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Sample records for rail diesel engine

  1. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Lu; Changlu Zhao; Zhe Zuo; Fujun Zhang; Shuanlu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S) diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed stat...

  2. Application of Canola Oil Biodiesel/Diesel Blends in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the application effects of canola oil biodiesel/diesel blends in a common rail diesel engine was experimentally investigated. The test fuels were denoted as ULSD (ultra low sulfur diesel, BD20 (20% canola oil blended with 80% ULSD by volume, and PCO (pure canola oil, respectively. These three fuels were tested under an engine speed of 1500 rpm with various brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs. The results indicated that PCO can be used well in the diesel engine without engine modification, and that BD20 can be used as a good alternative fuel to reduce the exhaust pollution. In addition, at low engine loads (0.13 MPa and 0.26 MPa, the combustion pressure of PCO is the smallest, compared with BD20 and ULSD, because the lower calorific value of PCO is lower than that of ULSD. However, at high engine loads (0.39 MPa and 0.52 MPa, the rate of heat release (ROHR of BD20 is the highest because the canola oil biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel that promotes combustion, shortening the ignition delay period. For exhaust emissions, by using canola oil biodiesel, the particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO emissions were considerably reduced with increased BMEP. The nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased only slightly due to the inherent presence of oxygen in biodiesel.

  3. Research on the Common Rail Pressure Overshoot of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The common rail pressure has a direct influence on the working stability of Opposed-Piston Two-Stroke (OP2S diesel engines, especially on performance indexes such as power, economy and emissions. Meanwhile, the rail pressure overshoot phenomenon occurs frequently due to the operating characteristics of OP2S diesel engines, which could lead to serious consequences. In order to solve the rail pressure overshoot problem of OP2S diesel engines, a nonlinear concerted algorithm adding a speed state feedback was investigated. First, the nonlinear Linear Parameter Varying (LPV model was utilized to describe the coupling relationship between the engine speed and the rail pressure. The Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR optimal control algorithm was applied to design the controller by the feedback of speed and rail pressure. Second, cooperating with the switching characteristics of injectors, the co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and GT-Power was utilized to verify the validity of the control algorithm and analyze workspaces for both normal and special sections. Finally, bench test results showed that the accuracy of the rail pressure control was in the range of ±1 MPa, in the condition of sudden 600 r/min speed increases. In addition, the fuel mass was reduced 76.3% compared with the maximum fuel supply quantity and the rail pressure fluctuation was less than 20 MPa. The algorithm could also be appropriate for other types of common rail system thanks to its universality.

  4. Performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of twin-cylinder common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gottekere, Kumar Narayanappa

    2017-10-01

    Nitrogen oxides and smoke are the substantial emissions for the diesel engines. Fuels comprising high-level oxygen content can have low smoke emission due to better oxidation of soot. The objective of the paper is to assess the potential to employ oxygenated fuel, i.e., n-butanol and its blends with the neat diesel from 0 to 30% by volume. The experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation is carried out to estimate the performance, combustion, and exhaust emission characteristics of n-butanol-diesel blends for various injection timings (9°, 12°, 15°, and 18°) using modern twin-cylinder, four-stroke, common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine. Experimental results reveal the increase in brake thermal efficiency (BTE) by ~ 4.5, 6, and 8% for butanol-diesel blends of 10% (Bu10), 20% (Bu20), and 30% (Bu30), respectively, compared to neat diesel (Bu0). Maximum BTE for Bu0 is 38.4%, which is obtained at 12° BTDC; however, for Bu10, Bu20 and Bu30 are 40.19, 40.9, and 41.7%, which are obtained at 15° BTDC, respectively. Higher flame speed of n-butanol-diesel blends burn a large amount of fuel in the premixed phase, which improves the combustion as well as emission characteristics. CFD and experimental results are compared and validated for all fuel blends for in-cylinder pressure and nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and found to be in good agreement. Both experimental and simulation results witnessed in reduction of smoke opacity, NO x , and carbon monoxide emissions with the increasing n-butanol percentage in diesel fuel.

  5. Investigations of effects of pilot injection with change in level of compression ratio in a common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajarlawar Nilesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available These day diesel engines are gaining lots of attention as prime movers for various source of transportation. It offers better drive ability, very good low end torque and importantly the lower CO2 emission. Diesel engines are bridging the gap between gasoline and diesel engines. Better noise vibration and harshness levels of gasoline engine are realized to great extent in diesel engine, thanks to common rail direct injection system. Common rail injection system is now well known entity. Its unique advantage is flexible in operation. In common rail injection system, number of injection prior and after main injection at different injection pressure is possible. Due to multiple injections, gain in emission reduction as well as noise has been already experienced and demonstrated by researcher in the past. However, stringent emission norms for diesel engine equipped vehicle demands for further lower emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx and particulate matter (PM. In the present paper, authors attempted to study the effect of multiple injections in combination with two level of compression ratio. The aim was to study the combustion behavior with the reduced compression ratio which is going to be tried out as low temperature combustion concept in near future. The results were compared with the current level of compression ratio. Experiments were carried out in 2.2L cubic capacity engine with two levels of compression ratios. Pilot injection separation and quantities were varied keeping the main injection, rail pressure, boost pressure and EGR rate constant. Cylinder pressure traces and gross heat release rates were measured and analyzed to understand the combustion behavior.

  6. EVALUATION OF VIBRATION LOAD ON COMMON RAIL FUEL SYSTEM COMPONENTS FOR DIESEL ENGINE

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    G. M. Kuharonak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to develop a program, a methodology and execute vibration load tests of Common Rail fuel system components for a diesel engine. The paper contains an analysis of parameters that characterize vibration activity of research object and determine its applicability as a part of the specific mechanical system. A tests program has been developed that includes measurements of general peak values of vibration acceleration in the fuel system components, transformation of the obtained data while taking into account the fact that peak vibration acceleration values depend on crank-shaft rotation frequency and spectrum of vibration frequency, comparison of these dependences with the threshold limit values obtained in the process of component tests with the help of vibration shaker. The investigations have been carried out in one of the most stressed elements of the Common Rail fuel system that is a RDS 4.2-pressure sensor in a fuel accumulator manufactured by Robert Bosch GmbH and mounted on the MMZ D245.7E4-engines.According to the test methodology measurements have been performed on an engine test bench at all fullload engine curves. Vibration measurements have resulted in time history of the peak vibration acceleration values in three directions from every accelerometer and crank-shaft rotation frequency.It has been proposed to increase a diameter of mounting spacers of the fuel accumulator and install a damping clamp on high pressure tubes from a high pressure fuel pump to the fuel accumulator that permits to reduce a maximum peak vibration acceleration value on the pressure sensor in the fuel accumulator by 400 m/s2 and ensure its application in the given engine.

  7. Emulation study on system characteristic of high pressure common-rail fuel injection system for marine medium-speed diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinpeng; Yang, Jianguo; Xin, Dong; He, Yuhai; Yu, Yonghua

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, based on the characteristic analyzing of the mechanical fuel injection system for the marine medium-speed diesel engine, a sectional high-pressure common rail fuel injection system is designed, rated condition rail pressure of which is 160MPa. The system simulation model is built and the performance of the high pressure common rail fuel injection system is analyzed, research results provide the technical foundation for the system engineering development.

  8. Investigation on the Nonlinear Control System of High-Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) System in a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Mao, Xiaobing; Ma, Zhexuan

    2018-02-01

    This study first constructed the nonlinear mathematical model of the high-pressure common rail (HPCR) system in the diesel engine. Then, the nonlinear state transformation was performed using the flow’s calculation and the standard state space equation was acquired. Based on sliding-mode variable structure control (SMVSC) theory, a sliding-mode controller for nonlinear systems was designed for achieving the control of common rail pressure and the diesel engine’s rotational speed. Finally, on the simulation platform of MATLAB, the designed nonlinear HPCR system was simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that sliding-mode variable structure control algorithm shows favorable control performances and overcome the shortcomings of traditional PID control in overshoot, parameter adjustment, system precision, adjustment time and ascending time.

  9. Transformation of a car diesel engine with direct injection and common rail into a dual fuel engine; Trasformazione di un motore automobilistico diesel ad iniezione diretta dotato di common rail in un motore dual fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali

    1999-08-01

    The reduced polluting emissions make natural gas a quite interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. Therefore a car diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail injection system used to ignite the methane-air charge. Standard injection pumps show a certain instability at low flow rates and high engine speed. On the opposite the new common rail system allows to ignite the fuel in all conditions with an amount of gas oil less than 8% of the entire energy required by the engine was enough to ignite the fuel. Furthermore, a power increase has been obtained, with an overall efficiency equal to or even higher than a conventional engine. The article deals with a series of test carried out on 1929 cm{sup 3} direct injection turbo-charged engine and presents the preliminary results. [Italian] La riduzione delle emissioni inquinanti rende il metano un combustibile alternativo piuttosto interessante per applicazioni automobilistiche. Per quasta ragione e' stata realizzata la trasformazione di un motore automobilitico diesel ad iniezione diretta in un motore dual fuel con iniezione pilota prodotta da un sistema common rail. L'adozione del sistema common rail consente l'accensione in ogni condizione con una quantita' di combustibile inferiore all'8% dell'intera energia richiesta alla potenza nominale del motore risolvendo i problemi di instabilita' che una pompa normale presenta a basse portate e ad alta velocita'. In alcuni casi e' stato sufficiente il 3% dell'energia totale richiesta dal motore per accendere la carica. Inoltre si e' ottenuto un aumento della potenza con un'efficienza globale analoga a qualla del motore tradizionale o addirittura migliore. Si riportano i risultati di una campagna di prove condotta su un motore sovralimentato ad iniezione diretta (1929 cm{sup 3}).

  10. Experimental investigation on a Common Rail Diesel engine partially fuelled by syngas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinaldini, Carlo Alberto; Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Mattarelli, Enrico; Savioli, Tommaso; Morselli, Nicolò; Puglia, Marco; Tartarini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A current automotive Diesel engine is tested running on both Diesel fuel and syngas. • The syngas HHV is about 5 MJ/Nm"3, allowing a 60% of Diesel substitution. • The engine brake efficiency is slightly increased running on syngas at high load. • In-cylinder pressure do not change very much even if Diesel fuel is strongly reduced. - Abstract: The high efficiency, reliability and flexibility of modern passenger car Diesel engines makes these power units quite attractive for steady power plants totally or partially running on fuels derived from biomass, in particular on syngas. The engine cost, which is obviously higher than that of current industrial engines, may not be a big obstacle, provided that the re-engineering work is limited and that performance and efficiency are enhanced. The goal of this work is to explore the potential of a current automotive turbocharged Diesel engine running on both Diesel fuel and syngas, by means of a comprehensive experimental investigation focused on the combustion process. The engine is operated at the most typical speed employed in steady power plants (3000 rpm), considering three different loads (50–100–300 Nm/16–31–94 kW). For each operating condition, the syngas rate is progressively increased until it provides a maximum heating power of 85 kW, while contemporarily reducing the amount of injected Diesel oil. Maximum care is applied to guarantee a constant quality of the syngas flow throughout the tests, as well as to maintain the same engine control parameters, in particular the boost pressure. It is found that in-cylinder pressure traces do not change very much, even when drastically reducing the amount of Diesel fuel: this is a very encouraging result, because it demonstrates that there is no need to radically modify the standard stock engine design. Another promising outcome is the slight but consistent enhancement of the engine brake efficiency: the use of syngas not only reduces the

  11. Influence of low-temperature combustion and dimethyl ether-diesel blends on performance, combustion, and emission characteristics of common rail diesel engine: a CFD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamani, Venkatesh Tavareppa; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Narayanappa, Kumar Gottekere

    2017-06-01

    Due to presence of more oxygen, absence of carbon-carbon (C-C) bond in chemical structure, and high cetane number of dimethyl ether (DME), pollution from DME operated engine is less compared to diesel engine. Hence, the DME can be a promising alternative fuel for diesel engine. The present study emphasizes the effect of various exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (0-20%) and DME/Diesel blends (0-20%) on combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions of common rail direct injection (CRDI) engine using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Extended coherent flame model-3 zone (ECFM-3Z) is implemented to carry out combustion analysis, and k-ξ-f model is employed for turbulence modeling. Results show that in-cylinder pressure marginally decreases with employing EGR compared to without EGR case. As EGR rate increases, nitrogen oxide (NO) formation decreases, whereas soot increases marginally. Due to better combustion characteristics of DME, indicated thermal efficiency (ITE) increases with the increases in DME/diesel blend ratio. Adverse effect of EGR on efficiency for blends is less compared to neat diesel, because the anoxygenated region created due to EGR is compensated by extra oxygen present in DME. The trade-off among NO, soot, carbon monoxide (CO) formation, and efficiency is studied by normalizing the parameters. Optimum operating condition is found at 10% EGR rate and 20% DME/diesel blend. The maximum indicated thermal efficiency was observed for DME/diesel ratio of 20% in the present range of study. Obtained results are validated with published experimental data and found good agreement.

  12. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  13. Spray-combustion process characterization in a common rail diesel engine fuelled with butanol-diesel blends by conventional methods and optical diagnostics

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    Simona Silvia Merola

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The target of a sustainable mobility has led to investigate advanced combustion modes and fuels technologies. On the other side, the increasing global energy demand and the decreasing fossil-energy resources are enhancing the interest in the use of renewable alternative fuels for compression ignition engines with the target of near-zero emission levels. Although performance and emissions of alternative-fuel within light-duty diesel engines have been extensively investigated, results of fuel chemical composition impact on combustion by integrated optical methodologies are lacking. In order to meet this challenge, one of the main objectives of the research efforts is to characterize the combustion and species evolution. In this investigation, conventional tests and optical diagnostics were employed to enhance the comprehension of the combustion process and chemical markers in a common rail compression ignition engine powered by butanol-diesel blends. The investigation was focused on the effect of the injection strategy and blend composition on in-cylinder spray combustion and soot formation, through UV-visible digital imaging and natural emission spectroscopy. Experiments were performed in an optically accessible single cylinder high swirl compression ignition engine, equipped with a common rail multi-jets injection system. UV-visible emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of the combustion process chemical markers. Spectral features of OH were identified and followed during the spray combustion process examining different pilot-main dwell timings. Soot spectral evidence in the visible wavelength range was correlated to soot engine out emissions. In this work, conventional and optical data related to diesel fuel blended with 40 % of n-butanol will be presented.

  14. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

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    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  15. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  16. Chemiluminescence analysis of the effect of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the spray-combustion process in an experimental common rail diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion process was studied from the injection until the late combustion phase in an high swirl optically accessible combustion bowl connected to a single cylinder 2-stroke high pressure common rail compression ignition engine. Commercial diesel and blends of diesel and n-butanol (20%: BU20 and 40%: BU40 were used for the experiments. A pilot plus main injection strategy was investigated fixing the injection pressure and fuel mass injected per stroke. Two main injection timings and different pilot-main dwell times were explored achieving for any strategy a mixing controlled combustion. Advancing the main injection start, an increase in net engine working cycle (>40% together with a strong smoke number decrease (>80% and NOx concentration increase (@50% were measured for all pilot injection timings. Compared to diesel fuel, butanol induced a decrease in soot emission and an increase in net engine working area when butanol ratio increased in the blend. A noticeable increase in NOx was detected at the exhaust for BU40 with a slight effect of the dwell-time. Spectroscopic investigations confirmed the delayed auto-ignition (~60 ms of the pilot injection for BU40 compared to diesel. The spectral features for the different fuels were comparable at the start of combustion process, but they evolved in different ways. Broadband signal caused by soot emission, was lower for BU40 than diesel. Different balance of the bands at 309 and 282 nm, due to different OH transitions, were detected between the two fuels. The ratio of these intensities was used to follow flame temperature evolution.

  17. An investigation of the engine performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of coconut biodiesel in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How, H.G.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Teoh, Y.H.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on engine performance, emissions, combustion and vibration characteristics with coconut biodiesel fuels was conducted in a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine under five different load operations (0.17, 0.34, 0.52, 0.69 and 0.86 MPa). The test fuels included a conventional diesel fuel and four different fuel blends of coconut biodiesel (B10, B20, B30 and B50). The results showed that biodiesel blended fuels have significant influences on the BSFC (brake specific fuel consumption) and BSEC (brake specific energy consumption) at all engine loads. In general, the use of coconut biodiesel blends resulted in a reduction of BSCO (brake specific carbon monoxide) and smoke emissions regardless of the load conditions. A large reduction of 52.4% in smoke opacity was found at engine load of 0.86 MPa engine load with B50. For combustion characteristics, a slightly shorter ignition delay and longer combustion duration were found with the use of biodiesel blends under all loading operations. It was found that generally the biodiesel blends produced lower peak heat release rate than baseline diesel. The vibration results showed that the largest reduction of 13.7% in RMS (root mean square) of acceleration was obtained with B50 at engine load of 0.86 MPa with respect to the baseline diesel. - Highlights: • The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of biodiesel were studied. • A tangible increase in BSFC was observed at all engine loads with coconut biodiesel. • A slightly shorter ignition delay was found with the use of biodiesel blends. • The vibrations for coconut biodiesel blends in diesel engine were investigated. • B50 achieved the largest reduction in RMS of acceleration at 0.86 MPa engine load

  18. Effects of pilot injection timing and EGR on a modern V6 common rail direct injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli Abdullah, Nik; Mamat, Rizalman; Wyszynski, Miroslaw L.; Tsolakis, Anthanasios; Xu, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    Nitric oxide and smoke emissions in diesel engine can be controlled by optimising the air/fuel mixture. Early injection produces premixed charge resulted in simultaneous NOx and smoke emissions reduction. However, there could be an increase in hydrocarbons and CO emissions due to fuel impinged to the cylinder wall. The focus of the present work is to investigate the effects of a variation of pilot injection timing with EGR to NOx and smoke level on a modern V6 common rail direct injection. This study is carried out at two different engine load conditions of 30 Nm and 55 Nm, at constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The results show that the early pilot injection timing contributed to the lower smoke level and higher NOx emissions. The higher level of NOx is due to higher combustion temperatures resulting from the complete combustion. Meanwhile, the lower smoke level is due to complete fuel combustion and soot oxidation. The early pilot injection timing produces an intermediate main ignition delay which also contributed to complete combustion. The formation of smoke is higher at a high engine load compared with low engine load due to the higher amount of fuel being injected.

  19. NOx, Soot, and Fuel Consumption Predictions under Transient Operating Cycle for Common Rail High Power Density Diesel Engines

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    N. H. Walke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine is presently facing the challenge of controlling NOx and soot emissions on transient cycles, to meet stricter emission norms and to control emissions during field operations. Development of a simulation tool for NOx and soot emissions prediction on transient operating cycles has become the most important objective, which can significantly reduce the experimentation time and cost required for tuning these emissions. Hence, in this work, a 0D comprehensive predictive model has been formulated with selection and coupling of appropriate combustion and emissions models to engine cycle models. Selected combustion and emissions models are further modified to improve their prediction accuracy in the full operating zone. Responses of the combustion and emissions models have been validated for load and “start of injection” changes. Model predicted transient fuel consumption, air handling system parameters, and NOx and soot emissions are in good agreement with measured data on a turbocharged high power density common rail engine for the “nonroad transient cycle” (NRTC. It can be concluded that 0D models can be used for prediction of transient emissions on modern engines. How the formulated approach can also be extended to transient emissions prediction for other applications and fuels is also discussed.

  20. Influence of narrow fuel spray angle and split injection strategies on combustion efficiency and engine performance in a common rail direct injection diesel engine

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    Raouf Mobasheri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct injection diesel engines have been widely used in transportation and stationary power systems because of their inherent high thermal efficiency. On the other hand, emission regulations such as NOx and particulates have become more stringent from the standpoint of preserving the environment in recent years. In this study, previous results of multiple injection strategies have been further investigated to analyze the effects of narrow fuel spray angle on optimum multiple injection schemes in a heavy duty common rail direct injection diesel engine. An advanced computational fluid dynamics simulation has been carried out on a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition in 1600 r/min at two exhaust gas recirculation rates. A good agreement of calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate and pollutant formation trends was obtained under various operating points. Three different included spray angles have been studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle. The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that the optimum engine performance for simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions was achieved with 105° included spray angle along with an optimized split injection strategy. The results show, in this case, the fuel spray impinges at the edge of the piston bowl and a counterclockwise flow motion is generated that pushes mixture toward the center of the piston bowl.

  1. Diesel engine management systems and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This reference book provides a comprehensive insight into todays diesel injection systems and electronic control. It focusses on minimizing emissions and exhaust-gas treatment. Innovations by Bosch in the field of diesel-injection technology have made a significant contribution to the diesel boom. Calls for lower fuel consumption, reduced exhaust-gas emissions and quiet engines are making greater demands on the engine and fuel-injection systems. Contents History of the diesel engine.- Areas of use for diesel engines.- Basic principles of the diesel engine.- Fuels: Diesel fuel.- Fuels: Alternative fuels.- Cylinder-charge control systems.- Basic principles of diesel fuel-injection.- Overview of diesel fuel-injection systems.- Fuel supply to the low pressure stage.- Overview of discrete cylinder systems.- Unit injector system.- Unit pump system.- Overview of common-rail systems.- High pressure components of the common-rail system.- Injection nozzles.- Nozzle holders.- High pressure lines.- Start assist systems.-...

  2. Design and Evaluation for Target Indicated Torque Based Engine Starting Control Strategy in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

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    Xuedong Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine power demand of the start condition can be separated into two parts including resistance overcoming and acceleration realization for the reason that there is no power output during the starting process. The present paper mainly focuses on the fuel injection quantity control based on the engine power demand especially the acceleration demand for the resistance force is fixed for a specific engine, and the starting acceleration velocity is set as a target curve so that the acceleration process can also be fixed. The feasibility of the start control strategy proposed in this paper was verified by a comparison of the traditional starting control with a constant fuel quantity, and starting performance of the target acceleration based control shows predominance to the constant quantity control. And then the comparison between various starting acceleration processes, which was realized by the settings of acceleration curve slope factor, was conducted and results showed that the acceleration processes with higher slope factors perform better.

  3. A Phenomenological Model for Prediction Auto-Ignition and Soot Formation of Turbulent Diffusion Combustion in a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engine

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    Qinghui Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new phenomenological model, the TP (Temperature Phase model, is presented to carry out optimization calculations for turbulent diffusion combustion in a high-pressure common rail diesel engine. Temperature is the most important parameter in the TP model, which includes two parts: an auto-ignition and a soot model. In the auto-ignition phase, different reaction mechanisms are built for different zones. For the soot model, different methods are used for different temperatures. The TP model is then implemented in KIVA code instead of original model to carry out optimization. The results of cylinder pressures, the corresponding heat release rates, and soot with variation of injection time, variation of rail pressure and variation of speed among TP model, KIVA standard model and experimental data are analyzed. The results indicate that the TP model can carry out optimization and CFD (computational fluid dynamics and can be a useful tool to study turbulent diffusion combustion.

