Sample records for rail freight services

  1. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 2: Enablers for multimodal rail freight transport

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. The part 2 of the paper is dedicated to recommend some concrete steps and actions as enablers to remove the barriers identified in the part 1 to develop multimodal rail freight transport. The enablers for multimodal rail freight transport include: •\tEuropean rail freight transport market needs full liberalisation so that incumbent and new entrants can compete freely. •\tThe rail operators need to acquire service (e.g. customer tailored services, door to door service quality offered by road freight operators. •\tThey need to conduct a combination of ‘terminal-to-terminal’ and door-to-door operations, as and when needed; •\tThey must build partnership with freight forwarder or 3PLs to include all types of customers

  2. Reforming Rail Freight

    Lan Xinzhen


    Market-oriented reforms have come to one of China's last major monopoly industries Freight Train No.82410 from Beijing to southwest China's Chengdu departed from Dahongmen Station at 4 p.m.on June 26.The departure was a special one because it was the first container train of the Beijing Railway Bureau to depart following

  3. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik


    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  4. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Fanny Saruchera


    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years.Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories.Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants.Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia.Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  5. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven


    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  6. A proposed regulatory framework for road and rail freight transport in South Africa

    Wessel Pienaar


    Full Text Available The increase in the number of freight vehicles on South Africa’s rural road network has received substantial attention. Insinuations persist that long-distance road freight haulage is of a somewhat unsavoury economic nature, and that strict economic re-regulation of the land freight transport is necessary. During the 1970s road transport replaced rail carriage as the dominant form of long-distance freight transport (excluding minerals and ore in South Africa. On long hauls road freight carriers transport certain primary products of an organic nature (such as timber, fish and agricultural produce, some semi-finished goods, many finished goods and most consumer goods. Road freight carriers are continuously gaining market share on long-distance links where rail transport is the more cost efficient mode. The greater value added by road freight carriers in comparison with rail transport through service effectiveness is often more than the cost premium paid for utilising their service rather than making use of rail transport. Throughout history, governments have involved themselves in transport. A diverse range of arguments have been advanced for this involvement in transport, including the following:Control of excessive competition, co-ordination of transport, integration of transport with economic policy, maintenance of safety, security, and order, provision of costly infrastructure, provision of public goods, recovery of the true resource cost of transport inputs, regulation of harmful conduct and externalities, restraint of monopoly power, and social support. A set of nine instruments can be identified that governments apply to influence the performance of the freight transport industry: Legislation, direct supply, fiscal measures, monetary measures, moral appeal and persuasion, policies relating to strategic commodities, procurement policy, provision of information, and research and development. The best prospects for a sound development of

  7. RETRACK. Final report. REorganization of Transport networks by advanced RAil freight Concepts

    Rooijen, T. van


    The main goal of the RETRACK project (038552/ May 2007-August 2012) was to demonstrate that a fully privately owned and operated international “open” rail freight service was achievable using the freedoms endowed by the Railway Reform measures introduced by the EC. The project has successfully achie

  8. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.


    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative

  9. Stimulating European rail freight transport: towards a new governance approach

    Zhang, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Van der Heijden, R.E.C.M.


    Developing rail freight sector in the EU is desirable from both a political-social point of view and from a market business point of view. Fragmentation in the national railway systems impedes, in many ways, social and economic benefits in the liberalised EU railway market. The need for innovative g

  10. Analysis on Development Strategy for Rail Freight Service%以铁路为核心的货运服务供应链构建策略分析



    文中进行了中国铁路货物运输的SWTO分析,基于供应链管理环境下的物流环境特征,以满足市场需求为导向,分析了以铁路为核心的货运服务供应链构建策略,提出铁路货运产品的层次划分、服务目标定位及目标实现途径与方案构想:业务流程重组与通道式管理,建立合作伙伴关系。%It analyses China rail freight service with SWTO .Based on the characteristics of the logistics enviroment within the supply chain enviroment ,oriented by the satisfaction of the market demand ,it analyses the strategy for the construction of the supply chain for the freight service centered on railway .Also it proposes the division of the rail freight product their targets .It proposes the path and scheme for the realization of the service targets :business process reengineeing and corridor management mode,set up the cooperative partnership .

  11. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.


    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  12. South Africa’s freight rail reform: A demand-driven perspective

    Jan H. Havenga


    Full Text Available During the 20th century, freight transport in South Africa was employed to attain politicoeconomic ideals, resulting in the overprotection of rail and overregulation of road transport. Increasing industry pressure, combined with the international deregulation trend, led to deregulation in 1988. Myopia resulted in a rail investment hiatus and exponential growth in high-value, long-distance road transport, causing excessive logistics and externality costs for the country. The aim of this study was to propose a freight rail reform agenda based on, (1 lessons from past freight transport policy efforts and (2 the results of freight transport market segmentation driven by models developed over the past two decades. For the study, freight flows were modelled by disaggregating the national input–output model into 372 origin–destination pairs and 71 commodity groups, followed by distance decay gravitymodelling. Logistics costs were calculated by relating commodity-level freight flows to the costs of fulfilling associated logistical functions. The standard management approach of founding strategy development on market-driven segmentation provides a neutral input to steer rail reform discussions in South Africa. Market segmentation points to a dualistic rail reform agenda, enabling both a profit-driven core and a development-driven branch line network. Freight flow insights are steering the policy reform debate towards long-term freight strategy development and optimal freight logistics network design.

  13. Web Services on Rails

    Marshall, Kevin


    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  14. The Potentials of Rail-Road Integration for Port-Hinterland Freight Transport in Nigeria

    Andrew Egba Ubogu


    Full Text Available Modern transport and freight distribution system all over the world are tending towards the adoption of best practices that are reliable, timely and cost-effective. This study evaluates the potentials of integrating rail-road system for port-hinterland freight in Nigeria. Much of the primary data was obtained through the administration of a questionnaire specifically designed to gather information on the cost involved, distanced covered, areal coverage, and time taken to deliver cargoes to consignees. The respondents that were sampled systematically for this study were truck drivers who were interviewed at the point of loading in Lagos and Port Harcourt port complexes. In all, 302 truck drivers were interviewed. Secondary data sources were from records of Nigerian Ports Plc and Nigerian Railway Corporation. The data was analyzed using frequency distribution, Student’s t-test, and Geometric Mean analysis. The findings of this paper reveal that integrating rail-road for hinterland bound goods would be timely and potentially save 44.2% and 93.7% freight costs on the western and eastern flank respectively from the seaports of Lagos and Port Harcourt. Furthermore, the paired differences of the costs and time on both flanks were statistically significant using the Student’s t-test statistics. The implications of these findings are that integrating the various modes of transport for port-hinterland freight distribution would make the nation’s transportation system to be faster and more cost-effective.

  15. An Evaluation of the Potential for Shifting of Freight from Truck to Rail and Its Impacts on Energy Use and GHG Emissions

    Zhou, Yan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vyas, Anant D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guo, Zhaomiao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    This report summarizes our evaluation of the potential energy-use and GHG-emissions reduction achieved by shifting freight from truck to rail under a most-likely scenario. A sensitivity analysis is also included. The sensitivity analysis shows changes in energy use and GHG emissions when key parameters are varied. The major contribution and distinction from previous studies is that this study considers the rail level of service (LOS) and commodity movements at the origin-destination (O-D) level. In addition, this study considers the fragility and time sensitivity of each commodity type.

  16. Sub-Saharan Africa’s rail freight transport system: Potential impact of densification on cost

    Anneke de Bod


    Full Text Available The main response to sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA challenges has been foreign aid. Yet, despite the large amounts received, the challenges remain. There is an opportunity to consider a different model with less focus on aid and more on investment. In the transport sector specifically, investment decisions should be informed by a longterm optimal balance between different transport modes. The research presented in this paper highlights the significant cost reduction opportunities possible through the densification of rail freight, especially over longer distances, with concomitant implications for increased profitability for rail operators. The densification opportunity should also place a core focus on transport corridors being developed throughout the region. SSA countries themselves can play a critical role in unlocking this potential through, inter alia, simplifying regional economic communities and taking the lead in structuring agreements with the international community.

  17. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Jian Liu


    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  18. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Jeevarathnam P. Govender; Koovendhran Naidu


    This paper evaluates service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry, in which a high degree of competition exists. Previous measurements of service quality in the industry have been casual gauges, rather than a formalised process. This paper makes a contribution by examining the level of service quality, specifically from a tangibles, reliability and responsiveness perspective, thereby identifying service quality gaps which need to be closed, with a view to raising service qual...

  19. On Transport Service Selection in Intermodal Rail/Road Distribution Networks

    Christian Bierwirth


    Full Text Available Intermodal rail/road freight transport constitutes an alternative to long-haul road transport for the distribution of large volumes of goods. The paper introduces the intermodal transportation problem for the tactical planning of mode and service selection. In rail mode, shippers either book train capacity on a per-unit basis or charter block trains completely. Road mode is used for short-distance haulage to intermodal terminals and for direct shipments to customers. We analyze the competition of road and intermodal transportation with regard to freight consolidation and service cost on a model basis. The approach is applied to a distribution system of an industrial company serving customers in eastern Europe. The case study investigates the impact of transport cost and consolidation on the optimal modal split.

  20. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  1. Air Freight Service Development Plan : Case: CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam

    Nguyen, Giang


    Being one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, Vietnam is trading across the border actively and at the same time attracting multiple foreign investments. Import and export activities are occurring vigorously which leads to a huge potential for international transportation sectors, particularly for aviation industry. Hence, the ultimate goal of this thesis is to establish a development plan of air freight service for the case company – CMA CGM Logistics Vietnam (CCLOG VN). The stu...

  2. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks: Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.


    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  3. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.


    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  4. Rail freight vibration impact sleep and community response: An overview of CargoVibes

    Persson Waye, K.; Janssen, S.A.; Waddington, D.; Groll, W.; Croy, I.; Hammar, O.; Koopman, A.; Moorhouse, A.; Peris, E.; Sharp, C.; Sica, G.; Smith, M.G.; Vos, H.; Woodcock, J.; Ogren, M.


    The European Union funded project: CargoVibes involving ten partners from eight nations has aimed to examine ground-borne vibration affecting residents close to freight railway lines. The paper presents an overview of the work package investigating human response to vibration, with particular focus

  5. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program


    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 269 RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot... proceeding to develop a pilot program that permits a rail carrier or rail carriers that own infrastructure... develops this pilot program in conformance with the statutory directive. DATES: This final rule is...

  6. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen


    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  7. ''Swap trough'' combined transport system. A system solution for rail freight transport; Kombiverkehrssystem Wechseltrog-Transport. Eine Systemloesung fuer den Eisenbahngueterverkehr

    Windsinger, J. [Freundekreis Koenigsberg/Kalinigrad, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Fasterding, G. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Bauingenieurwesen


    Representatives of the German, Polish and Russian railways have held several discussions on the subject of freight transport from Germany via Poland to Kaliningrad and onwards to Russia. On 20 February 2004, the Friends of Koenigsberg - Kaliningrad in turn founded to 'Swap Trough Transport (STT) Consortium' in Celle, Germany. The aim of the consortium is to develop and implement a new, cost-effective combined transport system. The objective is to set up a trans-Eurasian WTT system using a continuous rail link all the way from Vladivostok to Lisbon. (orig.)

  8. Operations Research for Freight Train Routing and Scheduling

    Harrod, Steven; Gorman, Michael F.


    This article describes the service design activities that plan and implement the rail freight operating plan. Elements of strategic service design include the setting of train frequency, the routing of cars among trains, and the consolidation of cars, called blocking. At the operational level, tr...

  9. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Jan H. Havenga


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  10. Improving marketing strategies of sea freight forwarding services - Thien Hong Joint Stock company

    Pham, Thanh Huyen


    Analyzing and improving marketing strategies of Thien Hong Joint Stock company - a newborn company in the field of sea freight forwarding service in Vietnam. This thesis focused on the 4Ps (product, price, placement, promotion) in marketing strategy, how to apply the theory of services marketing in a business to business company and a special industry effectively.

  11. A freight transport optimization model for integrated network, service, and policy design

    Zhang, M.; Janic, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.


    This paper presents a freight transport optimization model that simultaneously incorporates multimodal infrastructure, hub-based service network structures, and the various design objectives of multiple actors. The model has been calibrated and validated using real-life data from the case study of

  12. 78 FR 16036 - Service Level Environmental Impact Statement for the Texas Oklahoma Passenger Rail Study Corridor...


    ... Passenger Rail Study Corridor, South Texas to Oklahoma City AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA... Transportation (TxDOT) to study potential new and/or improved high- speed intercity passenger rail service along... Rail Study (Study) also includes preparation of a service development plan for the corridor for each...

  13. Passenger Rail Service Comfortability in Kuala Lumpur Urban Transit System

    Nordin Noor Hafiza


    Full Text Available Rail transit transportation system is among the public transportation network in Kuala Lumpur City. Some important elements in establishing this system are ticket price, operation cost, maintenance implications, service quality and passenger’s comfortability. The level of passenger’s comfortability in the coach is important to be considered by the relevant authorities and system operators in order to provide comfort and safety to passengers. The objective this research is to study some parameters that impact the comfortability of passengers and to obtain feedbacks from passengers for different rail transit system. Site observations were conducted to obtain data such as noise, vibration, speed and coach layouts which will be verified by using the passenger feedback outcomes. The research will be focused in and around the Kuala Lumpur City for the duration of 10 months. Four rail transit systems were being considered, i.e. Train Type A (LRA, Train Type B (LRB, Train Type C (MRL and Train Type D (CTR. Data parameters obtained from field observations were conducted in the rail coaches during actual operation using apparatus among others the sound level meter (SLM, vibration analyzer (VA and the global positioning system (GPS. Questionnaires were prepared as passenger feedback instrument, focusing on the level of comfortability in rail coaches. The outcomes of these analyses showed that CTR was the best and most comfortable coach, followed by LRA, LRB and MRL. Using the passenger feedbacks (MBP it was also found that the ranking values for the railway transit system using Rail Coach Comfortability (RCC is RCC (MBP were the same as the outcomes using the RCC (parameters. In conclusion, it was found that this research has successfully determined the level of comfortability as determined in its aim and objectives. From this research, it is hoped that the relevant authorities will continue to find ways to enhance the comfortability and safety of its

  14. Evaluating service quality in the Durban freight transportation industry

    Naidu, Koovendhran; Govender, Jeevarathnam P


    ... need to be closed, with a view to raising service quality levels in the industry. The SERVQUAL instrument has been used to measure service quality levels administered to 500 of the industry's active customers, i.e...

  15. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    Levien, Mary


    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.


    Laura Villegas Ortiz


    Full Text Available Rail service is often the most cost-effective available alternative for shipping agricultural commodities in the Upper Midwest Region of the United States. The recent energy boom has created new competition for the use of shipping services. As oil has taken up freight space on railways, it has become more costly for farmers in states like Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota to reach grain markets, resulting in millionaire losses. Using oil nearby prices as the proxy, I study three particular effects of increased competition for rail services. First, I use national measures to study the impact of track congestion on wheat basis. Then, I examine how the expansion of the energy sector may have had different effects on prices received by wheat producers in the Midwest and in the Gulf Coast. Finally, I investigate whether the construction of new regional liquid pipeline networks is linked to regional wheat prices


    S. I. Muzykina


    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of rational distribution at the terminal of sorting work with the local cars on selecting them by the destinations of freight fronts of marine trade port is conditioned. The results of analysis of the basic operation indices of the terminal freight station and marshalling yard are presented.

  18. 49 CFR 1090.1 - Definition of TOFC/COFC service.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of TOFC/COFC service. 1090.1 Section... INTERMODAL MOVEMENT OF CONTAINERIZED FREIGHT § 1090.1 Definition of TOFC/COFC service. (a) Rail trailer-on-flatcar/container-on-flatcar (TOFC/COFC) service means the transportation by rail, in interstate...

  19. Influence of New Type Wheel Steel on Wheel/Rail Wear of Heavy Haul Freight Cars%新材质车轮钢对重载货车轮轨磨耗的影响


    车轮材质是影响重载货车轮轨磨耗的因素之一.本文在SIMPACK动力学软件中建立新一代27 t轴重C80E通用敞车的动力学模型,并应用CONTACT轮轨接触模型、Archard磨耗模型,对我国新研制CL70重载货车车轮钢对轮轨磨耗的影响进行研究.结果表明:CL70钢车轮与现有CL60钢车轮轮轨磨耗的分布基本一致.直线运行时,新材质车轮车轮磨耗深度和磨耗面积可分别降低27.87%和28.74%,钢轨的上述指标仅分别增大3.44%和2.11%.通过半径为600 m曲线时,采用CL70钢外侧车轮磨耗深度和面积可减少约61.86%和55.19%,外轨磨耗深度和面积仅增加约5.63%和2.48%.在大秦线运用时,车轮磨耗深度和磨耗面积的计算结果降低29.33%和31.87%,与大秦线新材质车轮试验结果数值较吻合.新材质钢车轮轮轨磨耗综合经济效益显著.%Wheel material is one of the main factors that affect the wheel/rail wear of heavy haul freight car.In this paper,the dynamic model of 27 t axle load C80E new generation gondola was set up by the SIMPACK soft-ware,within the CONTACT wheel/rail and Archard wear algorithm to study the impact of the wheel steel of the newly developed CL70 heavy haul freight car on the wheel/rail wear.The results showed that the distribu-tion of the wheel rail wear of CL70 steel wheel and existing CL60 steel wheel is basically the same.Comparing with the existing CL60 steel wheels,the CL70 steel wheels can reduce the wear depth and wear area by 27.87% and 27.87% respectively when running on the straight lines,although the rail wear depth and wear area only increased about 3.44% and 3.44% respectively.When the vehicle passed a curve with the radius of 600 m,the wear depth and area of the outer wheel of CL70 steel were reduced 61.86% and 55.19% respective-ly,while the wear depth and area of the outer rail only increased 5.63% and 2.48%.When the CL70 steel wheels were used in Datong-Qinhuangdao railway,the steel wheel wear

  20. Some approaches to reduce transport time of intermodal services: Smart rail investments

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, F.


    Rail intermodal services are an alternative to all-road services if the average transport time offered by these services is at least comparable. One of the determinants of transport time is how well actors in the transport chain cooperate. In this paper it is shown that substantial improvements in r

  1. 49 CFR 37.91 - Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains.


    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity... Entities § 37.91 Wheelchair locations and food service on intercity rail trains. (a) As soon as practicable... on each train a number of spaces— (1) To park wheelchairs (to accommodate individuals who wish...


    Fulton, Murray E.; Gray, Richard S.


    Grain transportation is one of the most important economic issues for grain producers in the Northern Plains. The reliance on export markets and the long distances to port position means that transportation costs have a significant effect on the price received by farmers. In the prairie region of Canada, rail transportation is undergoing a major transformation that will affect the competitive positions of agriculture in both the United States and Canada and influence the direction of grain fl...

  3. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Joubert van Eeden


    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  4. Synthetic Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Station Location and Wagon Flow Organization Problem

    Xing-cai Liu


    Full Text Available The railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization in railway transport are interconnected, and each of them is complicated in a large-scale rail network. In this paper, a two-stage method is proposed to optimize railway freight center stations location and wagon flow organization together. The location model is present with the objective to minimize the operation cost and fixed construction cost. Then, the second model of wagon flow organization is proposed to decide the optimal train service between different freight center stations. The location of the stations is the output of the first model. A heuristic algorithm that combined tabu search (TS with adaptive clonal selection algorithm (ACSA is proposed to solve those two models. The numerical results show the proposed solution method is effective.

  5. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section...

  6. Promoting Freight Carrier EDI Participation with the Defense Finance and Accounting Service - Indianapolis Center


    of the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and three Army regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing Activities (MIPAs) that...environment (now 49 mainframe computers at 22 different locations) into four regional data centers known as Multifunctional Information Processing...15.4 5 0.1 Yes (LGAQ) Freightways Yellow Freight 676 14.1 0 0 Yes System G. I. Trucking 512 10.7 0 0 Yes Danzas - Northern 485 10.1 0 0 No Air Condor

  7. Route Design Model of Feeder Bus Service for Urban Rail Transit Stations

    Zhenjun Zhu


    Full Text Available As an important part of urban public transportation systems, the feeder bus fills a service gap left by rail transit, effectively extending the range of rail transit’s service and solving the problem of short-distance travel and interchanges. By defining the potential demand of feeder bus services and considering its relationship with the traffic demands of corresponding staging areas, the distance between road and rail transit, and the repetition factor of road bus lines, this paper established a potential demand model of roads by opening feeder bus services and applying a logit model for passenger flow distribution. Based on a circular route model, a route starting and ending at urban rail transit stations was generated, and a genetic algorithm was then applied to solve it. The Wei-Fang community of Shanghai was selected as the test area. Per the model and algorithm, the feeder route length was conformed to a functional orientation of short-distance travel and the feeder service of a feeder bus; the route mostly covered where conventional bus lines were fewer, which is a finding that is in agreement with the actual situation; the feasibility of the model and algorithm was verified.

  8. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: demand analysis methodology. Volume IV. First year final report

    Allen, W.B.; Plaut, T.


    In order to determine the feasibility of intercity freight pipelines, it was necessary to determine whether sufficient traffic flows currently exist between various origins and destinations to justify consideration of a mode whose operating characteristics became competitive under conditions of high-traffic volume. An intercity origin/destination freight-flow matrix was developed for a large range of commodities from published sources. A high-freight traffic-density corridor between Chicago and New York and another between St. Louis and New York were studied. These corridors, which represented 18 cities, had single-direction flows of 16 million tons/year. If trans-shipment were allowed at each of the 18 cities, flows of up to 38 million tons/year were found in each direction. These figures did not include mineral or agricultural products. After determining that such pipeline-eligible freight-traffic volumes existed, the next step was to determine the ability of freight pipeline to penetrate such markets. Modal-split models were run on aggregate data from the 1967 Census of Transportation. Modal-split models were also run on disaggregate data specially collected for this study. The freight pipeline service characteristics were then substituted into both the aggregate and disaggregate models (truck vs. pipeline and then rail vs. pipeline) and estimates of pipeline penetration into particular STCC commodity groups were made. Based on these very preliminary results, it appears that freight pipeline has market penetration potential that is consistent with high-volume participation in the intercity freight market.

  9. Multi-level Extensible Synthetic Evaluation of the Quality of Passenger Transport Service of High-speed Rail

    Yanbing Fu


    Full Text Available This study establishes the evaluation index system of the quality of passenger transport service of highspeed rail based on the characteristics of passenger transport and determines the index weights with the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process. In order to make up for the deficiencies of present quality evaluation method of passenger transport service of high-speed rail, this study develops the multi-level extensible synthetic evaluation model of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail with the core of extension method based on the questionnaire survey to the passengers. This study tests the model with the data surveyed in a passenger station of high-speed rail, which can not only expand extension application areas, but also provide new ideas and means for the evaluation of the quality of passenger transport service of high-speed rail.

  10. Aastatepikkune visadus viis raudtee Baltic Rail Service'ile / Anneli Ammas, Andres Eilart

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-


    Eesti erastamisagentuur sõlmis Baltic Rail Service'iga lepingu 66% Eesti Raudtee aktsiate müügiks. Vt. samas "Uus omanik lubab hakata Eesti Raudtee töötajaid koondama". Kronoloogia: Raudtee müük 1999, 2000, 2001

  11. Aastatepikkune visadus viis raudtee Baltic Rail Service'ile / Anneli Ammas, Andres Eilart

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-


    Eesti erastamisagentuur sõlmis Baltic Rail Service'iga lepingu 66% Eesti Raudtee aktsiate müügiks. Vt. samas "Uus omanik lubab hakata Eesti Raudtee töötajaid koondama". Kronoloogia: Raudtee müük 1999, 2000, 2001

  12. Models of travel time and reliability for freight transport

    Terziev, M.N.; Roberts, P.O.


    The model produces a probability distribution of the trip time associated with the shipment of freight between a given origin and destination by a given mode and route. Using distributions of the type produced by the model, it is possible to determine two important measures of the quality of service offered by the carrier. These measures are the main travel time and the reliability of delivery. The reliability measure describes the spread of the travel-time distribution. The model described herein was developed originally as part of the railroad rationalization study conducted at MIT and sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration. This work built upon earlier research in railroad reliability models. Because of the predominantly rail background of this model, the initial discussion focuses on the problem of modeling rail-trip-time reliability. Then, it is shown that the model can also be used to study truck and barge operations.

  13. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour; Carriles para alta velocidad. Comportamiento en fatiga

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.


    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S{sub f}=353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S{sub f}=210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs.

  14. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    Connelly, C. [Direct Rail Services, Warrington (United Kingdom)


    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg.

  15. Flexibility of Freight Transport Sectors : An Exploration of Carriers’ Responses to External Pressure on Prices and Service

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der; Kuipers, Bart


    In this paper, we explore how government policies in the field of transport may affect future freight rates, transit times, and delivery reliability. In particular, attention is paid to the ‘absorptive capacity’ of freight carriers, i.e. the extent to which they can reduce the effects of such polici

  16. Defining Robust Recovery Solutions for Preserving Service Quality during Rail/Metro Systems Failure

    Luca D'Acierno


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a sensitivity analysis for evaluating the effectiveness of recovery solutions in the case of disturbed rail operations. Indeed, when failures or breakdowns occur during daily service, new strategies have to be implemented so as to react appropriately and re-establish ordinary conditions as rapidly as possible. In this context, the use of rail simulation is vital: for each intervention strategy it provides the evaluation of interactions and performance analysis prior to actually implementing the corrective action. However, in most cases, simulation tasks are deterministic and fail to allow for the stochastic distribution of train performance and delays. Hence, the strategies adopted might not be robust enough to ensure effectiveness of the intervention. We therefore propose an off-line procedure for disruption management based on a microscopic and stochastic rail simulation which considers both service operation and travel demand. An application in the case of a real metro line in Naples (Italy shows the benefits of the proposed approach in terms of service quality.

  17. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.


    ... but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed steel-wheel-on-steel rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway,...

  18. Freight corridor performance measurement system: A framework for South Africa

    Jan H. Havenga


    Full Text Available Background: On a national level, South Africa’s freight logistics industry is inefficient. The country ranks 36th out of 40 countries in terms of transport productivity (tonne kilometres as a ratio of gross domestic product, or GDP; the ratio of freight logistics costs to GDP measured 11.1% in 2013, compared to that of developed regions which measures in the order of 9%; and rail tonne-km market share on the two most dense long-distance corridors, namely, GautengDurban and Gauteng-Cape Town, is only 12.8% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas rail is globally acknowledged as a more efficient provider of long-distance freight solutions, given appropriate investments and service commitments.Objectives: A cornerstone of improved national freight logistics performance is the availability of reliable indicators to quantify the efficiency and capacity of the logistics network over the intermediate and long term, thereby enabling an evidence-based policy and investment environment. The objective of this article is to describe the foundation framework (i.e. phase 1 for South Africa’s freight corridor performance measurement system (CPMS. Once populated, the CPMS will be a key generator of indicators to facilitate the systemic management of corridors as a national production factor and thereby contributing to South Africa’s competitiveness.Method: The design of South Africa’s CPMS was informed by desktop research and refined through an extensive stakeholder consultation process. A distinction was made between South Africa’s dedicated bulk corridors and the multi-modal corridors.Results: Facilitating both stakeholder involvement and agreement on key indicators, as well as the eventual development of a system supporting the population, aggregation and dissemination of the CPMS are critical outcomes for the management of corridors as a national production factor. Three overarching corridor indicators were defined, relating to increased throughput, lower

  19. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.


    ... the existence of inadequate or unsanitary warehouse and other supporting facilities; (C) The total... that efficiency and cost-savings justify use of types of ocean service that would not involve...

  20. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transport vehicles or freight containers... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General § 173.9 Transport... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight...

  1. 77 FR 43657 - Progressive Rail, Incorporated-Discontinuance of Service Exemption-in Barron County, WI


    ... WCL and have been operated by PGR since 2004 under lease from WCL.\\1\\ WCL intends to resume operating...), and Rice Lake (MP 56.05). \\1\\ See Progressive Rail, Inc.--Lease & Operation Exemption-- Rail Lines of.... Any offer of financial assistance (OFA) under 49 CFR 1152.27(b)(2) to subsidize continued rail...


