WorldWideScience

Sample records for rail transit systems

  1. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Noor Hafiza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  2. Effectiveness of Rapid Rail Transit System in Beijing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, but there is still room to improve. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  3. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  4. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  5. Review on the Traction System Sensor Technology of a Rail Transit Train.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianghua; Xu, Junfeng; Liao, Wu; Liu, Yong

    2017-06-11

    The development of high-speed intelligent rail transit has increased the number of sensors applied on trains. These play an important role in train state control and monitoring. These sensors generally work in a severe environment, so the key problem for sensor data acquisition is to ensure data accuracy and reliability. In this paper, we follow the sequence of sensor signal flow, present sensor signal sensing technology, sensor data acquisition, and processing technology, as well as sensor fault diagnosis technology based on the voltage, current, speed, and temperature sensors which are commonly used in train traction systems. Finally, intelligent sensors and future research directions of rail transit train sensors are discussed.

  6. Web Design Based on Integrated and Supervision Control System in City Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Xing, Yu; Zheng, Hengchao

    This paper presents a method of setting up WEB System to Integrated Supervision Control System for the requirements of city Rail Transit. First, basic platform and software/hardware architecture of WEB System are discussed. Then the function module, data flow and communication mechanisms are described and a design based on technologies of SVG and Ajax is proposed and the WEB video release function and system security are described. This design makes it possible that important information of Integrated Supervision Control System can be browsed and queried in external Web pages. Watching Real-time images of all cameras in internal network of Rail Transit is possible, which is providing remote viewing and management functions for metro managers.

  7. Financing Rail Rapid Transit System: A Comparison Between Chicago and Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Detailed financial information of a rail rapid line project is often unavailable to the general public until a project has been completed for a couple of years and even for decades. This is especially true in the Chinese context. Based on available information, this paper compares four aspects of the financing of two rail rapid lines that were built almost simultaneously in Shanghai of China and Chicago of the US. The author finds: first, the central governments had the greatest impact on the capital investment in both lines; second, the formation of transit and financial plans in two cities both involved complicated political processes which were shaped by certain political figures and unforeseeable events; third, in the longer term, it was more expensive to maintain a rail rapid line than to build a new line in both countries; and finally, mainly depending on foreign loans and bonds, Shanghai faced greater challenge in offsetting the financial deficit. But this situation was improved as the Shanghai rail rapid system expanded and matured.

  8. Impacts of Light Rail Transit Tram on the Voltage and Unbalance of the Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ting Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the three-phase voltage and unbalance analysis for the distribution system with the loading of a light rail transit (LRT tram. To investigate the dynamic responses of the system voltage and current, this paper adopts the Alternative Transients Program (ATP software to model and simulate a multigrounded four-wire distribution system with an LRT loading. Two different definitions about unbalance are used to evaluate the problem. In this paper, the traction supply substation (TSS with a single-phase transformer configuration is designed first for providing the electric power to the trams of LRT. However, it may result in the significant neutral line current and unbalance phenomenon to deteriorate the power quality of the distribution system. A Le-Blanc connection transformer in the TSS is therefore proposed to solve the problems.

  9. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun

    2008-01-01

    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  10. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  11. Optimal trajectory planning and train scheduling for urban rail transit systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yihui; van den Boom, Ton; De Schutter, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book contributes to making urban rail transport fast, punctual and energy-efficient –significant factors in the importance of public transportation systems to economic, environmental and social requirements at both municipal and national levels. It proposes new methods for shortening passenger travel times and for reducing energy consumption, addressing two major topics: (1) train trajectory planning: the authors derive a nonlinear model for the operation of trains and present several approaches for calculating optimal and energy-efficient trajectories within a given schedule; and (2) train scheduling: the authors develop a train scheduling model for urban rail systems and optimization approaches with which to balance total passenger travel time with energy efficiency and other costs to the operator. Mixed-integer linear programming and pseudospectral methods are among the new methods proposed for single- and multi-train systems for the solution of the nonlinear trajectory planning problem which involv...

  12. Towards automated model calibration and validation in rail transit simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Y.; Seck, M.D.; Verbraeck, A.

    2012-01-01

    The benefit of modeling and simulation in rail transit operations has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the complex dynamics involved and the ever-changing environment in which rail systems evolve expose the limits of classical simulation. Changing environmental conditions and second or

  13. 中国城市轨道交通法律法规体系研究%The Legal System of China' s Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子栋; 苗彦英

    2012-01-01

    Law-based management is the basis and regulation safeguard of effective and sustained management of the urban rail transit system. However, development of the legal system for urban rail transit in China is far too behind the construction process. This paper summarizes the existing deficiencies in China' s legal system of urban rail transit by analyzing the laws and regulations at both the state and local levels. By learning experience of the legal systems of urban rail transit in Japan, Taiwan rail industry, the paper develops a conceptual framework and legislation recommendations for the legal system of urban rail transit in China.%法制化管理是城市轨道交通管理机制良性运行的根本性制度保证,但中国城市轨道交通法律体系建设严重滞后于行业的高速发展.通过对中国中央层面和地方层面法律法规的现状分析,总结出目前城市轨道交通法律体系存在的不足,同时借鉴日本铁路、中国台湾捷运和内地铁路行业法律体系构建的经验,提出了中国城市轨道交通法律体系构想和立法建议.

  14. Privatisation of fixed-rail transit systems : a case study of Malaysia's STAR and PUTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Aziz, A.R. [St. Malaysia Univ., (Malaysia). School of Housing, Building and Planning

    2006-06-15

    Malaysia was the first developing country to embrace the idea of privatizing its public utilities in an effort to reduce public expenditure and improve services. Many public utilities were sold in the early 1980s under Malaysia's privatization program. Some, however, have returned to government hands. Among them are the two light-rail transit (LRT) systems in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur. The main objective of privatization had been to expand transportation capabilities to keep pace with economic development. The private sector was allowed to construct various rail-based mass transportation systems to alleviate vehicular traffic congestion in the city. The STAR and PUTRA light-rail transit systems were built in the 1990s by 2 concession companies at a total cost of US$2.27 billion with the bulk of the expenditure going into infrastructure and rolling stock. Generous financial incentives were offered by the Malaysian government. However, the 2 LRTs suffered below-expectation ridership right from the beginning. Even a reduction in rates to promote greater public use, failed to meet projected ridership figures. The concession companies began defaulting on their loan servicing obligations within months of becoming operational. In 2002, the government took over the operation of the 2 LRT systems. The pre- and post-privatization events of both facilities were chronicled in this paper. It examined how the entire process was administered and tried to rationalize why private ownership of the 2 LRT systems was short-lived. Based on publicly available material, this paper argued that neither the quality of government negotiators nor the length of time devoted to negotiating could be attributed to the bailout. There was no indication that political favouritism and corruption were at play. Rather, the 2 projects proved to be financially unviable, despite the large financial incentives provided to the two concession companies. 83 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  16. The new prevalence of public-private partnerships in the production of Light Rail Transit Systems in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    To understand why all new light rail transit (LRT) projects under development in Canada are carried out in public-private partnership (P3) rather than through the traditional mode (public administration) that prevailed in the past, this research explores three light rail projects currently underway in Edmonton, Ottawa and Toronto. We study the arguments surrounding each decision leading to the choice of the P3 governance model. We show that in all cases, it is possible to observe the mechanis...

  17. National Standards for Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yanshen; Qin Guodong; Zhang Suyan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we suggest the creation of passenger service standards for urban rail transit.We put forward standards suited for China's actual conditions,aimed at meeting an international level of service based on customer-oriented principles.

  18. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md

    2017-08-01

    rail transit station design for the future. It is also important to ensure the design is appropriate from the selection and suitability perspective as design and operation will assist to facilitate the success of the national rail network and encourage the public to use rail transit system. A conducive and neatly design railway station will not only add to the passenger experience but also, as a supporting facility to the economic, social and environmental benefits of the rail industry.

  19. 城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系%Risk Warning System for Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维庆; 臧耐娟

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Urban rail transit is developing rapidly in China. In the large-scale urban rail transit construction projects, due to the increase in risk points, risk monitoring, assessment, early warning and management are very important. In order to reduce the loss of project risk and protect the project construction, this paper analyzes the connotation of urban rail transit project risk early warning system, investigates the composition of the system, and establishes a risk early warning system consisting of a risk warning system and organizational system to provide a reference for risk management of urban rail transit project.%在大规模的城市轨道交通工程建设过程中,由于风险点的增多,风险的监测、评估、预警和管理日益重要。为了实现减小项目风险损失和保障项目顺利建设的目的,基于风险预警的基本原理,对城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系的内涵进行分析,在此基础上建立了由风险预警信息采集系统、风险预警传导系统、风险预警管理信息系统和风险预警组织系统组成的城市轨道交通项目风险预警体系。

  20. Honolulu Rail Transit: International Lessons in Linking Form, Design, and Transportation

    CERN Document Server

    Boeing, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    The city of Honolulu, Hawaii is currently planning and developing a new rail transit system. While Honolulu has supportive density and topography for rail transit, questions remain about its ability to effectively integrate urban design and accessibility across the system. Every transit trip begins and ends with a walking trip from origins and to destinations: transportation planning must account for pedestrian safety, comfort, and access. Ildefons Cerda's 19th century utopian plan for Barcelona's Eixample district produced a renowned, livable urban form. The Eixample, with its well-integrated rail transit, serves as a model of urban design, land use, transportation planning, and pedestrian-scaled streets working in synergy to produce accessibility. This study discusses the urban form of Honolulu and the history and planning of its new rail transit system. Then it reviews the history of Cerda's plan for the Eixample and discusses its urban form and performance today. Finally it draws several lessons from Barc...

  1. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.

    1979-08-01

    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  2. Improving Resource Allocation Decisions to Reduce the Risk of Terrorist Attacks on Passenger Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    cause changes to the threat landscape . Several methods are used to assess the risk to passenger rail systems. A short discussion of these methods...accessibility of passenger rail facilities are attractive to adversaries. This thesis reviews the current approach to risk assessment used by system...14. SUBJECT TERMS passenger rail security, decision making, risk assessment , rail systems, metro, mass transit, subway, risk management, game

  3. Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Seamless Transfer Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Li Fen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of urban rail transit network and traveler requirement of travel , the concept of rail seamless integration has been proposed. This paper analyzes the meaning of integration and seamless integration and the connotation and characteristics of urban rail transport were seamlessly transfer analysis. On this basis, the organization of urban rail transit traffic in different ways are discussed. According to Brighton G (Bou ladon G hypothesis, tranfer distance is devided into ideal, desirable, acceptable, tolerable, intolerable five levels and their corresponding standard values are quantized, getting the standard of transfer time and distance to evaluate the quality of rail integration and Seamless Transfer of proposeing the standards of integration time and distance.

  4. Coherent Network Optimizing of Rail-Based Urban Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient public transport is more than ever a crucial factor when it comes to the quality of life and competitiveness of many cities and regions in Asia. In recent years, the rail-based urban mass transit has been regarded as one of the key means to overcoming the great challenges in Chinese megacities. The purpose of this study is going to develop a coherent network optimizing for rail-based urban mass transit to find the best alternatives for the user and to demonstrate how to meet sustainable development needs and to match the enormous capacity requirements simultaneously. This paper presents an introduction to the current situation of the important lines, and transfer points in the metro system Shanghai. The insufficient aspects are analyzed and evaluated; while the optimizing ideas and measurements are developed and concreted. A group of examples are used to illustrate the approach. The whole study could be used for the latest reference for other megacities which have to be confronted with the similar situations and processes with enormous dynamic travel and transport demands.

  5. Developments in Rail Transit:History and Future of Rail Transportation in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In the past ten years, the increase in the number of automobiles in Beijing, es-pecially private cars, has led to serious traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Given that urban rail transit is expedient, punctual, high in passenger

  6. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  7. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  8. Appraisal on Rail Transit Development: A Review on Train Services and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noor Hafiza binti; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Ghazali, Mohd Imran bin; Azis, Mohd Isom bin

    2017-08-01

    The ever increasing problems faced by population around the world have made demands that transportation need to be improved as an effective and efficient communication means. It is considered as a necessity especially when rapid development and economic growth of a country is the agenda. Among the transportation modes being focused as critical facilities are the bus system, rail system, road network, shipping system and air transportation system. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In Malaysia, the railway network has evolved tremendously since its inception in the early 19th century. It has grown proportionally with the national development. Railway network does not only mean for rural transportation, but it also considered as a solution to urban congestion challenges. Currently, urban rail transit is the most popular means of urban transportation system especially as big cities such as Kuala Lumpur. This paper presents the definition of rail transportation system and its role in urban or sub-urban operation. It also describes the brief history of world railway transportation including a discussion on Malaysian rail history perspective. As policy and standard are important in operating a railway system, this paper also illustrates and discusses some elements which have an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of train operation. Towards the end, this paper also shares the importance of railway safety based on real case studies around the world. Thus, it is hoped that this paper will enable the public to understand the rail transit development and appreciate its existence as a public transportation system.

  9. The Role of Rail Transit Systems in Reducing Energy and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: The Case of The City of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Sanches de Andrade

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has established, by municipal law, a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions of the transport system by 20% until 2020 compared to 2005. In order to reach this goal, the city’s public transport has been restructured with an emphasis on rail transit systems. The city will host the 2016 Olympic Games and this has encouraged the transformation of public transportation. One of the new projects is the construction of a new metro line, Line 4, to connect the downtown area to the city’s fastest growing part, the western region, which will also be a venue for many events during the Olympic Games. This article presents and applies a procedure for calculating energy use and emissions avoided by Line 4 by attracting users from other transport modes in the period from 2016 to 2040. The procedure uses a detailed demand forecast for this period and considers the local transport profile and the different fuels used. The net amount of carbon dioxide avoided was 55,449 tonnes per year and 44.53 grams per passenger kilometer. The avoided energy reached 0.76 MJ per passenger kilometer.

  10. 基于熵理论的河北省可持续发展水平评价研究%Risk Warning System for Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志慧; 宋志艳

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Urban rail transit is developing rapidly in China. In the large-scale urban rail transit construction projects, due to the increase in risk points, risk monitoring, assessment, early warning and management are very important. In order to reduce the loss of project risk and protect the project construction, this paper analyzes the connotation of urban rail transit project risk early warning system, investigates the composition of the system, and establishes a risk early warning system consisting of a risk warning system and organizational system to provide a reference for risk management of urban rail transit project.%根据2000-2009年国家统计年鉴中河北省的有关数据,选取有代表性的指标,构造评价可持续发展水平的指标体系,并采用熵理论确定各指标的权重,以观察近10年来河北省经济社会可持续发展的具体情况。实证研究结果表明:河北省正逐渐迈向可持续发展的道路,但任重道远。根据省际具体情况,在实证研究的基础上,就河北省经济社会的长期可持续发展提出了若干建议。

  11. Determinants of Success: Lessons to be Learned From Rail Transit System Development in Miami-Dade and Dallas Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik BELL

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The Miami Metro Transit Authority Master Plan was originated 25 years ago, and its goals remain largely unmet. In approximately the same time period the Dallas Area Rapid Transit Authority has completed its phase one plan. Using a comparative approach, this study seeks to elucidate transportation model outcomes which are suitable to region specific needs. Our investigative intent is twofold. First, our analysis will yield policies that facilitate greater functionality in terms of access and time-efficient methods of transportation. Second, the analysis will reveal policies and factors influencing transportation outcomes in geographically dispersed locales such as Miami Dade County and Dallas County. This analysis will seek to explain the failure or the success of the public transit development with attention paid to political and technical factors. Experiences in these two Sunbelt metropolises will shed light on policies that might enhance public transit development elsewhere.

  12. Holiday Destination Choice Behavior Analysis Based on AFC Data of Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-jun Cai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For urban rail transit, the spatial distribution of passenger flow in holiday usually differs from weekdays. Holiday destination choice behavior analysis is the key to analyze passengers’ destination choice preference and then obtain the OD (origin-destination distribution of passenger flow. This paper aims to propose a holiday destination choice model based on AFC (automatic fare collection data of urban rail transit system, which is highly expected to provide theoretic support to holiday travel demand analysis for urban rail transit. First, based on Guangzhou Metro AFC data collected on New Year’s day, the characteristics of holiday destination choice behavior for urban rail transit passengers is analyzed. Second, holiday destination choice models based on MNL (Multinomial Logit structure are established for each New Year’s days respectively, which takes into account some novel explanatory variables (such as attractiveness of destination. Then, the proposed models are calibrated with AFC data from Guangzhou Metro using WESML (weighted exogenous sample maximum likelihood estimation and compared with the base models in which attractiveness of destination is not considered. The results show that the ρ2 values are improved by 0.060, 0.045, and 0.040 for January 1, January 2, and January 3, respectively, with the consideration of destination attractiveness.

  13. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenjun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  14. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Gaidelis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  15. Fare Optimality Analysis of Urban Rail Transit under Various Objective Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianbo Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit fare strategies include fare structures and fare levels. We propose a rail transit line fare decision based on an operating plan that falls under elastic demand. Combined with the train operation plan, considering flat fare and distance-based fare, and based on the benefit analysis of both passenger flow and operating enterprises, we construct the objective functions and build an optimization model in terms of the operators’ interests, the system’s efficiency, system regulation goals, and the system costs. The solving algorithm based on the simulated annealing algorithm is established. Using as an example the Changsha Metro Line 2, we analyzed the optimized results of different models under the two fare structures system. Finally the recommendations of fare strategies are given.

  16. Passenger Flow Forecast Algorithm for Urban Rail Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao Wei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To exactly forecast the urban rail transit passenger flow, a multi-level model combining neural network and Kalman filter was proposed. Firstly, ELAN neural network model was introduced to implement a preliminary forecast of the passenger flow. Then the Kalman filter was used to correct the preliminary forecast results, so as to further improve the accuracy. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the passenger flow in Shanghai subway transport hub was observed and simulated. Experimental results showed that the proposed multi-level model reduced error by about 0.8% and had better actual effect compared with any single algorithm.

  17. Asynchronous Dual-Rail Transition Logic for Enhanced DPA Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajath Srivathsav N

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Asynchronous Dual–Rail Transition Logic (ADTL is proposed in this paper. The new logic style can be used in the encryption circuit of cryptography to counter the differential power analysis (DPA attacks. The resistance to the DPA attacks is achieved by randomizing the power dissipated in the circuit through Manchester input signal coding and unpredictable initial state of the toggle flip-flops (TFF. The proposed logic uses two wires to transmit the signal, in the form of a single transition on either one of the two wires to indicate the input logic value. T-FFs are employed to randomize the power dissipated by the circuit. The randomizing is made possible by making the initial states of the flip-flops un-deterministic. Furthermore, the clock is completely eliminated in the conceived design, thus realizing increased power randomization and resistance to the DPA attacks. The design is demonstrated through the systematic simulations on a typical encryption circuit. The validation of the ADTL is made through extensive comparisons with the existing Dual-rail Transition Logic (DTL for power, delay and the DPA resistance. Industry standard EDA tools with 90nm technology libraries provided by the UMC foundry have been employed in the designs.

  18. Braking System for Domestic Low-floor Light Rail Transit Vehicles%国产低地板轻轨车辆制动系统方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹国利; 曾宪华; 刘睿

    2012-01-01

    描述了国产化低地板车制动系统的参数、组成和原理,本系统为电子液压制动系统,由电气指令直接控制液压基础制动装置,简化了制动系统,节省了车底空间,解决了低地板轻轨车辆底部空间小,无法容纳空气制动装置的问题,满足低地板轻轨车辆的要求.%The parameters,composition and principle of domestic low-floor hydraulic brake system are described. This system uses electronic signals to control the foundation braking gears directly,it simplifies the braking systems and occupies less space. It also solves the installation problem of pneumatic braking equipments under the floor in a lowfloor light rail vehicle. Consequently, the electric hydraulic braking system could meet the requirements of low-floor light rail vehicles, and help to establish a theoretical foundation for the future study of low-floor hydraulic brake system.

  19. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ding

    Full Text Available Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  20. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur's Public Urban Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain Bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality's closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network's growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks.

  1. 轨道交通综合监控仿真培训系统数据交互模块的设计%Design of the Data Interaction Module for Rail Transit Integrated Supervisory Simulation Training System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祁; 崔伟; 谢向阳

    2016-01-01

    为了实现轨道交通综合监控仿真培训系统与各种综合监控系统的有效连接和信息交互,设计了一种数据交互模块.该模块具备便利的管理接口、多种数据存储单元及配套的读写接口,并且具有一个通信协议池,支持多种通信协议接口与综合监控系统进行数据交互.该模块成功地连接了轨道交通综合监控系统与仿真模拟器,具有很好的实用性和扩展性.%In order to realize the effective links and information interaction between rail transit integrated supervisory system and various kinds of integrated monitoring systems,a data interaction module is design. The module is equipped with convenient management interface,a variety of data storage units,as well as the matched interface for read and write. In addition,communication protocols pool is possessed to support multiple communication protocol interfaces for data interacting with integrated monitoring systems. The module connects the integrated supervisory system of rail transit and the simulator successfully,and has very good practicability and extensibility.

  2. Dwell Time Modelling and Optimized Simulations for Crowded Rail Transit Lines Based on Train Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of rail transit dwell time has potential benefits for both the users and the operators. Crowded passenger trains cause longer dwell times and may prevent some passengers from boarding the first available train that arrives. Actual dwell time and the process of passenger alighting and boarding are interdependent through the sequence of train stops and propagated delays. A comprehensive and feasible dwell time simulation model was developed and optimized to address the problems associated with scheduled timetables. The paper introduces the factors that affect dwell time in urban rail transit systems, including train headway, the process and number of passengers alighting and boarding the train, and the inability of train doors to properly close the first time because of overcrowded vehicles. Finally, based on a time-driven micro-simulation system, Shanghai rail transit Line 8 is used as an example to quantify the feasibility of scheduled dwell times for different stations, directions of travel and time periods, and a proposed dwell time during peak hours in several crowded stations is presented according to the simulation results.

  3. Application Research on Urban Rail Transit EP2002 Brake System%城市轨道交通 EP2002制动系统应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶敏; 张帆; 杨颖; 高亮彰

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the EP2002 brake control logic and pneumatic principle were analyzed by intro-duced EP2002 brake system structure and the type and function of EP2002 valve.The advantages of EP2002 brake control system in urban rail vehicle applications were given.%介绍 EP2002制动系统构成和 EP2002阀的种类及作用,分析 EP2002制动控制逻辑及其气动原理,说明EP2002制动控制系统在城轨车辆中应用的优势。

  4. 轨道交通行业竣工决算系统设计%The System Design of Final Accounts of the Completed Projects for Rail Transit Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 陈科

    2014-01-01

    随着IT系统渗透到工程项目建设的预算、合同、支付、财务等方方面面,形成了一个庞大的工程建设数据中心,依托IT系统完成工程项目的竣工决算便应运而生了。该文以苏州轨道交通公司为例,探讨了轨道交通行业竣工决算系统设计的思路和要解决的主要问题。%Final accounts of the completed projects will emerge relying on the IT system with the IT system coming into budget, contract, payment, financial and other aspects of construction projects and a huge project data center formed. In this paper, the de-sign solutions and main problems for the final accounts of the completed projects for rail transit industry will be discuessed as we take Suzhou Rail Transit company as an example.

  5. Study on Scheme for Thermal Capacity Test on Traction System of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle%城轨列车牵引系统热容量试验方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 陆阳; 王志峰; 王延哲

    2013-01-01

    Taking the type test of urban rail transit vehicle for AL Mashaaer AL Mugaddassah metro project as an example,testing points arrangement was studied and the scheme for the thermal capacity test on the traction system of urban rail transit was designed based on the analysis of traction system composition,heat source distribution and the arrangement of cooling devices for urban rail transit vehicles.In the thermal capacity test of traction system,traction motor temperature,heat sink and internal air temperature of traction inverter,brake resistor and its outlet temperature,axle box bearing temperature and environment temperature were measured.Besides,electrical parameters including supply voltage,input and output current of traction inverter,brake resistor voltage were monitored at the same time to verify the working conditions of all equipment in the traction system of urban rail transit vehicle.Preinstalled temperature sensors and sensors specially arranged before test were used for temperature measurement.Current and voltage sensors installed were used to measure electrical parameters.Running schedule with stops at all stations was adopted and working cycle including starting and acceleration,constant speed operation and stop with speed regulating braking was applied.The thermal capacity test for the traction system of urban rail transit vehicle for AL Mashaaer AL Mugaddassah metro project was successfully conducted according to the designed scheme.%结合沙特麦加城轨列车型式试验,在分析城轨列车牵引系统的组成及其热源分布和冷却设备布置的基础上,研究测点布置,设计城轨牵引系统热容量试验方案.牵引系统热容量试验主要对牵引电机、牵引逆变器的散热片和箱体内部空气、制动电阻及其出风口、轴箱轴承以及环境等的温度进行监测,另外还要对供电电压、牵引逆变器的输入和输出电流以及制动电阻的电压等电参数进行监测,据此确认城轨

  6. System for Measuring Elevator Guide Rail Quality and Its Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A system for measuring the quality parameters of elevator guide rails is developed. The quality parameters the system can measure include straightness, flatness, squareness, width and height of the rail. The system consists of six parts:main guideway, auxiliary guideway, reference rail, saddle, control casing and measured rail. The guide rail to be measured is mounted on a bed.The straightness errors of surfaces are checked by five linear displacement sensors mounted on the saddle. The deviation of readings from the sensor, which is in contact with top guiding surface,gives the straightness error of the surface and height of the rail. The other four sensors are used to measure side guiding surfaces respectively and give other parameters including flatness on the surfaces, squareness, width and height of the rail. A novel calibration method is also developed to calibrate the straightness motion error of the system in horizontal and vertical directions. The deflection deformation of the measured rail is fitted by using a fourth-order polynomial. Experimental results show that the uncertainty of the system on the side surfaces after compensating the straightness motion error is less than 0.01 mm, and the uncertainty of the system on the top surface after compensating the straightness motion error and the deflection deformation of the rail is less than 0.03 mm.

  7. Application research of rail transit safety protection based on laser detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhifei

    2016-10-01

    Platform screen door can not only prevent the passengers fell or jumped the track danger, to passengers bring comfortable waiting environment, but also has the function of environmental protection and energy saving. But platform screen door and train the full-length gap region is insecure in the system design of a hidden, such as passengers for some reason (grab the train) in the interstitial region retention, is sandwiched between the intercity safety door and the door, and such as the region lacks security detection and alarm system, once the passengers in the gap region retention (caught), bring more serious threat to the safety of passengers and traffic safety. This paper from the point of view of the design presents the physical, infrared, laser three safety protection device setting schemes. Domestic intelligence of between rail transit shield door and train security clearance processing used is screen door system standard configuration, the obstacle detection function for avoid passengers stranded in the clearance has strong prevention function. Laser detection research and development projects can access to prevent shield door and train gap clamp safety measures. Rail safety protection method are studied applying laser detection technique. According to the laser reflection equation of foreign body, the characteristics of laser detection of foreign bodies are given in theory. By using statistical analysis method, the workflow of laser detection system is established. On this basis, protection methods is proposed. Finally the simulation and test results show that the laser detection technology in the rail traffic safety protection reliability and stability, And the future laser detection technology in is discussed the development of rail transit.

  8. 78 FR 42156 - Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District-Acquisition Exemption-In Marin County, Cal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District--Acquisition Exemption-- In Marin County, Cal. AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY: The Board.... 10902 for Sonoma-Marin Area Rail Transit District (SMART), a Class III rail carrier, to acquire an...

  9. Design and Implementation of Rail Transit Emergency Communication System%城市轨道交通应急通信系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭志; 刘云; 黎学超

    2013-01-01

    使用JSP技术设计开发城市轨道交通应急通信系统,在应急救援中及时了解现场灾害的综合信息,为应急救援提供可靠依据 主要采用JSP、Apache、JavaBean和Oracle等作为网站开发工具、首先进行系统功能分析,给出各模块的主要构成,然后提出系统设计所需的关键技术,最后给出系统的部分实现代码测试证明,该系统具有良好的稳定性及可扩展性.%Using JSP technology design and development of rail transportation emergency communications system can keep abreast of site disasters and provide a reliable basis for emergency rescue. The system uses JSP, Ap-ache, JavaBeans and Oracle as the website devebpment tools. The paper conducted a systematic functional analysis and provided the main components of each module, then proposed the essential technologies. In the end, some implementing codes of the system are provided. Test results proved that the system has good stability and expansibility.

  10. Development and application of resilient wheels in urban rail transit vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan WEN

    Full Text Available Urban rail transit vehicles have been more and more attractive to people as a kind of fast, comfortable, energy-saving, environmental protection and safe transportation. But because of the vehicle noise and vibration, urban rail vehicles also face severe challenges. The research of resilient wheels has been continuously developed and improved. Based on the review of development background and structure sorts of resilient wheels, the advantages of resilient wheels are described, and the research status of noise and vibration reducing, infinite element strength analysis, vehicle dynamic analysis and the wheel-rail wear of resilient wheels are discussed. Taking the low-floor LRVs (light rail vehicles in domestic and overseas as example, the development and application of the resilient wheels in city rail transit is described, and the application prospects of the resilient wheels in LRVs in domestic and the future research direction of elastic wheel are discussed.

  11. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel–rail system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, G X; Cui, X L; Qian, W J

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel–rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  12. 78 FR 37877 - Request for Transit Rail Advisory Committee for Safety (TRACS) Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Request for Transit Rail Advisory Committee for Safety (TRACS) Nominations....gov/about/13099.html . II. Nominations Qualified individuals interested in serving on this committee... Federal Transit Administration (FTA) is seeking nominations for individuals to serve on the Transit...

  13. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J.; Few, Douglas A.; Walton, Miles C.

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.

  14. Study of Key Factors Determinant Choice of Rail-Based Mass Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ircham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to regulations of the Ministry of Transportation in 2002 about the type of transport based on the city size, the metropolis with a population of more than 1 million inhabitants are required to have the urban mass transit. Nevertheless, until now not all city-scale population of more than 1 million have mass public transport, either bus or rail-based. Especially for rail-based mass transit, indicated the existing regulations have not been able to challenge the development of rail-based urban mass transit. Learning from the literature study and the experience of countries that already have rail-based urban mass transit it has acquired nine main factors to be taken into account in developing a rail-based urban public transportation. This study was conducted by using Analytical Hierarchy Process method which was further validated through the implementation of the On Focus Group Discussion in the Jakarta City Transportation Council (DTKJ as well as in the City Development Planning Board (Bappeko Surabaya. Finally, the initial result shown five sequences determining factor for the determinant choice of rail-based mass transit, namely: fiscal or economic capacity of the region and society, transport policy, integrated public transport, land use, fare and travel time. Furthermore, the acquisition results of this study can be applied to the selected cities to address the challenges to urban mass transit development.

  15. Simulation and evaluation of urban rail transit network based on multi-agent approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangming Yao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Urban rail transit is a complex and dynamic system, which is difficult to be described in a global mathematical model for its scale and interaction. In order to analyze the spatial and temporal characteristics of passenger flow distribution and evaluate the effectiveness of transportation strategies, a new and comprehensive method depicted such dynamic system should be given. This study therefore aims at using simulation approach to solve this problem for subway network. Design/methodology/approach: In this thesis a simulation model based on multi-agent approach has been proposed, which is a well suited method to design complex systems. The model includes the specificities of passengers’ travelling behaviors and takes into account of interactions between travelers and trains. Findings: Research limitations/implications: We developed an urban rail transit simulation tool for verification of the validity and accuracy of this model, using real passenger flow data of Beijing subway network to take a case study, results show that our simulation tool can be used to analyze the characteristic of passenger flow distribution and evaluate operation strategies well. Practical implications: The main implications of this work are to provide decision support for traffic management, making train operation plan and dispatching measures in emergency. Originality/value: A new and comprehensive method to analyze and evaluate subway network is presented, accuracy and computational efficiency of the model has been confirmed and meet with the actual needs for large-scale network.

  16. Adhesion-creepage characteristics of wheel/rail system under dry and contaminated rail surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Mohammed F.

    1998-11-01

    This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical study of adhesion and creepage characteristics of wheel and rail under both dry and contaminated rail surfaces. The experimental work was conducted largely on the IIT 1/4.5 Scale Wheel/Rail Simulation Facility. Based on the experimental data in the laboratory, a theoretical model of adhesion and creepage relationship with different degrees of contamination was developed. Non-dimensional analysis of parameters yielded four important non-dimensional groups, which include the adhesion, creepage coefficients, the elastic properties of the materials, the load on the wheel surface roughness of wheel and rail, train speed and the contaminant density, viscosity and minimum film thickness. Rail contaminants were gathered from several U.S. passenger rail systems and tested on the laboratory facility. It was found that presence of moisture reduce the adhesion levels with these contaminants. Under hot air jet applications, normal adhesion could be achieved. A series of tests were conducted with water contamination on clean rail. Maximum adhesion for different tests was nearly constant and approximately 0.2. Maximum adhesion produced under water contamination is significantly affected by the average roughness of the wheel and the rail. As the roughness decreases, maximum adhesion drops sharply. Maximum adhesion also decreases with speed in the presence of moisture even at relatively low speeds (4--8 mph). An empirical relation of maximum adhesion with axle load, speed and roughness has been derived. An analytical expression for the adhesion-creepage curves under (TOR) lubrication has been derived. The maximum adhesion coefficient achieved for different (TOR) lubricant formulations was found to be approximately proportional to kinematic viscosity. A theoretical approach for estimating potential energy savings with the (TOR) lubricant was developed using the laboratory data of the 1/12.5 scale simulator and 1/4.5 scale test

  17. Analysis of Setups of the Control of Rail Microprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczyslaw Kornaszewski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article will have been introduced possibilities following from the application of the microprocessor technology in rail systems of the control of traffic will remain for example of modern signalling on railway crossings. Introduction to microcomputer and microprocessor systems of rail devices will permit to eliminate and to replace disusedrelay devices with them and raising safety on railway and increasing reliability of used devices.

  18. 新形势下的基础设施投融资改革初探--城市轨道TOD实践带来的启示%Reform of Investment and Financing System of Infrastructures in Mainland China:Experience from TOD of Urban Rail Transit Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓兵

    2014-01-01

    are presented,the problems in the application of the concept of“Rail +Property”of Hong Kong in mainland China are analyzed,the results of the application of the concept of “Rail +Property”of Hong Kong in the planning of Line 6 of Shenzhen Metro are provided,the “Rail +Property”mode is compared with the conventional mode,and conditions for the successful implementation of TOD mode in urban rail transit works in mainland China are summarized,the mechanisms of coordinating between the urban rail transit works and the urban underground space development are discussed,and some proposals,including establishing innovative transferring and reserving system for land along rail transit lines,establishing coordinating system between urban rail transit works and urban space planning,improving the management system of urban rail transit works,perfecting the policy and technological code support and enhancing the guarantee of relevant laws and regulations,are made for the implementation of TOD mode in the urban rail transit works in mainland China.

  19. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  20. Analysis of pressure wave dynamics in fuel rail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alzahabi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A model of an amplified common rail fuel system is simulated in Matlab toanalyze the wave mechanics in the rail. The injectors are modeled as asystem of linear and non-linear ODE’s consisting of masses, a helical spring,compressibility effects from fluid volumes, and hydraulic flow throughorifices. The injector simulation then predicts the rate of oil consumption,which is then input into the rail model.The rail is modeled in three sections which are coupled together. The pointswhere the coupling occurs are the locations where the current firinginjector and the pump supply are connected to the rail. This allows themodel to control the pressure and velocity (as boundary conditions atthese points. The rail model is based on the 1D, undamped wave equation,in a non-dimensional form [1] (in the position variable, x. The Reduction ofOrder method was used to solve the wave equation with the Matlabfunction PDEPE.The model was run with two different sets of initial conditions - nominal(constant pressure and zero velocity, and worst case using a simplifiedrepresentation of the pressure and velocity distribution at start of injection.This was done to determine the effect of rail waves at the start of injection,on the output of the model. The variation in fuel delivery, due to the variationin rail pressure, was then evaluated at three operating conditions - Idle,Peak Torque (PT and High Speed Light Load (HSLL. The simulation outputis then compared to analytical solutions of two forms of simplifiedgeometry, using the product method to solve the system [1.

  1. Complex Network Theory Applied to the Growth of Kuala Lumpur’s Public Urban Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Rui; Ujang, Norsidah; Hamid, Hussain bin; Wu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the number of studies involving complex network applications in transportation has increased steadily as scholars from various fields analyze traffic networks. Nonetheless, research on rail network growth is relatively rare. This research examines the evolution of the Public Urban Rail Transit Networks of Kuala Lumpur (PURTNoKL) based on complex network theory and covers both the topological structure of the rail system and future trends in network growth. In addition, network performance when facing different attack strategies is also assessed. Three topological network characteristics are considered: connections, clustering and centrality. In PURTNoKL, we found that the total number of nodes and edges exhibit a linear relationship and that the average degree stays within the interval [2.0488, 2.6774] with heavy-tailed distributions. The evolutionary process shows that the cumulative probability distribution (CPD) of degree and the average shortest path length show good fit with exponential distribution and normal distribution, respectively. Moreover, PURTNoKL exhibits clear cluster characteristics; most of the nodes have a 2-core value, and the CPDs of the centrality’s closeness and betweenness follow a normal distribution function and an exponential distribution, respectively. Finally, we discuss four different types of network growth styles and the line extension process, which reveal that the rail network’s growth is likely based on the nodes with the biggest lengths of the shortest path and that network protection should emphasize those nodes with the largest degrees and the highest betweenness values. This research may enhance the networkability of the rail system and better shape the future growth of public rail networks. PMID:26448645

  2. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  3. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... any of this information changes. (e) Each passenger railroad carrier and rail transit system required... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating light...

  4. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  5. Study Rapid Rail Transit Plan in Shanghai%上海市快速轨道交通规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆锡明; 王祥

    2012-01-01

    上海市轨道交通快速发展,支撑了城市空间扩展、优化了用地布局;然而在其快速发展过程中也暴露了一些问题.首先评估了近10年上海市轨道交通规划、建设、实施情况,总结存在的主要问题,如功能层次单一、服务水平不高等;指出当前其面临的一个重大问题是,单一功能层次的轨道交通造成长距离出行时耗长,缺乏与小汽车的竞争优势,从而影响、制约郊区新城的发展.然后借鉴东京、巴黎等国际大城市快速轨道交通的建设、实施和运营组织经验,根据上海实际,分析其发展快速轨道交通的必要性.最后通过分析上海市轨道交通的客流特征,提出其快速轨道交通规划必须“连心”,并给出了服务标准、规划方案和预计达到的实施效果.%The rapid development of rail transit has supported the city expansion and optimized landuse development in Shanghai. However, some shortcomings have been exposed in the process of the rapid rail transit development. This paper first evaluates the 10-year development of Shanghai rail transit network, and then points out the main deficiencies in the rail transit plan and construction, such as the lack of multiple functionalities, low service level, and etc. It is known that the lack of multiple functionality makes long distance trips time consuming and less competitive with car, which limits the development of new community in suburban areas. By learning from Tokyo, Paris and other big international cities in their rapid rail transit plan and operations, the paper analyzes the necessity of the rapid rail transit construction in Shanghai. Finally, through the analysis of rail transit passenger flow characteristics, the paper points out that the rapid rail transit must "connect the city centers", proposes the service standards, and puts forward a conceptual design of Shanghai rapid rail transit system with the implemental plans.

  6. Assessment on the Cohesion Pattern of Rail Transit: Integration of Rough Set and Grey Correlation Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhijie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most existing project assessment relies on expert scoring, whose precision can be deteriorated by personal subjectivity. This paper presents an assessment method to compare the advantages and disadvantages of three cohesion patterns between suburban and urban rail transit network, which reduces the influence of subjective score. A modified rough set – grey correlation model is developed as a core of this assessment, based on the integration of rough set theory and grey correlational analysis, where an index system is set up for model calculation. A case study using the network in Ningbo is applied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the results show that the method is more effective using discretely distributed data sensitive to sample size. The consistency of the results in comparison with marginal cost analysis can be a preliminary verification of the model.

  7. 49 CFR 37.79 - Purchase or lease of new rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.79 Section 37.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. Each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system making a... system shall ensure that the vehicle is readily accessible to and usable by individuals with...

  8. Mobile 3D laser scanning technology application in the surveying of urban underground rail transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Youmei; Yang, Bogang; Zhen, Yinan

    2016-11-01

    Mobile 3D laser scanning technology is one hot kind of digital earth technology. 3D completion surveying is relative new concept in surveying and mapping. A kind of mobile 3D laser scanning system was developed for the urban underground rail 3D completion surveying. According to the characteristics of underground rail environment and the characters of the mobile laser scanning system, it designed a suitable test scheme to improving the accuracy of this kind of mobile laser scanning system when it worked under no GPS signal environment. Then it completed the application of this technology in the No.15 rail 3D completion surveying. Meanwhile a set of production process was made for the 3D completion surveying based on this kind of mobile 3D laser scanning technology. These products were also proved the efficiency of the new technology in the rail 3D completion surveying. Using mobile 3D laser scanning technology to complete underground rail completion surveying has been the first time in China until now. It can provide a reference for 3D measurement of rail completion surveying or the 3D completion surveying of other areas.

  9. 49 CFR 37.81 - Purchase or lease of used rail vehicles by public entities operating rapid or light rail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entities operating rapid or light rail systems. 37.81 Section 37.81 Transportation Office of the Secretary... operating rapid or light rail systems. (a) Except as provided elsewhere in this section, each public entity operating a rapid or light rail system which, after August 25, 1990, purchases or leases a used rapid...

  10. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails' operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems.

