underlie the Level of Service (service factor applied in planning and location of TIH in the USA as well as data from field surveys carried out by the pedestrian flows video detection method. During the field surveys it is planned to perform analysis of external and internal factors influencing the formation and composition of a pedestrian flow, to determine quantitative values of the main parameters of pedestrian flow (density, speed, intensity and regularities of their variation depending on the design features of pedestrian traffic environment. Determination of passenger service quality factors in TIH will help to develop an integral criterion based on the Level of Service, taking into account the specifics of TIH functioning in Russia as well as a methodology that allows a reasonable choice of combinations of structural elements and planning parameters of pedestrian traffic objects which will let to reduce construction costs and operating costs for location of interchange complexes.

  12. Technology of Urban, Interurban and Rural Passenger Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Štefančić

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The work will consider the significance of various publictransport modes, since different methods of travel that form thetransport system are interconnected. The application of thelevel of service in one mode influences other transport modesand changes depending on the type of travel and is divided inthree groups: urban, interurban and rural travel. In consideringthe significance of urban public transport there are three levelsof trip-end generation/attraction, with which six types of urbantravel can be identified. lnterurban travel is presented throughtwo main transport modes, rail and bus. Apart from businesstrips, air travel is relatively insignificant, primarily because ofthe prices and small distances. In rural areas, characterized bylow population density, there is the problem of travelling of theelderly people, as well as those without cars, as the difficulty ofproviding economic public transport services has increased becausethe number of carried passengers is small. This results inthe reduction in mobility and the quality of life. Attempts havebeen made to improve the standard of provision of public transportservices by introducing unconventional transport means.

  13. Behavioral pattern of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseyi Joseph Afolabi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the travel behavior of commercial public transport passengers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The descriptive research survey was used in order to assess the opinions of the respondents using the questionnaire. A total of 84 samples were used as representative population, while two null hypotheses were formulated and tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significant. The results that were obtained indicated that a positive correlation exists between frequency of   travel and commuters income in Lagos Metropolis and also that a positive correlation exists between frequency of travel and distance covered by commuters in Lagos Metropolis. Secondary data was also sourced to serve as complement to the primary data, thus allowing for a robust research. Descriptive statistical tools such as percentages were also adopted to present the socio-economic characteristics in the area. Findings showed that about 57% of sampled population are male, 62 % are civil servants, 48% of respondents travel for business purposes. Also, that majority of the respondents (50% said that the commercial public transport is highly prone to accident, while about 64% of the respondents commute on daily basis. It was established that lack of transport infrastructure coupled with poor road maintenance were seen as the leading causes of inaccessibility of the area.

  14. A lightweight electronically commutated dc motor for electric passenger vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echolds, E. F.; Walla, P. S.

    1982-09-01

    A functional model breadboard converter and a rare-earth-cobalt, permanent magnet motor; as well as an engineering model converter and PM motor suitable for vehicle installations were developed and tested. The converter and motor achieved an 88% peak efficiency, a maximum output of 26 kW at 26,000 rpm, and a continuous rating of 15 kW. The system also generated power to the source during braking, with a demonstrated peak power available at the converter terminals of approximately 26 kW at 88% efficiency. Major conclusions include: (1) the SAE J227a(D) driving cycle efficiency for the converter/motor is 86% to 88% when energy available for recovery at the converter terminals is included; (2) the converter initial cost is approximately five times that of the permanent magnet motor, but can be reduced by means of LSI logic and integrated liquid cooled semiconductor packages; and (3) an electronically commutated motor with a liquid cooled converter will operate reliably without service or maintenance for the life of a passenger vehicle.

  15. Prediction of induced vibrations for a passenger - car ferry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudu, L.; Neculet, O.; Marcu, O.