    Martin Straka


    Full Text Available European parking information center (EPIC – it will provide unified and detailed information about European parking areas. The EPIC system will receive the data from local information centres. For Slovak republic there will be one provider for traffic data – a National traffic information center (NDIC. The EPIC system is available at Intelligent parking system (IPS will be linked with NDIC. The aim of the IPS system is to provide information as follows: number of free parking places, services to be used in parking area and so one.

  3. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  4. 过共析钢轨使用性能研究%Research on service performance of hypereutectoid rail

    李闯; 张银花; 周清跃; 刘丰收; 陈朝阳


    对铺设在郑州铁路局直线上和半径600 ~1 000 m曲线上的在线热处理过共析钢轨的使用情况进行跟踪观测.结果表明:过共析钢轨硬度高,耐磨性能好.使用1 年后,铺设在直线和半径1 000 m 曲线上的钢轨表面光洁,基本无伤损,铺设在半径600 m曲线上的钢轨出现鱼鳞伤和剥离掉块.钢轨闪光焊接头硬度基本满足标准要求,铝热焊接头硬度低于标准要求,使用后个别焊接接头存在低塌现象.过共析钢轨耐磨性能明显优于 U75 V热处理钢轨,预防性打磨可以提高钢轨在小半径曲线上的使用寿命.%T he tracking observation has been carried out on the service performance of hypereutectoid rails after on-line heat treatment laying on the straight line and 600 ~1 000 m radius curves of Zhengzhou Railway Bureau. Study results show ed that hypereutectoid rails have high hardness and good property of w ear resistance. After one year,the surface of rails laying on the straight line and 1 000 m radius curve is smooth and has little injury and rails laying on 600 m radius curve have scale cracks and shelling. T he hardness of rail flash welding joint basically meets standard requirements,but the hardness of thermit welding joint is lower than standard requirements,and some welding joints have low collapses. The wear resistance of hypereutectoid rails is better than that of U75V heat treatment rails and the preventive grinding of rails plays a significant role in improving the service life of rail on a small radius curve.

  5. Research on the Construction of Railway Freight Marketing System%铁路货运营销体系建设研究



    This articles is on the basis of the analysis of the necessity to strengthen rail freight marketing system , and discuss the basic framework and its main content to build rail freight marketing system and proposed measures to be taken in the current .Measures include the following:market-oriented , to practical change marketing con-cept;brand as the standard , and to build a competitive rail freight products;grid as the way , to achieve full cover-age of areas marketing;normalization as the goal , to create a rail freight marketing price advantage;network as the core, to raise the overall level of railway marketing services;career as the means, to vigorously improve marketing staff ability and quality .%在对加强铁路货运营销体系建设的必要性进行分析的基础上,研究和探讨了构建铁路企业货运营销体系的基本框架及主要内容,并提出了当前应当采取的对策建议,即:以市场化为导向,切实转变营销理念;以品牌化为标准,构筑有竞争力的铁路货运产品;以网格化为途径,实现营销区域全覆盖;以规范化为目标,营造铁路货运营销价格优势;以网络化为核心,全面提升铁路营销服务水平;以职业化为手段,大力提升营销人员能力与素质。

  6. Transport of solid commodities via freight pipeline: cost estimating methodology. Volume III, parts A and B. First year final report

    Warner, J.A.; Morlok, E.K.; Gimm, K.K.; Zandi, I.


    In order to examine the feasibility of an intercity freight pipeline, it was necessary to develop cost equations for various competing transportation modes. This volume presents cost-estimating equations for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar, truck, and freight pipeline. Section A presents mathematical equations that approximate the fully allocated and variable costs contained in the ICC cost tables for rail carload, trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and truck common-carrier intercity freight movements. These equations were developed to enable the user to approximate the ICC costs quickly and easily. They should find use in initial studies of costs where exact values are not needed, such as in consideration of rate changes, studies of profitability, and in general inter-modal comparisons. Section B discusses the development of a set of engineering cost equations for pneumo-capsule pipelines. The development was based on an analysis of system components and can readily be extended to other types of pipeline. The model was developed for the purpose of a feasibility study. It employs a limited number of generalized parameters and its use is recommended when sufficient detailed and specific engineering information is lacking. These models were used in the comparison of modes presented in Volume I and hence no conclusions regarding relative costs or service of the modes are presented here. The primary conclusion is that the estimates of costs resulting from these models is subject to considerable uncertainty.

  7. Energy usage optimisation of heavy haul freight trains

    Bogaers, Alfred


    Full Text Available by a large and extensive mining industry. Integral to sustaining the mining economy is the transport of mined raw material via freight rail over large distances, typically from the mines to central distribution or processing centres. Due to the heavy...

  8. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1


    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change adds Item 180, Rail In-Transit Visibility (Rail ITV) Reporting, to Section...

  9. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Brogan, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Aeppli, A. E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, D. F. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); McKenzie, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Witzke, E. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. Enterprise Rails

    Chak, Dan


    Enterprise Rails introduces time-tested software engineering principles to help you build a high-performance, scalable website with global reach. You'll learn how to design a solid architecture that ties the many parts of an enterprise website together, including the database, your servers and clients, and other services as well. Throughout this book, you'll work on an example enterprise project to learn first-hand what's involved in architecting serious web applications.

  11. Near-rail yard air quality--assessment through field measurements and computational fluid dynamics modeling

    Compared to truck transport, goods movement by rail produces generally lower air pollutant emissions (e.g., particulate matter, carbon dioxide) per ton of freight transported. Emissions associated with rail transport are also confined to rail corridors which may lower the risk of...

  12. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    Hooker, J N


    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  13. Description, analysis and calculation of pneumatic brake system used in a freight train using a specific example


    A freight train or goods train is a group of freight cars (US) or goods wagons (UIC) hauled by a locomotive on a railway, ultimately transporting cargo between two points as part of the logistics chain. Trains may haul bulk, intermodal containers or specialized cars. Under the right circumstances, freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road, especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. This kind of trains needs to have a good drive eq...

  14. Analysis of the interaction of participants freight forwarding system

    Pavlo Popovych


    Full Text Available Main goal of this work is the analysis of the interaction of participants of freight forwarding activities. Research methods included analysis of scientific literature, theory of systems and systems analysis, methods of induction and deduction. As sources of information used and applied work of fundamental importance known foreign and local scientists and regulatory and legislative documents of Ukraine for the state transport policy. In the article the basic interactions of participants of freight forwarding activities. Classified components freight forwarding services. Assign the concept freight forwarding system and its aim. Established element and forms of cooperation in the freight forwarding system. The main task of forwarding companies are organizing, coordinating and ensuring the delivery from shipper to consignee. Freight forwarding company responsible for the timely delivery of the goods on the condition of preservation of the quantity and quality specified time conditions. Currently used methods are uneffective decision-making, leading to losses. These circumstances require improvement methodology management of freight forwarding companies. This is possible only using modern mathematical methods and information technologies that will improve the operation of freight forwarding companies. The article presents a theoretical exposition of the basic processes of interaction between participants in freight forwarding system. The article may be of interest to specialists of freight forwarding companies.

  15. Forecasting freight flows

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie


    Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.


    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Grenzeback, L. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Brown, A. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Fischer, M. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Hutson, N. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Lamm, C. R. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Pei, Y. L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vimmerstedt, L. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Vyas, A. D. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Winebrake, J. J. [Cambridge Systematics Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)


    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  18. Appraisal on Rail Transit Development: A Review on Train Services and Safety

    Nordin, Noor Hafiza binti; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Ghazali, Mohd Imran bin; Azis, Mohd Isom bin


    The ever increasing problems faced by population around the world have made demands that transportation need to be improved as an effective and efficient communication means. It is considered as a necessity especially when rapid development and economic growth of a country is the agenda. Among the transportation modes being focused as critical facilities are the bus system, rail system, road network, shipping system and air transportation system. Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In Malaysia, the railway network has evolved tremendously since its inception in the early 19th century. It has grown proportionally with the national development. Railway network does not only mean for rural transportation, but it also considered as a solution to urban congestion challenges. Currently, urban rail transit is the most popular means of urban transportation system especially as big cities such as Kuala Lumpur. This paper presents the definition of rail transportation system and its role in urban or sub-urban operation. It also describes the brief history of world railway transportation including a discussion on Malaysian rail history perspective. As policy and standard are important in operating a railway system, this paper also illustrates and discusses some elements which have an impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of train operation. Towards the end, this paper also shares the importance of railway safety based on real case studies around the world. Thus, it is hoped that this paper will enable the public to understand the rail transit development and appreciate its existence as a public transportation system.

  19. Clapper Rail Report 1990

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report discussing the current population status of the California Clapper Rail in the San Francisco Bay and a comparison of habitat suitability in various marshes...

  20. Black Rail Pilot Survey

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Aural surveys using tape recorded calls proved to be an efficient and effective way to survey large expanses of shallow marsh for black rails (Laterallus...

  1. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.


    ...) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including but not limited to those using “maglev” or high speed...., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in which stations are constructed in accordance with...




    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  3. Working on rail freigt corridors : a trade union manual anticipate - take action - work together

    Goudswaard, A.; Torre, W. van der; Verbiest, S.


    The European Transport Workers Federation (ETF) put in place in 2013 the project “WOC – Working On Rail Freight Corridors” with the objective to on the one hand raise awareness among ETF affiliates about the developments of the European freight corridors and on the other hand to give the tools to an

  4. Effect of rail corrugation on vertical dynamics of railway vehicle coupled with a track

    Xuesong Jin; Kaiyun Wang; Zefeng Wen; Weihua Zhang


    The effect of rail corrugation on the vertical dynamics of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track is investigated in detail with a numerical method when a wheelset is steadily curving. In the calculation of rail corrugation we consider the combination of Kalker's rolling contact theory modified, a model of material loss on rail running surface, and a dynamics model of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track. In the establishment of the dynamic model, for simplicity, one fourth of the freight car without lateral motions,namely a wheelset and the equivalent one fourth freight car body above it, is considered. The Euler beam is used to model the rails and the track structure under the rails is replaced with equivalent springs, dampers and mass bodies. The numerical results show the great influence of the rail corrugation on the vibration of the parts of the vehicle and the track, and the some characters of rail corrugation in development.

  5. Dynamic Multi-period Freight Consolidation

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.; Corman, Francesco; Voβ, Stefan; Negenborn, Rudy R.


    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) offering hinterland transportation face the trade-off between efficiently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the first and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-off, freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the

  6. Dynamic multi-period freight consolidation

    Perez Rivera, Arturo Eduardo; Mes, Martijn R.K.


    Logistic Service Providers (LSPs) o ering hinterland transportation face the trade-o between e ciently using the capacity of long-haul vehicles and minimizing the rst and last-mile costs. To achieve the optimal trade-o , freights have to be consolidated considering the variation in the arrival of

  7. Freight railway operator timetabling and engine scheduling

    Bach, Lukas; Gendreau, M.; Wøhlk, Sanne


    In this paper we consider timetable design at a European freight railway operator. The timetable is designed by choosing the time of service for customer unit train demands among a set of discrete points. These discrete points are all found within the a time-window. The objective of the model...




    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of European policy on the interconnected cross-border transport networks as well as severe problems in estimating empirically the avalanche of goods movements in the European Union (EU. In particular, it deals with the Transalpine freight transport case, which represents one of the most challenging operational and policy issues of the present and future – both international (EU and national (the Alpine countries – freight transport development. The paper is organised to briefly describe the main objectives of EU transport policy, to generally introduce the concept of intermodal transport with particular emphasis on intermodal freight transport and to describe past, present and future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport. The scenarios of future development of Trans-Alpine intermodal transport have been particularly analysed.

  9. The Logistical Aspects of Freight Transportation and Forwarding

    Zimina Anna I.


    Full Text Available The article substantiates the theoretical and practical aspects of freight transportation and forwarding services based on the principles of logistics. The indicators of dynamics of freight transportation in Ukraine compared to last year and the structure by types of transport have been provided. The indicators of the foreign trade performance of Ukraine have been presented, including the counter-current export and import flows, as well as the external trade balance, which directly impacts the volume and dynamics of freight transportation and forwarding services. The main parameters of the transportation and forwarding logistics system were systematized, taking into consideration the technical and operational characteristics of the rolling stock, the route of communication, and the terminals. The role and features of the functions of the inter/multimodal transportation operators – freight forwarders of the «tonnage customers» have been considered. The article determines principles for the organization of work of freight forwarders, as well as the terms of agreement of the parties when the freight forwarding contract is concluded. The conditions for developing a logistics approach to the implementation of freight transportation and forwarding services have been generalized.

  10. Backcasting sustainable freight transport systems for Europe in 2050

    Mattila, Tuomas, E-mail: tuomas.mattila@ymparisto.f [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Antikainen, Riina [Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)


    European freight transport emissions and fuel consumption are projected to increase. This study focuses on long distance freight transport (LDFT) and explores possible sustainable futures through quantitative modeling. The evaluation was part of European foresight process between researchers, policy makers and freight companies (FREIGHTVISION). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy demand of road, rail and inland waterways were estimated for an EU-27 in 2005. Development was extrapolated to 2050 based on technology and freight performance forecasts. Stakeholders found the forecasted GHG emissions and fossil fuel share unsustainable, so alternative futures were developed with backcasting. The developed emission model was run with random parameter combinations to screen a set of sustainable futures, with an 80% reduction of GHG emissions and fossil fuel share. Freight transport performance was not controlled in the backcasts, but several sustainable futures were found if significant changes in transport efficiency and energy mix are implemented. In spite of agreeing on the importance of reducing emissions, stakeholders had difficulties in choosing a preferred technological future. Simple models were found to be an effective tool for communicating the influence of various measures. Further research is recommended to screen preferable technological roadmaps from the broad range of available futures. - Research highlights: {yields} Sustainable transport systems were explored with modeling and stakeholder workshops. {yields} Backcasting identified technological options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80%. {yields} Improving road vehicle efficiency, engine efficiency and fuel mix showed the greatest potential.

  11. SKF Freight Transports and CO{sub 2} emissions. A Study in Environmental Management Accounting

    Lindblom, Helen; Stenqvist, Christian


    In this study of CO{sub 2} emissions accounting, freight transports of the SKF company are examined. The identification of emission sources, the handling of transport activity data, the application of proper calculation methodologies, organizational aspects and questions of liability are all integrated parts of the study. Emission calculations are carried out for two specific logistics systems managed by SKF Logistics Services; the Daily Transport System (DTS) and the Global Air Freight Program. The DTS, which is based on road freight transports, operates the European distribution of finished products. It is estimated to contribute with 9 700 tonnes CO{sub 2} during 2007. Since the system is optimized to a reasonable degree, the CO{sub 2} impact per tonne-km is relatively low. Over the same period the air freight's estimated emissions are 40 000 tonnes. Together these transport activities contributes to about ten percent of the SKF total CO{sub 2} equivalents based on the reporting of 2006. Adding the emissions from the remaining transport activities that SKF utilizes will make this share increase considerably, particularly if also inbound transports are accounted for. The potential for CO{sub 2} reductions is covered by two change-oriented case studies. It can be concluded that short-sea transportation seldom is an alternative to road transports. Intermodal transports combining road and rail can, depending on the circumstances, reduce the CO{sub 2} impact considerably compared to only using road transports. Reducing transportation work by optimizing a transport activity is seen as the best option for CO{sub 2} reductions. Efforts should be put into reducing the need for air freight transports, considering the high emission levels per tonne-km. Monitoring emissions for all transport activities that falls under SKF responsibility will reduce the risk of sub optimization. Introducing system changes in order to decrease CO{sub 2} emissions will have a range of

  12. An Introduction to Rail Service in the New York Metropolitan Region%纽约大都市地区轨道交通介绍

    Eva Lerner-Lam


    Regional rail service has played an integral role in the development of the New York metropolitan area over the past century. The multiplicity of jurisdictions and agencies make planning for future growth very complex, and funding shortfalls force implementation timetables to extend far into the future. However, by focusing on high-priority "mega-projects" that tie critical elements of the region s transport networks and economic centers together and by utilizing a strategy of "Transit-Oriented Developments" in suburban growth areas, urban planners and policy makers can leverage existing infrastructure and maximize the economic viability of rail transit and land investments by both public and private sectors.

  13. Discussion on the Logistics Construction of Railway Container Freight Stations

    迟永林; 张锦


    From the perspective of logistics, the article discusses some essential functions and service functions of railway container freight stations. Then it plans the construction of the logistics operation system of container freight stations, and designs five main operating yards such as deconsolidation and groupage yard, storage and distribution yard, container receiving-departure yard, container stack yard, and special cargo yard. The management pattern is discussed under the direction of modern business management theory. The ideas presented in this article is significant to the construction of railway container freight stations.

  14. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the... (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS EXEMPTIONS § 1319.1 Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's...

  15. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... and the locations of stops were examined through analyses of catchment areas. The timetable of the light rail was determined through travel time and correspondences with other high class public transport lines/corridors. The justification of the light rail was examined through factors like traffic impacts......, operation economy, socioeconomics and strategic impacts. The light rail shows a good result on most factors. But it displays socioeconomic non-viability. However, this was expected when using the standard procedures. But the Ring 2½ light rail shows a better socioeconomic result than many other examined...

  16. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL; Hargrove, Stephanie [ORNL; Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Wilson, Daniel W [ORNL; Taylor, Rob D [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL


    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  17. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.


    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...

  18. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.


    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...


    冯芬玲; 陈治亚



  20. 论铁路货运向现代物流转变%Discussion on the Transformation from Railway Freight Transportation to the Modern Logistics



    In the background of the railway freight reform,along with the fast construction High-speed Rail in China, railway freight provides good opportunities for the development of modern logistics. The railway transportation takes a number of reform policies in order to increase market share,to meet the market demand. By using the SWOT method, this paper analyzes the development of modern logistics in railway freight of our country,points out its advantages,dis-advantages,opportunities and threats. The research also proposes railway freight transportation should exert their own advantages and optimizes freight organization,while it also ought to make full use of network resources,further strengthen the reform,optimize transport both ends of organization,perfect“door to door”logistics transportation or-ganization,actively expand value-added service for railway freight transportation,vigorously develop coordinated trans-port in order to provide a powerful guarantee for modern logistics development of railway freight.%随着我国高铁的快速建设,以及铁路货运机制的不断改革,铁路货运发展现代物流存在非常好的机遇。铁路运输为了提高市场份额,适应市场需求,应采取众多改革方针。通过运用SWOT方法,对我国铁路货运发展现代物流进行了分析,指出了其存在的优势、劣势、机遇与威胁,并提出铁路货运在发挥自身优势、优化货运组织的同时,要充分利用路网资源,进一步加强铁路货运改革,优化两端运输组织,完善“门到门”物流运输,积极拓展铁路货运增值业务,大力发展协同运输,为铁路货运发展现代物流提供有力保证。

  1. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  2. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  3. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.


    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  4. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.


    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  5. On the dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    Xia, Fujie; True, Hans


    Although the three-piece-freight truck is a simple design its mathematical model is very complicated. The model is definitely a nonlinear dynamical system, where the nonlinearities arise from the nonlinear kinematic and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the suspensions...... of the adapters. Due to the clearances between the car body and the side supports on the bolster, the side supports must be modelled as nonlinear dead-band springs. The stick-slip action and the play between elements of the truck makes the dynamical model a structure varying system. We present the dynamical...

  6. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K.; Kheshgi, Haroon S.


    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21st century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  7. 考虑运费期权的航运服务供应链优化与协调%Optimization and Coordination in Shipping Service Supply Chain Based on Freight Option

    路遥; 汪传旭


    随着全球政治、经济因素的影响,国际航运的运费费率一直处于不断变动中,投资人积极寻求金融保值工具来控制运费激增对经营带来的风险.通过引入“运费期权”的概念,本文将这一金融衍生工具运用到航运服务市场,建立了托运人收益优化模型,对其在航运服务供应链中的最优化决策进行了研究分析,经过建立对服务供应链的协调机制,使整体收益达到最优化,并通过具体算例分析对结果进行比较验证.结果表明,在采用运费期权进行套期保值交易后,航运市场中托运人存在着最优化收益决策,对整个供应链优化协调后的整体收益优于单独决策收益之和.%With the influence of the global politics and economy, the international shipping freight rate fluctuates continually. And investors have actively seek financial hedging instruments to control the risk brought by the sharp rise of the freight. By introducing the conception of "freight option" and applying the financial derivatives to shipping service market, the paper proposes a shipper's revenue optimization model, the optimization of shippers' decision-making and supply chain' s decision-making in shipping service supply chain are studied, and coordination mechanism in the whole service supply chain is designed to optimize the ' integrated revenue. At last, the results are verified by a numerical example. The optimization revenue decision exists for shippers using financial hedging instruments, and the coordination makes the integrated revenue of the whole supply chain prevails over the total revenue under separately decision-making.

  8. Private–public partnerships: A mechanism for freight transport infrastructure delivery?

    Hans W. Ittmann


    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport infrastructure is an indispensable requirement for economic growth, development and prosperity. Public–private partnerships (PPPs, as a mechanism to fund and construct freight transport infrastructure, have been suggested by many in private and public sectors.Objectives: The concept of PPPs is dealt with, and the relevance of this mechanism is expanded upon. It is clear that PPPs in the rail environment present huge challenges and complexities. The objective was to determine whether PPPs are a viable mechanism to fund freight transport infrastructure in South Africa.Method: Experiences with rail PPPs worldwide have shown that many failures occurred implementing these. The challenges and complexities of PPPs, in the freight rail environment, are highlighted together with the benefits, risks and best practices of PPPs. It is shown that suitable policies, legislation and regulations concerning PPPs are in place in South Africa.Results: A proper framework and methodology to proceed should be in place. PPPs take time and are complex. Government involvement remains essential. Firm contractual agreements between parties are essential. Risk handling, risk sharing and the magnitude of risks should be clarified with agreement on where the risks reside. Financial viability, with value for money (VfM and financial benefits for private sector role players are non-negotiable.Conclusion: Appropriate legislation for implementing PPPs must be in place while two further important elements are economic circumstances and proper project execution. Taking all these factors into consideration, the freight transport sector can only benefit from successfully negotiated and implemented PPPs.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code


    ... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215...) Wheel chip or gouge in flange: (1) 11/2″ length and 1/2″ in width or more; (2) 15/8″ length and 5/8″ in.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill is...

  10. The dynamics of European two-axle railway freight wagons with UIC standard suspension

    Hoffmann, Mark; True, Hans


    The dynamics of two-axle railway freight wagons with the UIC standard Suspension is investigated theoretically and the dynamic behaviour is explained. Fully nonlinear models are considered. The hysteresis from dry friction and the effect of impacts between elements of the suspension are included....... Different wheel-rail geometries are investigated and the results commented. Bifurcation diagrams ale used to describe the eigen-dynamics of the wagons....

  11. Real time simulation of auctioning and re-scheduling processes in hybrid freight markets

    Tavasszy, L.A.


    In the freight logistics business, supply chains are under strong pressure to provide customized goods and services. Individualized product deliveries, modifications in product specification, late orders and volume changes need to be accommodated within strict delivery time frames. This uncertainty

  12. Implementasi Rails Pada Pengembangan Aplikasi Web: Universociety

    Fenti, Des Erita


    Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan aplikasi web berdasarkan gaya arsitektur Representational State Transfer (REST) dengan mempergunakan framework Rails 2. Aplikasi ini dikembangkan menggunakan teknik Model-View-Controller (MVC) yang terdapat pada framework Rails. Pengembangan aplikasi tersebut meliputi pemodelan data dan pengembangan antarmuka publik berbentuk web service untuk mengakses resource yang dikandung aplikasi. Objektif utama aplikasi web adalah untuk melihat sejauh mana REST ...

  13. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States


    passenger rail service, while trying to help rail 25 Available at paginas ...Offers Guideposts for U.S.,” The New York Times On the Web , May 30, 2009. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States Congressional Research

  14. The Energy-Efficient Operation Problem of a Freight Train Considering Long-Distance Steep Downhill Sections

    Xuan Lin


    Full Text Available With the energy consumption rising in rail transport, the railway sector is showing increasing interest in the energy-efficient operation of freight trains. Freight trains require more complicated driving strategies than ordinary passenger trains do due to their heavy loads, especially in the long-distance steep downhill (LDSD sections that are very common in freight rail lines in China. This paper studies the energy-efficient operation of a freight train considering LDSD sections. An optimal control model including regenerative and pneumatic braking is developed for the freight train. Then, when a train leaves/enters the LDSD section, we verify the uniqueness of control transitions and discuss the speed profile linkage between LDSD and its adjacent sections, which indicates that the periodic braking should be applied on LDSD sections for optimality. Additionally, given the same running time for the entire journey, our analysis shows that electrical braking-full braking strategy is more energy-efficient than coasting-full braking strategy on LDSD sections. Finally, a numerical algorithm for the optimal driving solution is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate that the driving strategies generated by the proposed algorithm performs better than those from fuzzy predictive control and field operation regarding energy saving.

  15. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Darenskiy Alexander


    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  16. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers



    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  17. Green corridors in freight logistics

    Panagakos, George

    The subject of this thesis is ‘green corridors,’ a European concept denoting a concentration of freight traffic between major hubs and by relatively long distances. Since their inception in 2007, green corridors have gained popularity as a policy tool that enhances the overall environmental susta...

  18. Road freight and the environment

    Makamo, N


    Full Text Available Freight transportation is one of the major contributors to economic development in a country. During a recent study, it was found that little information is available in terms of the cost of crashes to the environment. Environmental impacts of road...

  19. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C


    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  20. California Clapper Rail Survey 1978-1979

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) was conducted from December 1978 through July 1979 in the San Francisco, Monterey and Morro...

  1. A method for improved accuracy in three dimensions for determining wheel/rail contact points

    Yang, Xinwen; Gu, Shaojie; Zhou, Shunhua; Zhou, Yu; Lian, Songliang


    Searching for the contact points between wheels and rails is important because these points represent the points of exerted contact forces. In order to obtain an accurate contact point and an in-depth description of the wheel/rail contact behaviours on a curved track or in a turnout, a method with improved accuracy in three dimensions is proposed to determine the contact points and the contact patches between the wheel and the rail when considering the effect of the yaw angle and the roll angle on the motion of the wheel set. The proposed method, with no need of the curve fitting of the wheel and rail profiles, can accurately, directly, and comprehensively determine the contact interface distances between the wheel and the rail. The range iteration algorithm is used to improve the computation efficiency and reduce the calculation required. The present computation method is applied for the analysis of the contact of rails of CHINA (CHN) 75 kg/m and wheel sets of wearing type tread of China's freight cars. In addition, it can be proved that the results of the proposed method are consistent with that of Kalker's program CONTACT, and the maximum deviation from the wheel/rail contact patch area of this two methods is approximately 5%. The proposed method, can also be used to investigate static wheel/rail contact. Some wheel/rail contact points and contact patch distributions are discussed and assessed, wheel and rail non-worn and worn profiles included.

  2. Freight integration in liner shipping: a strategy serving global production networks

    Notteboom, T.; Merckx, F.


    Container shipping lines are well aware of the growing importance of global production networks. While continuing to focus on improving the fundamentals, many shipping lines have developed a keen interest in other segments of the logistics and transportation market to offer integrated and worldwide services to global production networks. This paper aims to assess the overall level of freight integration in thirty-four shipping lines, and provides an insight into the extent to which freight in...

  3. Simulation-Based Approach to Operating Costs Analysis of Freight Trucking

    Ozernova Natalja


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of costs uncertainty in road freight transportation services. The article introduces the statistical approach, based on Monte Carlo simulation on spreadsheets, to the analysis of operating costs. The developed model gives an opportunity to estimate operating freight trucking costs under different configuration of cost factors. Important conclusions can be made after running simulations regarding sensitivity to different factors, optimal decisions and variability of operating costs.

  4. To Forward The Freight Forwarding Industry


    China's freight forwarding industry is suffering a lot as the country's foreign trade has slowed down. The dwindling overseas markets, the rising RMB exchange rates and the soaring prices of raw materials have been restraining the exports and the imports, and have thereby been depressing the freight volumes, Besides, the global leading freight forwarding companies have expanded their shares in the Chinese market. China'sfreight forwarders are losing the comparative advantages in local market and human resources,

  5. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    Jørgensen, Kaj


    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail.......Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  6. Improving Urban Freight Governance and Stakeholder Management

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bech Godskesen Andersen, Christina; Figueroa, Maria J.