  11. 轨道交通车载ATC数据监控系统的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of the Vehicle ATC Data Recording System of the Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊; 郭秀清; 霍勇

    2011-01-01

    A system for recording the vehicle ATC data with huge data recording capacity, comprehensive data information and ATC device reconnecting function. The system based on ATmegal28 micro controller, SD card as storage media, DS12887A for real time information. It directly uses the 110V DC power supply of the vehicle and its size meets the train's frame structure. The ATC data recorded has real time information and stored in txt file, easy for analysis. The system solved the problem of low data recording capacity, incomplete data information of ATC device and improved the efficiency of maintenance of the rail transit.%研制了一种用于监控车载ATC数据的系统,具有数据记录量大、记录信息全面、ATC设备掉线重连等特点.该系统以ATmega128芯片为主控,SD卡为存储介质,DS12887A提供实时时间信息.系统直接使用110V机车直流电源,尺寸符合列车车头机架结构,安装方便.记录的ATC数据采用带有时间信息的文本文件方式存储,便于上位机回放分析.解决了ATC设备数据记录量小、记录数据不全等不足,提高了轨道交通的维护保障效率.

  12. Development Strategies for Suburban Rail Transit in Beijing%北京市郊轨道交通发展策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑锋; 冯爱军; 王静; 贺鹏; 邓进

    2014-01-01

    构建适应不同需求层次、多模式有机融合的轨道交通体系已成为服务北京都市圈交通需求的必然抉择。首先分析北京市现状轨道交通网络规模、功能层次以及与城市空间扩展的适配性。按照服务水平和层次多样的出行需求特征,将北京都市圈范围内轨道交通划分为4个主要功能层次并分析其功能和服务范围。针对轨道交通发展模式单一的现状,提出北京市郊轨道交通发展策略,即规划范围应打破行政边界,重视市郊轨道交通对中心城轨道交通网络运能的缓解作用及对城市发展的引导,以及市郊轨道交通与中心城衔接、既有国铁资源利用、建设时序和投资模式等。%Developing a geographically integrated rail transit system to accommodate different travel needs and a variety of customer expectations for travel service has become inevitable for urban transportation sys-tem in Beijing metropolitan area. This paper first analyzes the scale and functionalities of Beijing rail tran-sit network and its role in urban spatial expansion. Based on level of service and diversified travel de-mands, the paper discusses the four functional and service levels of Beijing rail transit system within the metropolitan area. Aiming at current development of single mode rail transit, the paper proposes develop-ment strategies for Beijing suburban rail transit in several aspects: planning scope beyond administrative boundary;recognizing the role of suburban rail transit in enhancing the capacity of central rail transit net-work and in guiding urban development;and emphasizing the connection between suburban rail transit and urban central district, utilization of existing state railway resources, time scheduling of construction and invest-ment modes.

  13. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed steel-wheel-on-steel rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway,...

  14. Securing America’s Passenger-Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Infraestructuras Ferroviarias (ADIF, Spain’s administrator of railway infrastructure), UK Department for Transport, UK Home Office, UK Network Rail, UK...the final manuscript. xix Abbreviations AAR American Association of Railroads ACS access-control system ADIF Administrador de Infraestructuras

  15. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  16. The effectiveness of Light Rail transit in achieving regional CO2 emissions targets is linked to building energy use: insights from system dynamics modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset is comprised of a series of journal publications (in pdf form) that use system dynamics modeling to analyze the interactions among transportation, land use,...

  17. Real-time origin-destination matrices estimation for urban rail transit network based on structural state-space model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向明; 赵鹏; 禹丹丹

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this work was to establish a structural state-space model to estimate the dynamic origin-destination(O-D) matrices for urban rail transit network, using in- and out-flows at each station from automatic fare collection(AFC) system as the real time observed passenger flow counts. For lacking of measurable passenger flow information, the proposed model employs priori O-D matrices and travel time distribution from historical travel records in AFC system to establish the dynamic system equations. An arriving rate based on travel time distribution is defined to identify the dynamic interrelations between time-varying O-D flows and observed flows, which greatly decreases the computational complexity and improve the model’s applicability for large-scale network. This methodology is tested in a real transit network from Beijing subway network in China through comparing the predicted matrices with the true matrices. Case study results indicate that the proposed model is effective and applicative for estimating dynamic O-D matrices for large-scale rail transit network.

  18. Real-time origin-destination matrices estimation for urban rail transit network based on structural state-space model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向明; 赵鹏; 禹丹丹

    2015-01-01

    The major objective of this work was to establish a structural state-space model to estimate the dynamic origin-destination (O-D) matrices for urban rail transit network, using in- and out-flows at each station from automatic fare collection (AFC) system as the real time observed passenger flow counts. For lacking of measurable passenger flow information, the proposed model employs priori O-D matrices and travel time distribution from historical travel records in AFC system to establish the dynamic system equations. An arriving rate based on travel time distribution is defined to identify the dynamic interrelations between time-varying O-D flows and observed flows, which greatly decreases the computational complexity and improve the model’s applicability for large-scale network. This methodology is tested in a real transit network from Beijing subway network in China through comparing the predicted matrices with the true matrices. Case study results indicate that the proposed model is effective and applicative for estimating dynamic O-D matrices for large-scale rail transit network.

  19. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling systems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a moving rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85% to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  20. Calibration of robotic drilling systems with a moving rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Wei; Zeng Yuanfan; Zhou Wei; Liao Wenhe

    2014-01-01

    Industrial robots are widely used in aircraft assembly systems such as robotic drilling sys-tems. It is necessary to expand a robot’s working range with a moving rail. A method for improving the position accuracy of an automated assembly system with an industrial robot mounted on a mov-ing rail is proposed. A multi-station method is used to control the robot in this study. The robot only works at stations which are certain positions defined on the moving rail. The calibration of the robot system is composed by the calibration of the robot and the calibration of the stations. The calibration of the robot is based on error similarity and inverse distance weighted interpolation. The calibration of the stations is based on a magnetic strip and a magnetic sensor. Validation tests were performed in this study, which showed that the accuracy of the robot system gained significant improvement using the proposed method. The absolute position errors were reduced by about 85%to less than 0.3 mm compared with the maximum nearly 2 mm before calibration.

  1. Minimizing Investment Risk of Integrated Rail and Transit-Oriented-Development Projects over Years in a Linear Monocentric City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail and transit-oriented-development (TOD projects are simultaneously optimized in this paper, with special consideration given to yearly variation and spatial and temporal correlation of population densities. In the proposed model, the objective is to minimize the investment risk of integrated rail and TOD projects with a given required expected return on investment. The investment risk is optimized based on closed-form solutions of the design variables, including rail line length, the number of TOD projects, and the number of housing units in each TOD project. The closed-form solutions are given explicitly under the assumption of social welfare maximization. It is found that underestimation exists for rail and TOD projects without consideration of the correlation of spatial and temporal population densities. TOD projects can greatly improve the return on investment of the rail operator. A numerical example is also presented.

  2. Estimation Method of Path-Selecting Proportion for Urban Rail Transit Based on AFC Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the successful application of automatic fare collection (AFC system in urban rail transit (URT, the information of passengers’ travel time is recorded, which provides the possibility to analyze passengers’ path-selecting by AFC data. In this paper, the distribution characteristics of the components of travel time were analyzed, and an estimation method of path-selecting proportion was proposed. This method made use of single path ODs’ travel time data from AFC system to estimate the distribution parameters of the components of travel time, mainly including entry walking time (ewt, exit walking time (exwt, and transfer walking time (twt. Then, for multipath ODs, the distribution of each path’s travel time could be calculated under the condition of its components’ distributions known. After that, each path’s path-selecting proportion can be estimated. Finally, simulation experiments were designed to verify the estimation method, and the results show that the error rate is less than 2%. Compared with the traditional models of flow assignment, the estimation method can reduce the cost of artificial survey significantly and provide a new way to calculate the path-selecting proportion for URT.

  3. Application and Prospect of Straddle Monorail Transit System in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    He, Xihe

    2015-01-01

    Straddle monorail, using rubber wheels and precast concrete track beams, is a kind of distinctive urban rail transit system, featured with strong climbing capability, small turning radius, less land...

  4. A Feeder-Bus Dispatch Planning Model for Emergency Evacuation in Urban Rail Transit Corridors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Yan, Xuedong; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Wenyi

    2016-01-01

    The mobility of modern metropolises strongly relies on urban rail transit (URT) systems, and such a heavy dependence causes that even minor service interruptions would make the URT systems unsustainable. This study aims at optimally dispatching the ground feeder-bus to coordinate with the urban rails’ operation for eliminating the effect of unexpected service interruptions in URT corridors. A feeder-bus dispatch planning model was proposed for the collaborative optimization of URT and feeder-bus cooperation under emergency situations and minimizing the total evacuation cost of the feeder-buses. To solve the model, a concept of dummy feeder-bus system is proposed to transform the non-linear model into traditional linear programming (ILP) model, i.e., traditional transportation problem. The case study of Line #2 of Nanjing URT in China was adopted to illustrate the model application and sensitivity analyses of the key variables. The modeling results show that as the evacuation time window increases, the total evacuation cost as well as the number of dispatched feeder-buses decrease, and the dispatched feeder-buses need operate for more times along the feeder-bus line. The number of dispatched feeder-buses does not show an obvious change with the increase of parking spot capacity and time window, indicating that simply increasing the parking spot capacity would cause huge waste for the emergent bus utilization. When the unbalanced evacuation demand exists between stations, the more feeder-buses are needed. The method of this study will contribute to improving transportation emergency management and resource allocation for URT systems. PMID:27676179

  5. 基于云计算技术的城市轨道交通信息系统统一开发测试平台应用架构浅析%The Application Architecture Analysis of Unified Development and Test Platform based on Cloud Computing Technology for Rail Transit Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周光军

    2015-01-01

    Based on Cloud computing technology and SOA architecture, by establishing Virtulization-based infrastructure service (Iaas) and unified software project application service (SaaS) in SOA, an Unified development and test platform for Rail transit information system is established. By resource integration and standardized management, the reliability, delivery quality and process management capability of the information system for Rail transit systemis improved.%基于云计算技术和SOA架构,从基于建立虚拟化的基础设施服务(IaaS)和SOA架构下的统一软件项目管理应用服务(SaaS)入手,搭建城市轨道交通信息系统统一开发测试管理平台。通过整合资源、规范管理,提高城市轨道交通信息系统软件平台的可靠性、交付质量和过程管理能力。

  6. Turnback Capacity Assessment and Delay Management at a Rail Transit Terminal with Two-Tail Tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminal capacity and performance have become a major concern for rail transit agencies in China due to the ever increasing passenger demand. This paper develops a mixed integer programming (MIP optimization model to estimate the turnback capacity and performance of a rail transit terminal with two-tail tracks. The capacity evaluation and delay propagation are described and assessed as an N-track integrated model with minimal time span and train delay. Operations and design parameters such as tail track allocation strategies, maximum layover time, headway pattern, buffer time distribution scheme, and primary delay are also considered in this model. The effectiveness of the model is tested by a case study with computation results drawn from one terminal station in Shanghai, China. The case study results show that unfixed platform time and flexible tail track allocation strategies can improve the capacity of turnback operation, and the strategy of allowing swapping of the tail tracks has a significantly positive impact on delay absorption.

  7. Decision-Oriented Project Ranking for Asset Management System: Rail Net Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Moshøj, Claus Rehfeld; Timm, Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    The Danish rail net operator, Rail Net Denmark, has through the past years built up an Asset Management system, containing a certain percentile of all the company’s assets. This paper contains an elaborate overview on how to strengthen the system seen from a decision-support perspective. The focus...

  8. 金融IC卡在轨道交通领域的应用研究%Application of Financial IC card in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李煜平

    2012-01-01

    In order to apply the contactless financial IC card in urban rail transit, the general structure, transaction process, amount clearing and safety design of this system are analyzed. The result indicates that conlactless financial IC card can be used in urban rail transit after some co -construction of the related systems, and some main rebuilt contents in urban rail transit system are explained.%介绍了非接触式金融IC卡在城市轨道交通中的应用前景,分析了该应用方案的系统总体结构、交易流程、资金清算及安全体系等.分析表明,经过各相关单位相关应用系统的协调建设,可以实现非接触式金融IC卡在城市轨道交通中的应用.并根据具体案例,介绍了城市轨道交通应用金融IC卡时相关系统的主要改造内容.

  9. Research on Urban Rail Transit Network Planning Evaluation Method%市域轨道交通线网规划方案评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭辉; 王芳

    2011-01-01

    为评价市域轨道交通线网规划方案的可行性,通过研究建立起适合市域轨道交通线网规划方案的评价指标体系,同时构建FAHP—TOPSIS决策模型对备选方案进行优选,以获取最优方案。通过实例验证,该评价方法效果良好,具有一定的应用价值。%To evaluate the feasibility of the urban rail transit network planning, the evaluation index system that is suitable for urban rail transit network planning is established. At the same time, the FAHP - TOPSIS decision- making mode is set up to get the best plan. Through the example, this evaluation method has good effect and application value.

  10. Transradial coronary brachytherapy with the Novoste Beta-Rail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Olivier F; De Larochellière, Robert; Gleeton, Onil; Plante, Sylvain; Tessier, Michel; Guimond, Jean

    2002-03-01

    We report our initial experience in 10 consecutive patients who underwent transradial coronary brachytherapy for in-stent restenosis using a 90Sr/Y source and the Novoste Beta-Rail system. In all patients, procedures were successfully completed using a right transradial approach. We performed the procedures with the Beta-Rail catheter using 7 Fr (Zuma II, Medtronic, MN; n = 5) or 8 Fr (Cordis, Miami, FL; n = 5) guiding catheters. All lesions were successfully dilated and no additional stent was inserted. We used a 40 mm source (n = 3) or a 60 mm source (n = 7) with manual stepping in four cases. In three cases, we did one stepping, and in one case, we did three steppings. The mean dwell time was 195 plus minus 44 sec. The mean delivered dose was 23 +/- 3 Gy at 2 mm distance from the source. No radiation treatment was interrupted. Mean fluoroscopy time was 26 +/- 13 min. Procedural success was achieved in all patients. Three patients had mild CK elevations (< 3 times upper normal limit). All patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (300 mg) and combined treatment with aspirin + clopidogrel is to be continued for at least 1 year. Clinical follow-up up to 3 months has not yielded any complication and all patients have remained free from angina.

  11. Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero

    2013-01-01

    Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...

  12. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel-raU system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. X. Chen X. L. Cui W. J. Qian

    2016-01-01

    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel-rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  13. Comparative Analysis and Pedestrian Simulation Evaluation on Emergency Evacuation Test Methods for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijia Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergency evacuation test method of rail transit station not only affects the operation safety of the station, but it also has significant influence on the scale and cost of the station. A reasonable test method should guarantee both the safety of evacuation and that the investment is neither excessive nor too conservative. The paper compares and analyzes the differences of the existing emergency evacuation test methods of rail stations in China and other regions on the evacuation load, evacuation time calculation and the capacity of egress components, etc. Based on the field survey analysis, the desired velocity distribution of pedestrians in various station facilities and the capacity of egress components have been obtained, and then the parameters of pedestrian simulation tool were calibrated. By selecting a station for the case study, an evacuation simulation model has been established, where five evacuation scenarios have been set according to different specifications and the simulation results have been carefully analyzed. Through analyzing the simulation results, some modification proposals of the current emergency evacuation test method in the design manual have been considered, including taking into account the section passenger volume, walking time on escalators and stairs of the platform, and the condition in which the escalator most critical to evacuation should be considered as out of service.

  14. Summary of Pricing Strategy for Suzhou Rail Transit Network%苏州轨道交通线网收费策略综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明保; 陈莹; 施毅; 张宁

    2011-01-01

    为最大程度地发挥轨道交通的社会和经济效益,系统研究轨道交通收费策略.阐述苏州轨道交通线网收费策略的研究思路,在收费原则和运营阶段划分的基础上,详细分析票制、票种、票价等具体收费方法,建立轨道交通线网收费策略的理论体系.就收费策略对城市交通的影响进行研究,以期指导和不断调整收费策略.%In order to bring social and economic benefits of rail transit into full play, systematic research on its pricing strategy is imperative. This paper elaborates the guiding thoughts of pricing strategy for Suzhou rail transit network, analyzes the detailed pricing methods such as fare collection pattern, ticket type, price, etc. in line with pricing principles and operation stages, and establishes the theoretical system of the pricing strategy for rail transit network. The influence of the pricing strategy on urban traffic is also analyzed in order to guide and adjust the strategy constantly.

  15. Development and evaluation of light rail transit signal priority strategies. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, B.; Mechemehl, R.

    1998-08-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) signal priority strategies are often considered LRT vehicle delay reduction tools. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate LRT signal priority strategies to determine which strategies are most likely to produce significant delay reductions. A simulated median running LRT route in Austin, Texas is used for this case study. Both active and passive priority strategies are simulated using CORSIM with a Run-Time Extension (RTE). The RTE is used to provide the active priority signal timing changes associated with a green signal extension for the LRT phase. The results indicate that passive priority strategies are more effective in reducing delay. Among the passive methods, prohibition of left turns across the LRT tracks and one-way progression segmented to account for stops at LRT stations yield the best results.

  16. Ningbo Rail Transit Investment and Financing Mode of Ningbo Rail Transit Project with Some Suggestions%宁波轨道交通投融资思考与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林轶琼

    2015-01-01

    Rail transit projects take up large amount of construction funds, bring a heavy burden to the government. The financing source for Ningbo rail transit project is traditional pattern of "government + bank". This pattern cannot change the situation of too narrow financing channel for rail transit project, and the government still has to bear heavy pressure form project investment, rail operation and debt paying. However, Public-private partnership (PPP) mode has already been applied to rail transit projects and has left over good experience. PPP mode lets social capitals undertake the task of construction and operation for profitable parts of public projects, which takes advantage of social capitals’more professional at company management and risk taking,so that the government can return to the initial role of market supervision and social service.%轨道交通项目需要占用大量建设资金,给政府带来沉重的财政负担。宁波的轨道交通项目资金来源为传统的“政府+银行”模式。该模式无法改变宁波轨道交通投融资渠道狭窄的局面,政府依然承载投资、经营及还债的沉重压力。公私合作的PPP模式在轨道交通上已有良好的实践经验,该模式通过让社会资本承担轨道交通项目可营利部分的建设与运营,发挥了社会资本擅长经营、擅长承担风险的优势,让政府回到市场监督与社会服务的最初角色。

  17. Linkage between passenger demand and surrounding land-use patterns at urban rail transit stations: A canonical correlation analysis method and case study in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs a canonical correlation analysis method to quantify the linkage between urban rail transit station demand and the surrounding land-use patterns. It is used to identify key land use variables by evaluating their degrees of contribution to the rail transit station demand. A full month of IC card data and detailed regulatory land use plan from Chongqing, China are collected for model development and validation. The proposed model contributes to offering the capability of targeting key land use patterns and associating them with rail transit station boarding and alighting demand simultaneously. The proposed model can reveal underlying rules between rail transit station demand and land use variables and can be used to evaluate the Transit Oriented Development (TOD plans to improve land use and transit operational efficiency.

  18. On Safety Requirements of Design for Urban Rail Transit Based on Operating Practice%从运营实践探讨城市轨道交通设计的安全要求

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周捷

    2012-01-01

    China's urban rail transit has come into a stage of rapid development and the design of safety standard has proved to be the guarantee of operating security. This paper, based on the operating practice of urban rail transit, categorized and analyzed the potential safety hazard in daily operating, which may be caused by designing discrepancy. It explored the actual operating situations that should be focused during the planning and designing stage of city rail transit and proposed that improving the designing of the equipment and facility of city rail transit will lay a solid foundation for the operating safety management and build a connection and inter-complement between the designing and operating, hence to form a well-balanced safety control system of city rail transit and to ensure the safety of passengers and the longevity of city rail transit.%中国城市轨道交通已进入飞速发展期,为保证运营安全必须从安全标准和设计源头抓起。基于城市轨道交通运营管理中的实践经验,对设计中考虑不周而造成的运营安全隐患进行归类、分析,探讨城市轨道交通在规划设计阶段需要关注的若干重要问题。通过对城市轨道交通设施设备进行设计优化,使整个城市轨道交通安全体系更趋完善、合理,形成平衡的城市轨道交通安全管控体系,从而达到为运营安全管理奠定基础的目的。

  19. System diagnosis using finite memory observers: Common Rail application; Diagnostic des systemes a l'aide d'observateurs a memoire finie: application au Common Rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graton, G.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work was to propose a fault detection method on the high pressure direct injection system (called Common Rail system) set up on Diesel vehicles. The importance of the fault detection procedure implementation was highlighted thanks to the description of the stakes (lowers consumption, reduction in the pollutant emissions and sound, increase of performances) and constraints dependent on Common Rail (high pressure, high frequency, gas oil lubrication, high precision machining, standards EURO respect,...) but also through a listing of failures which can occur on Common Rail. A synthesis on the different diagnosis methods of systems contributed to select a fault detection method with expected performances (detection of fault beginning, detection speed, isolation and characterization of detected fault and minimizing false alarm and bad detections). After a detailed study (properties, sequential formulations and sensitivity study) of the selected detection method (finite memory observers) and a modeling of the Common Rail various bodies behavior, the algorithm of detection was tested on three different models of the system Common Rail. Moreover, the comparison between the finite memory observer and a Luenberger observer and a Kalman filter allow to appreciate the residual robustness degree. Obtained results allow to conclude on good detection of actuator and sensor faults. (author)

  20. Greater Paris Rail System%巴黎地区轨道交通系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sylviane DELMAS

    2007-01-01

    @@ Greater Paris is famous for its extensive metro and RER (express rail) system. By the end of 2006, there were 14 metro lines in Paris as illustrated in Figure 1, and 5 RER lines as illustrated in Figure 2.

  1. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in which stations are constructed in accordance with...

  2. Lubricity Doser Evaluation Studies on High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    high-pressure common rail system found on John Deere 4.5L Powertech Engines. The completion of a modified test protocol based on the NATO test cycle...Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel system found on a John Deere 4.5L PowetechPlus engine. The three fuels that were tested on the HPCR test rig with...for John Deere HPCR Pump Stand ............................................................................. 10 Table 3. Test Fuels and Summary of

  3. Toward a sectorwide design for environment support system for the rail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewulp, Wim; Duflou, Joost; Ander, Asa

    2004-08-01

    Rail has an important role to play in the development toward a sustainable transportation system. In this perspective, the European Brite Euram Project RAVEL (Rail Vehicle Eco-Efficient Design) has developed a rail sectorwide Design for Environment system to be used and standardized throughout the full supply chain. At the core of the system, quantitative environmental performance indicators for rail vehicles and components are used to incorporate environmental performance target levels in the product requirements and to measure and communicate achieved environmental performance. The concept of eco-efficiency is used to integrate both environmental and economical considerations. The methodology further builds on a standardized material list, standardized data formats, and proactive design guidance. To date, first steps are already taken to integrate the RAVEL project results into sector initiatives toward industrywide acceptance and standardization.

  4. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  5. 太阳能光伏发电在城市轨道交通中的应用%Application of Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周超

    2013-01-01

    分析将太阳能光伏发电应用到城市轨道交通的必要性,介绍光伏发电系统的原理、组成及应用现状.结合城市轨道交通的特点,提出适合城市轨道交通的光伏发电系统方案,并指出在应用中需注意的相关问题,为太阳能光伏发电在城市轨道交通中的应用提供指导.%On the basis of analyzing the necessity of applying solar photovoltaics to generate electricity for urban rail transit systems, the paper introduces the principles, composition and application of solar photovoltaics system. Considering the characteristics of urban rail transit, this paper proposes the options of solar photovoltaic technology adaptable to urban rail transit, and points out relevant issues to be addressed. This will provide effective guidance for the application of solar photovoltaic system in urban rail transit.

  6. Transfer benefit model between rail transit and bus transit%轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 严新平; 李旭宏; 吴超仲

    2011-01-01

    为给公共交通票价票制的整合提供决策参考,从理论上研究了轨道交通与常规公交换乘优惠问题。根据福利经济学理论,分析了轨道交通与常规公交运营协调系统的消费者剩余和生产者剩余;并以社会福利最大化为目标,建立了换乘优惠的非线性规划模型,同时给出了模型求解步骤,以确定轨道交通与常规公交运营协调方向、换乘优惠率、同步发车间隔和车辆衔接富余时间等决策变量。结合算例,对比分析了协调控制情况下换乘优惠实施前后换乘网络的运营效果。结果表明,实行换乘优惠能增加整个运营系统的社会福利,其中消费者剩余和生产者剩余分别增加了7.13%和2.95%。%Transfer benefit between rail transit and bus transit is studied in theory for providing a reference for the integration of public transport fares.According to the theory of welfare economics,the consumer surplus and producer surplus of coordination system between rail transit and bus transit are analyzed.And taking maximizing social welfare as the target,a nonlinear programming model for transfer benefit is proposed.At the same time,the steps to solve the model are introduced to determine the decision-making variables such as coordination direction,transfer discount rate,common headway and slack time.Based on the example,the comparative analysis is performed on operation effect of transfer network before and after the implementation of transfer benefit under coordination control.The results show that the implementation of transfer benefit can increase social welfare of operation system,the consumer surplus and producer surplus are increased 7.13% and 2.95% respectively.4 tabs,12 refs.

  7. Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2013-07-23

    Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  8. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  10. Modified stochastic user-equilibrium assignment algorithm for urban rail transit under network operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炜; 胡昊; 徐瑞华; 洪玲

    2013-01-01

    Based on the framework of method of successive averages(MSA), a modified stochastic user-equilibrium assignment algorithm was proposed, which can be used to calculate the passenger flow distribution of urban rail transit(URT) under network operation. In order to describe the congestion’s impact to passengers’ route choices, a generalized cost function with in-vehicle congestion was set up. Building on the k-th shortest path algorithm, a method for generating choice set with time constraint was embedded, considering the characteristics of network operation. A simple but efficient route choice model, which was derived from travel surveys for URT passengers in China, was introduced to perform the stochastic network loading at each iteration in the algorithm. Initial tests on the URT network in Shanghai City show that the methodology, with rational calculation time, promises to compute more precisely the passenger flow distribution of URT under network operation, compared with those practical algorithms used in today’s China.

  11. Energy stores and switches for rail-launcher systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, W. F.; Zowarka, R. C.; Marshall, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    An overview of existing switch and power supply technology applicable to space launch, a new candidate pulsed power supply for Earth-to-space rail launcher duty, the inverse railgun flux compressor, and a set of switching experiments to study further the feasibility of Earth-to-space launch are discussed.

  12. Stationary Charging Station Design for Sustainable Urban Rail Systems: A Case Study at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, more than 43 cities in China were racing to construct their urban rail systems (including metro and light rail systems, recognizing that an urban rail system will be a good solution to the tough problems that they are faced with, including traffic congestion and PM2.5 air pollution. On 22 August 2012, the first electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC energy storage-type rail vehicle in the world was unveiled at Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China. The EDLC rail system has been considered a promising sustainable urban rail system, which is expected to further improve the energy efficiency and to reduce environmental pollution. The first commercial EDLC tram produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co. has been applied at Guangzhou Metro Corp. recently. From the view point of scientific research, the system design and energy management of EDLC rail systems have been extensively studied in the literature, while the stationary charging station design for the EDLC energy storage-type urban rail vehicles has been rarely reported. Thus, the aim of this paper is to report a stationary charging station that has been successfully applied in the EDLC rail system produced by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., China.

  13. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  14. Improving green roofs and rail road greening systems using Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüneberg, H; Oschmann, C; Dunya, S; Ulrichs, C

    2006-01-01

    Aim of the present study was the improvement of existing methods for green roof and rail road greening systems using soil borne bacteria. Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus ssp. alone and in combination with vinasse applied to different growing substrates were tested. The substrates were brick chips, textile mats, mineral wool mats, and a commercial available substrate for the Swedish company VegTech. All four substrates were tested along an artificial rail track on the experimental station at Humboldt University Berlin, and partly on an existing rail track in Munich, Germany. Plants selected for the experiments belong to the genus Sedum, which is relatively tolerant to dry conditions. Inoculation of plants with bacteria had no effect on plant growth parameters and on coverage of different mobile bedding systems with Sedum plants. There was no significant difference between the various treatments in Munich. In both experiments, the addition of vinasse alone improved plant growth. Plant growth was significantly different on all substrates, whereas brick chips and the commercial roof soil was the best substrate. Brick chips are a cheap substrate which can be used for rail track greening. The results indicate that the quality of the substrate is the most important factor for remediation and greening of rail tracks and roof tops. The rapid growth of plants can be influenced by the application of vinasse as additional nutrient solution (potash (K) source) or nutrient enriched substrate.

  15. A multimedia streaming system for urban rail environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poderys, Justas; Farooq, Jahanzeb; Soler, José

    2017-01-01

    network connections by using the excessive Communications-Based Train Control (CBTC) radio link bandwidth to deliver multimedia streams to a train, where it is subsequently distributed to the passengers using peer-to-peer based data distribution. Connections among the train passengers are implemented...... using the Wi-Fi Direct connectivity and data exchange is coordinated by using the Peer-to-Peer Streaming Peer Protocol. This work presents the solution and evaluates it in the scope of urban rail deployment. Network emulation tests are used to analyze the factors impacting the number of concurrent users...

  16. A Survey on the HFE-related Technologies for the Improvements of Human Performance of Safety Personnel in Rail System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, I. S.; Park, G. O.; Suh, S. M.; Sim, Y. R.; Go, J. H.; Jeong, J. H.; Son, C. H

    2005-08-15

    Many studies have shown that the most cases of rail accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state-of-the-art report describes three major HFE-related technologies, training simulator, the integrated test facility for human factors engineering, and human performance evaluation system, that are used in the other industries including nuclear power industry for the purpose of increasing rail safety through out the improvement of human task performance. Base on this report, the way of developing those technologies that should be applied to the korean rail system is presented.

  17. The production of the rail system. Towards a historical IDE of rail heritage of Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ferreira Lopes

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation of the Andalucia railway heritage through the application of a Geographic Information System (GIS, which based on the historical creation of a spatial data infrastructure (SDI of railways in Andalucia, open and expands its spatiotemporal vision.

  18. Light Rail and Subway Stations, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Stations, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Stations dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described...

  19. Light Rail and Subway Lines, MTA's Metro and Light Rail Lines, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Light Rail and Subway Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as...

  20. Toward quantifying metrics for rail-system resilience : Identification and analysis of performance weak resilience signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, A. de; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance tangibility of the resilience engineering concept by facilitating understanding and operationalization of weak resilience signals (WRSs) in the rail sector. Within complex socio-technical systems, accidents can be seen as unwanted outcomes emerging from uncontrolled source

  1. Toward quantifying metrics for rail-system resilience : Identification and analysis of performance weak resilience signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regt, A. de; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance tangibility of the resilience engineering concept by facilitating understanding and operationalization of weak resilience signals (WRSs) in the rail sector. Within complex socio-technical systems, accidents can be seen as unwanted outcomes emerging from uncontrolled

  2. Cost Control Analysis of Urban Rail Transit Project%城市轨道交通工程造价控制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李定涓

    2015-01-01

    随着当前社会经济的快速发展,轨道交通在城市的发展当中发挥着举足轻重的作用。城市轨道交通因其容量大、速度快、安全、环保、准时、舒适等特点,成为一种有效解决城市交通问题必不可少的交通工具。城市轨道交通建设速度及规模不断加大,截止2014年末,我国累计有22个城市建成投运城轨线路101条,运营线路长度3155公里。但因为城市轨道交通造价太大,一定程度上制约了其建设与发展,因此分析研究城市轨道交通工程造价的控制具有重要的现实性意义。%With the current rapid social and economic development, the rail transit plays a pivotal role in development of city. For its large capacity, high speed, safety, environmental protection, punctuality and comfort features, urban rail transit has become an effective and indispensable means for solving the urban transport problems. The construction speed and scale of urban rail transit continues to increase, and at the end of 2014, China's 22 cities has built 101 urban rail transit lines, and the total length of lines reaches 3155 km. But because of the large cost of urban rail transit, its construction and development is restricted to a certain extent, so the analysis of urban rail transit project cost control has important practical significance.

  3. Urban Rail Transit Cost Control%城市轨道交通工程造价控制措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建群

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of large capacity,fast and environmental transportation,rail transit has been widely used in big cities worldwide.Now,subway construction in our big cities has entered in a big wave.This paper analyzed and researched the problems that too high rail transit project cost,low initiative and poor measure of cost control,etc.Then,this paper presented the project cost overall process control idea and corresponding control measures in each stage.%轨道交通作为一种大运量、快捷、环保的交通工具,在全世界范围内的大城市已经广泛应用,目前我国各大城市进入地铁建设高潮期。此文针对全国轨道交通工程造价过高、造价控制的主动性不强及措施不利等问题进行分析与研究,提出工程造价全过程控制理念和各阶段控制造价的相应措施。

  4. 基于GIS的城市轨道交通与土地利用协调研究%Study on Coordination between Urban Rail Transit and Land Use Based on GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭沙沙; 吴小萍; 梅盛

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: At present, the construction of rail transit is into peak period in China. However, the research on coordination between rail transit network and land use is relatively backward. This paper offers a coordinating evaluation system to help make a plan of reasonable rail transit network and develop the land along the rail transit.Research conclusions: At first, two appraisal target systems for urban rail transit network and land use were put forward. Based on these appraisal target systems, with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) a coordination degree model was established. Then taking VB2005 as the platform, the GIS - based coordinating evaluation system between urban rail transit network and land use was established by making the secondary development with AreGIS Engine9. 2. For the plan and construction of the rail transit of the Changsha - Zhuzhou - Xiangtan city cycle, the six decision units were used to calculate the coordination degrees between the rail transit plan and the land use with coordinating evaluation system.We can draw a conclusion from the analysis that the coordinating value is less than 6, it is out of line; the coordinating value is in 0.6 -0.8 in 2009,2013 and 2014, it is in the basic coordinating status; the coordinating value is more than 0.8 in 2015, it is in the coordinating status.%研究目的:目前国内轨道交通进入建设高峰期,但轨道交通线网规划与土地利用之间的协调研究却相对滞后.本文通过研究建立协调评价系统,有助于轨道交通线网合理规划和沿线土地合理开发.研究结论:本文首先提出城市轨道交通线网与土地利用各自的评价指标体系,基于这两个指标体系,用数据包络分析方法(DEA)构建协调度模型.然后以VB2005为平台、结合ArcGIS Engine9.2组件技术进行二次开发,建立了基于地理信息系统(GIS)的城市轨道交通与土地利用协调评价系统.以长株潭城际轨道交通的规划建设为实

  5. A systems approach to energy management and policy in commuter rail transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owan, Ransome Egimine

    1998-12-01

    This research is motivated by a recognition of energy as a significant part of the transportation problem. Energy is a long-term variable cost that is controllable. The problem is comprised of: the limited supply of energy, chronic energy deficits and oil imports, energy cost, poor fuel substitution, and the undesirable environmental effects of transportation fuels (Green House Gases and global warming). Mass transit systems are energy intensive networks and energy is a direct constraint to the supply of affordable transportation. Commuter railroads are also relatively unresponsive to energy price changes due to travel demand patterns, firm power needs and slow adoption of efficient train technologies. However, the long term energy demand is lacking in existing transportation planning philosophy. In spite of the apparent oversight, energy is as important as urban land use, funding and congestion, all of which merit explicit treatment. This research was conducted in the form of a case study of New Jersey Transit in an attempt to broaden the understanding of the long-term effects of energy in a transportation environment. The systems approach method that is driven by heuristic models was utilized to investigate energy usage, transit peer group efficiency, energy management regimes, and the tradeoffs between energy and transportation, a seldom discussed topic in the field. Implicit in systems thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into thinking is the methodological hunt for solutions. The energy problem was divided into smaller parts that in turn were simpler to solve. The research presented five heuristic models: Transit Energy Aggregation Model, Structural Energy Consumption Model, Traction Power Consumption Model, Conjunctive Demand Model, and a Managerial Action Module. A putative relationship was established between traction energy, car-miles, seasonal and ambient factors, without inference of direct causality. The co

  6. A Screening Method for Passenger Flow Bottleneck in Rail Transit Station Based on Reverse Search%基于逆向搜索的轨道交通车站客流瓶颈筛选方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏荷香; 刘尔辉

    2015-01-01

    在城市轨道交通客流量急剧增加的同时,城市轨道交通车站的相关设施设备也暴露了严重的集散能力瓶颈问题。为了研究以设施疏散能力为基础的静态瓶颈识别方法,改善轨道交通车站客流组织方案内容,结合通行能力的理论计算方法,提出了一种基于逆向搜索筛选出车站客流瓶颈的方法:通过模拟乘客在车站的走行路径,结合各设备及通道等部位的通行能力,运用逆推的方法来找到车站疏散体系的瓶颈节点。最后,根据广州地铁三号线市桥站的车站空间结构和设施最大通行能力,进行了算法的实际应用。结果表明,该车站的客流瓶颈与实际观测的可能拥堵点相吻合,验证了方法的可用性和有效性。%While passenger traffic flow of urban rail transit increased dramatically, the related facilities and equipment of rail transit stations also emerged the serious bottleneck of distributed capacity. In or⁃der to study the static bottleneck identification method based on the evacuation ability of rail transit facil⁃ities and improve the organization program of passenger flow in rail transit station, a screening method for passenger flow bottleneck in rail transit station based on the reverse search was proposed combined with the theoretical calculation of traffic capacity. By simulating passengers′travelling routes in rail tran⁃sit station and considering the traffic capacity of the channel and equipment, the bottleneck nodes of sta⁃tion evacuation system could be found using the reverse method. Finally, the method was applied in actu⁃al according to the station space structures and facilities maximum traffic capacity of Shiqiao Station in Guangzhou Metro Line Three. The results show that the passenger flow bottlenecks coincide with the po⁃tential congestion points by actual observation. The availability and effectiveness of the method have been verified.

  7. Building an Efficient Urban Rail Transit Network with Three Themes:Humanity, Technology and Greenness%用三大理念构建高效城市轨道交通网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑毅; 王燕凯; 孔令洋

    2011-01-01

    在近几年的北京市轨道交通网络规划、线路设计等前期工作中,通过践行"人文、科技、绿色"三大理念,构建集约、高效的城市轨道交通网络,取得初步成效.采取构建第二环线、创新郊区线的衔接原则、引入快线系统、完善换乘条件、做好交通衔接等措施,优化线网功能,以乘客服务为本,提高服务水平.在指挥调度、车辆基地、综合通信、界面标识等方面,通过科技创新,实现资源的集约利用.探索现代有轨电车、中低速磁浮等车辆制式的应用,引领未来绿色轨道交通系统的发展.%During the network planning and design of Beijing urban rail transit, three themes-humanity, technology and greenness-were applied to build an efficient urban rail transit network. Firstly, try to realize passenger-oriented rail transit system by setting a second loop line, innovating linking with suburban lines, introducing rapid lines and optimizing transfer and connection.Secondly, try to enforce resource sharing through technological innovations in operation control and management, car depots,integrated communication, interface and guiding signals. Thirdly, try to apply modern trams and medium-low-speed maglev trains, to guide the development of future green rail transit system.

  8. 城市轨道交通数字化管理技术方案研究%STUDY ON A TECHNICAL SOLUTION FOR DIGITALISATION MANAGERNENT OF URBAN RAIL TRANSIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯娟; 李玉建

    2014-01-01

    There is still certain difference in regard to digitalisation management of urban rail transit comparing with the developed countries at present.How to enhance further the management efficiency for the construction and operation of domestic urban rail transit has become a pursuit of goal in domestic urban rail transit industry.Digitalisation management is an effective way to reach the goal.In this paper we discuss and plan an overall software architecture of urban railway transit information construction,and propose a technical solution which realises the integration of production information system,communication network and the application of enterprise management information resource,all for urban railway transit lines.The solution has the application characteristics of multi-line single-centre,multi-net in-one and multi-system integration,thus makes the digitalisation management of urban rail transit cover many application functions such as commanding, scheduling,operation,services,management and etc.It is an important development trend for the digitalisation construction of modern urban rail transit.%目前国内城市轨道交通的数字化管理水平相比发达国家仍存在一定的差距。如何进一步提高国内城市轨道交通建设和运营的管理效率已成为国内城市轨道交通行业的追求目标。数字化管理是实现这一目标的有效途径。探讨和规划城市轨道交通信息化建设的总体软件构架,提出实现集城市轨道交通线路生产信息系统、通信网络和企业管理信息资源应用于一体的技术解决方案。该方案具有多线一中心、多网合一和多系统集成的应用特点,使城市轨道交通数字化管理覆盖指挥、调度、运营、服务和管理等诸多应用功能,是现代城市轨道交通数字化建设的重要发展趋势。

  9. Development of a Calibration and Monitoring System for GD-1 High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊席; 杨林; 冯静; 冒晓建; 卓斌

    2004-01-01

    Based on CAN calibration protocol, a new calibration and monitoring system was developed for the GD1 high pressure common rail diesel engine. CAN driver block, monitoring program and calibration program for this system were designed respectively. The inquiry mode was used in the monitoring program and the interrupt mode was used in calibration program. The calibration program was designed in structural programming model. This system provides a reliable, accurate and quick CAN bus between ECU and PC, with baud rate up to 500Kbit/s.The implementation of the compatible and universal CAN calibration protocol makes it easy to displace the system and its function modules. It also provides friendly, compatible and flexible calibration interface, and the functions of online calibration and real-time monitoring. This system was successfully used in a GD-1 high pressure common rail diesel engine and the engine performance and exhaust emissions were significantly improved.