    2016-08-01

    In order to evaluate the ship hull global vibrations, propeller excitation must be properly considered being mandatory to know enough accurate the magnitude of the induced hull pressure impulses. During the preliminary design stages, the pressures induced on the aft part of the ship by the operating propeller can be evaluated based on the guidelines given by the international standards or by the provisions of the Classification Societies. These approximate formulas are taking into account the wake field which, unfortunately, can be only estimated unless experimental towing tank tests are carried out. Another possibility is the numerical evaluation with different Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. However, CFD methods are not always easy to be used requiring an accurate description of the hull forms in the aft part of the ship. The present research underlines these aspects during the preliminary prediction of propeller induced vibrations for a double-ended passenger-car ferry propelled by two azimuth fixed pitch thrusters placed at both ends of the ship. The evaluation of the global forced vibration is performed considering the 3D global Finite Element (FE) model, with NX Nastran for Windows. Based on the presented results, the paper provides reliable information to be used during the preliminary design stages.

  16. ANALYSIS OF VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNALS RECORDED IN THE PASSENGER LIFT CABIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Szydło

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of private tests is presented in the article. The applicable tests refer to accelerations, the level of the sound pressure as well as to the sound power emitted by the passenger lift cabin at different technical conditions of the lift. For a group of lifting devices the accelerations were tested at three axes with the use of an accelerometer. The accelerometer was placed in the central part of the cabin with simultaneous measurement of the acoustic parameters with the sound analyzer equipped with the sound volume double microphone probe. The attempt was made to determine the impact of the frame - cabin system construction as well as the lift technical condition on the recorded parameters. It can allow to establish the limit values of the lift structure parameters under which a rapid drop of comfort takes place while travelling in the lift as well as to indicate those construction elements the modification of which would affect the improvement of the operation noiselessness.

  17. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chaoda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  18. Evaluation of Bus Vibration Comfort Based on Passenger Crowdsourcing Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration comfort is an important factor affecting the quality of service (QoS of bus. In order to make people involved in supervising bus’s vibration comfort and improve passengers’ riding experience, a novel mode of passenger crowdsourcing is introduced. In this paper, comfort degree of bus vibration is calculated from bus’s vibration signals collected by passengers’ smartphones and sent through WiFi to the Boa web server which shows the vibration comfort on the LCD deployed in bus and maybe trigger alarm lamp when the vibration is beyond the threshold. Three challenges here have been overcome: firstly, space coordinate transformation algorithm is used to solve the constant drift of signals collected; secondly, a low-pass filter is designed to isolate gravity from signals real-timely via limited computing resources; thirdly, an embedded evaluation system is developed according to the calculation procedure specified by criterion ISO 2631-1997. Meanwhile, the model proposed is tested in a practical running environment, the vibration data in whole travel are recorded and analyzed offline. The results show that comfort degree of vibration obtained from the experimental system is identical with the truth, and this mode is proved to be effective.

  19. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-09-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30-60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments.

  20. The dynamics of parabolic flight: flight characteristics and passenger percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Shelhamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Flying a parabolic trajectory in an aircraft is one of the few ways to create freefall on Earth, which is important for astronaut training and scientific research. Here we review the physics underlying parabolic flight, explain the resulting flight dynamics, and describe several counterintuitive findings, which we corroborate using experimental data. Typically, the aircraft flies parabolic arcs that produce approximately 25 seconds of freefall (0 g) followed by 40 seconds of enhanced force (1.8 g), repeated 30–60 times. Although passengers perceive gravity to be zero, in actuality acceleration, and not gravity, has changed, and thus we caution against the terms "microgravity" and "zero gravity. " Despite the aircraft trajectory including large (45°) pitch-up and pitch-down attitudes, the occupants experience a net force perpendicular to the floor of the aircraft. This is because the aircraft generates appropriate lift and thrust to produce the desired vertical and longitudinal accelerations, respectively, although we measured moderate (0.2 g) aft-ward accelerations during certain parts of these trajectories. Aircraft pitch rotation (average 3°/s) is barely detectable by the vestibular system, but could influence some physics experiments. Investigators should consider such details in the planning, analysis, and interpretation of parabolic-flight experiments. PMID:19727328