    Urban freight transport is a complex field characterised by many actors and stakeholders and thus many rationalities are at stake. This paper contributes to literature on urban freight governance by approaching the field with social system theory combined with the concepts of relationship platforms...... and value co-creation. This approach facilitates an improved process to foster implementation of innovative urban freight solutions that is illustrated by means of an analysis of the Copenhagen Citylogistik-kbh demonstration project. The results of this analysis indicate that attaining a shared sense...... of value creation among stakeholders through this process is key to implementation of new urban freight solutions....

  7. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.


    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  8. Rails on Windows

    Hibbs, Curt


    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  9. Beginning Rails 3

    Barazi, Rida Al


    Beginning Rails 3 is the practical starting point for anyone wanting to learn how to build dynamic web applications using the latest release of the Rails framework for Ruby. You'll learn how all of the components of Rails fit together and how you can leverage them to create sophisticated web applications with less code and more joy. This book is particularly well suited to those with little or no experience with web application development, or who have some experience but are new to Rails. Beginning Rails 3 assumes basic familiarity with web terms and technologies, but doesn't require you to b

  10. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter


    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  11. Management Accounting in freight-forwarding companies

    Jensen, Jens Ocksen; Lynggaard, Peter


    The article describes the internal business management processes in a freight forwarding compagny on the operative/tactical level. This is done as an explorative study of how these processes are organized in two medium-sized Danish freight-forwarding compagnies....

  12. Urban freight transportation : Challenges, failure, and successes

    Kant, Goos; Quak, H.; Peeters, Rene; Woensel van, T.; Zijm, H.; Klumpp, M.; Clausen, U.; Ten Hompel, M.


    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  13. Urban freight transportation: challenges, failures and successes

    Kant, G.; Quak, H.J.; Peeters, R.; Woensel, T. van


    In this paper, we present the challenges, failures and successes on urban freight transportation. We first identify the various involved stakeholders with their interests. Then we evaluate a large number of urban freight transport initiatives and identify lessons learned, which are distinguished in

  14. Freight modelling: an overview of international experiences

    Tavasszy, L.A.


    Compared to passenger transportation modelling, the field of freight modelling is relatively young and developing quickly into different directions all over the world. The objective of this paper is to summarize the international state of the art in freight modelling, with a focus on developments in

  15. Study of Freight Transport Trip Chains

    Jørgensen, Kaj


    Investigation of energy use and emissions (CO2, NOx, THC, CO, SO2, PM) of freight trains and lorries. The report documents the establishment of energy and emission factors, and in particularly the issue of energy use of freight train is treated in detail....

  16. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур


    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  17. The Moderating Effects of Internal Orientation and Market Orientation on the Relationships between Commitment and Transportation Service: An Approach to International Freight Forwarders

    Hee-sung Bae


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to develop the variables which moderate the relationship between commitment and transportation services and to analyze the moderating effects of the variables. The conceptual and operational definitions of the variables were ascertained from prior research. The reliability and validity of collected data were tested by various methods and hypotheses are tested by a moderated regression analysis. The results are as follows. First, the moderating variables on the relationship between commitment and transportation services are identified as internal orientation and market orientation. The former has three sub-dimensions such as collaboration between departments, work standardization and process improving and the latter has three sub-dimensions such as intelligence generation, intelligence dissemination, and responsiveness. Second, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and trust. Third, process improving is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Fourth, work standardization is ascertained to enhance the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Fifth, intelligence generation is identified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and trust. Sixth, intelligence generation is verified as enhancing the relationship between commitment and flexibility. Therefore, forwarders can supply superior transportation services for customers when they achieve commitment and orientation such as work standardization, improvement of their service processes, and activities concerned with intelligence generation.

  18. Survey for the California Black Rail at Tolay Creek, San Pablo Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) is the smallest and most secretive member of the rail family and has been sparsely studied. It is a...

  19. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight... licensed freight forwarder shall have the option of: (1) Identifying itself as such and/or, where...

  20. Large scale implementation of guided wave based broken rail monitoring

    Burger, Francois A.; Loveday, Philip W.; Long, Craig S.


    A guided wave ultrasound system has been developed over the past 17 years to detect breaks in continuously welded rail track. Installation of the version 4 system on an 840 km long heavy duty freight line was conducted between January 2013 and June 2014. The system operates in pitch - catch mode with alternate transmit and receive transducers spaced approximately 1km apart. If the acoustic signal is not received at the receive station an alarm is triggered to indicate a break in the rail between the transmit station and the receive station. The system is permanently installed, powered by solar panels and issues broken rail alarms using the GSM network where available, and digital radio technology in other areas. A total of 931 stations were installed and the entire length of rail is interrogated every fifteen minutes. The system operates reliably although some problems involving unreliable GSM communication and theft of solar panels have been experienced. In the first two months of operation four broken rails were detected and train operation was halted temporarily for repairs.

  1. Analysis of U.S. freight-train derailment severity using zero-truncated negative binomial regression and quantile regression.

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Qin, Xiao; Barkan, Christopher P L


    Derailments are the most common type of freight-train accidents in the United States. Derailments cause damage to infrastructure and rolling stock, disrupt services, and may cause casualties and harm the environment. Accordingly, derailment analysis and prevention has long been a high priority in the rail industry and government. Despite the low probability of a train derailment, the potential for severe consequences justify the need to better understand the factors influencing train derailment severity. In this paper, a zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) regression model is developed to estimate the conditional mean of train derailment severity. Recognizing that the mean is not the only statistic describing data distribution, a quantile regression (QR) model is also developed to estimate derailment severity at different quantiles. The two regression models together provide a better understanding of train derailment severity distribution. Results of this work can be used to estimate train derailment severity under various operational conditions and by different accident causes. This research is intended to provide insights regarding development of cost-efficient train safety policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An investigation into the relation between wheel/rail contact and bolt tightness of rail joints using a dynamic finite element model

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.


    Rail joints have a shorter service life than most other railway track components. The discontinuity between rail ends turns the rail joint into a weak spot, and consequently, into a track component demanding more frequent maintenance measures, which result in high maintenance costs. Moreover, diffic

  3. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Stead, M.E.


    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  4. Framing Light Rail Projects

    Olesen, Mette


    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  5. 强化礼仪训练,培养气质型高铁客服人才%Strengthen Etiquette Training and Train High-speed Rail Temperament Type Customer Service Personnel



    Currently the rapid development of high-speed rail around the world, the overall quality of high-speed rail society's increasing emphasis on customer service, passenger service on the professional image of a higher requirement, this paper focuses on the methods through strengthening etiquette training by six aspects as morality, professional attitude, career image, communi-cation and communication skills to train temperament type high-speed rail train customer service personnel.%目前世界各地高铁迅速发展,社会对高铁客服人员的综合素质越来越重视,对客运服务人员的职业形象提出了更高的要求,本文主要探讨通过加强礼仪训练,从道德修养、职业心态、职业形象、交际与沟通技巧等六个方面培养气质型高铁客服人才的方法。

  6. Learning Devise for Rails

    Sakti, Giovanni


    A hands-on, step-by-step guide to using Devise for authentication in Rails.If you are a web developer who is getting started with Rails and you are looking for authentication solutions, then this is the book for you. If you are a current Rails developer who is looking to extend your authentication implementation with capabilities such as authorization and remote authentication, this book will also be great for you.

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...


    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other.... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the GBL, Optional Forms 1103 or 1203, to...

  8. Rails Pocket Reference

    Berry, Eric


    Rails 2.1 brings a new level of stability and power to this acclaimed web development framework, but keeping track of its numerous moving parts is still a chore. Rails Pocket Reference offers you a painless alternative to hunting for resources online, with brief yet thorough explanations of the most frequently used methods and structures supported by Rails 2.1, along with key concepts you need to work through the framework's most tangled corners. Organized to help you quickly find what you need, this book will not only get you up to speed on how Rails works, it also provides a handy referenc

  9. Urban Freight Truck Routing under Stochastic Congestion and Emission Considerations

    Taesung Hwang


    Full Text Available Freight trucks are known to be a major source of air pollutants as well as greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas, and they have significant effects on air quality and global climate change. Emissions from freight trucks during their deliveries should be considered by the trucking service sector when they make routing decisions. This study proposes a model that incorporates total delivery time, various emissions including CO2, VOC, NOX, and PM from freight truck activities, and a penalty for late or early arrival into the total cost objective of a stochastic shortest path problem. We focus on urban transportation networks in which random congestion states on each link follows an independent probability distribution. Our model finds the best truck routing on a given network so as to minimize the expected total cost. This problem is formulated into a mathematical model, and two solution algorithms including a dynamic programming approach and a deterministic shortest path heuristic are proposed. Numerical examples show that the proposed approach performs very well even for the large-size U.S. urban networks.


    A. O. Shvets


    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite of the implementation various programs to improve the safety of train traffic problem of reducing gatherings rolling stock off the rails is still relevant. The study aims to clarify the existing method of determining the factor of stability from the tire longitudinal forces to ensure the sustainability of cars with increasing speeds of the rolling stock. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved track sections. Findings. Analysis of the results shows that, for all selected freight cars for the calculation, the value of the safety factor by squeezing is smaller than the formulas of Standards. Corrections made to the formula for determining the safety factor by squeezing longitudinal forces, would achieve: 1 a higher safety factor of lightweight cars, excluding them squeezing longitudinal forces in the entire range of speeds of freight trains; 2 to develop and implement measures to prevent squeezing of cars in the entire range of motion; 3 to determine the degree of stability of the empty car in the head, middle and tail laden trains; 4 to offer optimal scheme of mixed trains formation. Originality. The analysis of existing methods for determining stability coefficient cars in freight trains from squeezing their longitudinal forces is presented in studies. Proposals are developed for the refinement of the design phase, construction and operation. Practical value. This study clarifies the existing method of determining the safety factor of stability from the squeezing longitudinal forces, as well as the influence on the magnitude of the coefficient of speed of movement of the rolling stock. Developed proposals for the refinement of existing methods for determining stability coefficient of longitudinal forces squeezing cars in a train, can reduce the number of retirements cars derailed by taking into account in the

  11. National Standards for Urban Rail Transit

    Chen Yanshen; Qin Guodong; Zhang Suyan


    In this paper,we suggest the creation of passenger service standards for urban rail transit.We put forward standards suited for China's actual conditions,aimed at meeting an international level of service based on customer-oriented principles.


    T. V. Teslenko


    Full Text Available The organizational structure of management of railway freight transportations based on product principle is offered that allows functioning of private operator companies and realizing of transportations on competition basis.

  13. Safeguarding Schiphol Airports accessibility for freight transport

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Ebben, Mark; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.


    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly

  14. Development Status and Countermeasures of China's Urban Rail Transit Industry

    Sun Ning; Qian Jun


    Urban rail transit has been a new emerging industry growing up since China's reform and opening-up. As the city's public service facility, the construction and operation of urban rail transit will surely face a series of impact and reform on management and concept under the condition of market economy system. By analyzing the development status of China's urban rail transit, the paper identifies the problems existing in the development and puts fin-ward the countermeasures for securing sound develolopment of the China's urban rail transit industry.

  15. 服务轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台构建研究*%Service Rail Transit Industry Cluster of Zhuzhou City Logistics Information Platform Construction Research



    Construction of rail transit industry cluster of zhuzhou city logistics information platform,in zhuzhou city economic development plays an important role.Based on the path of the city logistics information platform to build,to refine the service under the rail transit industry cluster of city logistics information platform structure mode.%构建轨道交通产业集群的株洲市物流信息平台,对于株洲市经济的发展具有重要作用。文中通过对市级物流信息平台的路径构建,提炼了服务轨道交通产业集群下的市级物流信息平台结构模型。

  16. Fence Posts and Rails

    Turton, Roger


    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  17. The Rail Gun.

    Stewart, Gay B.


    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…


    Daniel Kaszubowski


    Full Text Available Background: Decisions regarding strategic planning of urban freight transport very often are based on superficial assumptions inadequately reflecting the actual character of encountered challenges. The trend may be observed to adapt isolated solutions without supporting measures and verification of expected outcomes. Selected urban freight solutions have a significant potential to alleviate transport related problems, but they require unorthodox approach beyond standard traffic planning and road management. City's current planning experience must be taken into account to plan an optimized sequence of actions. Method: Due to complexity of the problem and specific decision making factors the analytic network process ANP was selected to determine relevant objective of the urban freight policy. Gdynia was selected as the subject for modeling with a review of the current freight planning practice as a first step. Then, classification of policy objective and their prerequisites were identified supported with descriptive feasibility assessment. This allowed for a development of the ANP decision-making model. Results: Considered objectives for urban freight policy were identified were optimization, reduction and transfer. After verifying relevant decision factors optimization was selected as the most feasible option for Gdynia. Other alternatives were rated around four times lower with a slight prevalence of reduction over transfer. Such ranking reflects current planning practice and availability of transferable experiences. Despite the indicative results, it must be stressed that urban freight planning should be based on the long term methodical approach not to exclude any emerging possibilities. 

  19. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    Droogendijk, Gert


    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port service

  20. Rail passengers rights

    Đurđev Dušanka J.


    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.


    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  2. Research on Price of Railway Freight Based on Low-Carbon Economy

    Fenling Feng


    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the major energy consumption and carbon emission industries. Railway transport is a typical low-carbon transport. To accelerate the green low-carbon transportation development and improve the railway market share, this paper defines the concept of carbon saving profit to study the price of railway freight after the government functions were separated from railway enterprise management. First, taking full account of market factors and on the principle of utility maximization and maximum likelihood method, the sharing ratio model of transportation modes is established. Then consideration is given to both the profit of railway enterprises and social benefits, and income maximization model of railway freight based on low-carbon economy is established. The model can scientifically guide the transportation users who prefer to use resource-saving and environmental-friendly transportation modes, optimize transportation structure, and comprehensively improve the efficiency of transportation system. Finally, case analysis is conducted to verify the rationality and validity of the model, and reference for the rail freight pricing is provided.


    S. V. Myamlin


    Full Text Available Purpose. The main requirements for the design of a new generation of cars, according to the Program of rolling stock renovation, are the requirements reducing the operating costs and increasing the cost-effectiveness of their use, taking into account the achievements of scientific and technical thought. Due to the urgency of this subject the paper is devoted to the study of the friction coefficient influence in the bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers»of freight cars on their main dynamic parameters – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, body acceleration, frame strength, derailment stability factor. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. Investigations have shown that the safety movement parameters are influenced by both the friction parameters in bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers» of freight cars in empty and loaded state with bogies TSNII-X3 (model 18-100. Effect have other components of freight car dynamics, namely: radii of curved track sections, height of outer rail, etc. Originality. The author investigated the friction influence on the car dynamic loading using new approaches to solving the problem of predicting the rolling stock dynamics. Prediction was carried out on the basis of significantly updated theoretical material that covers all history of the friction theory and includes the results of recent experimental studies because of the speed on the straights and curves of small-and medium-range sections of the road.Practical value. The obtained results have practical orientation. During the research and after modeling with the improved method of accounting of friction processes dependencies of main dynamic parameters of a four-freight gondola on the value of the friction coefficient in the "body

  4. 77 FR 20633 - OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for...


    ... OC International Freight, Inc., OMJ International Freight, Inc. and Omar Collado; Order for Hearing... Florida, and OC is currently located at 4458 NW 74th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33166. Omar Collado is identified... its qualifying individual, Mr. Collado, lacked the requisite character to be licensed as an OTI....

  5. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.


    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  6. Integrated infomobility services for urban freight distribution

    Zuccotti, S.; Corongiu, A.; Forkert, S.; Nasr, A.; Quak, H.; Torres, C.


    City logistics is one of the causes of today's road congestion in our cities, but at the same time its efficiency is affected by the traffic problems. The driving behaviour and mission strategies used by vans and lorries operating in urban areas usually does not exploit modern infomobility

  7. Integrated infomobility services for urban freight distribution

    Zuccotti, S.; Corongiu, A.; Forkert, S.; Nasr, A.; Quak, H.; Torres, C.


    City logistics is one of the causes of today's road congestion in our cities, but at the same time its efficiency is affected by the traffic problems. The driving behaviour and mission strategies used by vans and lorries operating in urban areas usually does not exploit modern infomobility solutions

  8. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Martin Johne


    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.


    I. P. Sadlovska


    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  10. Affordable Freight Logistics Transport Information Management Optimisation and Asset Tracking Solution Using Smartphone GPS Capabilities

    Muna, Joseph T.; Prescott, Kevin


    Traditionally, freight transport and telematics solutions that exploit the GPS capabilities of in- vehicle devices to provide innovative Location Based Services (LBS) including track and trace transport systems have been the preserve of a select cluster of transport operators and organisations with the financial resources to develop the requisite custom software and hardware on which they are deployed. The average cost of outfitting a typical transport vehicle or truck with the latest Intelligent Transport System (ITS) increases the cost of the vehicle by anything from a couple to several thousand Euros, depending on the complexity and completeness of the solution. Though this does not generally deter large fleet transport owners since they typically get Return on Investment (ROI) based on economies of scale, it presents a barrier for the smaller independent entities that constitute the majority of freight transport operators [1].The North Sea Freight Intelligent Transport Solution (NS FRITS), a project co-funded by the European Commission Interreg IVB North Sea Region Programme, aims to make acquisition of such transport solutions easier for those organisations that cannot afford the expensive, bespoke systems used by their larger competitors.The project addresses transport security threats by developing a system capable of informing major actors along the freight logistics supply chain, of changing circumstances within the region's major transport corridors and between transport modes. The project also addresses issues of freight volumes, inter-modality, congestion and eco-mobility [2].

  11. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.


    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  12. Operational freight carrier planning basic concepts, optimization models and advanced memetic algorithms

    Schönberger, Jörn


    The modern freight carrier business requires a sophisticated automatic decision support in order to ensure the efficiency and reliability and therefore the survival of transport service providers. This book addresses these challenges and provides generic decision models for the short-term operations planning as well as advanced metaheuristics to obtain efficient operation plans. After a thorough analysis of the operations planning in the freight carrier business, decision models are derived. Their suitability is proven within a large number of numerical experiments, in which a new class of hybrid genetic search approaches demonstrate their appropriateness.

  13. An Operation Optimization for Express Freight Trains Based on Shipper Demands

    Yuzhao Zhang


    Full Text Available The supreme goal of railway express freight transportation is to meet the various demands of shippers. This paper considers the optimization problem of the operation plan for express freight trains based on shipper demands, including transport volume, service frequency, and transit time. An integer programming model that takes maximum shipper demands as optimized objective is proposed to realize the assignment of trains to candidate paths. In this model, the number of marshalling cars for express freight train is set as a decision variable rather than a constant to better satisfy the demand characteristics. A heuristic solution algorithm based on genetic algorithm is then designed. Finally, a numerical case is applied to verify the feasibility of the model and the algorithm.


    S. V. Myamlin


    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  15. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1


    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  16. Thinking Improve High-speed Rail Passenger Train Service Training of No Interference%改进高铁客运列车无干扰服务培训的思考

    刘俊英; 郝俊峰


    随着铁路的第六次提速,大量安全、便捷、舒适的高铁动车组列车开行。高铁动车组列车以新材料、新技术、新设备、新服务为特色投入铁路客运服务,受到广大旅客的青睐。由于乘务人员服务理念、意识与旅客的需求不匹配,对无干扰服务知识缺乏了解,尤其是列车出现例如超员、晚点等非正常状况,“有干扰无服务”短暂的现象,经传媒的无考量、多层次的放大和延伸,归咎于高铁的“无干扰服务”存在瑕疵,给铁路客服带来了无尽的负面影响。通过探讨无干扰服务和分析其在服务过程中存在的问题,提出了相应的改进方法,进一步提升铁路客服质量,更好地满足人民群众对铁路工作的新期望和新要求。%With the sixth speed railway, a large safe, convenient and comfortable high-speed rail EMU Train. High-speed rail EMU trains with new materials, new technology, new equipment, new service features into the railway passenger services by the majority of visitors of all ages. As the crew service philosophy, consciousness and do not match the needs of passengers, no disruption of service for lack of knowledge, especially in the train appeared such overcrowding, delays and other non-normal conditions,"there is no interference service"transient phenomenon, through the media without consideration multi-level amplification and extension of high-speed rail blamed "no disruption of service,"defective, the customer service to the railway brought endless negative impact. No disruption of service by exploring and analyzing its existence in the service process problem, a corresponding improvement methods to further improve the quality of railway customer service to better meet people's expectations of the new railway work and new requirements.

  17. Field monitoring of rail squats using 3D ultrasonic mapping technique

    Kaewunruen, S., E-mail: [NSW, Transport, Sydney (Australia); Ishida, M., E-mail: [Nippon Koei Co. Ltd., Railway Div., Railway Engineering Dept., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan)


    Rail squats and studs are typically classified as the propagation of any cracks .that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface. Some of the cracks could propagate to the bottom of rails transversely, which have branched from the initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The rail defects are commonly referred to as 'squats' when they were initiated from a damage layer caused by rolling contact fatigue, and as 'studs' when they were associated with a white etching layer caused by the transformation from pearlitic steel due to friction heat generated by wheel sliding or excessive traction. Such above-mentioned rail defects have been often observed in railway tracks catered for either light passenger or heavy freight traffics and for low, medium or high speed trains all over the world for over 60 years except some places such as sharp curves where large wear takes place under severe friction between the wheel flange and rail gauge face. It becomes a much-more significant issue when the crack grows and sometimes flakes off the rail (by itself or by insufficient rail grinding), resulting in a rail surface irregularity. Such rail surface defects induce wheel/rail impact and large amplitude vibration of track structure and poor ride quality. In Australia, Europe, and Japan, rail squats/studs have occasionally turned into broken rails. The root cause and preventive solution to this defect are still under investigation from the fracture mechanics and material sciences point of view. Some patterns of squat/stud development related to both curve and tangent track geometries have been observed and squat growth has been monitored for individual squats using ultrasonic mapping techniques. This paper highlights the field monitoring of squat/stud distribution and its growth. Squat/stud growth has been detected and scanned using the ultrasonic measurement device on a grid applied to the rail surface. The depths of crack paths at each

  18. Global Rail Tech Conductor


    China becomes a world leader in high-speed railway innovation after absorbing foreign technologies and making breakthroughs of its ow Most everyday train passengers don’t have time, or reason, to ponder the technicalities of the rails

  19. Rail vehicle dynamics

    Knothe, Klaus


    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  20. Calculated disturbances for evaluation of dynamical properties of freight cars

    I.A. Mashchenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To form realizations of the calculated disturbances for studying the dynamic properties of railway vehicles. Methodology. Records of the track-test car for one of the typical track sections of the Pridneprovsk railroad are the basic data for building the disturbance components. To derive the true geometric parameters of the railway gauge the records of the track-test car using a double-point metering circuit are transformed considering the transfer function of the measuring system. A model of the calculated disturbances is presented as the four components: a symmetric vertical irregularity determined as a semi-sum of vertical irregularities of the right and left rails; an oblique-symmetric vertical irregularity of the track determined as a semi-difference of vertical irregularities of the right and left rails; horizontal irregularities of the right and left rails. Acceptability criterion of the constructed disturbances is a relationship between the values of the dynamical properties factors of cars and the corresponding experimental data. Findings. The three techniques for the calculated disturbances forming are proposed. The first technique uses records of the track-test car for the track with a sufficiently high amount for given track conditions as components of the calculated disturbances. In so doing symmetrical vertical components of disturbances resulting from records of settling are corrected with the mass and stiffness parameters of the car under consideration. The second technique uses building and applying the theoretical realizations of irregularities corresponding to a real track according to a spectral analysis. The third technique ensures a polyharmonic model of disturbances, the parameters of which are the values of the basic frequencies and amplitudes that are typical for irregularities of a railway track. A possibility of practical applying of the constructed models of disturbances are presented using an example for

  1. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)


    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  2. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  3. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C...

  4. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section... Mandatory and Prohibited Provisions § 535.803 Ocean freight forwarder compensation. No conference or group... compensation paid to an ocean freight forwarder; or (b) Agree to limit the payment of compensation to an ocean...

  5. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network


    ... an inventory of national freight volume conducted by the FHWA Administrator, in consultation with... optimal solution, additional input from stakeholders is critical to prioritizing the miles to achieve a 27... efficiently and effectively move freight in the United States. Consistent with the national freight policy in...

  6. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    Behdani, Behzad; Fan, Yun; Wiegmans, Bart; Zuidwijk, Rob


    Intermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromodal desig

  7. Multimodal schedule design for synchromodal freight transport systems

    B. Behdani (Behzad); Y. Fan (Yun); B.W. Wiegmans (Bart); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)


    textabstractIntermodal freight transport has been discussed for decades as an alternative to unimodal road transport. However, it still does not represent a significant portion of the total freight market. A new and promising possibility to improve the performance of freight systems is the synchromo

  8. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    Berube, David


    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  9. Population dynamics of the king rails, Rallus elegans

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the findings of research conducted by a team of biologists from East Carolina University. The project ‘Population Dynamics of the King Rail,...

  10. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.


    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  11. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees


    ... identification of significant freight system trends, needs, and issues with respect to the State; ] A description... transportation system; Using advanced technology, performance management, innovation, competition, and..., and what supply chains (including the transportation modes that support them) are critical to...

  12. Energy study of rail passenger transportation. Volume 2. Description of operating systems. Final report

    Henderson, C.; Ellis, H. T.; Wilhelm, J. P.


    The rail passenger systems of the US are described in terms of selected physical, operating, and economic characteristics, and relates services rendered to energy usage and costs. Rail passenger transportation exists in 4 distinct forms: intercity railroads, suburban railroads, heavy-rail transit, and light-rail transit. Each form varies in technical equipment, design of facilities, operating practices, size of systems. Specific data for the national rail passenger network and the Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and San Francisco regions and the Washington Metropolitan area transit authority are presented.

  13. Wetting a rail tanker behind a noise shield.

    Rosmuller, Nils


    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, over more than 100 km noise shields are apparent. The question is to what extent this noise shield hinders the cooling of a rail tanker, carrying flammable liquid such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)? To answer this question, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline [N. Rosmuller, D.W.G. Arentsen, (2005). Praktijkproeven Betuweroute: Instantane uitstroming en koeling 24 juni 2005, Nibra, Arnhem, The Netherlands]. Two railcars and a rail tanker were placed behind a 3m high noise shield. First, it was tested as to whether firemen or water canons should be used to deliver the water. Water canons were best next, four positions of the water canons to wet the rail tanker were tested. Three camera's and three observers recorded the locations and the extent of water that hit the rail tanker. The results indicate that the noise shield, to a large extent, prevents the water from hitting, and therefore cooling, the rail tanker. The upper parts of the rail tanker were minimally struck by the water canons and the small amount of water flowing down the rail tanker did not reach the lower parts of it because of the armatures at the rail tanker. Also, the amount of water in the ditches to be used for wetting was too small. The ditch nearby ran empty. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to water management organizations. The Ministry of Transport is examining the possible strategies to deal with these findings. The results are based upon one single full scale test near a 3m high noise shield. In addition, it would be valuable to determine what the influence would be of other heights of the noise shields.

  14. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de


    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly model

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.


    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  16. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob


    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  17. Modeling interregional freight flow by distribution systems

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Blois, C.J. de


    Distribution Centers with a warehousing function have an important influence on the flow of goods from production to consumption, generating substantial goods flow and vehicle movements. This paper extends the classical 4-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model, explicitly

  18. Evaluation of urban freight transport management measures

    Daniel Kaszubowski


    Full Text Available Background: Problems with urban freight traffic in downtown areas emerge in parallel with the growth of motorization and changes in consumption patterns. Supply chains become more and more dependent on small and frequent deliveries. It is a problem common for most modern cities and one that requires tailor-made solutions which meet local requirements and can be extended, if necessary. Methods: An extensive literature review was conducted to obtain a comprehensive overview of existing urban freight related problems and possible solutions. The specificity of the problem required a broad approach including an analysis of many case studies from European cities and gathering the theoretical background. On this basis a general set of freight related measures was selected for evaluation. Because of the complexity of both the problem and its solutions an adequate method of evaluation was needed. The method had to be flexible and offer an understandable and manageable structure. The analytic network process (ANP was selected for this task. It is a multi-criteria decision making method used in complex decisions, which can measure tangible and intangible factors. The author's aim was to build a sufficiently detailed model that ensures reliable results and accomplishes the goals of the main actors and of sustainable city transport policy. Results and Conclusions: The analysis showed that given the current state of development of urban freight traffic in Gdansk, the situation can be rationalised with regulatory measures. Only well balanced and carefully implemented measures have the potential to rationalize urban freight transport without disturbing the city's economic growth. They have to be prepared in advance on the basis of a continuous analysis of the urban transport system. It is important to involve all actors in the development of more advanced measures in a bottom-up planning process. Otherwise, the risk is that overly complicated solutions without

  19. A Rails / Django Comparison


    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  20. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.


    ... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the time... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377...

  1. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.


    ... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading... therefor on its form with a notation showing the freight forwarder's name, then the freight forwarder, upon...

  2. Modelling of Freight Trains Classification Using Queueing System Subject to Breakdowns

    Michal Dorda


    Full Text Available The paper presents a mathematical model and a simulation model of the freight trains classification process. We model the process as a queueing system with a server which is represented by a hump at a marshalling yard. We distinguish two types of shunting over the hump; primary shunting represents the classification of inbound freight trains over the hump (it is the primary function of marshalling yards, and secondary shunting is, for example, represented by the classification of trains of wagons entering the yard via industrial sidings. Inbound freight trains are considered to be customers in the system, and all needs of secondary shunting are failures of the hump because performing secondary shunting occupies the hump, and therefore inbound freight trains cannot be sorted. All random variables of the model are considered to be exponentially distributed with the exception of customer service times which are Erlang distributed. The mathematical model was created using method of stages and can be solved numerically employing a suitable software tool. The simulation model was created using coloured Petri nets. Both models are tested in conditions of a marshalling yard.

  3. Bootstrap for rails

    Rahman, Syed Fazle


    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  4. Passenger rail security, planning, and resilience: application of network, plume, and economic simulation models as decision support tools.

    Greenberg, Michael; Lioy, Paul; Ozbas, Birnur; Mantell, Nancy; Isukapalli, Sastry; Lahr, Michael; Altiok, Tayfur; Bober, Joseph; Lacy, Clifton; Lowrie, Karen; Mayer, Henry; Rovito, Jennifer


    We built three simulation models that can assist rail transit planners and operators to evaluate high and low probability rail-centered hazard events that could lead to serious consequences for rail-centered networks and their surrounding regions. Our key objective is to provide these models to users who, through planning with these models, can prevent events or more effectively react to them. The first of the three models is an industrial systems simulation tool that closely replicates rail passenger traffic flows between New York Penn Station and Trenton, New Jersey. Second, we built and used a line source plume model to trace chemical plumes released by a slow-moving freight train that could impact rail passengers, as well as people in surrounding areas. Third, we crafted an economic simulation model that estimates the regional economic consequences of a variety of rail-related hazard events through the year 2020. Each model can work independently of the others. However, used together they help provide a coherent story about what could happen and set the stage for planning that should make rail-centered transport systems more resistant and resilient to hazard events. We highlight the limitations and opportunities presented by using these models individually or in sequence.

  5. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    S.V. Myamlin


    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  6. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David


    Considering the externalities of freight transport activity (energy use, accidents, congestion, its related GHG emissions, and lost oil revenues) this article reviews trends from 1990-2005 in truck freight fuel intensity (energy use per tonne-km moved), on road truck fuel economy (L/ 100 km driven......). We review changes in decoupling truck freight activity from GDP. We examine separately five manufacturing sectors using data from Statistics Denmark on vehicle performance for 1980-2006. Our four major findings are: (1) truck freight energy intensity (mj/tonne-km) continues to grow as well as CO2...... emissions; (2) decoupling has not been large enough to reduce overall energy use of truck; (3) because of the absence of fuel economy regulations, a low average vehicle load, increased hauling distance, overall energy use of truck freight will continue to expand; (4) results show that standard freight...

  7. Lower Cross-Braced Truck and Swing Motion Truck Have Different Effect on Freight Car Dynamics Performance

    Chao Chen


    Full Text Available There are two major types of trucks for freight car in Chinese railroad. One is the lower cross-braced truck; the other is the swing motion truck. To evaluate the different performance, diamond resistant rigidity of the lower cross-braced truck and the lateral stiffness of the swing motion truck are analyzed. To simulate the dynamics performance of the swing motion truck, an equivalent lateral stiffness is calculated. Then it is modeled as a lateral spring between side frames and bolstered to simulate the swing. After that, two typical freight cars’ models which use the two types of trucks are built in SIMPACK. The L/V Ratio and Wheel Load Reduction Ratio are chosen for evaluating running safety of the freight car. The simulation results are compared and they prove that the impact force between wheel and rail when the car passing curve can be reduced effectively as the swing motion truck has a better lateral flexible. Therefore, it has a lower L/V ratio under the same running and loading condition. However, the swing leads a larger lateral displacement of the car-body, so the gravity center of loaded car has a larger lateral displacement than the car with lower cross-braced truck; which results to a larger Wheel Load Reduction Ratio.  

  8. Instilling safety culture in the passenger rail transport industry within the South African context

    Khulumane (John Maluleke


    Full Text Available South Africa has two major rail operators that constitute the rail transport industry. These are Transnet Freight Rail (TFR, which operates freight and the Passenger Rail Agency of South Africa (PRASA. Although the Railway Safety Regulator (2011:29 reported the year on year declining trend of collisions, the main concern is that the costs incurred for each year’s incidents is escalating. This article is concerned with the declining safety standards of these operators as evidenced by 742 collisions recorded during the 2011/2012 financial year for both operators. The focus is mainly on collisions during the movement of rolling stock within the PRASA environment. The analysis of the occurrences is narrowed down, with the emphasis on the province of Gauteng. In the analysis of the causes of these collisions, the problems that led to the root causes of these collisions is reported. Of critical importance is that every transport operator is faced with the challenges of how to effectively respond to the basic transport needs and requirements of the travelling public. The transport users’ need is to travel between the two geographical points. During the journey between these geographical points, the operator has safety and security requirements and must provide a reliable, accessible and affordable transport system. As the travelling public becomes more affluent, the transport needs become open ended and require much more rational public choices. The rail transport system remains a vital or indispensable business sector of the economy. By investing in new technology, rolling stock and infrastructure, we woud see an increase in innovation, competitiveness, and an elevated standard of living.

  9. A dynamic model for railway freight overbooking

    冯芬玲; 张佳琪; 郭晓峰


    In order to apply overbooking idea in Chinese railway freight industry to improve revenue, a Markov decision process (dynamic programming) model for railway freight reservation was formulated and the overbooking limit level was proposed as a control policy. However, computing the dynamic programming treatment needs six nested loops and this will be burdensome for real-world problems. To break through the calculation limit, the properties of value function were analyzed and the overbooking protection level was proposed to reduce the calculating quantity. The simulation experiments show that the overbooking protection level for the lower-fare class is higher than that for the higher-fare class, so the overbooking strategy is nested by fare class. Besides, by analyzing the influence on the overbooking strategy of freight arrival probability and cancellation probability, the proposed approach is efficient and also has a good application prospect in reality. Also, compared with the existing reservation (FCFS), the overbooking strategy performs better in the fields of vacancy reduction and revenue improvement.

  10. Review on Selection and Suitability of Rail Transit Station Design Pertaining to Public Safety

    Akabal, Farah Mohd; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Haji Mohd; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Rohani, Munzilah Md


    Railway has emerged as a fast, convenient, safe, clean, and low-cost alternative to air and road transportation. Many countries have invested in rail transportation. In America, Europe and Asia, large investments are planned for rail transportation. This is because congestion problems can be reduced with the introduction of rail transportation. Rail transportation involves several components which are important to ensure the smooth and safe delivery of services such as locomotives, rail stations and railway tracks. Rail transit stations are places where trains stop to pick-up and drop-off passengers. Stations are vital for many to enable them to engage in work and social commitments. This paper focuses only on the rail transit station as it is one of the important components in rail transportation. It is also considered as a key public meeting place and space for interactions in a community. The role of rail transit station and the requirements of a good rail transit station are also described in this paper. Steps in selecting the location of rail transit station include the function and facilities in rail transit station are discussed with reference to best practices and handbooks. Selection of the appropriate rail transit station locations may help users indirectly. In addition, this paper will also elucidate on the design considerations for an efficient and effective rail transit station. Design selections for the rail transit station must be balanced between aesthetic value and functional efficiency. The right design selection may help conserve energy, assure and facilitate consumers even thought a rail transit station plays a smaller role in attracting consumers compared to a shopping complex or a residential building. This will contribute towards better and greener building for a green transportation facility. Thus, with this paper it is expected to assist the relevant authority to identify important elements in the selection and determination of suitable

  11. Defining freight rates as a contribution to the successful operation of container shipping companies

    Renato Oblak


    Full Text Available The globalization of the world market and the flexibility of containerization to adjust to the constant changes in supply and demand of the international goods market, has led to a continuous increase in the portion of the container transport within the international maritime cargo transport. By the increase of the container transport level, the impact and importance of container freight rates have been growing, the variability of which directly reflects on the world economy. The aim of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of actual methods in establishing the container freight rates according to the problems which appear in the container shipping operation and refer to large differences in the weights of the actual transported cargo and the declared cargo in containers. The consequence of is lower freight rates and higher costs of the vessels exploitation, concerning the increase of the bunker oil consumption. The conducted research is based on actual data that have been collected and analyzed from particular container vessel liner services within period of 90 days and casting off from 16 container ports. The proposed measures could increase the level of usability of the transporting ships capacities and enable a more accurate and correct account of sea freight rates. The results of the research have shown that by increasing the control of accuracy of the cargo weight in containers and by improving the model of accounting, the freight rates can increase the incomes of shipping companies maintaining the same level of container traffic, which can have a direct influence on the efficiency of their successful operation.

  12. Rail transport systems approach


    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  13. Friction in rail guns

    Kay, P. K.


    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  14. 77 FR 24561 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda and Santa...


    ... line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 95116, 95122, 95112, 95133 and 94533. \\1\\ According to petitioners, VTA purchased the line from UP in December 2002, with UP retaining an operating... freight operating easement on, and for VTA, the owner of the line, to abandon its residual common...

  15. Light Rails at Kennedy Airport


    <正>The Port Authority in New Jersey, New York opened a new light rail on December 18, 2003 to link Kennedy Airport to New York city. The rail with an investment of US$1.5 billion runs along the airport’s terminals, taxi stop, shuttle station and parking area to connect with the city’s downtown rail network, subways, railways and coach stations.The light rail is convenient, safe, reliable and fast to free passengers of the worries about traffic jam and the pressure

  16. 78 FR 30828 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee


    ... (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 10581... will be provided. Persons attending the meetings are requested to refrain from using perfume,...

  17. Is freight traffic noise more annoying than passenger traffic noise?

    Jong, R.G. de; Miedema, H.M.E.


    In the Netherlands a new freight-only railway route, the "Betuweroute", is being planned to carry freight traffic from Rotterdam harbour east into Germany. Inhabitants of areas near the future route are concerned about noise and vibration, and question the relevance of current legislation for a

  18. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  19. Energy Consumption and Freight Transport Demand in Denmark

    Salling, Kim Bang; Bonilla, David


    econometric models make use of a deterministic trend to explain fuel intensity and cannot accommodate long-run effects such as asymmetric diesel price effects and relationship between the variables in the freight demand. Our results do not confirm that decoupling truck freight has accelerated in recent years...

  20. Setting up a freight transportation model for Java in Indonesia

    De Baat, M.J.; Den Hertog, V.; De Jong, S.; De Regt, K.; Wijgergangs, K.


    The project consisted of the development of a freight transportation model for the island Java in Indonesia. A literature study concerning freight modelling has been performed to formulate an appropriate framework of such a model for the given situation. Different data sources have been identified,

  1. Study on Rail Profile Optimization Based on the Nonlinear Relationship between Profile and Wear Rate

    Jianxi Wang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a rail profile optimization method that takes account of wear rate within design cycle so as to minimize rail wear at the curve in heavy haul railway and extend the service life of rail. Taking rail wear rate as the object function, the vertical coordinate of rail profile at range optimization as independent variable, and the geometric characteristics and grinding depth of rail profile as constraint conditions, the support vector machine regression theory was used to fit the nonlinear relationship between rail profile and its wear rate. Then, the profile optimization model was built. Based on the optimization principle of genetic algorithm, the profile optimization model was solved to achieve the optimal rail profile. A multibody dynamics model was used to check the dynamic performance of carriage running on optimal rail profile. The result showed that the average relative error of support vector machine regression model remained less than 10% after a number of training processes. The dynamic performance of carriage running on optimized rail profile met the requirements on safety index and stability. The wear rate of optimized profile was lower than that of standard profile by 5.8%; the allowable carrying gross weight increased by 12.7%.

  2. On MSP-based Rail Transportation Management and Operation Service%基于“管理服务采购”模式的轨道交通建设管理与运营服务



    Guangzhou-Foshan Metro (GFM) was built on the joint investment and construction of the two cities, it has 21 stations with a total length of 32.16 km (100% underground), as the first intercity metro line of China, it also forms a part of the Pearl River Delta rapid rail transit system. The full-scale construction of GFM started in June, 2007, and the formal operation on the first section (between Kuiqi Road and Xilang Station) was in November, 2010. The management-service-procurement (MSP) model is introduced in and applied to the whole process of the construction and operation of GFM by Foshan Metro Cooperation Company Limited. The investment for metro construction breaks the geographic barrier of two cities, verifies a new management mode which is of great reference value for other domestic cities in the construction and operation of intercity rails.%作为全国第一条城际地铁线路的珠江三角洲城际快速轨道交通广州至佛山段项目(以下简称“广佛地铁”)是突破了国内城市轨道交通行业业主自行建设与运营管理的传统模式,开创性地将“管理服务采购”(MSP)模式引入地铁建设与运营的全过程.介绍了该模式在如何选择最合适的服务商,如何确保项目管理的有效性,如何有效降低建设和运营成本,以及如何同步培养后备人才方面所做的探索.


    Eko Hartono


    It can be concluded that journey time and fare of the high-speed rail is very competitive to the air transport in Jakarta-Surabaya corridor. The journey time to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya is 4 hours and 19 minutes by high-speed train and 4 hours and 40 minutes by air. Based on the benchmarking analysis, the suitable fare for the high-speed rail should be 70% of the air transport. This study predicted that 61% of air passenger, 18% of conventional rail passenger and 12% of bus passenger will switch to the high-speed rail service in 2020. In total, the high-speed rail will have 24% of market share for the passenger transport and becomes the second largest market share after road transport (52%. The conventional rail and air transport have 14% and 9% of total market share to travel from Jakarta to Surabaya and vice versa. The high-speed rail development reduces carbon emissions caused by transportation systems in Java Island. It has been calculated that there are 2.542 million tonnages of CO2 per annum without introducing high-speed rail, however, the CO2 emissions decrease to 1.694 million tonnages per annum if the high-speed rail is developed in Java Island. Generalized cost of the high-speed rail is higher than road and conventional rail. However, it is lower than air transport. Keywords: Java high-speed rail, HSR Comparison, modal share, journey time

  4. The importance of disaggregated freight flow forecasts to inform transport infrastructure investments

    Jan H. Havenga


    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a comprehensive disaggregated commodity flow model for South Africa. The wealth of data available enables a segmented analysis of future freight transportation demand in order to assist with the prioritisation of transportation investments, the development of transport policy and the growth of the logistics service provider industry. In 2011, economic demand for commodities in South Africa’s competitive surface-freight transport market amounted to 622 million tons and is predicted to increase to 1834m tons by 2041, which is a compound annual growth rate of 3.67%. Fifty percent of corridor freight constitutes break bulk; intermodal solutions are therefore critical in South Africa. Scenario analysis indicates that 80%of corridor break-bulk tons can by serviced by four intermodal facilities – in Gauteng, Durban, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. This would allow for the development of an investment planning hierarchy, enable industry targeting (through commodity visibility, ensure capacity development ahead of demand and lower the cost of logistics in South Africa.

  5. 铁路货运站应用信息系统信息孤岛分析%Analysis of Information Isolation of Railway Freight Station Application Information System

    刘洋; 李雾若


    The 21st century is the era of rapid development of information technology, railway freight also keeps up with the pace of informatization construction, in order to improve the competitiveness throughout the market and the benefits of the rail freight companies, at the same time to reduce the costs of the work it takes. However, China’s rail freight information construction time is relatively late, during the development of China’s rail freight, forms a number of independent of each other, relatively closed information platforms and application information systems, so that generates the phenomenon of information isolation, information integration is imminent. Based on the information construction, information systems’ upgrading and integration theory, taking the rail freight operating process as a starting point, through analyzing the status quo and the problems found in informatization construction of a freight station, the experiences and lessons were summarized in information construction. We thought that the keys to solving these problems were: to upgrade and integrate the information systems.%21世纪是一个信息技术高速发展的时代,铁路货运也紧跟信息化建设的步伐,以提高在整个营销市场的竞争力和铁路货运企业的效益,同时降低各项工作花费的成本。然而,我国铁路货运开始进行信息化建设的时间比较晚,与此同时,我国铁路货运在发展的过程中,形成了一些相互独立、相对封闭的信息平台和应用信息系统,以至于出现了信息孤岛的现象,信息集成迫在眉睫。本文基于信息化建设、信息系统的升级与整合理论,以铁路货物运输作业流程为出发点,通过分析货运站的信息化建设现状及存在的问题,总结信息化建设的经验和教训,提出解决信息孤岛问题的关键:进行应用信息系统的升级与整合。

  6. Modeling the Multicommodity Multimodal Routing Problem with Schedule-Based Services and Carbon Dioxide Emission Costs

    Yan Sun


    Full Text Available We explore a freight routing problem wherein the aim is to assign optimal routes to move commodities through a multimodal transportation network. This problem belongs to the operational level of service network planning. The following formulation characteristics will be comprehensively considered: (1 multicommodity flow routing; (2 a capacitated multimodal transportation network with schedule-based rail services and time-flexible road services; (3 carbon dioxide emissions consideration; and (4 a generalized costs optimum oriented to customer demands. The specific planning of freight routing is thus defined as a capacitated time-sensitive multicommodity multimodal generalized shortest path problem. To solve this problem systematically, we first establish a node-arc-based mixed integer nonlinear programming model that combines the above formulation characteristics in a comprehensive manner. Then, we develop a linearization method to transform the proposed model into a linear one. Finally, a computational experiment from the Chinese inland container export business is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the model and linearization method. The computational results indicate that implementing the proposed model and linearization method in the mathematical programming software Lingo can effectively solve the large-scale practical multicommodity multimodal transportation routing problem.

  7. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.


    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with ra

  8. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.


    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with

  9. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  10. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  11. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders


    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... freight forwarder authority from FMCSA. Section 32918 amended the financial security requirements...

  12. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act as...

  13. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing

  14. A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice

    Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem

  15. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    Griffiths, David


    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  16. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  17. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  18. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  19. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  20. The research of railway freight statistics system and statistical methods

    Wu Hua-Wen


    Full Text Available EXT is a JavaScript framework for developing Web interfaces, this paper describes the Ext framework and its application in railway freight statistical and analyzing system and Statistical methods. the paper also analyzes the design, function, implementation and so on of the system in detail. As information technology and the requirements of railway transportation organization and operation continue to improve, railway freight statistical and analyzing system improves obviously in the index system, decision analysis and other aspects, better meeting the work requirements. It will play a more important role in the railway transport organization, management, passenger and freight marketing.

  1. Development of the electromagnetic technology for broken rail detection from a mobil platform

    Plotnikov, Yuri; Raghunathan, Arun; Kumar, Ajith; Noffsinger, Joseph; Fries, Jeffrey; Ehret, Steven; Frangieh, Tannous; Palanganda, Samhitha


    Timely detection of breaks in running rails remains a topic of significant importance for the railroad industry. GE has been investigating new ideas of the Rail Integrity Monitoring or RIM technology that can be implemented on a wide range of the rolling stock platforms including locomotives, passenger and freight cars. The focus of the project is to establish a simple, non-contact, and inexpensive means of nondestructive inspection by fusion of known solutions with new technology development that can result in detection with high reliability. A scaled down model of a typical locomotive-track system has been developed at GE Global research for detailed study of the detection process. In addition, a finite element model has been established and used to understand distribution of the magnetic field and currents in such a system. Both models have been using the rails and wheel-axles geometry to establish a realistic model that would provide the electric current and magnetic field distribution close to the real world phenomenon. Initial magnetic field maps were obtained by scanning a 1:15 model constructed of steel bars using a 3D scanner and an inductive coil. Sensitivity to a broken rail located between two locomotive axles simulated by an opening in this metallic frame was demonstrated. Further investigation and optimization was conducted on a larger, 1:3 scale, physical model and by running mathematical simulations. Special attention was paid to consistency between the finite element and physical model results. The obtained results allowed establishment of a working frequency range, inductive current injection into the rail-wheel-axle loop and measuring the electromagnetic response to a broken rail. The verification and full scale system prototype tests are following the laboratory experiments and mathematical simulations.

  2. The rebound effect on road freight transport: Empirical evidence from Portugal

    Matos, Fernando J.F., E-mail: fjmatos@uac.p [University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal); Silva, Francisco J.F., E-mail: fsilva@uac.p [CEEAplA - University of the Azores, Rua da Mae de Deus/9501-801 Ponta Delgada (Portugal)


    Because a large proportion of total operating costs for transportation companies goes towards energy, a reduction in energy operating costs, brought about by an increase in fleet fuel efficiency, or an increase in operational efficiency, results in a change in the relative cost of road freight transportation. This fact could result in an increase in the demand for such services. If this is true, the result would be an increase in total fuel consumption. Consequently, that part of the energy savings obtained through the increased energy efficiency would be lost. The existence of a 'Rebound Effect' is especially important in the road freight transportation sector and is crucial for the definition of a national energy policy. In this study, data from the road freight transportation sector in Portugal for the years of 1987 through 2006 was analyzed. It was determined that an increase in energy efficiency did not cause a backfire, but did cause a total direct rebound effect of 24.1%. In addition, fleet operators were more inclined to adopt operational efficiencies than technological fuel efficiencies as a means of increasing the total operational efficiency. - Research highlights: {yields} We estimate a direct rebound effect for road freight transportation in Portugal. {yields} The functional form chosen was a log-log model and the estimation method used was the two stage least squares model. {yields} Increasing energy efficiency by 1% results in a reduction of 0.759% in energy consumption (a direct rebound effect of about 24.1%). {yields} Estimates of reduced fuel consumption without considering the direct rebound effect may be overestimated by about 0.87 million liters of diesel per year for each percentage point increase in energy efficiency.

  3. Air freight in the Stockholm region with focus on Eskilstuna Airport

    Kjell-Åke Allan Brorsson


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conditions for commencing air freight operations at the regional Eskilstuna Airport in Sweden, which require investments in airport infrastructure of at least SEK 140 –180 million. Design/ methodology: The qualitative data collection for the study was carried out through open-ended interviews with representatives of airport management, staff, representatives of residents, and actors and stakeholders in the field. In addition, much written material was collected from different authorities. Document analysis was used to systematically evaluate and review the collected documents. Content analysis was applied to organize collected data into categories. Based on the reports, decisions, environmental scanning and interviews, the data have been coded and categorized in tables via thematic analysis. Findings: The major findings of the study are that Eskilstuna Airport lacks cargo facilities and has limited apron space, and that there is strong competition from four other airports in the Stockholm region. The prospects for permanent air freight operations at Eskilstuna Airport are therefore not favourable in the current situation. However, if the development of Eskilstuna Logistics Park and the concept of inter modal highway-rail transportation are successful, they could serve as a major driving force for the development of air cargo. Furthermore, with sustainable development as a guiding principle, there is great potential to develop an airport with a high standard of environmental profile. Originality/ value: My findings are of great value to managers of airports and cargo airlines, as they highlight some of the competition aspects associated with engaging in air cargo at regional airports. The study fills a gap in existing research whose main focus is environmental issues concerning airports in general.

  4. Ukraine in the process of freight market globalisation

    Natalia Primacheva


    Full Text Available For the entire period of state construction in Ukraine, the strategy of stable economical growth of country’s freight potential has been practically ignored. The solution to this problem requires systematic study of mechanisms and methods of growth and operation of the most important sectors of international freight market. Despite world’s freight statistics being systematic, there is practically no established methodology to assess its sustainable development in the times of globalization. Typically, all that is available are insights into certain aspects of freight market parameters formation. Thus, this article focuses on systematization of the general principles of world’s marine trade development and evaluation of the most realistic directions for establishing Ukraine as a full-scale maritime.

  5. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Stefaan Swarts


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  6. Ruby on Rails for dummies



    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'


    L. V. Martseniuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. Each country of the former Soviet Union carries out railroad industry reformation according to different models depending on orienting points and the goals it establishes. All railway administrations have faced the problem of considerable reduction of freight and passenger transportation volumes, aging of main assets, lack of investments for their renovation. The purpose of the paper is the development of optimal management structure of freight cars in conditions of railway transport reformation. Methodology. The theoretical and methodological basis for research is a systematic analysis of problems of providing the competitiveness of the transport industry in the field of freight railway transportations, theoretical principles of economics in the production efficiency, market economics transformation and management of the national economy. Findings. The author has developed an improved mechanism for freight traffic management, which differs from the existing one by its adaptation to the conditions of industry being reformed and the organization of management companies. These companies together with the Ukrainian transport and logistics center centralize management of all freight cars of both domestic and foreign operating companies. Originality. Author presents the theoretical generalization and new solution of the scientific problem. It appears in the development of theoretical and methodological approaches to the management structure of the freight cars by operating companies in conditions of railway transport reforming through the management companies organization in Ukraine. The above mentioned companies will combine two types of activity – the commercial one and the cars repair of different property, it will reduce car turnover, stay time of rolling stock in the inoperative park and thereby improve the efficiency of freight transportations. Particularly, they will lease and have the right to dispose universal cars of domestic

  8. Backcasting in freight transport demand modelling – chances and challenges

    Lange, Peter; Huber, Stefan


    Freight transport demand models are important tools to support policy decision-making by enabling decision makers to evaluate transport policies and correlated effects. This significance puts high pressure on freight models regarding their accuracy. In order to ensure model accuracy there are different methods within the wide area of quality assurance that can be applied. Although backcasting is such a method it is, however, often neglected or implemented insufficiently. The paper presents ma...

  9. A social perceptual approach to freight transport modal choice

    Gray, R.


    This research develops a conceptual model of freight modal choice in which the basic unit of analysis is the socio-organisational group. Research into freight modal choice at the level of the firm has tended to disregard the nature of human choice and to assume that modal choice can be explained in terms of technological phenomena or cost relationships. There is also a tendency to equate the modal choice of organisational members with the modal use of firms. The approa...

  10. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    Płaczek Marek


    Full Text Available A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  11. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    Olesen, Mette

    Taking its point of departure in the mobilities paradigm, this paper applies a theoretical framework of narratives and storytelling to analyse and describe the rationales behind implementation of light rail in the case of Bergen light rail in Norway. Through the analysis it is demonstrated...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  12. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.


    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  13. 75 FR 16564 - High-Speed Intercity Passenger Rail (HSIPR) Program


    ... intercity passenger rail ridership growth. In the FY 2010 DOT Appropriations Act, Congress built upon the..., maintenance of equipment, transportation (train movement), passenger traffic and services (marketing... corridor program to promote economic development, including contributions to a sustainable...

  14. Rail survey for the Bi-county area of Pike County in Missouri and Illinois

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes rail surveys conducted on Great River and Clarence Cannon NWRs. This project was undertaken to 1) contribute to a nationwide assessment of...

  15. Summary of California Clapper Rail Winter Populations in the San Francisco Bay, 1989 to 1993

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The federal and state endangered California clapper rail, Rallus longirostris obsoletus. is a species that, until very recently, was on the verge of extinction. This...

  16. Breeding density, nesting habitat, and predators of the California Clapper Rail

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We studied the breeding density and nesting activities of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in south San Francisco Bay between April and...

  17. Factors affecting reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We assessed the reproductive success of the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered species restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the...