  10. Design and analysis of the hybrid excitation rail eddy brake system of high-speed trains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-en MA; Bin ZHANG; Xiao-yan HUANG; You-tong FANG; Wen-ping CAO

    2011-01-01

    Compared to the current eddy braking patterns using a single magnetic source,hybrid excitation rail eddy brakes have many advantages,such as controllability,energy saving,and various operating models.Considering the large braking power consumption of the high-speed train,a hybrid excitation rail eddy brake system,which is based on the principle of electromagnetic field,is proposed to fulfill the needs of safety and reliability.Then the working processes of the mechanical lifting system and electromagnetic system are demonstrated.With the electromagnetic system analyzed using the finite element method,the factors such as speed,air gap,and exciting current have influences on the braking force and attractive force.At last,the structure optimization of the brake system is discussed.

  11. Multi-Train Energy Saving for Maximum Usage of Regenerative Energy by Dwell Time Optimization in Urban Rail Transit Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With its large capacity, the total urban rail transit energy consumption is very high; thus, energy saving operations are quite meaningful. The effective use of regenerative braking energy is the mainstream method for improving the efficiency of energy saving. This paper examines the optimization of train dwell time and builds a multiple train operation model for energy conservation of a power supply system. By changing the dwell time, the braking energy can be absorbed and utilized by other traction trains as efficiently as possible. The application of genetic algorithms is proposed for the optimization, based on the current schedule. Next, to validate the correctness and effectiveness of the optimization, a real case is studied. Actual data from the Beijing subway Yizhuang Line are employed to perform the simulation, and the results indicate that the optimization method of the dwell time is effective.

  12. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  13. Analysis on Cost of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通成本构成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文兴; 尹帅

    2012-01-01

    现今,城市轨道交通以其安全舒适、快捷高效、节能环保等优点,成为解决城市交通拥挤问题最有效的途径之一.但是轨道交通项目成本造价高,运营维护费用贵,以及运行带来的诸如噪声污染与电磁干扰等社会问题,成为制约轨道交通健康发展的“瓶颈”.本文以北京市地铁4号线为例,系统地分析研究了城市轨道交通的内部成本和外部成本.依据价值链理论,把内部成本细化为前期规划设计成本、建设成本和运营成本;把外部成本分为空气污染、交通事故和噪声污染三个方面,并且将外部成本定量化.该研究有助于准确计算出城市轨道交通的总成本,为政府制定票价提供依据;同时使城市轨道交通满足经济资源、社会资源和环境资源的可持续发展.%Nowadays,urban rail transit has been the most effective solution to traffic congestion because of its fast,efficient,safe,energy saving and environmental protecting characteristics. However,the high cost of rail projects and the operation maintenance, together with the social problems brought by the urban rail transit such as noise pollution, traffic accidents and air pollution have become the "bottleneck" of its healthy development. This paper systematically analyzes the internal and the external costs of Beijing Subway line 4 as an example. Based on the value chain theory, the internal cost is divided into preliminary planning and designing cost,constructing cost and operating cost. On the other hand,the external cost is classified into the cost of air pollution,traffic accident and noise pollution. The external cost is quantified,incorporated into the total cost of rail transportation as well. This research provides the basis for the government to formulate the fare by accurate calculation of the total cost of urban rail transit. Moreover, this research promotes the sustainable development of economic resources,social resources and

  14. Research on Minimum Curve Radius of Urban Rail Transit in Different Operating Modes%不同运行模式下的市域轨道交通最小曲线半径研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华玮; 韩春华

    2016-01-01

    市域轨道交通在我国尚处于起步阶段,实际工程运用较少,国内各种规范均不适用,对市域轨道交通线路最小曲线半径进行研究具有重要意义。在传统的线路设计参数计算方法的基础上,基于不同的运营模式和乘坐模式,分不同速度匹配模型进行研究,并通过与其他常规轨道交通制式进行对比,结合舒适度分析,对市域轨道交通的计算结果进行优化改正,给出不同速度下线路最小曲线半径的建议值。%In view of the fact that the domestic urban rapid rail transit is still in its infancy with few practical engineering application and none of the available norms are applicable, the research on the minimum curve radius of urban rail transit lines is of great significance. Based on the traditional circuit design parameter calculation method, the paper conducts the modeling of different operating and riding modes in terms of different speeds, and optimizes the calculation results of urban rail transit by means of comparison with other conventional rail transit systems and riding comfort analysis. The minimum curve radiuses for lines under different speeds are recommended.

  15. Dynamics of high speed wheel/rail system and its modelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ShuGuang; ZHANG WeiHua; JIN XueSong

    2007-01-01

    With the fast increasing of train speed the interactions among the train, the track, and the power catenary system become very strong. Such interactions are also strongly coupled with the action of high speed airflow due to the high speed running. Hence, the existing research methods and numerical algorithms of railway vehicle/track systems are not fully available for characterizing the transient dynamic and long-term behaviors of train/track at higher speed. The present paper reviews the existing studies on coupling dynamics of railway vehicle/track, and clarifies their advantages and disadvantages and then puts forward an innovation stratagem for high speed railway based on rolling contact of wheel/rail systems. In the innovation stratagem, a comprehensive dynamic model of wheels/rails systems is developed to simultaneously consider the track system, the train, the rolling contact of wheel/rail, the catenary/pantograph system, and the high speed airflow with the train. The motion equations of the subsystems and their coupling boundaries are given and discussed. For the reliability and safety of the high speed train in service, the long-term behavior of the structures of the train and the track is considered in the comprehensive model. Moreover, a generalized failure model, considering the structures and the materials and working in the comprehensive dynamic model of wheels/rails system, as well as the simulation system of structure failure of the high speed train/track is established.Consequently, the present studies on the dynamics of the coupled vehicle/track will be further and largely extended.

  16. Rail-Guided Multi-Robot System for 3D Cellular Hydrogel Assembly with Coordinated Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks with multi-nanomanipulator coordinated manipulation is one of the central elements of nanomanipulation. A novel rail-guided nanomanipulation system was proposed for the assembly of a cellular vascular-like hydrogel microchannel. The system was equipped with three nanomanipulators and was restricted on the rail in order to realize the arbitrary change of the end-effectors during the assembly. It was set up with hybrid motors to achieve both a large operating space and a 30 nm positional resolution. The 2D components such as the assembly units were fabricated through the encapsulation of cells in the hydrogel. The coordinated manipulation strategies among the multi-nanomanipulators were designed with vision feedback and were demonstrated through the bottom-up assembly of the vascular-like microtube. As a result, the multi-layered microchannel was assembled through the cooperation of the nanomanipulation system.

  17. Rail-guided Multi-robot System for 3D Cellular Hydrogel Assembly with Coordinated Nanomanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaping Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 3D assembly of micro-/nano-building blocks with multi-nanomanipulator coordinated manipulation is one of the central elements of nanomanipulation. A novel rail-guided nanomanipulation system was proposed for the assembly of a cellular vascular-like hydrogel microchannel. The system was equipped with three nanomanipulators and was restricted on the rail in order to realize the arbitrary change of the end-effectors during the assembly. It was set up with hybrid motors to achieve both a large operating space and a 30 nm positional resolution. The 2D components such as the assembly units were fabricated through the encapsulation of cells in the hydrogel. The coordinated manipulation strategies among the multi-nanomanipulators were designed with vision feedback and were demonstrated through the bottom-up assembly of the vascular-like microtube. As a result, the multi-layered microchannel was assembled through the cooperation of the nanomanipulation system.

  18. Recycle of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle Braking Energy%城市轨道交通车辆再生制动能量的回收利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何治新

    2013-01-01

    By analyzing the recycle of urban rail transit vehicle braking energy,3 main systems are enumerated:the consumption type,energy storage type and feedback inverter type,their economic and technical characters are compared.The feedback inverter type is mainly analyzed,in which the mature technique,localization level and economic benefit could meet the needs of rail transit construction and development in China,and thus has a broad application prospect:In determining a recycle scheme,it is necessary to make a technical comparison in order to ensure social and economic benefits.%介绍了城市轨道交通车辆再生制动能量回收利用方式中的消耗型、储能型和逆变回馈型三种系统方案,并比较分析了三种系统方案的经济技术性.重点分析了逆变回馈型车辆再生制动能量回收利用方案.采用逆变回馈型车辆制动能量回收装置,在技术成熟度、国产化水平、经济效益等方面均适合我国城市轨道交通工程建设运营的发展需要,是工程应用的方向.在确定车辆制动能量回收装置设置方案时,应进行经济技术比较,以确定合理的设置方案,保证社会效益与经济效益均优.

  19. Official Telephone System and Its Network Implementation in Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通公务电话系统及其组网实施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柏钟

    2012-01-01

    结合宁波城市轨道交通1号线,对通信公务电话系统组网构成进行介绍,描述系统及设备的保护配置、主要功能、系统升级和扩容方案等,并提出系统实施的注意事项.%With Ningbo metro Line 1 as the background, this article introduces file network composition of official telephone communication system and elaborates the protection configuration, functions, system upgrading and capacity expansion programs of the system and equipment, etc. Considerations about system implementation are also presented.

  20. 轨道交通综合监控系统维护管理功能的实现%Implement of Maintenance Management Function of Rail Transit Integrated Monitor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙丽妲

    2012-01-01

    针对综合监控系统(ISCS)维护管理功能的实现,介绍维护管理子系统的软、硬件构成和数据流设计。%According to implement of maintenance function of integrated monitor system (ISCS), the structure of software and hardware of maintenance management sub system and design of the data flow are introduced.

  1. Ride performance of a high speed rail vehicle using controlled semi active suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil Kumar; Kumar, Anil

    2017-05-01

    The rail-wheel interaction in a rail vehicle running at high speed results in large amplitude vibration of carbody that deteriorates the ride comfort of travellers. The role of suspension system is crucial to provide an acceptable level of ride performance. In this context, an existing rail vehicle is modelled in vertical, pitch and roll motions of carbody and bogies. Additionally, nonlinear stiffness and damping parameters of passive suspension system are defined based on experimental data. In the secondary vertical suspension system, a magneto-rheological (MR) damper is included to improve the ride quality and comfort. The parameters of MR damper depend on the current, amplitude and frequency of excitations. At different running speeds, three semi-active suspension strategies with MR damper are analysed for periodic track irregularity and the resulting performance indices are juxtaposed with the nonlinear passive suspension system. The disturbance rejection and force tracking damper controller algorithms are applied to control the desired force of MR damper. This study reveals that the vertical vibrations of a vehicle can be reduced significantly by using the proposed semi-active suspension strategies. Moreover, it naturally results in improved ride quality and passenger’s comfort in comparison to the existing passive system.

  2. Management and Evaluation System on Human Error, Licence Requirements, and Job-aptitude in Rail and the Other Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, In Soo; Suh, S. M.; Park, G. O. (and others)

    2006-07-15

    Rail system is a system that is very closely related to the public life. When an accident happens, the public using this system should be injured or even be killed. The accident that recently took place in Taegu subway system, because of the inappropriate human-side task performance, showed demonstratively how its results could turn out to be tragic one. Many studies have shown that the most cases of the accidents have occurred because of performing his/her tasks in inappropriate way. It is generally recognised that the rail system without human element could never be happened quite long time. So human element in rail system is going to be the major factor to the next tragic accident. This state of the art report studied the cases of the managements and evaluation systems related to human errors, license requirements, and job aptitudes in the areas of rail and the other industries for the purpose of improvement of the task performance of personnel which consists of an element and finally enhancement of rail safety. The human errors, license requirements, and evaluation system of the job aptitude on people engaged in agencies with close relation to rail do much for development and preservation their abilities. But due to various inside and outside factors, to some extent it may have limitations to timely reflect overall trends of society, technology, and a sense of value. Removal and control of the factors of human errors will have epochal roles in safety of the rail system through the case studies of this report. Analytical results on case studies of this report will be used in the project 'Development of Management Criteria on Human Error and Evaluation Criteria on Job-aptitude of Rail Safe-operation Personnel' which has been carried out as a part of 'Integrated R and D Program for Railway Safety'.

  3. More than meets the eye: Using cognitive work analysis to identify design requirements for future rail level crossing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G; Read, Gemma J M; Mulvihill, Christine M; Cornelissen, Miranda; Walker, Guy H; Young, Kristie L; Stevens, Nicholas; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    An increasing intensity of operations means that the longstanding safety issue of rail level crossings is likely to become worse in the transport systems of the future. It has been suggested that the failure to prevent collisions may be, in part, due to a lack of systems thinking during design, crash analysis, and countermeasure development. This paper presents a systems analysis of current active rail level crossing systems in Victoria, Australia that was undertaken to identify design requirements to improve safety in future rail level crossing environments. Cognitive work analysis was used to analyse rail level crossing systems using data derived from a range of activities. Overall the analysis identified a range of instances where modification or redesign in line with systems thinking could potentially improve behaviour and safety. A notable finding is that there are opportunities for redesign outside of the physical rail level crossing infrastructure, including improved data systems, in-vehicle warnings and modifications to design processes, standards and guidelines. The implications for future rail level crossing systems are discussed.

  4. Theoretical Basis and Framework Design of Urban Rail Transit Safety Certification System%城市轨道交通安全认证制度的理论基础与框架设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗曦; 林娜; 李枫

    2013-01-01

    According to the basic theories of economics and management, the theoretical foundation of UMT safety certification system is analyzed, which consists of information asymmetries theory, public goods theory and credit theory. After revealing the operation mechanism of this system, the framework design of UMT safety certification system is also made clear, it should include government regulatory system, information transmission mechanism and credit management mechanism.%运用经济学和管理学的基本原理,分析并指出城市轨道交通安全认证制度构建的理论基础在于信息不对称理论、公共物品理论和信用理论.揭示了安全认证制度的运行机理.给出了城市轨道交通安全认证制度框架设计的要点,主要包括政府监管体系、信息传递机制和信用管理机制等三方面.

  5. 城市轨道交通地下停车场水消防系统研究%Fire Water System for the Urban Rail Transit Underground Parking Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓雪

    2015-01-01

    为节约土地,提高土地的综合利用率,考虑建造轨道交通地下停车场,但地下停车场消防设计是难点遥本文通过对深圳轨道交通9号线笔架山地下停车场不同防火分区的火灾特点进行分析,研究了水消防各个系统的设置,进行了水量计算,最后总结了消防设计应注意的问题。%In order to save the land use and also to increase the usage of land, building the underground metro parking is considered. But the fire service system is difficult for the parking design. Through the research for the Bi Jia Shan Metro Parking Lot in Shen Zhen Metro Line Nine, this essay aims to study the setting of different fire ser-vice systems and also to propose a water quantity calculation method. Then it summarizes the important issues relat-ed to the fire service systems design.

  6. 城市轨道交通外部效益内部化分析%Studies on the Internalization of External Benefits of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆辉

    2012-01-01

    由于城市轨道交通有着明显的外部效益,其效益主要流向交通利用者、沿线房地产商或沿线居民,而轨道交通建设及运营的投资方却没有得到相应的外部效益。通过分析城市轨道交通外部效益存在着外溢效应,接着对外部效益内部化的模型进行研究,最后提出城市轨道交通外部效益内部化相关建议。%As the external benefit of urban rail transit is obvious,and the benefit belongs to traffic persons,the real estate business and residents along the rail lines.However,investors for construction and operation of urban rail transit don't get their own benefits.This thesis analyzes spill over effect of external benefits of urban rail transit.Then,it studies internal model of external benefits.Finally,the thesis provides some relevant suggestions.

  7. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiahong; Liu, Chong; Ren, Tongqun; Liu, Haixia; Zhou, Wenjing

    2017-02-08

    The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management.

  8. Online Condition Monitoring of a Rail Fastening System on High-Speed Railways Based on Wavelet Packet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The rail fastening system is an important part of a high-speed railway track. It is always critical to the operational safety and comfort of railway vehicles. Therefore, the condition detection of the rail fastening system, looseness or absence, is an important task in railway maintenance. However, the vision-based method cannot identify the severity of rail fastener looseness. In this paper, the condition of rail fastening system is monitored based on an automatic and remote-sensing measurement system. Meanwhile, wavelet packet analysis is used to analyze the acceleration signals, based on which two damage indices are developed to locate the damage position and evaluate the severity of rail fasteners looseness, respectively. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, an experiment is performed on a high-speed railway experimental platform. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective to assess the condition of the rail fastening system. The monitoring system significantly reduces the inspection time and increases the efficiency of maintenance management.

  9. 我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进:由等级到协同%Evolution of Metropolitan Rail Transit Network Structure in China:From Hierarchy to Synergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小君

    2015-01-01

    大都市区轨道交通网络在新型城镇化、工业化、运输化快速推进过程中的基础作用毋庸置疑。而针对目前我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进过程中存在服务半径与大都市区交通需求分布不一致的问题,应重视从协同发展视角而非等级视角来明晰轨道交通网络结构中线路与节点的转变内容及特征,重新确立市郊铁路及重要节点在我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演进过程中的地位与作用,补充完善我国大都市区轨道交通网络结构演变的指标内容,以期推进我国大都市区轨道交通网络演进过程的顺利进行。%Metropolitan rail transit network plays a foundational role in promoting the fast development of new-type urbanization ,industrialization and transportation .In response to the inconsistency between the service radius and the distribution of metropolitan transportation needs the evolution of metropolitan rail transit network in China ,this paper argues that the perspective of synergy rather than that of hierarchy shall be taken to fulfill three purposes ,namely ,to clarify the transformation and features of the lines and the nodes in rail transit network ,to re-establish the status and functions of suburban railway and important nodes and to complete the index system of the structural evolution of metropolitan rail transit network .It is hoped thus the evolution of metropolitan rail transit network in China can be promoted .

  10. Station Model for Rail Transit System Using Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUN Jing; NING Bin; LI Ke-Ping

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the railway traffic at station.Based on NaSch model, the proposed station model is composed of the main track and the siding track.Two different schemes for trains passing through station are considered.One is the scheme of "pass by the main track, start and stop by the siding track".The other is the scheme of "two tracks play the same role".We simulate the train movement using the proposed model and analyze the traffic flow at station.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed cellular automata model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Some characteristic behaviors of railway traffic flow can be reproduced.Moreover, the simulation values of the minimum headway are close to the theoretical values.This result demonstrates the dependability and availability of the proposed model.

  11. Dynamic responses of bridge-approach embankment transition section of high-speed rail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨长卫; 孙海玲; 张建经; 朱传彬; 颜利平

    2013-01-01

    Based on the vehicle track coupling dynamics theory, a new spatial dynamic numerical model of vehicle track subgrade coupling system was established considering the interaction among different structural layers in the subgrade system. The dynamic responses of the coupled system were analyzed when the speed of train was 350 km/h and the transition was filled with graded broken stones mixed with 5% cement. The results indicate that the setting form of bridge-approach embankment section has little effect on the dynamic responses, thus designers can choose it on account of the practical circumstances. Because the location about 5 m from the bridge abutment has the greatest deformation, the stiffness within 0 5 m zone behind the abutment should be specially designed. The results of the study from vehicle track dynamics show that the maximum allowable track deflection angle should be 0.09% and the coefficient of subgrade reaction(K30) is greater than 190 MPa within the 0 5 m zone behind the abutment and greater than 150 MPa in other zones.

  12. Transition nozzle combustion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won-Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Maldonado, Jaime Javier

    2016-11-29

    The present application provides a combustion system for use with a cooling flow. The combustion system may include a head end, an aft end, a transition nozzle extending from the head end to the aft end, and an impingement sleeve surrounding the transition nozzle. The impingement sleeve may define a first cavity in communication with the head end for a first portion of the cooling flow and a second cavity in communication with the aft end for a second portion of the cooling flow. The transition nozzle may include a number of cooling holes thereon in communication with the second portion of the cooling flow.

  13. Comparing the capitalisation benefits of light-rail transit and overlay zoning for single-family houses and condos by neighbourhood type in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson-Palombo, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) is increasingly accompanied by overlay zoning which specifies the density and type of future development to encourage landscapes conducive to transit use. Neighbourhood type (based on land use mix) is used to partition data and investigate how pre-existing land use, treatment with a park-and-ride (PAR) versus walk-and-ride (WAR) station and overlay zoning interrelate. Hedonic models estimate capitalisation effects of LRT-related accessibility and overlay zoning on single-family houses and condos in different neighbourhoods for the system in metropolitan Phoenix, Arizona. Impacts differ by housing and neighbourhood type. Amenity-dominated mixed-use neighbourhoods-predominantly WAR communities-experience premiums of 6 per cent for single-family houses and over 20 per cent for condos, the latter boosted an additional 37 per cent by overlay zoning. Residential neighbourhoods-predominantly PAR communities-experience no capitalisation benefits for single-family houses and a discount for condos. The results suggest that land use mix is an important variable to select comparable neighbourhoods.

  14. Treatment of infected non-unions with segmental defects with a rail fixation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiganty, Srikanth; Daolagupu, Arup Kumar; Sipani, Arun Kumar; Das, Satyendra Kumar; Dhar, Arijit; Gogoi, Parag Jyoti

    2017-04-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate the use of rail fixation system in infected gap non-union of femur and tibia as an alternative to the established Ilizarov circular fixator technique. Prospective study. The study was done in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in a medical school and level I trauma center to which the authors are/were affiliated. Between June 2010 and June 2015, 40 patients with infected gap non-union of femur and tibia were treated with the rail fixation system. Patients who were willing to undergo surgery and participate in the post-operative rehabilitation were included in the study. After radical debridement, the system was applied and corticotomy done. For closure of bone gap, acute docking and distraction was done in 18 cases and segmental bone transport in 22 cases. Early mobilization of patient was done along with aggressive physiotherapy. Bone and functional results were calculated according to ASAMI scoring system, and complications were classified according to Paley classification. The mean follow-up period was 22.56 months (range 8-44). Bone union with eradication of infection was achieved in all but 1 case (97.5%). Bone results were excellent in 57.5%, good 40%, fair 0% and poor in 2.5% cases, while functional result was excellent in 32.5%, good 65%, fair 0% and poor in 2.5% cases. The rail fixation system is an excellent alternative method to treat infected gap non-union of femur and tibia. It is simple, easy to use and patient-friendly.

  15. Parametric modal transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Křetínský, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand;

    2011-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin......Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects...... in the refinement process like exclusive, conditional and persistent choices. We introduce a new model called parametric modal transition systems (PMTS) together with a general modal refinement notion that overcome many of the limitations and we investigate the computational complexity of modal refinement checking....

  16. 49 CFR 213.353 - Turnouts, crossovers, and lift rail assemblies or other transition devices on moveable bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Turnouts, crossovers, and lift rail assemblies or... SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and Higher § 213.353 Turnouts, crossovers, and lift... shall be at least 11/2 inches wide. (d) For all turnouts and crossovers, and lift rail assemblies or...

  17. Practice and Proposals for Vehicle Matching in Urban Rail Transit%我国城市轨道交通车辆选配实践及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴林科; 刘卡丁

    2012-01-01

    The vehicle matching of rail transit vehicles in China mostly focuses on regular models. This is adaptable to the objective conditions and basic needs of the development of urban rail transit. However, some problems are still existing on vehicle matching which resulted in blindness of calculating passenger flows and competition with each other, failing to pay due attention to the total cost of owner (TCO) and maintaining a relatively moderate and appropriate scale and coordination etc. Therefore, the author proposes the strategy of preferential development and the theory that vehicles of rail transit should be classified and matched by line network levels, thereupon to provide ideas and reasonable working route for the future vehicle matching of urban rail transit.%分析国内轨道交通车辆选配的现状,指出车辆选配主要集中在常规制式车型上,虽与城市轨道交通发展的客观条件和基本需求相适应,但也存在基于预测客流选配车辆的盲目性、相互攀比性以及忽视车辆综合拥有成本、保持适度规模与适度组合等问题.因此,提出城市轨道交通车辆按线网层级划分的选配理论及优先发展策略,为今后的城市轨道交通车辆选配提供清晰的思路及合理的工作路径.

  18. 77 FR 5876 - Notice of Meeting of the Transit Rail Advisory Committee for Safety (TRACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    .... RX/OTC 6. Public Comments 7. Wrap-Up This meeting will be open to the public. Members of the public... Web address. Issued on: February 1, 2012. Peter Rogoff, Federal Transit Administrator. BILLING CODE P...

  19. 城铁安全检查通过率分析及建模研究%Analysis and Modeling of Urban Rail Transit Safety Inspection Passing Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉姣; 刘凯

    2011-01-01

    Using queue theory, the paper elaborates on the principle and methods for the establishment of a queuing system model for urban rail transit passengers, focuses on optimizing the in-flowing passenger behavioral pattern and inbound queuing system to minimize expenditure, maximize operational benefit, and guarantee the passing capacity of incoming passenger safety inspection, and at the end applies the model to other of queuing system scenarios.%应用排队论原理,阐述建立乘客乘坐轨道交通过程的排队系统模型原理及思想,重点论述了高峰时期客流进站行为规律及进站排队系统的优化,以期最小的费用成本支出和最高的运营效益,解决进站安检通过能力问题,并应用该模型算法到其他服务问题的排队系统中.

  20. 城市轨道交通车辆可靠性分配及预测%Distribution and Forecast of Urban Rail Transit Vehicle' s Reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱爱凤; 薛淑胜

    2013-01-01

    Reliability design is the extension of traditional designs, and can be used to evaluate the randomness of the fault state of a product. Urban rail transit always requires high reliability indexes, which could be achieved by applying the reliability design. In this paper, the basic principles in reliability design are introduced, design methods and the prediction of urban rail transit vehicles are put forward, including the basic principles and methods to decompose the functions and allocate the reliability of urban rail transit vehicles.%可靠性设计是传统设计的延伸,可用于定量评估产品故障状态的随机性.城市轨道交通车辆通常对可靠性指标有很高的要求,采用可靠性设计能更好地保证指标要求的实现.介绍了可靠性设计的基本思路,以及城市轨道车辆可靠性设计和预测的方法.

  1. Landscape Design of the Public Space at Urban Rail Transit Station%城市轨道交通车站公共空间景观设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晟宇; 阮如舫

    2013-01-01

    Rail transit construction in China is booming, but the landscape design of the public space at rail transit stations is still inadequate, many of them could not reflect the aesthetic qualities of the surrounding environment. The successful design of Taiwan Gaoxiong metro stations could be used as a reference, in order to enhance the landscape aesthetic perception in the design of the public space at many mainland rail transit stations.%我国城市轨道交通建设正在蓬勃地发展,但其车站公共空间景观设计仍有不足,在环境塑造上并未体现美学特质.以设计较为成功的台湾高雄为例进行研究,作为我国大陆城市轨道交通车站公共空间设计提升景观美学的借鉴与启示.

  2. Strength conditions for wheel/rail system according with European standard EN 13001-3.3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester MARKUSIK

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Standard EN 13001 was prepared by CEN/TC-147/WG 2 Cranes. Design - General”, where author of this article is one of the members of the international working group. The European Standard EN 13001-3.3 is one part of a large EN 13001. Transportation machines like cranes, to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the Machinery Directive. This standard also established the interface between the user and the designer, as well as between the designer and the component manufacturer, in order to form a basic selecting wheel/rail systems of transportation machines like: cranes, baggers or removable conveyor belts.

  3. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  4. Comparison of high-speed rail and maglev system costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rote, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    This paper compares the two modes of transportation, and notes important similarities and differences in the technologies and in how they can be implemented to their best advantage. Problems with making fair comparisons of the costs and benefits are discussed and cost breakdowns based on data reported in the literature are presented and discussed in detail. Cost data from proposed and actual construction projects around the world are summarized and discussed. Results from the National Maglev Initiative and the recently-published Commercial Feasibility Study are included in the discussion. Finally, estimates will be given of the expected cost differences between HSR and maglev systems implemented under simple and complex terrain conditions. The extent to which the added benefits of maglev technology offset the added costs is examined.

  5. Modeling and evaluation of characteristics for on-street Rapid Transit systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing discussion about the various LRT systems and BRT systems in terms of their advantages, their differences, and the impact of their particular characteristics like travel time, headway, capacity, and the so-called rail factor. System characteristics can be viewed as a means....... It focuses on the following characteristics for Rapid Transit systems: rail factor, travel time, headway and capacity. It evaluates how the implementation and variation of these characteristics affected the ridership of a case project. It evaluates the magnitude of the impacts for the various characteristics...

  6. 浅谈城市轨道交通管理的组织模式%Introduction to the Organization Pattern of the Management of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婉莹

    2014-01-01

    The organizing pattern of urban rail transit management, namely the establishment of operating manage-ment pattern and system of the adaption and interaction between the investing and financing management and con-struction management system, give full play to the sustainable development and social benefit. This paper mainly de-scribes the mode selection between the integrated model and the separation model on the basis of detailed analysis of them, which provides some guiding for selection of current railway traffic management mode.%城市轨道交通管理的组织模式,即与投融资管理、建设管理体系适应和互动的运营管理模式和体系的确立,对轨道交通项目可持续发展,充分发挥社会效益具有重要作用。文中重点分析了一体化、分离模式,简述了中间模式的选择,提供了当前轨道交通管理模式选择的方向。

  7. A Methodology for Long-Term Analysis of Innovative Signalling Systems on Regional Rail Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Acierno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A rail system may be considered a useful tool for reducing vehicular flows on a road system (i.e. cars and trucks, especially in high-density contexts such as urban and metropolitan areas where greenhouse gas emissions need to be abated. In particular, since travellers maximise their own utility, variations in mobility choices can be induced only by significantly improving the level-of-service of public transport. Our specific proposal is to identify the economic and environmental effects of implementing an innovative signalling system (which would reduce passenger waiting times by performing a cost-benefit analysis based on a feasibility threshold approach. Hence, it is necessary to calculate long-term benefits and compare them with intervention costs. In this context, a key factor to be considered is travel demand estimation in current and future conditions. This approach was tested on a regional rail line in southern Italy to show the feasibility and utility of the proposed methodology.

  8. Light Rail Transit in Hamilton: Health, Environmental and Economic Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalovic, P.; Carter, J.; Topalovic, M.; Krantzberg, G.

    2012-01-01

    Hamilton's historical roots as an electric, industrial and transportation-oriented city provide it with a high potential for rapid transit, especially when combined with its growing population, developing economy, redeveloping downtown core and its plans for sustainable growth. This paper explores the health, environmental, social and economic…

  9. 75 FR 51523 - Notice of Meeting of the Transit Rail Advisory Committee for Safety (TRACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ..., Downtown Hotel, 999 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20001. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This notice is...: AGENDA September 9-10, 2010 1. Facility Use Briefing. 2. Dignitaries' Welcome Remarks. 3. Introductions..., Federal Transit Administration; (202) 366-2010; or at TRACS@dot.gov on or before close of business on...

  10. The information activity of rail passenger information staff: a foundation for information system requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rose

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the goal-directed information activity of passenger information staff, working in the dynamic environment of rail network control. The explicit aim is to define a meaningful set of information system requirements. The report shows how dynamic situations may lead us to question a number of established theories of information science. Method. Passenger information officers (PIOs were observed on duty within the rail command and control headquarters. Observation sessions totally eight hours involved the manual recording of sequential information flows and the associated activity of PIOs. A semi-structured management interview was also conducted to provide further insight into the organizational context. Analysis. A viewpoint-oriented analysis technique was used to analyse sequential data captured during observation sessions. Event sequences that represent and explain the viewpoints were identified and elaborated into detailed scenario descriptions. Results. The analysis both supports and contests a number of established theories from information science. Additionally, a range of 'mandatory' and 'desirable' system requirements are derived from the scenario and viewpoint analyses. Conclusion. Dynamic situations have a significant impact on information behaviour which is not always predicted by current theories of information science.

  11. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of the rail transit agency's top management. (4) Oversight agency safety and security review section... plan and system security plan. This section includes the process to be used by the affected rail... in the rail transit agency's system safety program plan. The contents of the system safety plan...

  12. Development potential of the DEUTZ 2013 engine with Common Rail injection system; Weiterentwicklungspotential der DEUTZ Baureihe 2013 mit Common Rail Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, A.; Knuth, H.W.; Miebach, R.; Feuser, W. [DEUTZ AG, Koeln (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    On the last year's Wiener Motorensymposium a description of the new DEUTZ 2013 engine was given. The basic engine concept was designed to include enough potential for further development steps that will be necessary to cope with future emission demands. For this reason the 2013 engine was chosen as base engine in a research program funded by the German Ministry of Education and Science (BMBF) aiming at the fulfilment of the EURO 4 standards with internal combustion means only. This article covers the applied technical measures as well as the achieved results (emission level, noise reduction potential). Elementary technology is the Common Rail fuel injection system, which plays its optimum role in combination with variable geometry turbocharging and exhaust gas recirculation. (orig.) [German] Anlaesslich des letzten Wiener Motorensymposiums wurde die neue DEUTZ Nutzfahrzeug-Motorbaureihe 2013 vorgestellt. Das Grundkonzept des Motors bietet Potential fuer Weiterentwicklungen zur Darstellung zukuenftiger Emissionsanforderungen. Fuer ein vom Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung (BMBF) an die DEUTZ AG vergebenes Forschungsvorhaben mit dem Ziel der innermotorischen Darstellung der EURO 4 Abgasgesetzgebung wurde aus diesem Grund der Motor 2013 als Basis herangezogen. In diesem Beitrag werden die eingesetzten Techniken beschrieben und das damit erzielte Emissionsminderungs- und Akustikpotential dargestellt. Kerntechnologie ist das Nutzfahrzeug-Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem, das sein volles Potential zur Emissionsreduktion in Verbindung mit Turboladern mit variabler Turbinengeometrie und Abgasrueckfuehrung zeigt. (orig.)

  13. A NEW PASSENGER ORIENTED PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC RAIL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sercan KESTEN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical approach for monitoring public transportation systems' performance by focusing on customer evaluations. Within the framework of the developed method, 22 indicators are aggregated for 6 different measures, which are time, cost, accessibility and transfer, comfort, safety – security and quality of service respectively. Passenger Oriented Performance IndeX (POPIX has been developed and applied to the Istanbul Metro, Light Rail and Tram systems. The goal of this research is to propose a new customer oriented performance index for transportation systems, enabling a reliable and objective base for monitoring system performance by setting performance goals and identifying priorities. Meanwhile, the proposed methodology also allows for the investigation of the performance changes of a particular transportation system and for performance comparison of different systems directly from the customer point of view. The data of the index is attained by the Customer Satisfaction Survey of Istanbul Public Railways' 2005, 2006 and 2007. The POPIX methodology has been defined and the corresponding POPIX scores are calculated for the systems investigated. Furthermore, the % POPIX concept has been developed for the comparison of different systems. Lastly, the shifted POPIX concept has been proposed for more reliable comparison between different years. The framework has been implemented to the public railway systems and individual index scores are calculated for each indicator, measure and overall system. The measures of cost, accessibility and transfer and comfort have lower index scores. Metro index scores are superior in comparison to the Tram and Light Rail for all the years analyzed.

  14. Exploring the Impact of Commuter’s Residential Location Choice on the Design of a Rail Transit Line Based on Prospect Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice on the design problem of a rail transit line located in a monocentric city. A closed-form social welfare maximization model is proposed, with special consideration given to prospect theory based commuter’s residential location choice over years. Commuters are assumed to make residential location choice by a trade-off between daily housing rent and generalized travel cost to minimize their prospect values. The solutions properties of the proposed model are explored and compared analytically. It is found that overestimation exists for the optimal solutions of rail line length, headway, and fare based on traditional utility theory, compared with the optimal solutions of the proposed prospect theory based model. A numerical example is given to illustrate the properties of the proposed model.

  15. The Platform of Network Operation Assistant Decision Making andEmergency for Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通网络化运营辅助决策与应急平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铭; 王富章; 李平

    2012-01-01

    根据城市轨道交通网络化运营特点和需求,构建城市轨道交通网络化运营辅助决策与应急平台.按照轨道交通运营管理模式,建立3级递阶的系统结构,通过标准化的接口技术实现多源异构信息的交互和融合.以监控信息衍生支持分级分类预警、行车监控分段关联转换即时定位、线网动态客流分析等关键技术为基础生成共享信息源,为轨道交通换乘站运力协调、交通枢纽接驳疏散、应急状态下的资源调配等提供决策支持.实现了专业化的信息共享和多种通讯传输的软硬件与业务的应用集成.工程应用表明,平台提高了城市轨道交通网络化运营与应急管理的便捷性和高效性.%On the basis of the characteristics and requirements of network operation management in urban rail transit, this paper builds a multilevel hierarchical platform of network operation assistant decision making and emergency for urban rail transit. Three-level hierarchical structure is established according to operation and management mode of urban rail transit system. It relies on respective exchange and fusion between multi-resource information with diverse structure by employing standardized interface program. It focuses on supervision information deployed to match corresponding warning classification, sections of monitoring trains related to real-time positioning, and analysis for dynamic passengers flow in network. These crucial techniques are developed in order to produce data sharing resource for further decision making, including establishing transportation capacity coordination in transfer stations, access evacuation in transport hub and rescue resources deployment in the state of emergency. The platform has realized the integration of professional information sharing, common used communication of software and hardware, and business applications. The practical project indicates that the platform has improved the convenience and

  16. 3D Multi-Channel Networked Visualization System for National LambdaRail Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — National LambdaRail (NLR) offers unprecedented communication capabilities on the National and possibly International levels. Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  17. Plane alignment design of turnout with the transition curve based on wheel -rail syste m dynamics%基于轮轨动力学的缓和曲线型道岔平面线型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫华; 王平; 曹洋

    2015-01-01

    In order to select proper plane alignments for turnouts with transition curves to meet good running per-formance and improve permissible speed through the diverging track of turnouts,a vehicle -turnout dynamic cou-pling model was established based on the wheel -rail dynamic method.No.42 turnout was taken as an example to calculate wheel /rail dynamic responses of various plane alignments and analyze relationships of evaluation in-dexes and train speeds.Results show the apply of transition curve at the back of the diverging track can ensure the safety and the stability when trains pass at medium or high speed,and adding curve radius or transition curve in the front of the diverging track can reduce the wheel /rail vibration.The higher the speed of train passing through the diverging track,the intenser the wheel /rail system vibration is.When the circular -curve radius of the diverging track of No.42 turnout was increased by 500 m,the permissible speed through the diverging track will increase 10 km /h,and that of the turnout with easement -circular -easement curve can be further in-creased.%为了给缓和曲线型道岔选取合适的平面线型,满足良好的行车性能并提高侧向允许通过速度,基于轮轨动力学建立车辆-道岔动力耦合模型,以42号道岔为例计算不同线型方案下轮轨系统动力响应,且分析各评价指标与列车速度间关系。研究结果表明:道岔侧股后缓和曲线的使用可保证列车中高速通过的安全性和平稳性,增加曲线半径或加设前缓和曲线可降低轮轨系统振动剧烈程度;列车侧向通过速度越高,轮轨系统振动越显著,42号道岔侧股圆曲线半径增加500 m,可使其侧向允许通过速度提高10 km/h,缓圆缓型道岔可进一步提升。

  18. EVALUATION OF VIBRATION LOAD ON COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kuharonak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  19. Toward quantifying metrics for rail-system resilience: Identification and analysis of performance weak-resilience-signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Regt, A.; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to enhance tangibility of the resilience engineering concept by facilitating understanding and operationalization of weak-resilience-signals (WRS) in the rail sector. Within complex socio-technical systems, accidents can be seen as unwanted outcomes emerging from uncontrolled sources

  20. Management of Rail-transit Operational Materials Purchasing Based on Supply Chain%基于供应链的轨道交通运营物资采购管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华宇虹; 李文兴

    2012-01-01

    以供应链理论为依托,对城市轨道交通运营物资采购管理问题进行了深入研究,明确了轨道交通运营企业在供应链中所处位置及运营物资采购管理过程中的矛盾和问题,提出了创新供应模式,加强供应商管理,协调企业内外部关系等优化措施.%Using supply chain theories, the paper studies in-depth the management of operational materials purchasing for urban rail-transit systems, ascertains the position of rail-transit operators within the supply chain as well as the conflicts and other problems in the purchasing process, and finally suggests optimizing measures such as innovating supply mode, strengthening supplier management and coordinating corporate internal and external relations.

  1. Supporting policy analysis in the Dutch rail sector using System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, A.; Van Daalen, C.; Van Luipen, J.; Meijer, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    With a sizeable expected growth of demand for rail transport in the Netherlands in the coming decades, and limited resources for expansion of the rail network, intensified utilization of the infrastructure is to be expected. To adequately manage this growth, appropriate tools for policy analysis are

  2. 大数据视野下的城市轨道交通网络分析研究%Based On The Analysis Of Big Data Of Urban Rail Transit Network Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡朝阳; 严建伟

    2016-01-01

    随着大数据时代的来临,大数据技术逐渐成为城市轨道交通网络研究的新的分析工具。通过分析大数据与传统数据的区别以及大数据在轨道交通网络中的应用,探讨基于大数据的城市轨道交通网络的技术经济优势,提出大数据背景下城市轨道交通网络规划建设的相关建议,以期充分发挥大数据的应用价值,推动城市轨道交通的发展。%Along with the coming of the era of big data, big data technology has gradualy become the new analysis of urban rail transit network research tools. By analyzing the diference between the big data and traditional data as wel as the big data in the application of rail transit network, discusses the urban rail transit network technology based on big data economic advantage, put forward under the background of big data of urban rail transit network planning and construction of relevant suggestions, in order to give ful play to the big data application value, promote the development of urban rail transit.