  4. Effects of 2,5-dimethylfuran fuel properties coupling with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) on combustion and emission characteristics in common-rail diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Di, Lei; Zhang, Quanchang; Zheng, Zunqing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of DMF (2,5-dimethylfuran) fuel properties combined with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation), CA50, EHN (2-Ethylhexyl nitrate) and multi-injection strategies on combustion and emission characteristics were experimentally investigated in two common-rail diesel engines including a single-cylinder engine and a multi-cylinder engine. Results demonstrate that, with DMF addition into diesel, ID (ignition delay) prolongs and smoke decreases more greatly as EGR rate increases. When DMF addition fraction increases up to 40%, the inherent trade-off between NO_x and smoke can be eliminated, but the MPRR (maximum pressure rise rate) is too high. However, the higher MPRR can be reduced efficiently without serious penalties in smoke and BTE (brake thermal efficiency) by delaying CA50 and adding EHN reasonably. Although DMF and gasoline have very similar physic-chemical properties, DMF/diesel blends are much more efficient than gasoline/diesel wide-distillation blends to reduce soot with high EGR rates due to its much longer ID and atomic oxygen. With increasing DMF addition fraction, BTE is affected less by the delay of CA50, meanwhile, multi-injection strategies have less impact on soot generation. Additionally, as compared to the delay of CA50 and the addition of EHN, the employ of pilot injection is poor to reduced MPRR for DMF/diesel blends. - Highlights: • D40 can solve the NO_x-smoke trade-off relationship, but leading to higher MPRR. • Adding EHN into D40 can reduce MPRR efficiently with a little increase in soot. • Compared to gasoline, DMF is much more efficient to reduce soot in CI engines. • With DMF addition, multi-injection strategies have less impact on MPRR and soot. • DMF may be a promising alternative for reducing soot emissions in CI engine LTC.

  5. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid

    2012-10-18

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  6. Impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation on NO x emissions and soot reactivity in a common rail diesel engine

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Qurashi, Khalid; Zhang, Yu; Boehman, André Louis

    2012-01-01

    The impact of intake CO 2 addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on engine combustion characteristics, NO x emissions, and soot oxidative reactivity was studied in a common rail diesel engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The engine test results and the heat release analysis show that the reduced flame temperature, induced by the reduction of the oxygen concentration (dilution effect) is the dominant mechanism via which CO 2 and EGR lower NO x emissions in diesel engines. On the other hand, the collected soot from the engine tests was examined for its oxidative reactivity using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Results show that EGR has a significant effect on soot reactivity and results in higher initial active sites compared to the CO 2 case. We conclude that the reduced flame temperature (thermal effect) which is a consequence of the dilution effect is responsible for the observed increase in soot reactivity. These results confirm observations from our past work on flame soot, which showed that the peak adiabatic flame temperature is the governing factor affecting soot reactivity. These findings imply that driving the combustion concepts toward low temperature is favorable to effectively control engine pollutants, including soot reactivity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Effects of a 70% biodiesel blend on the fuel injection system operation during steady-state and transient performance of a common rail diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tziourtzioumis, Dimitrios; Stamatelos, Anastassios

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We demonstrate how the fuel injection system responds to different fuel properties. ► Improvements to the ECU maps of the engine are suggested. ► These allow operation at high biodiesel blends without loss in engine performance. ► Continued operation with high biodiesel fuel blend, resulted in fuel pump failure. - Abstract: The results of steady state and transient engine bench tests of a 2.0l common-rail passenger car diesel engine fuelled by B70 biodiesel blend are compared with the corresponding results of baseline tests with standard EN 590 diesel fuel. The macroscopic steady-state performance and emissions of the same engine has already been presented elsewhere. The current study demonstrates how the engine management system responds to different fuel properties, with focus to the fuel system dynamics and the engine’s transient response. A set of characteristic transient operation points was selected for the tests. Data acquisition of engine ECU variables was made by means of INCA software/ETAS Mac2 interface. Additional data acquisition regarding engine performance was based on external sensors. The results indicate significant differences in fuel system dynamics and transient engine operation with the B70 blend at high fuel flow rates. Certain modifications to engine ECU maps and control parameters are proposed, aimed at improvement of transient performance of modern engines run on high percentage biodiesel blends. However, a high pressure pump failure that was observed after prolonged operation with the B70 blend, hints to the use of more conservative biodiesel blending in fuel.

  8. Evolving diesel common rail technology for future low emission standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P. [Delphi Diesel Systems, Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    The Diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for Diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continously developing its Common Rail System and its components for fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. The outstanding and unique injector concept combined with innovative control strategies has largely contributed to the improvement of exhaust emission and performance, consumption and NVH over the lifetime of Diesel vehicles. Recently, Euro 4 common rail applications have been introduced on several applications by adding further capability such as multiple injection, small-injected quantity control and improved atomization. This papers will describe the latest Common Rail System developments that Delphi will introduce into the market to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially with regard to it's near square rate injection shape, minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the papers will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  9. Common rail technology for future low emission diesel vehicles; Common Rail Technologie fuer zukuenftige Diesel Fahrzeuge mit niedrigen Emissionswerten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, D.; Bercher, P.; Guerrassi, N.; Spadafora, P.

    2004-07-01

    The diesel fuel injection equipment will remain a key element for diesel engine technology evolution. Achieving emission targets at competitive prices has been and will continue to be a major technical challenge to the engine manufacturer. Delphi is continuously developing its common rail system and its components to fulfill future stricter emission legislation while simultaneously improving performance on noise, fuel consumption and power output. This paper will describe the latest developments that delphi introduced into the market in their common rail system to comply with future legislative emission targets. Further, a novel common rail injector will be presented, that uses a revolutionary, direct acting operating principle, where the nozzle is directly operated by a piezo actuator, without the use of a servo-hydraulic flow circuit. The superior performance of this injector concept will be shown, especially in minimum quantity capability as well as multiple injection performance. The direct acting operating principle allows rapid opening and closing of the injector, without compromising pilot quantity capability. The emission benefit obtained by such opening and closing behavior will be shown. Finally, based on the findings discussed, the paper will conclude on key features of future common rail systems. (orig.)

  10. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsie Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer expectations on performance and comfort. On the other hand, the large number of control variables to be tuned imposes a massive recourse to the experimental testing which is poorly sustainable in terms of time and money. In order to reduce the experimental effort and the time to market, the application of simulation models for EMS calibration has become fundamental. Predictive models, validated against a limited amount of experimental data, allow performing detailed analysis on the influence of engine control variables on pollutants, comfort and performance. In this paper, a simulation analysis on the impact of injection pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR rate on fuel consumption, combustion noise, NO and soot emissions is presented for an automotive Common-Rail Diesel engine. Simulations are accomplished by means of a quasi-dimensional multi-zone model of in-cylinder processes. Furthermore a methodology for in-cylinder pressure processing is presented to estimate combustion noise contribution to radiated noise. Model validation is carried out by comparing simulated in-cylinder pressure traces and exhaust emissions with experimental data measured at the test bench in steady-state conditions. Effects of control variables on engine performance, noise and pollutants are analyzed by imposing significant deviation of EGR rate and injection pattern (i.e. rail pressure, start-of-injection, number of injections. The results evidence that quasi-dimensional in

  11. Common rail fuel injection system for improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emission on heavy duty diesel engine; Common rail system ni yoru seino haishutsu gas no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T; Koyama, T; Sasaki, K; Mori, K; Mori, K [Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    With the objective of improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emissions, influence of control method to decrease initial injection rate and effect of injector types on fuel leakage of common rail fuel injection system (Common Rail System) were investigated. As a results, it became clear that injector with 2-way valve brings improvement of engine performance and reduction of exhaust emissions as compared with injector with 3-way valve because injector with 2-way valve has lower fuel leakage and is able to use higher injection pressure than injector with 3-way valve. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  12. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  13. Fundamentals of Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the fundamentals of diesel engine mechanics. Addressed in the three individual units of the course are the following topics: basic principles of diesel mechanics; principles, mechanics, and…

  14. Numerical investigation on transient flow and cavitation characteristic within nozzle during the oil drainage process for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zuo-Yu; Li, Guo-Xiu; Yu, Yu-Song; Gao, Si-Chao; Gao, Guo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The flow process within nozzle during oil drainage process were studied. • The effects of needle movement on flow characteristics were studied. • The cavitation characteristics in a transient flow were numerical studied. - Abstract: In the present investigation, the transient developments of flow and cavitation within an injector’s nozzle during the oil drainage process have been studied by numerical method for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine, both the variation regulations of macro parameters (indicating flow characteristics and cavitation characteristics) and the distribution manners of important physical fields (indicating the cavitation evolution in the micro) have been obtained and analyzed. The obtained numerical results indicate that, during the oil drainage process, both mass flow rate and flow coefficient monotonously increase with declining variation rates, both averaged flow velocity and averaged turbulent kinetic energy also monotonously increase; however, to the curve of TKE-needle lift, there exist certain points give abrupt increase. The difference in TKE curve compared to averaged flow velocity is mainly attributed to the sudden variation of cavitation. Based upon the numerical results, the cavitation bubble will not be formed until the needle lift has been raised to a certain position due to the lower flow velocity and the lack of low (even negative) pressure zones. As needle rises, the primary bubbles are formed near the lower corner after nozzle’s entrance; but as needle further rises, the positions at where bubbles are formed have been transferred to the upper corner and then being blow downwards orifice as the increase of flow velocity

  15. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  16. Diesel Engine Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  17. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  18. Combustion Noise and Pollutants Prediction for Injection Pattern and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Tuning in an Automotive Common-Rail Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arsie Ivan; Di Leo Rocco; Pianese Cesare; De Cesare Matteo

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, emissions standards for internal combustion engines are becoming more and more restrictive, particularly for NOx and soot emissions from Diesel engines. In order to comply with these requirements, OEMs have to face with innovative combustion concepts and/or sophisticate after-treatment devices. In both cases, the role of the Engine Management System (EMS) is increasingly essential, following the large number of actuators and sensors introduced and the need to meet customer ...

  19. Diesel Engine Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian Kim

    Recent years have seen an increase in the wear rate of engine bearings, subsequently followed by bearing failure, for the large two-stroke diesel engines used for ship propulsion. Here, the engine bearings include main, big end and crosshead bearings, with the bearing type used being the journal...... bearing, belonging to the class of ‘hydrodynamic bearings’. This implies that the load carrying capacity is generated by a relative movement of the involved components, i.e. avelocity-driven operation. For the engine application, the velocity stems from the engine RPM. However, to comply with the latest...

  20. Numerical investigation on effects of nozzle’s geometric parameters on the flow and the cavitation characteristics within injector’s nozzle for a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zuo-Yu; Li, Guo-Xiu; Chen, Chuan; Yu, Yu-Song; Gao, Guo-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The cavitation characteristics within nozzle were numerical studied. • The studied nozzle is from high pressure common-rail injection system. • The effects of nozzle’s geometrical parameters were considered. - Abstract: In the present paper, the influences of nozzle’s geometric parameters on the flow and the cavitation characteristics within injector’s nozzle have been numerically investigated on basis of a high-pressure common-rail DI diesel engine. For obtaining more beneficial information, five essential parameters (the pressure difference on the nozzle, circular bead of nozzle’s inlet, orifice coefficient, the ratio of nozzle’s length to orifice’s diameter, and the roughness of orifice’s inner wall) have been investigated. The variation regulations of the flow and the cavitation characteristics induced by the mentioned parameters have been observed and analysed in terms of the distributions of essential physical fields (including statistic pressure field, velocity magnitude field, turbulent kinetic energy field, mass transfer coefficient field, and vapour’s volume fraction field) and the variation regulations of crucial physical parameters (including mass flow rate, flow coefficient, average vapour’s volume fraction, average flow velocity at orifice’s outlet, and average turbulent kinetic energy at orifice’s outlet). The main results obtained in the present investigation have illustrated how the cavitation occurs, develops and extinguishes within nozzle; meanwhile, how each geometric parameter affects the flow and the cavitation characteristics within nozzle have been explored

  1. Noise Optimization in Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narayan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Euro 6 norms emphasize on reduction of emissions from the engines. New injection methods are being adopted for homogenous mixture formation in diesel engines. During steady state conditions homogenous combustion gave noise levels in lower frequencies. In this work noise produced in a 440 cc diesel engine has been investigated. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters.

  2. Modelling of the work processes high-pressure pump of common rail diesel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botwinska Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common rail injection systems are becoming a more widely used solution in the fuel systems of modern diesel engines. The main component and the characteristic feature of the system is rail injection of the fuel under high pressure, which is passed to the injector and further to the combustion chamber. An important element in this process is the high-pressure pump, continuing adequate pressure in the rail injection system. Common rail (CR systems are being modified in order to optimise their work and virtual simulations are a useful tool in order to analyze the correctness of operation of the system while varying the parameters and settings, without any negative impact on the real object. In one particular study, a computer simulation of the pump high-pressure CR system was made in MatLab environment, based on the actual dimensions of the object – a one-cylinder diesel engine, the Farymann Diesel 18W. The resulting model consists of two parts – the first is responsible for simulating the operation of the high-pressure pump, and the second responsible for simulation of the remaining elements of the CR system. The results of this simulation produced waveforms of the following parameters: fluid flow from the manifold to the injector [m3/s], liquid flow from the manifold to the atmosphere [m3/s], and manifold pressure [Pa]. The simulation results allow for a positive verification of the model and the resulting system could become a useful element of simulation of the entire position and control algorithm.

  3. Rail Engineering and Education Symposium Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    The objective of this project is to develop curricular materials for the Rail Engineering and Education : Symposia held in the summers of 2012 and 2014. : Description of Activities : The main approach to accomplish the activity is to develop and deli...

  4. [Particulate distribution characteristics of Chinese phrase V diesel engine based on butanol-diesel blends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Di-Ming; Xu, Ning; Fan, Wen-Jia; Zhang, Tao

    2014-02-01

    With a common rail diesel engine without any modification and the engine exhaust particle number and particle size analyzer EEPS, this study used the air-fuel ratio to investigate the particulate number concentration, mass concentration and number distribution characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with butanol-diesel blends (Bu10, Bu15, Bu20, Bu30 and Bu40) and petroleum diesel. The results show: for all test fuels, the particle number distributions turn to be unimodal. With the increasing of butanol, numbers of nucleation mode particles and small accumulation mode particle decrease. At low speed and low load conditions, the number of large accumulation mode particle increases slightly, but under higher speed and load conditions, the number does not increase. When the fuels contain butanol, the total particle number concentration and mass concentration in all conditions decrease and that is more obvious at high speed load.

  5. Reeds diesel engine troubleshooting handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pickthall, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Most diesel engines will develop a problem at some point in their lives, but armed with the right knowledge a skipper needn't worry. The Reeds Diesel Engine Troubleshooting Handbook is a compact, pocket-sized guide to finding solutions to all of the most common engine problems, and many of the less common ones too. The perfect format for quick reference on board, this book will help skippers fix troublesome engines themselves, avoiding costly engineer fees if the problem is simple to sort out, or enabling an emergency patch-up for a more serious problem until they can get back to port. Each to

  6. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  7. Numerical analysis and experimental studies on solenoid common rail diesel injector with worn control valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivtsov, S. N.; Yakimov, I. V.; Ozornin, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    A mathematical model of a solenoid common rail fuel injector was developed. Its difference from existing models is control valve wear simulation. A common rail injector of 0445110376 Series (Cummins ISf 2.8 Diesel engine) produced by Bosch Company was used as a research object. Injector parameters (fuel delivery and back leakage) were determined by calculation and experimental methods. GT-Suite model average R2 is 0.93 which means that it predicts the injection rate shape very accurately (nominal and marginal technical conditions of an injector). Numerical analysis and experimental studies showed that control valve wear increases back leakage and fuel delivery (especially at 160 MPa). The regression models for determining fuel delivery and back leakage effects on fuel pressure and energizing time were developed (for nominal and marginal technical conditions).

  8. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  9. Ion currents in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Rahul

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents an experimental and modelling investigation into ion formation in diesel engines, its uses in the field of engine performance and emissions prediction and the mechanisms by which these uses are made possible. Ion sensors have been employed in engines for a variety of purposes, including estimation of air-fuel ratio, start of combustion and in-cylinder pressure, detection of knock, misfire and combustion resonance, prediction of soot formation, and control of spark ...

  10. A probabilistic maintenance model for diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, Shan; Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a probabilistic maintenance model is developed for inspection based preventive maintenance of diesel engines based on the practical model concepts discussed in the literature. Developed model is solved using real data obtained from inspection and maintenance histories of diesel engines and experts' views. Reliability indices and costs were calculated for the present maintenance policy of diesel engines. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to observe the effect of inspection based preventive maintenance on the life cycle cost of diesel engines.

  11. Sound engineering for diesel engines; Sound Engineering an Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enderich, A.; Fischer, R. [MAHLE Filtersysteme GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    The strong acceptance for vehicles powered by turbo-charged diesel engines encourages several manufacturers to think about sportive diesel concepts. The approach of suppressing unpleasant noise by the application of distinctive insulation steps is not adequate to satisfy sportive needs. The acoustics cannot follow the engine's performance. This report documents, that it is possible to give diesel-powered vehicles a sportive sound characteristic by using an advanced MAHLE motor-sound-system with a pressure-resistant membrane and an integrated load controlled flap. With this the specific acoustic disadvantages of the diesel engine, like the ''diesel knock'' or a rough engine running can be masked. However, by the application of a motor-sound-system you must not negate the original character of the diesel engine concept, but accentuate its strong torque characteristic in the middle engine speed range. (orig.)

  12. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital highspeed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  13. Gas density and rail pressure effects on diesel spray growth from a heavy-duty common rail injector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Frijters, P.J.M.; Seykens, X.L.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Formation of nonevaporating sprays from diesel fuel injection through a realistic heavy duty multihole common rail injector is studied in a newly developed high-pressure, high-temperature cell, using digital high-speed shadowgraphy at 4500 frames/s. Gas pressure was varied from 13 to 37 bar

  14. Diesel Engine Light Truck Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-31

    The Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program consists of two major contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE). The first one under DE-FC05-97-OR22606, starting from 1997, was completed in 2001, and consequently, a final report was submitted to DOE in 2003. The second part of the contract was under DE-FC05-02OR22909, covering the program progress from 2002 to 2007. This report is the final report of the second part of the program under contract DE-FC05-02OR22909. During the course of this contract, the program work scope and objectives were significantly changed. From 2002 to 2004, the DELTA program continued working on light-duty engine development with the 4.0L V6 DELTA engine, following the accomplishments made from the first part of the program under DE-FC05-97-OR22606. The program work scope in 2005-2007 was changed to the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment. This final report will cover two major technical tasks. (1) Continuation of the DELTA engine development to demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies and to demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages, covering progress made from 2002 to 2004. (2) DPF soot layer characterization and substrate material assessment from 2005-2007.

  15. Servo-driven piezo common rail diesel injection system; Servogetriebene Piezo-Common-Rail-Dieseleinspritzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeppe, Detlev; Stahl, Christian; Krueger, Grit; Dian, Vincent [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Engine Systems

    2012-03-15

    The requirements to be met by future diesel engines represent major challenges for fuel injection technology: Fuel consumption, emissions and noise development are to be further reduced without impairing driving enjoyment. To address these challenges, Continental has developed a new fuel injection system that features a high level of precision and accuracy. The key component is a servo-driven injector that is operated in a closed control circuit. (orig.)

  16. The Particle Number Emission Characteristics of the Diesel Engine with a Catalytic Diesel Particle Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jia Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to their adverse health effects and their abundance in urban areas, diesel exhaust ultrafine particles caused by the aftertreatment devices have been of great concern in the past years. An experiment of particles number emissions was carried out on a high-pressure, common rail diesel engine with catalytic diesel particle filter (CDPF to investigate the impact of CDPF on the number emission characteristics of particles. The results indicated that the conversion rates of CDPF is over 97%. The size distributions of particles are bimodal lognormal distributions downstream CDPF at 1400 r/min and 2300 r/min. CDPF has a lower conversion rates on the nucleation mode particles. The geometric number mean diameters of particles downstream CDPF is smaller than that upstream CDPF.

  17. Diesel Technology: Engines. [Teacher and Student Editions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Dave; Miller, Roger; Kellum, Mary

    Competency-based teacher and student materials on diesel engines are provided for a diesel technology curriculum. Seventeen units of instruction cover the following topics: introduction to engine principles and procedures; engine systems and components; fuel systems; engine diagnosis and maintenance. The materials are based on the…

  18. Standardized Curriculum for Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program in Mississippi: diesel engine mechanics I and II. The eight units in diesel engine mechanics I are as follows: orientation; shop safety; basic shop tools; fasteners; measurement; engine operating principles; engine components; and basic auxiliary…

  19. Performance and emissions of a heavy duty diesel engine fuelled whit palm oil biodiesel and premium diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, Helmer; Mantilla, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesels are promoted as alternative fuels due their potential to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and carbon emissions. Research has been addressed in order to study the emissions of light duty vehicles. However, the particle matter and gaseous emissions emitted from heavy-duty diesel engines fueled with palm-biodiesel and premium diesel fuel have seldom been addressed. The objective of this study was to explore the performance and emission levels of a Cummins 4-stroke, 9.5 liter, 6-cylinder diesel engine with common rail fuel injection, and a cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The palm-biodiesel lowered maximum engine output by much as 10 %. The engine emissions data is compared to standards from 2004, and is determined to pass all standards for diesel fuel, but does not meet emissions standards for PM or NOx for palm-biodiesel.