  18. Breeding Season Study of the California Clapper Rail in San Francisco Bay, 1982

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goals of this study were to further investigate the suitability of brackish marshes in south San Francisco Bay to support breeding rails and to examine how the...

  19. Summary of California Clapper Rail winter populations in the San Francisco National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The California Clapper rail (Rallus lonqirostris obsoletus) is a seldom seen resident in some of the remaining tidal salt marshes in San Francisco Bay. The...

  20. 双层委托-代理视角下的铁路信息技术服务外包问题%A Study on Rail-IT Service Outsourcing Based on the Double Principal-Agent Structure

    屈继成; 陈小君


    Outsourcing strategy of railway IT has been playing an important role in the market-oriented reform of China railway industry.To clarify the fuzzy relationship between the participants in out-sourcing,this article argues for a double logical relationship of principal-agent for the three partici-pants,namely,all the rail passengers,China Railway Corporation,and IT service provider.A few conclusions are drawn based on further analysis.First,at the first level of the logical relationships, the rail passengers'identity is decentralized,and China Railway Corporation,with its monopolistic na-ture of the business,has a moral hazard in providing IT service.Therefore,IT service outsourcing helps China Railway Corporation prevent the moral hazard.Second,in addition to the salary incentive system,China Railway Corporation should also consider introducing the reputation restriction mecha-nism to guard against adverse selection and moral hazard of IT service providers.%铁路信息技术外包战略的实施对于我国铁路行业的市场化改革具有独特的推动作用。针对外包过程中参与主体逻辑关系不清晰的问题,本文提出此关系中应包含三个参与主体,即全体铁路乘客、中国铁路总公司和信息技术服务的市场供给者,而它们之间应具有双重委托-代理的逻辑结构,进一步的研究可以得出如下结论:1.在第一层逻辑关系中,由于是全体铁路乘客作为委托人,其身份是分散的,而带有垄断经营特征的中国铁路总公司就会在信息技术服务供给过程中存在道德风险。因此,采取促使中国铁路总公司采用信息技术服务外包战略将是防范其道德风险的有效方法;2.在第二层逻辑关系中,中国铁路总公司针对服务供应商除了要设计对应的薪酬激励机制以外,还需要考虑引入声誉约束机制来防范服务供应商的逆向选择与道德风险问题。

  1. Analysis of TPL Development Opportunities of Railway Freight Yard in Guizhou%贵州铁路货场发展TPL的机会分析*



    Timing,reforming the current railway freight transportation in guizhou province,introduced a concept of third-party logistics(TPL)development of railway freight yard can help rail companies to build their core competitive power as soon as possible,according to the actual situation in guizhou province,this article has analyzed the Guizhou railway freight yard development of third-party logistics advantages according to the actual situation of Guizhou Province,summarized the current development opportunities of Guizhou railway logistics facing,combing the Guizhou railway logistics problems place,put forward the development of the third-party logistics.%当前贵州省铁路货运面临改革时机,引入第三方物流(TPL)概念发展铁路货场能够帮助铁路企业尽快构建自己核心竞争力,文中根据贵州省的实际情况分析了贵州铁路货场发展第三方物流的优势,总结了当前贵州铁路物流面临的发展机会,梳理了贵州铁路物流的问题所在,提出了发展第三方物流的可行性。

  2. Structural health condition monitoring of rails using acoustic emission techniques

    Yilmazer, Pinar

    In-service rails can develop several types of structural defects due to fatigue and wear caused by rolling stock passing over them. Most rail defects will develop gradually over time thus permitting inspection engineers to detect them in time before final failure occurs. In the UK, certain types of severe rail defects such as tache ovales, require the fitting of emergency clamps and the imposing of an Emergency Speed Restriction (ESR) until the defects are removed. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques can be applied for the detection and continuous monitoring of defect growth therefore removing the need of imposing strict ESRs. The work reported herewith aims to develop a sound methodology for the application of AE in order to detect and subsequently monitor damage evolution in rails. To validate the potential of the AE technique, tests have been carried out under laboratory conditions on three and four-point bending samples manufactured from 260 grade rail steel. Further tests, simulating the background noise conditions caused by passing rolling stock have been carried out using special experimental setups. The crack growth events have been simulated using a pencil tip break..

  3. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...


    ... Exemption--Piedmont & Northern Railway, Inc. Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail... carrier.\\1\\ \\1\\ PRL is a noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the...


    L. V. Martsenyuk


    Full Text Available Purpose. For Ukraine as for a post-socialist state there is an objective need of reforming on railway transport. In order to meet the requirements of consumers both within the country and outside of it, it is necessary to solve transport problems in time and to introduce new technologies, without lagging behind the developed European states. The purpose of this article is identification of problems in the process of freight transportations and development of ways of their overcoming, formation of the principles of economic efficiency increase for the use of freight cars using the improvement of management mechanism of freight transportations in the conditions of reforming. Methodology. Methods of strategic planning, system approach for research on improvement of the management mechanism of freight transportations, as well as the organizational-administrative method for structure of management construction were used in this research. Findings. Authors have explored the problems arising in the process of transportation of goods and measures, which will increase the efficiency of goods transportation. Advanced mechanism of freight transportation management for its application in the conditions of the railway transport reforming was developed. It is based on management centralization. Originality. The major factors, which slow down process of cargo transportations, are investigated in the article. The principles of management mechanism improvement of freight transportations are stated. They are based on association of commercial and car-repair activity of depots. All this will allow reducing considerably a car turn by decrease in duration of idle times on railway transport, increasing the speed of freight delivery and cutting down a transport component in the price of delivered production. Practical value. The offered measures will improve the efficiency of rolling stock use and increase cargo volumes turnover, promote links of Ukraine with



    This paper is mainly concerned with how to increase rail transit ridership and how to coordinate with multiModity to optimize the entire public transportion systems. Three case cities, Montreal, Toronto and San Francisco, with metro systems are reviewed in different aspects, including urban planning, transport policy, flexible fare system, safety and security measure, special service, new technical application to improve the quality and value of its service for increasing revenues and profit, comtributing to the long-term development of public transit. Some conclusions can be drawn: 1)urban planning should be closely connected with urban transport planning; 2) the role of government is predominant to implement railtransit; 3) the facilifies of railtransit should be advanced, reliable and safe; 4) quality service should be match with rail facilities; 5) special service for the disabled, yound and senior should be advocated.

  6. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina


    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  7. Welding technology for rails. Rail no setsugo gijutsu

    Okumura, M.; Karimine, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Uchino, K.; Sugino, K. (Nippon Steel Corp., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). Technical Research Inst. of Yawata Works); Ueyama, K. (JR Railway Technical Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan))


    The rail joining technology is indispensable for making long welded rails. Flush butt welding, gas welding, enclosed arc welding, and thermit welding are used properly as the welding methods. A method for improving the joint reliability by controlling the residual stress distribution of welded joint is investigated to prepare high carbon component weld metal similar to the rail. Problems with each of the welding methods and the newly developed technology to solve the problems are outlined. Composition of the coating is improved also, and a high C system welding rod is developed which has satisfactory weldability. High performance and high efficient new enclosed arc welding technology not available by now is developed which utilizes high carbon welding metal as a new EA welding work technology, and put to practical use. As a result of this study, useful guides are obtained for the establishment of satisfactory thermit welding technology. 17 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.


    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  9. User manual for freight transportation analysis software

    Terziev, M.N.; Wilson, L.B.


    Under sponsorship of the Federal Energy Administration, The Center for Transportation Studies at M.I.T. developed and tested a methodology for analysis of the impacts of various government and carrier policies on the demand for freight transportation. The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the computer programs included in this methodology. The purpose of the computer software developed for this project is threefold. First, programs are used to calculate the cost of each of the transport alternatives available for the purchase of a given commodity by a receiver in a given industrial sector. Furthermore, these programs identify the least-cost alternative, and thus provide a forecasting capability at the disaggregate level. Given a description of the population of receivers in the destination city, a second group of programs applies the costing and forecasting programs to each receiver in a sample drawn from the population. The disaggregate forecasts are summed to produce an aggregate forecast of modal tonnages for the given origin/destination city-pair. Finally, a third group of programs computes fuel consumed in transportation from the aggregate modal tonnages. These three groups of programs were placed under the control of a master routine which coordinates the input and output of data.

  10. Method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects

    Li, Z.; Molodova, M.


    A method and instrumentation for detection of rail defects, in particular rail top defects, in a railway-track by measuring an axle box acceleration signal of a rail vehicle, wherein a longitudinal axle box acceleration signal is used as a measure to detect the occurrence of said rail defects, in pa

  11. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    Gierkink, S.L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.


    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant transconductan

  12. Modelling the effect of rail dampers on wheel-rail interaction forces and rail roughness growth rates

    Croft, B. E.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.


    Trains generate rolling noise because of the roughness of the wheel and rail running surfaces. Special acoustic grinding programmes have been introduced on some railways specifically to control rolling noise. Rail dampers are also used to reduce rolling noise; this paper studies rail damping as a possible mechanism to slow the rate of development of roughness on the surface of rails. This would reduce noise further over time or reduce the required frequency of grinding. High roughness growth on the rail occurs in situations with stiff vertical structural dynamics of the track. In particular the antiresonance above a sleeper at the pinned-pinned frequency has been identified as a wavelength fixing mechanism for short pitch corrugation. Rail dampers change the dynamic response of the rail, shifting the pinned-pinned frequency and smoothing the track receptance. Here, a simple time-stepping model is applied to calculate the interaction forces between wheel and rail for a track with and without rail dampers. The calculations show that rail dampers reduce dynamic interaction forces and shift the force spectrum to longer wavelengths. The interaction forces are used as input to an abrasive wear model to predict the roughness growth rate and the change in roughness after many wheel passages. Track without rail dampers is predicted to develop corrugation at the wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With rail dampers the corrugation growth is reduced and shifted to a longer wavelength where its significance is diminished.

  13. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.


    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  14. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... Surface Transportation Board has obtained OMB approval for its information collection, Rail...

  15. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin


    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  16. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering


    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  17. Ruby on Rails: Up and Running

    Tate, Bruce A


    This compact guide from O'Reilly teaches you the basics of Ruby on Rails, the super-productive new way to develop full-featured web applications. Discover how to install and use both the Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework. More advanced material shows you just how fast Ruby on Rails can go.

  18. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  19. Roughness on Dutch railway wheels and rails

    Dings, P.C.; Dittrich, M.G.


    Surface roughness on 150 railway wheels and on the rails of 30 sites in the Netherlands have been measured. Block braked wheels were found to show higher roughnesses than the rail at any site. The smoothest rail is 8 dB smoother than the smoothest wheel. It was concluded that in reducing railway

  20. Outer Rail for Wall Plate Covering


    The outer rail retains two lateral screw webs of an intermediate rail to construct a base for wall plate covering. Two retention devices are disposed oppositely on respective inner sides of each retention web for retaining a respective screw web of the intermediate rail. Each retention device...

  1. Sustainability of Urban Freight Transport: Retail Distribution and Local Regulations in Cities

    H.J. Quak (Hans)


    textabstractAlthough our urbanized civilization requires freight transport in order to sustain it, urban freight transport is especially recognized for its unsustainable impacts. To reduce the unsustainable impacts of urban freight transport, many local governments develop policies that focus someti

  2. 49 CFR 372.301 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served.


    ....301 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at municipalities served. The terminal area within the meaning of 49 U.S.C. 13503 of any motor carrier of property or freight forwarder... of property or motor carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder...

  3. 78 FR 78472 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders...


    ... of Property and Freight Forwarders; Association of Independent Property Brokers and Agents' Exemption... brokers and freight forwarders from the $75,000 bond provision included in section 32918 of the Moving... freight forwarders. FMCSA requests comments from all interested parties on AIPBA's exemption request...

  4. 78 FR 78470 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Freight Forwarders; International...


    ... exemption for all domestic freight forwarders which operate solely in the Department of Defense's (DOD... of all domestic freight forwarders operating solely in the DOD's HHG program, from the $75,000... property brokers and freight forwarders operating under FMCSA's jurisdiction. Public Law 112-141, Sec...


    Ivo Hlavatý


    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  6. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    Kuehn, Kurt


    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  7. Allocating Freight Empty Cars in Railway Networks with Dynamic Demands

    Ce Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the freight empty cars allocation problem in railway networks with dynamic demands, in which the storage cost, unit transportation cost, and demand in each stage are taken into consideration. Under the constraints of capacity and demand, a stage-based optimization model for allocating freight empty cars in railway networks is formulated. The objective of this model is to minimize the total cost incurred by transferring and storing empty cars in different stages. Moreover, a genetic algorithm is designed to obtain the optimal empty cars distribution strategies in railway networks. Finally, numerical experiments are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm.

  8. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL


    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to


    Martin Straka


    Full Text Available In terms of building a network parking strategies for freight transport may be considered two variants: a building (completing car parks on abandoned of border crossings, respectively building a whole new network of parks. Creating a network of parks for freight is in the interest of the Slovak Republic as well as the European Union. The subsequent optimization is dependent on the quality of road infrastructure and the traffic intensity in the monitored sections. It is therefore important selection of suitable candidates, administrators and their subsequent assessment of the appropriateness and services provided in selected locations. Identification of parking in the SR enables to choose the effective solution for intelligent networking and secure parking.

  10. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica


    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  11. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article explores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project......, but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces...

  12. Rationalities and materialities of light rail scapes

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    , but also that the light rail re-configures and shapes the urban structures, design and planning practices within the city based on its materiality and spatial interaction with it. This means that light rail projects need to be rethought as complex urban development projects instead of just simple ‘pieces......Light rail is a modernisation of old tram systems and a popular tool in urban development strategies throughout many European cities. Light rails continue to be built despite often having poor socio-economic returns — other similar modes could provide the same transport function at a lower cost....... Through a case study, this article ex- plores the main vision and rationalities behind light rail projects in two mid-sized European cities — Bergen and Angers — and considers how this vision has materialised in various ‘light rail scapes’. The article argues that the city shapes the light rail project...

  13. Research on Reasonable Selecting Rail in the Line with Notable Damage of Contact Fatigue%接触疲劳伤损突出路段钢轨合理选用研究

    邓建辉; 陈朝阳; 徐权


    在客货混运主干线的接触疲劳伤损突出路段,进行了1 100 MPa级热处理钢轨和U75V、U71Mn热轧钢轨的铺路试验.结果表明1 100 MPa级热处理钢轨的抗接触疲劳伤损性能明显优于U75V和U71Mn热轧钢轨.在客货混运主干线钢轨接触疲劳伤损突出的大半径曲线和直线路段选用1 100 MPa级热处理钢轨,将有效减少钢轨的接触疲劳伤损,获得良好的综合试验效果.%In the main line transporting both passenger and freight with notable damage of contact fatigue, the paving trial of 1 100 Mpa heat treated rail,U75V rail, and U71Mn rail have been carried out. The result indicates that the 1 100 Mpa heat treated rail's contact fatigue resistance properties are better than the U75V and U71Mn rail's. Selecting 1 100 Mpa heat treated rail in the sweeping curve or line of the main line transporting both passenger and freight with notable damage of contact fatigue, the rail' s contact fatigue damage can decrease obviously,and the trail gains good integral effectiveness.




    The fluctuation of shipping freight rates (freight rate risk) is an important source of market risk for all participants in the freight markets including hedge funds, commodity and energy producers. We measure the freight rate risk by the Value-at-Risk (VaR) approach. A range of parametric and non-parametric VaR methods is applied to various popular freight markets for dry and wet cargoes. Backtesting is conducted in two stages by means of statistical tests and a subjective loss function that...


    V. M. Bubnov


    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  16. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network


    ..., railroads, waterways, pipelines, and airways. Freight moves throughout the United States on 985,000 miles of... accommodate the large that are vehicles authorized by the `restricted' or State. `low clearance' For routes... Network, as defined in 23 CFR part 658, without restrictions or clearance issues; availability of truck...

  17. Introducing competition in urban consolidation center freight allocation modeling

    Simoni, M.D.; Wiegmans, B.; Van Duin, J.H.R.; Zuidwijk, R.A.


    Urban consolidation center (UCC) represents in many cities the most chosen solution by the local governments to reduce the negative impacts of city freight distribution. In order to achieve successful results, it is important to consider also the perspective of carriers with respect to the choice of

  18. Sustainable practices in urban freight distribution in Bilbao

    Esther Alvarez


    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the present study is to select some feasible and sustainable logistic practices in order to improve the urban freight distribution in Bilbao city. Design/methodology/approach: After a thorough literature review and a benchmarking, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP techniques were used in order to support the decision making processes in order to select the most interesting practices. The criteria used for this selection were based on four factors: (1 improvement of the city freight distribution, (2 implementation possibility, (3 short and medium term applicability and (4 impact on the citizens of Bilbao. Findings: The paper identifies some specific problems that must be faced during the last stage of the logistics chain, where products are usually delivered to final customers in the urban environment. Research limitations/implications: Not all good urban freight distribution practices can be applied universally to all types of towns. Therefore, it is necessary to design some practices specifically to each particular city according to the physical characteristics of the city, the companies’ motivation and the citizens’ habits. Practical implications: All the agents involved in the city freight distribution should be aware of the benefits and problems that their actions cause. Originality/value: This study was carried out from a wide perspective that included researchers, logistics operators and local authorities.

  19. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    Abate, Megersa Abera


    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  20. Slovenian Freight Forwarding After the Accession to the EU

    Igor Jakomin


    Full Text Available The moment the Republic of Slovenia joins the EU all theservice offices or agencies related to cross-border operations, inparticular the freight fmwarders, will feel the consequences reflectingthese issues, or resulting therefrom:- In the field of legislation, no major direct consequences areexpected, but rather some indirect ones;- Bigger freight forwarders, better provided with capital andpresent globally will affect the operations arising from thechanged market position in the common European logisticalmarket;- As result of market changes, certain adverse financial effectswill occur in some forwarders. This will affect the social positionof employees as well;- The consequences in the macro-economic level will notonly reflect on the social area, but also on lower newlyadded value, and on some non-exploited part of the capital.The facts listed above show that the accession of Sloveniato the EU will bring about a series of adverse consequences inall freight forwarders in the first stage. The economic consequenceswill be mainly visible in the decrease of revenues offreight forwarders, whereas the social outcome will reflect in redundancies.These will lead to closing-down, liquidation orbankruptcy of minor freight forwarding agents.

  1. EU road freight transport sector : work and employment conditions

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Klein Hesselink, D.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den; Berg, R. van der; Heuvel, F. van den


    International competition and technological developments have had both positive and negative effects on the road freight transport sector. These changes have significantly influenced work and employment conditions in the sector. As this report highlights, creating more and better jobs while enhancin

  2. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.


    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t

  3. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart


    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  4. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart


    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical

  5. Challenges and future research needs towards international freight transport modelling

    Meersman, H.; Ehrler, C.C.; Bruckmann, D.; Chen, T.M.; Francke, J.; Hill, P.; Jackson, C.; Klauenberg, J.; Kurowski, M.; Seidel, S.; Vierth, I.


    The advanced internationalisation of markets and production processes continuously adds to the complexity of supply chains. At the same time improving the sustainability of the related international freight transport processes and optimising their efficiency is becoming a topic of central relevance.

  6. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  7. Intermodal freight terminals : marketing channels and transport networks

    Nijkamp, Peter; Wiegmans, Bart


    The goal of this paper is to combine the current theory about marketing channels withcombined transport and logistics in order to develop a customer-based and broadly applicable approach to the study of combined freight transport inEurope. Furthermore, this paper seeks to provide an analytical frame

  8. Railway and road discrete choice model for foreign trade freight between Antioquia and the Port of Cartagena

    J. D. Pineda-Jaramillo


    Full Text Available Most Colombian freight is transported on roads with barely acceptable conditions, and although there is a speculation about the need for a railway for freight transportation, there is not a study in Colombia showing the variables that influence the modal choice by the companies that generate freight transportation. This article presents the calculation of demand for a hypothetical railway through a discrete choice model. It begins with a qualitative research through focus group techniques to identify the variables that influence the choice of persons responsible for the transportation of large commercial companies in Antioquia (Colombia. The influential variables in the election were the cost and service frequency, and these variables were used to apply a Stated Preference (SP and Revealed Preference (RP survey, then to calibrate a Multinomial Logit Model (MNL, and to estimate the influence of each of them. We show that the probability of railway choice by the studied companies varies between 67% and 93%, depending on differences in these variables.

  9. Freight transport in 2010 : An exploration of future prices and quality of freight transport in three scenarios

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Kuipers, Bart; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Melody, W.H.


    Background Central to this report is the question what effects government policy can have on rates, transit times, and the reliability of freight transport. In this context, two policy scenarios were examined: one scenario where all social costs that are currently ‘external’, are passed on to freigh

  10. Trace element and organochlorine contamination in prey and habitat of the Yuma clapper rail in the Imperial Valley, California

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Yuma clapper rail (Rallus longirostris yumanensis) occurs along the Colorado River in Arizona and California, and in small marshes located around the Salton Sea...

  11. A Breeding Season Survey of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostritis obsoletus) in South San Francisco Bay, California

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this project was to determine the densities and nesting success, and to investigate the habitat requirements of California Clapper Rails breeding in...

  12. Habitat Use, Spatial Relationships, and Censusing Techniques of Breeding Eastern Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis) in Northern Florida

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The project proposed this report will provide data on the habitats of the eastern black rail through the use of radio telemetry, vegetative samples, and weekly...

  13. Rail-to-rail differential input amplification stage with main and surrogate differential pairs

    Britton, Jr., Charles Lanier; Smith, Stephen Fulton


    An operational amplifier input stage provides a symmetrical rail-to-rail input common-mode voltage without turning off either pair of complementary differential input transistors. Secondary, or surrogate, transistor pairs assume the function of the complementary differential transistors. The circuit also maintains essentially constant transconductance, constant slew rate, and constant signal-path supply current as it provides rail-to-rail operation.

  14. Rail-to-rail differential input amplification stage with main and surrogate differential pairs

    Britton, Jr., Charles Lanier; Smith, Stephen Fulton


    An operational amplifier input stage provides a symmetrical rail-to-rail input common-mode voltage without turning off either pair of complementary differential input transistors. Secondary, or surrogate, transistor pairs assume the function of the complementary differential transistors. The circuit also maintains essentially constant transconductance, constant slew rate, and constant signal-path supply current as it provides rail-to-rail operation.

  15. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.


    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  16. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Amit Lakhani


    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  17. 78 FR 18676 - Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies


    ... Surface Transportation Board Information Collection Activities; Rail Depreciation Studies ACTION: 30-day...) approval of the information collection--Rail Depreciation Studies-- further described below. The Board... notice the Board is requesting comments on the following information collection: Title: Rail...

  18. Light rail implementation: Success and failure aspects of Dutch light rail projects

    Van Oort, N.; Van der Bijl, R.; Roeske, R.


    Light rail has been successfully implemented in many urban regions worldwide. Although light rail has been a proven transport concept in many cities, there is much debate on the (societal) cost-benefit ratio of these systems. In addition to the success stories, several light rail projects were not t

  19. 77 FR 27856 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...


    ... Tennessee Southern Railroad Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail... days after the notice of exemption was filed). TSRR is a rail carrier. PRL, PRH, and Patriot are... TSRR, PRL, PRH, and Patriot; (2) the continuance in control of KTRR is not intended to connect with...

  20. A projectile for a rectangular barreled rail gun

    Juanche, Francisco M.


    The Physics Department at the Naval Postgraduate School is developing a concept to overcome the problems that keep present rail guns from being practical weapons. The rails must be replaced often if the rail gun operation is to be continuous. Replacing the rails in present rail gun configurations is time consuming. The Physics Department's design concept uses a rectangular barrel as part of the solution to the problem of replacing the rails. The projectile will require flat surfaces to mainta...

  1. Analysis of the incremental cost and trade-offs between energy efficiency and physical distribution effectiveness in intercity freight markets

    Roberts, P.O.; Terziev, M.N.; Kneafsey, J.T.; Wilson, L.B.; Samuelson, R.D.; Chiang, Y.S.; Deephouse, C.V.


    This report describes a study of the effects of changes in national transportation policy on the traffic allocation and the energy consumption of various modes of intercity freight transportation. The study focuses on the linkages between freight transportation and industry structure. Starting from the viewpoint of the individual firm, the process of ordering and shipping supplies was analyzed in detail. Models were developed to predict the level of service associated with the transport alternatives available to a firm, and to predict the total logistics cost of each of these alternatives. These models make it possible to forecast the demand for various modal services at the disaggregate level. In order to predict total aggregate demand, a method was developed for sampling from the population of firms, and summing the demands. Using these models and methods, it is possible to make detailed forecasts of commodity flows under alternative policy options. The policy options selected for analysis include substantial rehabilitation of railroad yards and facilities, improving TOFC/COFC performance with shuttle trains, allowing unrestricted use of double trailers on the Interstate Highway System, increasing truck user charges, imposing waterway user charges, and an increase in fuel costs. The policies were investigated with a computerized model system which simulated freight flows between four pairs of major metropolitan area. Before the model could be applied, each policy had to be analyzed with regard to its effect on the key level of service determinants: waiting and travel time distributions, loss and damage, and tariff rates. The model system has been used to predict the impact of these level of service changes on the shipping patterns of a sample of individual firms. These results have been summed and expanded to produce aggregate forecasts of modal shares and energy consumption.

  2. 77 FR 54655 - Genesee & Wyoming Inc.-Control-RailAmerica, Inc., et al.


    ... regional and shortline railroads would improve customer service for GWI and RailAmerica customers, as well... industry and its commitment to providing continuously improved customer service as additional public... locality--Linden, Alabama--but they state that no customer there would experience a reduction in...

  3. 考虑运营费用和线性化树形改编策略的货物列车开行方案研究%Freight Train Service Design Problem with Operation Cost and Linearization Constraints for Carflow’s Tree-shaped Classification Strategy

    王志美; 林柏梁


    国外货物列车开行方案的制定通常以车流和车列的综合费用最小为目标,而我国大多以车流的集结和改编车小时消耗最小为目标,很少考虑每个车列的运营费用,造成理论开行费用偏小,其方案未必最优。此外,我国现有开行方案模型将车流树形改编策略递归表示,不利于对不可行流的处理。鉴于此,本文对现有模型进行改造,在总目标中增加车列运营费用;在约束中引入新的决策变量,实现线性化的车流树形改编策略。设计并行禁忌搜索算法实现对模型的求解。结果表明,单位列车运营费用中的固定费用对开行方案有着重要的影响,其费用越高,总开行列数越少,列车平均运距越长,但总改编车流量增加;线性化的改编策略直观展现车流的改编路径,便于对不可行流的运输方案进行调整。%With regard to formulating freight train operation plan, foreign countries generally take minimizing the integrated cost of traffic flow and train set as the objective. However, our country mainly focuses on minimizing the total train service accumulation cost and classification cost, rarely considering the operation cost of train set, which results that the theoretical operation cost is less than normal level and the operation plan may not be the best. Furthermore, the existing train formation plan models in our country recursively represent the traffic flow’s tree-shaped classification strategy, which is not conducive to deal with infeasible flow. In view of this situation, this paper modifies the existing models as follows: train set operation cost is added to the overall objective function and new decision variables are introduced into constraints to realize linearly representing the traffic flow’s tree-shaped classification strategy. Then, the parallel tabu search algorithm is designed to solve the proposed model. The results demonstrate that the

  4. Location Analysis of Freight Distribution Terminal of Jakarta City, Indonesia

    Nahry Nahry


    Full Text Available Currently Jakarta has two freight terminals, namely Pulo Gebang and Tanah Merdeka. But, both terminals are just functioned for parking and have not been utilized properly yet, e.g. for consolidation. Goods consolidation, which is usually performed in distribution terminal, may reduce number of freight flow within the city. This paper is aimed to determine the best location of distribution terminal in Jakarta among those two terminals and two additional alternative sites, namely Lodan and Rawa Buaya. It is initialized by the identification of important factors that affect the location selection. It is carried out by Likert analysis through the questionnaires distributed to logistics firms. The best location is determined by applying Overlay Analysis using ArcGIS 9.2. Four grid maps are produced to represent the accessibility, cost, time, and environment factors as the important factors of location. The result shows that the ranking from the best is; Lodan, Tanah Merdeka, Pulo Gebang, and Rawa Buaya.