  3. Electromagnetic Performance Calculation of HTS Linear Induction Motor for Rail Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Fang, Jin; Cao, Junci; Chen, Jie; Shu, Hang; Sheng, Long

    2017-07-01

    According to a high temperature superconducting (HTS) linear induction motor (LIM) designed for rail systems, the influence of electromagnetic parameters and mechanical structure parameters on the electromagnetic horizontal thrust, vertical force of HTS LIM and the maximum vertical magnetic field of HTS windings are analyzed. Through the research on the vertical field of HTS windings, the development regularity of the HTS LIM maximum input current with different stator frequency and different thickness value of the secondary conductive plate is obtained. The theoretical results are of great significance to analyze the stability of HTS LIM. Finally, based on theory analysis, HTS LIM test platform was built and the experiment was carried out with load. The experimental results show that the theoretical analysis is correct and reasonable.

  4. Exploring and Thinking about Construction of Rail Transit%论城市轨道交通建设提升城市发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪近林; 汪楠

    2012-01-01

    The rail transit plays a decisive role in adjusting the urban layout, enhancing the land value, raising the utilization rate of land, transforming the business operation pattern, optimizing the urban traffic structure, relieving traffic congestion, reducing the environmental pollution and saving energy consumption. The construction of rail transit, which has a profound impact, needs a huge investment and a long time limit for the project. Some problems about operation and management in the urban rail transit construction are to be studied and discussed to meet the requirements of resource conservation, environment-friendly design, technology innovation, safe operation and convenient travel under the guide of the outlook of scientific development.%城市轨道交通对调整城市布局、提升土地价值、提高土地利用率、改变商业形态、优化城市交通结构、缓解交通拥挤、减少交通环境污染和交通资源消耗等,均具有很大影响或决定性作用。城市轨道交通建设投资巨大、建设工期长、影响深远,需要以科学发展观为指导,紧紧围绕资源节约、环境友好、技术创新和安全便捷的总体要求,研究、探讨我国城市轨道交通建设、运营和管理中的一些问题。

  5. A rail system for circular synthetic aperture sonar imaging and acoustic target strength measurements: design/operation/preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J L; Marston, T M; Lee, K; Lopes, J L; Lim, R

    2014-01-01

    A 22 m diameter circular rail, outfitted with a mobile sonar tower trolley, was designed, fabricated, instrumented with underwater acoustic transducers, and assembled on a 1.5 m thick sand layer at the bottom of a large freshwater pool to carry out sonar design and target scattering response studies. The mobile sonar tower translates along the rail via a drive motor controlled by customized LabVIEW software. The rail system is modular and assembly consists of separately deploying eight circular arc sections, measuring a nominal center radius of 11 m and 8.64 m arc length each, and having divers connect them together in the underwater environment. The system enables full scale measurements on targets of interest with 0.1° angular resolution over a complete 360° aperture, without disrupting target setup, and affording a level of control over target environment conditions and noise sources unachievable in standard field measurements. In recent use, the mobile cart carrying an instrumented sonar tower was translated along the rail in 720 equal position increments and acoustic backscatter data were acquired at each position. In addition, this system can accommodate both broadband monostatic and bistatic scattering measurements on targets of interest, allowing capture of target signature phenomena under diverse configurations to address current scientific and technical issues encountered in mine countermeasure and unexploded ordnance applications. In the work discussed here, the circular rail apparatus is used for acoustic backscatter testing, but this system also has the capacity to facilitate the acquisition of magnetic and optical sensor data from targets of interest. A brief description of the system design and operation will be presented along with preliminary processed results for data acquired from acoustic measurements conducted at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City Division Test Pond Facility. [Work Supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and

  6. Reviewing the Hot Spots of 2010 China Rail Transit Security Market%我国城布轨道交通安全防范市场热点回顾和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟

    2011-01-01

    In large cities and metropolises of China, urban rail transit has become the first choice in public transportation, and obviously the safety and security measures are crucial for rail transit. This paper mainly reviews the rail transit security market of China in 2010 and expounds the development trend.%在特大型和大型城市中,城市轨道交通已成为公共交通的首选,其安全防范的重要性是显而易见的.阐述了2010年我国城市轨道交通安全防范系统的市场热点,并展望了生物技术,多级网联结构,数字技术等在安防中的发展趋势.

  7. A finite element study on rail corrugation based on saturated creep force-induced self-excited vibration of a wheelset-track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G. X.; Zhou, Z. R.; Ouyang, H.; Jin, X. S.; Zhu, M. H.; Liu, Q. Y.

    2010-10-01

    The present work proposes friction coupling at the wheel-rail interface as the mechanism for formation of rail corrugation. Stability of a wheelset-track system is studied using the finite element complex eigenvalue method. Two models for a wheelset-track system on a tight curved track and on a straight track are established. In these two models, motion of the wheelset is coupled with that of the rail by friction. Creep force at the interface is assumed to become saturated and approximately equal to friction force, which is equal to the normal contact force multiplied by dynamic coefficient of friction. The rail is supported by vertical and lateral springs and dampers at the positions of sleepers. Numerical results show that there is a strong propensity of self-excited vibration of the wheelset-track system when the friction coefficient is larger than 0.21. Some unstable frequencies fall in the range 60-1200 Hz, which correspond to frequencies of rail corrugation. Parameter sensitivity analysis shows that the dynamic coefficient of friction, spring stiffness and damping of the sleeper supports all have important influences on the rail corrugation formation. Bringing the friction coefficient below a certain level can suppress or eliminate rail corrugation.

  8. Research of Adjusting Alignments and Gradient Method of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通调线调坡方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘铮

    2014-01-01

    分析了引起城市轨道交通调线调坡的原因,提出了城市轨道交通调线调坡的测量要求及设计方法。以长沙市轨道交通2号线一期工程为例进行了调线调坡设计验证,总结了调线调坡及线路设计应注意的问题。%The paper analyzed causes for the urban rail transit adjustment of alignments and gradient, proposed the measurement requirements and the design methods of adjusting alignments and gradient. Taking the first-stage construction of Changsha urban rail transit number 2 line as an example,the pa-per verified the design of adjusting alignments and gradient,finally summarized some problems en-countered in the process of adjusting alignment,gradient and line design.

  9. Error Proofing Technology Applied to Urban Rail Transit Operation Management%防错技术在城市轨道交通运营管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张标

    2012-01-01

    城市轨道交通的系统构成和运营组织结构的特点包括专业多、覆盖面广、联动性强等,这些特点给保持长期的安全平稳运营带来很大挑战,反思各地城市轨道交通运营的事故案例,发现人为错误是最易出现也是最难控制的.从防错技术的提出、人为错误机理、防错核心思想入手,分析防错技术在城市轨道交通中应用的重要性;依据运营实际需求,提出防错技术应用的原则和推广实施“三阶六步”法,并结合运营实践进行案例分析.%An urban rafl transit system and its operation organization structure involve many different disciplines and joint efforts among different work departments in different places. Therefore, maintaining long-term safe and smooth operation constitutes a very big ehalbnge. By reviewing operation accidents in urban rail transit, it has been found that human errors are probably the most common to occur and the most difficult to control. This article introduces the error proofing technology. Starting from human error mechanism and the key idea for error proofing, the author analyzes the importance of applying the error proofing technology to urban rail transit system. In line with the actual operation needs for the proposed error proofing technology, the implementation principles are formulated and a "three-stage and six-step" method is proposed, with the operation practice of case studies presented.

  10. Bosch common rail system for small diesel engines in emerging markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duernholz, Manfred; Busch, Roger; Rakkiappan, Baskaran; Kulkarni, S.L.; Anthony, George [Bosch Ltd., Adugodi, Bangalore (India)

    2009-07-01

    Before the actual economic slowdown hit the globe, there were symptoms of stagnation in the developed markets, whereas the emerging markets were showing higher growth rates in the economy. Despite these retarders, India in particular is showing signs of becoming a potential global hub for small car. The per capita income in India is about 1000 whereas the per capita in Germany is about {proportional_to} 38,000. This translates into a very small population of Indian consumers who will be able to afford products currently marketed in Western Europe and the US. The challenge for the Auto OEMs and also to the suppliers is to offer unique products at dramatically lower costs to match the special needs and lower purchasing power of most emerging market buyers. One such outcomes of such an innovative model have been the ''Tata Nano'' unveiled at the Auto Expo India 2008. Developing and creating low-cost products is not equal to low-tech products. It is about having a holistic approach with local development adapted with local manufacturing having clear price-performance targets. These ultra low cost automobiles target the huge consumer base in the emerging markets that drives two-wheelers today (7 million new 2 wheelers every year in India alone). Come 2010, in major Indian cities, automobiles in India have to comply with BS4 emission norms (equivalent of Euro 4). Bosch has conceptualized under these boundary conditions a Common-Rail-System for small diesel engines that gives Auto OEMs a state-of-the-art technology necessary to meet the future emission legislations and also a ''value for money'' robust system designed to operate in the ultra competitive emerging market situation. In this paper, we shall discuss about the adoption of modern common rail technology to suit to this new segment of ultra low cost automobiles and the requirements for a FIE systems that full fills these severe boundary conditions. Furthermore the outlook

  11. Threat detection: a framework for security architects and designers of metropolitan rail systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Borrion

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metro rail systems (MRS currently face a serious threat from terrorist attacks – especially through use of explosives. The threat comes at a time when scores of new MRS are under construction or at the planning stage in cities across the world. Designers of these systems need to consider ways to detect explosives without an adverse impact upon passenger comfort and profitability. This paper presents a framework for designers to identify security functions in MRS, understand current methods of threat detection used in MRS and recognise their relationship with other operational requirements. Application of this framework at the planning stage can assist in designing systems where terrorist threats can be better addressed with reduced impact on passenger experience and MRS operations. The application of a framework of analysis inspired by Ekblom’s work to nine functioning MRS yields a concise representation of the major design issues architects and security specialists have to consider for effective integration of security systems in stations.

  12. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laying shock absorber fasteners is one of the effective countermeasures used to reduce the ground vibration induced from urban rail transit. However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the “wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference” mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed. With the finite element method, the simple beam and board model of the rail system is established to study the vertical and lateral dynamic flexibility characteristics of rails below 1,200 Hz. Within 5–40 kN/mm, a comparison is made between wheel-rail dynamic flexibility differences corresponding to the vertical stiffness and lateral stiffness of different fasteners. The results show that 20 kN/mm and 10 kN/mm are the least and most suitable vertical stiffness values of fasteners, respectively; 40 kN/mm and 5–10 kN/mm are, respectively, the least and most suitable lateral stiffness values of fasteners. The research and analysis results can be adopted as references for deciding the fastener stiffness of urban track.

  13. An efficient recursive least square-based condition monitoring approach for a rail vehicle suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Alfi, S.; Bruni, S.

    2016-06-01

    A model-based condition monitoring strategy for the railway vehicle suspension is proposed in this paper. This approach is based on recursive least square (RLS) algorithm focusing on the deterministic 'input-output' model. RLS has Kalman filtering feature and is able to identify the unknown parameters from a noisy dynamic system by memorising the correlation properties of variables. The identification of suspension parameter is achieved by machine learning of the relationship between excitation and response in a vehicle dynamic system. A fault detection method for the vertical primary suspension is illustrated as an instance of this condition monitoring scheme. Simulation results from the rail vehicle dynamics software 'ADTreS' are utilised as 'virtual measurements' considering a trailer car of Italian ETR500 high-speed train. The field test data from an E464 locomotive are also employed to validate the feasibility of this strategy for the real application. Results of the parameter identification performed indicate that estimated suspension parameters are consistent or approximate with the reference values. These results provide the supporting evidence that this fault diagnosis technique is capable of paving the way for the future vehicle condition monitoring system.

  14. Design and Study on No.9 Single Turnout of 60 kg/m Rail of Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通60 kg/m钢轨9号单开道岔设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘道通; 程保青; 田苗盛

    2013-01-01

    Research purposes:The No.9 turnout of 60 kg/m is usually used in urban rail transit's main track and auxiliary track.There are mainly two types of turnouts used in the urban rail transit,namely the turnouts with the straight switch rail and the curve switch rail.The turnout with straight switch rail is available for the siding speed of 30km/h and the turnout with curve switch rail is available for the speed of 35 km/h.In order to improve the service level,the turnout with curve switch rail is used in the new-built metro.But the turnout with curve switch rail has its disadvantage,such as the serious wear of the switch rail and many non-standard parts.In order to give the paly of the single turnout with straight switch rail,a new type of single turnout available for the siding speed of 35 km/h is presented in this paper,with the features of the simple structure and long service life.Research conclusions:(1) This new type of single turnout of the 60 kg/m rail has the straight switch rail,straight frog,and circular curve,with the simple structure.(2) Two switch rails are symmetrical,and can be pulled flexibly.(3) This turnout is available for the siding speed of 35 km/h,with less maintenance.(4) This research result has obvious advantages in the mature technology,reliability and security,and it is available for the metro,light rail and trolley car.%研究目的:城市轨道交通工程正线及辅助线采用的道岔一般为60 kg/m钢轨9号,目前应用于我国城轨的该道岔主要有两种类型,即直线尖轨和曲线尖轨.直线尖轨道岔的侧向通过速度为30 km/h,曲线尖轨道岔的侧向通过速度为35 km/h,为提高地铁服务水平,新建地铁工程一般采用曲线尖轨道岔.而曲线尖轨道岔存在诸多弊端,如尖轨磨耗严重,非标零部件多等.为发挥直线尖轨道岔优越性,本文研究一种新型道岔,侧向通过速度为35 km/h,同时具有结构简单、寿命长等特点.研究结论:(1)新型60 kg/m钢轨9

  15. Study of Electric Drive System for GCD-1000 Rail Car%GCD-1000型轨道车用电传动系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李何方

    2012-01-01

    阐明了电传动轨道车的优点,通过对轨道车主要技术参数及电传动系统结构进行分析,提出电传动系统设计方案.%The advantages of electric drive rail car were illustrated. By analyzing the technical parameters and the electric drive system configurations of rail car, electric drive system design was provided.

  16. Influence of uneven rail irregularities on the dynamic response of the railway track using a three-dimensional model of the vehicle-track system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Meysam; Zakeri, Jabbar Ali; Esmaeili, Morteza; Shadfar, Morad

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the vehicle-track interaction is developed to investigate the coupled behaviour of vehicle-track system, in the presence of uneven irregularities at left/right rails. The railway vehicle is simplified as a 3D multi-rigid-body model, and the track is treated as the two parallel beams on a layered discrete support system. Besides the car-body, the bogies and the wheel sets, the sleepers are assumed to have roll degree of freedom, in order to simulate the in-plane rotation of the components. The wheel-rail interface is treated using a nonlinear Hertzian contact model, coupling the mathematical equations of the vehicle-track systems. The dynamic interaction of the entire system is numerically studied in time domain, employing Newmark's integration method. The track irregularity spectra of both the left/right rails are taken into account, as the inputs of dynamic excitations. The dynamic responses of the track system induced by such irregularities are obtained, particularly in terms of the vertical (bounce) and roll displacements. The numerical model of the present research is validated using several benchmark models reported in the literature, for both the smooth and unsmooth track conditions. Four sample profiles of the measured rail irregularities are considered as the case studies of excitation sources, examining their influences on the dynamic behaviour of the coupled system. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that the motion of track system is significantly influenced by the presence of uneven irregularities in left/right rails. Dynamic response of the sleepers in the roll direction becomes more sensitive to the rail irregularities, as the unevenness severity of the parallel profiles (quantitative difference between left and right rail spectra) is increased. The severe geometric deformation of the track in the bounce-pitch-roll directions is mainly related to such profile unevenness (cross-level) in left/right rails.

  17. Incentive Mechanism of Public-private Partnership Rail Transit Project from the Perspective of Multitask Principal-agent Model%PPP轨道交通项目多任务委托代理监管激励机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易欣

    2016-01-01

    To design an effective PPP rail transit project supervision incentive mechanism, and to improve current government regulatory system defects, a new PPP rail transit project supervision organization structure is proposed in this paper. According to the responsibility of supervision organization for economic and quality supervising tasks in the PPP rail transit project, the incentive mechanism with multi-task principal-agent model is constructed, which includes government, project supervision organization and SPV. Solution of the model is got in accordance with the incentive compatibility and participation constraint. The results show that the most effective incentive mechanism is that government should make rewards and punishments to the supervision organization with reasonable presuppose supervising goals, which enforce the supervision organization intensify supervising the SPV. Based on feedback information from the supervision organization, government can take the corresponding strategies and measures to the SPV.%为设计有效的PPP轨道交通项目监管激励机制,分析了现行项目监管体系弊端,提出了完善PPP轨道交通项目监管组织的建议。依据监管机构需承担的经济和质量监管责任,构建了包括政府、监管机构和项目公司的多任务委托代理激励模型。根据激励相容和参与约束条件对模型进行了求解。结果表明,最有效的激励机制是政府预设合理监管目标值对监管机构进行奖惩,督促监管机构对项目公司加大监管力度。政府则根据监管机构反馈的监管信息,对项目公司采取相应的策略和措施。

  18. Acceleration Feedback-Based Active and Semi-Active Seismic Response Control of Rail-Counterweight Systems of Elevators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rildova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the observations in the past earthquake events, the traction elevators in buildings are known to be vulnerable to earthquake induced ground motions. Among several components of an elevator, the counterweight being heaviest is also known to be more susceptible than others. The inertial effects of the counterweight can overstress the guide rails on which it moves. Here we investigate to use the well-known acceleration feedback-based active and semi-active control methods to reduce stresses in the rails. The only way a control action can be applied to a moving counterweight-rail system is through a mass damper placed in the plane of the counterweight. For this, a part of the counterweight mass can be configured as a mass damper attached to a small actuator for an active scheme or to a magneto-rheological damper for a semi-active scheme. A comprehensive numerical study is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed configuration of control system. It is observed that the two control schemes are effective in reducing the stress response by about 20 to 25% and improve the system fragility over a good range of seismic intensities.

  19. 轨道交通工程建设风险管理的研究%Construction Of Rail Transit Project Risk Management Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 雷斌

    2012-01-01

    由于轨道交通工程所处地层工程地质、水文地质条件及工程环境复杂,不可预见因素较多,前期工作量大,工作难度大等特点,使工程施工风险性增加.通过对矿山法、盾构法、明挖法、高架桥修建轨道交通工程建设应注意问题进行分析总结,从而得出规避风险的对策,提出强化工程建设管理应采取的举措.%Due to the formation of rail traffic engineering engineering geology, hydrogeology and engineering environment is complex, unpredictable factors, the workload, working difficulty is great wait for a characteristic, make engineering construction risk increase. Based on the mining method, shield method, the open-cut method, the viaduct rail transit construction engineering construction should pay attention to the problem were analyzed, thus to avoid risk, put forward to strengthen the project construction and management measures.

  20. Determination of Rectification Corrections for Semi Gantry Crane Rail Axes in the Local 3D Coordinate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipiak Daria

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.

  1. Dynamic Optimization Design of Cranes Based on Human–Crane–Rail System Dynamics and Annoyance Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The operators of overhead traveling cranes experience discomfort as a result of the vibrations of crane structures. These vibrations are produced by defects in the rails on which the cranes move. To improve the comfort of operators, a nine-degree-of-freedom (nine-DOF mathematical model of a “human–crane–rail” system was constructed. Based on the theoretical guidance provided in ISO 2631-1, an annoyance rate model was established, and quantization results were determined. A dynamic optimization design method for overhead traveling cranes is proposed. A particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm was used to optimize the crane structural design, with the structure parameters as the basic variables, the annoyance rate model as the objective function, and the acceleration amplitude and displacement amplitude of the crane as the constraint conditions. The proposed model and method were used to optimize the design of a double-girder 100 t–28.5 m casting crane, and the optimal parameters are obtained. The results show that optimization decreases the human annoyance rate from 28.3% to 9.8% and the root mean square of the weighted acceleration of human vibration from 0.59 m/s2 to 0.38 m/s2. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and practical applicability of the models and method proposed in this paper.

  2. Conductor rail anti-icing sche me of monorail transit based on the Joule heat%基于焦耳热分析的单轨交通导电轨防覆冰方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓杰; 郭蕾; 王旭光; 李群湛

    2014-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the urban monorail transit system,a melting ice plan of large current was proposed in this paper.Based on the joule heating effect,the heat balance equation of T-shaped special conductive rail in monorail transit system was established.Then the critical anti -icing current was calculated and the impact of environmental factors,such as temperature,wind speed,on the anti-icing current was inves-tigated.In order to validate its feasibility,T-shaped conductor rail model was generated in ANSYS and the thermal analysis was carried out.The results show that the critical melting current obtained in this study can meet the practical needs.%针对跨座式单轨交通系统的特点,提出一种大电流防融冰方案。基于焦耳热效应建立了单轨交通系统的T型专用导电轨的热平衡方程,计算其临界防冰电流,并分析温度、风速等环境因素对防冰电流的影响。为验证其可行性,在ANSYS中建立T型导电轨模型并对其进行热分析,结果显示计算得到的临界防冰电流满足实际所需。

  3. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  4. 基于模糊实物期权的城市轨道交通项目投资价值%The Investment Value of the Urban Rail Transit Project Based on Fuzzy Real Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐文彬; 张飞涟; 马超群

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the real option characteristics of an urban rail transit project,and the full consideration to the uncertainty of investment returns,management flexibility and other factors,this paper proposes that the investment value of the urban rail transit project can be regarded as the sum of a call option value and the discounted value of a net cash flow.According to the extended B-S model and the fuzzy theory,we construct the fuzzy real option pricing model for the urban rail transit project.The example shows that the fuzzy real option analysis method can accurately evaluate the investment value of the urban rail transit project,and will provide a more effective reference for the investment decisions.%考虑到城市轨道交通项目投资决策的不可逆性、投资回报的不确定性和管理柔性等因素,提出了利用模糊理论与实物期权相结合的方法来评价城市轨道项目的投资价值。实例分析表明,模糊实物期权方法能准确地对项目投资价值进行评价,从而更有效地指导投资者作出正确决策。

  5. Enterprise Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Chak, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  6. Viability Analysis of Waste Tires as Material for Rail Vibration and Noise Control in Modern Tram Track Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study focused on the effect of using damping chamber elements made from waste tires on railway noise reduction. First, the energy absorption characteristics of damping chamber elements with various gradation combinations and compaction indices were measured in the laboratory using compression testing. The laboratory compression results demonstrated that the optimal gradation combination of damping chamber elements is as follows: the content of fine rubber particles is 10%, the content of coarse granules is 90%, and the optimal compaction index is 0.98. Next, the findings from the laboratory compression-test studies were used to produce damping chamber elements that were applied to a full-scale modern track model in the laboratory. The measurements of the dynamic properties indicated that the damping chamber elements could significantly reduce the vibration levels of the rail head. Finally, the damping chamber elements, which had been proven effective through laboratory dynamic tests, were widely applied to test rail sections in the field. The field tests demonstrated that damping chamber elements can significantly increase the track vibration decay rate in the frequency range of 200–10000 Hz. Therefore, damping chamber elements made from waste tires are able to control rail vibration and noise in modern tram track systems.

  7. Study on Evaluation of Metropolis Commuter Rail Transit Planning Based on Grey Weight Relation Model%基于灰色加权关联度的市域通勤轨道线网方案优选研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周静

    2013-01-01

    With the development of cities and mega cities,the metropolis commuter traffic volume is getting much larger, so it is important to plan the metropolis commuter rail transit. Based on an analysis of the characteristics of metropolis commuter,the grey weight relation model is put forward to evaluate the planning. The index system for evaluating the metropolis commuter rail transit is built;the Entropy Method is applied to decide the weight of each index. Finally an example is given to apply the method to optimize three preset schemes and to decide which is the best one.%随着大城市、特大城市不断发展,市域通勤交通流量日增,使市域通勤轨道交通线网合理规划的重要性不容忽视.结合市域通勤轨道交通的特点,提出“灰色加权联度”的评价优选模型,建立市域通勤轨道交通线网评价方案的指标体系,采用“熵值法”确定各个指标的权重,对各个线网规划的预选模型进行综合评价,并结合案例对某大城市的3个市域通勤轨道交通线网预选方案进行分析,选出最佳方案.

  8. Light rail implementation: Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.

    2015-01-01

    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not t

  9. 城市轨道交通混合逆变装置的应用%Application of Hybrid Inverter Equipment in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯艳艳; 孙才勤

    2011-01-01

    Urban rail transit trains will produce electricity when take braking, there are several treatment programs for renewable energy, such as flywheen return, hybrid inverter etc. According to China's industrial level, the article describes how to make full use of the renewable energy,then introduces the hybrid inverter program and its composition of working principles in detail.%城市轨道交通的运行列车制动时会产生电能.再生电能的处理有电容储能或飞轮储能、逆变回馈法、混合逆变法等几种方案.根据我国的工业水平,提出了能够尽量利用再生电能的混合逆变方案.对混合逆变的原理和构成作了详细的介绍.

  10. 基于熵权模糊物元的轨道交通运营安全评价%Operation Safety Assessment of Rail Transit Based on Entropy Weight Fuzzy Matter Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪勇; 吴丽霞; 蔡明

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve issues of quantization of qualitative indexes and scope definition of hierar-chical values in the rail transit operation safety evaluation process, an evaluation model which combined entropy weight (EW) with fuzzy matter-element (FME) to evaluate rail transit operation safety indicators was established. It was based on fuzzy matter-element model by introducing entropy method to finalize index weight and selecting the idea of Euclid approach degree to reflect the extent of closeness between the unvalued safety results and standard safety results. On the basis of previous studies, indexes of urban rail transit operation safety evaluation system were divided into four levels, including excellent, good, fair, and bad. Besides, the range of each level was also provided. Taking Chongqing rail transit Line 3 as an example, compared to method of extension matter-element (EME), the EW-FME model were ana-lyzed. The results showed that the EW-FME model evaluation index was 0.5889 and the EME level of risk evaluation was 3, which both reached to the degree of good safety. The study indicates that EW-FME model can solve the problem of non-quantitative evaluation effectively. The precision of evaluation is further improved in comparison with EME model.%为解决轨道交通运营安全评价过程中定性指标难以量化以及分级量值范围界定模糊等问题,在模糊物元分析的基础上,引入熵值法确定指标权重,并利用欧氏贴近度反映待评安全结果与标准安全结果互相接近的程度,建立了一种评价轨道交通运营安全指数的熵权模糊物元模型.在总结前人研究成果的基础上,将城市轨道交通运营安全评价指标体系中的各指标划分成"优"、"良"、"一般"、"差"4个评判等级,并给出了各等级的适用范围.以重庆市轨道交通3号线为例,对比可拓物元法进行分析,结果显示熵权模糊物元法评价指标值为0.588 9,可拓物

  11. 上海迎世博轨道交通快速发展的碳减排效益%Effects of accelerated development of urban rail transit in Shanghai before the World Expo on greenhouse gas emission reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立峰; 胡静; 邵丹

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the effects of accelerated development of Shanghai's urban rail transit since 2007 on GHG emission reduction, based on analysis of the annual changes of traffic modes and GHG emissions further comparison was made between the real scenario (accelerated development of rail transit) and the Business-As-Usual scenario (normal development of rail transit). The results showed that the rail transit absorbed 50% of the total increment of commuting volume since 2007, which (1) helped to relieve the stress of congestion and pollution related to car growth, (2) slowed down the growth rate of GHG emissions from Shanghai's commuting system even though the traffic volume was growing rapidly at the same time. In the real scenario, the total GHG emissions (CO2-c) from inside-city commuting from the beginning of 2007 to the end of October, 2010 was 789,000 tons lower than those in the BAU scenario. This not only made great contribution to Shanghai Expo to offset part of its GHG emissions before closing and to achieve its Low-Carbon Expo target, but also piloted in Shanghai's transformation toward a low-carbon city.%为研究2007年以来上海轨道交通建设提速带来的温室气体减排效益,对上海市内出行结构与碳排放量历年变化进行了分析,并进-步采用情景分析法,对实际情景(轨道交通加速发展)与基准情景(轨道交通常速发展)下市内出行碳排放进行了对比.结果表明,2007年以来轨道交通吸收了全市客运增长量的50%,不仅缓解了个体机动车迅速增长带来的拥堵和污染等问题,也使得整个上海市内客运交通在客运量迅速攀升的同时,碳排放总量增长速度却有了明显放缓.与基准情景相比,2007年1月初至2010年10月底世博会结束这段时期内,实际情景下上海轨道交通的快速发展使市内出行碳排放总量相对减排了78.9万tCO2当量.

  12. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...

  13. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    , but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces......Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article ex- plores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project...

  14. Discussion on RAMS Management Pattern in Urban Rail Transit Construction%国内城市轨道交通建设RAMS管理模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨少林; 庄运杰

    2012-01-01

    In this paper it describes the definition and necessity of the RAMS management pattern in urban rail transit construction. Taking the reference of domestic standard of GB/T 21562-2008, it presents the general contents, process, core phase and duty segregation regarding the RAMS management work. Based on the management pattern and experience in Shenzhen Metro line 3, it discusses the RAMS management pattern being appropriate for domestic urban rail transit construction in China.%鉴于国外及先进地区的RAMS(可靠性、可用性、维修性、安全性)管理经验,国内开始摸索适合于自身城市轨道交通建设的RAMS管理模式.文章阐述了RAMS管理定义及必要性,再以GB/T 21562-2008为参照,解析了RAMS管理的一般工作内容及流程,提出了RAMS管理工作的核心阶段及职责划分.以深圳地铁3号线RAMS管理模式和经验为例,探讨并提出了适合国内城轨建设的RAMS管理模式,为国内轨道交通建设开展RAMS管理工作可起到借鉴和推动作用,同时为国内轨道交通建设健康快速发展提供了保障.

  15. Risks of Climate Change with Respect to the Singapore-Malaysia High Speed Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazrul Leena Binti Sa’adin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, and many of the observed changes are unprecedented over the past five decades. Globally, the atmosphere and the ocean are becoming increasingly warmer, the amount of ice on the earth is decreasing over the oceans, and the sea level has risen. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the average increase in global temperature (combined land and surface between the 1850–1900 period and the 2003–2012 period was 0.78 °C (0.72 to 0.85. But should we prepare for such a relatively small change? The importance is not the means of the warming but the considerable likelihood of climate change that could trigger extreme natural hazards. The impact and the risk of climate change associated with railway infrastructure have not been fully addressed in the literature due to the differences in local environmental parameters. On the other hand, the current railway network in Malaysia, over the last decade, has been significantly affected by severe weather conditions such as rainfall, lightning, wind and very high temperatures. Our research findings based on a critical literature review and expert interviews point out the extremes that can lead to asset system failure, degraded operation and ultimately, delays in train services. During flooding, the embankment of the track can be swept away and bridge can be demolished, while during drought, the embankment of the track can suffer from soil desiccation and embankment deterioration; high temperature increases the risk of track buckling and high winds can result in vegetation or foreign object incursion onto the infrastructure as well as exert an additional quasi-static burden. This review is of significant importance for planning and design of the newly proposed high speed rail link between Malaysia and Singapore.

  16. Exploring the potential of open big data from ticketing websites to characterize travel patterns within the Chinese high-speed rail system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sheng; Yuan, Jinfu; Qiu, Yanning; Luan, Xiali; Han, Shanrui; Zhou, Wen; Xu, Chi

    2017-01-01

    Big data have contributed to deepen our understanding in regards to many human systems, particularly human mobility patterns and the structure and functioning of transportation systems. Resonating the recent call for 'open big data,' big data from various sources on a range of scales have become increasingly accessible to the public. However, open big data relevant to travelers within public transit tools remain scarce, hindering any further in-depth study on human mobility patterns. Here, we explore ticketing-website derived data that are publically available but have been largely neglected. We demonstrate the power, potential and limitations of this open big data, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR) system as an example. Using an application programming interface, we automatically collected the data on the remaining tickets (RTD) for scheduled trains at the last second before departure in order to retrieve information on unused transit capacity, occupancy rate of trains, and passenger flux at stations. We show that this information is highly useful in characterizing the spatiotemporal patterns of traveling behaviors on the Chinese HSR, such as weekend traveling behavior, imbalanced commuting behavior, and station functionality. Our work facilitates the understanding of human traveling patterns along the Chinese HSR, and the functionality of the largest HSR system in the world. We expect our work to attract attention regarding this unique open big data source for the study of analogous transportation systems.

  17. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic. The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical. The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition, the three-line rail traffic system has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system. Compared with the four-line rail traffic system, the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line. As a result, building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  18. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO ZiYou; ZHOU HuaLiang; LI KePing; NING Bing; TANG Tao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic.The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical.The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition,the three-line rail traffic sys-tem has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system.Compared with the four-line rail traffic system,the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line.As a result,building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  19. Transition-Systems, Event Structures, and Unfoldings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Rozenberg, Grzegorz; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    1995-01-01

    A subclass of transition systems called elementary transition systems can be identified with the help of axioms based on a structural notion called regions. Elementary transition systems have been shown to be the transition system model of a basic system model of net theory called elementary net ...... event structures. We then propose an operation of unfolding elementary transition systems into occurrence transition systems, We prove that it is "correct" in a strong categorical sense....

  20. 浅析共线运营在我国城轨交通中的合理运用%On the Utilization of Joint Operation in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞文韬

    2011-01-01

    共线运营可分为支线形式和非支线形式两种类型。作为一种城市轨道交通的运营模式,共线运营可以在有限的路线长度上大幅增加运营总里程,提高城轨输送效率。在规划运营方案,确定采用哪种运营模式时,应考虑城市轨道建设的实际和可以具备的条件。广州地铁4、5、8号线和北京地铁2、13号线的共线运营线路可作相应的改进。%Compared with other forms of urban rail transit,joint operation can improve the efficiency of transporting passengers.Based on an analysis of current joint operation both at home and abroad,and also on contrastive studies between domestic projects of urban rail network,the paper explores effective ways of combining joint operation and rail transit network with a view to offer some help to improve urban rail construction.

  1. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke de Bod

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  2. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  3. Evaluation of Future Fuels in a High Pressure Common Rail System - Part 1 Cummins XPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    compressed against the underside of the pump head to maintain contact with the pump camshaft . The underside of the pump head is shown in Figure 5...half of the engine angular velocity for a rated condition speed of 1050 rpm. On the high pressure side of the pump, the camshaft drives two plungers...the camshaft drives two plungers which pressurize the fuel entering the rail. Each plunger is driven by three lobes which, when correctly timed

  4. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  5. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  6. Defining Robust Recovery Solutions for Preserving Service Quality during Rail/Metro Systems Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Acierno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a sensitivity analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery solutions in the case of disturbed rail operations. Indeed, when failures or breakdowns occur during daily service, new strategies have to be implemented so as to react appropriately and re-establish ordinary conditions as rapidly as possible. In this context, the use of rail simulation is vital: for each intervention strategy it provides the evaluation of interactions and performance analysis prior to actually implementing the corrective action. However, in most cases, simulation tasks are deterministic and fail to allow for the stochastic distribution of train performance and delays. Hence, the strategies adopted might not be robust enough to ensure effectiveness of the intervention. We therefore propose an off-line procedure for disruption management based on a microscopic and stochastic rail simulation which considers both service operation and travel demand. An application in the case of a real metro line in Naples (Italy shows the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of service quality.

  7. Journeys to Crime: Assessing the Effects of a Light Rail Line on Crime in the Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Liggett, Robin; Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia; Iseki, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of new transit lines is some times dogged by concerns that such lines may increase crime rates in station neighborhoods. Affluent communities have often complained that transit lines transport crime to the suburbs. This study focuses on the Green Line transit system in Los Angeles and examines its effects on crime in the adjacent areas. The Green Line light rail system passes through some high-crime inner city neighborhoods and terminates at its western end in affluent subu...

  8. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  9. SOME MEASURES OF INCREASING RAIL TRANSITRIDERSHIPS: CASE STUDIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with how to increase rail transit ridership and how to coordinate with multiModity to optimize the entire public transportion systems. Three case cities, Montreal, Toronto and San Francisco, with metro systems are reviewed in different aspects, including urban planning, transport policy, flexible fare system, safety and security measure, special service, new technical application to improve the quality and value of its service for increasing revenues and profit, comtributing to the long-term development of public transit. Some conclusions can be drawn: 1)urban planning should be closely connected with urban transport planning; 2) the role of government is predominant to implement railtransit; 3) the facilifies of railtransit should be advanced, reliable and safe; 4) quality service should be match with rail facilities; 5) special service for the disabled, yound and senior should be advocated.

  10. Phase Transitions of Simple Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.

  11. When paradigms collide at the road rail interface: evaluation of a sociotechnical systems theory design toolkit for cognitive work analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M; Lenné, Michael G

    2016-09-01

    The Cognitive Work Analysis Design Toolkit (CWA-DT) is a recently developed approach that provides guidance and tools to assist in applying the outputs of CWA to design processes to incorporate the values and principles of sociotechnical systems theory. In this paper, the CWA-DT is evaluated based on an application to improve safety at rail level crossings. The evaluation considered the extent to which the CWA-DT met pre-defined methodological criteria and aligned with sociotechnical values and principles. Both process and outcome measures were taken based on the ratings of workshop participants and human factors experts. Overall, workshop participants were positive about the process and indicated that it met the methodological criteria and sociotechnical values. However, expert ratings suggested that the CWA-DT achieved only limited success in producing RLX designs that fully aligned with the sociotechnical approach. Discussion about the appropriateness of the sociotechnical approach in a public safety context is provided. Practitioner Summary: Human factors and ergonomics practitioners need evidence of the effectiveness of methods. A design toolkit for cognitive work analysis, incorporating values and principles from sociotechnical systems theory, was applied to create innovative designs for rail level crossings. Evaluation results based on the application are provided and discussed.

  12. 服务轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台构建研究*%Service Rail Transit Industry Cluster of Zhuzhou City Logistics Information Platform Construction Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫

    2013-01-01

    Construction of rail transit industry cluster of zhuzhou city logistics information platform,in zhuzhou city economic development plays an important role.Based on the path of the city logistics information platform to build,to refine the service under the rail transit industry cluster of city logistics information platform structure mode.%构建轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台,对于株洲市经济的发展具有重要作用。文中通过对市级物流信息平台的路径构建,提炼了服务轨道交通产业集群下的市级物流信息平台结构模型。

  13. The Inter-city Rail Transit Planning Scheme for Jiangsu Cities Complex along Yangtze River%江苏省沿江城市群城际轨道交通线网规划方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓振林

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通的规划建设是城市群发展的必然要求,江苏沿江城市群是我国城市化进程过程中重点发展的区域。根据沿江地区城市群的特征,把沿江地区城际轨道交通线网分为主骨架城际网和都市圈城际网两个层次进行规划,重点研究沿江地区都市圈内部中心城市之间以及中心城市与中小城市之间的城际轨道交通通勤线网。%Plan and construction of intercity rail transit is an inevitable demand for the development of urban complexes to meet the requirements of increasing demand of passengers and freight traffic.Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River is a key concern during the process of China’s urbanization process.Based on the economic characteristics of cities complex along Yangtze River,the urban rain transit network planning along Yangtze River is classified into two levels: backbone inter-city network and metropolitan area inter-city network,key research is carried out on the intercity rail way network among the center cities and between the central city and medium and small city of the metropolitan area along Yangtze River.This paper is designed to put forward a more reasonable network planning of inter-city rail transit for Jiangsu cities complex along Yangtze River,but also provides some reference for the inter-city rail transit network planning of other urban agglomerations,which has a positive theoretical and practical significance.

  14. Calculation for the Benefit of Travel Time in Urban Rail Transit Based on GDP%基于国内生产总值的城市轨道交通项目节约时间效益计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福贵

    2011-01-01

    旅行时间节约的效益是新建交通项目最为显著的社会效益.为了更准确地衡量城市轨道交通项目的节约时间效益,基于国内生产总值的内涵和测算方法,对目前城市轨道交通项目经济评价中几种常见的单位时间价值取值进行剖析;提出采用生产法确定单位时间价值,作为项目节约时间效益的计算基础;希望能为今后城市轨道交通项目的经济评价提供参考.%The benefit of travel time saving is the main benefit gained from transport construction projects. To measure the benefit accurately, this paper analyzes the average value of travel time saving for the economic evaluation of urban rail transit,through quantification and surveying methods of gross domestic product, then proposes the appropriate method of manufacturing for the time saving benefit of urban rail transit, in the hope of facilitating the perfection of economic evaluation theory for urban rail transit project.

  15. Direct injection of dimethyl ether into a diesel engine with low-pressure common-rail injection system; Direkteinspritzung von Dimethylether in einen Dieselmotor mit Niederdruck-Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janicke, D. [Wissenschaftlich-Technisches-Zentrum fuer Motoren- und Maschinenforschung gGmbH, Rosslau (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Alternative fuels from renewables are viewed as fuels for the future. The contribution investigates dimethyl ether, which is a liquid gas with low emissions. Its physical and chemical properties require a specially designed fuelling system, which was constructed and tested. The system has piezo-controlled common rail injectors. The function was problem-free, with the advantages of soot-free combustion, short combustion times and low emissions. Fuel-induced wear was not observed. Especially in sensitive areas, dimethyl ether is an interesting alternative to conventional fuels. (orig.)

  16. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Julia B.; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-12-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time.

  17. APPLICATION OF CIRCUIT SIMULATION IN HARDWARE DESIGN FOR ELECTRONIC CONTROL HIGH PRESSURE COMMON-RAIL FUEL SYSTEM OF DIESEL ENGINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Wenchun; Yu Shitao; Yang Lin; Zhuo Bin

    2005-01-01

    By means of circuit simulation, hardware of electronic control unit (ECU) of high pressure common-rail electronic control fuel system for diesel engine is designed. According to the system requirements for hardware of ECU, signal-processing circuit of variable reluctance (VR) sensor, filter circuit for input signal, high voltage power circuit and driver and protection circuit of solenoid are simulated as emphases. Difficulties of wide scope of VR sensor output signal, efficiency of high voltage power and reliable and swift driver of solenoid are solved. The results of simulation show that the hardware meets the requirement of the fuel system. At the same time, circuit simulation can greatly increase quality of the design, alleviate design labor and shorten design time.