  20. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  1. An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seung Hyun; Cha, June Pyo [Graduate School of Hanyang University, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Chang Sik [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea)

    2010-11-15

    An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors ({theta}{sub spray} = 70 and 60 ) were examined and its results were compared with the results of conventional spray angle ({theta}{sub spray} = 156 ). In addition, to investigate the optimal operating conditions, early single-injection and multiple-injection strategies were employed to reduce cylinder wall-wetting of the injected fuels and to promote the ignition of premixed charge. The engine test was performed at 1400 rpm, and the injection timings were varied from TDC to BTDC 40 of the crank angle. The experimental results showed that the combustion pressure from single combustion for narrow-angle injectors ({theta}{sub spray} = 70 and 60 ) is increased, as compared to the results of the wide-angle injector ({theta}{sub spray} = 156 ) with advanced injection timing of BTDC 35 . In addition, two peaks of the rate of heat release (ROHR) are generated by the combustion of air-fuel premixed mixtures. DME combustion for all test injectors indicated low levels of soot emissions at all injection timings. The NO{sub x} emissions for narrow-angle injectors simultaneously increased in proportion to the advance in injection timing up to BTDC 25 , whereas BTDC 20 for the wide-angle injector. For multiple injections, the combustion pressure and ROHR of the first injection with narrow-angle injectors are combusted more actively, and the ignition delay of the second injected fuel is shorter than with the wide-angle injector. However, the second combustion pressure and ROHR were lower than during the first injection, and combustion durations are prolonged, as compared to the wide-angle injector. With

  2. An investigation of the effects of spray angle and injection strategy on dimethyl ether (DME) combustion and exhaust emission characteristics in a common-rail diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seung Hyun; Cha, June Pyo; Lee, Chang Sik

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed on the effects of spray angle and injection strategies (single and multiple) on the combustion characteristics, concentrations of exhaust emissions, and the particle size distribution in a direct-injection (DI) compression ignition engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME) fuel. In this study, two types of narrow spray angle injectors (θ spray = 70 and 60 ) were examined and its results were compared with the results of conventional spray angle (θ spray = 156 ). In addition, to investigate the optimal operating conditions, early single-injection and multiple-injection strategies were employed to reduce cylinder wall-wetting of the injected fuels and to promote the ignition of premixed charge. The engine test was performed at 1400 rpm, and the injection timings were varied from TDC to BTDC 40 of the crank angle. The experimental results showed that the combustion pressure from single combustion for narrow-angle injectors (θ spray = 70 and 60 ) is increased, as compared to the results of the wide-angle injector (θ spray = 156 ) with advanced injection timing of BTDC 35 . In addition, two peaks of the rate of heat release (ROHR) are generated by the combustion of air-fuel premixed mixtures. DME combustion for all test injectors indicated low levels of soot emissions at all injection timings. The NO x emissions for narrow-angle injectors simultaneously increased in proportion to the advance in injection timing up to BTDC 25 , whereas BTDC 20 for the wide-angle injector. For multiple injections, the combustion pressure and ROHR of the first injection with narrow-angle injectors are combusted more actively, and the ignition delay of the second injected fuel is shorter than with the wide-angle injector. However, the second combustion pressure and ROHR were lower than during the first injection, and combustion durations are prolonged, as compared to the wide-angle injector. With advanced timing of the first injection, narrow

  3. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buono, D.; Senatore, A.; Prati, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  4. Wood pyrolysis oil for diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paro, D.; Gros, S.; Hellen, G.; Jay, D.; Maekelae, T.; Rantanen, O.; Tanska, T. [Wartsila Diesel International Ltd Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    Wood Pyrolysis oil (WPO) has been identified by the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) as the most competitive biofuel product which can be produced from biomass. The fuel is produced by a fast pyrolysis technique, using wood chipping`s or sawdust. The process can be applied to other recycling products such as straw etc. The use of WPO as a Diesel power plant fuel has been studied, and a fuel specification has been developed. The fuel characteristics have been analysed. There are several fuel properties addressed in the paper which have had to be overcome. New materials have been used in the fuel injection system. The fuel injection system development has progressed from a pump-line-pipe system to a common rail system. The fuel requires a pilot fuel oil injection to initiate combustion. The targets for the fuel injection system have been 1500 bar and 30 deg C injection period with a fuel of 15 MJ/kg lower heating value and 1220 Kg/m{sup 3} density. The combustion characteristics from both a small 80 mm bore engine initially, and then later with a single cylinder test of a 320 mm bore Waertsilae engine, have been evaluated. (author)

  5. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  6. The Diesel as a Vehicle Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Kurt

    1928-01-01

    The thorough investigation of a Dorner four-cylinder, four-stroke-cycle Diesel engine with mechanical injection led me to investigate more thoroughly the operation of the Diesel as a vehicle engine. Aside from the obvious need of reliability of functioning, a high rotative speed, light weight and economy in heat consumption per horsepower are also indispensable requirements.

  7. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  8. The all new BMW top diesel engines; Die neuen Diesel Spitzenmotorisierungen von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardey, N.; Wichtl, R.; Steinmayr, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Hiemesch, D.; Stuetz, W. [BMW Motoren GmbH, Steyr (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    From the very beginning, diesel drivetrains have been important components of the BMW EfficientDynamics strategy. High levels of driving dynamics in combination with attractive fuel consumption have become features of a wide range of models. With the introduction of 2-stage turbocharging for passenger car diesel engines in 2004, BMW was able to significantly enhance the power density without increasing the number of cylinders or the cylinder capacity. In the meantime, the BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel engine variants achieve a rated power of up to 160 kW on the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder engine and 230 kW on the 3.0-litre 6-cylinder engine. In order to extend the leading position in the premium segment, a new BMW TwinPower Turbo variant has been developed. The major objectives were to achieve a range of power output, torque and comfort at least at the level of 8-cylinder competitors, but at the same time equal the lower fuel consumption and power/weight ratio that is typical for existing BMW 6-cylinder diesel engines. The new engine will be used for the first time in the emphatically sports-oriented BMW M Performance Automobiles (MPA) of the X5/X6 and 5 Series. The charging and injection technology as well as capability of high cylinder pressures in the core engine are key technologies for the enhancement of performance. The new BMW TwinPower Turbo diesel drivetrain is based on the main dimensions of the existing 3.0-litre 6-cylinder inline diesel engines. The core element of the new engine is a 2-stage turbocharging system, consisting of 3 exhaust turbochargers. A common rail injection system with a system pressure up to 2200 bar is deployed for the first time. The drive unit has been configured for a maximum cylinder pressure of 200 bar, an innovative feature is the aluminium crankcase with its screwed tension anchor connection. The cooling system contains an indirect 2-stage intercooler. The exhaust system of the new BMW diesel engine in the 5 Series is equipped as

  9. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped with...

  10. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are continuously...

  11. Analysis of noise emitted from diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work combustion noise produced in diesel engines has been investigated. In order to reduce the exhaust emissions various injection parameters need to be studied and optimized. The noise has been investigated by mean of data obtained from cylinder pressure measurements using piezo electric transducers and microphones on a dual cylinder diesel engine test rig. The engine was run under various operating conditions varying various injection parameters to investigate the effects of noise emissions under various testing conditions.

  12. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krogerus Tomi R.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs in injection time can be identified.

  13. Diagnostics and Identification of Injection Duration of Common Rail Diesel Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogerus, Tomi R.; Huhtala, Kalevi J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we study the diagnostics and identification of injection duration of common rail (CR) diesel pilot injectors of dual-fuel engines. In these pilot injectors, the injected volume is small and the repeatability of the injections and identification of the drifts of the injectors are important factors, which need to be taken into account in achieving good repeatability (shot-to-shot with every cylinder) and therefore a well-balanced engine and reduced overall wear. A diagnostics method based on analysis of CR pressure signal with experimental verification results is presented. Using the developed method, the relative duration of injection events can be identified. In the method, the pressure signal during the injection is first extracted after the control of each injection event. After that, the signal is normalized and filtered. Then a derivative of the filtered signal is calculated. Change in the derivative of the filtered signal larger than a predefined threshold indicates an injection event which can be detected and its relative duration can be identified. The efficacy of the proposed diagnostics method is presented with the experimental results, which show that the developed method detects drifts in injection duration and the magnitude of drift. According to the result, ≥ 10 μs change (2%, 500 μs) in injection time can be identified.

  14. Diesel engines for independent power producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berc, Dj.

    1999-01-01

    During recent years an increasing demand has been experienced in the stationary diesel engine market for 10-70 MW diesel units. For larger units this demand is being met by two-stroke low-speed crosshead uniflow scavenged diesel engines, capable of burning almost any fuel available on the market, both liquid of gaseous. The paper deals with service experience gained from such engines and their fuel capability. Examples of actual installations for IPPs and captive plants, together with an example of a typical feasibility study of such plants, is presented in the Appendix. (author)

  15. Diesel engine emission deterioration - a preliminary study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, Cecilia J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find a parameter in diesel and oil analysis of underground mining vehicles that can be correlated with personal diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure and used as part of an engine maintenance programme. A number...

  16. Undergraduate Certificate in Rail Transportation/Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    A shift in the U.S. transportation environment has led to a revival in rail transport, especially in : freight rail1. In the meantime, an aging rail employee demographic presents a severe threat to : sufficient level of individuals equipped to handle...

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VII, ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF TUNE-UP PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE SCHEDULING TUNE-UPS, AND TUNE-UP PROCEDURES. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "ENGINE TUNE-UP--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE" AND OTHER MATERIALS. SEE VT 005 655 FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.…

  18. Effect of partial replacement of diesel or biodiesel with gas from biomass gasification in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, J.J.; Lapuerta, M.; Barba, J.

    2015-01-01

    The injected diesel fuel used in a diesel engine was partially replaced with biomass-derived gas through the intake port, and the effect on performance and pollutant emissions was studied. The experimental work was carried out in a supercharged, common-rail injection, single-cylinder diesel engine by replacing diesel fuel up to 20% (by energy), keeping constant the engine power. Three engine loads (60, 90, 105 Nm), three different EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) ratios (0, 7.5, 15%) and two intake temperatures (45, 60 °C) were tested. Finally, some of the tested conditions were selected to replace diesel injection fuel with biodiesel injection. Although the brake thermal efficiency was decreased and hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions increased with increasing fuel replacement, particulate emissions decreased significantly and NO x emissions decreased slightly at all loads and EGR ratios. Thermodynamic diagnostic results showed higher premixed ratio and lower combustion duration for increasing diesel fuel replacement. High EGR ratios improved both engine performance and emissions, especially when intake temperature was increased, which suggest removing EGR cooling when diesel fuel is replaced. Finally, when biodiesel was used instead of diesel fuel, the gas replacement improved the efficiency and reduced the hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions. - Highlights: • Replacing injected fuel with gas permits an efficient valorization of waste biomass. • Inlet gas was inefficiently burned after the end of liquid fuel injection. • Engine parameters were combined to simultaneously reduce particle and NO x emissions. • Hot EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) and biodiesel injection are proposed to improve efficiency and emissions

  19. Engine performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yie Hua; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Abdullah, Georgie Wong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different composition of diesel fuel, biodiesel and bioethanol emulsions were examined. • The fuels were tested in a direct injection diesel engine and parameters were evaluated. • Engine power, torque, exhaust gas temperature & fuel consumptions were compared. • Emulsions fuels emitted lower CO and CO_2 than fossil diesel. • Lower NOx emission was observed at medium engine speeds and loads for emulsion fuels. - Abstract: In this research work, the experimental investigation of the effect of diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol emulsion fuels on combustion, performance and emission of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine are reported. Four kind of emulsion fuels were employed: B (diesel-80%, biodiesel-20% by volume), C (diesel-80%, biodiesel-15%, bioethanol-5%), D (diesel-80%, biodiesel-10%, bioethanol-10%) and E (diesel-80%, biodiesel-5%, bioethanol-15%) to compare its’ performance with the conventional diesel, A. These emulsion fuels were prepared by mechanical homogenizer machine with the help of Tween 80 (1% v/v) and Span 80 (0.5% v/v) as surfactants. The emulsion characteristics were determined by optical electron microscope, emulsification stability test, FTIR, and the physiochemical properties of the emulsion fuels which were all done by following ASTM test methods. The prepared emulsion fuels were then tested in diesel engine test bed to obtain engine performance and exhaust emissions. All the engine experiments were conducted with engine speeds varying from 1600 to 2400 rpm. The results showed the heating value and density of the emulsion fuels decrease as the bioethanol content in the blend increases. The total heating value of the diesel-biodiesel-bioethanol fuels were averagely 21% higher than the total heating value of the pure biodiesel and slightly lower (2%) than diesel fuel. The engine power, torque and exhaust gas temperature were reduced when using emulsion fuels. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for the emulsion fuels

  20. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  1. Cleaning the Diesel Engine Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    This paper examines how technologies for cleaning of diesel emission from road vehicles can be supported by facilitating a technology push in the Danish automotive emission control industry. The European commission is at present preparing legislation for the euro 5 emission standard (to be enforced...... in 2010). The standard is expected to include an 80% reduction of the maximum particulate emissions from diesel cars. The fulfillment of this requirement entails development and production of particulate filters for diesel cars and trucks. Theoretically the paper suggests a rethinking of public industry...

  2. Thermal barrier coatings application in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Commercial use of thermal barrier coatings in diesel engines began in the mid 70's by Dr. Ingard Kvernes at the Central Institute for Industrial Research in Oslo, Norway. Dr. Kvernes attributed attack on diesel engine valves and piston crowns encountered in marine diesel engines in Norwegian ships as hot-corrosion attributed to a reduced quality of residual fuel. His solution was to coat these components to reduce metal temperature below the threshold of aggressive hot-corrosion and also provide protection. Roy Kamo introduced thermal barrier coatings in his 'Adiabatic Diesel Engine' in the late 70's. Kamo's concept was to eliminate the engine block water cooling system and reduce heat losses. Roy reported significant performance improvements in his thermally insulated engine at the SAE Congress in 1982. Kamo's work stimulates major programs with insulated engines, particularly in Europe. Most of the major diesel engine manufacturers conducted some level of test with insulated combustion chamber components. They initially ran into increased fuel consumption. The German engine consortium had Prof. Woschni of the Technical Institute in Munich. Woschni conducted testing with pistons with air gaps to provide the insulation effects. Woschni indicated the hot walls of the insulated engine created a major increase in heat transfer he refers to as 'convection vive.' Woschni's work was a major factor in the abrupt curtailment of insulated diesel engine work in continental Europe. Ricardo in the UK suggested that combustion should be reoptimized for the hot-wall effects of the insulated combustion chamber and showed under a narrow range of conditions fuel economy could be improved. The Department of Energy has supported thermal barrier coating development for diesel engine applications. In the Clean Diesel - 50 Percent Efficient (CD-50) engine for the year 2000, thermal barrier coatings will be used on piston crowns and possibly other components. The primary purpose of the

  3. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  4. Advanced diesel engine component development program, tasks 4-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Tony S.; Weber, Karen E.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the Advanced Diesel Engine Component Development (ADECD) Program to develop and demonstrate critical technology needed to advance the heavy-duty low heat rejection engine concept. Major development activities reported are the design, analysis, and fabrication of monolithic ceramic components; vapor phase and solid film lubrication; electrohydraulic valve actuation; and high pressure common rail injection. An advanced single cylinder test bed was fabricated as a laboratory tool in studying these advanced technologies. This test bed simulates the reciprocator for a system having no cooling system, turbo compounding, Rankine bottoming cycle, common rail injection, and variable valve actuation to achieve fuel consumption of 160 g/kW-hr (.26 lb/hp-hr). The advanced concepts were successfully integrated into the test engine. All ceramic components met their functional and reliability requirements. The firedeck, cast-in-place ports, valves, valve guides, piston cap, and piston ring were made from silicon nitride. Breakthroughs required to implement a 'ceramic' engine included the fabrication of air-gap cylinder heads, elimination of compression gaskets, machining of ceramic valve seats within the ceramic firedeck, fabrication of cast-in-place ceramic port liners, implementation of vapor phase lubrication, and elimination of the engine coolant system. Silicon nitride valves were successfully developed to meet several production abuse test requirements and incorporated into the test bed with a ceramic valve guide and solid film lubrication. The ADECD cylinder head features ceramic port shields to increase insulation and exhaust energy recovery. The combustion chamber includes a ceramic firedeck and piston cap. The tribological challenge posed by top ring reversal temperatures of 550 C was met through the development of vapor phase lubrication using tricresyl phosphate at the ring-liner interface. A solenoid-controlled, variable valve actuation system

  5. New perspectives for advanced automobile diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, L.; Sekar, R.; Kamo, R.; Wood, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer simulation results are presented for advanced automobile diesel engine performance. Four critical factors for performance enhancement were identified: (1) part load preheating and exhaust gas energy recovery, (2) fast heat release combustion process, (3) reduction in friction, and (4) air handling system efficiency. Four different technology levels were considered in the analysis. Simulation results are compared in terms of brake specific fuel consumption and vehicle fuel economy in km/liter (miles per gallon). Major critical performance sensitivity areas are: (1) combustion process, (2) expander and compressor efficiency, and (3) part load preheating and compound system. When compared to the state of the art direct injection, cooled, automobile diesel engine, the advanced adiabatic compound engine concept showed the unique potential of doubling the fuel economy. Other important performance criteria such as acceleration, emissions, reliability, durability and multifuel capability are comparable to or better than current passenger car diesel engines.

  6. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  7. Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John H. Stang

    2000-01-01

    The Automotive Market in the United States is moving in the direction of more Light Trucks and fewer Small Cars. The customers for these vehicles have not changed, only their purchase decisions. Cummins has studied the requirements of this emerging market. Design and development of an engine system that will meet these customer needs has started. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of early testing are presented which show that the diesel is possibly a good solution

  8. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  9. 46 CFR 58.10-10 - Diesel engine installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diesel engine installations. 58.10-10 Section 58.10-10... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-10 Diesel engine installations. (a) The requirements of § 58.10-5 (a), (c), and (d) shall apply to diesel engine installations...

  10. Model of predicting proportion of diesel fuel and engine oil in diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viscosity of diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil at varying proportions of the mixture is presented. Regression, variation of intercept and the power parameters methods are used for developing polynomial and power law functions for predicting proportion of either diesel or engine oil in diesel adulterated SAE 40 engine oil ...

  11. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of the...

  12. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation wil be given at the EPA Science Forum 2005 in Washington, DC. According to recent estimates, there are approximately 7.9 million heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses in use in the United States. Emissions from these vehicles account for substantial portions of t...

  13. Application of diagnostic system for diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaga, Takeshi; Hayashi, Haruji; Usui, Hiromi; Tsuruzono, Atsuya; Matsuda, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) began to implement Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) for rotating components (pumps, fans and electric motors) from 1999 and, also has begun to apply diesel engine diagnostic techniques at our three nuclear power plants since 2004. This paper provides a description of the CBM methods used for diesel engines in nuclear standby service, a summary of the procedures to introduce these diagnostic techniques to our nuclear power plants, and experience with the application of these methods to JAPC nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Power Balancing of Inline Multicylinder Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Gawande

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a simplified methodology is presented for power balancing by reducing the amplitude of engine speed variation, which result in excessive torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine. In modern fuel injection systems for reciprocating engines, nonuniform cylinder-wise torque contribution is a common problem due to nonuniform fuel supply due to a defect in fuel injection system, causing increased torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft and stress of mechanical parts. In this paper, a mathematical model for the required fuel adjustment by using amplitude of engine speed variation applied on the flywheel based on engine dynamics is suggested. From the found empirical relations and FFT analysis, the amplitude of engine speed variation (i.e., torsional vibration levels of the crankshaft of inline six-cylinder diesel engine genset can be reduced up to 55%. This proposed methodology is simulated by developing MATALB code for uniform and nonuniform working of direct injection diesel engine of SL90 type manufactured by Kirloskar Oil Engine Ltd., Pune, India.

  15. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin Nur; Yanuandri Putrasari; Iman Kartolaksono Reksowardojo

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices we...

  16. Light-duty diesel engine development status and engine needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This report reviews, assesses, and summarizes the research and development status of diesel engine technology applicable to light-duty vehicles. In addition, it identifies specific basic and applied research and development needs in light-duty diesel technology and related health areas where initial or increased participation by the US Government would be desirable. The material presented in this report updates information provided in the first diesel engine status report prepared by the Aerospace Corporation for the Department of Energy in September, 1978.

  17. Thermal barrier coatings - Technology for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.; Lutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are a development of the aerospace industry primarily aimed at hot gas flow paths in turbine engines. TBC consists of zirconia ceramic coatings applied over (M)CrAlY. These coatings can provide three benefits: (1) a reduction of metal surface operating temperatures, (2) a deterrent to hot gas corrosion, and (3) improved thermal efficiencies. TBC brings these same benefits to reciprocal diesel engines but coating longevity must be demonstrated. Diesels require thicker deposits and have challenging geometries for the arc-plasma spray (APS) deposition process. Different approaches to plasma spraying TBC are required for diesels, especially where peripheral edge effects play a major role. Bondcoats and ceramic top coats are modified to provide extended life as determined by burner rig tests, using ferrous and aluminum substrates

  18. Utilization of alternative fuels in diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestz, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Performance and emission data are collected for various candidate alternate fuels and compare these data to that for a certified petroleum based number two Diesel fuel oil. Results for methanol, ethanol, four vegetable oils, two shale derived oils, and two coal derived oils are reported. Alcohol fumigation does not appear to be a practical method for utilizing low combustion quality fuels in a Diesel engine. Alcohol fumigation enhances the bioactivity of the emitted exhaust particles. While it is possible to inject many synthetic fuels using the engine stock injection system, wholly acceptable performance is only obtained from a fuel whose specifications closely approach those of a finished petroleum based Diesel oil. This is illustrated by the contrast between the poor performance of the unupgraded coal derived fuel blends and the very good performance of the fully refined shale derived fuel.

  19. Adaptive vibration isolation system for diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tie-jun; ZHANG Xin-yu; XIAO You-hong; HUANG Jin-e; LIU Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    An active two-stage isolation mounting, on which servo-hydraulic system is used as the actuator (secondary vibration source) and a diesel engine is used as primary vibration source, has been built. The upper mass of the mounting is composed of a 495diesel and an electrical eddy current dynamometer. The lower mass is divided into four small masses to which servo-hydraulic actuator and rubber isolators are attached. According to the periodical characteristics of diesel vibration signals, a multi-point adaptive strategy based on adaptive comb filtered algorithm is applied to active multi-direction coupled vibrations control for the engine. The experimental results demonstrate that a good suppression in the effective range of phase compensation in secondary path (within 100Hz) at different operation conditions is achieved, and verify that this strategy is effective. The features of the active system, the development activities carried out on the system and experimental results are discussed in the paper.