  5. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transport – capacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... for further enrichment of the modelling exercise by incorporating information regarding the operator to give a stronger behavioural basis for the vehicle movements and utilisation analysis. Originality/value This paper identifies different approaches and shed light on potential gains that can be achieved...

  6. A Novel Approach to Forecasting the Bulk Freight Market

    Vangelis Tsioumas


    Full Text Available The fast-paced and ever changing freight market compels maritime executives to use sound forecasting tools. This paper aims to enhance the forecasting accuracy of the Baltic Dry Index (BDI by means of developing a multivariate Vector Autoregressive model with exogenous variables (VARX. The proposed model incorporates the Chinese steel production, the dry bulk fleet development and a new composite indicator, the Dry Bulk Economic Climate Index (DBECI. The predictive power of this approach is evaluated against a univariate ARIMA framework, which serves as a benchmark model. The selection of explanatory variables and the model specification are validated using a series of pertinent tests. The results demonstrate that the VARX model outperforms the ARIMA approach, suggesting that the selected independent variables can substantially improve the accuracy of BDI forecasts. The present study is of interest to maritime practitioners, as it provides useful insights into the direction of the freight market and allows them to make informed decisions.

  7. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas


    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... into the issue. The monitoring practices are fairly similar in all four countries, with typical monitoring done manually when filling the tank and data kept on a computer. Tonne-kilometre data is rarely monitored, but some other performance measures may be used. Current level of implementation of various energy...


    Jin Xuesong; Wang Kaiyun; Wen Zefeng; Zhang Weihua


    The effect of discrete support of rail on the formation and evolution of rail corrugation is primarily investigated with numerical method in the situation of wheelset curving steadily and repeatedly. In the numerical analysis of corrugation it is considered that a combination of Kalker's rolling contact theory with non-Hertzian to be modified, a linear frictional work model and a vertical dynamics model of railway vehicle coupled with a curved track. And the uneven support stiffness of rail in the vertical direction due to discrete sleeper support and the different running speed of the wheelset are taken into consideration. The damage on the running surface of rail, concerning rail corrugation formation, is restricted to wear mechanism of rail material. The numerical results obtained indicate that the discrete supports of rail by sleepers have a great influence on the formation of the corrugation under the condition of non-zero and stable creepages of wheelset and track.

  9. Freight tracking cost analysis to improve logistics management operations

    De Coning, A.; Hoffman, A.J.


    The cross-border freight industry suffers from inefficiencies that can be addressed by implementing technology based systems. Inefficiencies cause time delays at amongst others border posts and weigh stations that in turn increase turnaround times. Higher turnaround times affect the business bottom line as it reduces the turnover generated on capital assets and therefore decrease profit levels. Efficient logistics management will also ensure increased trade in Sub Saharan...

  10. Factoring in family freight forwarder company: case study


    Each freight forwarder company must independently determine whether factoring is the right choice for them and if will pay off. If the factoring as a financial method would not be economically viable, it certainly would not exist. There are several different financing methods, which are more or less useful. However, not all of them are appropriate for every company, just like all buyers do not represent equal risks for the suppliers. The same buyer can pay one supplier within t...

  11. Economic Valorisation of the Freight Transport Centre Kutina

    Dragan Badanjak


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the conditions for constructing a freight- transp01t centre in Kutilza with special emphasis on the positiveinfluences that such a project could have for the town ofKutina and the Moslavina region. The analysis of the locationhas shown that the conditions for its establishment have beenmet, provided that town administration determines the ways inwhich the project will be realised regarding the necesswy financialscheme.

  12. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Seidenglanz Daniel


    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  13. A low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, R.J.


    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  14. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.


    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  15. Prediction of Freight Transport Impacts on Urban Road Volumes: A Case Study of Izmir

    Yıldırım Oral


    Full Text Available Planning paradigms, which aim to overcome urban transport problems, have to evaluate the mobility prediction of goods besides the mobility of individuals. This is a requirement and it comes up with different scales and features in the cities which contain high density of regional interactions. Urban roads respond from freight transport due to economy besides relation of productions and consumptions. This study is an instance to generate solutions for future which tries to evaluate respective interaction in the process of urban planning and transport planning. Study area has been stated as the city Izmir, TURKEY. The exact area is the legal responsibility border of the law 3030. The location and impact of freight transport generation stations cause total freight transport demands to rise up. Concurrently, there is a high ratio of freight transport in the transit traffic. Freight vehicles may be seen in every level of roads due to features of the road network. Therefore, it has been aimed to correlate freight transport moves with the location and impacts of the freight generation stations. This study also assumes that freight transport moves may have some measurable reasons and may contain usable parameters, for this purpose. The measurement of freight transport in Izmir, the density of the vehicles which interacts with the several aggregation areas and the location or impacts of the freight transport generation stations in those areas have been tried to evaluate simultaneously. The stages of the paradigm are determined as below: • To determine the categories of the freight transport generation stations and measurement values on urban roads,• To draw the borders of several aggregations areas and CBD area borders by determining enumeration points,• To measure density of freight vehicles move in terms of inner traffic,

  16. New approaches to enhancing efficiency of freight railway stations performance within industrial enterprises

    Ваагн Емілійович Парунакян


    Full Text Available At present time freight stations operation is complicated by raised dynamics of production and transport processes. Under the given handling capacity, this circumstance affects duration of processing of inbound and internal flow of freight cars. In connection with the abovementioned, the article covers new approaches to the analysis and evaluation of operating characteristics, and designing of railway freight stations within industrial enterprises. These approaches base on the system adaptation of the railway freight stations structural layouts and parameters of technical facilities to new working conditions and production demands. As the criterion of optimization of freight station operation, the index of “transportation work” (freight car-hour was offered. It allows differentiating the elemental flows of freight cars from the overall flow of freight cars at the freight station. It also allows identifying structure, volumes and other parameters of train operation (duration of processing measured in freight car-hours, interpretational and technological idle time denoting the location and the reason for their occurrence. Moreover, the analysis and evaluation of yard operation is offered to be carried out via handling capacity balance, which illustrates the relation between the overall volume of transportation work and the amount of trains handled at the station. This allows establishing additional transportation work and makes it possible to evaluate the real (objective necessity in throughput and handling capacity of station facilities in particular, and the station in general. The operating characteristics that have been examined determine the new methodical approaches to designing of composition-and-structural layouts and parameters of industrial freight stations. As the basis for optimization of the station, the certain method of morphological analysis and synthesis of technical decisions can be accepted, with its modification due to the

  17. Why does the energy intensity of freight transport rise?

    Scheele, D. [Scientific Council for Government Policy (Netherlands)


    In advanced economies it is normal to observe declining energy intensities. Both improvements in conversion efficiency and in organisational efficiency of energy use cause energy demand to grow at a slower pace than the economy. In this context it is somewhat particular that in the vital sector of freight transport the energy intensity does not decline, but instead increases. The energy demand of this sector only takes a small share of the total energy demand. According to the World Energy Council the transport sector takes 30 percent of world energy demand and freight transport again takes 30 percent of the transport sector share, maritime transport excluded. Despite this small share some explanation is needed why the increase in energy demand form the volume growth of freight demand is not at least partly countered by a decline in the energy intensity. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the explanations that are given in the literature and to support these explanations with empirical evidence on the case of the Netherlands. (EG)


    Ryuichi YOSHIMOTO


    Full Text Available Surveying the recent trend toward e-commerce and computerization in the trucking industry, this paper establishes a framework for analyzing the impact of information and communication technology on road freight transportation in terms of commerce, logistics and fleet management, and proposes hypothetical mechanisms of influence. The authors note that the rapid growth of e-commerce and freight fleet management systems make it difficult to arrive at firm, statistics-based conclusions about their impact on road freight transportation, but suggest that more sophisticated government management of transportation demand as well as freight fleet management systems could cancel out the negative impact of e-commerce on road transportation.

  19. Intensification of Development of Mixed Transportation of Freight in Ukraine through Formation of the Network of Transportation and Logistic Centres and Transportation and Logistic Clusters

    Karpenko Oksana O.


    Full Text Available Development of mixed transportation is a prospective direction of development of the transportation system of Ukraine. The article analyses the modern state of development of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine. The most popular types of combined transportation (refers to multi-modal are container and contrailer trains, which are formed both in Ukraine (Viking and Yaroslav and in other countries, first of all, Belarus (Zubr. One of the reasons of underdevelopment of mixed transportation of freight in Ukraine is absence of a developed network of transportation and logistic centres. The article offers to form a network of transportation and logistic centres in Ukraine as a way of intensification of development of mixed transportations of freight, since they facilitate co-ordination of use of various types of transport and support integrated management of material flows. Transportation and logistic centres should become a start-up complex, around which transportation and logistic clusters would be gradually formed. Transportation and logistic clusters is a new efficient form of network organisation and management of transportation and logistic services and they also ensure growth of efficiency of use of the regional transportation and logistic potential of Ukraine. The article shows prospective supporting transportation and logistic centres and centres of formation of transportation and logistic clusters in the territory of Ukraine. Formation of efficient transportation and logistic system of Ukraine on the basis of a network of transportation and logistic clusters would facilitate entering of Ukraine into the world transportation environment and would allow acceleration of introduction of efficient logistic schemes of freight delivery, in particular, mixed transportation of freight.

  20. Estimation of the Temperature Distribution in the Rails of a High-Performance Electromagnetic Rail Gun

    McCorkle, William C


    We estimate the temperature distribution in the rails of an electromagnetic rail gun at the time that the armature leaves the rails. In order to obtain analytic results, we assume a simple geometry for the rails and an electromagnetic skin effect with a current-carrying channel boundary that propagates with the accelerating armature. We use three different approaches to obtain expressions for the temperature rise in the rails: a constant gun current, a quadratic time-dependent current, and a channel with current density controlled by magnetic field diffusion into the rails. We look at a range of exit velocities, from 1500 m/s to 5000 m/s. In all three approaches, the model predicts the highest temperatures near the gun breech. We find that after a single gun firing the temperature reaches the melting temperature of the metal rails in a layer of finite thickness near the surface of the rails, for rails made of copper or tantalum. We plot the thickness of the melt layer as a function of position along the rails...

  1. An Early Evaluation of Italian High Speed Rail Projects

    Paolo Beria


    Full Text Available Italy has undergone, in the last 15 years, an exceptional public financial effort to build approximately 1,000 km of high speed rail lines. Further extensions are under construction or planned, especially in the most important international relations. This network is widely considered as fundamental to comply the European vision of a continental-wide transport system.The paper analyses the past and the future of such network, where possible from a quantitative point of view. The first part of the article reviews the history of the Alta Velocità scheme, particularly focusing on the issues related to the economic regulation of the investments and the financial troubles at first and then on the present issues related to the regulation of rail services.The analysis of the supply, the time gains, the demand and the costs allows to build a simple but independent evaluation of the past projects from an ex-post perspective, pointing out the successes, but also important critical issues.The second part of the paper analyses the future expansion plans looking at the costs, the existing and expected demand and derives some policy indications and cost reduction strategies capable both to control public expenditure in a period of crisis and not to abandon the idea of a modern and effective rail network.

  2. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  3. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering


    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  4. The high speed rail era self service tourism's space structure and consume behavior research%高铁时代自助游的空间结构和消费行为研究



    With high-speed rail era,self-help touri-sm in China has developed rapidly,the market share will gradually increase,self-interest tourism has also been more effective protection.But the self-help tourism in China,after all,still in the initial stage of its development is still subject to a number of subjective and objective factors,this high-iron background,high-speed rail travel times on the spatial structure of Chinese self-help and consumer behavior.%随着高铁时代的到来,自助旅游在我国发展迅速,市场份额将逐渐加大,自助旅游的权益也得到了更有效的保障。但是自助旅游在我国毕竟还处于初始阶段,其发展仍然受到一些主客观因素的影响,该文以高铁为背景,研究高铁时代对中国自助游的空间结构和消费行为。

  5. Dynamic vehicle-track interaction in switches and crossings and the influence of rail pad stiffness - field measurements and validation of a simulation model

    Pålsson, Björn A.; Nielsen, Jens C. O.


    A model for simulation of dynamic interaction between a railway vehicle and a turnout (switch and crossing, S&C) is validated versus field measurements. In particular, the implementation and accuracy of viscously damped track models with different complexities are assessed. The validation data come from full-scale field measurements of dynamic track stiffness and wheel-rail contact forces in a demonstrator turnout that was installed as part of the INNOTRACK project with funding from the European Union Sixth Framework Programme. Vertical track stiffness at nominal wheel loads, in the frequency range up to 20 Hz, was measured using a rolling stiffness measurement vehicle (RSMV). Vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces were measured by an instrumented wheel set mounted in a freight car featuring Y25 bogies. The measurements were performed for traffic in both the through and diverging routes, and in the facing and trailing moves. The full set of test runs was repeated with different types of rail pad to investigate the influence of rail pad stiffness on track stiffness and contact forces. It is concluded that impact loads on the crossing can be reduced by using more resilient rail pads. To allow for vehicle dynamics simulations at low computational cost, the track models are discretised space-variant mass-spring-damper models that are moving with each wheel set of the vehicle model. Acceptable agreement between simulated and measured vertical contact forces at the crossing can be obtained when the standard GENSYS track model is extended with one ballast/subgrade mass under each rail. This model can be tuned to capture the large phase delay in dynamic track stiffness at low frequencies, as measured by the RSMV, while remaining sufficiently resilient at higher frequencies.

  6. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    Mornini, Tom


    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  7. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K. (Japan Steel Works Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))


    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm {times} 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described.

  8. Dutch logistics service providers and sustainable physical distribution

    Onno Omta; Hans-Heinrich Glöckner; Reinder Pieters; Stef Weijers


    As environmental concerns becoming increasingly important to logistics service providers, the question arises as to how they can achieve sustainable physical distribution practices while surviving the severe competition in freight transport. This issue is further complicated by the pressures from

  9. Uncovering document fraud in maritime freight transport based on probabilistic classification

    Triepels, Ron; Feelders, A. F.; Daniels, Hennie


    Deficient visibility in global supply chains causes significant risks for the customs brokerage practices of freight forwarders. One of the risks that freight forwarders face is that shipping documentation might contain document fraud and is used to declare a shipment. Traditional risk controls are

  10. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.


    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing

  11. Incorporating Logistics in Freight Transport Demand Models: State-of-the-Art and Research Opportunities

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Ruijgrok, K.; Davydenko, I.


    Freight transport demand is a demand derived from all the activities needed to move goods between locations of production to locations of consumption, including trade, logistics and transportation. A good representation of logistics in freight transport demand models allows us to predict the effects

  12. The Extended Generalized Cost Concept and its Application in Freight Transport and General Equilibrium Modeling

    Tavasszy, L.; Davydenko, I.; Ruijgrok, K.


    The integration of Spatial Equilibrium models and Freight transport network models is important to produce consistent scenarios for future freight transport demand. At various spatial scales, we see the changes in production, trade, logistics networking and transportation, being driven by mass-indiv

  13. A cointegration approach to forecasting freight rates in the dry bulk shipping sector

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); A.W. Veenstra (Albert)


    textabstractIn this paper, a vector autoregressive model is developed for a sample of ocean dry bulk freight rates. Although the series of freight rates are themselves found to be non-stationary, thus precluding the use of many modelling methodologies, evidence provided by cointegration tests points

  14. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track?: Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    Kim, N.S.


    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, wich is epresented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which ndicate the economic performance of the

  15. Zero emission city logistics: current practices in freight electromobility and feasibility in the near future

    Quak, H.J.; Nesterova, N.N.; Rooijen, T. van; Deng, Y.


    This paper examines the feasibility of using electric powered vehicles in urban freight transport from a carrier’s perspective, including their attitudes towards electric freight vehicles (EFVs) and all relevant elements affecting this business case, such as: technological features, existing restric

  16. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared


    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  17. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...... consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...


    V. P. Velinets


    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation of a railway track on the strength is one of the sections of the overall complex research problems of interaction track and rolling stock. This paper describes the experimental study of horizontal transverse stiffness of railway rails with various strands of rail fasteners. Materials of this article should be relevant and will make it possible to calculate the strength of railway track using the correct and corrected performance of horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads. Methodology. Determination of horizontal transverse rigidity of rail yarns with different designs of rail fasteners was conducted by measuring the quantities of transverse displacement of rails calculation points – namely the head and sole. For research the specialist equipment was created, made up of lineside jack DC-20, equipped with a hydraulic pressure gauge to measure pressure and rigid rod for horizontal rail stop in the thread, the opposite of the jack. Lateral movement of the head and sole of the track were recorded, and measured with indicators of clock type within a few hundredths of a millimeter. The horizontal lateral load on the rail jack was created by the injection pressure in the cylinder which was fixed with manometer into the jack. Load of rails was conducted over 2 tons of degrees ranging from 0 to 8 tons. To obtain reliable measurement results of lateral movement of the head and the base rails, its movement was conducted for each type fasteners not less than in 3 sections. Measurements were carried out without the creation of vertical load. Findings. With the developed method was found transverse displacement magnitude of rails calculation points at different designs of rail fasteners. Originality. The experimental studies were first found the mentioned horizontal transverse stiffness of rail threads in the head and sole of modern designs for different rail fasteners. Practical value. The values of horizontal transverse

  19. 49 CFR 372.303 - Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities served.


    ... Areas § 372.303 Terminal areas of motor carriers and freight forwarders at unincorporated communities... freight forwarder subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B, at any unincorporated community having a post... carrier of passengers in the transportation of express or freight forwarder, within which transportation...

  20. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders....14 Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition... commerce under 49 CFR 386.83. (b) A broker, freight forwarder, or for-hire motor carrier that has failed to...

  1. From freight partnerships to city logistics living labs - Giving meaning to the elusive concept of living labs

    Quak, H.J.; Lindholm, M.; Tavasszy, L.A.; Browne, M.


    The paper discusses the growing importance of urban freight research given the increasing urban population trends. The complexity of urban freight systems means that it is essential for the public and private sectors to work together - one way to achieve this has been through freight partnerships. A

  2. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...


    ... of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight Rate Indices for U.S. Agricultural... received from some large U.S. exporters and intermediaries to develop and release container freight indices... Containerized Freight Index (SCFI, 2009), Container Trade Statistics Index (CTS Index, 2009), the...

  3. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    Trucks, Daimler [Daimler Trucks North America Llc, Portland, OR (United States)


    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  4. Instantaneous liquid release from a rail tanker: the influence of noise shields on pool shape and pool size.

    Rosmuller, Nils


    In the Netherlands, the Betuweline is a dedicated freight railway. It will, among other things, be used for transportation of all kinds of hazardous materials from the Port of Rotterdam to the German Hinterland and vice versa. The line is approximately 150 km long. Alongside the line, more than 100 km noise shields have been constructed. The question is how, and to what extent, this noise shield will affect the pool shape and size of an instantaneous release of a flammable liquid, such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In case of an instantaneous release of liquid from a rail tanker (50 m(3)), both risk analysts and emergency responders use a circular pool shape of about 600 m(2) would result. To assess the influence of a noise shield, a full scale test was conducted on an already constructed part of the Betuweline. A rail tanker was filled with 50 m(3) red-colored environmentally safe liquid. The liquid was instantaneously released. A very peculiar pool shape actually results due to the presence of a noise shield. A zone between the rails and the noise shield (2m wide and 90 m long) is within 2-3 min filled with 15 cm of liquid. The total pool size area was about 750 m(2). Both shape and size deviate substantially from the traditional figures. These insights are both relevant to emergency responders for disaster abatement purposes and to risk analysts for effective modeling purposes. The Dutch Ministry of Transport is examining possible strategies to deal with these results. The results of this study are based upon one single instantaneous release test. In addition, it is valuable to find out what the pool shape and size would be in case of a continuous release from the rail tanker near a noise shield.

  5. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  6. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  7. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan


    ... the development of a comprehensive NRP. Only through participation of all levels of government... competitiveness of the United States; better understanding and integrating the unique economics of the rail...

  8. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-


    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  9. California Black Rail - Central Delta [ds17

    California Department of Resources — Results of taped-call black rail surveys of in-stream habitat within certain waterways in the central Sacramento / San Joaquin Delta during 1992 and 1993. TIME...

  10. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.


    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  11. Arc-driven rail gun research

    Ray, P. K.


    The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  12. 78 FR 21006 - Consolidated Rail Corporation, CSX Transportation, Inc., and Norfolk Southern Railway Company...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket Nos. AB 167 (Sub-No. 1192X); AB 55 (Sub-No. 723X); AB 290...\\ Because applicants are seeking to discontinue service, not to abandon the line, trail use/rail banking...

  13. Modelling Risk Control Measures in Railways: Analysing how designers and operators organise safe rail traffic

    Van den Top, J.


    Safe, high-quality and more frequent rail services are desired by both society and passengers. Since large scale infrastructure extensions to accommodate higher train frequencies are hardly practicable, a more intense network utilisation is considered the way to achieve these aims. As a result, trai

  14. Automatic Broken Rail Crack Detection Scheme

    Komal B. Dandge


    Full Text Available In India, as the fuel cost continues to rise, railway transport plays an important role. Although there are, so many options of transportation are available like flights, trains, buses etc but most of the people prefer trains only as it is cost effective and comfortable way of travelling and hence in today’s world railway becomes the lifeline of India. When anybody goes through the daily news, they come across many accidents which are related to railroad. So there must be good railway safety for the people as the rail accidents are often dangerous in terms of the severity and death etc, when compared with the other transportation. There are several reasons present for railroad related accidents but the major reason is cracks in rails. It is the main cause of railway derailments and has the capacity to induce major damage to economy of the world. Therefore more efforts are necessary for achieving the good rail safety. This system introduced a method for rail crack detection. The proposed system is LED-LDR and Arduino based rail track detection scheme. It is cost effective and simple way of monitoring the condition of the rails on a continual basis for the improving the railway safety which consists of GSM module and Encoder.

  15. Rail profile control using laser triangulation scanners

    Boronahin, Ð. ńlexandr M.; Larionov, Daniil Yu.; Podgornaya, Liudmila N.; Shalymov, Roman V.; Filatov, Yuri V.; Bokhman, Evgueny D.


    Rail track geometric parameters measurement requires knowledge of left and right rail head location in each section. First of all displacement in transverse plane of rail head point located at a distance of 14 mm below the running surface, must be controlled [1]. It is carried out by detecting of each rail profile using triangulation laser scanners. Optical image recognition is carried out successfully in the laboratory, approaches used for this purpose are widely known. However, laser scanners operation has several features on railways leading to necessity of traditional approaches adaptation for solving these particular problems. The most significant problem is images noisiness due to the solar flashes and the effect of "Moon path" on the smooth rail surface. Using of optical filters gives inadequate result, because scanner laser diodes radiation frequency varies with temperature changes that forbid the use of narrow-band filters. Consideration of these features requires additional constructive and algorithmic solutions, including involvement of information from other sensors of the system. The specific usage of optical scanners for rail profiles control is the subject of the paper.

  16. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic


    In this paper, we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic. The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical. The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition, the three-line rail traffic system has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system. Compared with the four-line rail traffic system, the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line. As a result, building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  17. Analyzing and evaluating the three-line rail traffic

    GAO ZiYou; ZHOU HuaLiang; LI KePing; NING Bing; TANG Tao


    In this paper,we propose a method to simulate the three-line rail traffic.The aim is to evaluate the carrying capacity of the three-line rail traffic by studying the rail traffic flow when the passenger flow is unsymmetrical.The simulation results demonstrate that under the unsymmetrical condition,the three-line rail traffic sys-tem has almost the same carrying capacity as that of a four-line rail traffic system.Compared with the four-line rail traffic system,the three-line rail traffic system has better utilization of rail line.As a result,building the three-line rail traffic system is a more economical and rational selection.

  18. Passenger and freight transport perspectives for 2035. Background report for transport policy discussion; Henkiloe- ja tavaraliikenteen kehityskuva 2035. Taustaraportti liikennepoliittiseen keskusteluun

    Luukkonen, T.; Maekelae, T.; Pollanen, M.; Kalenoja, H.; Mantynen, J.; Rantala, J.


    transport: which type of goods will be transported where. It is difficult to forecast the future development of the global economy and the Finnish economy which are strongly connected. Rail freight transport depends mostly on the development of a few sectors and the transports between Finland and Russia, while the demand for road freight transport is broad and not as susceptible to rapid sector-related changes. In the case of sea transport, emphasis, in addition to industrial production, is on the development of the Baltic Sea region. Changes in the supply and costs of transport are mirrored in the use of different transport modes, although the transition potential between different modes of transport is limited. Looking ahead, the future of the transport system should be examined as an entity, as a system, not individually in different transport modes or administrative sectors. The starting point for producing forecasts for different transport modes should be the mutual operating environment, allowing comparing the forecasts. (orig.)

  19. The essential guide to chartering and the dry freight market

    Collins, N.


    The book presents a complete picture of the modern chartering and dry freight market. The different types of ships are explained, what they carry and why. The supply and demand constituents of the market are analysed in detail. How the market is measured and the advantages of controlling freight are discussed and the elements of a voyage calculation are explained. The mechanics of the market, the dangers and pitfalls for the inexperienced, the importance of information and its analysis and the central role of the broker in its dissemination as well as negotiation and strategic advice are all examined in a clear and concise way. Charter parties, their detailed terms and conditions and their legal interpretation are explained from a practical point of view. Examples are given of some charter party forms for grain, coal, ore, fertilisers, salt, sugar, cement and timber. The subjects that owners and charterers argue about, why they are important and how they are dealt with in different charter party forms are analysed. The implication of new legislation, the nature of today's challenges and issues, including e-business and the changing role of the Baltic Exchange, are addressed. 56 figs., 4 apps.

  20. Congestion Tolling for Mixed Urban Freight and Passenger Traffic

    Xie Chaoda


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the welfare effects of optimal tolling on urban traffic congestion, in a bottleneck model, with mixed freight and passenger users. The users’ marginal utility of time is considered to be varying with time. Under both no-toll equilibrium and socially optimal tolling, the users are found to sort their arrival time according to the increasing rates of marginal utility at the destination. The optimal toll that maximizes social welfare does not change each user's indirect utilit y relative to the no-toll equilibrium, but completely removes the queue, which also removes the barrier of freight carriers to accept congestion pricing by relating their marginal utilities directly to the toll. When the toll is equally rebated, the proposed social optimal tolling is a Pareto improvement relative to the no-toll equilibrium. Those more productive users also suffer more in both no-toll equilibrium and optimal tolling, which indicates that a differentiated redistribution of toll revenues could be an incentive to improve productivity.

  1. 国际货运代理的责任和责任风险的防范探讨%The Study of International Freight Forwarders Liability and Responsibility of Risk Prevention

    赵红梅; 刘芳


    随着世界经济一体化,国际多式联运业务的蓬勃兴起,为国际货运代理开拓业务、发挥所长、增长利润提供了机会。但是机遇与挑战并存,利润与风险同在,现在的货运代理人的工作内涵已经发生了显著变化,呈现出多元化和双重职能的特点,这使得货运代理的责任也在发生变化,经营过程中不可避免的遇到一系列竞争和风险。文中从国际货运代理的责任出发,联系我国货运代理企业的服务现状,对货运代理企业的责任风险防范做了简单的论述。%With the world economic integration, international multimodal transport business is surging forward, providing the opportunity to the international freight forwarder for developing business, playing strong points and increasing profits. But both opportunities and challenges coexist, profit and risk are side by side, now the job content of freight agents has changed markedly, and presented the characteristics of diversification and dual functions, which makes the responsibility of the freight forwarders change, and a series of competitions and risks are inevitably encountered in the process of management. This article embarks from the responsibilities of international freight forwarders, combines with the service status of freight forwarding enterprises in our country, and simply discusses the responsibility risk prevention of the freight forwarding enterprise.