  18. Geometric transitions and integrable systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaconescu, D.-E.; Dijkgraaf, R.H.; Donagi, R.; Hofman, C.; Pantev, T.

    2006-01-01

    We consider B-model large N duality for a new class of noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces modeled on the neighborhood of a ruled surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The closed string side of the transition is governed at genus zero by an A(1) Hitchin integrable system on a genus g Riemann surface Sigma. Th

  19. Phase transitions in finite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    2002-07-01

    In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)

  20. Design of High Frequency Auxiliary Converters for Urban Rail Transit%城市轨道交通高频辅助变流器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾波; 陈杰; 朱恺; 杜会卿; 刘志刚

    2012-01-01

    The authors studied in - depth the localization of auxiliary converters of urban rail transit and proposed the structure of dual DC/DC modular series plus static inverter through comparing advanced structures in China and abroad, together with the control techniques of the structure. Simulation approach was adopted to verify the feasibility of the control techniques, which proved the correctness of the structure and control techniques through experimental waveforms and photographs.%针对城市轨道交通辅助变流器的国产化问题进行深入研究.对比国内外辅助变流器的先进结构,在此基础上提出双DC/DC模块化串联加静止逆变器的结构,并针对这种结构研究控制方法.为验证控制方法的可行性,采取仿真手段对其进行分析,通过实验波形和实物照片,充分说明这种结构和控制方法的正确.

  1. Searching for transit timing variations in transiting exoplanet systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hrudková, Marie; Benn, Chris; Pollacco, Don; Gibson, Neale; Joshi, Yogesh; Harmanec, Petr; Tulloch, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Searching for transit timing variations in the known transiting exoplanet systems can reveal the presence of other bodies in the system. Here we report such searches for two transiting exoplanet systems, TrES-1 and WASP-2. Their new transits were observed with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope located on La Palma, Spain. In a continuing programme, three consecutive transits were observed for TrES-1, and one for WASP-2 during September 2007. We used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations to derive transit times and their uncertainties. The resulting transit times are consistent with the most recent ephemerides and no conclusive proof of additional bodies in either system was found.

  2. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  3. Application of micro tremor technology in urban rail transit survey%微动勘探技术在城市轨道交通勘察中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建清; 熊永红; 李鹏

    2016-01-01

    Micro tremor, as an exploration method based on natural source, has the advantages of convenient, low cost, envi-ronmental friendly, so its application in the urban rail transit project becomes increasingly extensive. Test and research on micro-tremor were carried out in a pre-stage exploration of Wuhan rail transit site by using S-FLEX high-fidelity wireless 3-D seismic data acquisition system. The micro tremor data was collected through the arrangement of circular array, and the frequency dispersion curve of micro tremor data was extracted by SPAC method to inverse underground media S wave velocity profile. The results of the experiment indicate that the micro tremor is suitable for geological-detection in the complex environment of urban site and the magnetic environment, the data acquisition is convenient and velocity stratification is accuracy and reliable.%微动勘探作为基于天然源的面波勘探方法,具有方便快捷、低成本、不破坏环境等优点,在城市轨道交通工程勘察中的应用越来越广泛. 以武汉某轨道交通前期勘探工作为例,开展了微动勘探试验研究,采用S-FLEX高保真度无线三维地震勘探数据采集系统,通过布置圆形台阵采集微动数据,借助SPAC法提取微动数据的频散特性从而反演地下介质视S波速度剖面. 试验结果表明,微动探测适合于城市复杂场地环境和地磁环境的地质体探测,数据采集方便快捷,速度分层准确可靠.

  4. Walking Affect Area of Rail Transit Station Based on Multinomial Logit Model%基于多项Logit模型的轨道交通站点步行接驳范围

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 戴洁; 张晓军

    2012-01-01

    To determine the reasonable walking access area of rail transport station, it is necessary to analyze the walking environment, travel time, cost, comfort and other factors. The multinomial Logit model is used to establishment a model of transportation choice which will link all the factors and determine the pedestrian area of rail transit station based on the principle of equal utility. On the surveyed data of a rail transit station in Nanjing City, and by using the TRANSCAD software, the walking area of metro station is calculated. Through a comparison between the traditional walking areas and the surveyed data, it is clear that the model is effective and reasonable, and could provide references for the planning, selection and evaluation of urban rail transit.%在分析步行环境、出行时间、出行费用等出行特征影响因素的基础上,运用多项Logit模型建立了居民出行方式选择模型,根据效用相当原则确定城市轨道交通步行接驳范围.根据某城市的某个轨道交通站点的调查数据,利用本文提出的方法计算该站点的步行接驳范围,与传统的接驳范围经验取值及意向调查结果进行比较,发现计算结果与调查统计结果较为一致.计算结果表明,该计算方法是有效合理的,能够为城市轨道交通站点的规划、选址和评价提供依据.

  5. 城市轨道交通供电无功补偿设备安装及容量确定%Installation Mode and Capacity Determination of Reactive Power Compensation Equipment at City Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿亮; 虞苍璧; 刘宝诚

    2012-01-01

    City rail transit power supply system exists serious reactive power problem.According to the different characteristic of system reactive power during different period,adopt the centralized compensation way to installing a SVG device to solute this problem.A capacity determination method of SVG equipment and a practical example are provided in this paper,at the same time,analysis the direct and indirect economic benefit.Through install SVG equipment can better solve the problem of reactive power compensation and improve the reliability of power supply.%城市轨道交通供电系统存在较严重的无功功率问题,针对不同时段系统产生的无功性质不同,提出采用集中补偿方式安装SVG设备解决方法,给出了SVG设备容量确定方法和一个具体算例,分析了产生的直接和间接经济效益。安装SVG设备可较好的解决城市轨道交通供电无功功率补偿问题,提高供电可靠性。

  6. RoadRail: An economically viable infrastructure which facilitates the transition from oil to electricity for all forms of road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    for the transport sector in the future, so no specific technological design is promoted here. Instead, the aim in this study is to carry out a socio-economic feasibility study of the RoadRail infrastructure by using indicative costs relating to similar technologies. Using assumptions for vehicle costs...... electricity production costs, and increasing oil prices. Furthermore, the additional costs of the RoadRail infrastructure is less than 5% of the total transport costs in all scenarios considered here. This indicates that if the RoadRail infrastructure can be developed for similar costs to those assumed here...

  7. Passenger rail security, planning, and resilience: application of network, plume, and economic simulation models as decision support tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael; Lioy, Paul; Ozbas, Birnur; Mantell, Nancy; Isukapalli, Sastry; Lahr, Michael; Altiok, Tayfur; Bober, Joseph; Lacy, Clifton; Lowrie, Karen; Mayer, Henry; Rovito, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    We built three simulation models that can assist rail transit planners and operators to evaluate high and low probability rail-centered hazard events that could lead to serious consequences for rail-centered networks and their surrounding regions. Our key objective is to provide these models to users who, through planning with these models, can prevent events or more effectively react to them. The first of the three models is an industrial systems simulation tool that closely replicates rail passenger traffic flows between New York Penn Station and Trenton, New Jersey. Second, we built and used a line source plume model to trace chemical plumes released by a slow-moving freight train that could impact rail passengers, as well as people in surrounding areas. Third, we crafted an economic simulation model that estimates the regional economic consequences of a variety of rail-related hazard events through the year 2020. Each model can work independently of the others. However, used together they help provide a coherent story about what could happen and set the stage for planning that should make rail-centered transport systems more resistant and resilient to hazard events. We highlight the limitations and opportunities presented by using these models individually or in sequence.

  8. Effect of Regional Settlement on Urban Rail Transit Construction and Countermeasures%区域沉降对城市轨道交通建设的影响及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘运明

    2016-01-01

    当轨道交通穿越沉降漏斗区和沉降带时,会对城市轨道交通线路的建设及运营产生非常大的破坏影响。为使测量技术更好地为城市轨道交通工程建设服务,本文以北京地铁14号线工程建设的实际测量作业为背景,通过分析、研究与总结,从高程贯通误差公式设计依据、地面沉降对高程贯通误差的影响、考虑地面沉降的高程贯通误差计算、建设阶段实际地面沉降影响及应对措施等几个部分进行阐述。区域沉降对城市轨道交通建设的影响及应对措施是在工程实践中通过研究分析得出的成果,对今后我国各城市的城市轨道交通工程建设的测量具有参考和指导意义。%When the rail transit through the settlement funnels area and the seduction zone, it will have a very big impact on the con-struction and operation of urban rail transit line.In order to make the better service for urban rail transit construction with measurement technology, this paper takes Beijing metro line 14 as the background, through the analysis, research and summary, and expounds from the Elevation breakthrough error formula design basis, the impact of ground subsidence on the height through error calculation, Con-sidering the ground subsidence on the elevation breakthrough error calculation, the actual ground subsidence impact during construc-tion phase and response measures, The effect of regional settlement on the construction of urban rail transit and its countermeasures are the results obtained from the research and analysis in engineering practice, It is of reference and guiding significance to the measure-ment of urban rail transit engineering construction in the future.

  9. Effects of fundamental factors on coupled vibration of wind-rail vehicle-bridge system for long-span cable-stayed bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明金; 李永乐; 汪斌

    2016-01-01

    In a wind-vehicle-bridge (WVB) system, there are various interactions among wind, vehicle and bridge. The mechanism for coupling vibration of wind-vehicle-bridge systems is explored to demonstrate the effects of fundamental factors, such as mean wind, fluctuating wind, buffeting, rail irregularities, light rail vehicle vibration and bridge stiffness. A long cable-stayed bridge which carries light rail traffic is regarded as a numerical example. Firstly, a finite element model is built for the long cable-stayed bridge. The deck can generally be idealized as three-dimensional spine beam while cables are modeled as truss elements. Vehicles are modeled as mass-spring-damper systems. Rail irregularities and wind fluctuation are simulated in time domain by spectrum representation method. Then, aerodynamic loads on vehicle and bridge deck are measured by section model wind tunnel tests. Eight vertical and torsional flutter derivatives of bridge deck are identified by weighting ensemble least-square method. Finally, dynamic responses of the WVB system are analyzed in a series of cases. The results show that the accelerations of the vehicle are excited by the fluctuating wind and the track irregularity to a great extent. The transverse forces of wheel axles mainly depend on the track irregularity. The displacements of the bridge are predominantly determined by the mean wind and restricted by its stiffness. And the accelerations of the bridge are enlarged after adding the fluctuating wind.

  10. Exploration on Development Strategy of Urban Rail Transit Industry in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co.,Ltd.%北车大连所公司城市轨道交通产业发展战略初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安帮贤

    2013-01-01

    随着国内城市轨道交通快速发展以及城市化进程日益加快,为轨道交通装备行业发展带来带来千载难逢的机遇,中国北车大连所公司城轨车产品种类、数量等方面亟待改善,作者试图对大连所公司城轨发展战略做出研究,以期为提高竞争力提出一点建议.%With the rapid development of urban rail transit as well as the ever-accelerating process of urbanization, it brings once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for the development of rail transportation equipment industry, product type, quantity and other aspects in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd. need to improve. The authors tries to carry out the research on development strategy of urban rail transit industry in CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd., so as to make some recommendations to improve competitiveness.

  11. 49 CFR 229.79 - Third rail shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third rail shoes. 229.79 Section 229.79..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.79 Third rail shoes. When locomotives are equipped with both third rail and overhead...

  12. Geometric transitions and integrable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, D.-E. [New High Energy Theory Center, Rutgers University, 126 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)]. E-mail: duiliu@physics.rutgers.edu; Dijkgraaf, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and KdV Institute for Mathematics, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Donagi, R. [Department of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania, David Rittenhouse Laboratory, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6395 (United States); Hofman, C. [The Weizmann Institute for Science, Department of Particle Physics, Herzl Street 2, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Pantev, T. [Department of Mathematics, University of Pennsylvania, David Rittenhouse Laboratory, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6395 (United States)

    2006-09-25

    We consider B-model large N duality for a new class of noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces modeled on the neighborhood of a ruled surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The closed string side of the transition is governed at genus zero by an A{sub 1} Hitchin integrable system on a genus g Riemann surface {sigma}. The open string side is described by a holomorphic Chern-Simons theory which reduces to a generalized matrix model in which the eigenvalues lie on the compact Riemann surface {sigma}. We show that the large N planar limit of the generalized matrix model is governed by the same A{sub 1} Hitchin system therefore proving genus zero large N duality for this class of transitions.

  13. Geometric transitions and integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Diaconescu, D E; Dijkgraaf, R; Hofman, C M; Pantev, T; Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; Donagi, Ron; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Hofman, Christiaan; Pantev, Tony

    2005-01-01

    We consider {\\bf B}-model large $N$ duality for a new class of noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces modeled on the neighborhood of a ruled surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The closed string side of the transition is governed at genus zero by an $A_1$ Hitchin integrable system on a genus $g$ Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. The open string side is described by a holomorphic Chern-Simons theory which reduces to a generalized matrix model in which the eigenvalues lie on the compact Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. We show that the large $N$ planar limit of the generalized matrix model is governed by the same $A_1$ Hitchin system therefore proving genus zero large $N$ duality for this class of transitions.

  14. Geometric transitions and integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaconescu, D.-E.; Dijkgraaf, R.; Donagi, R.; Hofman, C.; Pantev, T.

    2006-09-01

    We consider B-model large N duality for a new class of noncompact Calabi-Yau spaces modeled on the neighborhood of a ruled surface in a Calabi-Yau threefold. The closed string side of the transition is governed at genus zero by an A Hitchin integrable system on a genus g Riemann surface Σ. The open string side is described by a holomorphic Chern-Simons theory which reduces to a generalized matrix model in which the eigenvalues lie on the compact Riemann surface Σ. We show that the large N planar limit of the generalized matrix model is governed by the same A Hitchin system therefore proving genus zero large N duality for this class of transitions.

  15. A nonlinear and fractional derivative viscoelastic model for rail pads in the dynamic analysis of coupled vehicle-slab track systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengyang; Cai, Chengbiao; Spanos, Pol D.

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear and fractional derivative viscoelastic (FDV) model is used to capture the complex behavior of rail pads. It is implemented into the dynamic analysis of coupled vehicle-slab track (CVST) systems. The vehicle is treated as a multi-body system with 10 degrees of freedom, and the slab track is represented by a three layer Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The model for the rail pads is one dimensional, and the force-displacement relation is based on a superposition of elastic, friction, and FDV forces. This model takes into account the influences of the excitation frequency and of the displacement amplitude through a fractional derivative element, and a nonlinear friction element, respectively. The Grünwald representation of the fractional derivatives is employed to numerically solve the fractional and nonlinear equations of motion of the CVST system by means of an explicit integration algorithm. A dynamic analysis of the CVST system exposed to excitations of rail harmonic irregularities is carried out, pointing out the stiffness and damping dependence on the excitation frequency and the displacement amplitude. The analysis indicates that the dynamic stiffness and damping of the rail pads increase with the excitation frequency while they decrease with the displacement amplitude. Furthermore, comparisons between the proposed model and ordinary Kelvin model adopted for the CVST system, under excitations of welded rail joint irregularities and of random track irregularities, are conducted in the time domain as well as in the frequency domain. The proposed model is shown to possess several modeling advantages over the ordinary Kelvin element which overestimates both the stiffness and damping features at high frequencies.

  16. Welding technology for rails. Rail no setsugo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Uchino, K.; Sugino, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Inst. of Yawata Works); Ueyama, K. (JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-08-01

    The rail joining technology is indispensable for making long welded rails. Flush butt welding, gas welding, enclosed arc welding, and thermit welding are used properly as the welding methods. A method for improving the joint reliability by controlling the residual stress distribution of welded joint is investigated to prepare high carbon component weld metal similar to the rail. Problems with each of the welding methods and the newly developed technology to solve the problems are outlined. Composition of the coating is improved also, and a high C system welding rod is developed which has satisfactory weldability. High performance and high efficient new enclosed arc welding technology not available by now is developed which utilizes high carbon welding metal as a new EA welding work technology, and put to practical use. As a result of this study, useful guides are obtained for the establishment of satisfactory thermit welding technology. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Urban rail transit of fire risk assessment and countermeasures%城市轨道交通火灾事故风险评估及对策措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵一姝; 白建平; 易俊

    2012-01-01

    The article through the city traffic situations and existing problems of analysis and based on the fire risk assessment method which provides an evidence and support in preventing, placing on occupants'safety. In order to track traffic accident fire accident happens is as an example, the fault tree of safety evaluation method of rail transit operation fire accident risk evaluation process, thus find cause fire the main reason of the accident, and combined with Chongqing light rail line NO:2 door station in an emergency river personnel evacuation calculation, light rail line no. 2 judge river door the station fire accident and emergency, whether in the limited time within the safe evacuation, ensuring passenger safety, and combining the actual situation rail transit are corresponding countermeasures, reduce the possibility of accident happening and serious degree, which ensure that people's life safety and property from losses.%运用故障树安全评价的方法和火灾风险评估中的定量分析方法,以人员安全为出发点,对轨道交通运营过程火灾事故风险进行评估.并对重庆市轻轨2号线临江门车站进行紧急情况下人员疏散计算,判断轻轨临江门车站发生火灾等紧急事故时,能否确保乘客的人身安全.结合轨道交通现状给出相应对策措施,降低事故发生的可能性,确保乘客生命安全和财产不受损失.

  18. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  19. Beginning Rails 3

    CERN Document Server

    Barazi, Rida Al

    2010-01-01

    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  20. Discussion of Urban Rail Transit Engineering Cost Management Measures%城市轨道交通工程造价管理措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志年

    2012-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通建设的快速发展,其投资占基础设施建设的比例不断增加,为进一步做好工程投资控制、质量控制、工期控制和合同管理,以及安全管理等方面的工作,充分发挥投资的经济效益和社会效益,对目前工程造价管理中存在的主要问题进行分析,对各阶段工程造价管理方法进行论述和探讨。通过分析与探讨提出进一步加强和完善工程造价管理的措施与建议。%With the rapid development of urban rail transit construction, the proportion of its investment accounts in infrastructure construction increases constantly. In order to promote engineering investment control, qual- ity control, time limit control, contract management, and safety management work, give full play to the investment's economic efficiency and the social efficiency, the main problems existing in the current engi- neering cost management are analyzed, and engineering cost management method in each stage is de- scribed and discussed. Through the analysis and studies, measures and suggestions on further strengthe- ning and perfecting engineering cost management are put forward.

  1. On Debt Repayment of Urban Rail Transit Construction Projects%城市轨道交通建设项目债务偿还方式思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马季华

    2013-01-01

    Low-fare policy of urban rail transit results in project construction fund essentially relying on the city government subsidies. The principal of the loans should be paid in annual installments and the interests are also to be paid by amortization. Compared with principal repayment with grace period, annual amortization has stronger binding effect on companies so that they can act according to their capabilities, control risks and apportion their debt burdens. It is a safe and fair long-term mechanism for investment and financing.%城市轨道交通的低票价政策决定了项目建设资金最终依靠城市政府投入与个人住房采取按揭贷款“超前消费”的模式类似,城市轨道交通建设项目适合采取借钱“超前建设”的模式.建议城市轨道交通建设项目的债务实行本金按年分期偿还的方式,即不但利息要按年支付,本金也要按年分期偿还.本金按年分期偿还方式与本金设置宽限期偿还方式相比,具有更强的约束性,有利于实现量力而行、控制风险和均衡负担,是安全、公平的投融资长效机制.

  2. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  3. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen

    2005-07-01

    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  4. Mineralization of clapper rail eggshell from a contaminated salt marsh system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navarro, A B; Gaines, K F; Romanek, C S; Masson, G R

    2002-11-01

    The effect of contamination on eggshell mineralization has been studied for clapper rails (Rallus longirostris) inhabiting a contaminated salt marsh in coastal Georgia. To assess the impact of contaminants, the thickness, microstructure (crystal orientation), mineral composition, and chemistry of shell material were analyzed from a contaminated site and a nearby reference site using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Eggshells from the contaminated site were generally thinner than those from the reference site. Also, eggshells from the contaminated site were abnormally brittle and contained anomalous microstructural attributes. The combination of reduced shell thickness and anomalous microstructure resulted in weaker eggshells, which in turn could pose a significant threat to the reproductive success of the affected population.PCB concentrations in eggshells were at background levels in both sites. Eggshells from the contaminated site had higher concentrations of heavy metals, specifically mercury, than the reference site. The structural changes observed in eggshells may be related to the concentration of specific metals ( e.g., Mg, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in shell, however, statistical analyses indicated that metals only explained a small portion of the observed variation in properties ( i.e., thickness, crystal orientation). Further analysis is required to better constrain the factors leading to unusually weak eggshells in the contaminated site.

  5. Mobility Innovation Through a Combined System of Rapid Mass Transit and Bike Rental in Shanghai Suburbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Residents of the Shanghai suburbs find it hard to access transportation. This paper begins by introducing the context and features of the bike-rental rental system, and then describes the innovative mobility project combining Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and a public bike rental system jointly established and run by the Forever Group and local government through a PPP model. The project, which has many technical patents, is headed by Forever Group and run in cooperation with local government, providing bottom-up popularization and development of bike-rental services in the areas surrounding the main rail transit stations. On the basis of a case study on Minhang District and a questionnaire, the paper further demonstrates that the bike rental system improves travel conditions for residents of the suburbs, expands the effective service radius around the rail transit stations and provides possibilities for more wide-ranging restructuring of land-use, which will help to balance the unidirectional tidal flow of transportation.

  6. Dynamic Model Design of Stakeholders Management in Urban Rail Transit PPP Projects---Take Xuzhou Rail Transit Line 1 as an Example%PPP模式下轨道交通项目干系人动态管控--以徐州轨道交通项目1号线为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余慕溪; 陆瑶

    2016-01-01

    公私合营 PPP模式作为基础设施项目融资建设的新方式,在城市轨道交通项目中的应用已成为新的研究热点。PPP项目结构复杂、参与方众多,决策和设计阶段的干系人管理对项目顺利实施有较大影响。根据利益相关者理论,在识别徐州城市轨道交通项目干系人,并对其进一步细分的基础上,详细分析了徐州城市轨道交通项目各干系人的期望与要求,提出了基于全寿命周期的项目干系人动态管控,可从主体识别、参与动力、参与过程以及绩效评价机制4个方面提高管理效率,为 PPP模式下项目干系人管理策略决策提供一种新思路,对于同类项目管理实践具有一定指导意义。%Public‐Private‐Partnership as a new w ay of infrastructure project financing ,its application in urban rail transit project has become a new research focus .For complex structure and numerous participants ,stakeholder management of PPP projects has a greater effect on success in the decision‐making phase .Based on the stakeholder theory ,this paper sys‐tematically identifies and subdivides the stakeholders of Xuzhou rail transit line 1 .With detailed analysis ,dynamic model of stakeholder management in full life cycle is conceptually built ,including subject identification mechanism ,coordination mechanism ,resource sharing mechanism and feedback mechanism ,w hich provides a innovative idea to stakeholder man‐agement in PPP projects .

  7. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  8. 轨道交通线网规划实施对地下水环境影响分析%Analysis on the Impacts of Rail Transit Network Planning Implementation on Groundwater Circumstances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈爱侠; 杨晓婷

    2011-01-01

    结合西安市城市轨道交通线网与地下水层的关系,分析轨道交通线网规划实施对地下水补给、径流和排泄的影响途径.采用数值模拟方法,利用Visual MODFLOW软件模拟轨道交通线网建设对地下水流场的影响.结果表明:轨道交通线网对地下水的影响主要发生在潜水层,在该水层形成多个封闭的"井"字形区域,在一定程度上减少了含水层的过水断面,导致局部区域地下水位壅高,局部区域地下水位下降,在水位抬升区或水位下降区,潜水位的变幅仅为0~1.25 m.%Considering the relationships between rail transit networks and groundwater aquifers in the city of Xi'an, the effects of rail transit network planning implementation on ground recharge,runoff and discharge were analyzed. The impacts of rail transit network construction on groundwater flow fields were simulated using Visual MODFLOW. The results show that influences occur in the unconfined aquifer and thus several enclosed square-formed areas are formed. It can reduce wetted area of the aquifer to some extent and lead to variations of ground water level in some areas. But whether in elevated areas or declined areas of water level, the groundwater level ranges from 0 to 1.25 m.

  9. 城市轨道交通项目政府融资模式风险分析%Risk Analysis of Government Financing Patterns in Urban Rail Transit Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石志伟

    2013-01-01

    In recent years,urban rail transit are built in many big cities in China.As the city public infrastructure,urban rail transit has some characteristics:funds invested large,long construction period,high operating cost,low project investment return,long investment recovery period,greater the potential risk.Therefore,it is difficult to attract businesses to participate in the investment and construction,so the government is mainly responsible for raising capital financing of city rail transit project.This paper introduces the financing channel of government financing mode,puts forward corresponding measures to prevent risks based on the recognition of government financing risk factors.%近年来,我国很多大城市都正在兴建城市轨道交通,城市轨道交通项目作为城市的公益性基础设施,资金投入量巨大,建设周期长、运营成本高,项目自身投资回报率低,投资回收期长,潜在风险较大,因此,很难吸引企业参与投资建设,政府是城市轨道交通项目资金融资筹措的主要承担者.本文介绍了政府融资模式的筹资渠道,在对政府融资风险因素识别的基础上,提出了相应的风险防范措施.

  10. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  11. Modal Transition Systems with Weight Intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We propose weighted modal transition systems, an extension to the well-studied specification formalism of modal transition systems that allows to express both required and optional behaviours of their intended implementations. In our extension we decorate each transition with a weight interval th...

  12. 基于复杂网络的城市轨道交通线网评价与优化%Evaluation and Optimization of Urban Rail Transit Network Based on Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祝清; 韩亚品

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban rail transit network based on the complex network theory and evaluates rail transit network by means of an established complex network model to compute and analyze the eigenvalues. With reference to the planning rail transit network in Wuhan to the year of 2021, the most stressful traffic stations and intervals of the network are determined, and optimization programs are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are as follows. The key stations in rail transit network include not only multi-line transfer stations, but stations with large betweeness. Easing traffic pressure of key stations can not be simply fulfilled by adding more lines, but should be done by increasing peripheral passage connections with the consideration of the entire network structure. Rather than only pursuing network efficiency, the passenger flow capacity of single stations and intervals from the perspective of network structure should be taken into account when constructing the network.%采用复杂网络理论对城市轨道交通线网进行分析,建立复杂网络模型,进行特征值计算分析,对轨道交通网络进行评价。以武汉市规划2021年轨道交通线网为例,确定网络中交通压力最大的车站和区间,提出优化方案并进行评价比较。研究结论为:在轨道交通线网中重要的车站不仅是多线换乘站,还应包括介数较大的车站;疏解重要站点客流压力不能简单增加线路,而应考虑整个网络结构,增加外围的通道连接;在构筑网络时,不能仅追求网络效率,更应从网络结构的角度考虑单个车站或区间的客流承受能力。

  13. Bottleneck Identification for the Gathering and Distributing Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Station%城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈识别方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单征; 宋瑞; 李婷婷; 陈立扬

    2014-01-01

    The bottleneck for the gathering and distributing capacity of urban rail transit station leads to serious passenger traffic congestion and reduces the distribution performance of stations ,which affects the efficiency and safety of passenger travel .Based on the full analysis of the connotation and cause of the gathering and distributing capacity bottle-neck of urban rail transit station ,the bottleneck identification method based on the congestion level is put forward .First-ly ,the cumulative Logistic regression based on a congestion level measurement model is built .Then ,the model is calibra-ted and validated with the survey data .Finally ,by taking Beijing Dongzhimen Rail Transit Station as the study site ,the validity of the model is verified by using Anylogic dynamic simulation .Results show that the model can accurately reflect the bottleneck of the gathering and distributing capacity of urban rail transit station in real time .%城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈会导致车站内部分区域出现严重的客流拥堵现象,降低车站集散效能,影响乘客出行效率和安全。在分析城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈内涵和成因的基础上,提出了基于拥堵强度的瓶颈识别方法。构建基于累计 Logistic 回归的拥堵强度判别模型,结合调查数据对模型进行参数标定和验证。以北京地铁东直门站为例,结合 Anylogic 动态仿真,验证了模型的有效性,表明该模型能够准确、实时地识别出城市轨道交通车站集散能力瓶颈。

  14. Learning Devise for Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Sakti, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  15. Rails Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  16. Military Fuel and Alternative Fuel Effects on a Modern Diesel Engine Employing a Fuel-Lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    Fuel-lubricated High Pressure Common Rail Fuel Injection System, Adam C. Brandt, et al. Page 3 of 7 UNCLASSIFIED contains a two lobe camshaft ... camshafts rotation. These follower assemblies are then used to actuate the fuel plunger within the barrel to generate high pressure fuel. Fuel entering...top & bottom Camshaft light polish, seal contact wear light polish, very light burnish, seal contact wear light polish, light burnish, seal

  17. Modeling and Simulation for Urban Rail Traffic Problem Based on Cellular Automata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琰; 曹成铉; 李明华; 罗金龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the Nagel-Schreckenberg model, we propose a new cellular automata model to simulate the urban rail traffic flow under moving block system and present a new minimum instantaneous distance formula under pure moving block. We also analyze the characteristics of the urban rail traffic flow under the influence of train density, station dwell times, the length of train, and the train velocity. Train delays can be decreased effectively through flexible departure intervals according to the preceding train type before its departure. The results demonstrate that a suitable adjustment of the current train velocity based on the following train velocity can greatly shorten the minimum departure intervals and then increase the capacity of rail transit.

  18. 城市轨道交通超大客流网络拥挤传播研究%The Research on the Network Congestion for Large Passenger Flow of Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆晨; 刘澜; 牛龙飞

    2014-01-01

    Effect of time to study the law of city rail transit transmission and different number of large pas-senger congestion site of rail transit network , from the spread of disease theory , established large passenger con-gestion network spread disease model of network congestion based on the model , and the use of Adams differenti-al equation numerical model was solved .Propagation characteristics of fitting SIR infectious disease model of this study of inversion parameters are applied to the rail transit network , and simulation through the initial amount of congestion in different sites .Research shows that morbid spread large passenger rail transportation by probability of infection, recovery probability , initial congestion stations , also provides a new research method for the large passenger congestion propagation .%为研究城市轨道交通超大客流传播的时间规律以及不同数量拥堵站点对整体轨道交通网络的影响,通过定义超大客流,引用疾病传播理论,建立了基于网络拥挤模型的超大客流拥堵网络疾病传播模型,并运用Adams微分方程数值进行模型求解。对反演参数得到的SIR传染病模型的传播特性拟合运用于轨道交通网络,并通过不同的初始拥堵站点数量进行仿真。研究表明:轨道交通超大客流的病态传播受传染概率、恢复概率、初始拥堵站点数影响,该联系为超大客流网络拥挤传播提供一种新的研究思路。

  19. Theoretical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Rail Damper to Minimize Short-Pitch Rail Corrugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyou Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cologne-egg fastening systems applied in metro lines, which can be subjected to rail corrugation, are considered in this paper. To understand the mechanism of the formation and development of rail corrugation, dynamic models of the wheel and the track with Cologne-egg fastening system in the frequency domain are developed to analyse the wheel and track vibration behaviour. A field test is also analysed to verify the validity of the mechanism. Using these experimental and theoretical results, the vibration mode of the rail that is responsible for rail corrugation is determined. Based on the results, a novel rail damper that can suppress the track pinned-pinned resonance and smooth the track receptance is presented to minimize short-pitch rail corrugation. It is ultimately found from theoretical simulation and experimental investigation that the application of the rail damper is a long-term and effective method of controlling short-pitch rail corrugation in metro lines.

  20. 城市轨道交通CBTC系统2.4 GHz无线传输技术的应用研究%Application Research on 2.4 GHz Wireless Transmission Technology of CBTC System used in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜成

    2013-01-01

    The new network computer interlocking simulation system takes aim at achieving computer-based interlocking simulation function among multiple stations and yards. At the same time, it adopts 3D simulation models, successfully solves the problem that traditional interlocking simulation system could only simulate the interlocking operation but cannot fully simulate the real equipment in stations and yards. The new system uses ASP. NET Web development technology, utilizes C # programming language to design the system function models, and also adopts 3D simulation models with Web 3D technology. The new network computer interlocking simulation system can realize Web access of human-computer interaction interface and can realize online browsing of 3D simulation models among multiple stations and yards. The new network computer interlocking simulation system, which makes it more easier for the training of operation staff, thus improves the trainee's ability to solve common faults, and also brings new experience for users, should be widely used.%鉴于采用IEEE802.11标准ISM2.4GHz开放频段基于通信的列车控制系统(CBTC)在城市轨道交通应用中被外界采用相同标准和频谱的WiFi信号干扰,而造成停车事故,影响列车正常运营;为此,通过对CBTC系统采用的无线传输技术分析和研究,提出目前CBTC系统无线传输技术存在的问题和无线干扰处理方法及未来城市轨道交通CBTC系统车地无线通信技术的发展方向.

  1. 基于城市轨道交通的常规公交线网优化调整%Optimal Adjustment of Conventional Public Transportation Network Based on Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡列格; 段胜楠; 唐量; 王佳

    2015-01-01

    为推动公交优先发展战略全面实施,充分发挥大运量城市轨道交通在公共交通系统中的骨干作用和常规公交的辅助协调作用,需要围绕城市轨道交通对常规公交做出优化调整。该文从城市轨道交通影响范围内的常规公交客流的变化情况入手,对常规公交线网优化调整问题进行描述,建立以直达能力最大为目标函数,以线路长度、非直线系数、公交线网密度等为约束条件的常规公交线网优化模型;构造算例,应用遗传算法进行优化模型求解分析,其结果表明对常规公交线网优化的效果明显。%In order to promote the full implementation of public transport priority development strate‐gy ,make the large capacity backbone role of the urban rail transit and assistance coordinating role of con‐ventional bus transit in to full play ,it is necessary to adjust conventional bus transport to urban rail tran‐sit .Putting the passenger flow changes of the conventional bus transit into consideration ,this paper de‐scribed the optimal adjustment problems on bus transit under the influence of urban rail transit ,established an optimizing model of conventional bus transit network and solved it via genetic algorithm with maximum of non‐stop capacity as its objective function ,the line length ,non‐linear coefficient and public transport net‐work density as its constraints .

  2. Fuel Injection Quantity Correction Strategy for High-pressure Common Rail Fuel System Based on Transient Rail Pressure Drop%基于轨压瞬态压力降的高压共轨燃油喷射系统喷油量校正策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪松; 王尚勇; 孙作宇; 刘福水

    2013-01-01

    试验研究了喷油量、发动机转速以及共轨压力对高压共轨燃油喷射系统轨压瞬态压力降低幅值变化规律的影响.研究结果表明,瞬态轨压在喷油器启喷后会明显下降,且降低幅值与喷油量、发动机转速以及共轨压力均密切相关.基于喷油量、发动机转速以及共轨压力对轨压瞬态压力下降现象的影响规律,制订了循环喷油量的校正策略,试验结果表明,该控制策略可以有效提升循环喷油量的均匀性并相应地大幅改善发动机的循环变动.%Influences of fuel injection quantity,engine speed and common rail pressure on transient rail pressure drop of highpressure common rail fuel system were researched through the experiment.The research result shows that the transient rail pressure has an obvious drop after the injection starts and the drop amplitude has close relationship with fuel injection quantity,engine speed and common rail pressure.Based on the influences of fuel injection quantity,engine speed and common rail pressure on transient rail pressure drop,the correction strategy of cycle fuel injection is established.The further experiment shows that the strategy can improve the uniformity of cycle fuel injection and the cycle-to-cycle variation to a great extent.

  3. Research Progress of the Impact of Rail Transit on the Real Estate Value%轨道交通对房地产价值影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓; 赵强

    2016-01-01

    The paper selects relevant literature about the impact of rail transit on real estate value during the last years at home and abroad,and summarizes the range,the temporal effect,the sub-market effect and the quantitative analysis method of rail transit impact. On this basis,forecasts the future research trends and new issues of concern,in order to deepen the research.%选取近几年来国内外关于轨道交通对房地产价值影响的相关文献,从轨道交通影响的范围、时效性、分市场效应和定量分析方法等方面进行总结评述。在此基础上,就未来的研究趋势以及值得关注的新问题作出展望,以供深化和拓展研究。

  4. Rational recent construction scale of urban rapid rail transit network in Changsha%长沙市轨道交通近期建设合理规模研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璇

    2012-01-01

    本文应用交通需求推算法和基础设施投资资金控制法对长沙市近期轨道交通建设规模进行匡算,并采用轨道工程实施进度控制,确定了长沙市轨道交通近期合理建设规模;同时根据长沙市过江通道规划及跨江客流预测,对跨江轨道交通通道合理规模进行了研究.%The theory of urban traffic demand and urban infrastructural investment control were applied to obtain the rational recent construction scale, coordinating with the progress of urban rapid rail transit project implemen tation. According to the cross - river passage planning of Changsha and cross - river flow prediction, the reasona ble scale of cross - river urban rapid rail transit passage was also studied in the paper.

  5. 轨道交通建设沿线建(构)筑物调查实践%The Survey of the Buildings and Structures Along Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙海奎; 武鑫; 李忠杰; 吴凯

    2014-01-01

    For the survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,this paper analyzed the survey contents , the operating methods ,the research process ,tidying results and other aspects ,presented the technological scheme of sur-vey to use to survey of the buildings and structures along rail transit ,and explained and evaluated the preparation ,the sur-vey,the query of data,tidying results and other aspects.Finally,we got the exact and satisfied survey results of the build-ings and structures .%针对城市轨道交通建设沿线的建(构)筑物调查实践,对调查内容、作业方法、调查流程、成果整理等方面进行了分析,提出了调查技术方案,应用在乌鲁木齐市轨道交通沿线的建(构)筑物调查作业中,同时对前期准备、外业调查、资料查询、内业整理和成果提交形式等实施环节进行了内容说明和评价,得到了的准确、可靠的建(构)筑物调查成果。

  6. Chaos in a topologically transitive system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG; Jincheng

    2005-01-01

    The chaotic phenomena have been studied in a topologically transitive system and it has been shown that the erratic time dependence of orbits in such a topologically transitive system is more complicated than what described by the well-known technology "Li-Yorke chaos". The concept "sensitive dependency on initial conditions" has been generalized, and the chaotic phenomena has been discussed for transitive systems with the generalized sensitive dependency property.

  7. Fence Posts and Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  8. The Rail Gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  9. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  10. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  11. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  12. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  13. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the pap

  14. Dualities for Logics of Transition Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Kurz, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present a general framework for logics of transition systems based on Stone duality. Transition systems are modelled as coalgebras for a functor T on a category X. The propositional logic used to reason about state spaces from X is modelled by the Stone dual A of X (e.g. if X is Stone spaces then

  15. Financial system development in transition economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, C.L.M.; Lensink, B.W.

    This paper provides an overview of the major issues with respect to financial system development in transition economies, which were discussed at a conference in Groningen, the Netherlands, December 1997. After a brief remark on the role of financial system design during economic transition, the

  16. 城市轨道交通车站动态瓶颈识别方法研究%Identification of Dynamic Bottlenecks of Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄令海; 李海鹰; 许心越

    2015-01-01

    瓶颈识别是城市轨道交通车站规划设计和运营管理亟待解决的难题。本文在既有静态瓶颈和动态瓶颈的基础上,按动态瓶颈产生原因将其细化为原发性瓶颈及继发性瓶颈;研究瓶颈的动态传播特性,提出关联瓶颈与瓶颈簇理论,以此刻画瓶颈传播机理,并在此基础上构建车站动态瓶颈识别方法;以瓶颈簇理论为支撑,定量分析单个设备能力对车站集散能力的影响程度,提出基于灵敏度分析的瓶颈疏解策略。最后,对北京地铁某车站进行案例分析,验证该瓶颈识别方法的有效性与实用性。案例表明,该方法能够有效识别车站瓶颈,明确瓶颈之间的依附关系以及瓶颈的重要程度。与既有方法相比减少66.7%的仿真次数,可以明显提高识别效率。%Bottleneck identification is an urgent issue that needs to be addressed in the planning,design and op-eration management of urban rail transit stations.Based on the concepts of existing static bottlenecks and dy-namic bottlenecks,dynamic bottlenecks were classified into two categories,i.e.primary bottlenecks and sec-ondary bottlenecks,according to the causes of dynamic bottlenecks.The dynamic bottleneck transmission characteristics were studied,and the correlation bottleneck and bottleneck cluster concepts were proposed to describe the bottleneck transmission mechanism,whereby a new bottleneck identification method was pro-posed.Supported by bottleneck cluster concept,quantitative analysis was conducted on the effect of the capaci-ty of an individual facility on collection and distribution capacity of the station,and sensitivity analysis-based bottleneck relief strategy was proposed.Finally,a case study of a station in Beijing subway was implemented to verify the validity and practicability of the proposed method.The results showed that this method can identi-fy the bottlenecks of a station effectively,and define the dependence

  17. Precision System for Motion Path Parameters Measurement of Wheel and Rail Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konyakhin, I A; Timofeev, A N; Arakantsev, K G [Department of Optic-electronics Devices and Systems, University of Information, Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, 49 Kronverksky Avenue, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    In article the optic-electronic system of coordinates measurement is examined. Two circuits of system's construction are offered, their merits and demerits are specified. The substantiation of a system's measuring scheme construction is resulted. Theoretical errors of a distance measurement and cross-section vertical displacement of reference marks for the chosen scheme are analysed.