  20. Diesel engines vs. spark ignition gasoline engines -- Which is ``greener``?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbanks, J.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Criteria emissions, i.e., NO{sub x}, PM, CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}, from recently manufactured automobiles, compared on the basis of what actually comes out of the engines, the diesel engine is greener than spark ignition gasoline engines and this advantage for the diesel engine increases with time. SI gasoline engines tend to get out of tune more than diesel engines and 3-way catalytic converters and oxygen sensors degrade with use. Highway measurements of NO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO revealed that for each model year, 10% of the vehicles produce 50% of the emissions and older model years emit more than recent model year vehicles. Since 1974, cars with SI gasoline engines have uncontrolled emission until the 3-way catalytic converter reaches operating temperature, which occurs after roughly 7 miles of driving. Honda reports a system to be introduced in 1998 that will alleviate this cold start problem by storing the emissions then sending them through the catalytic converter after it reaches operating temperature. Acceleration enrichment, wherein considerable excess fuel is introduced to keep temperatures down of SI gasoline engine in-cylinder components and catalytic converters so these parts meet warranty, results in 2,500 times more CO and 40 times more H{sub 2} being emitted. One cannot kill oneself, accidentally or otherwise, with CO from a diesel engine vehicle in a confined space. There are 2,850 deaths per year attributable to CO from SI gasoline engine cars. Diesel fuel has advantages compared with gasoline. Refinery emissions are lower as catalytic cracking isn`t necessary. The low volatility of diesel fuel results in a much lower probability of fires. Emissions could be improved by further reducing sulfur and aromatics and/or fuel additives. Reformulated fuel has become the term covering reducing the fuels contribution to emissions. Further PM reduction should be anticipated with reformulated diesel and gasoline fuels.

  1. Role of Volatility in the Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    rail solenoid injector with a single-hole nozzle is mounted at an angle about 28º from the vertical axis, delivering the fuel into the center of the...the combustion chamber along the axial direction. The first thermocouple measures the charge temperature close by the injector nozzle , and the second...Development of JP-8 Surrogates for Diesel Engine Application Author, co-author (Do NOT enter this information. It will be pulled from participant

  2. Composition and comparative toxicity of particulate matter emitted from a diesel and biodiesel fuelled CRDI engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Jitendra N.; Gupta, Tarun; Agarwal, Avinash K.

    2012-01-01

    There is a global concern about adverse health effects of particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel engine exhaust. In the current study, parametric investigations were carried out using a CRDI (Common Rail Direct Injection) diesel engine operated at different loads at two different engine speeds (1800 and 2400 rpm), employing diesel and 20% biodiesel blends (B20) produced from Karanja oil. A partial flow dilution tunnel was employed to collect and measure the mass of the primary particulates from diesel and biodiesel blend collected on a 47 mm quartz substrate. The collected PM (particulate matter) was subjected to chemical analyses in order to assess the amount of Benzene Soluble Organic Fraction (BSOF) and trace metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). For both diesel and biodiesel, BSOF results showed decreasing levels with increasing engine load. B20 showed higher BSOF as compared to those measured with diesel. The concentration of different trace metals analyzed also showed decreasing trends with increasing engine loads. In addition, real-time measurements for Organic Carbon (OC), Elemental Carbon (EC) and total particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out on the primary engine exhaust coming out of the partial flow dilution tunnel. Analysis of OC/EC data suggested that the ratio of OC to EC decreases with corresponding increase in engine load for both fuels. A peak in PAH concentration was observed at 60% engine load at 1800 rpm and 20% engine load at 2400 rpm engine speeds almost identical for both kinds of fuels. Comparison of chemical components of PM emitted from this CRDI engine provides new insight in terms of PM toxicity for B20 vis-a-vis diesel.

  3. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  4. Investigation of microalgae HTL fuel effects on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions using surrogate fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Farhad M.; Nabi, Md. Nurun; Rainey, Thomas J.; Bodisco, Timothy; Rahman, Md. Mostafizur; Suara, Kabir; Rahman, S.M.A.; Van, Thuy Chu; Ristovski, Zoran; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a microalgae HTL surrogate of biocrude fuel using chemical compounds. • Physiochemical properties of surrogate blends were analysed. • Experimentally investigated diesel engine performance and emissions using surrogate fuels. • No significant changes in engine performance were observed with HTL surrogate blends. • Major emissions including PM, PN and CO were reduced significantly with increasing of NOx emission. - Abstract: This paper builds on previous work using surrogate fuel to investigate advanced internal combustion engine fuels. To date, a surrogate fuel of this nature has not been used for microalgae hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) biocrude. This research used five different chemical groups found in microalgae HTL biocrude to design a surrogate fuel. Those five chemical groups constitute around 65% (by weight) of a microalgae biocrude produced by HTL. Weight percentage of the microalgae HTL biocrude chemical compounds were used to design the surrogate fuel, which was miscible with diesel at all percentages. The engine experiments were conducted on a EURO IIIA turbocharged common-rail direct-injection six-cylinder diesel engine to test engine performance and emissions. Exhaust emissions, including particulate matter and other gaseous emissions, were measured with the surrogate fuel and a reference diesel fuel. Experimental results showed that without significantly deteriorating engine performance, lower particulate mass, particulate number and CO emissions were observed with a penalty in NOx emissions for all surrogate blends compared to those of the reference diesel.

  5. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  6. Performance of ceramic coatings on diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAdam, S.; Levy, A.

    1986-01-01

    Partially stabilized zirconia ceramic thermal barrier coatings were plasma sprayed on the valve faces and tulips and the piston crowns and cylinder heads of a locomotive size diesel engine at a designated thickness of 375μm (0.015''). They were tested over a range of throttle settings for 500 hours using No. 2 diesel oil fuel. Properly applied coatings performed with no change in composition, morphology or thickness. Improperly applied coatings underwent spalling durability was dependent on quality control of the plasma spray process

  7. Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Earl; McCormick, Robert L.; Sigelko, Jenny; Johnson, Stuart; Zickmann, Stefan; Lopes, Shailesh; Gault, Roger; Slade, David

    2016-04-01

    Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the efficacy of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr. Each vehicle was operated over a one-hour drive cycle in a hot running loss test cell to initially stress the fuel. The cars were then kept at Volkswagen's Arizona Proving Ground for two (35 degrees C average daily maximum) to six months (26 degrees C average daily maximum). The fuel was then stressed again by running a portion of the one-hour dynamometer drive cycle (limited by the amount of fuel in the tank). Fuel rail and fuel tank samples were analyzed for IP, acid number, peroxide content, polymer content, and ester profile. The HPCR fuel pumps were removed, dismantled, and inspected for deposits or abnormal wear. Analysis of fuels collected during initial dynamometer tests showed no impact of exposure to HPCR conditions. Long-term storage with intermittent use showed that IP remained above 3 hours, acid number below 0.3 mg KOH/g, peroxides low, no change in ester profile, and no production of polymers. Final dynamometer tests produced only small changes in fuel properties. Inspection of the HPCR fuel pumps revealed no

  8. Simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Афанасьев

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep diesel engines in good working order the troubleshooting methods shall be improved. For their further improvement by parameters of associated processes a need has arisen to develop a diesel engine troubleshooting method based on time parameters of operating cycle. For such method to be developed a computational experiment involving simulation of diesel engine energy conversion processes has been carried out. The simulation was based on the basic mathematical model of reciprocating internal combustion engines, representing a closed system of equations and relationships. The said model has been supplemented with the engine torque dynamics taking into account the current values of in-cylinder processes with different amounts of fuel injected, including zero feed.The torque values obtained by the in-cylinder pressure conversion does not account for mechanical losses, which is why the base simulation program has been supplemented with calculations for the friction and pumping forces. In order to determine the indicator diagram of idle cylinder a transition to zero fuel feed mode and exclusion of the combustion process from calculation have been provisioned.

  9. Emission characteristics of a diesel engine using waste cooking oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of waste cooking oil (WCO) methyl ester as an alternative fuel in a four-stroke turbo diesel engine with four cylinders, direct injection and 85 HP was analyzed. A test was applied in which an engine was fueled with diesel and three different blends of diesel/biodiesel (B25, B50 and B75) made from WCO.

  10. Research on the Diesel Engine with Sliding Mode Variable Structure Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhexuan; Mao, Xiaobing; Cai, Le

    2018-05-01

    This study constructed the nonlinear mathematical model of the diesel engine high-pressure common rail (HPCR) system through two polynomial fitting which was treated as a kind of affine nonlinear system. Based on sliding-mode variable structure control (SMVSC) theory, a sliding-mode controller for affine nonlinear systems was designed for achieving the control of common rail pressure and the diesel engine’s rotational speed. Finally, on the simulation platform of MATLAB, the designed nonlinear HPCR system was simulated. The simulation results demonstrated that sliding-mode variable structure control algorithm shows favourable control performances which are overcoming the shortcomings of traditional PID control in overshoot, parameter adjustment, system precision, adjustment time and ascending time.

  11. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  12. Effects of nano metal oxide blended Mahua biodiesel on CRDI diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Syed Aalam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, aluminium oxide nanoparticles (ANPs were added to Mahua biodiesel blend (MME20 in different proportions to investigate the effects on a four stroke, single cylinder, common rail direct injection (CRDI diesel engine. The ANPs were doped in different proportions with the Mahua biodiesel blend (MME20 using an ultrasonicator and a homogenizer with cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB as the cationic surfactant. The experiments were conducted in a CRDI diesel engine at a constant speed of 1500 rpm using different ANP-blended biodiesel fuel (MME20 + ANP50 and MME20 + ANP100 and the results were compared with those of neat diesel and Mahua biodiesel blend (MME20. The experimental results exposed a substantial enhancement in the brake thermal efficiency and a marginal reduction in the harmful pollutants (such as CO, HC and smoke for the nanoparticles blended biodiesel.

  13. Experimental investigation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines by a novel emulsified diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhenbin; Wang, Xiaochen; Pei, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengliang; Xiao, Mingwei; He, Jinge

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel bio-fuel, glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel, is evaluated. • Emulsified diesel has comparable brake thermal efficiency. • NO X emissions decrease with emulsified fuel at all loads. • Soot emissions decrease with emulsified fuel except at a few operating points. - Abstract: The subject of this paper was to study the performance and emissions of two typical diesel engines using glucose solution emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified diesel with a 15% glucose solution by mass fraction was used in diesel engines and compared with pure diesel. For the agricultural diesel engine, performance and emission characteristics were measured under various engine loads. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiencies were improved using emulsified diesel fuel. Emulsified fuel decreased NO x and soot emissions except at a few specific operating conditions. HydroCarbon (HC) and CO emissions were increased. For the automotive diesel engine, performance and emissions were measured using the 13-mode European Stationary Cycle (ESC). It was found that brake thermal efficiencies of emulsified diesel and pure diesel were comparable at 75% and 100% load. Soot emissions decreased significantly while NO x emissions decreased slightly. HC emissions increased while CO emissions decreased at some operating conditions

  14. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  15. High Fidelity Simulation of Primary Atomization in Diesel Engine Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Christopher; Bravo, Luis; Kim, Dokyun

    2014-11-01

    A high-fidelity numerical simulation of jet breakup and spray formation from a complex diesel fuel injector at ambient conditions has been performed. A full understanding of the primary atomization process in fuel injection of diesel has not been achieved for several reasons including the difficulties accessing the optically dense region. Due to the recent advances in numerical methods and computing resources, high fidelity simulations of atomizing flows are becoming available to provide new insights of the process. In the present study, an unstructured un-split Volume-of-Fluid (VoF) method coupled to a stochastic Lagrangian spray model is employed to simulate the atomization process. A common rail fuel injector is simulated by using a nozzle geometry available through the Engine Combustion Network. The working conditions correspond to a single orifice (90 μm) JP-8 fueled injector operating at an injection pressure of 90 bar, ambient condition at 29 bar, 300 K filled with 100% nitrogen with Rel = 16,071, Wel = 75,334 setting the spray in the full atomization mode. The experimental dataset from Army Research Lab is used for validation in terms of spray global parameters and local droplet distributions. The quantitative comparison will be presented and discussed. Supported by Oak Ridge Associated Universities and the Army Research Laboratory.

  16. The diesel engine and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    For more than 15 years, the development of engines has been oriented towards reducing the emissions of exhaust substances that are harmful to the environment. In the case of diesel engines, emission control is mainly concentrated to nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and particulates. Exhaust emission control has already advanced so far that the results achieved would have been regarded unrealistic a mere ten years ago. Diesel exhaust gases also include hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), although technology is approaching the stage at which these substances will have been eliminated. This report summarizes problem areas of exhaust emission control, exhaust emission theory, exhaust gas substances and environmental chemistry, emission regulations, risks of automotive exhaust gases, among others. 33 refs

  17. Exhaust Emission Characteristics of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine During Cold and Warm Start

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Rong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through experiment conducted on a six cylinder direct injection diesel engine with SCR catalyst, effects of coolant temperature on rail pressure, injection quantity, excess air coefficient and emissions characteristics during cold and warm start were investigated. The results showed that, the maximum injection quantity during a starting event was several times higher than idling operation mode, so was the maximal opacity in the cold and warm starting process. When coolant temperature rose up to above 20℃, NOX emissions in the starting process exhibited peculiar rise which was times higher than idling mode. Compared with engine warm start, rail pressure, cycle fuel quantity, opacity, CO and HC emissions during engine cold start were higher in the course from their transient maximal values towards stabilized idling status. NOX in the same transient course, however, were lower in cold start. As coolant temperature rose, the maximal and the idling value of rail pressure and cycle fuel injection quantity during diesel engine starting process decreased gradually, the excess air coefficient increased to a certain degree, and the maximal and idling values of NOX increased gradually.

  18. Hygroscopic properties of Diesel engine soot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E.; Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Burtscher, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The hygroscopic properties of combustion particles, freshly emitted from a Diesel engine were investigated. It was found that these particles start to grow by water condensation at a relative humidity (RH)>80%. The hygroscopicity of these particles was enhanced when the sulfur content of the fuel was increased or when the particles were artificially aged (i.e. particles were subjected to an ozone or UV pre-treatment). (author) 2 figs., 5 refs.

  19. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  20. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  1. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XX, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, MAINTENANCE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF THE REASONS AND PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE WHAT ENGINE BREAK-IN MEANS, ENGINE BREAK-IN, TORQUING BEARINGS (TEMPLATE METHOD), AND THE NEED FOR MAINTENANCE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE…

  2. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  3. Proceedings of the 1998 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop [DEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This workshop was held July 6--9, 1998 in Castine, Maine. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on reduction of diesel engine emissions. Attention was focused on the following: agency/organization concerns on engine emissions; diesel engine issues and challenges; health risks from diesel engines emissions; fuels and lubrication technologies; non-thermal plasma and urea after-treatment technologies; and diesel engine technologies for emission reduction 1 and 2.

  4. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  5. Emission Characterization of Diesel Engine Run on Coconut Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    KEYWORDS: Diesel engine, diesel, coconut oil biodiesel, blends, emissions. Introduction ... Automobile exhaust ... power loss, the increase in fuel consumption and the increase in ... diesel fuel in terms of power and torque and none or ... gas analyzer (Motorscan 8050) made in Italy which .... different injection pressures.

  6. Emission characterization of diesel engine run on coconut oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of biodiesel in running diesel has been called for, with a view to mitigating the environmental pollution, depletion, cost and scarcity associated with the use diesel in running diesel engine. So the need to characterize the emissions from these biodiesel, cannot be overemphasized, hence this paper presents the ...

  7. Gear ratting noise reduction of diesel engine; Diesel engine no gear hauchi soon teigen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S; Miura, Y [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Gear raffling noise of diesel engine at idling condition is required to reduce for keeping quiet environment and comfort of driver and passengers on track and bus. Decrease of gear backlash is generally adopted for reducing gear rattling noise. On the other hand, it has been found that newly devised measurement of gear teeth speed and gear meshing error has clarified phenomena of gear rattling between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear of the diesel engine. And it has been also found that gear ratting noise is reduced by changing meshing between the crankshaft gear and the camshaft gear. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Fuel system for diesel engine with multi-stage heated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu N.; Kuznetsov, Yu A.; Kolomeichenko, A. V.; Kuznetsov, I. S.; Solovyev, R. Yu; Sharifullin, S. N.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes a fuel system of a diesel engine with a construction tractor multistage heating, allowing the use of pure rapeseed oil as a diesel engine fuel. The paper identified the kinematic viscosity depending on the temperature and composition of the mixed fuel, supplemented by the existing recommendations on the use of mixed fuels based on vegetable oils and developed the device allowing use as fuel for diesel engines of biofuels based on vegetable oils.

  9. Lignocellulosic Biobutanol as Fuel for Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Pexa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery of lignocellulosic waste material in the form of liquid fractions can yield alcohol-based fuels such as bioethanol or biobutanol. This study examined biobutanol derived from lignocellulosic material that was then used as an additive for diesel engines. Biobutanol was used in fuel mixtures with fatty acid methyl ester (FAME obtained by esterification of animal fat (also a waste material in the amounts of 10%, 30%, and 50% butanol. 100% diesel and 100% FAME were used as reference fuels. The evaluation concerned the fuel’s effect on the external speed characteristics, harmful exhaust emissions, and fuel consumption while using the Non-Road Steady Cycle test. When the percentage of butanol was increased, the torque and the power decreased and the brake specific fuel consumption increased. The main advantage of using biobutanol in fuel was its positive effect on reducing the fuel’s viscosity.

  10. Development of a robust and compact kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Kun Lin; Yang, Wenming; Mohan, Balaji; An, Hui; Zhou, Dezhi; Yu, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach is used to develop a robust kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism. • Ignition delay of the kerosene sub-mechanism is well validated with experiments. • The kerosene sub-mechanism reproduces the flame lift-off lengths of Jet-A reasonably well. • The kerosene sub-mechanism performs reasonably well under engine conditions. - Abstract: The use of kerosene fuels in internal combustion engines is getting more widespread. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization military is pushing for the use of a single fuel on the battlefield in order to reduce logistical issues. Moreover, in some countries, fuel adulteration is a serious matter where kerosene is blended with diesel and used in diesel engines. So far, most investigations done regarding the use of kerosene fuels in diesel engines are experimental and there is negligible simulation work done in this area possibly because of the lack of a robust and compact kerosene reaction mechanism. This work focuses on the development of a small but reliable kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism, suitable to be used for diesel engine simulations. The new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism consists only of 48 species and 152 reactions. Furthermore, the kerosene sub-mechanism in this new mechanism is well validated for its ignition delay times and has proven to replicate kerosene combustion well in a constant volume combustion chamber and an optical engine. Overall, this new kerosene–diesel reaction mechanism is proven to be robust and practical for diesel engine simulations.

  11. Spray and atomization of diesel fuel and its alternatives from a single-hole injector using a common rail fuel injection system

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, PinChia

    2013-01-01

    Fuel spray and atomization characteristics play an important role in the performance of internal combustion engines. As the reserves of petroleum fuel are expected to be depleted within a few decades, finding alternative fuels that are economically viable and sustainable to replace the petroleum fuel has attracted much research attention. In this work, the spray and atomization characteristics were investigated for commercial No. 2 diesel fuel, biodiesel (FAME) derived from waste cooking oil (B100), 20% biodiesel blended diesel fuel (B20), renewable diesel fuel produced in house, and civil aircraft jet fuel (Jet-A). Droplet diameters and particle size distributions were measured by a laser diffraction particle analyzing system and the spray tip penetrations and cone angles were acquired using a high speed imaging technique. All experiments were conducted by employing a common-rail high-pressure fuel injection system with a single-hole nozzle under room temperature and pressure. The experimental results showed that biodiesel and jet fuel had different features compared with diesel. Longer spray tip penetration and larger droplet diameters were observed for B100. The smaller droplet size of the Jet-A were believed to be caused by its relatively lower viscosity and surface tension. B20 showed similar characteristics to diesel but with slightly larger droplet sizes and shorter tip penetration. Renewable diesel fuel showed closer droplet size and spray penetration to Jet-A with both smaller than diesel. As a result, optimizing the trade-off between spray volume and droplet size for different fuels remains a great challenge. However, high-pressure injection helps to optimize the trade-off of spray volume and droplet sizes. Furthermore, it was observed that the smallest droplets were within a region near the injector nozzle tip and grew larger along the axial and radial direction. The variation of droplet diameters became smaller with increasing injection pressure.

  12. 40 CFR 86.336-79 - Diesel engine test cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine test cycle. 86.336-79... Diesel engine test cycle. (a) The following 13-mode cycle shall be followed in dynamometer operation... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for...

  13. EFFECTS OF ETHANOL BLENDED DIESEL FUEL ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM A DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer CAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engine emissions can be improved by adding organic oxygenated compounds to the No. 2 diesel fuel. In this study, effects of 10 % and 15 % (in volume ethanol addition to Diesel No. 2 on exhaust emissions from an indirect injection turbocharged diesel engine running at different engine speeds and loads were investigated. Experimental results showed that the ethanol addition reduced CO, soot and SO2 emissions, although it caused some increase in NOx emission and some power reductions due to lower heating value of ethanol. Improvements on emissions were more significant at full load rather than at partial loads.

  14. Formation and emission of organic pollutants from diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoli, C.; Ciajolo, A.; D'Anna, A.; Barbella, R.

    1993-01-01

    The emission of soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from diesel engines results from the competition between oxidative and pyrolytic routes which the fuel takes in the unsteady, heterogeneous conditions of the diesel combustion process. In-cylinder sampling and analysis of particulate (soot and condensed hydrocarbon species), light hydrocarbons and gaseous inorganic species were carried out in two locations of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine by means of a fast sampling valve in order to follow the behaviour of a diesel fuel during the engine cycle. The effect of fuel quality (volatility, aromatic content, cetane number) and air/fuel mass feed ratio on soot, PAH, and light and heavy hydrocarbons was also investigated by direct sampling and chemical analysis of the exhausts emitted from a direct injection diesel engine (D.I.) and an indirect injection diesel engine (I.D.I.)

  15. Fueling diesel engines with methyl-ester soybean oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, L.G.; Hires, W.G.; Borgelt, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two 5.9 liter Cummins engines were fueled for a combined total of more than 80,467 km (50,000 miles). One truck, a 1991 Dodge, has been driven approximately 48,280 km (30,000 miles). The other, a 1992 Dodge, has been driven approximately 32,187 km (20,000 miles). Fueling these engines with soydiesel increase engine power by 3 percent (1991 engine) and reduced power by 6 percent (1992 engine). The pickups averaged more than 7.1 km/L (16.7 mpg). Analysis of used engine oil samples indicated that the engines were wearing at normal rate. The black exhaust smoke normally observed when a diesel engine accelerates was reduced as much as 86 percent when the diesel engine was fueled with 100% soydiesel. Increased EPA exhaust emissions requirements for diesel engines have created much interest in the use of soydiesel as fuel for diesel engines

  16. Conversion of diesel engines to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, S W; DeMaere, D A

    1984-02-01

    A device to convert a diesel engine to dual fuel (propane/diesel) operation was developed and evaluated. Preliminary experimentation has indicated that as much as 30% of the diesel fuel consumed in diesel engines could be displaced with propane, accompanied by an improvement in fuel efficiency, engine maintenance and an overall reduction in emission levels. Dual fuel operations in both transportation and stationary applications would then project a saving of ca 90,000 barrels of diesel fuel per day by the year 1990. A turbo-charged 250 hp diesel engine was directly coupled to a dynamometer under laboratory conditions, and operated at speeds between 500 and 2500 rpm and at various torque levels. At each rpm/torque point the engine first operated on diesel fuel alone, and then increasing quantities of propane were induced into the air intake until detonation occured. Results indicate that the proportion of propane that can be safely induced into a diesel engine varies considerably with rpm and torque so that a sophisticated metering system would be required to maximize diesel oil displacement by propane. Conversion is not cost effective at 1983 price levels.