  2. Investigation of transient temperature's influence on damage of high-speed sliding electrical contact rail surface

    Zhang, Yuyan; Sun, Shasha; Guo, Quanli; Yang, Degong; Sun, Dongtao


    In the high speed sliding electrical contact with large current, the temperature of contact area rises quickly under the coupling action of the friction heating, the Joule heating and electric arc heating. The rising temperature seriously affects the conductivity of the components and the yield strength of materials, as well affects the contact state and lead to damage, so as to shorten the service life of the contact elements. Therefore, there is vital significance to measure the temperature accurately and investigate the temperature effect on damage of rail surface. Aiming at the problem of components damage in high speed sliding electrical contact, the transient heat effect on the contact surface was explored and its influence and regularity on the sliding components damage was obtained. A kind of real-time temperature measurement method on rail surface of high speed sliding electrical contact is proposed. Under the condition of 2.5 kA current load, based on the principle of infrared radiation non-contact temperature sensor was used to measure the rail temperature. The dynamic distribution of temperature field was obtained through the simulation analysis, further, the connection between temperature changes and the rail surface damage morphology, the damage volume was analyzed and established. Finally, the method to reduce rail damage and improve the life of components by changing the temperature field was discussed.

  3. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power consu...

  4. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...


    ... (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and Patriot Rail Corp. (Patriot... within a corporate family. PRL proposes to restructure its corporate family by converting two of its...) will become Piedmont & Northern Railway, LLC (PNRLLC). PRL directly controls noncarrier PRH, which...

  5. 75 FR 70076 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...


    ... Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL), and its subsidiaries Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH), and Patriot... after December 21, 2010. PRL and its subsidiaries, including CLC, DQE, GTRA, MSV, PAW, and TOE, entered... subsidiary of PRL, PRH, and Patriot and does not control any other railroad subsidiaries. PRL is a...

  6. Theoretical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Rail Damper to Minimize Short-Pitch Rail Corrugation

    Caiyou Zhao


    Full Text Available The Cologne-egg fastening systems applied in metro lines, which can be subjected to rail corrugation, are considered in this paper. To understand the mechanism of the formation and development of rail corrugation, dynamic models of the wheel and the track with Cologne-egg fastening system in the frequency domain are developed to analyse the wheel and track vibration behaviour. A field test is also analysed to verify the validity of the mechanism. Using these experimental and theoretical results, the vibration mode of the rail that is responsible for rail corrugation is determined. Based on the results, a novel rail damper that can suppress the track pinned-pinned resonance and smooth the track receptance is presented to minimize short-pitch rail corrugation. It is ultimately found from theoretical simulation and experimental investigation that the application of the rail damper is a long-term and effective method of controlling short-pitch rail corrugation in metro lines.

  7. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano


    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  8. Desserte ferroviaire à grande vitesse, activation des ressources spécifiques et développement du tourisme : le cas de l’agglomération rémoise High speed rail service, specific resources activation, and tourist development: the case of Rheims

    Sylvie Bazin


    Full Text Available La LGV est-européenne a été mise en service le 10 juin 2007. Les acteurs économiques des territoires desservis attendent beaucoup de cette arrivée notamment en matière de développement des tourismes urbain et d’affaires. Mais un tel développement n’est pas automatique. C’est l’appropriation collective de l’innovation que constitue la desserte à grande vitesse dans un territoire qui est au coeur de ses effets positifs. En effet, cette appropriation collective constitue une innovation relationnelle de laquelle peuvent naître des innovations de services complémentaires en matière de tourisme susceptibles de valoriser les ressources spécifiques existantes (patrimoine historique, culturel, gastronomique, etc.. Ainsi, si l’existence de ressources spécifiques joue un rôle pour les villes desservies, les efforts coordonnés des acteurs pour favoriser la “mise en tourisme” de la ville sont également décisifs. L’analyse est illustrée par le cas de l’agglomération rémoise.The East European High-Speed Rail started on June 10, 2007. Economic actors of beneficiary territories are expecting a lot of positive effects such as the development of urban and business tourisms. But such development is not automatic. The collective appropriation of the innovations linked to a High-Speed Rail Service seems to be central for generating positive effects. Indeed, this collective appropriation constitutes a relational innovation, which may give birth to additional services innovations in tourism that could enhance the value of existing specific resources (historical, cultural, gastronomic, etc. and turn them into assets. Thus, if the availability of specific resources plays a specific role for the connected cities, coordinated efforts of actors to promote the tourist development of the city are also decisive. We will illustrate our subject with the case of Rheims.


    A. O. Shvets


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  10. The assessment of pollutants emissions within sustainable urban freight transport development: The case of Novi Sad

    Veličković Marko S.


    Full Text Available Assessment of pollutant emissions is a prerequisite for planning and development of sustainable urban transport systems. Majority of extant studies on sustainable urban transport is focused on pollution caused by urban passenger transport, with marked paucity of literature on the impact of urban freight transport. To partly bridge this gap, the paper objective is the impact assessment of selected regulative measures, i.e. fleet renewal on freight transport emissions. We used the case of Novi Sad to estimate the potential impact of selected restrictive measures on the external freight transport air pollution. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies on impact of urban freight transport on the air pollution in the cities in the Balkan region. Several research findings are of interest. Firstly, the analysis of particular gas emissions reveals expected overall positive effects of the fleet renewal in most of cases. Still, the total amount of same emissions hardly increase, so this particular measure is not enough to reach the ambitious EU strategy goals concerned with sustainable urban freight transport. Further, some negative impacts of restrictive measures on gas emissions were also recorded and discussed. The observed complex impact of restrictive measures on urban freight air pollution indicates that urban freight transport planning and modeling requires a comprehensive database, clear goals and higher priority of environmental criterion in traffic planning. Our results and recommendations may be useful for scholars, urban transport planners, policy makers and practitioners.

  11. The problem of monopoly in rail transport

    E.A. Petrenko


    Full Text Available In the article the issues of monopolism in the railway transport are under consideration. It was determined that the railway complex has all the hallmarks of a natural monopoly, a monopoly in the field of freight transportation over long distances. Functioning the railway transport in the form of state monopoly gives rise to a number of problems, which should be solved using the methods of state regulation.


    O. V. Fomin


    Full Text Available Purpose. Presentation of features and example of the use of the offered determination algorithm of optimum geometrical parameters for the components of freight cars on the basis of the generalized mathematical models, which is realized using computer. Methodology. The developed approach to search for optimal geometrical parameters can be described as the determination of optimal decision of the selected set of possible variants. Findings. The presented application example of the offered algorithm proved its operation capacity and efficiency of use. Originality. The determination procedure of optimal geometrical parameters for freight car components on the basis of the generalized mathematical models was formalized in the paper. Practical value. Practical introduction of the research results for universal open cars allows one to reduce container of their design and accordingly to increase the carrying capacity almost by100 kg with the improvement of strength characteristics. Taking into account the mass of their park this will provide a considerable economic effect when producing and operating. The offered approach is oriented to the distribution of the software packages (for example Microsoft Excel, which are used by technical services of the most enterprises, and does not require additional capital investments (acquisitions of the specialized programs and proper technical staff training. This proves the correctness of the research direction. The offered algorithm can be used for the solution of other optimization tasks on the basis of the generalized mathematical models.

  13. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Zhengmin Tan


    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  14. 78 FR 59316 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee Meetings


    ..., intercity rail, and high speed rail). See 78 FR 30828 (May 23, 2013). The Committee will hold its first... refrain from using perfume, cologne, and other fragrances for the comfort of other participants (see...

  15. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee


    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew charter. SUMMARY: In accordance with... the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail...

  16. Internalizing Environmental Costs on the road freight transport industry

    Vera Ferrón Vílchez


    Full Text Available Prior literature noted the potential that advanced environmental management might have in the generation of valuable organizational capabilities regarding costs minimization. More-over, during last years, one of the most important objectives in the development of transport public policies has been the internalization of environmental costs. Thus, this study attempts, firstly, to analyze how transport companies could successfully face the challenge of internalis-ing environmental costs, and second, to highlight how the existence of an environmentally proactive pattern of behaviour might reduce the environmental costs on transport sector. In doing so, a case study in the Spanish industry of road freight transport has been elaborated. Despite nowadays companies face the environmental challenge not beyond legal require-ments, the main conclusion of this study is that an environmentally proactive behaviour re-inforces the sustainable development of companies.

  17. Freight Transport Time Savings and Organizational Performance: A Systemic Approach

    Evangelos Sambracos


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of freight transport time savings (FTTS on the performance of transport consuming companies. In the first part existing methods on FTTS valuation are critically discussed and their limitations are identified. Following, a conceptual model is built introducing an alternative approach for the valuation of FTTS that is based on the system perspective of firms, integrating the disciplines of systems thinking, performance measurement, transport and logistics decision making. Evidence from a Systems Dynamics’ simulation experiment on a retailer suggests that the effect of FTTS on performance depends highly on the structure of the firm's transport related processes and decision making process. Through the development and simulation of several scenarios concerning the reaction of the firm to the FTTS, it is concluded that the value of FTTS is sensitive to the type of the reaction and its time profile.

  18. Measuring wheel/rail contact stresses using ultrasound

    Marhsall, M.B.; Lewis, R.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Olofsson, O.; Bjorklund, S


    The investigation of contact area and pressure distribution in a wheel/rail contact is essential information required in fatigue and wear calculations to determine design life, regrinding requirements, and maintenance schedules. The aim of this work was to use ultrasound to non-destructively determine wheel/rail contact pressures. Three different contacts were investigated those resulting from; un-used, sand damaged, and worn wheel/rail specimens. \\ud \\ud A wheel/rail interface behaves like a...

  19. 77 FR 58624 - Progressive Rail Incorporated-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Rail Lines of Crab Orchard...


    ... Lines of Crab Orchard & Egyptian Railroad Company Progressive Rail Incorporated (PGR), a Class III rail carrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire from Crab Orchard...

  20. Research on the Matching of Fastener Stiffness Based on Wheel-Rail Contact Mechanism for Prevention of Rail Corrugation

    Caiyou Zhao; Ping Wang; Mengting Xing


    .... However, this kind of fasteners could cause severe rail corrugation. Based on the "wheel-rail dynamic flexibility difference" mechanism, the optimization and further research of fastener stiffness were performed...

  1. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus


    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...

  2. 49 CFR 1580.201 - Rail security coordinator.


    ... any of this information changes. (e) Each passenger railroad carrier and rail transit system required... SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist, Scenic.... This section applies to: (1) Each passenger railroad carrier, including each carrier operating light...

  3. 49 CFR 213.139 - Spring rail frogs.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rail frogs. 213.139 Section 213.139..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Track Structure § 213.139 Spring rail frogs. (a) The... wing rail shall be solidly tamped and fully and tightly bolted. (c) Each frog with a bolt hole defect...

  4. 49 CFR 229.79 - Third rail shoes.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third rail shoes. 229.79 Section 229.79..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.79 Third rail shoes. When locomotives are equipped with both third rail and overhead...


    S. N. Vnukova


    Full Text Available It is suggested to bring in changes into the Rules of Complex Payments applied by the states-participants of the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic States in payments for international freight transportations.

  6. The Critical Factors for Korean Freight Forwarders’ Purchasing Negotiation in International Logistics

    Soo Yong Shin


    Full Text Available The roles of freight forwarders as intermediaries continue to expand and become significant in international logistics. Purchasing negotiation is considered an important business process for freight forwarders and achieving a successful negotiation outcome should help forwarders to manage their business more effectively. This study used the analytical hierarchy process (AHP approach to identify the critical factors for successful purchasing negotiation for freight forwarders in Korea. A three-level AHP structure was constructed to examine the successful purchasing negotiation. The findings indicate that information (specifically quality of information is the most critical factor for a successful negotiation outcome for freight forwarders. This result turned out to be the same as the result found from the literature review. Literature review also indicated information as the most important factor.

  7. The Trade-Off between Road and Railroad Freight Transport – Cost Benefit Analysis for Slovenia

    Jure Erjavec


    Full Text Available The choice of transportation mode for freight transport has a profound effect on logistics companies, infrastructure providers and society as a whole. The efficiency of freight transport is important because it has a profound effect on several economic and environmental factors. The paper analyses the costs difference between railroad and road freight transport. The stakeholder analysis is used to enable the identification of the interests of various groups. The government is identified as the focal stakeholder. The governmental decision support model that focuses on the Slovenian case of road and railway freight transport is proposed. The proposed model can serve the government with its decision-making process when adopting policies that concern road and railroad transport such as subsidies or increased road tolls in order to promote railroad transport.

  8. An Algorithm for the Optimal Matching Speeds of Passenger and Freight Trains in Mixed Operations


    This paper models the calculation of the optimal matching speeds of passenger and freight trains with various stage control methods for speed in mixed operations, presents a algorithm for the solution and justifies it with a practical example.

  9. Caracterização do mercado de fretes rodoviários para produtos agrícolas Characterization of the highway freight market for agricultural products

    Marcelo Gimenes Soares


    Full Text Available O mercado de frete rodoviário no Brasil não sofre nenhum tipo de controle governamental, significando que os preços são formados a partir da negociação direta entre a oferta e a procura pelo serviço. Os transportadores não estão, necessariamente, atualizados sobre todas as variáveis de seu custo para estarem aptos a negociar com os demandantes. Tais demandantes, por outro lado, podem desempenhar maior poder de negociação para obter descontos no valor do frete. Tendo em vista o aprimoramento da qualidade das informações sobre fretes, tanto para ofertantes quanto demandantes pelo serviço de transporte, foi realizado levantamento de valores para produtos agrícolas selecionados, assim como identificadas as principais características do escoamento rodoviário de cargas agrícolas. Dessa forma, ficou evidenciada a diferenciação do valor do frete de acordo com o tipo de produto e verificou-se que a estrutura do mercado de frete para granéis sólidos (açúcar, milho, soja e farelo de soja é bastante distinta, mais pulverizada e talvez menos profissional que a estrutura observada para os granéis líquidos estudados (suco de laranja e óleo de soja.The Brazilian highway freight market is subject to no sort of government control, meaning that the prices are formed through free negotiation between supply and demand of the transport service. Carriers have to be updated on every variable incorporated in costs to be fit for negotiating with demanders. These demanders, except under certain very specific circumstances, have performed higher negotiation power and exerted quite strong pressure to obtain freight discounts. Taking into consideration the accomplishment of the quality of freight information, for both supply and demand sides of the transportation service, data for selected agricultural commodities were collected, as well as the identification of the main characteristics of the road haulage. The difference in the freight values

  10. An investigation of sliding electrical contact in rail guns and the development of grooved-rail liquid-metal interfaces

    Adamy, Mark T.


    The barrel life of a solid armature rail gun is a critical issue. Arcing along the barrel pathway at the interfaces between the armature and the rails produces severe damage. The ability to protect the rails and yet provide sufficient electrical contact to sustain arc-free high-current flow is desirable. This thesis investigates the use of liquid metal as an interface material between the sliding electrical contact surfaces of the armature and the barrel rails. Experiments were conducted with...

  11. Development, use and potential contribution of appropriate ICT-based service systems to address rural transport related accessibility constraints - Emerging lessons from case studies in South Africa

    Maritz, Johan


    Full Text Available Rural environments suffer a number of constraints including high transport cost, irregular or unpredictable transport services, transport of low passenger and freight volumes, and low logistics service demand and supply. Rural residents, especially...

  12. Light Weight Individually Powered Railway Freight Wagons Modified to Utilize Lost Energy during Braking

    Gaurab Bhowmick; Gunjan,


    EMU or the Electric Multiple Units are those type of trains consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotives, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of carriages. Generally EMUs are used for passenger train but the same technology can be implemented in freight carriages also. These EMU based freight cars will reduce the line congestion mainly in India due to its rapid acceleration and high speeds...

  13. Avoiding congestion in freight transport planning : a case study in Flanders


    A substantial increase in transport intensity for passenger and freight traffic has been observed during the last decades and research confirms that this trend will continue in the years to come. Economic centres have turned into heavily congested areas. The freight transport sector incurs excessive waiting times on the road as well as at intermediate stops (e.g. sea terminals, loading or unloading points). This may cause economic losses and environmental damages. Waiting times may be avoided...

  14. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Shinya Hanaoka


    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  15. Dutch Logistics Service Providers and Sustainable Physical Distribution: Searching for Focus

    Pieters, R.; Glöckner, H.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Weijers, S.


    As environmental concerns becoming increasingly important to logistics service providers, the question arises as to how they can achieve sustainable physical distribution practices while surviving the severe competition in freight transport. This issue is further complicated by the pressures from

  16. Dutch Logistics Service Providers and Sustainable Physical Distribution: Searching for Focus

    Pieters, R.; Glöckner, H.H.; Omta, S.W.F.; Weijers, S.


    As environmental concerns becoming increasingly important to logistics service providers, the question arises as to how they can achieve sustainable physical distribution practices while surviving the severe competition in freight transport. This issue is further complicated by the pressures from

  17. Influence of Rare Earths on Contact Fatigue of Rail Steels


    Rail/wheel contact fatigue of NbRE rail, Nb rail and U74 rail was investigated using contact fatigue tester. Microstructure and morphology as well as microhardness in the fatigue profiles were analyzed by scanning electron microscope and Vickers hardness respectively. The experimental results show that rare earths are able to delay the initiation and the propagation of fatigue cracks and postpone the surface shelling or spalling, even more, to reduce the crack propagation angle and the crack propagation depth in steady state as well as the plastic deformation area, and to improve work-hardening of the rail steel.

  18. Barrel wear reduction in rail guns: the effects of known and controlled rail spacing on low voltage electrical contact and the hard chrome plating of copper-tungsten rail and pure copper rails

    McNeal, Cedric J.


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited 100 m/s). Low voltage electrical contact was not maintained for some experimental shots and non-parallel rails were the suspected cause. In this thesis, we used a non-contact capacitive sensor to determine rail spacing to within 2/kAcm10mael, so that the rails will be parallel within small tolerances. Several rails were used in these experiments: 75-25 copper-tungsten, chromium-plated 75-25 Cu-W, and chromium-plated pure copper rails. ...

  19. Investigation into rail corrugation in high-speed railway tracks from the viewpoint of the frictional self-excited vibration of a wheel–rail system

    Chen, G X; Cui, X L; Qian, W J


    A finite element vibration model of a multiple wheel–rail system which consists of four wheels, one rail, and a series of sleepers is established to address the problem of rail corrugation in high-speed tracks...

  20. Market Barriers to Increased Efficiency in the European On-road Freight Sector

    Aarnink, S.; Faber, J.; Den Boer, E.


    There are numerous technical and operational measures available to improve the fuel efficiency of truck fleets, but many of these measures are currently not universally implemented. Even cost-effective measures (i.e., measures which can be implemented with net fuel savings that outweigh the initial technology costs and potentially at a net profit) are often not adopted. The main barrier is the lack of information on the fuel savings of individual technical measures for trucks and especially trailers. While many transport companies and all original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are aware that certain technologies exist, few respondents believe that these technologies are cost-effective. As a result of this belief, the supply of fuel-saving technologies from OEMs is limited. This report aims to better understand the reasons for the limited adoption of cost-effective fuel-saving technologies and to inform the policy-making process in the European Union and abroad, and specifically to provide input to the European Commission's strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from HDVs. The primary goal of the study is to identify the barriers to the implementation of technologies that improve fuel efficiency in the European road freight transport sector. For this report, the existence and importance of barriers were analyzed through surveys of and interviews with transport companies, OEMs, shippers and logistics service providers.

  1. Low Voltage CMOS op-amp with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP


    As the supply voltage to a standard CMOS op-amp is reduced, the input common mode range and the output swing get reduced drastically. Special biasing circuits have to be used to raise them up to rail-to-rail supply voltage. Three low voltage op-amps with new biasing circuits have been proposed in this paper and their performance evaluated. The op-amp design is focused on dynamic range and high drive capability.

  2. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.


    ... of a ferry or a vessel engaged in excursion trips, including but not limited to sightseeing trips... significantly reduce safety. A rail complying with the requirements of paragraphs (d)(1), (2), or (3) of this... exists that is more than 305 millimeters (12 inches) high except: (1) On passenger decks of a ferry or of...

  3. Big data supports light rail in Utrecht

    Van Oort, N.


    Transport planners are starting to consider how "big data" retrieved from passenger smart cards, computers and mobile phones could improve the design of urban rail networks and timetables, and improve operations by predicting ridership. Niels van Oort, assistant professor at Delft University of Tech

  4. High-Speed Rail & Air Transport Competition

    Adler, Nicole; Nash, Chris; Pels, Eric


    This paper develops a methodology to assess transport infrastructure investments and their effects on a Nash equilibria taking into account competition between multiple privatized transport operator types. The operators, including high-speed rail, hub and spoke legacy airlines and low cost carriers,

  5. Combining Facility Location and Routing Decisions in Sustainable Urban Freight Distribution under Horizontal Collaboration: How Can Shippers Be Benefited?

    Hanan Ouhader; Malika El Kyal


      This article investigates the potential economic, environmental, and social effects of combining depot location and vehicle routing decisions in urban road freight transportation under horizontal collaboration...

  6. Deformation and lifetime behaviour of cyclic loaded rail and wheel steels

    Denne, B.; Lang, K.-H.; Loehe, D. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde 1


    Corrugation, shelling and squats are some unexpected technical problems caused by increasing service tonnage, increasing load of the rails and increasing train speed at Deutsche Bahn AG lines since the last decades. As the complex phenomena of rolling contact fatigue in the rail / wheel system is difficult to understand extensive investigations have to be done to describe the multiaxial rolling contact fatigue processes and to develop and verify multiaxial fatigue criteria and lifetime predictions. To reach this aim a reliable fatigue data base of the utilised steels is required. To obtain such data, specimens were worked out of rails and wheels used in high speed traffic. With these specimens the lifetime behaviour and the endurance limit were estimated from push-pull tests. For the rail steel stress and total strain controlled fatigue tests were performed. The resulting lifetime behaviour is compared. In the wheel there are several regions with different microstructures due to the heat treatment at the end of the manufacturing process. Specimens were taken from the wheel rim representing these different microstructures. With these specimens stress controlled fatigue tests were performed. The influence of the different microstructures on the deformation and lifetime behaviour is showed. (orig.)

  7. Model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons

    Piotrowski, J. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology, Inst. of Vehicles, ul. Narbutta Warszawa (Poland)


    The paper presents a model of the UIC link suspension for freight wagons with emphasis on its longitudinal and lateral characteristics, which influence the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The functioning of the suspension in the horizontal plane is realised by a number of technical (pivoted) pendulums composing linkages. The main feature of the joints of linkages is internal rolling/sliding in the presence of dry friction. The dissipation of energy by dry friction in the joints is the only source of damping, which influences the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. After detailed modelling of the technical pendulum, phenomenological models of the suspension are built, which reproduce the characteristics of the suspension using simple elements. A three-parameter model with one dry-friction slider and two linear springs reproduces the lateral characteristic of the suspension. A nine-parameter model with four dry-friction sliders and five springs reproduces the longitudinal characteristic. The models, using a method of non-smooth mechanics, may be directly implemented to vehicle/track dynamic simulations. (orig.)

  8. Volatility Spillovers in Capesize Forward Freight Agreement Markets

    Xiaoxing Gong


    Full Text Available This paper is to investigate spillovers in the Capesize forward freight agreements (FFAs markets before and after the global financial crisis. The paper chooses four Capesize voyage routes FFAs (C3, C4, C5, and C7, two time-charter routes FFAs (BCIT/C average, BPI T/C average, and spot rates as research subjects, covering the periods 3 January 2006 to 24 December 2015. This paper applies Volatility Spillover Multivariate Stochastic Volatility (VS-MSV model to analyze volatility spillover effects and estimates the parameters via software of Bayesian inference using Gibbs Sampling (BUGS, the deviance information criterion (DIC used for goodness-of-fit model. The results suggest that there are volatility spillover effects in certain Capesize FFAs routes, and the effects from spot rates to FFAs take place before crisis, yet they are bilateral after crisis. With the development of shipping markets, the correlations between FFAs and spot rate are enhanced, and it seems that the effects depend on market information and traders’ behavior. So practitioners could make decisions according to the spillovers.

  9. The Governors of Maryland and Education the Politics of Peacekeeper Rail Garrison


    members Bob Bell, Bob DeGrass, Terry Freeze, Jim Miller, and Bob Sherman ; Bob Einhorn from the Department of State; Steve Hildreth from the...Carlucci, 28 January 1988. ’ Frank C. Carlucci to Les Aspin, 2 February 1988. 141See, for example, Les Aspin, William L. Dickinson, Bill Chappell , Jr...Peacekeeper rail garrison "a 162Les Aspin and Bill Chappell , Jr. fo Frank C. Carlucci, 15 March 1988. 16Congress, House, Committee on Armed Services, National

  10. A Model to Estimate the Passenger Rail Liberalisation: The Case of Serbia

    Slavko Vesković; Vera Raičević; Gordan Stojić; Sanjin Milinković


    Passenger rail transport market share has been drastically reduced in the last fifty years. The reforms were aimed at opening the market of railway services and development of competition in the railway sector in order to obtain the benefits of “market forces” and reduction of interventions in the railway sector. Determination of the level of reform often causes confusion and conflicting opinions. It involves the application of intuition and subjective assessments and is not used as a direct ...

  11. Does high-speed rail affect destination choice for tourism purpose?

    Delaplace, Marie; Pagliara, francesca; Pietra, Andrea La


    There is a growing but controversial literature concerning the link between high-speed rail (HSR) services and the tourism market. The aim of this paper is to identify this link in the case of two theme parks, namely Disneyland Paris and Futuroscope Parks, both served by an HSR station. Two revealed preference surveys were carried out interviewing tourists at both stations, with the objective of investigating the influence of HSRs on their decision to visit these theme parks. The results sign...

  12. The dynamics of the three-piece-freight truck

    Xia, Fujie


    and dynamical contact relations between wheels and rails, the nonlinear suspensions and the nonlinear dry friction damping. For low speeds of the truck the kinematic and dynamical nonlinearities might be linearized, but the very strongly nonlinear suspensions and the dry friction damping can not be linearized...... be numerically simulated. Its applications are illustrated in two simple systems. One is an oscillator with a Coulomb dry friction damper in chapter 2 and the other one is the wedge damper in chapter 3. In the mechanical system it is possible that the degrees of freedom will vary with the different friction...... are derived. Chapter 8 provides the numerical methods for the simulation of the system, the discussion focuses on the differential algebraic equations(DAEs) with discontinuous characteristics caused by the two-dimensional friction. In chapter 9 the numerical investigation is provided. The four general...

  13. Measured and calculated noise reduction of rail dampers and absorption plates on a high speed slab track

    Dittrich, M.G.; Graafland, F.; Eisses, A.R.; Nijhof, M.J.J.


    Rail dampers and sound absorbing plates have been tested on a high speed railway slab track in a walled cutting at a noise sensitive location. Their noise reduction has been determined from pass-by measurements during service and predicted using BEM calculations. The cutting depth, noise barrier hei

  14. 铁路快速货运对衡阳物流产业的影响%The Inlfuence of Railway Fast Freight Transport on Hengyang's Logistics



    With the deepening of reform and opening up,China's railway industry development speed is relatively fast,rapid rail freight form as one of the important development has made considerable progress. This paper tries to analyze Hengyang local logistics industry development present situation to elaboratethe development of railway express the impact on the logistics industry,and tries to seek better ways to further improve the disadvantages of Hengyang logistics industry.%随着改革开放的深入推进,我国的铁路行业发展速度也较为迅速,铁路快速货运作为其中一个重要发展形式也有了长足的进步。文章试从分析衡阳本地物流产业的发展现状入手来阐述铁路快运的发展对物流产业的影响,并试图寻求更好的方法进一步改善衡阳物流产业的弊端。

  15. 31 CFR 588.405 - Provision of services.


    ..., accounting, financial, brokering, freight forwarding, transportation, public relations, or other services to... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of services. 588.405... Interpretations § 588.405 Provision of services. (a) Except as provided in § 588.206, the prohibitions...


    Michael D. Anderson


    Full Text Available The ability to determine the volumes of freight (specifically trucks passing through a state or metropolitan area is difficult to determine/forecast because transportation professionals have no direct survey mechanism to collect this data. This paper documents various procedures developed to utilize the Freight Analysis Framework Version 2 Database to determine the number of trucks passing through the entire state and an urban area in Alabama. The procedures developed in this research focus on national level pass through data, trips from one state to another that pass through a state only because of that state’s location; pass through from a port of entry to the country where an urbanized area is located on a major corridor; and statewide level through trip data, trips from one part of a state to another that pass through an urbanized area because of its geographic location. The need for, and application of, the pass through freight forecasting is evident in the transportation planning models each metropolitan area and state are expected to develop and maintain for evaluating transportation projects. The ability to accurately forecast the pass through freight movements will benefit transportation planners by identifying freight volumes that must be accommodated by existing and proposed infrastructure, but for which the state or metropolitan area has no direct method to survey.