  18. 北京城市轨道交通60kg/m钢轨12号单开道岔的设计研究%Design and Research of No.12 Single Turnout with 60 kg/m Rail Used on Beijing Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东风; 蒋昕; 侯爱滨

    2012-01-01

    Turnout is the key equipment which restricts trains' running speed. In order to advance the transportation efficiency of Beijing Urban Rail Transit, improve the speed of passing through a turnout, enhance the turnaround ability of the train, and change the current situation in Beijing Urban Rail Transit in which only unitary type of turnouts is put to use, the new No. 12 single turnout with 60 kg/m rail has been studied and manufactured. For this new turnout, based on a full set of research method in national railways, adopting the mature technique in national railways, absorbing the high-speed turnouts experience, the joint-design between maintenance and electricity was completed, and trial-manufacture, trial laying and trial testing along with the manufactory were also completed. The new No. 12 turnout has been applied in Yi zhuang Railway in Beijing, and the application effect was good.%道岔是制约列车运行速度的关键设备.为全面提升北京城市轨道交通运输效率,提高列车过岔速度和折返能力,改变北京城市轨道交通道岔类型单一的现状,新研制了60 kg/m钢轨12号单开道岔.该道岔的研究以国铁一整套研究方法为基础,同时结合北京城市轨道交通的特点,采用国铁成熟技术,借鉴高速道岔设计技术,实现了工电一体化联合设计,并与生产厂商共同完成试制、试铺及测试工作.新研制的60 kg/m钢轨12号道岔已在北京亦庄线实际工程中应用,使用效果良好.

  19. Automatic Broken Rail Crack Detection Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komal B. Dandge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In India, as the fuel cost continues to rise, railway transport plays an important role. Although there are, so many options of transportation are available like flights, trains, buses etc but most of the people prefer trains only as it is cost effective and comfortable way of travelling and hence in today’s world railway becomes the lifeline of India. When anybody goes through the daily news, they come across many accidents which are related to railroad. So there must be good railway safety for the people as the rail accidents are often dangerous in terms of the severity and death etc, when compared with the other transportation. There are several reasons present for railroad related accidents but the major reason is cracks in rails. It is the main cause of railway derailments and has the capacity to induce major damage to economy of the world. Therefore more efforts are necessary for achieving the good rail safety. This system introduced a method for rail crack detection. The proposed system is LED-LDR and Arduino based rail track detection scheme. It is cost effective and simple way of monitoring the condition of the rails on a continual basis for the improving the railway safety which consists of GSM module and Encoder.

  20. Reliability And Maintenance Analysis Of CCTV Systems Used In Rail Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siergiejczyk Mirosław

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CCTV systems are widely used across plethora of industrial areas including transport, where their function is to support transport telematics systems. Among others, they are used to ensure travel safety. This paper presented a reliability and maintenance analysis of CCTV. It led to building a relationships graph and then Chapman–Kolmogorov system of equations was derived to describe it. Drawing on those equations, relationships for calculating probability of system staying in state of full ability SPZ, state of the impendency over safety SZB1 as well as state of unreliability of safety SB were derived.

  1. Multi-Level Maintenance Facility for Urban Rail Transit Vehicle%城市轨道交通车辆立体检修工艺设施研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐静

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis on inspection and maintenance process for urban rail transit electric vehicles of third rail powered type. The study on overhaul trench, maintenance operating platform and power supply facilities are carried out, based on maintenance characteristics and maintenance requirements, it proposes multi-level and highly integrated overhaul maintenance facilities. Through operating practices, it can greatly improve efficiency of maintenance of the vehicles.%通过分析城市轨道交通三轨受电车辆的双周三月检检修工艺,针对其检修特点和检修要求,对检修地沟、作业平台、供电设施进行研究,提出了具有高度集成的全方位立体检修工艺设施,通过运营实践,可大大提高车辆检修效率。

  2. Evaluation of Dose and Position Compensation of Parotid Gland Using CT On-rail System in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyeong Jun; Im, Chung Geun; Chun, Geum Sung; Jeong, Il Seon; Kim, Hoi Nam [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Catholic University Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The checking method of target and normal structure are used by MVCBCT, KVCBCT, CT On-rail System, Ultrasound in H and N cancer patient. In case of MVCT, the utilization of bone structure is valuable to check around tissue. But the utilization of soft tissue is not enough. The point of this paper is dose variation in movable parotid and changeable volume of H and N cancer patient of CT On-rail System. The object of H and N cancer patient is 5 in this hospital. The selected patient are scanned ARTISTE CT Vision (CT On-ral System) a triweekly. After CT scanning, tranfered coordinates are obtained by movable of parotid gland comparison with planning image. Checking for the changeable volume of parotid gland. A Obtained CT image are tranfered to the RTP System. So dose variation are checked by following changed volume. The changes of target coordinate by the parotid gland movement are X: -0.4{approx}0.4 cm, Y: -0.4{approx}0.3 cm, Z: -0.3{approx}0.3 cm. the volume of GTV is decreased to about 7.11%/week and then both parotid gland volume are shrinked about 4.81%/week (Lt), 2.91%/week (Rt). At the same time, each parotid gland are diminished in radiation dose as 3.66%/week (Lt), 2.01%/week. Images from CT on the rail System which are able to aquire the better quality images of soft tissue in Target area than MVCBCT. After replanning and dose redistribution by required images, It could gain not only the correction of the patient set-tup errors but exact dose distribution. Accordingly, the delivery of compensated dose, It makes that we could do Adaptive Targeting Radiotherapy and need Real Time Adaptive Targeting Radiotherapy by reduce beam delivery time.

  3. Pairing correlations and transitions in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belic, A; Hjorth-Jensen, M

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several pairing-related phenomena in nuclear systems, ranging from superfluidity in neutron stars to the gradual breaking of pairs in finite nuclei. We describe recent experimental evidence that points to a relation between pairing and phase transitions (or transformations) in finite nuclear systems. A simple pairing interaction model is used in order to study and classify an eventual pairing phase transition in finite fermionic systems such as nuclei. We show that systems with as few as 10-16 fermions can exhibit clear features reminiscent of a phase transition.

  4. PPP模式下的城市轨道交通项目投资策略研究%Project Investment in the Field of Urban Rail Transit under the PPP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智星; 申金升; 王传涛

    2016-01-01

    PPP模式在国内城市轨道交通领域的应用前景广阔。社会投资机构与政府在城市轨道交通领域的项目合作,本质上是一种投资决策分析,核心在于研究社会投资机构的投资决策规律。本文在PPP模式下,通过分析PPP项目的基本博弈关系,模拟作为理性人的社会投资机构参与政府择优选择项目合作伙伴的特征,基于Bayesian博弈构建模型,提出博弈主体的效用水平和目标函数,并研究在博弈均衡结果下,无投资偏好和有投资偏好条件的报价特点及最佳策略,旨在为应用PPP模式促进城市轨道交通项目建设提供理论参考,最大程度减少因投资评价不准确、不合理而造成项目失败的风险。%The PPP (Public Private Partnership) mode will be very popular in the urban rail transit in China. In essence, the project cooperation between social investors and government department in the field of urban rail transit is a kind of investment decision. Its core is studying the investment decisions of the social investing institution. Under the PPP mode, this paper analyzes the basic game relationship in the PPP project, and simulates that investing institutions and government departments select as rational persons outstanding project partners. A Bayesian game model is constructed. It is proposed that the utility level as well as the objective function of the game player. In addition, this paper researches on quotation characteristics and the optimal strategies with investment preference of investing institutions or without investment preference in the game equilibrium. It purposes to provide a theoretical reference for the application of the PPP mode in the project of urban rail transit, and reduce the failure of projects due to inaccurate or unreasonable investment evaluation.

  5. Design on Simply-Supported Box Beam in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit%珠三角城际轨道交通简支箱梁设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建军; 邓运清

    2012-01-01

    城际轨道交通是联系城市群间的快速铁路客运专线,主要满足经济发达的人口稠密地区中短途旅客运输需要,对景观设计要求较高.珠三角城际轨道交通桥梁形式采用了流线形箱梁,在箱梁外侧设置大圆弧,小曲线的梁端加宽等处理更加体现了城际轨道交通桥梁中景观设计要素.其常用简支箱梁根据线间距变化,设计分为双线箱梁、单线箱梁和组合箱梁3种形式.从箱梁设计的技术标准、桥面布置、截面选型等方面进行介绍.%In developed and populous areas, the intercity rail transit is the rapid passenger-dedicated line of urban agglomeration in order to meet the needs of passenger traffic within middle distance and short distance, with the higher requirements on landscape. So the box beam bridges with streamline shape were employed in Pearl River Delta Intercity Rail Transit, in which the large arc shape was utilized along the lateral surface of the box beam, and the girder ends on sharp curve were widened to reflect more landscape elements of intercity rail transit bridge design. Moreover, in the design, according to the various distances between the track centers, the usual simply-supported box beam s were divided into three types; the box beam with double tracks, box beam with single track, and the composite box beam. The technical standards, bridge deck arrangement, cross-section selection and other aspects in box beam design are introduced in this paper.

  6. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.

    2016-11-01

    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  7. Global Rail Tech Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China becomes a world leader in high-speed railway innovation after absorbing foreign technologies and making breakthroughs of its ow Most everyday train passengers don’t have time, or reason, to ponder the technicalities of the rails

  8. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  9. Clapper Rail Report 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report discussing the current population status of the California Clapper Rail in the San Francisco Bay and a comparison of habitat suitability in various marshes...

  10. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  11. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  12. Can weak-resilience-signals (WRS) reveal obstacles compromising (rail-)system resilience?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, Johannes Martinus Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of accidents in socio-technical systems frequently reveals unnoticed obstacles, which have grown to become the main cause of incubation and surprise at failure (Dekker, 2011). Thus far, it has proven to be a challenge to identify those unnoticed obstacles upfront among the tremendous number

  13. Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System

    CERN Document Server

    Leviatan, A

    2006-01-01

    A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.

  14. Introduction to corridor selection & assessment for Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS in Hyderabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Kireeti Chanda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit system is an innovation and it is up gradation to the present transport system. BRT is affordable, adaptable and cost effective. The term of rapid transit system means a form of high speed urban passenger transportation. Here, the mode of transportation is bus hence it is called as bus rapid transit system (BRTS. Transportation facilities and the system will be different form different countries. Especially for the developing countries, transportation is a problem and BRT is the best way to overcome it. If a country gets richer the development will be seen in different aspects like education, industry, science and technology etc., except transport which will get worse. There are many ways to get rid of these traffic issues and transport problems. What attracted the countries to install BRT is the bus way concept as that it can cover whole city and is cheaper than the rail. BRT is a high speed rapid transit system using high capacity vehicles, physically separated bus ways, modern station with electronic fare collection, rapid boarding and high service frequency which result more passengers and less congestion. This paper presents an overview of BRTS and corridor selection & assessment for it in Hyderabad through surveys etc.

  15. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  16. Analysis of wheel motion on corrugated rail; Corrugation ga hasseishita rail wo sokosuru sharin no undo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, A. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikuta, S.; Suda, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science] Terumichi, Y. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ono, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    An analysis is conducted into the compound vibration of a wheel/rail system which is a two-axle truck travelling on rails with corrugation type wear generated thereon. Each wheel is analyzed using an analysis model in which the travelling mass, contact spring (concentrated mass system of one degree of freedom), and rails provide a system of distributed constants. Calculation is then made about the variation in the contact force that occurs between the wheels and rails when the truck travels at a prescribed speed in a sector with corrugation (assumed to be sinusoidal) generated on the rails therein. It is then found that there is interaction between the front wheels and rear wheels, that the lateral vibration generated by the excitation of rails due to the traveling of the front wheels is transmitted through the rails to reach the rear wheels for their excitation for an increase in the variation in the contact force between the rear wheels and rails and that, vice versa, the travel of the rear wheels increases the variation in the contact force between the front wheels and rails. It is also found, concerning both front wheels and rear wheels, that there are periodic fluctuations, dependent on the wheelbase, in the amplitude of the contact force variation at the steady state and that the period, as compared with the wavelength of corrugation, is shorter in the front wheels and longer in the rear wheels. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Self-excited vibration analysis for wheel/rail lateral contact system%轮轨横向接触系统的自激振动分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振; 陈照波; 焦映厚; 刘旺中

    2011-01-01

    To study the influence of self-excited vibration on the curve squeal noise in the wheel/rail contact,the dynamical equation for 1-DOF wheel/rail lateral contact system is derived.A new friction coefficient model based on De Beer model is adopted to calculate the friction force in the wheel/rail contact surface.The influence of kinetic and static friction coefficients as well as the lateral creepage on the stability of self-excited vibration system is investigated.The calculation results show that wheel's inherent modes will be excited by the unstable self-excited vibration.If the structural damping of wheel/rail contact system is larger than the equivalent damping of the friction force,or the value of lateral creepage is less than 0.0024,the self-excited vibration system will be stable,and thus the curve squeal noise can be restrained.%为了研究轮轨接触过程中发生的自激振动现象对轮轨曲线啸叫噪声的影响,建立了轮轨横向接触系统的单自由度动力学方程,采用基于De Beer模型的改进的新型摩擦系数模型计算了轮轨接触面上的摩擦力变化,用相平面法分析了动、静摩擦系数以及横向蠕滑率对该自激振动系统的稳定性影响.计算结果表明:不稳定的轮轨自激振动会激发车轮的若干模态产生啸叫噪声;轮轨接触系统的结构阻尼大于因摩擦力变化而引起的等效阻尼,轮轨间横向蠕滑率小于0.002 4可以使该系统保持稳定,抑制啸叫噪声.

  18. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  19. Feasibility of an earth-to-space rail launcher system. [emphasizing nuclear waste disposal application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. E.; Miller, L. A.; Marshall, R. A.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of earth-to-space electromagnetic (railgun) launchers (ESRL) is considered, in order to determine their technical practicality and economic viability. The potential applications of the launcher include nuclear waste disposal into space, deep space probe launches, and atmospheric research. Examples of performance requirements of the ESRL system are a maximum acceleration of 10,000 g's for nuclear waste disposal in space (NWDS) missions and 2,500 g's for earth orbital missions, a 20 km/sec launch velocity for NWDS missions, and a launch azimuth of 90 degrees E. A brief configuration description is given, and test results indicate that for the 2020-2050 time period, as much as 3.0 MT per day of bulk material could be launched, and about 0.5 MT per day of high-level nuclear waste could be launched. For earth orbital missions, a significant projectile mass was approximately 6.5 MT, and an integral distributed energy store launch system demonstrated a good potential performance. ESRL prove to be economically and environmentally feasible, but an operational ESRL of the proposed size is not considered achievable before the year 2020.

  20. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  1. 轨道交通建设安全风险管理体系的建立%Establishment of Rail Traffic Construction Safety Risk Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩圣章; 马运康; 李超

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the current situation of Tianjin rail traffic engineering construction safety risk,the project construction safety risk occurring rules and characteristics are summarized.from risk identification,classification,evaluation,analysis,control and management mechanism,and management model,the paper discusses ideas and methods of risk management during the engineering construction periods,analyzes engineering construction safety risk management system structure and content,sets up Tianjin rail traffic engineering construction safety risk management system in order to prevent,control and avoid all kinds of engineering construction safety risk,and promote the standardization of urban rail traffic engineering construction safety risk management.%结合天津市轨道交通工程建设安全风险的现状,总结归纳工程建设中安全风险发生的规律和特点,从风险辨识、分级、评估、分析、控制及管理机制、管理模式等方面,论述工程建设期间风险管理的思路和方法,分析工程建设安全风险管理体系的构成和内容,初步建立天津市轨道交通工程建设安全风险管理体系,从而预防、控制和规避各类工程建设安全风险,促进城市轨道交通工程建设安全风险管理的规范化。

  2. 城轨交通高架线环境振动的仿真与预测%Simulation and prediction for environment vibration induced by urban rail transit with elevated line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹤年; 孙广俊; 肖军华; 李雄威

    2013-01-01

    基于轮轨相互作用原理,建立了城轨交通高架线路列车振动荷载激励函数。将该激励力作用在有限元软件建立的三维轨道支承结构和土体传播路径计算模型上,对地铁运行引起的周边环境振动响应进行了仿真模拟,并利用现场实测数据进行了比较和验证。进一步,分析了列车运行速度和场地土特性对环境振动的参数影响。在对各参数的影响特征进行了定量分析的基础上,通过统计分析,建立了城市轨道交通高架线路环境振动的振级预测公式,并利用现场实测数据进行了验证。研究表明,仿真模拟和预测结果能够较为真实的反映城轨交通高架线路运行引起的环境振动的实际情况。%Firstly, on the basis of wheel-track interaction theory, a function of exciting force of moving train on elevated line is established. Then, the exciting force is acted on the three-dimensional numerical models of rail structure, elevated line and soil foundation by utilizing the finite element software. The surrounding environment vibration response caused by train operation is simulated;and the numerical results are compared and verified by the field measurement data. Furthermore, the parameter effects of length of bridge span, train speed and soil properties on environment vibration are studied. On the basis of investigation of parameter influence characters and according to the statistical analysis, a prediction formula of vibration level on ground induced by urban rail transit with elevated line is presented and validated by the field experiments. The research results show that the numerical simulation and prediction can truly reflect the actual environment vibration caused by urban rail transit with elevated line.

  3. A model-based gain scheduling approach for controlling the common-rail system for GDI engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Gaeta, Alessandro; Montanaro, Umberto; Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero

    2012-04-01

    The progressive reduction in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research for developing alternative and more efficient control strategies. All control features and resources are permanently active in an electronic control unit (ECU), ensuring the best performance with respect to emissions, fuel economy, driveability and diagnostics, independently from engine working point. In this article, a considerable step forward has been achieved by the common-rail technology which has made possible to vary the injection pressure over the entire engine speed range. As a consequence, the injection of a fixed amount of fuel is more precise and multiple injections in a combustion cycle can be made. In this article, a novel gain scheduling pressure controller for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine is designed to stabilise the mean fuel pressure into the rail and to track demanded pressure trajectories. By exploiting a simple control-oriented model describing the mean pressure dynamics in the rail, the control structure turns to be simple enough to be effectively implemented in commercial ECUs. Experimental results in a wide range of operating points confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control method to tame efficiently the mean value pressure dynamics of the plant showing a good accuracy and robustness with respect to unavoidable parameters uncertainties, unmodelled dynamics, and hidden coupling terms.

  4. Research on the Station Spacing of Rail Transit Based on Travel Time%基于出行时间的轨道交通站间距探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怡璇

    2012-01-01

    轨道交通站间距的大小对于出行者的出行时间具有重要的影响.通过Wardrop用户平衡原则揭示出出行者选择最短出行时间的行为特征.引用了基于出行时间最小的轨道交通站间距模型,指出了模型中假设乘客从起点到出发站和从出发站到目的地均采用步行方式不合实际出行状况.并且对于不同的到站距离,乘客采取的到站方式也是不同的.在此基础上提出合理的轨道交通的站间距能减少乘客出行时间,方便乘客出行.并通过案例进行了定量分析.%The station spacing of rail transit is important to travelers' travel time. According to the Ward-rop balance principle, travelers choose the shortest travel time for their travels. The rail transit station spacing model is based on the minimum travel time. It would be wrong to assume that passengers arrive and leave the station by foot in the model. In addition, for different places, passengers' choices may be different. Hence,it is pointed out that a reasonable station spacing can shorten the passengers' travel time for their convenience. A quantitative analysis is also given with a case.

  5. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  6. Stochastic relations foundations for Markov transition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doberkat, Ernst-Erich

    2007-01-01

    Collecting information previously scattered throughout the vast literature, including the author's own research, Stochastic Relations: Foundations for Markov Transition Systems develops the theory of stochastic relations as a basis for Markov transition systems. After an introduction to the basic mathematical tools from topology, measure theory, and categories, the book examines the central topics of congruences and morphisms, applies these to the monoidal structure, and defines bisimilarity and behavioral equivalence within this framework. The author views developments from the general

  7. Analysis and Comparing of Urban Rail Locomotive Auxiliary System AC Power Supply Mode%城轨列车辅助系统交流供电方式的分析与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎纯洁

    2015-01-01

    Through analyzing the urban rail locomotive auxiliary system AC power system supply mode, comparing the ad-vantages and disadvantages of general power supply mode and individual supply mode, prove accordance to urban rail auxil-iary system AC power supply mode selection.%通过对城轨列车辅助系统交流供电方式进行分析,比较集中供电方式和分散供电方式的各自优劣,为城轨列车辅助系统交流供电供电方式选型提供依据。

  8. 高铁线路物联网安防系统设计%Design of High-Speed Rail Line Security System Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌

    2016-01-01

    针对高铁线路的低矮桥梁、路基、贯通地线、疏散通道和在建高铁线路建材设备面临的入侵破坏或被盗隐患等问题,分析了在这些方面安全防范发展物联网的需求。而无线传感器网络和射频识别技术是物联网的关键技术,在缺乏持续电源供电的情况下对于入侵报警、被盗信息的采集和物体自身信息识别方面具有十分重要的应用空间,由此提出了高铁线路物联网安防系统。该系统结合物联网体系结构,具有实时报警监控、及时反应制止的功能,有效地提升了高铁线路技术防范能力,增强了高铁线路民警治安防控战斗力,最后讨论了在实施过程中面临的问题。%Low bridges,subgrade,the links up of grounding wire,evacuation exits,materials and equipment in construction of the high-speed rail line are confronting problems of intrusion and being stolen,or some other problems,which are later analyzed on requirement of developing internet of things in security protection.As we known,WSN and RFID are key technologies of internet of things which have very important amplitude application in intrusion alarm,stolen information collection and objects self-recognition in lack of sustainable power supply circumstances.By referring to these,it put forward high-speed rail line security system based on internet of things.This system combined with architecture of internet of things,and has the function in real-time alarm supervision and response suppression,which will hoist capacity of technique prevention in high-speed rail line,and what’s more,the security prevention and control ability to the high-speed rail line police.At last,problems which will be faced with during the implementation process were discussed.

  9. 基于DSP的铁道钢轨外形磨耗测量仪数采系统%Portable Rail Profilometer's Measurement System Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭艳; 周文祥; 田文杰

    2011-01-01

    According to measuring model of the rail profilometer, the measurement system's hardware and software was designed based on DSP TMS32OF2812. This paper mainly introduced the hardware interface of the DSP and the photoelectrie encoder. The initialization of the EV module was introduced in detail, the same as the data acquisition and processing . The experiment indicates that the system can measure the rail head's appearance and calculate the vertical and lateral wear ahrasion accurate ly and conveniently.%根据钢轨外形磨耗测量仪的工作原理,设计了基于DSPTMS320F2812数据采集系统的硬件方案和软件方案.主要介绍了光电编码器与DSP的硬件接口及数采系统的供电方案;并阐述了EV模块的初始化程序和钢轨轨头数据采集与处理流程.实践证明,该系统能够准确、方便地测量铁道钢轨轨头曲线外形,并计算得出垂直磨耗与侧面磨耗值.

  10. A Successful Cooperation between Academia and Industry in Higher Rail Education: The Postgraduate Course in “Railway Infrastructure and Systems Engineering” at Sapienza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rizzetto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the postgraduate course in “Railway Infrastructure and Systems Engineering” at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”, funded by rail companies operating in Italy. It represents a successful example of cooperation between academia and industry in the field of railway transport. The success of the program is attested by its placement (the 90% of the graduates find an employment within six months in the companies which support the course; this percentage reached the 98% in the last three editions and by the fact that every year it receives many more applications (almost 400 last year than the maximum number of students that can attend the course (30. The main factors that make this course successful are its multidisciplinary training and the very close collaboration between the University and partner companies. In fact, the program of each module is designed both by academics and by managers of the companies in order to ensure an up-to-date teaching, which provides both the academic and the industrial point of view of any rail subject; this enables students to obtain a complete vision of the railway system, so to be able to work in any of the partner companies.

  11. 地下轨道交通结构噪声与振动频率特性分析%Structural Noise and Vibration Frequency Characteristics Caused by Underground Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中平; 郭建辉

    2014-01-01

    通过研究地下轨道交通现行国家标准与地方标准监测方法与评价量,探讨标准中存在的不足之处。并通过对受地下轨道交通运行过程影响的建筑物进行室内噪声与振动实地测试和数据分析,大胆提出了监测地下轨道交通排放的新思路。即采用1/3倍频程时间历程方法对列车通过全过程产生的结构传声排放与振动排放全时记录,借鉴声暴露级的方法,通过实测各频率数值变化截取列车通过时噪声事件的振动分频振级与结构传声1/3倍频程声压级。对此种方法的数据结果进行各频率噪声与振动相关性分析,得出地下轨道交通运行所产生结构传声污染排放的低频排放特性。通过研究和测量发现,轨道交通所引起的室内结构传声与振动污染能量主要集中于500 Hz 以下低频部分,其峰值出现于40~60 Hz 附近。将其与现行国家或地方标准进行比较,提出了采用特征频率作为事件判别的依据,并将各事件的最终测量结果以低频分频数据进行评价的方式,最终归纳总结了实际地下轨道交通排放频率特性并展望其测量方法。%By studying the underground rail transit existing national standards and local standards monitoring method and evaluation, we explored the deficiencies existing in the standard.Through the indoor noise and vibration test of the buildings affected by the un-derground rail transportation operation process,we put forward new ideas of the monitoring of the underground rail transport emis-sions.The method used a third octave to record full discharge and vibration of train through the whole process of the structure of the microphone.By taking example of the measured method of sound exposure and testing levels of each frequency numerical change e-vents,we intercepted train noise sound vibration frequency vibration level and structure and a third octave sound pressure level. Through various

  12. System Geometries and Transit/Eclipse Probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transiting exoplanets provide access to data to study the mass-radius relation and internal structure of extrasolar planets. Long-period transiting planets allow insight into planetary environments similar to the Solar System where, in contrast to hot Jupiters, planets are not constantly exposed to the intense radiation of their parent stars. Observations of secondary eclipses additionally permit studies of exoplanet temperatures and large-scale exo-atmospheric properties. We show how transit and eclipse probabilities are related to planet-star system geometries, particularly for long-period, eccentric orbits. The resulting target selection and observational strategies represent the principal ingredients of our photometric survey of known radial-velocity planets with the aim of detecting transit signatures (TERMS.

  13. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhoven, R. van; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Noordzij, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time, and to further improve

  14. 轨道交通对周边住宅房地产价格影响研究%Study on the Impact of Urban Rail Transit on the Price of Residential Real Estate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云; 陈胜男; 熊珊珊

    2014-01-01

    交通便捷状况历来都是购房者购房过程中比较关注的因素。交通因素,尤其是城市轨道交通( URRT)对周边房价的影响巨大,对其影响的研究显得非常必要。本文以运营成熟的武汉轻轨为研究对象,研究武汉市URRT对周边房价的影响,旨在发现各站点的影响范围,揭示URRT对房价影响的空间效应。结果表明:URRT对沿线房价变化的影响范围并不是单一的值,而是随着至市中心的距离变化而变化的。在市中心附近的轻轨站点的影响范围比较小,随着站点距市中心距离的逐步增大,影响范围呈明显递增的趋势。而通过广义交通成本模型研究各站点可能的最大增值空间,发现楼盘距离市中心越远,其房价的最大增值空间就越大。研究结论可为政府制定相关政策提供依据,也为轨道交通公司、房地产开发商、购房者提供参考意见。%The convenient traffic condition is the significant factor in the process of buying house. Traffic factors, especially the urban rail transport, have tremendous impact on the surrounding housing prices, so it is very necessary to analyze the impact. Based on the mature operation of Wuhan urban rapid rail transit, this paper analyze the impacts of URRT on housing markets. The purpose of this paper is to find the influence area of each station and the spatial effect of the impact on the price of housing markets by URRT. The results show that the scope of influence is not a single value but varies with the distance to the city center. The station of rail transit closed to the city center are affected slightly. With the increase of the distance from station to the city center, the scope of influence presents with progressive tendency, and through the research of generalized transportation cost model for largest possible value-added space in this district, the study found the farther distance from the houses to the center city, the

  15. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  16. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  17. Duration Properties of Timed Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1997-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development.The system requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties, and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while the implementation and refinement are described in termsof timed transition ...

  18. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  19. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  20. Education Systems as Transition Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Jenni; Bledowski, Piotr; Felczak, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    The changes that have occurred in the field of education over the course of the last couple of decades have been associated with increased demands that are not only placed on individuals from both within and beyond the education system, but also on the support they require to make successful educational choices. One central way this need is being…

  1. Probabilistic transitions for P systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Ciobanu; Laura Cornǎcel

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use the abstract syntax and the structural operational semantics of the P systems given in [ 1 ], and add probabilities to the rules and to the communication targets. We take into account the number of possible combinations of rules which can be applied in a computation step, as well as the consumption degree of the current resources.

  2. A Banking System in Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; ZHIPENG

    2002-01-01

    THE four large state-owned commercial banks - the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Construction Bank of China, and the Agricultural Bank of China, constitute the backbone of the Chinese banking system. Owing to low efficiency, lack of capital, and a high rate of bad debts over time, however, the system was weak and ineffective. In order to redress the situation, late last century the Chinese government launched reforms to streamline these four commercial banks and their operations. The banks subsequently set up asset management companies to buy back and resolve non-performing assets. Their operational structure was also upgraded and optimized so as to improve management efficiency and economic performance.

  3. Isothermal transitions of a thermosetting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, J. K.; Benci, J. A.; Noshay, A.

    1974-01-01

    A study of the curing reactions of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin/anhydride system by torsional braid analysis showed the existence of two critical isothermal temperatures - namely, the maximum glass transition temperature of the thermoset system and the glass transition temperature of the material at its gel point. Two rheologically active kinetic transitions occur during isothermal cure which correspond to gelation and vitrification. Three types of isothermal behavior occur. Methods for determining the time to gel and the time to vitrify, and also the two above-mentioned critical isothermal temperatures, have been developed. The time to gel obeyed the Arrhenius relationship, whereas the time to vitrify passed through a minimum. Application of these results to thermosetting systems in general is discussed in terms of the influence of molecular structure on the values of the critical isothermal temperatures.

  4. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  5. Effect of Urban Rail Transit Transfer Nodes on Network Performance%城市轨道交通换乘节点与网络运行效率关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明高; 杜鹏; 朱宇婷; 史芮嘉; 冯旭杰

    2015-01-01

    换乘节点是城市轨道交通不同线路间转乘的必经场所,对城市轨道交通系统运行有重要影响。本文基于复杂网络理论,将平均路径长度、网络局部效率和网络全局效率作为网络运行效率的评价指标,研究了换乘节点比例、换乘节点衔接线路数及换乘节点分布与网络运行效率的变化关系。研究表明,网络平均路径长度随换乘节点比例、换乘节点衔接线路数增加呈幂函数降低;网络局部效率随换乘节点比例增加呈指数下降,网络全局效率随换乘节点比例增加呈对数增加且换乘效率越高,增长越明显;换乘节点衔接线路数的增加会降低网络局部效率,增加网络全局效率;换乘节点在各线路分布越均匀,网络全局效率越高。%Transfer nodes, which are the place while transferring between urban rail transit lines, have great influence to urban rail transit network performance. In this paper, the average path length, network local efficiency and network global efficiency are proposed as the network performance indexes based on complex theory. Then, the effect of transfer nodes proportion, transfer nodes connecting lines and transfer nodes distribution on the urban rail transit network performance is studied. The results show that the average path length decreases by power relate to the transfer nodes proportion and transfer nodes connecting lines. The local efficiency decline by exponential as the transfer nodes proportion increases, while the global efficiency has logarithmic growth as the transfer nodes proportion increases. Transfer efficiency may affect the global efficiency and the higher the transfer efficiency is, the effect of the transfer nodes on global efficiency is more remarkable. Moreover, the local efficiency has inverse correlation with the transfer nodes connecting lines while the global efficiency has positive correlation with the transfer nodes connecting lines

  6. VERTICAL DYNAMIC MODEL AND VIBRATION CHARACTERISTIC OF RAIL FASTENING SYSTEM%铁路钢轨扣件系统垂向动力模型及振动特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王开云; 蔡成标; 朱胜阳

    2013-01-01

    As for a fastening system of railway, a vertical dynamic model is established and the formulas of rail vertical forces are deduced in this paper by considering the elastic characteristic of the spring rods and rail pads, and taking the preload force into account as well. Then the characteristic of vertical vibration is analyzed on the basis of the theory of vehicle-track coupled dynamics. Results show that both the preload force and the wheel/rail interaction dynamic force have much effect on the elastic deformation of the spring rods and rail pads. The forces acted on the rail by the spring rods, being the same as the forces by the rail pads, have two parts of forces, such as the preload force and the wheel/rail interaction dynamic force. Thusly it is necessary to separately take the spring rods and rail pads into account in the process of analyzing and designing dynamic performance of the fastening system of railway.%该文针对铁路钢轨扣件系统,分别考虑了扣压件及垫层的弹性特性,并考虑了扣件系统中扣压件的预压力,建立了详细的垂向动力分析模型,并推导了钢轨受力方程,然后基于车辆-轨道耦合动力学理论,分析了扣件系统垂向振动特性,结果表明:扣压件及垫层的弹性变形均受预扣压力及轮轨动态相互作用力的影响,扣压件及垫层作用在钢轨上的力均含有预扣压力及轮轨力的成分.因此,在铁路轨道扣件系统的动力分析与设计研究中,有必要分开考虑扣压件及垫层的弹性特性.

  7. PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, Carl M

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...

  8. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... are based on different rationalities: generating urban growth by investments in new housing and businesses, regeneration of urban space, facilitation for a car-free urban lifestyle etc. The main argument of this paper is that light rail corridors are not only providing access, but also gentrifies...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  9. Contact percolation transition in athermal particulate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianqi; O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, M. D.

    2012-01-01

    Typical quasistatic compression algorithms for generating jammed packings of purely repulsive, frictionless particles begin with dilute configurations and then apply successive compressions with the relaxation of the elastic energy allowed between each compression step. It is well known that during isotropic compression these systems undergo a first-order-like jamming transition at packing fraction φJ from an unjammed state with zero pressure and no force-bearing contacts to a jammed, rigid state with nonzero pressure, a percolating network of force-bearing contacts, and contact number z=2d, where d is the spatial dimension. Using computer simulations of two-dimensional systems with monodisperse and bidisperse particle size distributions, we investigate the second-order-like contact percolation transition, which precedes the jamming transition with φPφJ.

  10. Controlled transitions between cupolets of chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morena, Matthew A., E-mail: matthew.morena@wildcats.unh.edu; Short, Kevin M.; Cooke, Erica E. [Integrated Applied Mathematics Program, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    We present an efficient control scheme that stabilizes the unstable periodic orbits of a chaotic system. The resulting orbits are known as cupolets and collectively provide an important skeleton for the dynamical system. Cupolets exhibit the interesting property that a given sequence of controls will uniquely identify a cupolet, regardless of the system's initial state. This makes it possible to transition between cupolets, and thus unstable periodic orbits, simply by switching control sequences. We demonstrate that although these transitions require minimal controls, they may also involve significant chaotic transients unless carefully controlled. As a result, we present an effective technique that relies on Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm from algebraic graph theory to minimize the transients and also to induce certainty into the control of nonlinear systems, effectively providing an efficient algorithm for the steering and targeting of chaotic systems.

  11. Controlled transitions between cupolets of chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morena, Matthew A; Short, Kevin M; Cooke, Erica E

    2014-03-01

    We present an efficient control scheme that stabilizes the unstable periodic orbits of a chaotic system. The resulting orbits are known as cupolets and collectively provide an important skeleton for the dynamical system. Cupolets exhibit the interesting property that a given sequence of controls will uniquely identify a cupolet, regardless of the system's initial state. This makes it possible to transition between cupolets, and thus unstable periodic orbits, simply by switching control sequences. We demonstrate that although these transitions require minimal controls, they may also involve significant chaotic transients unless carefully controlled. As a result, we present an effective technique that relies on Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm from algebraic graph theory to minimize the transients and also to induce certainty into the control of nonlinear systems, effectively providing an efficient algorithm for the steering and targeting of chaotic systems.

  12. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  13. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.;

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations. A Cous...

  14. Noise and Vibration Mitigation for Rail Transportation Systems : Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on RailwayNoise

    CERN Document Server

    Gautier, Pierre-Etienne; Hanson, Carl; Hemsworth, Brian; Nelson, James; Schulte-Werning, Burkhard; Thompson, David; Vos, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the contributions to the 10th International Workshop on Railway Noise, held October 18–22, 2010, in Nagahama, Japan, organized by the Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI), Japan. With 11 sessions and 3 poster sessions, the workshop featured presentations by international leaders in the field of railway noise and vibration. All subjects relating to 1. prospects, legal regulation, and perception; 2. wheel and rail noise; 3. structure-borne noise and squeal noise; 4. ground-borne vibration; 5. aerodynamic noise and micro-pressure waves from tunnel portals; 6. interior noise and sound barriers; and 7. prediction, measurements, and monitoring are addressed here. This book is a useful “state-of-the-art” reference for scientists and engineers involved in solving environmental problems of railways.

  15. 基于CANopen的轻轨牵引变流器网络控制系统%Networked control system of light rail traction converter based on CANopen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁东升; 方晓

    2014-01-01

    轻轨以其舒适、快捷、便利等特点成为人们出行的一种重要运输工具,为缓解城市交通拥堵做出突出贡献。轻轨牵引变流器负责为车辆提供牵引力,其可靠运行关系整个车辆的安全行驶。文中采用CANopen通信技术,针对轻轨车辆牵引变流器设计了新型的网络控制系统,负责车辆各牵引单元的实时控制和数据通信,详细阐述了CANopen网络控制系统的设计过程,并通过CAN分析仪对网络控制系统的运行数据进行监测,验证了CANopen网络控制系统的可行性及其通信的正确性。%Light rail is becoming an important means of transport with its comfortable, fast and convenient characteristics, and it has made outstanding contributions to alleviate urban traffic congestion. Light rail traction converters provide traction for vehicles, its reliable operation has an important effect on safety of the vehicle. This article uses CANopen communication technology, and designed a new type of network control system for traction converters. It's responsible for real-time control and data communication of vehicle traction unit. This article expounds on the design process of CANopen network control system , and analyzes the operation data by CAN analyzer. The monitoring results of CAN analyzer verify the feasibility of CANopen network control system.

  16. 面向低碳经济城市地下空间/轨交地铁的节能减排与环保问题%Energy Saving,Carbon Emission Reduction and Environment Protection in Underground Space/Rail Transit Works in Urban Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙钧

    2011-01-01

    通过对地下空间/轨交地铁建设、运营现状的分析,认为其在节能减排、环境保护、面向低碳经济、实现城市可持续发展方面,有相当大的改善和提高空间,可以有所作为;而且就目前自然能源短缺现状,提出地下空间/轨交地铁的节能环保问题,应早日提上议事日程。从4个方面提出了目前地下空间/轨交地铁实现更加节能、环保应采用和借鉴的新技术,存在的问题及解决建议:1)积极稳妥而有步骤地视条件逐步开发太阳能光伏发电;2)努力推广智能型LED节能灯具和其他新型照明光源;3)采用隧道照明新技术的其他方面,如:基于数码技术的洞外亮度测试技术、隧道照明节能成套技术、LED新型无级调光技术等;4)其他几项节能环保新技术的研究和开发,如:太阳光光纤导入照明系统、新型超级节能灯具(荧光灯)、自然采光、智能照明技术等。同时介绍了在无锡建成的全球最大光伏低能耗大楼的有益经验及上海市虹桥综合交通枢纽的绿色策略与节能技术供隧道、地铁与地下空间建设参考、借鉴。%The author analyzes the construction and operation status of underground space/rail transit works and believes that great progress has been made in the energy saving,carbon emission reduction,environment protection and low-carbon,economical and sustainable development of underground space/rail transit works.Due to the shortage of natural resources,energy saving and environment protection of underground space/rail transit works should be strengthened.The author makes 4 suggestion on energy saving and environment protection,including: 1) Developing solar energy power generation step by step;2) Popularizing intelligent LED light and other new types of lights;3) Adopting other tunnel lighting technology,such as out-tunnel lightness testing technology,a suit of tunnel lighting and energy saving technology and

  17. 轨道交通的 TOD 模式规划研究%Rail Transportation Planning Based on TOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙守平

    2015-01-01

    交通拥堵、环境污染、土地无序开发等问题已严重影响城市健康发展,合理规划城市交通、高效利用城市土地、缓解城市环境污染是目前城市发展须面对的重大问题。通过对 T OD的设计原则以及轨道交通系统进行分析,提出城市轨道交通的T OD模式,对其设计原则、优势以及评价方法进行研究,以此为轨道交通的 T OD模式规划与建设提供借鉴。%T raffic congestion ,environmental pollution ,land development and other issues have serious disorder affecting urban development ,rational planning of urban transport ,the efficient use of urban land , relieve urban environmental pollution is a major issue currently facing the city .By T OD design principles as well as rail transportation systems analysis itself proposed TOD model of urban rail transit .Design principles for rail transportation TOD mode ,advantages and evaluation methods were studied ,in order to provide a reference for the planning and construction of TOD mode of rail transit .