  17. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  18. Crude palm oil as fuel extender for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed M El-Awad; Fuad Abas; Mak Kian Sin

    2000-01-01

    In this work an investigation has been conducted into the use of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) as an extender fuel for diesel engines. Mixtures of CPO with normal diesel fuel (with a percentage of 25%, 50% and 75% CPO by volume) were used to fuel a stationary diesel engine and the engine performance variables, i.e., power output, fuel consumption, and exhaust-gas emission, were compared to those of normal diesel fuel. The results obtained, for a fixed throttle opening and variable speed, indicate that at high engine speeds, the engine performance with CP0/diesel mixtures with up to 50% CPO is comparable to that of diesel fuel. However, the results of the 75% CPO mixture showed a higher temperature and emission of CO and NO compared to the diesel fuel. At low engine speeds, the engine performance with CPO mixtures gave higher power output and lower emission of NO compared to that with diesel fuel, but showed higher specific fuel consumption and higher emission of CO. Based on these results, the study recommends that CPO can be used to extend diesel fuel in a mixture of up to 50% CPO by volume for an unmodified engine. (Author)

  19. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  20. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Petroleum Diesel Fuel and Linseed Oil Mixtures as Engine Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The actual problem is the use of alternative biofuels in automotive diesel engines. Insufficiently studied are the indicators of toxicity of exhaust gases of these engines operating on biofuel. The aim of the study is to identify indicators of the toxicity of exhaust gases when using of petroleum diesel fuel and linseed oil mixtures as a fuel for automotive diesel engines. Physical and chemical properties of linseed oil and its mixtures with petroleum diesel fuel are considered. Experimental researches of D-245.12C diesel are carried out on mixtures of diesel fuel and corn oil with a different composition. An opportunity of exhaust toxicity indexes improvement using these mixtures as a fuel for automobiles engine is shown.

  2. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  3. Oil soot measurement system of diesel engine; Diesel engine no oil sutsu sokutei sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuno, Y; Moritsugu, M; Kato, N [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Osaki, R [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    For use evaluate diesel engine in laboratory, we have developed a apparatus which can measure soot density in engine oil instantly and accurately. We have achieved accuracy of 0.03 wt% by employing the following; (1) utilize a ligh-reflecting oil soot sensor, (2) regurate the temperature and flow of the in-coming oil to be constant. 4 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Temperature field measurement research in high-speed diesel engine using laser induced fluorescence technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfeng; Zhang, You-tong; Gou, Chenhua; Tian, Hongsen

    2008-12-01

    Temperature laser- induced- fluorescence (LIF) 2-D imaging measurements using a new multi-spectral detection strategy are reported for high pressure flames in high-speed diesel engine. Schematic of the experimental set-up is outlined and the experimental data on the diesel engine is summarized. Experiment injection system is a third generation Bosch high-pressure common rail featuring a maximum pressure of 160 MPa. The injector is equipped with a six-hole nozzle, where each hole has a diameter of 0.124 mm. and slightly offset (by 1.0 mm) to the center of the cylinder axis to allow a better cooling of the narrow bridge between the exhaust valves. The measurement system includes a blower, which supplied the intake flow rate, and a prototype single-valve direct injection diesel engine head modified to lay down the swirled-type injector. 14-bit digital CCD cameras are employed to achieve a greater level of accuracy in comparison to the results of previous measurements. The temperature field spatial distributions in the cylinder for different crank angle degrees are carried out in a single direct-injection diesel engine.

  5. Influence of using emulsified diesel fuel on the performance and pollutants emitted from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were prepared. • Effect emulsified diesel fuel on diesel engine performance and pollutant emissions. • Using emulsified fuel improves the diesel engine performance and reduces emissions. - Abstract: This manuscript investigates the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions for a water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinders, and direct injection diesel engine. Emulsified diesel fuels with water content of range 0–30% by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, the using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) has a minimum value at 5% water content and 2000 rpm. The torque (T), the break mean effective pressure (BMEP) and thermal efficiency (η th ) are found to have maximum values under these conditions. The emission CO 2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NO x produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions. And as the percentage of water content in the emulsion increases, the emitted amount of oxygen also increases

  6. Home school student visit and introduction to rail transportation and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This project consisted of hosting local Champaign-Urbana, Illinois home school students for a visit to : the Rail Transportation and Engineering Center (RailTEC) at the University of Illinois at Urbana- : Champaign (UIUC). Beyond visiting RailTEC, st...

  7. Embarked diagnosis applied to a mechanical system "diesel engine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of OBD (on-board diagnostic) systems for diesel engines has become an unavoidable necessity. From the models described in the literature, the latest generation diesel engine models as well as defects affecting it were established. A board diagnostic system based on the use of fuzzy pattern ...

  8. The new MTU series 4000 rail engines certified for EU IIIB; Die neuen Bahnmotoren der MTU-Baureihe 4000 fuer die Emissionsstufe EU IIIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintruff, Ingo; Buecheler, Otto; Rall, Helmut; Zitzler, Guenter [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    As of 2012, diesel locomotives in Europe must comply with the emission requirements laid down in EU Non-Road Mobile Machinery Directive 97 / 68 / EC Stage IIIB. Compared to the Stage IIIA in effect today, this will require a significant reduction of air pollutants. MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH has developed new engines for rail applications based on the 4000 series which will comply with future emissions standards due to optimisation inside the engine and the use of a diesel particulate filter. (orig.)

  9. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Simarouba Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigrahi, Nabnit; Mohanty, Mahendra Kumar; Mishra, Sruti Ranjan; Mohanty, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-02-01

    This article intends to determine the available work and various losses of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and SB20 (20 % Simarouba biodiesel by volume blended with 80 % diesel by volume). The energy and exergy analysis were carried out by using first law and second law of thermodynamics respectively. The experiments were carried out on a 3.5 kW compression ignition engine. The analysis was conducted on per mole of fuel basis. The energy analysis indicates that about 37.23 and 37.79 % of input energy is converted into the capacity to do work for diesel and SB20 respectively. The exergetic efficiency was 34.8 and 35 % for diesel and Simarouba respectively. Comparative study indicates that the energetic and exergetic performance of SB20 resembles with that of diesel fuel.

  10. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    OpenAIRE

    S Abbasi; H Bahrami; B Ghobadian; M Kiani Deh Kiani

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel a...

  11. Combustion and emissions characteristics of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Chou, S.K.; Chua, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of engine load on engine’s performance, combustion and emission characteristics. ► The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increases significantly at partial load conditions. ► The brake thermal efficiency (BTE) drops at lower engine loads, and increases at higher loads. ► The partial load also influences the trend of CO emissions. -- Abstract: This paper investigated the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled by biodiesel at partial load conditions. Experiments were conducted on a common-rail fuel injection diesel engine using ultra low sulfur diesel, biodiesel (B100) and their blend fuels of 10%, 20%, 50% (denoted as B10, B20 and B50 respectively) under various loads. The results show that biodiesel/blend fuels have significant impacts on the engine’s brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) at partial load conditions. The increase in BSFC for B100 is faster than that of pure diesel with the decrease of engine load. A largest increase of 28.1% in BSFC is found at 10% load. Whereas for BTE, the results show that the use of biodiesel results in a reduced thermal efficiency at lower engine loads and improved thermal efficiency at higher engine loads. Furthermore, the characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are also changed at partial load conditions. When running at lower engine loads, the CO emission increases with the increase of biodiesel blend ratio and the decrease of engine speed. However, at higher engine loads, an opposite trend is obtained.

  12. Comparative analysis of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel blends during the European MVEG-A cycle: Preliminary study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lujan, J.M.; Tormos, B.; Salvador, F.J.; Gargar, K. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    The present work consists of introducing the tests and facilities used to perform a comparative analysis of a diesel engine working with different blends of biodiesel fuel during the New European Driving Cycle. Furthermore, as a preliminary study, it was interesting to know the effects of biodiesel fuel on a common-rail high pressure injection system, those more useful in modern light duty diesel engines, as a consequence of its different physicochemical properties compared with conventional diesel fuel. As the real goal of the study is to compare fairly performance and emissions from the engine, it was essential to know any injection effects owed to fuel's own characteristics that finally would affect those parameters that will be evaluated. A complete fuel characterization for diesel and biodiesel fuels, as the EN 590 and the EN 14214 standard specifications, was performed in order to quantify the differences between both fuels. A priori, it could be thought that viscosity and density values will be the most significant parameters capable of altering the injection rate. As positive results, it was obtained that the common-rail high pressure injection system was totally blind in the injection rate measurements, even the significant differences between both fuels, taking into account the counterbalancing effects generated by two parameters mentioned before. The second part of the study deals with engine performance and pollutant emissions on an unmodified common-rail turbocharged diesel engine running with biodiesel fuel blends during the New European Driving Cycle. (author)

  13. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  14. 40 CFR 86.347-79 - Alternative calculations for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.347-79 Alternative calculations for diesel engines. (a) This section applies to Diesel engines only. Gasoline-fueled engines must use the calculations in § 86.345. (b) For Diesel engines, the...

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT I, GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    ONE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE DESIGNED TO UPGRADE THE JOB SKILLS AND TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE OF DIESEL MAINTENANCE MECHANICS, THIS MATERIAL WAS DEVELOPED BY INDUSTRIAL TRAINING AND SUBJECT-MATTER SPECIALISTS AND TESTED IN INDUSTRIAL TRAINING SITUATIONS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS FIRST UNIT IS TO PROVIDE AN INTRODUCTION TO DIESEL ENGINES BY DEVELOPING AN…

  16. The Effect of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on The Performance of A Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifin Nur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on a conventional direct injection diesel engine. Performance test was carried out to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of a conventional diesel engine that operates on ethanol-diesel blends. The test procedure was performed by coupling the diesel engine on the eddy current dynamometer. Fuel consumption was measured using the AVL Fuel Balance, and a hotwire anemometer was used to measure the air consumption. Some of the emission test devices were mounted on the exhaust pipe. The test of fuel variations started from 100% diesel fuel (D100 to 2.5% (DE2.5, 5% (DE5, 7.5% (DE7.5, and 10% (DE10 ethanol additions. Performance test was conducted at 1500 rpm with load variations from 0 to 60 Nm by increasing the load on each level by 10 Nm. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel (DE5 increased the average pressure of combustion chamber indication to 48% as well as reduced the specific fuel consumption to 9.5%. There were better exhaust emission characteristics at this mixture ratio than diesel engine which used pure diesel fuel (D100, the reduction of CO to 37%, HC to 44% and opacity to 15.9%.

  17. Prospects of biogas as dual fuel in small diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Irvinder; Mittal, V.K.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on diesel engines to find out the effect of induction rate of biogas on engine performance indices. The results of dual fuel engine performance was compared with diesel mode for various levels of biogas induction rate (0.3 to 7.2 l/s) engine load (20% to full load) and injection timing (20.6 to 48 before top dead centre). At full and 80% brake load, the best energy mix between diesel and biogas was 1.5:1 and 4:1 respectively. (author). 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Modeling pollution formation in diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Modeling combustion under conditions that prevail in Diesel engine presents a great challenge. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has invested Laboratory Directed Research and Development Funds to accelerate progress in this area. Research has been concerned with building a chemical mechanism to interface with a high fidelity fluid code to describe aspects of Diesel combustion. The complexity of these models requires implementation on massively parallel machines. The author will describe his efforts concerned with building such a complex mechanism. He begins with C and CO{sub 2} chemistry and adds sequentially higher hydrocarbon chemistry, aromatic production chemistry, soot chemistry, and chemistry describing NO{sub x} production. The metrics against which this chemistry is evaluated are flame velocities, induction times, ignition delay times, flammability limits, flame structure measurements, and light scattering. He assembles a set of elementary reactions, kinetic rate coefficients, and thermochemistry. He modifies existing Sandia codes to be able to investigate the behavior of the mechanism in well-stirred reactors, plug flow reactors, and one-dimensional flames. The modified combustion code with a chemical mechanism at the appropriate level of complexity is then interfaced with the high fidelity fluids code. The fluids code is distinguished by its ability to solve the requisite partial differential equations with adaptively refined grids necessary to describe the strong variation in spatial scales in combustion.

  19. Modal extraction on a diesel engine in operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nis; Herlufsen, Henrik; Brincker, Rune

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a diesel engine is presented. The only loading on the engine is the unknown loading from the engine itself. Two test cases were considered: engine run-up, and engine Run-Down. The response data were analyzed using two different...

  20. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXX, I--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE SUMMARY, II--REIEWING FACTS ABOUT ALTERNATORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO PROVIDE A SUMMARY OF DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE FACTORS AND A REVIEW OF DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATOR OPERATION. THE SEVEN SECTIONS COVER DIESEL ENGINE TROUBLESHOOTING AND THE OPERATION, TESTING, AND ADJUSTING OF ALTERNATORS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM…

  1. Common Rail System for GDI Engines Modelling, Identification, and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Fiengo, Giovanni; Palladino, Angelo; Giglio, Veniero

    2013-01-01

    Progressive reductions in vehicle emission requirements have forced the automotive industry to invest in research and development of alternative control strategies. Continual control action exerted by a dedicated electronic control unit ensures that best performance in terms of pollutant emissions and power density is married with driveability and diagnostics. Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology is a way to attain these goals. This brief describes the functioning of a GDI engine equipped with a common rail (CR) system, and the devices necessary to run test-bench experiments in detail. The text should prove instructive to researchers in engine control and students are recommended to this brief as their first approach to this technology. Later chapters of the brief relate an innovative strategy designed to assist with the engine management system; injection pressure regulation for fuel pressure stabilization in the CR fuel line is proposed and validated by experiment. The resulting control scheme ...

  2. Emission testing of jatropha and pongamia mixed bio diesel fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Shaikh, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation is based on the emission characteristics of mixed bio diesel fuel in a four stroke single cylinder compression ignition engine at constant speed. Refined oils of jatropha and pongamia are converted into bio diesel by acid catalyzed esterification and base catalyzed transesterification reactions. The jatropha and pongamia bio diesel were mixed in equal proportions with conventional mineral diesel fuel. Four samples of fuel were tested namely, diesel fuel, B10, B20 and B40. The emission analysis showed B20 mixed bio diesel fuel blend having better results as compared to other samples. There is 60% and 35% lower emission of carbon monoxide and in sulphur dioxide observed while consuming B20 blended fuel respectively. The test result showed NOx emissions were 10% higher from bio diesel fuel, as compared to conventional diesel fuel. However, these emissions may be reduced by EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technology. Present research also revealed that that B20 mixed bio diesel fuel can be used, without any modification in a CI engine. (author)

  3. Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    F. Halek; A. Kavousi; M. Banifatemi

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester or FAME) because of the similarity in its properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, particulate matter, and air toxics than when operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from rapeseed (nonedible oil) fatty acid distillate having high free fatty acids (FFA) ...

  4. An experimental investigation of performance of diesel to CNG engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Gupta, Ayush; Garg, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, diesel engines are widely used in automobiles which is responsible for hazardous increase in pollution. Around the world, many countries are trying to reduce it by replacing diesel with CNG as a fuel which is more economical and leads to pollution free environment. Engineers came up with an idea to convert diesel engine to CNG engine. This conversion is possible by doing some alteration of engine components and it also include adding some extra components to the system which includes spark plug, valves etc. and by decreasing the compression ratio of the engine. It is used worldwide today and many countries have many programs to convert older, polluting diesel vehicles to CNG enable vehicles so that they can run on clean, economical natural gas. This is, an excellent way to reduce fuel cost, reduce pollution, reduce noise with minimum possible capital costs.first, second, and third level headings.

  5. Natural gas in a D. I. diesel engine. A comparison of two different ways. [Direct injection diesel enginer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun-ming, Qu; Sorenson, S.C.; Kofoed, E.

    1987-01-01

    A D.I. diesel engine was modified for natural gas operation with pilot injection and with spark ignition so that a comparative analysis of these two different ways of using natural gas could be made. The results of the experiments indicate that for a diesel engine, it is possible that the operating characteristics of a straight natural gas engine are comparable with those of a diesel/gas engine at the same compression ratio and speed. For a dual fuel engine with pilot injection the best diesel/gas ratio by energy content is approximately 20/80 at full load operation. For straight natural gas engine with spark ignition, quality governed natural gas operation has good efficiency but poor NOx emissions. This problem could be improved through throttle controlled operation. These two different ways of using natural gas are best suited to stationary engines.

  6. LPG diesel dual fuel engine – A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ashok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The engine, which uses both conventional diesel fuel and LPG fuel, is referred to as ‘LPG–diesel dual fuel engines’. LPG dual fuel engines are modified diesel engines which use primary fuel as LPG and secondary fuel as diesel. LPG dual fuel engines have a good thermal efficiency at high output but the performance is less during part load conditions due to the poor utilization of charges. This problem can be overcome by varying factors such as pilot fuel quantity, injection timing, composition of the gaseous fuel and intake charge conditions, for improving the performance, combustion and emissions of dual fuel engines. This article reviews about the research work done by the researchers in order to improve the performance, combustion and emission parameters of a LPG–diesel dual fuel engines. From the studies it is shown that the use of LPG in diesel engine is one of the capable methods to reduce the PM and NOx emissions but at same time at part load condition there is a drop in efficiency and power output with respect to diesel operation.

  7. Biogas Production and Engine Conversion From Diesel Engine to Biogas Engine for Lighting in Rural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Seint Thandar

    2012-01-01

    The research of alternative fuels implemented in internal combustion engines are becoming the subjects of interest nowadays. This paper describes a production of biogas from cow dung, diesel engine conversion process with piston modification of ZH1115 diesel engine. To produce biogas, the usual practice is to mix water with some organic material, such as cow dung (a free source of the appropriate micro-organisms). The slurry is placed in a leak-proof container (called a digester) and leaves i...

  8. Super Turbocharging the Direct Injection Diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretti, Albert

    2018-03-01

    The steady operation of a turbocharged diesel direct injection (TDI) engine featuring a variable speed ratio mechanism linking the turbocharger shaft to the crankshaft is modelled in the present study. Key parameters of the variable speed ratio mechanism are range of speed ratios, efficiency and inertia, in addition to the ability to control relative speed and flow of power. The device receives energy from, or delivers energy to, the crankshaft or the turbocharger. In addition to the pistons of the internal combustion engine (ICE), also the turbocharger thus contributes to the total mechanical power output of the engine. The energy supply from the crankshaft is mostly needed during sharp accelerations to avoid turbo-lag, and to boost torque at low speeds. At low speeds, the maximum torque is drastically improved, radically expanding the load range. Additionally, moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger, it is also possible to improve both the efficiency η, defined as the ratio of the piston crankshaft power to the fuel flow power, and the total efficiency η*, defined as the ratio of piston crankshaft power augmented of the power from the turbocharger shaft to the fuel flow power, even if of a minimal extent. The energy supply to the crankshaft is possible mostly at high speeds and high loads, where otherwise the turbine could have been waste gated, and during decelerations. The use of the energy at the turbine otherwise waste gated translates in improvements of the total fuel conversion efficiency η* more than the efficiency η. Much smaller improvements are obtained for the maximum torque, yet again moving closer to the points of operation of a balanced turbocharger. Adopting a much larger turbocharger (target displacement x speed 30% larger than a conventional turbocharger), better torque outputs and fuel conversion efficiencies η* and η are possible at every speed vs. the engine with a smaller, balanced turbocharger. This result

  9. Characterization of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds From Diesel Emissions: Phase II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yost, Douglas M; Schulman, Matthew E; Frame, Edwin A

    2004-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine fitted with a common-rail fuel injection system was calibrated on several alternative type test fuels to achieve low engine-out oxides of nitrogen (NOx) exhaust emissions...

  10. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    system does not provide direct current power to the preamplifier, equivalent pre-amplifiers with external power inputs were purchased , but the... behaviour of piston ring/cylinder liner interaction in diesel engines using acoustic emission. Tribology International 39 (12) 12 / 01 / 1634-1642...diesel engine using in-cylinder pressure and acoustic emission techniques. Dyanmics for Sustainable Engineering 1 454-463 26. Lowe, D. P., et al

  11. Experimental investigation of a diesel engine with methyl ester of mango seed oil and diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vijayaraj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum based fuels worldwide have not only resulted in the rapid depletion of conventional energy sources, but have also caused severe air pollution. The search for an alternate fuel has led to many findings due to which a wide variety of alternative fuels are available at our disposal now. The existing studies have revealed the use of vegetable oils for engines as an alternative for diesel fuel. However, there is a limitation in using straight vegetable oils in diesel engines due to their high viscosity and low volatility. In the present work, neat mango seed oil is converted into their respective methyl ester through transesterification process. Experiments are conducted using various blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil with diesel in a single cylinder, four stroke vertical and air cooled Kirloskar diesel engine. The experimental results of this study showed that the MEMSO biodiesel has similar characteristics to those of diesel. The brake thermal efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon and smoke density are observed to be lower in case of MEMSO biodiesel blends than diesel. The CO emission for B25, B50 and B75 is observed to be lower than diesel at full load, whereas for B100 it is higher at all loads. On the other hand, BSFC and NOx of MEMSO biodiesel blends are found to be higher than diesel. It is found that the combustion characteristics of all blends of methyl ester of mango seed oil showed similar trends with those of the baseline diesel. From this study, it is concluded that optimized blend is B25 and could be used as a viable alternative fuel in a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any modifications.

  12. Diesel engine performance and emission analysis using soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel presents a large potential for replacing other fossil-based fuels. Thus, the present work aimed to assess the specific fuel consumption (SFC), thermal efficiency and emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), in a cycle diesel engine-generator set, using soybean biodiesel and diesel as fuels.