  17. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    Chin, Shih-Miao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hwang, Ho-Ling [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Diane [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  18. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.


    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  19. Extending freight flow modelling to sub-Saharan Africa to inform infrastructure investments - trade data issues

    Jan Havenga


    Full Text Available This paper highlights the first attempt by researchers at Stellenbosch University to model freight flows between and for 17 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The model will be informed by and linked to the South African surface Freight Demand Model (FDM given these dimensions. By analysing and collating available datasets and developing a freight flow model, a better understanding of freight movements between countries can be obtained and then used for long-term planning efforts. A simple methodology is envisaged that will entail a high-level corridor classification that links a major district in the country with a similar district in another country. Existing trade data will be used to corroborate new base-year economic demand and supply volumetric data that will be generated from social accounting matrices for each country. The trade data will also provide initial flow dynamics between countries that will be refined according to the new volumes. The model can then generate commodity-level corridor flows between SSA countries, and between SSA countries and the rest of the world, as well as intra-country rural and metropolitan flows, using a gravity-based modelling approach. This article outlines efforts to harmonise trade data between the 17 countries identified, as well as between these countries and the rest of the world as a first step towards developing a freight demand model for sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    Lenz, Patrick


    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  1. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.


    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 – 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  2. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Amir Ali Bakhshi


    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  3. The Analysis of Rail Traffic Control Systems

    Darius Gaidelis


    Full Text Available The systems used for rail traffic control are compared. Their advantages and disadvantages are analysed. The present and future development of rail traffic control systems in various countries is considered. The possibility of adapting these microprocessor-based traffic control systems to the conditions of Lithuania is analysed. For this purpose, the analysis of goods transported by Lithuanian railways is made, and the non-uniform amount of goods transported on different road sections is evaluated. The number of the delayed trains due to the failure of traffic control systems in recent years is determined, the cost of installing a new microprocessor-based traffic control system at the railway station, as well as its repay time and the demand for employees are calculated. Article in Lithuanian

  4. 轨道交通车辆维修BOM组织模式及应用研究%Application Study on Service BOM Or-ganization Mode of Urban Rail Transit Vehicles

    蒋志超; 程宏声; 薛蓓依; 季景瑜


      本文主要从轨道车辆运营商入手,通过维修BOM的组织模式研究,结合轨道车辆维修单元和跟踪属性的管理特点,提出了轨道车辆运营维护阶段维修BOM的有效组织模式.通过维修单元的构建、维修BOM模板的定义及实例化三个环节可以有效组织轨道车辆维修BOM.文中重点介绍了维修单元的跟踪属性和对象更换管理在维修单元对象使用全寿命过程管理中的实现方式,以及在轨道车辆维修作业管理系统中的有效应用.基于有效组织的维修BOM可以实现车辆设备使用全寿命过程中的维修信息可追溯性,有助于维修质量的提升、维修计划的优化以及维修成本的控制,提升车辆安全运营保障.%  The article put forward an effective urban transit vehicle service BOM organization mode based on the re-search upon service BOM organization modes, tracking attributes and management features of vehicle maintenance units. Service BOM of urban transit vehicles would be organized conveniently through three steps consists of construction of maintenance units, definition and instantiation of service BOM templates. Tracking attributes and implementation mode of object replacing management during in service lifecycle of maintenance units especially the application in urban transit vehicle MRO execution system are focused. Traceability of maintenance information through life span of vehicle components would be achieved based on effective organization of service BOM, doing help to quality improvising, plan optimization and cost control of MRO activities together with running safety improvement of transit vehicles.


    Łukasz KONIECZNY


    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  6. High-speed rail with emerging automobiles and aircraft can reduce environmental impacts in California’s future

    Chester, Mikhail; Horvath, Arpad


    Sustainable mobility policy for long-distance transportation services should consider emerging automobiles and aircraft as well as infrastructure and supply chain life-cycle effects in the assessment of new high-speed rail systems. Using the California corridor, future automobiles, high-speed rail and aircraft long-distance travel are evaluated, considering emerging fuel-efficient vehicles, new train designs and the possibility that the region will meet renewable electricity goals. An attributional per passenger-kilometer-traveled life-cycle inventory is first developed including vehicle, infrastructure and energy production components. A consequential life-cycle impact assessment is then established to evaluate existing infrastructure expansion against the construction of a new high-speed rail system. The results show that when using the life-cycle assessment framework, greenhouse gas footprints increase significantly and human health and environmental damage potentials may be dominated by indirect and supply chain components. The environmental payback is most sensitive to the number of automobile trips shifted to high-speed rail, and for greenhouse gases is likely to occur in 20-30 years. A high-speed rail system that is deployed with state-of-the-art trains, electricity that has met renewable goals, and in a configuration that endorses high ridership will provide significant environmental benefits over existing modes. Opportunities exist for reducing the long-distance transportation footprint by incentivizing large automobile trip shifts, meeting clean electricity goals and reducing material production effects.

  7. Learning from experiences in sustainable transport practice: green freight europe and the implementation of a best cases database

    Elena Kaledinova


    Full Text Available Background: For many logistics service providers and shippers sustainable transport is still a relatively recent issue, even if almost every transportation company is engaged in sustainability. Each has had different experiences with making transportation more sustainable. By looking at the efforts and successes of others sharing these experiences could help shippers and logistics service providers to obtain new innovative ideas of how to become more sustainable. The certification organization Green Freight Europe (GFE wants to develop a database for these types of experiences in order to encourage its members to generate sustainable initiatives. Method: In support of this plan, we interviewed several logistics service providers and shippers and conducted a brief survey among GFE members. Results: Sustainability forms one of the goals for all interviewed companies mainly based on cost reduction but followed closely as a tool to attract new customers. At the moment, the information obtained to keep updated on sustainability comes mainly from truck producers and not from information from best cases from other logistics service providers. Conclusions: We have found that there is a willingness to submit best cases, but also a fear that the submitter will miss his competitive advantage by telling others about his innovations.

  8. Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor


    Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor by Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang ARL-TR-6308 January 2013...TR-6308 January 2013 Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor Yuan Chen, Joseph Conroy, and William Nothwang Sensors...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variable Rail Voltage Control of a Brushless DC (BLDC) Motor 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson


    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...... to the base material and the microstructural investigations reveal that a martensitic structure is present at the surface....

  10. CAF, a generalised conicity criteria for the wheel rail contact

    AYASSE, JB; Chollet, H; FLEURET, JS; Leveque, E.


    With several examples, this paper will show why the most significant parameter to be considered at the wheel rail contact is the angle of the tangent plane, function of the transversal relative displacement between wheel and rail (contact angle function, CAF). This parameter is the key point of INRETS methodology for static and dynamic studies of the wheel rail contact in non linear conditions. A practical example is given with switch blades.

  11. Experimental characterization of wheel-rail contact patch evolution

    Marshall, M.B.; Lewis, R.; Dwyer-Joyce, R.S.; Olofsson, U.; Björklund, S.


    The contact area and pressure distribution in a wheel/rail contact is essential information required in any fatigue or wear calculations to determine design life, re-grinding, and maintenance schedules. As wheel or rail wear or surface damage takes place the contact patch size and shape will change. This leads to a redistribution of the contact stresses. The aim of this work was to use ultrasound to nondestructively quantify the stress distribution in new, worn, and damaged wheel-rail contact...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  13. 49 CFR 365.413 - Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or...


    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedures for changing the name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. 365.413 Section 365.413 Transportation... name or business form of a motor carrier, freight forwarder, or property broker. (a) Scope. These...

  14. Improving Urban Freight Transport Sustainability by Carriers: Best Practices from The Netherlands and the EU Project CityLog

    Quak, H.J.


    ers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport more eff

  15. Improving urban freight transport sustainability by carriers - Best practices from The Netherlands and the EU project CityLog

    Quak, H.J.


    Carriers face serious challenges in making their urban freight transport efficient and sustainable. Local authorities claim that many carriers are not innovative and do not cooperate in improving their city logistics operations. There are three solution directions to make urban freight transport mor


    O. Yu. Smyrnova


    Full Text Available The mechanism of formation of efficiency of freight motor transport system in conditions of variable character of demand for freightage is developed on the basis of space-time approach development to efficiency formation for difficult systems. In the article the definitions of the notions of freight motor transport system adaptability, standard operation conditions are given.

  17. 49 CFR 213.119 - Continuous welded rail (CWR); plan contents.


    ... following items: (i) Loose, bent, or missing joint bolts; (ii) Rail end batter or mismatch that contributes... amount and length of rail end batter or ramp on each rail end; the amount of tread mismatch; the...

  18. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    Xing-cai Liu


    Full Text Available Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  19. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Williams, J. G.


    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  20. System for Measuring Elevator Guide Rail Quality and Its Calibration


    A system for measuring the quality parameters of elevator guide rails is developed. The quality parameters the system can measure include straightness, flatness, squareness, width and height of the rail. The system consists of six parts:main guideway, auxiliary guideway, reference rail, saddle, control casing and measured rail. The guide rail to be measured is mounted on a bed.The straightness errors of surfaces are checked by five linear displacement sensors mounted on the saddle. The deviation of readings from the sensor, which is in contact with top guiding surface,gives the straightness error of the surface and height of the rail. The other four sensors are used to measure side guiding surfaces respectively and give other parameters including flatness on the surfaces, squareness, width and height of the rail. A novel calibration method is also developed to calibrate the straightness motion error of the system in horizontal and vertical directions. The deflection deformation of the measured rail is fitted by using a fourth-order polynomial. Experimental results show that the uncertainty of the system on the side surfaces after compensating the straightness motion error is less than 0.01 mm, and the uncertainty of the system on the top surface after compensating the straightness motion error and the deflection deformation of the rail is less than 0.03 mm.

  1. Electric rail gun projectile acceleration to high velocity

    Bauer, D. P.; Mccormick, T. J.; Barber, J. P.


    Electric rail accelerators are being investigated for application in electric propulsion systems. Several electric propulsion applications require that the rail accelerator be capable of launching projectiles at velocities above 10 km/s. An experimental program was conducted to develop rail accelerator technology for high velocity projectile launch. Several 6 mm bore, 3 m long rail accelerators were fabricated. Projectiles with a mass of 0.2 g were accelerated by plasmas, carrying currents up to 150 kA. Experimental design and results are described. Results indicate that the accelerator performed as predicted for a fraction of the total projectile acceleration. The disparity between predicted and measured results are discussed.

  2. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    Sen, K. K.; Ray, P. K.


    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15 percent of energy delivered by the inductor to the gun is transformed into the kinetic energy of the projectile. This study provides an insight into the nature of nonlinear coupling involved in the electromechanical interactions in a rail gun.

  3. Announcement by the Internal Transport Service


    The Shipping Service requests all users of wooden pallets, freight containers and lids that are no longer in use to contact the Internal Transport Service of the GS department (George Truelove), which is responsible for collecting and returning them to the Goods Reception Service in Buildings 904 and 194. Please also contact Mr. Truelove if you receive an order that is not meant for you. Internal Transport Service

  4. Adhesion-creepage characteristics of wheel/rail system under dry and contaminated rail surfaces

    Alzoubi, Mohammed F.


    This thesis presents an experimental and theoretical study of adhesion and creepage characteristics of wheel and rail under both dry and contaminated rail surfaces. The experimental work was conducted largely on the IIT 1/4.5 Scale Wheel/Rail Simulation Facility. Based on the experimental data in the laboratory, a theoretical model of adhesion and creepage relationship with different degrees of contamination was developed. Non-dimensional analysis of parameters yielded four important non-dimensional groups, which include the adhesion, creepage coefficients, the elastic properties of the materials, the load on the wheel surface roughness of wheel and rail, train speed and the contaminant density, viscosity and minimum film thickness. Rail contaminants were gathered from several U.S. passenger rail systems and tested on the laboratory facility. It was found that presence of moisture reduce the adhesion levels with these contaminants. Under hot air jet applications, normal adhesion could be achieved. A series of tests were conducted with water contamination on clean rail. Maximum adhesion for different tests was nearly constant and approximately 0.2. Maximum adhesion produced under water contamination is significantly affected by the average roughness of the wheel and the rail. As the roughness decreases, maximum adhesion drops sharply. Maximum adhesion also decreases with speed in the presence of moisture even at relatively low speeds (4--8 mph). An empirical relation of maximum adhesion with axle load, speed and roughness has been derived. An analytical expression for the adhesion-creepage curves under (TOR) lubrication has been derived. The maximum adhesion coefficient achieved for different (TOR) lubricant formulations was found to be approximately proportional to kinematic viscosity. A theoretical approach for estimating potential energy savings with the (TOR) lubricant was developed using the laboratory data of the 1/12.5 scale simulator and 1/4.5 scale test

  5. Application of an Intelligent Fuzzy Regression Algorithm in Road Freight Transportation Modeling

    Pooya Najaf


    Full Text Available Road freight transportation between provinces of a country has an important effect on the traffic flow of intercity transportation networks. Therefore, an accurate estimation of the road freight transportation for provinces of a country is so crucial to improve the rural traffic operation in a large scale management. Accordingly, the focused case study database in this research is the information related to Iran’s provinces in the year 2008. Correlation between road freight transportation with variables such as transport cost and distance, population, average household income and Gross Domestic Product (GDP of each province is calculated. Results clarify that the population is the most effective factor in the prediction of provinces’ transported freight. Linear Regression Model (LRM is calibrated based on the population variable, and afterwards Fuzzy Regression Algorithm (FRA is generated on the basis of the LRM. The proposed FRA is an intelligent modified algorithm with an accurate prediction and fitting ability. This methodology can be significantly useful in macro-level planning problems where decreasing prediction error values is one of the most important concerns for decision makers. In addition, Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN is developed to evaluate the prediction capability of the models and to be compared with FRA. According to the final results, the modified FRA estimates road freight transportation values more accurately than the BPNN and LRM. Finally, in order to predict the road freight transportation values, the reliability of the calibrated models is analyzed using the information of the year 2009. Results show higher reliability for the proposed modified FRA.

  6. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    HUJin-suo; CHENGShu-kang; ZHENGZhen-zhong; MAYuan; LIZhi-yuan


    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reintorce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  7. An Research on Abrasion Resistance of Muzzle Shunt Rail Gun Rail Boronized with Self-protecting B4C Paste

    HU Jin-suo; CHENG Shu-kang; ZHENG Zhen-zhong; MA Yuan; LI Zhi-yuan


    Based on large numbers of experiments, together with some theoretic support such as equations related to the experiment, thermodynamic principles and so on, one useful and reasonable self-protecting boron formulation is got to reinforce the muzzle shunt rail gun rail. The preliminary friction and abrasion test results show that the formulation is acceptable and the abrasion resistance of the steel rail enhances to some extent after the surface reinforcement.

  8. Rail transportation of biofuels; Jaernvaegstransport av biobraenslen

    Frosch, Martin; Thoren, Peter


    The project has had the task of describing how the rail transportation of biofuels can be increased. This has been made by analyzing the current conditions of five transmission terminals and five different CHP plants, henceforth called reference cases, and the prevailing conditions at their reception terminals. For each of the five reference cases several transport solutions have been created that take in consideration how these conditions affect the efficiency of the transport solutions for 23 different relations. The study will also show to what extent reduction of environmental impacts can be achieved with the rail transportation of biofuels as alternative to road transport. Three of the reference cases are in operation, one under construction and one in the development phase. To develop transportation solutions and identify potential catchment areas for biofuels a slightly higher resolution than what normally is analyzed in existing literature is required. Therefore, these analysis have been made for each of the relevant catchment areas with the help of forest assessment data, kNN-data, from the Swedish agricultural university (SLU), statistics of peat production from the Swedish geological survey (SGU) and the Forestry boards (Skogsstyrelsen) statistical yearbook of 2008. The calculations underlying the transport solutions are relating to the sustainability of each catchment area, constraints and opportunities at both the reception and transmission terminals, and the practical solutions for wagons, containers and number of possible weekly circulations. The target audience is the heating and CHP plants in Sweden, wishing to use rail transport of biofuels, regardless of available infrastructure since remote receiving terminals also can be used if needed. The results of the economical analysis for all possible relations are based on calculations with 20 wagons in each circulation. Due to topographic limitations and limited traction capacity all relations

  9. Analysis of Laws of Rail Profile Development of Heavy-haul Railway Curve%重载铁路曲线钢轨型面的发展规律分析

    詹刚; 许玉德; 周宇


    延长钢轨的使用寿命对降低工务养护维修成本至关重要,然而国内目前尚未见对一个使用寿命周期内钢轨轨头型面变化的跟踪观测,也缺少对钢轨型面的分析软件.通过借鉴铁路轨头轮廓制定标准和欧盟铁路制定的钢轨打磨、铣磨作业横断面验收标准,开发了钢轨型面管理软件(RPM),可用以制定合适的钢轨养护维修计划.利用钢轨型面管理软件对某重载铁路小半径曲线钢轨型面进行了从新轨上道到下道的跟踪观测,认为钢轨型面磨损的发展变化过程是“浴盆曲线”形式.通过利用钢轨型面的发展规律,认为在钢轨磨损的平稳发展期可以利用其平稳发展规律得到的最优磨损率指导预防性钢轨打磨(或铣磨),在钢轨磨损的急剧发展期开始之前应当进行钢轨型面的修复和重塑.%Prolonging rail service life is critical to reduce maintenance and repair cost of railway, however there is no rail profiles data measured on a life cycle, also there is a lack of rail profiles analysis software. Drawing lessons from the railway railhead profile setting standards and acceptance criteria on the transverse of rail grinding (milling) operation, the rail profile management software ( RPM ) is developed for a suitable rail maintenance repair plan. Using the rail profile management software, rail profiles data of a sharp curve of heavy-haul railway is analyzed from the installation of new rail to its removal, concluding that the rail profile development follows a classic bathtub shape. Using the laws of rail surface development, magic wear rate could be used to guide preventive rail grinding ( or milling ) in stable period of rail wear development, and rail profiles should be repaired and remodeled before the rapid rail wear period .

  10. Analysis of wheel motion on corrugated rail; Corrugation ga hasseishita rail wo sokosuru sharin no undo kaiseki

    Horie, A. [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ikuta, S.; Suda, Y. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science] Terumichi, Y. [Sophia University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology; Ono, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    An analysis is conducted into the compound vibration of a wheel/rail system which is a two-axle truck travelling on rails with corrugation type wear generated thereon. Each wheel is analyzed using an analysis model in which the travelling mass, contact spring (concentrated mass system of one degree of freedom), and rails provide a system of distributed constants. Calculation is then made about the variation in the contact force that occurs between the wheels and rails when the truck travels at a prescribed speed in a sector with corrugation (assumed to be sinusoidal) generated on the rails therein. It is then found that there is interaction between the front wheels and rear wheels, that the lateral vibration generated by the excitation of rails due to the traveling of the front wheels is transmitted through the rails to reach the rear wheels for their excitation for an increase in the variation in the contact force between the rear wheels and rails and that, vice versa, the travel of the rear wheels increases the variation in the contact force between the front wheels and rails. It is also found, concerning both front wheels and rear wheels, that there are periodic fluctuations, dependent on the wheelbase, in the amplitude of the contact force variation at the steady state and that the period, as compared with the wavelength of corrugation, is shorter in the front wheels and longer in the rear wheels. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Wenliang Zhou


    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  12. Kvalitet usluga u železničkom saobraćaju država EZ, EFTA i SFRJ

    Milan Janić


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the quality of transport services in passenger and freight rail transport of the EC, EFTA and Yugoslavia. For passenger transport services the respective level has been reviewed on the system of IC-lines while for the freight transport services it has been reviewed on the system of direct freight trains. For passenger transport services the frequencies and commercial speeds have been analyzed while for freight transport services the average commercial speed has been reviewed. The author puts forth recommendations for the increase of commercial speeds.

  13. Developments in Rail Transit:History and Future of Rail Transportation in Beijing


    <正>In the past ten years, the increase in the number of automobiles in Beijing, es-pecially private cars, has led to serious traffic congestion and environmental pollution. Given that urban rail transit is expedient, punctual, high in passenger

  14. Influencing Factors of Energy Consumption for Rail Transport Based on Grey Relational Degree%基于灰色关联度的轨道交通能耗影响因素分析

    冯佳; 许奇; 冯旭杰; 冯雪松; 孙全欣


    轨道交通节能潜力较大.本文在分析行业统计数据的基础上,利用灰色相关度分析法对轨道交通系统中的城市轨道交通、客运专线以及客货共线铁路的能耗组成以及各主要影响因素的影响重要度进行定量分析.结合行业统计数据,确定分析指标并得出分析结果.研究认为:轨道交通总能耗构成分为机车运行牵引能耗和车站设施能耗两部分.机车运行牵引能耗的大小对决定客货共线铁路和客运专线铁路的能耗起较大作用;而对城市轨道交通系统能耗而言,两个因素的重要度相差不大.不同因素对轨道交通能耗的影响重要度存在差异.%The potential of energy-saving of rail transit is large. Based on the analysis of the industrial statistics data, this paper analyses the energy consumption factor composition and the main influence factors of urban rail transit, passenger-dedicated line and passenger train of the railway line shared by passenger and freight trains using grey relational degree analysis method. Combining industrial statistics data, establish quantify analysis indicators and draw the analysis result. The result shows that, rail transit total energy consumption constitute divided into locomotive running traction energy consumption and the equipment energy consumption in two parts. Locomotive running traction power consumption plays a great role on decision the energy consumption factor of the railway line shared by passenger and freight trains and the passenger-dedicated line.And for energy consumption factor of urban rail transit system, two factors of importance vary slightly. Different affecting factors of rail transit plays a different role on the importance degree of energy consumption factor.

  15. Customer satisfaction factors for light rail: what can we learn from a successful case?

    Marin MARINOV


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyze customer satisfaction factors for Light Rail, identify a successful case and compare the level of service of this case with another system so that improvements in terms of price, time of journey and connectivity can be elaborated and suggested. The Docklands Light Railway (London, UK has been identified as a successful case, which service levels have been compared to ‘Metro Sul do Tejo, MST’ (Almada, Portugal. As a result, a set of solutions to improve MST are proposed.

  16. Green's functions for analysis of dynamic response of wheel/rail to vertical excitation

    Mazilu, Traian


    An analytical model to simulate wheel/rail interaction using the Green's functions method is proposed in this paper. The model consists of a moving wheel on a discretely supported rail. Particularly for this model of rail, the bending and the longitudinal displacement are coupled due to the rail pad and a complex model of the rail pad is adopted. An efficient method for solving a time-domain analysis for wheel/rail interaction is presented. The method is based on the properties of the rail's Green functions and starting to these functions, a track's Green matrix is assembled for the numerical simulations of wheel/rail response due to three kinds of vertical excitations: the steady-state interaction, the rail corrugation and the wheel flat. The study points to influence of the worn rail—rigid contact—on variation in the wheel/rail contact force. The concept of pinned-pinned inhibitive rail pad is also presented.

  17. 76 FR 17615 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance


    ... Parts 177 and 392 RIN 2137-AE69 & 2126-AB04 Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance AGENCY: Pipeline... that PHMSA and FMCSA extend the comment period for the Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance... Crossing; Safe Clearance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which was published on January 28, 2011 (76 FR...

  18. 49 CFR 1580.101 - Rail security coordinator.


    ... least one alternate Rail Security Coordinator (RSC). (c) The RSC and alternate(s) must be appointed at... hazardous materials receiver required to have an RSC must provide to TSA the names, title, phone number(s..., and rail hazardous materials receiver required to have an RSC must ensure that at least one RSC:...

  19. 77 FR 64249 - Track Safety Standards; Improving Rail Integrity


    ... Integrity AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice... Supplementary Information I. Executive Summary II. Rail Integrity Overview A. Derailment in 2001 near Nodaway.... General Factual Background on Rail Integrity E. Statutory Mandate To Conduct this Rulemaking III. Overview...

  20. 46 CFR 32.02-10 - Rails-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rails-TB/ALL. 32.02-10 Section 32.02-10 Shipping COAST... Safety Requirements § 32.02-10 Rails—TB/ALL. (a) All tank vessels, except unmanned tank barges... be in at least two courses, including the top, approximately evenly spaced. All rails shall consist...

  1. Towards automated model calibration and validation in rail transit simulation

    Huang, Y.; Seck, M.D.; Verbraeck, A.


    The benefit of modeling and simulation in rail transit operations has been demonstrated in various studies. However, the complex dynamics involved and the ever-changing environment in which rail systems evolve expose the limits of classical simulation. Changing environmental conditions and second or

  2. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.


    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  3. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    Dittrich, M.G.


    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  4. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities


    ... hazardous waste regulated under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.), mining... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1155 Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface... solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Clean Railroads Act of 2008 amended the U.S. Code to restrict...

  5. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Wang Fu-jian


    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  6. 49 CFR 214.523 - Hi-rail vehicles.


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail... designated by the employer. (c) A new hi-rail vehicle shall be equipped with: (1) An automatic change-of... change-of-direction alarms, backup alarms, and 360-degree intermittent warning lights or beacons shall be...

  7. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-


    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  8. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Aesma, Madis


    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  9. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    Droogendijk, Gert


    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  10. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Aesma, Madis


    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  11. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-


    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  12. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Jie Zhao


    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  13. Rail environmental impact: energy consumption and noise pollution assessment of different transport modes connecting Big Ben (London, UK and Eiffel Tower (Paris, FR

    Roberto PALACIN


    Full Text Available This paper is set within the framework of the RailNewcastle Summer School program 2014 run by Newcastle University. It attempts to explore the sustainability credentials of railways when compared with other transport modes connecting central London with central Paris, two of Europe’s largest metropolis. Specifically, the study compares the energy consumption and noise pollution of a rail-only travel option with two other alternatives using a combination of public transport modes. The analysis includes defining the regulatory framework, sourcing and aggregating energy consumption from a number of references as well as creating noise maps for key nodes using validated tools available. The results suggest that the rail-only option has the best performance of the three options in terms of energy consumption while a bus-coach-metro combination seems to have lower noise levels than the rest. Assumptions due to lack of meaningful data made in the calculation of underground rail services are thought to have influence on the lower than expected performance of rails systems in terms of noise. The authors conclude that considering the combined outcomes of both assessments, the rail-only option is the preferred choice from a sustainability credentials perspective.

  14. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel


    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  15. Dynamic analysis of rail vehicle axle

    Ferhat Dikmen; Meral Bayraktar; Rahmi Guclu


    In this paper, in order to obtain the dynamic forces on the passenger coach axle, a full rail vehicle model with 19-dof (degrees of freedom) has been considered. For a specific example, the variations of these dynamic forces with velocity of the passenger coach, suspension characteristics and way conditions have been examined. Dynamic forces found in the resonance regions at the range of 2–5 m/s (7.2–18 km/h) has been discussed. Theoretical results obtained for the dynamic forces have been successfully compared with the experimental results of German Railways (Deutsche Bahn-DB).




    @@ Travel between Wuhan,capital of central China's Hubei Province,and Guangzhou,capital of Guangdong Province in south China,used to take 10 hours.But now,the 1,000-km journey can be made in three hours.When factoring in time spent getting to the airport and then waiting to board the aircraft,travel time between the two cities by air or rail is roughly the same.But the cost effectiveness of train travel trumps air utansportation,luring a considerable number of people to stay grounded when traveling.

  17. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Ray, P. K.


    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  18. An analysis of how developments in the packaging industry will influence the dimensions of freight carriers

    Meijer, Niels; Jansen, Jan; Pieters, Reinder; Weijers, Stef; Woodburn, Allan


    To what extent will trends in the packaging industry determine or influence the future dimensions of freight carriers? In this study we have identified these trends and studied the possible impact on the sizes of the truck of the future. It was part of a dissertation for the MSc programme in Logisti

  19. Estimation of warehouse throughput in freight transport demand model for the Netherlands

    Davydenko, I.; Tavasszy, L.


    This paper presents an extension of the classical four-step freight modeling framework with a logistics chain model. Modeling logistics at the regional level establishes a link between trade flow and transport flow, allows the warehouse and distribution center locations and throughput volumes to be

  20. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...