  18. System Integration and Interface Transition Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Continue onl reverse side It necesay and identify by block number) System Interfaces Program Objectives System-Level Issues Digitization Strategy DCS... DIGITIZATION STRATEGY IV-1 1. Digitization Considerations IV-l a. Commercial IV-1 b. Current DCS Digitization IV-2 c. DCS Transition IV-2 2. Overseas...Subsystems and Elements 3. AUTOSEVOCOM Il/Digital Transmission Interface VIII-I 4. Transmission Digitization Strategy - PCM Vs. DM VIII-2 5. DCS Encryption

  19. Elimination of Fuel Pressure Fluctuation and Multi-injection Fuel Mass Deviation of High Pressure Common-rail Fuel Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Pimao; ZHANG Youtong; LI Tieshuan; XIE Lizhe

    2015-01-01

    The influence of fuel pressure fluctuation on multi-injection fuel mass deviation has been studied a lot, but the fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet is still not eliminated efficiently. In this paper, a new type of hydraulic filter consisting of a damping hole and a chamber is developed for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation and multi-injection fuel mass deviation. Linear model of the improved high pressure common-rail system(HPCRS) including injector, the pipe connecting common-rail with injector and the hydraulic filter is built. Fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet, on which frequency domain analysis is conducted through fast Fourier transformation, is acquired at different target pressure and different damping hole diameter experimentally. The linear model is validated and can predict the natural frequencies of the system. Influence of damping hole diameter on fuel pressure fluctuation is analyzed qualitatively based on the linear model, and it can be inferred that an optimal diameter of the damping hole for elimination of fuel pressure fluctuation exists. Fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation under different damping hole diameters are measured experimentally, and it is testified that the amplitude of both fuel pressure fluctuation and fuel mass deviation decreases first and then increases with the increasing of damping hole diameter. The amplitude of main injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 73%at most under pilot-main injection mode, and the amplitude of post injection fuel mass deviation can be reduced by 92%at most under main-post injection mode. Fuel mass of a single injection increases with the increasing of the damping hole diameter. The hydraulic filter proposed by this research can be potentially used to eliminate fuel pressure fluctuation at injector inlet and improve the stability of HPCRS fuel injection.

  20. 城市土地利用对轨道交通运营的影响——以纽约地铁为例%Impact of Urban Land Use Development on the Rail Transit Operation: A Case Study of New York City Subway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛来芳; 宋彦

    2012-01-01

    纽约地铁历经100多年的建设和运营,其高峰时段的过度拥挤和财务亏损一直是困扰纽约市政府和居民的难题.结合纽约城市扩张中土地利用形态的演化,重新梳理纽约地铁的建设和运营历程,并从票制、客运量、运营组织模式以及土地利用四个角度分析纽约地铁的运营绩效特征.通过考虑规模效应和“峰值效应”,发现纽约城市扩张过程中土地利用形态的演化是影响其运营绩效的根本原因.最后,借鉴纽约地铁的经验教训,指出中国城市在推进城市轨道交通与土地利用一体化发展时应着重注意的问题.%During the past more than 100 years, the heavy congestion in peak hour and persistent deficits in subway operation have puzzled the New York City government and residents alike. Examining the evolution of land use patterns during the urban sprawl, this paper reviews the construction and operation of New York City Subway and analyzes the operating characteristics in four aspects: fare system, passenger volume, operating strategies, and land use. The paper identifies that the land use development during the urban sprawl is the root cause of the deficit problem for the New York City subway system considering the scale effect and peak effect of rail transit. Learning from the lessons of New York City subway, the paper points out several noticeable problems in the integrated development of urban rail transit and land use in China.

  1. Urban Rail Transit National Economic Benefit Evaluation of Based on the Multi-Level Fuzzy Appraisement%基于多层次模糊评判模型的城市轨道交通国民经济效益评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆辉

    2012-01-01

    城市轨道交通具有财务效益和国民经济效益两种属性,而国民经济效益的优劣成为修建城市轨道交通的决定条件。首先分析城市轨道交通国民经济效益评价的工作流程,接着论述多层次模糊评判模型的基本思路,最后用该模型论证成都地铁2号线一期工程国民经济效益评价为“较满意”。%The urban rail transit has two properties of the financial benefit and the national economic benefit, but the pros and cons of national economic benefit become the decision condition, which makes the urban rail transit. Firstly,this thesis analyzes the workflow of the urban rail transit. Then, it studies the main idea of the Multi-level fuzzy Appraisement. Finally using a case analysis demonstrates the model.

  2. Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, Maksim

    In this thesis, I consider systems from two seemingly different fields: fluid dynamics and microbial ecology. In these systems, the unifying features are the existences of global non-equilibrium steady states. I consider generic and statistical models for transitions between these global states, and I relate the model results with experimental data. A theme of this thesis is that these rather simple, minimal models are able to capture a lot of functional detail about complex dynamical systems. In Part I, I consider the transition between laminar and turbulent flow. I find that quantitative and qualitative features of pipe flow experiments, the superexponential lifetime and the splitting of turbulent puffs, and the growth rate of turbulent slugs, can all be explained by a coarse-grained, phenomenological model in the directed percolation universality class. To relate this critical phenomena approach closer to the fluid dynamics, I consider the transition to turbulence in the Burgers equation, a simplified model for Navier-Stokes equations. Via a transformation to a model of directed polymers in a random medium, I find that the transition to Burgers turbulence may also be in the directed percolation universality class. This evidence implies that the turbulent-to-laminar transition is statistical in nature and does not depend on details of the Navier-Stokes equations describing the fluid flow. In Part II, I consider the disparate subject of microbial ecology where the complex interactions within microbial ecosystems produce observable patterns in microbe abundance, diversity and genotype. In order to be able to study these patterns, I develop a bioinformatics pipeline to multiply align and quickly cluster large microbial metagenomics datasets. I also develop a novel metric that quantifies the degree of interactions underlying the assembly of a microbial ecosystem, particularly the transition between neutral (random) and niche (deterministic) assembly. I apply this

  3. Analysis of the dominant vibration frequencies of rail bridges for structure-borne noise using a power flow method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q.; Wu, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The use of concrete bridges in urban rail transit systems has raised many concerns regarding low-frequency (20-200 Hz) structure-borne noise due to the vibration of bridges when subjected to moving trains. Understanding the mechanism that determines the dominant frequencies of bridge vibrations is essential for both vibration and noise reduction. This paper presents a general procedure based on the force method to obtain the power flows within a coupled vehicle-track-bridge system, the point mobility of the system and the dynamic interaction forces connecting various components. The general coupling system consists of multi-rigid-bodies for the vehicles, infinite Euler beams representing the rails, two-dimensional or three-dimensional elements of the concrete bridges, and spring-dashpot pairs to model the wheel-rail contacts, the vehicle suspensions, the rail pads and the bridge bearings. The dynamic interaction of the coupled system is solved in the frequency domain by assuming the combined wheel-rail roughness moves forward relative to the stationary vehicles. The proposed procedure is first applied to a rail on discrete supports and then to a real urban rail transit U-shaped concrete bridge. The computed results show that the wheel-rail contact forces, the power flows to the rail/bridge subsystem and the accelerations of the bridge are primarily dominated by the contents around the natural frequency of a single wheel adhered to the elastically supported rail. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same rigid body, then δmnab(ω) can be expressed as δmnab(ω)=-{(}/{Mlω}, where Ml is the mass of the lth rigid body. If the ath node of the mth spring-dashpot pair and the bth node of the nth spring-dashpot pair are connected to the same infinite rail, δmnab(ω) can be expressed as [8] δmnab(ω)=-j{((e-je)}/{4EIk}, where xm and xn are the x-coordinates of the mth and nth spring

  4. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  5. Friction in rail guns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  6. Quantified Estimation of Profitable Property of Urban Rail Transit Under PPP Model%城市轨道交通公私合作模式经营性量化测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝伟亚

    2012-01-01

    对城市轨道交通公私合营项目社会投资人的投资回报模型进行分析,并对项目公益性和经营性的双重属性进行深入研究,提出一种基于投资额、运营成本、票款收入、补贴金额等数据对项目的经营性进行量化测算的方法,得出项目经营性量化测算的基本原则——使超过传统模式的融资成本部分等于运营期各项支出的节约部分,并在北京地铁4号线公私合营项目中进行应用.%Through analysis of social investors' return on investment under public -private-partnership (PPP) model and in-depth study on the rail transit industry' s profitable and non-profitable properties, a quantified estimation method based on investment, operating costs, income and financial subsidy is proposed, and it is concluded that the basic principle of the quantified estimation method is to make the excess cost of financing equal to the cost savings in the operation period. An empirical research on Beijing metro Line 4 is presented in the end.

  7. Control of Vertical Force in Flux-Reversal Permanent Magnet Linear Motor for Urban Rail Transit Applications%城轨交通用磁通反向永磁直线电机的垂向力控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文祥; 刘虎; 吉敬华; 徐亮

    2013-01-01

    磁通反向永磁直线( FRPML)电机是一种新型的初级永磁体直线电机。在分析其电机结构特点与工作原理基础上,推导并建立了数学模型。 FRPML电机的垂向力会对其效率等产生不利影响。分析了垂向力的组成与特性,得到解析表达式。提出了电机的垂向力最优控制,使FRPML电机保持正常推力下,提高电机性能。研究结果表明,所提出的优化控制策略正确有效。%The flux-reversal permanent magnet linear ( FRPML) machine is a new class of primary permanent magnet linear machine. It can be manufactured easily and installed expediently, suitable for the long stator applications, such as urban rail transit. The mathematical model was built based on its operation principles. The vertical force would reduce the motor efficiency. Therefore, according to the physical characteristics analyses of the vertical force, its analytical model was derived. The optimal control was obtained, hence improving the motor performance. The results verified the proposed control strategy.

  8. Theoretical Study and Test on Noise Reduction Effect of the U-shaped Beams on Urban Rail Transit Elevated Lines%城市轨道交通高架线U型梁降噪理论与测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奕然

    2013-01-01

    By comparing the characteristics of traditional box beams with U-shaped beams,analysis was carried out for noise control problems of the traditional box beams,and basic principles and specific measures of noise control for U-shaped beams were put forward.Different methods were adopted to calculate,analyse and simulate the noise reduction effect of Ushaped beams,which was verified by noise tests in construction.In order to promote the urban rail transit elevated lines which have low construction and operation costs and safety risks,the research on the environment-friendly technology of elevated lines becomes very important.%通过对比传统箱型梁与U型梁的特点,分析传统箱型梁噪声治理存在的问题,提出U型梁降噪的基本原理及具体措施.同时,采用不同的方法对U型梁的降噪效果进行计算分析与模拟预测,并通过工程噪声测试进行验证.在城市轨道交通建设中,推广应用建设与运营成本低、安全风险小、环保的高架线路及高架技术成为一个重要的研究方向.

  9. 基于本体的轨道交通应急信息共享与辅助决策%Emergency Information Sharing and Decision Aid of Urban Rail Transit Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨珂; 韩宝明

    2011-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of information in emergency management operation and the requirements of information share in urban rail transit, the ontology theory has been introduced in standardization of emergency information. Authors established a model of ontology description through dividing emergency process into several stages and related objects to construct an identical frame of expression for emergency information sharing, and set up rules to construct identification and mapping for information ontology and logic of operation. Semantic matching and relevancy expansion were applied to optimize the treatment scheme suitable for the layout of the scene, to realize decision-making based on information integration.%针对城市轨道交通应急管理业务的信息特征及信息共享需求,将本体论引入应急信息标准化;根据应急处置流程划分阶段及其业务对象,建立本体知识表达模型,构建共享所需的规范化框架,设立规则对信息本体、业务逻辑进行辨识和映射.应用语义匹配、关联扩展策略,制订和修正处置方案来用于现场布局,以实现信息集成对应急决策的支撑.

  10. Shunting Process Analysis of the 3-Girder-Switch with Fixed Rotating Center for Rail Transit%城市轨道交通用三段定心式道岔的转辙过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁亦竑

    2011-01-01

    介绍了国内首组城市轨道交通用三段定心式道岔在研制过程中的转辙分析过程.以三开道岔为例,通过自编程序对道岔转辙过程进行模拟,得到了转辙全过程中道岔各梁段的运动情况,找到了转辙过程中加速度变化的最大位置,为道岔转辙机构的具体设计提供了参考.%This article made a brief introduction to shunting process analysis in developing the 3-girder-switch with fixed rotating center of the Chinas first group for rail transit. Taking a 3 - way switch as an example, we simulated shunting process by the software which was developed by ourselves. We gained the kinematics conditions of all the girders during the shunting process of the switch, and finally found out the place where the maximum of the acceleration changing rate was located. The results can provide a reference for the specific design of the shunting device of the switch.

  11. Appreciable Problems in Construction Stage of Urban Rail Transit from the Operation Angle%从运营角度分析城市轨道交通建设阶段需重视的问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕湘利

    2012-01-01

    分析了城市轨道交通网络化运营面临的主要问题,从运营角度提出了建设阶段必须关注的总体设计、标准化设计、国产化和信息化等问题.分析了忽视这些问题对网络化运营的安全性、可靠性和效率的影响,阐述了总体设计、标准化设计、国产化设计和信息化设计在建设阶段应关注的重点.%The main problems facing urban rail transit network operation are analyzed, an overall design, the standard design, localization and information technology are emphasized in the construction stage from the operation angle. Since the effect of these problems to the security, reliability and efficiency of networking operation are often neglected, more attention should be given to them in the whole construction stage, including the overall design, standard design, localization design and information design.

  12. 轨道交通不同声屏障降噪效果和投资效益分析%Analysis on Noise Reduction Effect and Investment Benefits of Different Rail Transit Sound Barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋凯; 张艳君; 翟国庆

    2013-01-01

    以宁波市轨道交通1号线高架段声屏障为例,基于Cadna/A噪声预测软件进行声学建模,对比分析双侧直立式、近似全封闭式声屏障降噪效果,并结合工程投资,分析投资效益,为科学决策、合理选择声屏障类型提供依据。%Sound barriers of the elevated rail transit line 1 of Ningbo City was chosen as an example and the acoustical model was established by using noise prediction software (Cadna/A). Both noise reduction effect and investment benefits were compared and analyzed between bilateral upright sound barrier and approximately enclosed sound barrier, which could provide a foundation for scientific decision-making and rational selection when choosing different sound barriers.

  13. Comparison and Selection of TBM in Urban Rail Transit Project%城市轨道交通全断面岩石掘进机的机型分析比选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄银钉

    2012-01-01

    以岩石地层为主的城市轨道交通修建过程中,为避免传统钻爆法爆破施工造成的粉尘、废气、噪音及振动等污染,并提高施工技术水平,应研究采用全断面岩石掘进机进行施工.全断面岩石掘进机分为敞开式和护盾式两类,其中护盾式又分为单护盾、双护盾等机型.主要从地质适应性、各种机型自身特点等方面出发,对全断面岩石掘进机各种机型进行了分析比选.%In urban rail transit construction on mainly rock strata of a city, to avoid the blasting dust, exhaust gas, noise and vibration pollution caused by traditional drill and blast method, improve the construction technology, the full-face rock tunnel boring machine shall be adopted. This kind of machine has two types: the open tunnel borer and the shield tunnel borer, the latter is further divided into single shield and double shield models. Their geological suitability and respective characteristics are analyzed and compared in this paper.

  14. Elementary Study On The Public Space Design Of The Integration Of Urban Rapid Rail Transit Architecture%城市轨道交通建筑一体化公共空间设计初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏华

    2016-01-01

    With the development of Urban Rapid Rail Transit in China, more and more problems such as the disunity of public space and the incoordination of overal building function uncoordinated began to emerge in Built buildings, and one of the main cause is the deficiency of the public space design. This paper Starting from the City property of public space and analyze its spatial characteristics, and than, summarizes its design methods and key points in conjunction with the case.%随着我国城市轨道交通建设的不断推进,已建成站域建筑逐渐暴露出空间脱节、整体功能不协调等问题,对其公共空间设计的不足是一个重要原因。本文从其一体化公共空间的城市性角度出发,剖析其空间特性,并结合案例总结其设计方法要点。

  15. Discussion on Some Problems of Aerodynamics in Urban Rail Transit%城市快速轨道交通空气动力学相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炜; 高慧翔; 彭金龙

    2011-01-01

    With the high-speed development of urban rail transit, the target maximum train velocity has exceeded the velocity range specified in the current metro design codes. Some aerodynamic phenomena which could be ignored under the lower velocities have become very prominent under the high speed. This paper presents relative aerodynamic phenomena concerned with the blockage ratio and qualitatively analyzes some alleviation measures accounting for the specialties of subway.%随着城市轨道交通的快速发展,其设定的最高速度目标值突破了现行地铁相关规范最高速度的适用范围,许多在低速时可以忽略的空气动力学现象在快速时就变得不容忽视.结合目前的隧道阻塞比,给出城市快速轨道交通所出现的由空气动力学效应引起的相关现象,并结合地铁自身特点进行定性分析,提出相应的减缓措施,以期对进一步的研究提供参考方向,对类似工程有所帮助.

  16. Analysis of the main trends in the development of rail production in Russia and abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovatenko, A. V.; Umansky, A. A.; Dorofeev, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present analysis reveals the main directions in the development of rail production in the world: the transition to rolling of rail sections using continuous group of universal stands, increase of the rails length, application of differentiated hardening of rails in different media. It is shown that the technological gap between the Russian metallurgical industry and the world's leading rail manufactures of the last decades was closed in 2013 -2014 when the new universal rolling mills at JSC “EVRAZ Consolidated West Siberian Metallurgical Plant” (“EVRAZ ZSMK”) and OJSC “Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant” (company “Mechel”) were launched. Currently, these steel enterprises provide complete import substitution of long rails with increased wear resistance for the construction of high-speed networks.

  17. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  18. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  19. Light Rails at Kennedy Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The Port Authority in New Jersey, New York opened a new light rail on December 18, 2003 to link Kennedy Airport to New York city. The rail with an investment of US$1.5 billion runs along the airport’s terminals, taxi stop, shuttle station and parking area to connect with the city’s downtown rail network, subways, railways and coach stations.The light rail is convenient, safe, reliable and fast to free passengers of the worries about traffic jam and the pressure

  20. A Deductive Approach towards Reasoning about Algebraic Transition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algebraic transition systems are extended from labeled transition systems by allowing transitions labeled by algebraic equations for modeling more complex systems in detail. We present a deductive approach for specifying and verifying algebraic transition systems. We modify the standard dynamic logic by introducing algebraic equations into modalities. Algebraic transition systems are embedded in modalities of logic formulas which specify properties of algebraic transition systems. The semantics of modalities and formulas is defined with solutions of algebraic equations. A proof system for this logic is constructed to verify properties of algebraic transition systems. The proof system combines with inference rules decision procedures on the theory of polynomial ideals to reduce a proof-search problem to an algebraic computation problem. The proof system proves to be sound but inherently incomplete. Finally, a typical example illustrates that reasoning about algebraic transition systems with our approach is feasible.

  1. Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnes, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...

  2. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    The instability of the vibration system was sensitive to the stiffness of rail support. In lateral creepage ... squeal could be controlled by an active control. .... Here, basic concepts and analysis procedure are described. The equation of motion is.

  3. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Suspension System § 229.71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels,...

  4. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 10581... will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume,...

  5. Impact Factors and Rail Transit Effects of Urban Housing Prices in Beijing%北京市住宅价格的影响因素和轨道交通效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹; 金凤君

    2014-01-01

    environmental factors , the distance to commercial facilities is negatively related to housing prices, and the distance to industrial zone and the park is positively correlated to housing prices separately . In addition, rail transit effects of the house price is quite obvious .The impact of rail traffic on housing prices is higher than the two features of the distance from Tiananmen Square and the highway .The impact of the built sub-way on housing prices is higher than the building subway .The distance to the nearest built and building subway sta -tions was reduced 1 km, the average housing prices are increased 1 313 and 502 yuan per square meters respective -ly.

  6. 77 FR 45415 - Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement for the Redlands; Passenger Rail Project in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ...--Light Rail Transit, Alternative 5--Bus Rapid ] Transit, Design Option 1--Train Layover Facility... River, east of Waterman Avenue, and immediately north of the rail corridor. Design Option 2--Use of.... Department of Transportation Act of 1966, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, Executive Order 12898 (Federal...

  7. Explore the TOD Planning Mode at Inter-city Rail Transit Site-- Take the District Planning and Design of the Inter-city Rail "Qingyuan Station” from Guangzhou to Qingyuan as an Example%城际轨道交通站点地区TOD规划模式初探--以广清城际轨道“清远站”片区规划设计为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊青

    2014-01-01

    China is entering the peak period of rail transit construction. This article embraces on the subject of how to make the harmonious development and mutual promotion of traffic facilities and urban development construction, and carr-ies on the preliminary discussion of the planning design meth-od at the intercity rail site area on the basis of summarizing the concept and characteristics of TOD development model, thro-ugh the design example.%我国正进入轨道交通建设的高峰期,本文在围绕如何使交通设施与城市的开发建设协调发展、互相促进这一课题,在总结 TOD 开发模式概念及特征的基础上,通过设计案例,对城际轨道站点片区的规划设计方法进行了初步地探讨。

  8. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  9. Track dynamic behavior at rail welds at high speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guangwen; Xiao, Xinbiao; Guo, Jun; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2010-06-01

    As a vehicle passing through a track with different weld irregularities, the dynamic performance of track components is investigated in detail by using a coupled vehicle-track model. In the model, the vehicle is modeled as a multi-body system with 35 degrees of freedom, and a Timoshenko beam is used to model the rails which are discretely supported by sleepers. In the track model, the sleepers are modeled as rigid bodies accounting for their vertical, lateral and rolling motions and assumed to move backward at a constant speed to simulate the vehicle running along the track at the same speed. In the study of the coupled vehicle and track dynamics, the Hertizian contact theory and the theory proposed by Shen-Hedrick-Elkins are, respectively, used to calculate normal and creep forces between the wheel and the rails. In the calculation of the normal forces, the coefficient of the normal contact stiffness is determined by transient contact condition of the wheel and rail surface. In the calculation of the creepages, the lateral, roll-over motions of the rail and the fact that the relative velocity between the wheel and rail in their common normal direction is equal to zero are simultaneously taken into account. The motion equations of the vehicle and track are solved by means of an explicit integration method, in which the rail weld irregularities are modeled as local track vertical deviations described by some ideal cosine functions. The effects of the train speed, the axle load, the wavelength and depth of the irregularities, and the weld center position in a sleeper span on the wheel-rail impact loading are analyzed. The numerical results obtained are greatly useful in the tolerance design of welded rail profile irregularity caused by hand-grinding after rail welding and track maintenances.

  10. Standard practice for determining rail-to-Earth resistance

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedures necessary to follow for measuring resistance-to-earth of the running rails which are used as the conductors for returning the train operating current to the substation in electric mass transit systems. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  11. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  12. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  13. Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties of Collector Shoe in Third Rail Power Supply System%城市轨道交通第三轨供电系统集电靴的力学性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹洪权; 薛海峰; 张煜超; 魏瑞霞

    2016-01-01

    城市轨道交通第三轨供电系统集电靴的安装不仅关系着其自身设备的安全性,还影响城市轨道交通列车的供电质量,介绍了集电靴力学性能试验的传动和测试原理,确定了集电靴力学性能试验的方案。通过试验研究得到集电靴的静态刚度、等效阻尼等参数,为集电靴力学模型的建立、集电靴的设计与维修提供数据资料。%The installation of collector shoes in third rail power supply system is closely related to the safety of the equipment itself,and the power supply quality for urban rail transit.In this paper the transmission and testing principles of current shoe's mechanical property testing are introduced,and a scheme of mechanical property testing is determined. Parametersof current shoe are obtained by experimental study,which include static stiffness and equivalent damping,and provide informa-tion for the establishment of mechanical model,the design and maintenance of current shoe.

  14. CONTROL CHAOS IN TRANSITION SYSTEM USING SAMPLED-DATA FEEDBACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆君安; 谢进; 吕金虎; 陈士华

    2003-01-01

    The method for controlling chaotic transition system was investigated using sampled-data. The output of chaotic transition system was sampled at a given sampling rate,then the sampled output was used by a feedbacks subsystem to construct a control signal for controlling chaotic transition system to the origin. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness and feasibility of the developed controller.

  15. Effects of anchoring and arc structure on the control authority of a rail plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Gray, Miles; Sirohi, Jayant; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-09-01

    Experiments were conducted on a rail plasma actuator (RailPAc) with different electrode cross sections (rails or rods) to assess methods to improve the actuation authority, defined as the impulse generated for a given electrical input. The arc was characterized with electrical measurements and high-speed images, while impulse measurements quantified the actuation authority. A RailPAc power supply capable of delivering  ∼1 kA of current at  ∼100 V was connected to rod electrodes (free-floating with circular cross-section) and rail electrodes (flush-mounted in a flat plate with rectangular cross-section). High-speed images show that the rail electrodes cause the arc to anchor itself to the anode electrode and transit in discrete jumps, while rod electrodes permit the arc to transit smoothly without anchoring. The impulse measurements reveal that the anchoring reduces the actuation authority by  ∼21% compared to a smooth transit, and the effect of anchoring can be suppressed by reducing the gap between the rails to 2 mm. The study further demonstrates that if a smooth transit is achieved, the control authority can be increased with a larger gap and larger arc current. In conclusion, the actuation authority of a RailPAc can be maximized by carefully choosing a gap width that prevents anchoring. Further study is warranted to increase the RailPAc actuation authority by introducing multiple turns of wires beneath the RailPAc to augment the induced magnetic field.

  16. Design and Realization of Immediate Quenching Process Control System of Rail Section Plant of Pangang%攀钢轨梁余热淬火过程控制系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘继光

    2012-01-01

    为了实现余热淬火线与整体产销和新轨梁L2.5系统间的信息集成,解决余热淬火线的信息孤岛问题,提出建立轨梁100m余热淬火过程控制系统.通过对数据库技术、插件技术、多线程技术和OPC技术的综合应用,成功建立余热淬火过程控制系统.该过程控制系统的建立,不仅实现了余热淬火与整体产销和新轨梁L2.5信息的无缝集成,生产数据的实时共享,生产过程的在线监视,而且对于提升轨梁厂的信息化水平具有重要作用.%In order to implement the information integration of residual heat quenching production line, integral produce and sale, new beam-and-rail L2.5 system, solving the problem of information isolated island in immediate quenching production line, an immediate quenching process control system along with 100 meter beam-and-rail was proposed. The above system was successfully established with the combination of database, plug-in, multithread and OPC technology. The establishment of this process control system not only realizes seamless integration of information from immediate heat quenching, integral produce and sale, new beam-and-rail L2.5 system, sharing production data in real time, on line monitoring of production process, but also plays a vital role for promoting the informationi level in rail section plant.

  17. 轨道交通车辆操作类学生学业评价方法的探讨%Discussion on the Academic Evaluation Methods of Rail Transit Vehicle Operation Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2015-01-01

    从世界范围来看,工业生产发展的趋势为集约化、标准化、精益化。因此,职业教育愈来愈重视培养有创造性以及问题解决能力的高素质技术人才。而考核评价是职业教育教学过程中非常重要的环节,在教育教学过程中起着指挥棒的作用。本文总结了德国职业教育中对学生行为方式的考评方法,重点将学习文件夹评价法应用于轨道交通车辆操作类学生的学业考评,通过对学生学习轨迹的追踪、整理,促进了学生的学习和专业的发展,对职业教育教学和人才培养带来了积极影响。%Worldwide, the development trend of industrial production is intensive, standardized and lean production. Therefore, vocational education puts more focus on cultivating high-quality talents with creativity and problem-solving ability. As a significant link of the vocational education teaching process, academic evaluation is crucial. This paper summarizes the academic evaluation methods of vocational education in Germany, focusing on employing portfolio assessment to the academic evaluation of rail transit vehicle operation students, which method promotes students’ development through keeping tracks of the students’ academic career, thus bringing an positive inlfuence on vocational education and talents cultivation.

  18. 城市轨道交通车站客流瓶颈应对措施研究%The Measures For Passenger Flow Bottleneck in Rail Transit Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞亦舟

    2016-01-01

    随着城市轨道交通的发展,线网规模不断扩大,客流量急剧增加的同时也考验车站设备设施的运输通过能力。为了避免车站出现严重拥堵现象,保障乘客出行效率和安全,本文以即将开通的广州地铁6号线二期金峰站为例,通过模拟乘客走行路径,分析车站各关键节点通过能力,得出车站的客流瓶颈,并提出在设备能力有限的情况下车站的应对措施。%With the development of the urban rail transit, the scale of the line is increasing, the passenger flow has increased rapidly, but also test the transport capacity of the station equipment and facilities. In order to avoid serious congestion in the station, guarantee the efficiency and safety of passengers’travel, in the forthcoming opening of the Guangzhou Metro Line 6, the second phase of Jin Feng Station as an example, through simulating the passengers walk’s path and analysis the key points of transport capacity, finally draw the station’s passenger flow bottleneck, and put forward the corresponding measures.

  19. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-05-26

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface feature for interfacing with an adjacent transition duct. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface feature to provide a seal between the interface feature and the adjacent transition duct.

  20. Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    A recent six month investigation focused on: "Determining the benefits of propelling a scientific spacecraft by an 'Electric Sail' propulsion system to the edge of our solar system (the Heliopause), a distance of 100 to 120 AU, in ten years or less" has recently been completed by the Advance Concepts Office at NASA's MSFC. The concept investigated has been named the Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) by the MSFC team. The HERTS is a revolutionary propellant-less propulsion concept that is ideal for deep space missions to the Outer Planets, Heliopause, and beyond. It is unique in that it uses momentum exchange from naturally occurring solar wind protons to propel a spacecraft within the heliosphere. The propulsion system consists of an array of electrically positively-biased wires that extend outward 20 km from a rotating (one revolution per hour) spacecraft. It was determined that the HERTS system can accelerate a spacecraft to velocities as much as two to three times that possible by any realistic extrapolation of current state-of-the-art propulsion technologies- including solar electric and solar sail propulsion systems. The data produced show that a scientific spacecraft could reach distances of 100AU in less than 10 years. Moreover, it can be reasonably expected that this system could be developed within a decade and provide meaningful Heliophysics Science and Outer Planetary Science returns in the 2025-2035 timeframe.

  1. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  2. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  3. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  4. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  5. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  6. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  7. Phase transitions in open quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, C; Rotter, I

    1999-01-01

    We consider the behaviour of open quantum systems in dependence on the coupling to one decay channel by introducing the coupling parameter $\\alpha$ being proportional to the average degree of overlapping. Under critical conditions, a reorganization of the spectrum takes place which creates a bifurcation of the time scales with respect to the lifetimes of the resonance states. We derive analytically the conditions under which the reorganization process can be understood as a second-order phase transition and illustrate our results by numerical investigations. The conditions are fulfilled e.g. for a picket fence with equal coupling of the states to the continuum. Energy dependencies within the system are included. We consider also the generic case of an unfolded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. In all these cases, the reorganization of the spectrum occurs at the critical value $\\alpha_{crit}$ of the control parameter globally over the whole energy range of the spectrum. All states act cooperatively.

  8. Application of Control System for “green”rail roller conveyor%“绿色”钢轨辊道输送机控制系统的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鲁宁; 郭晋龙; 蔡庄厚; 赵子龙

    2011-01-01

    The Control System of "green"rail roller conveyor was with advanced facilities, well-planned layout, high level of mechanization, finished structure, little floor area, high production efficiency. It was up to the national environmental standards for modernized rails welding production line.%“绿色”钢轨辊道输送机系统设施先进,布局合理,机械化程度高,具有结构精巧,占地面积少,节电能力强,生产效率高的特点,符合国家环保标准的现代化焊轨生产线要求.

  9. A REVIEW OF HIGH-SPEED RAIL PLAN IN JAVA ISLAND: A COMPARISON WITH EXISTING MODES OF TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Hartono

    2013-05-01

    It can be concluded that journey time and fare of the high-speed rail is very competitive to the air transport in Jakarta-Surabaya corridor. The journey time to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya is 4 hours and 19 minutes by high-speed train and 4 hours and 40 minutes by air. Based on the benchmarking analysis, the suitable fare for the high-speed rail should be 70% of the air transport. This study predicted that 61% of air passenger, 18% of conventional rail passenger and 12% of bus passenger will switch to the high-speed rail service in 2020. In total, the high-speed rail will have 24% of market share for the passenger transport and becomes the second largest market share after road transport (52%. The conventional rail and air transport have 14% and 9% of total market share to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya and vice versa. The high-speed rail development reduces carbon emissions caused by transportation systems in Java Island. It has been calculated that there are 2.542 million tonnages of CO2 per annum without introducing high-speed rail, however, the CO2 emissions decrease to 1.694 million tonnages per annum if the high-speed rail is developed in Java Island. Generalized cost of the high-speed rail is higher than road and conventional rail. However, it is lower than air transport. Keywords: Java high-speed rail, HSR Comparison, modal share, journey time

  10. Transition duct assembly with modified trailing edge in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Schott, Carl Gerard; Ingram, Clint Luigie; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Pierre, Sylvain

    2016-10-04

    Transition duct assemblies for turbine systems and turbomachines are provided. In one embodiment, a transition duct assembly includes a plurality of transition ducts disposed in a generally annular array and comprising a first transition duct and a second transition duct. Each of the plurality of transition ducts includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of each transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct assembly further includes an aerodynamic structure defined by the passages of the first transition duct and the second transition duct. The aerodynamic structure includes a pressure side, a suction side, and a trailing edge, the trailing edge having a modified aerodynamic contour.

  11. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  12. System Design for Transitional Aircraft Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P.T. Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Defence Force and industry are undergoing significant changes in the way they work together in capability enhancement programs. There are capability gaps in maintaining and supporting current obligations during major asset acquisition, which has migrated into the front line of Royal Air Force Fighter Groups as a new capability. This paper examines a steady state support solution and argues that in order to interchange from one support solution to a new architecture there must be a period for transition, which may need its own interim business model and operational service. A preliminary study of several existing support solutions reveals the generic elements that need to be parameterized and traced through the support system architecture trajectory.

  13. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  14. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  15. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    Taking its point of departure in the mobilities paradigm, this paper applies a theoretical framework of narratives and storytelling to analyse and describe the rationales behind implementation of light rail in the case of Bergen light rail in Norway. Through the analysis it is demonstrated...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  16. Land Value Capture and Multi-level Governance for Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta%跨市轨道交通溢价回收策略与多层级管治:以珠三角为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雄斌; 杨家文; 李贵才; 刘龙胜; 栾晓帆; 陈文

    2016-01-01

    Under the context of rapid urbanization and motorization in urban China, the demand for multi-juris-dictional passenger transport is becoming increasingly significant for regional integrated development. Follow-ing this trend, inter-city passenger rail transit has been viewed by the local governments as an important alter-native to driving, particularly when issues of road congestion, land development and regional integration are considered. However, how to obtain the capital to cover huge constructive and operational costs is challenging inter-city passenger rail transit. Current literature has focused on funding for municipal passenger rail transit and the issue of value capture policies and distribution arrangement. The value capture setup for inter-city rail transit has rarely been discussed. In this research, we first review some perceived difficulties and strategies for value capture in China, and then we present a case study of Inter-city Passenger Rail Transit in the Zhujiang River Delta. The case study describes the relevant planning and development processes. In particular, it ex-plains how the funding for this project has evolved from a collaborative effort between Guangdong Provincial Government and The Ministry of Railways to that between the Provincial Government and the relevant munici-pal governments. The ending arrangement is a new value-capture mechanism for funding the inter-city passen-ger rail. The innovation of this funding mechanism and the concurrent implementation difficulties are valuable experience for other mega-regions where similar inter-city transport projects have been considered.%随着城市化和机动化的发展,跨市轨道交通建设成为应对交通拥堵,引导土地开发与通勤结构,促进区域一体化的策略。面对轨道交通巨额建设运营成本,多层级政府管治(Multi-level Governance)下的投融资模式和溢价回收(Value Capture)策略成为推动跨市轨道交通建设的基

  17. The Transiting System GJ1214: High-Precision Defocused Transit Observations and a Search for Evidence of Transit Timing Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T. C.;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: We present 11 high-precision photometric transit observations of the transiting super-Earth planet GJ1214b. Combining these data with observations from other authors, we investigate the ephemeris for possible signs of transit timing variations (TTVs) using a Bayesian approach. Methods......: The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainties as low as 10s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainty in the orbital period...

  18. Magnetic transition in double perovskite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, O., E-mail: navarro@servidor.unam.m [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-360, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Aguilar, B. [Laboratorio Interinstitucional de Magnetismo Natural, Instituto de Geofisica, Sede Michoacan, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); Avignon, M. [Institut Neel, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2010-05-15

    The search for materials having complete spin polarization and high Curie temperature have received a lot of attention in view of spintronics applications, especially the ferromagnetic (F) Sr{sub 2}FeMoO{sub 6}, because of its fairly high Curie temperature (T{sub C}= 450 K), half-metallic character, large magnetoresistance and potential applications. On the other hand, Sr{sub 2}FeWO{sub 6} is insulating and antiferromagnetic (AF) with T{sub N}=37K. With a double exchange type model it has been shown that F-AF transition can be driven by super-exchange interactions with increasing Fe-M (M=Mo, W) charge transfer energy. So, the charge transfer energy is expected to be larger in FeW than in FeMo compounds. Using a tight-binding model with the renormalized perturbation expansion technique, we determine the density of states for the AF phase and the electronic energy difference for the F- and AF-phases as a function of the Fe-M charge transfer energy. The F-AF transition in the ordered system Sr{sub 2}FeMo{sub x}W{sub 1-x}O{sub 6} occurs for xapprox0.3, in good agreement with the experimental value. We also studied the effect of the diagonal disorder in the variation of the number of conduction electrons on Fe and M sites. Finally, the behavior of the Curie temperature as a function of the Mo/W concentration is determined.

  19. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  20. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  1. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.

    2015-03-01

    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  2. Transit Clairvoyance: Predicting multiple-planet systems for TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipping, David M.; Lam, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Transit Clairvoyance uses Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict the most likely short period transiters to have additional transiters, which may double the discovery yield of the TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite). Clairvoyance is a simple 2-D interpolant that takes in the number of planets in a system with period less than 13.7 days, as well as the maximum radius amongst them (in Earth radii) and orbital period of the planet with maximum radius (in Earth days) in order to predict the probability of additional transiters in this system with period greater than 13.7 days.

  3. 轨道交通用高温超导直线感应电机的设计与测试%The Design and Test of High Temperature Superconducting Linear Induction Motor for Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方进; 申政

    2013-01-01

    高温超导直线感应电机对于城市轨道交通的发展具有重要意义.参考常规铜绕组直线感应电机的设计理论,对高温超导直线感应电机进行设计.结合高温超导带材的特性,设计超导绕组线圈的结构并选择单层整距集中绕组结构的方式对线圈在初级铁芯上进行排列,采用无磁材料制作薄壁杜瓦,最后将各个部分整体组装成高温超导直线感应电机试验样机.运用有限元分析软件ANSOFT对所设计的电机建模并进行仿真计算.制作铜绕组试制样机并搭建直线电机牵引测试平台对制作的电机样机进行测试,将试验结果和仿真结果进行对比分析,验证设计的合理性与可行性.%High temperature superconducting linear induction motor (HTS LIM) is significant for the development of urban rail transit.The HTS LIM was designed,using design theory of conventional copper windings linear induction motor as a reference.Combined with the properties of high temperature superconducting tapes,the structure of the superconducting coils was designed and the coils were arranged adopting the single layer concentrated structure in the primary core.The Dewar was manufactured by adopting non magnetic material.Finally,various parts were assembled into HTS LIM test prototype.The model of HTS LIM was built and the simulation was executed by finite element analysis software ANSOFT.The copper windings trial prototype was manufactured and the linear motor traction test platform was set up to test the performance of the motor prototype testing.The test results and simulation results were analyzed to verify the rationality and feasibility of the design.

  4. 城市轨道交通列车交路方案优化模型研究%Research on the Model about the Optimization of Train Routing in Urban Rail Transit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize the urban rail transit train routing scheme ,two models are established , which are nonlinear program-ming model and multi-objective programming model .The nonlinear programming model takes minimum rolling stocks as the optimization goal, and synthetically optimize reentry of trains and quantity of trains effectively , but it is hard to solve this problem , so it is just suitable for optimization study of train routing problem .While the multi-objective programming model takes practical situations into account suffi-ciently, firstly, the reentry points of trains are determined , or some alternative schemes of reentry points of trains are provided;and then the optimum solution is achieved by calculating the optimum number of running trains of each train routing using multi -objective program-ming method.At last, an example is given, which verifies the effectiveness of the multi-objective programming model.%为了对城市轨道交通列车交路方案进行优化,建立非线性规划模型及多目标规划模型。非线性规划模型以最少的运用车底数为优化目标,有效地将列车交路折返点及列车开行数量进行综合优化,但该模型求解难度较大,仅适合对列车交路方案优化做理论分析。多目标规划模型则充分考虑了实际情况,首先确定列车折返点,或者提供几种备选形式,再运用多目标规划求解各交路最优列车开行对数,得出列车交路方案的最优解。最后用算例验证了多目标规划模型的有效性。

  5. Critical capacity, travel time delays and travel time distribution of rapid mass transit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Monterola, Christopher; Lee, Kee Khoon; Hung, Gih Guang

    2014-07-01

    We set up a mechanistic agent-based model of a rapid mass transit system. Using empirical data from Singapore's unidentifiable smart fare card, we validate our model by reconstructing actual travel demand and duration of travel statistics. We subsequently use this model to investigate two phenomena that are known to significantly affect the dynamics within the RTS: (1) overloading in trains and (2) overcrowding in the RTS platform. We demonstrate that by varying the loading capacity of trains, a tipping point emerges at which an exponential increase in the duration of travel time delays is observed. We also probe the impact on the rail system dynamics of three types of passenger growth distribution across stations: (i) Dirac delta, (ii) uniform and (iii) geometric, which is reminiscent of the effect of land use on transport. Under the assumption of a fixed loading capacity, we demonstrate the dependence of a given origin-destination (OD) pair on the flow volume of commuters in station platforms.