  13. DELTA-DIESEL ENGINE LIGHT TRUCK APPLICATION Contract DE-FC05-97OR22606 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike

    2003-05-27

    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  14. Diesel engines and air pollution: facts and figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaaban, Farid

    1998-01-01

    Traffic densities and resulting air pollution, in any country are directly related to the degree of urbanization and the size and characteristics of the transportation sector. In Lebanon, the car ownership rate is among the highest in the world and its consequence is the drastic deterioration in ambient air quality in Greater Beirut and other organized regions. In this article, features of diesel engines are described. The environmental impacts of diesel engines, in relation of petrol engines are briefly presented. Pollutants provocated by diesel fuel, due to its contents in Carbon , Sulfur and gaseous emissions (noise level, smoke, Carbon Monoxide emissions, smell) as well as the economical aspects are given in comparison with petrol engines. Conclusion is given that diesel engines will help in reducing air pollution caused by transport sector in Lebanon, only if some required vehicles conditions are satisfied

  15. Experimental investigations on mixing of two biodiesels blended with diesel as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srithar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world faces the crises of energy demand, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biodiesel has obtained from vegetable oils that have been considered as a promising alternate fuel. The researches regarding blend of diesel and single biodiesel have been done already. Very few works have been done with the combination of two different biodiesel blends with diesel and left a lot of scope in this area. The present study brings out an experiment of two biodiesels from pongamia pinnata oil and mustard oil and they are blended with diesel at various mixing ratios. The effects of dual biodiesel works in engine and exhaust emissions were examined in a single cylinder, direct injection, air cooled and high speed diesel engine at various engine loads with constant engine speed of 3000 rpm. The influences of blends on CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke opacity were investigated by emission tests. The brake thermal efficiency of blend A was found higher than diesel. The emissions of smoke, hydro carbon and nitrogen oxides of dual biodiesel blends were higher than that of diesel. But the exhaust gas temperature for dual biodiesel blends was lower than diesel.

  16. Experimental analysis of ethanol dual-fuel combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine: An optimisation at low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozo, Vinícius B.; May, Ian; Dalla Nora, Macklini; Cairns, Alasdair; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual-fuel combustion offers promising results on a stock heavy-duty diesel engine. • The use of split diesel injections extends the benefits of the dual-fuel mode. • Ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion results in high indicated efficiencies. • NOx and soot emissions are significantly reduced. • Combustion efficiency reaches 98% with an ethanol energy ratio of 53%. - Abstract: Conventional diesel combustion produces harmful exhaust emissions which adversely affect the air quality if not controlled by in-cylinder measures and exhaust aftertreatment systems. Dual-fuel combustion can potentially reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and soot which are characteristic of diesel diffusion flame. The in-cylinder blending of different fuels to control the charge reactivity allows for lower local equivalence ratios and temperatures. The use of ethanol, an oxygenated biofuel with high knock resistance and high latent heat of vaporisation, increases the reactivity gradient. In addition, renewable biofuels can provide a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based fuels as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, ethanol–diesel dual-fuel combustion suffers from poor engine efficiency at low load due to incomplete combustion. Therefore, experimental studies were carried out at 1200 rpm and 0.615 MPa indicated mean effective pressure on a heavy-duty diesel engine. Fuel delivery was in the form of port fuel injection of ethanol and common rail direct injection of diesel. The objective was to improve combustion efficiency, maximise ethanol substitution, and minimise NOx and soot emissions. Ethanol energy fractions up to 69% were explored in conjunction with the effect of different diesel injection strategies on combustion, emissions, and efficiency. Optimisation tests were performed for the optimum fuelling and diesel injection strategy. The resulting effects of exhaust gas recirculation, intake air pressure, and rail pressure were

  17. Improvement of ecological characteristics of the hydrogen diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natriashvili, T.; Kavtaradze, R.; Glonti, M.

    2018-02-01

    In the article are considered the questions of influence of a swirl intensity of the shot and injector design on the ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel, little-investigated till now. The necessity of solution of these problems arises at conversion of the serial diesel engine into the hydrogen diesel. The mathematical model consists of the three-dimensional non-stationary equations of transfer and also models of turbulence and combustion. The numerical experiments have been carried out with the use of program code FIRE. The optimal values of parameters of the working process, ensuring improvement of the effective and ecological indices of the hydrogen diesel are determined.

  18. An Experimental Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Blends on Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarkan Sandalcı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel, due to its renewable biobased origin. Also, it has lower carbon content than diesel fuel and it is oxygenated. For this reason, ethanol is providing remarkable potential to reduce particulate emulsions in compression-ignition engines. In this study, performance of ethanol-diesel blends has been investigated experimentally. Tested fuels were mineral diesel fuel (E0D100, 15% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E15D85, and 30% (v/v ethanol/diesel fuel blend (E30D70. Firstly, the solubility of ethanol and diesel was experienced. Engine tests were carried out to reveal the performance and emissions of the engine fuelled with the blends. Full load operating conditions at various engine speeds were investigated. Engine brake torque, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, and finally exhaust emissions were measured. Performance of the tested engine decreased substantially while improvement on smoke and gaseous emissions makes ethanol blend favorable.

  19. Fuel composition impact on heavy duty diesel engine combustion & emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Heavy Duty Diesel or compression ignition (CI) engine plays an important economical role in societies all over the world. Although it is a fuel efficient internal combustion engine design, CI engine emissions are an important contributor to global pollution. To further reduce engine emissions

  20. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  2. Diesel engine emissions and performance from blends of karanja methyl ester and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheman, H.; Phadatare, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of karanja methyl ester (KME) and its blend with diesel from 20% to 80% by volume and in running a diesel engine with these fuels. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumption and emissions such as CO, smoke density and NO x to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on the above-mentioned fuels. The reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in torque, brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of karanja esterified oil (B20 and B40) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution. (author)

  3. Energy storage technologies and hybrid architectures for specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles: Design and system integration aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinert, M.; Prenleloup, P.; Schmid, S.; Palacin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We assessed integration of energy storage systems into hybrid system architectures. • We considered mechanical and electrical energy storage systems. • Potential of different combinations has been analyzed by standardized duty cycles. • Most promising are diesel-driven suburban, regional and shunting operations. • Double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential. - Abstract: The use of diesel-driven traction is an intrinsic part of the functioning of railway systems and it is expected to continue being so for the foreseeable future. The recent introduction of more restrictive greenhouse gas emission levels and other legislation aiming at the improvement of the environmental performance of railway systems has led to the need of exploring alternatives for cleaner diesel rolling stock. This paper focuses on assessing energy storage systems and the design of hybrid system architectures to determine their potential use in specific diesel-driven rail duty cycles. Hydrostatic accumulators, flywheels, Lithium-ion batteries and double-layer capacitors have been assessed and used to design hybrid system architectures. The potential of the different technology combinations has been analyzed using standardized duty cycles enhanced with gradient profiles related to suburban, regional and shunting operations. The results show that double-layer capacitors and Lithium-ion batteries have the highest potential to be successfully integrated into the system architecture of diesel-driven rail vehicles. Furthermore, the results also suggest that combining these two energy storage technologies into a single hybridisation package is a highly promising design that draws on their strengthens without any significant drawbacks.

  4. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y J; Ju, U S; Park, Y C [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  5. The characteristic of spray using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangki; Woo, Seungchul; Kim, Hyungik; Lee, Kihyung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water in oil emulsion is produced using ceramic membrane. • Surfactant type affect stability performance and droplet size distribution. • Evaporation characteristic of DE is poor compared with neat diesel. • Coefficient of variation maintains below 2.0% both DE and neat diesel. - Abstract: In this study, it was applied to the diesel–water emulsified (DE) fuel that carried out the experiment for the characteristic of sprat using diesel water emulsified fuel in a diesel engine, and the possibility of its application to conventional diesel engines was evaluated from the fundamental characteristics of diesel–water emulsified fuel. According to the results of the spray characteristics such as spray penetration and spray distribution were measured in the experiment, and then analyzed through digital image processing. The DEs were applied to actual diesel engines and their combustion, emission, and fuel consumption characteristics were compared with those of diesel. The results showed that the experiments were confirmed as the spray atomization characteristics at the various emulsified fuels.

  6. Imitating model of the electronic regulator frequencies of rotation of the automobile diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Тырловой, С. И.

    2011-01-01

    The imitating model of an frequency electronic regulator of rotation of high-speed diesel engine an automobile diesel engine with the distributive fuel pump of Bosch company is resulted. Is executed simulation transitive modes of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators. Deterioration influence plungers steams on dinamic and economic indicators of a diesel engine is analysed. Operational indicators of a diesel engine with mechanic and electronic regulators are compared. The obt...

  7. Remanufacture Systems for Category 1 and 2 Marine Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA maintains a list of remanufacture systems, or “kits”, certified for use with Category 1 and 2 marine diesel engines according to the provisions of 40 CFR Part 1042, Subpart I, and is periodically updated.

  8. Experimental investigations on CRDI diesel engine fuelled with acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that NOx emission amplified by means of an amplification in the proportion ... performance and emission characteristics of CRDI engine when fuelled with diesel, ..... rate of NOx formation is primarily a function of flame temperature, the ...

  9. Oxygenated fuels for clean heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijters, P.J.M.; Baert, R.S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: For diesel engines, changing the fuel composition is an alternative route towards achieving lower emission levels. The potential of oxygenated fuels to significantly reduce particulate matter emissions has already been demonstrated earlier. In this study, this research has been

  10. Computational Study of Stratified Combustion in an Optical Diesel Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Jaasim, Mohammed; Hernandez Perez, Francisco; Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Johansson, Bengt; Im, Hong G.

    2017-01-01

    Full cycle simulations of KAUST optical diesel engine were conducted in order to provide insights into the details of fuel spray, mixing, and combustion characteristics at different start of injection (SOI) conditions. Although optical diagnostics

  11. The influence of propylene glycol ethers on base diesel properties and emissions from a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Cuenca, F.; Gómez-Marín, M.; Folgueras-Díaz, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of propylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. • Effect of these compounds on diesel engine performance and emissions. • Blends with ⩽4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. • Blends with ⩽2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions, but not smoke. • These compounds are helpful to reach a cleaner combustion in a diesel engine. - Abstract: The oxygenated additives propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME), propylene glycol ethyl ether (PGEE), dipropylene glycol methyl ether (DPGME) were studied to determine their influence on both the base diesel fuel properties and the exhaust emissions from a diesel engine (CO, NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and smoke). For diesel blends with low oxygen content (⩽4.0 wt.%), the addition of these compounds to base diesel fuel decreases aromatic content, kinematic viscosity, cold filter plugging point and Conradson carbon residue. Also, each compound modifies the distillation curve at temperatures below the corresponding oxygenated compound boiling point, the distillate percentage being increased. The blend cetane number depends on the type of propylene glycol ether added, its molecular weight, and the oxygen content of the fuel. The addition of PGME decreased slightly diesel fuel cetane number, while PGEE and DPGME increased it. Base diesel fuel-propylene glycol ether blends with 1.0 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen contents were used in order to determine the performance of the diesel engine and its emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds (1000, 2500 and 4000 rpm). In general, at full load and in comparison with base diesel fuel, the blends show a slight reduction of oxygen-free specific fuel consumption. CO emissions are reduced appreciably for 2.5 wt.% of oxygen blends, mainly for PGEE and DPGME. NOx emissions are reduced slightly, but not the smoke. Unburnt hydrocarbon emissions decrease at 1000 and 2500 rpm, but not at 4000 rpm. At medium load

  12. Application of wear resistant spraying for diesel engine; Diesel kikan eno taimamo yosha no tekiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, Y. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuliding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-03-31

    Diesel engines used widely as propelling engines of ships have increasingly been provided with a high output and a high thermal efficiency; their structural members, particularly, the component parts for combustion chambers are therefore used under severe conditions, giving rise to the need of surface treatment and surface reforming of the members. Parts for marine diesel engines are huge, so that the technology applicable to the surface treatment and reforming are limited in point of facility and cost; therefore, most suitable is thermal spraying. This paper primarily discusses, among marine diesel engines, a 2-cycle low-speed engine with a 260-980mm bore used for the main engine of a merchant ship such as a container ship, bulk carrier or a tanker, and a 4-cycle medium-speed engine with a 300-420mm bore used for the main engine of a naval vessel; the paper explains the application status of a thermal spraying technology which is in progress to cope with the high output and high thermal efficiency of the diesel engines, explaining particularly the story of the development and the technological features of the wear resistant thermal spraying, which has been put to practical use, on the cylinder liner and the piston ring of the 4-cycle medium-speed engine. (NEDO)

  13. LPG as a Fuel for Diesel Engines-Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristian Nutu, Nikolaos; Pana, Constantin; Negurescu, Niculae; Cernat, Alexandru; Mirica, Ionel

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of the paper is to reduce the pollutant emissions of a compression ignition engine, fuelling the engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), aiming to maintain the energetic performances of the engine. To optimise the engine operation a corelation between the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with LPG and the adjustments for the investigated regimens must be made in order to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning, fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions. The test bed situated in the Thermotechnics, Engines, Thermal Equipments and Refrigeration Instalations Department was adapted to be fuelled with liquefied petroleum gas. A conventional LPG fuelling instalation was adopted, consisting of a LPG tank, a vaporiser, conections between the tank and the vaporiser and a valve to adjust the gaseous fuel flow. Using the diesel-gas methode, in the intake manifold of the engine is injected LPG in gaseous aggregation state and the airr-LPG homogeneous mixture is ignited from the flame appeared in the diesel fuel sprays. To maintain the engine power at the same level like in the standard case of fuelling only with diesel fuel, for each investigated operate regimen the diesel fuel dose was reduced, being energetically substituted with LPG. The engine used for experimental investigations is a turbocharged truck diesel engine with a 10.34 dm3 displacement. The investigated working regimen was 40% load and 1750 rpm and the energetic substitute ratios of the diesel fuel with LPG was situated between [0-25%].

  14. Combustion Heat Release Rate Comparison of Algae Hydroprocessed Renewable Diesel to F-76 in a Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    was recorded. Figure 14 shows the gauge on the rocker arm during calibration . Figure 14. Mechanical Injector Rocker Arm Strain Gauge. D. DATA...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE by John H. Petersen June 2013 Thesis...RELEASE RATE COMPARISON OF ALGAE HYDROPROCESSED RENEWABLE DIESEL TO F-76 IN A TWO-STROKE DIESEL ENGINE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) John H

  15. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: belenfd@uniovi.es [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  16. Development of catalyst for diesel engine; Diesel engine yo shokubai no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, H; Furutani, T; Nagami, T [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Aono, N; Goshima, H; Kasahara, K [Cataler Industrial Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The new concept catalyst for diesel engine has been developed. When the exhaust temperature is low, SOF and HC are temporarily adsorbed by the adsorbent within the catalyst and are oxidized as the temperature rise. The process of this development have manifested as follows. (1) The coating material is important factor to govern the oxidation activity. (2) SOF is reduced by the coating material in low temperature less than 200degC. (3) The coating material, which has low SO2 adsorbing rate suppress the sulfate formation at high temperature. 2 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Diesel Engine Valve Clearance Detection Using Acoustic Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Elamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated, using experimental method, the suitability of acoustic emission (AE technique for the condition monitoring of diesel engine valve faults. The clearance fault was adjusted experimentally in an exhaust valve and successfully detected and diagnosed in a Ford FSD 425 four-cylinder, four-stroke, in-line OHV, direct injection diesel engine. The effect of faulty exhaust valve clearance on engine performance was monitored and the difference between the healthy and faulty engine was observed from the recorded AE signals. The measured results from this technique show that using only time domain and frequency domain analysis of acoustic emission signals can give a superior measure of engine condition. This concludes that acoustic emission is a powerful and reliable method of detection and diagnosis of the faults in diesel engines and this is considered to be a unique approach to condition monitoring of valve performance.

  18. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  19. Proceedings of the 1997 diesel engine emissions reduction workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference was held July 28--31, 1997 in La Jolla, California. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on diesel engine emissions issues. Diesel engine manufacturers have significantly reduced emission of nitrogen oxides and particulates over the last 12 years. Currently there is concern about the 4% contribution of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels to the atmosphere and its role in the greenhouse effect. The 56 papers in this report are arranged under the following topical headings: Agency diesel engine emissions and concerns; Human health effects -- Diesel exhaust; Aftertreatment -- Non-thermal plasma; Aftertreatment and in-cylinder emissions reduction; Combustion, fuel, and air management; Fuels and associated technology; and Advanced technology. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. 76 FR 54373 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... diesel piston engines, with high-pressure (HP) fuel pump, part number (P/N) E4A- 30-100-000, installed... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pressure supply for excessive oscillations to determine if high-pressure (HP) fuel pumps have been exposed...

  1. Tomorrows diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the different ways of reducing the pollutants emissions from diesel engines in order to follow the future French environmental regulations. The combustion in diesel engines is analyzed first: principle and consequences, calculated combustion, pollution units, influences of ambient air conditions on NO{sub x} production, maximum legal pollutant concentration limits (French regulation for fixed installations, NO{sub x}, CO, HC and dust limit values), influence of fuel composition. Then the existing methods for the reduction of pollutants emissions are analyzed and compared with respect to their cost: mechanical adjustment of engines, water injection, exhaust gases recirculation, treatment of fumes. (J.S.) 4 refs.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT VI, MAINTAINING MECHANICAL GOVERNORS--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF MECHANICAL GOVERNORS USED ON DIESEL ENGINES. TOPICS ARE (1) TYPES OF GOVERNORS AND ENGINE LOCATION, (2) GOVERNOR APPLICATIONS, (3) LIMITING SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, (4) VARIABLE SPEED MECHANICAL GOVERNOR, AND (5) CONSTANT SPEED…

  3. Experimental investigations of LPG use at the automotive diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutu Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquefied petroleum gas has a great potential to improve energetically and pollution performance of compression ignition engines due to its good combustion properties. This paper presents results of the researches carried on a car compression ignition engine with a 1.5 dm3 displacement, fuelled with diesel fuel and liquefied petroleum gas by diesel-gas method at the operating regimens of 70% and 55% engine load, engine speed of 2000 rpm and for substitute ratios between (6–19%. A specific objective of this paper is to establish a correlation between the optimum adjustments and the substitute ratio of the diesel fuel with liquefied petroleum gas for the investigated regimens to limit the maximum pressure and smoke level, knock and rough engine functioning and having regard to decrease the fuel consumption and the level of the pollutant emissions.

  4. Experimental investigations on a CRDI system assisted diesel engine fuelled with aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Syed Aalam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine engine performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder, common rail direct injection (CRDI system assisted diesel engine using diesel with 25 percentage of zizipus jujube methyl ester blended fuel (ZJME25. Along with this ZJME25 aluminium oxide nanoparticles were added as additive in mass fractions of 25 ppm (AONP 25 and 50 ppm (AONP 50 with the help of a mechanical Homogenizer and an ultrasonicator. It was observed that aluminium oxide nanoparticles blended fuel exhibits a significant reduction in specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions at all operating loads. At the full load, the magnitude of HC and smoke emission for the ZJME25 before the addition of aluminium oxide nanoparticles was 13.459 g/kW h and 79 HSU, whereas it was 8.599 g/kW h and 49 HSU for the AONP 50 blended ZJME25 fuel respectively. The results also showed a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency and heat release rate due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in biodiesel–diesel blend.

  5. Green energy: Water-containing acetone–butanol–ethanol diesel blends fueled in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Wang, Lin-Chi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water-containing ABE solution (W-ABE) in the diesel is a stable fuel blends. • W-ABE can enhance the energy efficiency of diesel engine and act as a green energy. • W-ABE can reduce the PM, NOx, and PAH emissions very significantly. • The W-ABE can be manufactured from waste bio-mass without competition with food. • The W-ABE can be produced without dehydration process and no surfactant addition. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) is considered a “green” energy resource because it emits less carbon than many other fuels and is produced from biomass that is non-edible. To simulate the use of ABE fermentation products without dehydration and no addition of surfactants, a series of water-containing ABE-diesel blends were investigated. By integrating the diesel engine generator (DEG) and diesel engine dynamometer (DED) results, it was found that a diesel emulsion with 20 vol.% ABE-solution and 0.5 vol.% water (ABE20W0.5) enhanced the brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) by 3.26–8.56%. In addition, the emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the toxicity equivalency of PAHs (BaP eq ) were reduced by 5.82–61.6%, 3.69–16.4%, 0.699–31.1%, and 2.58–40.2%, respectively, when compared to regular diesel. These benefits resulted from micro-explosion mechanisms, which were caused by water-in-oil droplets, the greater ABE oxygen content, and the cooling effect that is caused by the high vaporization heat of water-containing ABE. Consequently, ABE20W0.5, which is produced by environmentally benign processes (without dehydration and no addition of surfactants), can be a good alternative to diesel because it can improve energy efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions

  6. Diesel Engine Emission Reduction Using Catalytic Nanoparticles: An Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajin C. Sajeevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium oxide being a rare earth metal with dual valance state existence has exceptional catalytic activity due to its oxygen buffering capability, especially in the nanosized form. Hence when used as an additive in the diesel fuel it leads to simultaneous reduction and oxidation of nitrogen dioxide and hydrocarbon emissions, respectively, from diesel engine. The present work investigates the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on performance and emissions of diesel engine. Cerium oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method and techniques such as TEM, EDS, and XRD have been used for the characterization. Cerium oxide was mixed in diesel by means of standard ultrasonic shaker to obtain stable suspension, in a two-step process. The influence of nanoparticles on various physicochemical properties of diesel fuel has also been investigated through extensive experimentation by means of ASTM standard testing methods. Load test was done in the diesel engine to investigate the effect of nanoparticles on the efficiency and the emissions from the engine. Comparisons of fuel properties with and without additives are also presented.

  7. Reducing Diesel Engine Emission Using Reactivity Controlled Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasib Ghazal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several automobile manufacturers are interested in investigating of dual fuel internal combustion engines, due to high efficiencand low emissions. Many alternative fuels have been used in dual fuel mode for IC engine, such as methane, hydrogen, and natural gas. In the present study, a reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI engine using gasoline/diesel (G/D dual fuel has been investigated. The effectof mixing gasoline with diesel fuel on combustion characteristic, engine performance and emissions has been studied. The gasoline was injected in the engine intake port, to produce a homogeneous mixture with air. The diesel fuel was injected directly to the combustion chamber during compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. A direct injection compression ignition engine has been built and simulated using ANSYS Forte professional code. The gasoline amount in the simulation varied from (50%-80% by volume. The diesel fuel was injected to the cylinder in two stages. The model has been validated and calibrated for neat diesel fuel using available data from the literature. The results show that the heat release rate and the cylinder pressure increased when the amount of added gasoline is between 50%-60% volume of the total injected fuels, compared to the neat diesel fuel. Further addition of gasoline will have a contrary effect. In addition, the combustion duration is extended drastically when the gasoline ratio is higher than 60% which results in an incomplete combustion. The NO emission decreased drastically as the gasoline ratio increased. Moreover, addition of gasoline to the mixture increased the engine power, thermal efficienc and combustion efficienc compared to neat diesel fuel.

  8. A cycle simulation model for predicting the performance of a diesel engine fuelled by diesel and biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, T.K.; Baruah, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel and its blends are considered suitable and the most promising fuel for diesel engine. The properties of biodiesel are found similar to that of diesel. Many researchers have experimentally evaluated the performance characteristics of conventional diesel engines fuelled by biodiesel and its blends. However, experiments require enormous effort, money and time. Hence, a cycle simulation model incorporating a thermodynamic based single zone combustion model is developed to predict the performance of diesel engine. The effect of engine speed and compression ratio on brake power and brake thermal efficiency is analysed through the model. The fuel considered for the analysis are diesel, 20%, 40%, 60% blending of diesel and biodiesel derived from Karanja oil (Pongamia Glabra). The model predicts similar performance with diesel, 20% and 40% blending. However, with 60% blending, it reveals better performance in terms of brake power and brake thermal efficiency.

  9. MEA and DEE as additives on diesel engine using waste plastic oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappula Bridjesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste plastic oil (WPO is a standout amongst the most promising alternative fuels for diesel in view of most of its properties similar to diesel. The challenges of waste management and increasing fuel crisis can be addressed while with the production of fuel from plastic wastes. This experimental investigation is an endeavour to supplant diesel at least by 50% with waste plastic oil alongside 2-methoxy ethyl acetate (MEA and diethyl ether (DEE as additives. Test fuels considered in this study are WPO, 50D50W (50%Diesel + 50%WPO, 50D40W10MEA (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%MEA and 50D40W10DEE (50%Diesel + 40%WPO + 10%DEE. The test results are compared with diesel. An increase in brake thermal efficiency and abatement in brake specific fuel consumption are seen with 50D40W10MEA, as well as reduction in hydro carbon, carbon monoxide and smoke emissions. 50D40W10DEE showed reduced NOx emission whereas 50D40W10MEA has almost no impact. Engine performance and emission characteristics under different loads for different test fuels are discussed. Keywords: 2-Methoxy ethyl acetate, Diethyl ether, Waste plastic oil, Pyrolysis

  10. Hydrogen Gas as a Fuel in Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekaran, Chinnathambi; Mohankumar, Gabriael

    2016-04-01

    Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problem caused by the greenhouse gases, for protecting environment and saving conventional fuels. In this study, a dual fuel engine of hydrogen and diesel was investigated. Hydrogen was conceded through the intake port, and simultaneously air and diesel was pervaded into the cylinder. Using electronic gas injector and electronic control unit, the injection timing and duration varied. In this investigation, a single cylinder, KIRLOSKAR AV1, DI Diesel engine was used. Hydrogen injection timing was fixed at TDC and injection duration was timed for 30°, 60°, and 90° crank angles. The injection timing of diesel was fixed at 23° BTDC. When hydrogen is mixed with inlet air, emanation of HC, CO and CO2 decreased without any emission (exhaustion) of smoke while increasing the brake thermal efficiency.

  11. Combustion control for diesel engines with direct injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeschke, J.; Henn, M.; Lang, T.; Wendt, J.; Nitzke, H.G.; Mannigel, D. [Volkswagen AG (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This article looks at a new cylinder pressure-based combustion control for DI diesel engines that has been developed by Volkswagen. This cylinder pressure-based control uses cylinder pressure sensors that are integrated in the glow plugs. The description and the evaluation of these sensors form a main part of this article as they are a central element in the new diesel management system. The test and development phase in connection with a rapid prototyping system and the realisation of the combustion control algorithms in a diesel control unit are also described. Finally, results from use of the closed-loop combustion control with different applications on a diesel engine are presented. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of carbonyl compounds emissions from diesel engine fueled with biodiesel and diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Ge, Yunshan; Tan, Jianwei; You, Kewei; Han, Xunkun; Wang, Junfang; You, Qiuwen; Shah, Asad Naeem

    The characteristics of carbonyl compounds emissions were investigated on a direct injection, turbocharged diesel engine fueled with pure biodiesel derived from soybean oil. The gas-phase carbonyls were collected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated silica cartridges from diluted exhaust and analyzed by HPLC with UV detector. A commercial standard mixture including 14 carbonyl compounds was used for quantitative analysis. The experimental results indicate that biodiesel-fueled engine almost has triple carbonyls emissions of diesel-fueled engine. The weighted carbonyls emission of 8-mode test cycle of biodiesel is 90.8 mg (kW h) -1 and that of diesel is 30.7 mg (kW h) -1. The formaldehyde is the most abundant compound of carbonyls for both biodiesel and diesel, taking part for 46.2% and 62.7% respectively. The next most significant compounds are acetaldehyde, acrolein and acetone for both fuels. The engine fueled with biodiesel emits a comparatively high content of propionaldehyde and methacrolein. Biodiesel, as an alternative fuel, has lower specific reactivity (SR) caused by carbonyls compared with diesel. When fueled with biodiesel, carbonyl compounds make more contribution to total hydrocarbon emission.

  13. Eucalyptus biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel: preparation and tests on DI diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabet, Lyes; Loubar, Khaled; Lounici, Mohand Said; Hanchi, Samir; Tazerout, Mohand

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing oil consumption throughout the world induces crucial economical, security, and environmental problems. As a result, intensive researches are undertaken to find appropriate substitution to fossil fuels. In view of the large amount of eucalyptus trees present in arid areas, we focus in this study on the investigation of using eucalyptus biodiesel as fuel in diesel engine. Eucalyptus oil is converted by transesterification into biodiesel. Eucalyptus biodiesel characterization shows that the physicochemical properties are comparable to those of diesel fuel. In the second phase, a single cylinder air-cooled, DI diesel engine was used to test neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends with diesel fuel in various ratios (75, 50, and 25 by v%) at several engine loads. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, rate of pressure rise, and heat release rate are determined. Performances and exhaust emissions are also evaluated at all operating conditions. Results show that neat eucalyptus biodiesel and its blends present significant improvements of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, and particulates emissions especially at high loads with equivalent performances to those of diesel fuel. However, the NOx emissions are slightly increased when the biodiesel content is increased in the blend.

  14. Supply and demand of diesel engine for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This document takes stock on the diesel engine situation in France, in order to define the future policy for 2010. The first part is a state of the art concerning the description and characteristics of the diesel, the diesel production in refineries, the biofuels, the supply and demand. The second part details the evolutions, the investments and the fiscality impacts. The last part concludes on the necessity of a fiscal neutrality and on the fact that no new refinery is justified in France. It proposes different scenario of the imports evolution. (A.L.B.)

  15. Hydraulic Characterization of Diesel Engine Single-Hole Injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Arco Sola, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Due to world trend on the emission regulations and greater demand of fuel economy,the research on advanced diesel injector designs is a key factor for the next generation diesel engines. For that reason, it is well established that understanding the effects of the nozzle geometry on the spray development, fuel-air mixing, combustion and pollutants formation is of crucial importance to achieve these goals.In the present research, the influence of the injector nozzle geometry on the internalflo...

  16. Understanding Combustion and Soot Formation in Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-09

    distributions of PLII signals help understand the soot distributions within diesel/ biodiesel flames. In addition, planar laser-induced Figure 1. Transported ...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Page 1 of 1FORM SF 298 9/14/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll This project investigated biodiesel ...emissions testing. 1 FINAL REPORT Project title: Understanding combustion and soot formation in biodiesel fuelled diesel engines Lead Institute and

  17. Utilization of Variable Consumption Biofuel in Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, V. A.; Kamaltdinov, V. G.; Savastenko, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The depletion of oil fields and the deteriorating environmental situation leads to the need for the search of new alternative sources of energy. Actuality of the article due to the need for greater use of the alternative fuels in internal combustion engines is necessary. The advantages of vegetables origin fuels using as engine fuels are shown. Diesel engine operation on mixtures of petroleum diesel and rapeseed oil is researched. A fuel delivery system of mixture biofuel with a control system of the fuel compound is considered. The results of the system experimental researches of fuel delivery of mixture biofuel are led.

  18. Pneumatic hybridization of a diesel engine using compressed air storage for wind-diesel energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basbous, Tammam; Younes, Rafic; Ilinca, Adrian; Perron, Jean

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we are studying an innovative solution to reduce fuel consumption and production cost for electricity production by Diesel generators. The solution is particularly suitable for remote areas where the cost of energy is very high not only because of inherent cost of technology but also due to transportation costs. It has significant environmental benefits as the use of fossil fuels for electricity generation is a significant source of GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions. The use of hybrid systems that combine renewable sources, especially wind, and Diesel generators, reduces fuel consumption and operation cost and has environmental benefits. Adding a storage element to the hybrid system increases the penetration level of the renewable sources, that is the percentage of renewable energy in the overall production, and further improves fuel savings. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) has numerous advantages for hybrid wind-diesel systems due to its low cost, high power density and reliability. The pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine consists to introduce the CAES through the admission valve. We have proven that we can improve the combustion efficiency and therefore the fuel consumption by optimizing Air/Fuel ratio thanks to the CAES assistance. As a continuation of these previous analyses, we studied the effect of the intake pressure and temperature and the exhaust pressure on the thermodynamic cycle of the diesel engine and determined the values of these parameters that will optimize fuel consumption. -- Highlights: ► Fuel economy analysis of a simple pneumatic hybridization of the Diesel engine using stored compressed air. ► Thermodynamic analysis of the pneumatic hybridization of diesel engines for hybrid wind-diesel energy systems. ► Analysis of intake pressure and temperature of compressed air and exhaust pressure on pressure/temperature during Diesel thermodynamic cycle. ► Direct admission of

  19. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  20. Single bank NOx adsorber for heavy duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, M. van; Aken, M.G. van

    2003-01-01

    In a NOx adsorber programme the feasibility for applying this technology to heavy duty diesel engines was investigated. After modelling and simulations for realising best λ < 1 engine conditions a platform was build which was used to obtain good NOx adsorber regeneration settings in a number of

  1. Selection of Fuel System for Modern Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kukharonok

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel systems of diesel engines have been analyzed. The paper shows components of the systems, peculiarities of their manufacturing process. Difference in efficiency of the systems, their application and market prospects are considered in the paper. While solving problems to design a power installation the essence of fuel system selection is given on the basis of an internal combustion engine.

  2. Efficient EGR technology for future HD diesel engine emission targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, R.S.G.; Beckman, D.E.; Veen, A.

    1999-01-01

    Different systems for achieving short-route cooled EGR on turbocharged and aftercooled heavy-duty diesel engines have been tested on a 12 litre 315 kW engine with 4 valves per cylinder and an electronically controlled unit pump fuel injection system. In all of these systems the exhaust gas was

  3. An experimental study of the combusition and emission performances of 2,5-dimethylfuran diesel blends on a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Helin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out in a direct injection compression ignition engine fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. The combustion and emission performances of diesel-dimethylfuran blends were investigated under various loads ranging from 0.13 to 1.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure, and a constant speed of 1800 rpm. Results indicate that diesel-dimethylfuran blends have different combustion performance and produce longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration compared with pure diesel. Moreover, a slight increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency occurs when a Diesel engine operates with blended fuels, rather than diesel fuel. Diesel-dimethylfuran blends could lead to higher NOx emissions at medium and high engine loads. However, there is a significant reduction in soot emission when engines are fueled with diesel-dimethylfuran blends. Soot emissions under each operating conditions are similar and close to zero except for D40 at 0.13 MPa brake mean effective pressure. The total number and mean geometric diameter of emitted particles from diesel-dimethylfuran blends are lower than pure diesel. The tested fuels exhibit no significant difference in either CO or HC emissions at medium and high engine loads. Nevertheless, diesel fuel produces the lowest CO emission and higher HC emission at low loads of 0.13 to 0.38 MPa brake mean effective pressure.

  4. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  5. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with diesel-like fuel from waste lubrication oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiangli; Ni, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 100% diesel-like fuel from waste lubricating oil was conducted in a diesel engine. • Good combustion and fuel economy are achieved without engine modifications. • Combustion duration of DLF is shorter than diesel. • NOx and smoke emissions with the DLF are slightly higher than pure diesel. - Abstract: Waste lubricant oil (WLO) is one of the most important types of the energy sources. WLO cannot be burned directly in diesel engines, but can be processed to be used as diesel-like fuel (DLF) to minimize its harmful effect and maximize its useful values. Moreover, there are some differences in physicochemical properties between WLO and diesel fuel. In order to identify the differences in combustion and emission performance of diesel engine fueled with the two fuels, a bench test of a single-cylinder direct injection diesel engine without any engine modification was investigated at four engine speeds and five engine loads. The effects of the fuels on fuel economic performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and smoke were discussed. The DLF exhibits longer ignition delay period and shorter combustion duration than diesel fuel. The test results indicate that the higher distillation temperatures of the DLF attribute to the increase of combustion pressure, temperature and heat release rate. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of the DLF compared to diesel is reduced by about 3% at 3000 rpm under light and medium loads. The DLF produces slightly higher NOx emissions at middle and heavy loads, somewhat more smoke emissions at middle loads, and notably higher HC and CO emissions at most measured points than diesel fuel. It is concluded that the DLF can be used as potential available fuel in high-speed diesel engines without any problems.

  6. Desempenho de motor ciclo Diesel em bancada dinamométrica utilizando misturas diesel/biodiesel Performance of cycle Diesel engine in dynamometer using diesel/biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Castellanelli

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Diante da previsão de escassez do petróleo, o éster etílico (biodiesel tem-se apresentado como excelente opção de combustível alternativo para motores ciclo Diesel. As características do biodiesel são semelhantes às do diesel em termos de viscosidade e poder calorífico, podendo ser utilizado sem adaptações nos motores. Para a realização deste trabalho, utilizou-se de motor ciclo Diesel, de injeção direta, com quatro cilindros, sem adaptações. O motor foi acoplado a um dinamômetro e sistemas de aquisição de dados auxiliares. Avaliaram-se os desempenhos de torque, de potência e de consumo específico de combustível para as seguintes misturas diesel/éster etílico de soja: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 e B100. O melhor desempenho registrado deu-se com a mistura B20.Given the prediction of the scarcity of oil, the ethyl ester (biodiesel has presented as an excellent alternative fuel option for cycle diesel engine. The characteristics of biodiesel are similar of diesel in terms of viscosity and the calorific power, being able to be used without adaptations in the engines. For the accomplishment of this work it was used a cycle diesel engine, of direct injection with four cylinders, without adaptations. The engine was connected to a dynamometer and acquisition systems of auxiliary data. The performances of torque, power and specific fuel consumption for the following mixtures diesel/soy ethyl ester had been evaluated: B2, B5, B10, B20, B50, B75 and B100. The best registered performance was given with the B20 mixture.

  7. Experimental evaluation of Diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and Diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Bawady, A.H.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate Diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative Diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, Diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO x and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend

  8. Experimental evaluation of diesel engine performance and emission using blends of jojoba oil and diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huzayyin, A.S.; Rady, M.A.; Dawood, A. [Benha High Inst. of Technology (Egypt). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Technology; Bawady, A.H. [University of Ain Shams, Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2004-08-01

    An experimental evaluation of using jojoba oil as an alternate diesel engine fuel has been conducted in the present work. Measurements of jojoba oil chemical and physical properties have indicated a good potential of using jojoba oil as an alternative diesel engine fuel. Blending of jojoba oil with gas oil has been shown to be an effective method to reduce engine problems associated with the high viscosity of jojoba oil. Experimental measurements of different performance parameters of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct injection, diesel engine have been performed using gas oil and blends of gas oil with jojoba oil. Measurements of engine performance parameters at different load conditions over the engine speed range have generally indicated a negligible loss of engine power, a slight increase in brake specific fuel consumption and a reduction in engine NO{sub x} and soot emission using blends of jojoba oil with gas oil as compared to gas oil. The reduction in engine soot emission has been observed to increase with the increase of jojoba oil percentage in the fuel blend. (Author)

  9. Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Combustion and Pollutants Formation of New Technology Light Duty Diesel Engines Modélisation multidimensionnelle de la combustion et de la formation des polluants dans les nouveaux moteurs diesel automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belardini P.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper some results, obtained by the use of modern numerical CFD tools, are presented. In particular, starting from the experimental characterization of a common rail DI Diesel engine, the empirical constants of the different submodels were tuned to obtain satisfactory results in some key test conditions. The main constraints of numerical models, to obtain a right scaling of pollutants predictions in the different test cases are analyzed. The numerical analysis demonstrates that the numerical CFD tools, at their stage of development, can help the engine designers to define the more promising strategies to obtain tailpipe emission control of common rail Diesel DI engines. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats obtenus en utilisant des outils de simulation de la mécanique des fluides numérique (CFD. À partir de résultats expérimentaux issus de la caractérisation d'un moteur Diesel common rail, les constantes empiriques de divers modèles ont été ajustées afin d'obtenir des résultats satisfaisants pour des cas tests représentatifs. Les principales contraintes des modèles numériques pour obtenir une bonne précision dans les différents cas d'études sont ici analysées. Cette analyse numérique montre que la CFD permet déjà, au stade de développement atteint, d'aider les ingénieurs à définir les stratégies les plus prometteuses pour maîtriser les émissions à l'échappement des moteurs Diesel à injection common rail.

  10. Engine Performance Test of the 1975 Chrysler - Nissan Model CN633 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    An engine test of the Chrysler-Nissan Model CN633 diesel engine was performed to determine its steady-state fuel consumption and emissions (HC, CO, NOx) maps. The data acquired are summarized in this report.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effect of sweet orange oil-diesel blend on performance and emissions of a multi-cylinder compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S. M. Ashrafur; Hossain, F. M.; Van, Thuy Chu; Dowell, Ashley; Islam, M. A.; Rainey, Thomas J.; Ristovski, Zoran D.; Brown, Richard J.

    2017-06-01

    In 2014, global demand for essential oils was 165 kt and it is expected to grow 8.5% per annum up to 2022. Every year Australia produces approximately 1.5k tonnes of essential oils such as tea tree, orange, lavender, eucalyptus oil, etc. Usually essential oils come from non-fatty areas of plants such as the bark, roots, heartwood, leaves and the aromatic portions (flowers, fruits) of the plant. For example, orange oil is derived from orange peel using various extraction methods. Having similar properties to diesel, essential oils have become promising alternate fuels for diesel engines. The present study explores the opportunity of using sweet orange oil in a compression ignition engine. Blends of sweet orange oil-diesel (10% sweet orange oil, 90% diesel) along with neat diesel fuel were used to operate a six-cylinder diesel engine (5.9 litres, common rail, Euro-III, compression ratio 17.3:1). Some key fuel properties such as: viscosity, density, heating value, and surface tension are presented. Engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption) and emission parameters (CO, NOX, and Particulate Matter) were measured to evaluate running with the blends. The engine was operated at 1500 rpm (maximum torque condition) with different loads. The results from the property analysis showed that sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibits lower density, viscosity and surface tension and slightly higher calorific value compared to neat diesel fuel. Also, from the engine test, the sweet orange oil-diesel blend exhibited slightly higher brake specific fuel consumption, particulate mass and particulate number; however, the blend reduced the brake specific CO emission slightly and brake specific NOX emission significantly compared to that of neat diesel.

  12. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  13. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  14. Tailpipe emissions and engine performance of a light-duty diesel engine operating on petro- and bio-diesel fuel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the experimental apparatus developed in the Transportation Air Quality Laboratory (TAQ Lab) at the University of Vermont to compare light-duty diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions when operating on petroleum diesel (...

  15. Stationary engine test of diesel cycle using diesel oil and biodiesel (B100); Ensaio de motores estacionarios do ciclo diesel utilizando oleo diesel e biodiesel (B100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEQ/DEM/EP/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], Email: ednildo@ufba.br; Santos, Danilo Cardoso [Universidade Federal da Bahia (PPEQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica; Souza, Daniel Vidigal D.; Peixoto, Leonardo Barbosa; Franca, Tiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (DEM/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2006-07-01

    This work objectified to test an engine stationary of the cycle diesel, having as combustible diesel fossil and bio diesel. The characteristic curves of power, torque and emissions versus rotation of the engine was elaborated. The survey of these curves was carried through in the Laboratorio de Energia e Gas da Escola Politecnica da UFBA, which makes use of two stationary dynamometers and the one of chassis and necessary instrumentation for you analyze of the exhaustion gases. The tested engine was of the mark AGRALE, M-85 model stationary type, mono cylinder, with power NF (NBRISO 1585) Cv/kw/rpm 10/7,4/2500. The assays had been carried through in a hydraulically dynamometer mark Schenck, D-210 model. The fuel consumption was measured in a scale marks Filizola model BP-6, and too much ground handling equipment such as: water reservoir, tubings, valves controllers of volumetric outflow, sensors and measurers of rotation, torque, mass, connected to a system of acquisition of data on line. The emissions of the gases (CO, CO{sub 2}, and NOx), were measured by the analytical Tempest mark, model 100. The engine operated with oil diesel and bio diesel of oils and residual fats (OGR). In the tests, the use of the fuel derived from oil and the gotten ones from OGR was not detected significant differences how much. In this phase already it can show to the immediate possibility of the substitution of the oil diesel for bio diesel as combustible in the stationary engines of low power (author)

  16. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  17. Carbonyl compound emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chonglin; Zhao, Zhuang; Lv, Gang; Song, Jinou; Liu, Lidong; Zhao, Ruifen

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the carbonyl emissions from a direct injection heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel fuel (DF) and blended fuel containing 15% by volume of ethanol (E/DF). The tests have been conducted under steady-state operating conditions at 1200, 1800, 2600 rpm and idle speed. The experimental results show that acetaldehyde is the most predominant carbonyl, followed by formaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde and crotonaldehyde, produced from both fuels. The emission factors of total carbonyls vary in the range 13.8-295.9 mg(kWh)(-1) for DF and 17.8-380.2mg(kWh)(-1) for E/DF, respectively. The introduction of ethanol into diesel fuel results in a decrease in acrolein emissions, while the other carbonyls show general increases: at low engine speed (1200 rpm), 0-55% for formaldehyde, 4-44% for acetaldehyde, 38-224% for acetone, and 5-52% for crotonaldehyde; at medium engine speed (1800 rpm), 106-413% for formaldehyde, 4-143% for acetaldehyde, 74-113% for acetone, 114-1216% for propionaldehyde, and 15-163% for crotonaldehyde; at high engine speed (2600 rpm), 36-431% for formaldehyde, 18-61% for acetaldehyde, 22-241% for acetone, and 6-61% for propionaldehyde. A gradual reduction in the brake specific emissions of each carbonyl compound from both fuels is observed with increase in engine load. Among three levels of engine speed employed, both DF and E/DF emit most CBC emissions at high engine speed. On the whole, the presence of ethanol in diesel fuel leads to an increase in aldehyde emissions. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine with COME-Triacetin additive blends as fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswara Rao, P. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, K I T S, Warangal- 506015, A. P. (India); Appa Rao, B.V. [Dept. of Marine Engineering, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530003, A. P. (India)

    2012-07-01

    The Triacetin [C9H14O6] additive is used an anti-knocking agent along with the bio-diesel in DI- diesel engine. In the usage of diesel fuel and neat bio-diesel knocking can be detected to some extent. The T- additive usage in the engine suppressed knocking, improved the performance and reduced tail pipe emissions. Comparative study is conducted using petro-diesel, bio-diesel, and with various additive blends of bio-diesel on DI- diesel engine. Coconut oil methyl ester (COME) is used with additive Triacetin (T) at various percentages by volume for all loads (No load, 25%, 50%, 75% and full load). The performance of engine is compared with neat diesel in respect of engine efficiency, exhaust emissions and combustion knock. Of the five Triacetin- biodiesel blends tried, 10% Triacetin combination with biodiesel proved encouraging in all respects of performance of the engine.