  6. Polarization in exoplanetary systems caused by transits, grazing transits, and starspots

    CERN Document Server

    Kostogryz, N M; Berdyugina, S V

    2015-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of flux and linear polarization variations in transiting exoplanetary systems, caused by the host star disk symmetry breaking. We consider different configurations of planetary transits depending on orbital parameters. Starspot contribution to the polarized signal is also estimated. Applying the method to known systems and simulating observational conditions, a number of targets is selected where transit polarization effects could be detected. We investigate several principal benefits of the transit polarimetry, particularly, for determining orbital spatial orientation and distinguishing between grazing and near-grazing planets. Simulations show that polarization parameters are also sensitive to starspots, and they can be used to determine spot positions and sizes.

  7. 移动式铁路油罐车液力清洗装置%Mobile Hydraulic Cleaning System of the Rail Tank Car

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓松圣; 周明来; 王小强; 杜渐; 焦光伟; 土明林; 陈有亮

    2000-01-01

    This paper illustrates a new mobile cleaning equipment for the rail tank car, as well as its structure characteristic and cleaning process.%阐述新型移动式铁路油罐车清洗装置的结构特点及清洗工艺流程。

  8. 城市轨道交通PPP项目融资模式的探讨--以徐州地铁2号线为例%Discussion on PPP Project Financing Mode of Urban Rail Transit:Taking Xuzhou Metro Line 2 as the Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王震宇

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous improvement of the level of urbanization in China, the traffic congestion in big cities is becoming more and more serious. Therefore, the development of urban rail transit will be the most ideal way to solve the urban traffic. Rail transportation has the advantages of big volume, fast speed, safe and reliable and punctuality but it also has the characteristics of long construction cycle, low profitability, enormous investment and so on. At present, most of the urban rail transit construction use PPP mode. Wheather the project financing can be successfully achieved under this model is the key factor of the project. This paper mainly takes PPP project of the first-stage construction of Xuzhou Metro Line 2 as an example to analyze the characteristics of financing model under the innovative mode. At last, the financing mode of urban rail transit project in PPP mode is summarized.%随着我国城市化水平不断提高,大城市的交通拥挤状况日趋严重,因此,发展轨道交通将成为解决城市交通紧张状况最理想的交通方式。轨道交通有其运量大、速度快、安全可靠、准点的优点,但也同时具有建设周期长、盈利水平低、投资巨大等特点。目前大多数城市的轨道交通建设以PPP模式运作,在该模式下能否顺利实现项目融资将成为项目成败的关键因素。本文主要以徐州地铁2号线一期工程PPP项目为例,分析其创新运作模式下融资模式特点,最后对PPP模式下城市轨道交通项目的融资模式进行总结。

  9. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the...

  10. Bifurcation of transition paths induced by coupled bistable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chengzhe; Mitarai, Namiko

    2016-06-01

    We discuss the transition paths in a coupled bistable system consisting of interacting multiple identical bistable motifs. We propose a simple model of coupled bistable gene circuits as an example and show that its transition paths are bifurcating. We then derive a criterion to predict the bifurcation of transition paths in a generalized coupled bistable system. We confirm the validity of the theory for the example system by numerical simulation. We also demonstrate in the example system that, if the steady states of individual gene circuits are not changed by the coupling, the bifurcation pattern is not dependent on the number of gene circuits. We further show that the transition rate exponentially decreases with the number of gene circuits when the transition path does not bifurcate, while a bifurcation facilitates the transition by lowering the quasi-potential energy barrier.

  11. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  12. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  13. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  14. Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.

  15. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.

    2011-01-01

    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in pa

  16. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, S.L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant transconductan

  17. Study on Job-Housing Relationship and Characteristic of Commuting in Shanghai:Based on the Perspective of Rail Transit Passenger Flow Data%上海市职住关系和通勤特征分析研究--基于轨道交通客流数据视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志榕

    2016-01-01

    交通卡刷卡数据、手机信令数据、空间定位信息(GPS)等大数据的出现为城市与人的行为研究提供了数据支撑。基于2015年4月上海市公共交通卡刷卡数据,创建一般出行及虚拟换乘规则,建立上海轨道交通出行数据模型,并结合轨道交通网络空间数据模型,识别基于地铁出行的城市居民居住地、就业地和包括通勤时间、距离、空间分布等在内的通勤特征信息,并对典型就业中心和大型居住社区周边站点进行应用分析。研究表明,基于地铁的通勤出行者有130多万持卡人,平均通勤时间34.82 min,平均通勤距离为12.4 km;居住地在内环内、内外环间及外环外各站的持卡人相差不多,但就业地则有近2/3分布于内环内;通勤出行方向呈现明显的向心性;典型就业中心辐射范围广泛,平均通勤时间越往市中心越低;各大型居住社区的地铁通勤量相差很大,通勤去向并不集中于内环内。%Big Data such as transportation card data, cell phone data, Global Position System provides data support for the study on the behavior of city and people. Using Shanghai public transportation card data in April 2015, and creating general travel rules and virtual transfer rules, this study establishes Shanghai rail transit trip data model. Combined with the spatial data of rail transit network, the study identiifes jobs-housing relationship and characteristics of commuting such as time, distance and spatial distribution in Shanghai. Then the study makes an application of analyzing typical employment centers and large-sized residential communities. The research identiifes more than 1.3 million commuters, with average commuting time of 34.82 minutes and average commuting distance of 12.4 kilometers. The number of residences is about the same in the inner ring, outside the outer ring and between the two rings. But the percentage of employment in the inner

  18. Modelling the effect of rail dampers on wheel-rail interaction forces and rail roughness growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B. E.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Trains generate rolling noise because of the roughness of the wheel and rail running surfaces. Special acoustic grinding programmes have been introduced on some railways specifically to control rolling noise. Rail dampers are also used to reduce rolling noise; this paper studies rail damping as a possible mechanism to slow the rate of development of roughness on the surface of rails. This would reduce noise further over time or reduce the required frequency of grinding. High roughness growth on the rail occurs in situations with stiff vertical structural dynamics of the track. In particular the antiresonance above a sleeper at the pinned-pinned frequency has been identified as a wavelength fixing mechanism for short pitch corrugation. Rail dampers change the dynamic response of the rail, shifting the pinned-pinned frequency and smoothing the track receptance. Here, a simple time-stepping model is applied to calculate the interaction forces between wheel and rail for a track with and without rail dampers. The calculations show that rail dampers reduce dynamic interaction forces and shift the force spectrum to longer wavelengths. The interaction forces are used as input to an abrasive wear model to predict the roughness growth rate and the change in roughness after many wheel passages. Track without rail dampers is predicted to develop corrugation at the wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With rail dampers the corrugation growth is reduced and shifted to a longer wavelength where its significance is diminished.

  19. Analysis of Transition of Pension System in an Endogenous Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶栩青

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the possibility of pareto improving social security reforms within a framework of endogenous growth. Belan et al. proposed a transition from a pay-as-you-go(PAYG) pension system to a system of saving-subsidization. We follow this approach and prove that a pareto improving conversion from the PAYG system to a fully funded system is possible and discuss the problem of implementing the transition to the fully funded system.

  20. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  1. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail...

  2. 49 CFR 236.531 - Trip arm; height and distance from rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip arm; height and distance from rail. 236.531... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Roadway § 236.531 Trip arm; height and distance from rail. Trip arm of automatic train stop device when in the stop position shall be...

  3. On the Power of Labels in Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of labels in transition systems with regard to bisimilarity and model checking problems. We suggest a general reduction from labelled transition systems to unlabelled ones, preserving bisimilarity and satisfiability of μ-calculus formulas. We apply the reduction ...

  4. Deadlock and Fairness in Morphisms of Transition Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate deadlock-free implementations of processes, a formalization is proposed in which processes are elements of transition systems. Morphisms of transition systems are introduced as an approximate formalization of implementation of processes. A morphism f: X → Y shows deadlock if

  5. A Decidable Recursive Logic for Weighted Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Bingtian; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop and study the Recursive Weighted Logic (RWL), a multi-modal logic that expresses qualitative and quantitative properties of labelled weighted transition systems (LWSs). LWSs are transition systems labelled with actions and real-valued quantities representing the costs of ...

  6. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  7. Ruby on Rails: Up and Running

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    This compact guide from O'Reilly teaches you the basics of Ruby on Rails, the super-productive new way to develop full-featured web applications. Discover how to install and use both the Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework. More advanced material shows you just how fast Ruby on Rails can go.

  8. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  9. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.

    1996-01-01

    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  10. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  11. 无砟轨道小阻力扣件钢轨纵向阻力测试方法研究%Study on the Test Method of Rail Longitudinal Resistance of Small-resistance Fastening System for Ballastless Track

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全亮

    2014-01-01

    Rail longitudinal resistance of small-resistance fastening system for ballastless track is not only a key design parameter for track structure, but also a necessary basic datum in some standards concerned, and should be tested with a reasonable and accurate method. The systematic analysis of the test method for rail longitudinal resistance of some common fastenings suggests a method improved by using tension in even velocity for rail longitudinal resistance of small-resistance fastening system for ballastless track. The method is verified by practical tests on Type WJ-8 and Type W300-1 small-resistance fastening systems for ballastless track, and supports the compiling of such standards as Test Methods for Fastening Systems of High-speed Railway, Part 1: Determination of Rail Longitudinal Resistance.%无砟轨道小阻力扣件钢轨纵向阻力既是轨道结构设计的重要参数,也是相关技术标准中一项必要的基础数据,需要采取科学准确的方法加以测定。通过对常用扣件钢轨纵向阻力测试方法的系统分析,提出以恒定位移速率方式施加拉力荷载作为测试无砟轨道小阻力扣件钢轨纵向阻力的改进方法,并通过具有代表性的WJ-8型和W300-1型无砟轨道小阻力扣件的测试验证,为《高速铁路扣件系统试验方法第1部分:钢轨纵向阻力的测定》等技术标准的编制提供支撑。

  12. Excitation Method of Linear-Motor-Type Rail Brake without Using Power Sources by Dynamic Braking with Zero Electrical Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    The eddy current rail brake is a type of braking system used in railway vehicles. Because of problems such as rail heating and problems associated with ensuring that power is supplied when the feeder malfunctions, this braking system has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of linear induction motor (LIM) technology in eddy current rail brake systems. The LIM rail brake driven by dynamic braking can reduce rail heating and generate the energy required for self-excitation. In this paper, we present an excitation system and control method for the LIM rail brake driven by “dynamic braking with zero electrical output”. The proposed system is based on the concept that the LIM rail brake can be energized without using excitation power sources such as a feeder circuit and that high reliability can be realized by providing an independent excitation system. We have studied this system and conducted verification tests using a prototype LIM rail brake on a roller rig. The results show that the system performance is adequate for commercializing the proposed system, in which the LIM rail brake is driven without using any excitation power source.

  13. The Effects of the Planned High-Speed Rail System on Travel Times and Spatial Development in the European Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ravazzoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the direct effects of introducing high-speed railway lines is a significant reduction in travel times between major cities. This is particularly relevant in mountain areas. It not only makes cities more easily reachable with more sustainable transport systems but can also encourage different travel behavior and reduce environmental pressures on sensitive areas. A comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal effects of the introduction of high-speed railways in the Alpine arc has not yet been developed. To help fill this gap, this study uses multidimensional scaling and the geographical information system to illustrate the time–space compression. This term indicates the erosion of spatial and temporal distances in the areas of the Alps directly affected by the new railway lines. Six trans-Alpine high-speed railway lines are analyzed, comparing current and projected travel times by train. A time-based map is created to show the time–space compression in every transversal direction, particularly on the French and the Austrian side of the Alps. Implications in terms of local accessibility are also analyzed, focusing on the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen-South Tyrol. Finally, the paper discusses the importance of time-based maps for the understanding of sociospatial dynamics and the possible implications for spatial development.

  14. Smart transportation investments 2 : reevaluating the role of public transit for improving urban transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2006-09-14

    The role that public transit can play in reducing traffic congestion and achieving other transportation benefits was examined in response to recent claims that investment into urban rail transit is financially wasteful and ineffective at reducing traffic congestion. The author evaluated these claims using modern, comprehensive planning methods that consider the quality of transportation systems based on mobility and accessibility. It was shown that high quality public transit reduces traffic congestion costs in the following 3 ways: (1) high-quality, time-competitive transit attracts travellers would would otherwise drive, (2) rail transit can stimulate transit oriented development such as compact, mixed use walkable urban villages where residents have fewer cars, and (3) quality transit service can reduce travel time costs to travellers who reconsider driving when transit services are comfortable. It was suggested that as public transit service improves on a corridor, congestion levels on parallel roadways tend to decline. Grade-separated rail transit reduces congestion directly and creates more accessible communities. Many travellers claim they would prefer to drive less if alternative modes were reliable, convenient, comfortable, flexible, safe and affordable. A ranking of traffic congestion reduction strategies was presented. The most efficient strategy is considered to be higher road and parking fees during peak periods, followed by commute trip reduction programs, high quality public transit, highway capacity expansion and smart growth land use policies. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  15. Tribological properties of carbon nanotubes as lubricant additive in oil and water for a wheel–rail system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Antonio Carlos Cornelio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery in 1991 carbon nanotubes (CNTs have attracted much interest due to their remarkable mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical and optical properties. In connection with their mechanical properties, CNTs have been studied in various forms for tribological applications including their use as lubricant additives for oil and water. In this work, the tribological properties of functionalized nanotubes (single and multi-walled modified with carboxylic acid when used as lubricant additives at different concentrations (0.01, 0.05% were studied under rolling-sliding conditions in a twin-disk testing machine. The tests were performed using 5% of creepage and pressures of 0.8 GPa and 1.1 GPa. The results indicated that the presence of carbon nanotubes leads to a decrease in both friction coefficient and wear rate for both systems studied (oil and water.

  16. Gelation transitions of colloidal systems with bridging attractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangcui; Luo, Junhua; Han, Charles C.; Liu, Yun

    2016-10-01

    Gelation transitions in a colloidal system, where there is a strong reversible attraction between small, soft microgels and large, hard spheres, are systematically investigated. Different from widely studied depletion attraction systems that are also two-component systems, the strong attraction between small solvent and large solute particles introduces bridging attractions between large solute particles. We conclusively demonstrate that the formation of physical gels at the intermediate volume fraction of our bridging attraction system follows more closely with the percolation line that is in stark contrast to what is observed in depletion attraction systems, where the gelation transition is related with the frustrated spinodal separation, not a purely kinetic phenomenon. Our results introduce a different way to control gelation transitions in spherical colloidal systems, and imply that people need to be prudent when generalizing the physical picture of the gelation transitions obtained from systems with different origins of effective attraction as the solvent molecule may play important roles.

  17. Dynamic model for the wheel-rail contact friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, HyunWook; Sandu, Corina; Holton, Carvel

    2012-02-01

    Accurately estimating the coefficient of friction (CoF) is essential in modelling railroad dynamics, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing safety in rail operations. The typical assumption of a constant CoF is widely used in theoretical studies; however, it has been noticed that the CoF is not constant, but rather depends on various dynamic parameters and instantaneous conditions. In this paper, we present a newly developed three-dimensional nonlinear CoF model for the dry rail condition and test the CoF variation using this model with estimated dynamic parameters. The wheel-rail is modelled as a mass-spring-damper system to simulate the basic wheel-rail dynamics. Although relatively simple, this model is considered sufficient for the purpose of this study. Simulations are performed at a train speed of 20 m/s using rail roughness as an excitation source. The model captures the CoF extremes and illustrates its nonlinear behaviour and instantaneous dependence on several structural and dynamic parameters.

  18. GMT azimuth bogie wheel-rail interface wear study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran, Jose; Lindh, Cory; Morgan, Chris; Manuel, Eric; Bigelow, Bruce C.; Burgett, William S.

    2016-07-01

    Performance of the GMT azimuth drive system is vital for the operation of the telescope and, as such, all components subject to wear at the drive interface merit a high level of scrutiny for achieving a proper balance between capital costs, maintenance costs, and the risk for downtime during planned and unplanned maintenance or replacement procedures. Of particular importance is the interface between the azimuth wheels and rail, as usage frequency is high, the full weight of the enclosure must be transferred through small patches of contact, and replacement of the rail would pose a greater logistical challenge than the replacement of smaller components such as bearings and gearmotors. This study investigates tradeoffs between various wheel-rail and roller-track interfaces, including performance, complexity, and anticipated wear considerations. First, a survey of railway and overhead crane industry literature is performed and general detailing recommendations are made to minimize wear and the risk of rolling contact fatigue. Second, Adams/VI-Rail is used to simulate lifetime wear of four specific configurations under consideration for the GMT azimuth wheel-rail interface; all studied configurations are shown to be viable, and their relative merits are discussed.

  19. Influence of wheel damping and contact position on the stability of wheel-rail contact system%车轮阻尼及接触点位置对轮轨接触过程稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振; 陈照波; 焦映厚; 黄文虎

    2012-01-01

    The wheel dynamic model at high frequency was established according to FEM and modal test based on the performances and dimension parameters for the monobloc steel wheel with S-web and the 60 kg/m rail. The cross section deformation of the rail and the effect of its understructure were also considered. The stability of wheel-rail contact system was analyzed in the case of different contact positions and modal damping ratio of the wheel. It is shown that the wheel mode with zero nodal circle has the most obvious effect on the stability of contact system. The increment of lateral creepage can lead the contact system to become unstable, and the effect of creepage is more obvious in flange contact than tread one. The effect of contact position depends on the yaw angle of the rail and the friction coefficient in contact area. The increment of wheel damping can decrease the number of unstable frequency, and the effect of damping is more obvious in flange contact under large yaw angle.%结合S形辐板辗钢整体车轮和60 kg/m钢轨的尺寸与性能要求,利用有限元法和模态试验法建立车轮高频振动模型,并在考虑钢轨断面变形和轨下结构影响的基础上建立钢轨高频振动模型.在改变轮轨接触点位置和车轮模态阻尼比的情况下对轮轨接触系统进行了稳定性分析.结果表明:节圆数为0的车轮模态对系统稳定性的影响最明显;增大横向蠕滑量会使轮轨接触系统容易发生不稳定,并且该蠕滑量在轮缘接触时的影响比在踏面时要大;接触点位置对接触系统稳定性的影响与轮轨偏向角及接触面摩擦系数的大小有关;增大车轮阻尼能明显减少接触系统不稳定频率的个数,并且在偏向角较大时,阻尼的作用对轮缘接触更明显.

  20. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Sweeney

    2005-01-20

    mostly rail scenario, the DOE would rely on a combination of rail, truck and possibly barge to transport to the repository site at Yucca Mountain up to 70,000 MTHM of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, with most of the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste being transported by rail. This will ultimately require construction of a rail line in Nevada to the repository. In addition, the DOE has decided to select the Caliente rail corridor in which to examine potential alignments within which to construct that rail line. A corridor is a strip of land, approximately 400 meters (0.25 miles) wide, that encompasses one of several possible routes through which DOE could build a rail line. An alignment is the specific location of a rail line in a corridor, and would likely be 60 meters [200 feet] or less in width. Also on April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Alignment, Construction, and Operation of a Rail Line to a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, NV. In the Notice of Intent, the Department announced its intent to prepare a Rail Alignment EIS to assist in selecting a possible alignment for construction of a rail line that would connect the repository at Yucca Mountain to an existing main rail line in Nevada. The Rail Alignment EIS also would consider the potential construction and operation of a rail-to-truck intermodal transfer facility, proposed to be located at the confluence of an existing mainline railroad and a highway, to support legal-weight truck transportation until the rail system is fully operational. This corridor is approximately 513 kilometers (319 miles) long and would cost an estimated $880 million (2001 dollars). Should DOE decide to build the Caliente corridor, it may be the longest rail line built in the United States since the Transcontinental Railroad was constructed in 1869. Some of the challenges in building this rail corridor are steep grades

  1. Stochastic theory of synchronization transitions in extended systems

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz, Miguel A.; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2003-01-01

    We propose a general Langevin equation describing the universal properties of synchronization transitions in extended systems. By means of theoretical arguments and numerical simulations we show that the proposed equation exhibits, depending on parameter values, either: i) a continuous transition in the bounded Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, with a zero largest Lyapunov exponent at the critical point; ii) a continuous transition in the directed percolation class, with a negative Lyap...

  2. Accelerating the transition to sustainable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, Michael [London Metropolitan University Business School, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The slow pace of transition to sustainable energy systems is the result of several factors running in parallel. The starting points are very low. Even 30% per annum increases in rated capacity (for wind energy or solar PV, for example) take many years to make a big impact at the global level. Policy initiatives are for the most part ineffectual in relation to the urgency and scale of what is required, and often fail to address the fundamental causes of this slow progress. This reflects a 'top-down' approach - often accompanied by unrealistic targets and simultaneously undermined by a lack of consistency across policies, which reflect a 'utopian social engineering mentality', made worse because: 'The Planner's response to failure of previous interventions (is) to do more intensive and comprehensive interventions' as William Easterly has put it. In short, there is little or no accountability. This approach has failed to harness the sympathy, imagination, self-interest, or sound options of energy users - although it may attract developers, including those not hitherto noted for renewable energy projects or environmental concern. Targets are usually too short term and clearly unrealistic, especially where fossil fuel use is rising very rapidly, and renewable energy use expands modestly. Government subsidies for traditional energy forms continue. Insufficient attention is paid to what individuals might achieve in energy efficiency and renewable energy terms if permitted to have, or retain (in industrialized countries, where the burden of taxation is often inhibiting), the wherewithal to make the necessary investments. Subsidy systems often promote renewable energy schemes that are misdirected and buoyed up by grossly exaggerated claims. One or two mature renewable energy technologies are pushed nationally with insufficient regard for their costs, contribution to electricity generation, transportation fuels' needs, or carbon

  3. Systemic Issues in School to Work Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    As an outcome of a conference on the problem of school to work transition, four dimensions which provide a framework within which to examine the school to work issue, are identified and discussed as they relate to career education and the community college role. The first dimension is concerned with educational goals and is divided along a…

  4. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  5. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  6. Wheel-rail interaction at short-wave irregularities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, M.J.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Short-wave irregularities in the wheel-rail interface are at the basis of track and vehicle damage and deterioration. On the short term, they result into high dynamic train-track interaction forces and a high energy input into the system that must be dissipated in the different system components or

  7. Discussion on Design of Track Joining of Departure and Arrival Track of Vehicle Depot of Urban Rail Transit%轨道交通车辆段出入线接轨方案设计探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华

    2012-01-01

    considered for selection of the track joining mode of the departure and arrival track. In addition, the factors of the depot site, the main track conditions, the station scale, the traffic conditions, the operational conditions and investment should be considered to select the reasonable track joining mode in the design of the urban rail transit. According to the layout of the station, the train has the function of changing direction if possible. When selecting the track joining mode of the departure and arrival track of the depot, the factors of the regional plan and the social and economic benefits also should be considered to decide the most reasonable scheme.

  8. Research and practice of rail transit rainwater collection and utilization technology of rain transit building%轨道交通建筑雨水收集利用技术研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 房明; 王珺哲; 刘晓曦

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes common rainwater collection and utilization technology,and explores rainwater collection and utilization methods of rain transit building from aspects of building design layout,building technology,material and structure,with a view to improve rainwater source utilization ratio and promote sustainable development of buildings.%简述了目前常见的雨水收集利用技术,从建筑设计布局、建筑技术、材料、构造等方面,探讨了轨道交通建筑雨水收集利用的方法,以提高雨水资源的利用率,推动建筑的可持续发展。

  9. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  10. Formalization of Abstract State Transition Systems for SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Marić, Filip

    2011-01-01

    We present a formalization of modern SAT solvers and their properties in a form of abstract state transition systems. SAT solving procedures are described as transition relations over states that represent the values of the solver's global variables. Several different SAT solvers are formalized, including both the classical DPLL procedure and its state-of-the-art successors. The formalization is made within the Isabelle/HOL system and the total correctness (soundness, termination, completeness) is shown for each presented system (with respect to a simple notion of satisfiability that can be manually checked). The systems are defined in a general way and cover procedures used in a wide range of modern SAT solvers. Our formalization builds up on the previous work on state transition systems for SAT, but it gives machine-verifiable proofs, somewhat more general specifications, and weaker assumptions that ensure the key correctness properties. The presented proofs of formal correctness of the transition systems c...

  11. An Evaluation of a Comprehensive System of Transition Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspel, Nellie; Bettis, Gail; Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated a comprehensive transition model for students with disabilities known as TASSEL (Teaching All Students Skills for Employment and Life) in two North Carolina school systems. Analysis of social validity data and student outcome data for 76 students found that consumers were satisfied with TASSEL transition services and student…

  12. Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petrellis, D; Iachello, F

    2011-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.

  13. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  14. Transition towards Circular Economy in the Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Jurgilevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing population and increased demand for food, inefficient resource use and food distribution, environmental impacts, and high rates of food wasted at all stages of the food system are all calling for transition towards more sustainable practices. In this article we apply the concept of circular economy to the case of a sustainable food system. Furthermore, we explore the transition towards a circular food system through the lens of socio-technical transition theory towards sustainability. We discuss challenges and potential solutions for the production stage (focusing on nutrient flow, the consumption stage (focusing on meat consumption, and food waste and surplus management and prevention.

  15. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  16. Quality assurance program guidelines for application to and use by manufacturers of rail/guideway vehicles, buses, automatic train control systems, and their major subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkin, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Guidelines are presented for a quality assurance system to be implemented by the manufacturer in support of designing, developing, fabricating, assembling, inspecting, testing, handling, and delivery of equipment being procured for use in public urban mass transit systems. The guidelines apply to this equipment when being procured for: (1) use in revenue service; (2) demonstration of systems that will be revenue producing or used by the public; (3) use as a prototype for follow-on operational/revenue producing equipment procurements; and (4) qualification tests.

  17. National Rail Network: 1:100,000 (line), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_lin_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  18. National Rail Network 1:2,000,000 (node), Geographic WGS84, BTS (2006) [us_rail_network_100k_nd_BTS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Rail Network is a comprehensive database of the nation's railway system at the 1:100,000 scale. The data set covers all 50 States plus the District of Columbia.

  19. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  20. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  1. Research on Universal Gantry Rail Grinder’ s Automatic Grinding Wheel Dressing System%万能龙门导轨磨床砂轮自动修整系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林耀国; 聂晓根

    2014-01-01

    根据万能龙门导轨磨床实现高效高精密自动化加工的需要,研究开发了一种砂轮自修整系统。在建立砂轮及其修整参数化模型的基础上,依据万能龙门导轨磨床磨削过程推导了实现砂轮自动修整的运动轨迹表达式。在VC++环境中通过对ini文件的读写操作实现对砂轮参数、系统配置参数动态记录和读取,实现砂轮全自动修整和磨床的高度自动化加工。%According to high efficiency and precision automation machining needs of the universal gantry rail grinder, the research and development of a self-trimming system is proposed. Automatic grinding wheel dressing trajectory expression is deduced from the universal gantry rail grinder grinding process on the basis of grinding wheel and the dressing parameterized model. VC++ read-write ini file is used to read and write the wheel and system configuration parameters, to achieve ful y automatic grinding wheel dressing and highly automatic processing of the grinding machine.

  2. Analysis on Rationality of Spatial Arrangement of Inter-city Rail Transit Network in Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Zone:Based on Basic Spatial Economics Principle%成渝经济区城际轨道交通网空间布局合理性分析——基于空间经济学原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯芳芳; 蒲勇健

    2011-01-01

    According to the center-local theory and the basic spatial economics principle, this paper sets up a spatial diamond model in which four city circles, namely Chongqing. Chengdu plain ,Chuannan,Chuandongbei, are taken as the support point and the iceberg-type transportation cost is introduced. Then it analyzes the influences of different transport costs on industrial agglomeration. Finally,it explains the rationality of spatial arrangement of inter-city rail transit network in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone through combining the spatial arrangement of intercity rail transit network with the spatial diamond model. The results show that the spatial arrangement of inter-city rail transit network in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone helps to reduce the interregional transport costs among city circles,furthermore promote specialized division, industrial agglomeration and integration process in Chengdu-Chongqing economic zone.%根据中心地理论及空间经济学的基本原理,首先通过引入冰山运输成本建立了一个以重庆、川南、川东北、成都平原四个城市圈为支撑点的空间菱形经济模型,然后分析了不同的运输成本对产业集聚的影响,最后将成渝经济区城际轨道交通网的空间布局与城市圈的空间菱形模型相结合,阐释了城际轨道交通网规划的合理性.结果表明,城际轨道交通网的空间布局可降低各城市圈之间的运输成本,从而促进经济区内专业化分工和产业集聚、加快成渝城市群一体化进程.

  3. The Cascading Impacts of Technology Selection: Incorporating Ruby on Rails into ECHO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilone, D.; Cechini, M.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) ClearingHOuse (ECHO) is a SOA based Earth Science Data search and order system implemented in Java with one significant exception: the web client used by 98% of our users is written in Perl. After several decades of maintenance the Perl based application had reached the end of its serviceable life and ECHO was tasked with implementing a replacement. Despite a broad investment in Java, the ECHO team conducted a survey of modern development technologies including Flex, Python/Django, JSF2/Spring and Ruby on Rails. The team ultimately chose Ruby on Rails (RoR) with Cucumber for testing due to its perceived applicability to web application development and corresponding development efficiency gains. Both positive and negative impacts on the entire ECHO team, including our stakeholders, were immediate and sometimes subtle. The technology selection caused shifts in our architecture and design, development and deployment procedures, requirement definition approach, testing approach, and, somewhat surprisingly, our project team structure and software process. This presentation discusses our experiences, including technical, process, and psychological, using RoR on a production system. During this session we will discuss: - Real impacts of introducing a dynamic language to a Java team - Real and perceived efficiency advantages - Impediments to adoption and effectiveness - Impacts of transition from Test Driven Development to Behavior Driven Development - Leveraging Cucumber to provide fully executable requirement documents - Impacts on team structure and roles

  4. A hybrid multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method for robust safety design of a rail vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejlaoui, Mohamed; Houidi, Ajmi; Affi, Zouhaier; Romdhane, Lotfi

    2017-10-01

    This paper deals with the robust safety design optimization of a rail vehicle system moving in short radius curved tracks. A combined multi-objective imperialist competitive algorithm and Monte Carlo method is developed and used for the robust multi-objective optimization of the rail vehicle system. This robust optimization of rail vehicle safety considers simultaneously the derailment angle and its standard deviation where the design parameters uncertainties are considered. The obtained results showed that the robust design reduces significantly the sensitivity of the rail vehicle safety to the design parameters uncertainties compared to the determinist one and to the literature results.

  5. 北京市轨道交通网络化发展问题及对策研究--基于职住分离的背景%Problems of Beij ing Urban Rail Transit Network Development and Their Countermeasures---A Study in View of the Separation of Workplace and Residence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛婧; 张梅青

    2016-01-01

    轨道交通网络化发展对北京职住分离的改善及城市空间结构向多中心转变具有重要意义。当前北京轨道交通网络功能层级缺失,尚未适应现有职住空间格局;覆盖范围有限、空间形态不合理,无法有效引导城市空间结构优化;市郊线路规划为非贯穿式放射形态,远期将加剧职住空间失配;融资结构单一,无法支撑未来大规模网络化建设。因此,应完善轨道交通网络功能层级、基于远景规划审慎扩大网络范围、优化市郊线路空间布局、加强新城局域级网络及综合枢纽建设、实现多层次融资体系构建及物业联合开发。%Developing urban rail transit network has great significance for solving the problems of workplace-residence separation and optimizing urban spatial structure in Beij ing.At present,Beij ing rail transit network has several disadvantages.First,it fails to adapt to the separation of citizens' workplace and residence.Second,the coverage of the current transit network is small and the spatial allocation irrational.As a result,the network is ineffective in optimizing the urban spatial structure. Third,the suburban lines in plan are non-penetrating and will worsen the workplace-residence separa-tion problems in the long run.Fourth,the financing source of the rail transit is undiversified and una-ble to support the development of urban rail transit network in the future.To solve these problems, this article argues that measures must to be taken from several perspectives.First,the network struc-ture should be improved;second,the coverage of the network shall be expanded with discretion and long-term planning;third,the spatial layout of suburban lines in the planning ought to be optimized;fourth,the construction of the network and the comprehensive transportation hub in the suburb shall be strengthened;fifth,a multi-level investment and financing mode should be established and the net-work should be

  6. Approximate trace and singleton failures equivalences for transition systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Wang; Jinzhao Wu; Hongyan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Established system equivalences for transition systems, such as trace equivalence and failures equivalence, require the ob-servations to be exactly identical. However, an accurate measure-ment is impossible when interacting with the physical world, hence exact equivalence is restrictive and not robust. Using Baire met-ric, a generalized framework of transition system approximation is proposed by developing the notions of approximate language equivalence and approximate singleton failures (SF) equivalence. The framework takes the traditional exact equivalence as a special case. The approximate language equivalence is coarser than the approximate SF equivalence, just like the hierarchy of the exact ones. The main conclusion is that the two approximate equiva-lences satisfy the transitive property, consequently, they can be successively used in transition system approximation.

  7. Transition Office Management and Accounting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — TOMAS combined over 20 previously separate systems into one fully integrated management system covering budget, finance, procurement, travel, and emergency contact...

  8. The Transiting System GJ1214: High-Precision Defocused Transit Observations and a Search for Evidence of Transit Timing Variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West; Hardis, S.; Hinse, T. C.

    2012-01-01

    : The observations are used to determine the photometric parameters and the physical properties of the GJ1214 system. Our results are in good agreement with published values. Individual times of mid-transit are measured with uncertainties as low as 10s, allowing us to reduce the uncertainty in the orbital period...

  9. A Novel Method for Designing and Selecting Connection Scheme Between Suburban Line and Urban Rail Transit Network%市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接的设计比选方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴放; 顾保南

    2013-01-01

    A two-stage approach was proposed to solve the problem of connecting suburban rail line to urban rail network based on the current model' s impracticability. Focusing on the first stage, the paper articulates how the set of connection design schemes is generated. A greedy search based heuristic algorithm was designed to solve the optimization problem of connecting suburban lines and urban rail network. And optimum connection scheme set was sorted out from the perspectives respectively regarding optimization searching process and different transfer coefficients that reveal the dominance of transfer in path length. High quality of connection design schemes can be ensured by these optional designs, which can also cover various connection modes of different station spacing, providing solid basis for evaluation and selection in the second stage. Finally, the aforementioned method was implemented in an example, generating an optimized connection design set, which proves the applicability of this novel design method in large scale rail network connection problem.%分析了现有数学模型对市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接设计问题的不适用性,在此基础上提出两阶段设计方法,并着重对第一阶段——衔接方案集的生成方法进行了阐述.设计了一个以贪婪搜索思想为基础的启发式算法,求解市郊线与市区轨道网络衔接的优化方案.从寻优过程和换乘主导性两个角度分别生成了较优的可选设计方案集合.这些备选方案保证了较高的方案设计质量,并能覆盖不同站间距的郊区线衔接模式,为下一阶段的方案评价比选提供基础.最后通过一个算例实现了所提出的备选衔接方案集合生成方法,证明了这一方法在大规模轨道网络中的适用性.

  10. Development and Application of Tools to Characterize Transiting Astrophysical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beky, Bence

    2014-06-01

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanets (planets outside our Solar System) more than 20 years ago, there has been an increasing need for photometric and spectroscopic models to characterize these systems. While imaging has been used extensively for Solar System bodies and extended objects like galaxies, the small angular extent of typical planetary systems makes it difficult or impossible to resolve them. Spatially integrated observations like measuring the total brightness or spectrum, however, can be conducted at a resonable cost. This thesis focuses on photometric models in the context of transiting systems, which exhibit a number of phenomena that can be exploited for characterization. First, we showcase the popular methods of transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization by ground based observations on the hot Jupiter HAT-P-27b. We demonstrate how transits allow us to constrain planetary mass, radius, and orbital inclination, which would not be possible based only on, for example, radial velocity measurements. Next, we perform reflection spectroscopy on HAT-P-1b, another hot Jupiter, using the binary companion of the host star as a reference to remove systematic errors from the signal. Here the transiting nature of the system allows us to look for the very faint light reflected by the planet. We also apply the idea of planetary transits to investigate the feasibility of transit observations in astrophysical systems of very different scale: stars in galactic nuclei potentially transiting the accretion disk of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center. Finally, we focus on mapping spots on the stellar surface using transits. This method has been used for a decade, and helped constrain stellar rotation or orbital geometry in a number systems. We study starspots on HAT-P-11 not only to learn more about stellar rotation, but also to investigate the size and contrast of the spots themselves.

  11. Visual Analysis and Comparison of Kepler Transit Timing Variations with Mutli-Transiting System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Mackenzie; Ragozzine, Darin; Flowers, Xzavier

    2016-10-01

    By noticing the dimming and brightening of the star as an exoplanet transit occurs, NASA's Kepler Space Telescope records the times when the exoplanet passes in front of its star. If other planets are gravitationally influencing the transiting planet, the planet might transit late or early; these deviations from a perfectly periodic set of transits are called transit timing variations (TTVs). Therefore, Kepler TTVs have been very useful in determining exoplanet masses which can be hard to measure in other ways.We visually analyzed the TTV data of all ~6000 Kepler objects of interest (KOIs) to determine whether interesting TTV signals would be missed by purely statistical analyses. Using data from Rowe et al. 2014 and Holczer et al. 2016, we examined TTV plots, periodograms, and folded quadratic+sinusoid fits. To find the most likely KOIs containing visible TTVs and to organize the over 6000 KOIs analyzed, a rating system was developed based on numerous visual factors. By sorting KOIs as such, we were able to compare our findings of the strongest candidates with the same KOIs statistically analyzed by Holczer et al. 2016. It was found that the majority of our findings matched those of Holczer et al. 2016, with only small discrepancies that were understandable based on our different methodologies. Still, our visual inspection of the full list of KOIs contributed multiple planets that were not identified statistically.We combined all of these results with planet properties from the NASA Exoplanet Archive, confirmed and cumulative, to investigate the demographics of planetary systems with and without TTVs. We investigated multi-transiting systems with TTVs not attributable to any of the known planets in the system to better understand exoplanetary system architectures in cases where not all of the planets are transiting.

  12. Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-02-01

    We determine the phase diagram of N identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit (N→∞) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in the presence of a diamagnetic term.

  13. Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baksic, Alexandre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-01-01

    We determine the phase diagram of $N$ identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit ($N \\to \\infty$) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in presence of a diamagnetic term.

  14. 新型HFO共轨系统在中速柴油机中的应用%New HFO common rail system for medium speed diesel engines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Diesel engine is and will, also in the future, be one of the most economic possibilities for converting chemical fuel energy into mechanical energy. In order to make use of the Diesel engine's economy also in the future, it will be regarded to environmental aspects. MAN B&W attached great importance to this requirement, carried out corresponding development work and launched exhaust gas optimized engines.Following the philosophy of environment-friendly engine development, Common Rail (CR) will, as a next step, be introduced for MAN B&W engines.

  15. 78 FR 65244 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... assistive listening system, communication access real-time translation (CART), and sign language... TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD 36 CFR Part 1192 RIN 3014-AA42 Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee...

  16. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  17. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  18. Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition and Glass Transition in a Monoatomic Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Giovambattista

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We review our recent study on the polyamorphism of the liquid and glass states in a monatomic system, a two-scale spherical-symmetric Jagla model with both attractive and repulsive interactions. This potential with a parametrization for which crystallization can be avoided and both the glass transition and the liquid-liquid phase transition are clearly separated, displays water-like anomalies as well as polyamorphism in both liquid and glassy states, providing a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the liquid-liquid phase transition and the glass transition. Our study on a simple model may be useful in understanding recent studies of polyamorphism in metallic glasses.

  19. Bisimulation and Open Maps for Timed Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    Formal models for real-time systems have been studied intensively over the past decade. Much of the theory of untimed systems have been lifted to real-time settings. One example is the notion of bisimulation applied to timed transition systems, which is studied here within the general categorical...

  20. 旧城区轨道交通站点周边土地利用调控及动因——以北京市中心城储备用地的规划调整为例%LAND USE CONTROL AROUND RAIL TRANSIT STATION IN OLD URBAN DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF RESERVED LAND PLAN ADJUSTMENT IN BEIJING'S INNER CITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坚; 宋丽青; 马晨越

    2011-01-01

    传统研究认为,轨道交通站点影响下周边土地利用方式将呈现“方式经营化、面积大型化、高强度随距离降低”,但对旧城区未必尽然.本文在比较北京市中心城区1999年、2006年控制性详细规划的基础上,对轨道交通站点周边储备用地进行实地调查分析.结果表明:就北京市中心城储备用地的规划调整而言,除土地利用方式经营化外,并未出现其他情形,以微调为主,但仍可分出开发阻力型、公益建设型、原址改造型、旧城保护型和集中拆建型等类型,各自规划调整特征有别.究其原因:(1)北京旧城区轨道交通晚于城市建设,属补偿性建设;(2)历史风貌用地比例大,保护要求高;(3)土地权属复杂,利益主体需要协调平衡.%Previous study shows that the land use of area around rail transit station tends to be more commercialized, larger in size and attenuated in intensity by distance. However, the rules are not suitable for the old urban district. Based on the comparison of regulatory detailed plan of Beijing inner city between 1999 and 2006, this paper conducts a field study on the reserved land around rail transit station. The result only shows the commercialization of land use. To understand the phenomenon, five types of planning regulation are discussed and three reasons are found: (1) the rail program is initiated later than the urban construction in old city, which is compensatory development; (2) the high ratio of historic sites requires high level of conservation; (3) the complication of land ownership calls for balance among interest groups.