  19. Analysis of Oxygenated Component (butyl Ether) and Egr Effect on a Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung-Hun; Oh, Young-Taig

    Potential possibility of the butyl ether (BE, oxygenates of di-ether group) was analyzed as an additives for a naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine fuel. Engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics were analyzed by applying the commercial diesel fuel and oxygenates additives blended diesel fuels. Smoke emission decreased approximately 26% by applying the blended fuel (diesel fuel 80 vol-% + BE 20vol-%) at the engine speed of 25,000 rpm and with full engine load compared to the diesel fuel. There was none significant difference between the blended fuel and the diesel fuel on the power, torque, and brake specific energy consumption rate of the diesel engine. But, NOx emission from the blended fuel was higher than the commercial diesel fuel. As a counter plan, the EGR method was employed to reduce the NOx. Simultaneous reduction of the smoke and the NOx emission from the diesel engine was achieved by applying the BE blended fuel and the cooled EGR method.

  20. Diesel engine performance as influenced by fuel temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, H.R.; Best, W.D.; Monroe, G.E.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of diesel fuel temperature on the efficiency of a 4.4-L diesel engine were studied. Fuel temperatures of 41, 67, and 81 C were used with engine loads of 0 to 100% of full load at three engine frequencies. Regression equations were developed that predicted fuel economy as a function of PTO power at three engine frequencies. An increase in engine fuel temperature did not improve fuel economy, but did result in reduced fuel mass flow through the injector pump and reduced maximum PTO power. Reducing engine frequency improved fuel economy and supported the 'throttle back shift up' technique for saving fuel. 4 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  1. Visualization techniques in diesel engine research. Diesel Engine kenkyu ni okeru kashika gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, M.; Tsujimura, K. (New ACE., Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    In order to grasp the phenomena actually occurring in the combustion chamber for improving the combustion and for reducing the exhaust gas emission of the diesel engines, the visualization techniques are becoming to be essential and indispensable. The authors have observed the spray and combustion, when proceeding the combustion improvement by the high pressure injection, and then have performed the image processing and simulation calculation based on them. The high pressure injection devices used for the experiment are the intensifier type and accumulator type which can generate the injection pressure more than 200MPa, and both of them are the electronic controlled hydraulic drive type, and are driven separately from the engine. Since it was found that the analysis of high pressure injection by the hologram is limited in the conditions, as for the spray, the spray analysis was performed by the transmitted light attenuation method and laser sheet method. As for the combustion, the engine for observing the combustion was trially made, and then the combustion state was observed by the high speed photograph. Furthermore, the flame temperature analysis by the image processing using the combustion photograph and the analysis of flow and turbulence of the flame were carried out. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  2. DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (POSTER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETV is presenting a poster at the EPA's 2005 Science Forum from May 16-18, 2005 in Washington, DC. This poster will contain a summary of the performance results realized by the six verified diesel retrofit technologies, as well as potential impacts that could be realized if sigi...

  3. Adaptive feedforward control of exhaust recirculation in large diesel engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kræn Vodder; Blanke, Mogens; Eriksson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    is generalized to a class of first order Hammerstein systems with sensor delay and exponentially converging bounds of the control error are proven analytically. It is then shown how to apply the method to the EGR system of a two-stroke crosshead diesel engine. The controller is validated by closed loop......Environmental concern has led the International Maritime Organization to restrict NO푥 emissions from marine diesel engines. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems have been introduced in order to comply to the new standards. Traditional fixed-gain feedback methods are not able to control the EGR...

  4. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT IV, MAINTAINING THE COOLING SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE PURPOSE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, CARE MAINTENANCE OF THE COOLING SYSTEM, COOLING SYSTEM COMPONENTS, AND TROUBLESHOOTING TIPS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  5. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT II, MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) OPERATION AND FUNCTION, (2) AIR CLEANER, (3) AIR SHUT-DOWN HOUSING, (4) EXHAUST SYSTEM, (5) BLOWER, (6) TURBOCHARGER, AND (7) TROUBLE-SHOOTING TIPS ON THE AIR SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A…

  6. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE, UNIT V, MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE LUBE OILS USED, MAINTENANCE OF THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM, AND CRANKCASE VENTILATION COMPONENTS. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "BASIC ENGINE…

  7. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT III, MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM--DETROIT DIESEL ENGINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM. TOPICS ARE (1) PURPOSE OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (2) TRACING THE FUEL FLOW, (3) MINOR COMPONENTS OF THE FUEL SYSTEM, (4) MAINTENANCE TIPS, (5) CONSTRUCTION AND FUNCTION OF THE FUEL INJECTORS, AND (6)…

  8. Regulated and unregulated emissions from a diesel engine fueled with diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruijun; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua; Wang, Xibin

    2011-04-01

    Experiments were carried out on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine operating on Euro V diesel fuel blended with diethyl adipate (DEA). The blended fuels contain 8.1%, 16.4%, 25% and 33.8% by volume fraction of DEA, corresponding to 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% by mass of oxygen in the blends. The engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of the different fuels were investigated at five engine loads at a steady speed of 1800 rev/min. The results indicated an increase of brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency when the engine was fueled with the blended fuels. In comparison with diesel fuel, the blended fuels resulted in an increase in hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO), but a decrease in particulate mass concentrations. The nitrogen oxides (NO x) emission experienced a slight variation among the test fuels. In regard to the unregulated gaseous emissions, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde increased, while 1,3-butadiene, ethene, ethyne, propylene and BTX (benzene, toluene and xylene) in general decreased. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) was found to reduce significantly most of the investigated unregulated pollutants when the exhaust gas temperature was sufficiently high.

  9. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  10. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Radivoje B Pešić; Saša T Milojević; Stevan P Veinović

    2010-01-01

    The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minim...

  11. Monitoring of large diesel engines through asphaltene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Declerck, R. [Texaco Technology Ghent (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Lubricants in large diesel engines, for marine and power plant application, are open contaminated with heavy fuel. This type of contamination results in blackening of the engines and deposit formation because of the coagulation of asphaltene particles. Monitoring of the asphaltene content presents the operator with important information on the condition of the engine and the lubricant. This technique was an important asset in developing a new range of lubricants highly capable of tackling the presence of asphaltenes. (orig.)

  12. An Efficient Energy Regeneration System for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ying; YANG, Fuyuan; OUYANG, Minggao; CHEN, Lin; GAO, Guojing; He, Yongsheng

    2010-01-01

    In order to further improve the fuel economy of vehicles, an efficient energy regeneration system for diesel engines is designed and constructed. An additional automatic clutch is added between the engine and the motor in a conventional ISG (Integrated Starter and Generator) system. During regenerative braking, the clutch can be disengaged and the engine braking is avoided. Control strategy is redesigned to determine the braking torque distribution and coordinate all the components. The gener...

  13. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, R J; Yusoff, M Z; Palanisamy, K

    2013-01-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research and development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R and D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NO x ) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  14. Trend and future of diesel engine: Development of high efficiency and low emission low temperature combustion diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Palanisamy, K.

    2013-06-01

    Stringent emission policy has put automotive research & development on developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Conventional direct injection diesel engine with diffused flame has reached its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other field of combustion. Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition has been proven to be effective methods in decreasing combustion pollutant emission. Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation from combustion can be greatly suppressed. A review on each of method is covered to identify the condition and processes that result in these reductions. The critical parameters that allow such combustion to take place will be highlighted and serves as emphasis to the direction of developing future diesel engine system. This paper is written to explore potential of present numerical and experimental methods in optimizing diesel engine design through adoption of the new combustion technology.

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIX, I--ENGINE TUNE-UP--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIESEL ENGINE TUNE-UP PROCEDURES AND THE DESIGN OF FRONT END SUSPENSION AND AXLES USED ON DIESEL ENGINE EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE (1) PRE-TUNE-UP CHECKS, (2) TIMING THE ENGINE, (3) INJECTOR PLUNGER AND VALVE ADJUSTMENTS, (4) FUEL PUMP ADJUSTMENTS ON THE ENGINE (PTR AND PTG),…

  16. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XI, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART I), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINES, PART II--UNIT REPLACEMENT (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TWO AND FOUR CYCLE ENGINES, THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM, AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) REVIEW OF TWO CYCLE AND FOUR CYCLE CONCEPT, (2) SOME BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FOUR CYCLE ENGINES,…

  17. 75 FR 28820 - Notice of Public Meeting by Teleconference Concerning Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Consent Decrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... implementation of the provisions of the seven consent decrees signed by the United States and diesel engine..., or anticipates receiving, requests from the diesel engine manufacturers for termination of their respective decrees. This meeting notice is also available on EPA's Diesel Engine Settlement Web site at http...

  18. Determining the optimum conditions for modified diesel fuel combustion considering its emission, properties and engine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyazbakhsh, Ahmad; Pirouzfar, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Gas emissions, fuel properties and performance engine modeling. • Optimization of new modified fuel prepared from n-Butanol and Nano particles. • Model accuracy analysis. - Abstract: This essay scrutinizes an experimental study conducted to appraise the influence of using n-Butanol with diesel fuel in 5% and 10% (volume) n-Butanol, 1% nitro methane (NM), injection timing and two Nano-particles (alumina and a type of silica powder) on the engine performance (brake specific fuel consumption and engine power), fuel properties (Cetane number and flash point) and exhaust emissions (soot, NO_x and CO) of an engine with 4-cylinder (with a system of common rail fuel injection), intercooling, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and turbocharged. The tests are conducted by varying the engine load (25 and 75 nm) and changing engine speed (1500 and 2200 rpm). Normal Butanol presents better brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) but this blend doesn’t reflect better engine power. All the percentages of n-Butanol in the fuel make Cetane number decrease but adding 1% of nitro methane makes Cetane number increase. For all the n-Butanol, the percentage flash makes the fuel decrease in comparison to pure diesel fuel. The current experimental study demonstrates that adding the n-Butanol and nitro methane to diesel fuel direct into diminishing soot emission. In contrast, this blend raises NO_x and CO emissions. Furthermore, this research indicates that the increase of engine speed dwindle air pollutants and enhances BSFC. It also remarks that power gets increased at low engine speed. However, power gets reducedat high speed. This article represents that the increasing of engine load leads to increasing all of air pollutant, increasing of power and decreasing of brake specific fuel consumption. Both the Cetane number and flash point are independent from engine speed and engine load. The present paper shows that the effect of silica with high percentage of n

  19. Automated Model Fit Method for Diesel Engine Control Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  20. Fuel supply system for diesel engines. Kraftstoffzufuhrsystem fuer Dieselmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mowbray, D F; Jarrett, B A

    1979-10-05

    The invention deals with a fuel feeding system, in particular for diesel engines with direct injection, provided with electromagnetic fuel pumps and injection nozzles for every combustion chamber. The pumps are equiped with control systems, which are actuated during the injection process. Switch valves with magnetic control devices serve as controllers.

  1. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; van Schijndel, J.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  2. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines with Waste Heat Recovery System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO2-NOx trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  3. Optimal control for integrated emission management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, M.C.F.; Schijndel, J. van; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that minimises operational costs (consisting of fuel and AdBlue) for diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In most work on IEM, a suboptimal heuristic

  4. Dynamic programming for Integrated Emission Management in diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, J. van; Donkers, M.C.F.; Willems, F.P.T.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Emission Management (IEM) is a supervisory control strategy that aims at minimizing the operational costs of diesel engines with an aftertreatment system, while satisfying emission constraints imposed by legislation. In previous work on IEM, a suboptimal real-time implementable solution

  5. Optimal control of diesel engines with waste heat recovery systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, F.P.T.; Donkers, M.C.F.; Kupper, F.; Waschl, H.; Kolmanovsky, I.; Steinbuch, M.; Del Re, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an integrated energy and emission management strategy for a Euro-VI diesel engine with Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) system. This Integrated Powertrain Control (IPC) strategy optimizes the CO 2 - NO x trade-off by minimizing the operational costs associated with fuel and AdBlue

  6. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  7. Automated model fit method for diesel engine control development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seykens, X.L.J.; Willems, F.P.T.; Kuijpers, B.; Rietjens, C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automated fit for a control-oriented physics-based diesel engine combustion model. This method is based on the combination of a dedicated measurement procedure and structured approach to fit the required combustion model parameters. Only a data set is required that is

  8. TRIBOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF PISTON RING IN MARINE DIESEL ENGINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imran, Tajammal; Klit, Peder; Felter, Christian

    From a tribology point of view, it is the two dead centers that are the main area of interest for experimental study of piston rings in large marine diesel engines. Therefore, in this work the performance of piston rings is studied to mark the importance of the two dead centers. A test rig based...

  9. Swirling flow in a two-stroke marine diesel engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Walther, Jens Honore

    2013-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamic simulations are performed for the turbulent swirling flow in a scale model of a low-speed two-stroke diesel engine with a moving piston. The purpose of the work is to investigate the accuracy of different turbulence models including two-equation Reynolds- Averaged Navier...

  10. Robust cylinder pressure estimation in heavy-duty diesel engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulah, S.; Forrai, A.; Rentmeester, F.; Donkers, T.; Willems, F.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    The robustness of a new single-cylinder pressure sensor concept is experimentally demonstrated on a six-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. Using a single-cylinder pressure sensor and a crank angle sensor, this single-cylinder pressure sensor concept estimates the in-cylinder pressure traces in the

  11. Optimization of diesel engine performance by the Bees Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfanizam Ahmad, Siti; Sunthiram, Devaraj

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel recently has been receiving a great attention in the world market due to the depletion of the existing fossil fuels. Biodiesel also becomes an alternative for diesel No. 2 fuel which possesses characteristics such as biodegradable and oxygenated. However, there are facts suggested that biodiesel does not have the equivalent features as diesel No. 2 fuel as it has been claimed that the usage of biodiesel giving increment in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC). The objective of this study is to find the maximum brake power and brake torque as well as the minimum BSFC to optimize the condition of diesel engine when using the biodiesel fuel. This optimization was conducted using the Bees Algorithm (BA) under specific biodiesel percentage in fuel mixture, engine speed and engine load. The result showed that 58.33kW of brake power, 310.33 N.m of brake torque and 200.29/(kW.h) of BSFC were the optimum value. Comparing to the ones obtained by other algorithm, the BA produced a fine brake power and a better brake torque and BSFC. This finding proved that the BA can be used to optimize the performance of diesel engine based on the optimum value of the brake power, brake torque and BSFC.

  12. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Li, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response

  13. Finite element analysis of a crankshaft of diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    This research was a part of the project aimed at the increase in power of the direct injection turbocharged twelve- cylinder V-type diesel engine. Crankshaft of a high power high speed diesel engine is subjected to complex loading conditions and undergoes high cyclic loads of the order of 107 to 108 cycles. Therefore, durability of this component is of critical importance. Strength analysis was based on the assessment of factor of safety (FOS) of the engine augmented by brake mean effective pressure (bmep) and/or engine speed. In the first part of the study, mechanical loads due to gas pressure and inertia forces were obtained from engine cycle simulation. Relationships for displacement, velocity and acceleration of an articulated connecting rod piston as a function of engine geometry and crank angle were derived. In the second part, the range of bmep and engine speed was determined over which engine performance is satisfactory on the basis of fatigue. It was shown that with limitations imposed (unchanged design and material of the crankshaft) the crankshaft of the given engine can withstand increase in power up to 15%. It was recommended, that required increase in engine power should be realized by the increase in bmep, since the increase in engine speed would deteriorate combustion efficiency. Finite Element Analysis was used to verify stresses calculations. New features of procedure used and relationships obtained in this research apply to strength analysis of other types of internal combustion engines. (author)

  14. Experimental study on combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with 2,5-dimethylfuran–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Guisheng; Shen, Yinggang; Zhang, Quanchang; Yao, Mingfa; Zheng, Zunqing; Liu, Haifeng

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, combustion and emissions of a multi-cylinder CI (compression-ignition) engine fueled with DMF–diesel, n-butanol–diesel and gasoline–diesel blends were experimentally investigated, and fuel characteristics of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were compared. Diesel was used as the base fuel. And 30% of DMF, n-butanol and gasoline were blended with the base fuel by volume respectively, referred to as D30, B30 and G30. Results show that compared to B30 and G30, D30 has longer ignition delay because of lower cetane number, which leads to faster burning rate and higher pressure rise rate. With increasing EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) rate, D30 gets the lowest soot emissions, and extended ignition delay and fuel oxygen are two key factors reducing soot emissions, and ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen on soot reduction. In addition, D30 and B30 improve the trade-off of NO x -soot remarkably and extend low-emission region without deteriorating fuel efficiency by utilizing medium EGR rates ( x , THC and CO emissions and BSFC, but reduce soot greatly. • Fuel oxygen is more efficient than air oxygen while ignition delay has greater effects than fuel oxygen to reduce soot. • As diesel additive, DMF is superior to n-butanol and gasoline for reducing soot emissions. • Using DMF–diesel blends combined with medium EGR may be a better way to meet future emission standards

  15. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  16. Analysis of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends using kernel-based extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Arridina Susan; Hassan, Masjuki Haji; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Kusumo, Fitranto

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of a four-cylinder common-rail turbocharged diesel engine fuelled with Jatropha curcas biodiesel-diesel blends. A kernel-based extreme learning machine (KELM) model is developed in this study using MATLAB software in order to predict the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the engine. To acquire the data for training and testing the KELM model, the engine speed was selected as the input parameter, whereas the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics were chosen as the output parameters of the KELM model. The performance, emissions and combustion characteristics predicted by the KELM model were validated by comparing the predicted data with the experimental data. The results show that the coefficient of determination of the parameters is within a range of 0.9805-0.9991 for both the KELM model and the experimental data. The mean absolute percentage error is within a range of 0.1259-2.3838. This study shows that KELM modelling is a useful technique in biodiesel production since it facilitates scientists and researchers to predict the performance, exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of internal combustion engines with high accuracy.

  17. Dual-fuelling of a direct-injection automotive diesel engine by diesel and compressed natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Mohammadi Kosha, A.; Mosseibi, A.; Moshirabadi, J.; Gangi, A.; Moghadaspour, M.

    2000-01-01

    Application of Compressed Natural Gas in diesel engines has always been important, especially in the field of automotive engineering. This is due to easy accessibility, better mixing quality and good combustion characteristics of the Compressed Natural Gas fuel. In this study the application of Compressed Natural Gas fuel along with diesel oil in a heavy duty direct-injection automotive diesel engine is experimentally investigated. In order to convert a diesel engine into a diesel-gas one, the so called m ixed diesel-gas a pproach has been used and for this purpose a carbureted Compressed Natural Gas fuel system has been designed and manufactured. For controlling quantity of Compressed Natural Gas, the gas valve is linked to the diesel fuel injection system by means of a set of rods. Then, the dual-fuel system is adjusted so that, at full load conditions, the quantity of diesel fuel is reduced to 20% and 80% of its equivalent energy is substituted by Compressed Natural Gas fuel. Also injection pressure of pilot jet is increased by 11.4%. Performance and emission tests are conducted under variation of load and speed on both diesel and diesel-gas engines. Results show that, with equal power and torque, the diesel-gas engine has the potential to improve overall engine performance and emission. For example, at rated power and speed, fuel economy increases by 5.48%, the amount of smoke decreases by 78%, amount of CO decreases by 64.3% and mean exhaust gas temperature decreases by 6.4%

  18. Cylinder-Pressure Based Injector Calibration for Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    König, Johan

    2008-01-01

    One way of complying with future emission restrictions for diesel engines is to use pressure sensors for improved combustion control. Implementation of pressure sensors into production engines would lead to new possibilities for fuel injection monitoring where one potential use is injector calibration. The scope of this thesis is to investigate the possibility of using pressure sensors for finding the minimal energizing time necessary for fuel injection. This minimal energizing time varies ov...

  19. Thermographic study of the preheating plugs in diesel engines

    OpenAIRE

    Royo Pastor, Rafael; Albertos Arranz, M.A.; CÁRCEL CUBAS, JUAN ANTONIO; Payá Herrero, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    The use of direct injection diesel engines has been widely applied during the past ten years. In such engines, the preheating plugs are a key element which has a significant contribution in the pollutant emissions. In this paper, two different plug designs from Renault are analyzed. The new plug reduces substantially the required electrical consumption. Nevertheless, the pollutant emissions are higher (fundamentally CO and HCs) and hereby a thorough analysis is required to underst...

  20. Comparision on dynamic behavior of diesel spray and rapeseed oil spray in diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapit, Azwan; Azahari Razali, Mohd; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Nizam Mohammad, Akmal; Khalid, Amir

    2017-04-01

    Fuel-air mixing is important process in diesel combustion. It significantly affects the combustion and emission of diesel engine. Biomass fuel has high viscosity and high distillation temperature and may negatively affect the fuel-air mixing process. Thus, study on the spray development and atomization of this type of fuel is important. This study investigates the atomization characteristics and droplet dynamic behaviors of diesel engine spray fuelled by rapeseed oil (RO) and comparison to diesel fuel (GO). Optical observation of RO spray was carried out using shadowgraph photography technique. Single nano-spark photography technique was used to study the characteristics of the spray while dual nano-spark shadowgraph technique was used to study the spray droplet behavior. Using in-house image processing algorithm, the images were processed and the boundary condition of each spray was also studied. The results show that RO has very poor atomization due to the high viscosity nature of the fuel when compared to GO. This is in agreement with the results from spray droplet dynamic behavior studies that shows due to the high viscosity, the RO spray droplets are large in size and travel downward, with very little influence of entrainment effect due to its large kinematic energy.

  1. Improvement of fuel injection system of locomotive diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghai; Cui, Hongjiang; Wang, Juan; Guan, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The traditional locomotive diesels are usually designed for the performance of rated condition and much fuel will be consumed. A new plunger piston matching parts of fuel injection pump and injector nozzle matching parts were designed. The experimental results of fuel injection pump test and diesel engine show that the fuel consumption rate can be decreased a lot in the most of the working conditions. The forced lubrication is adopted for the new injector nozzle matching parts, which can reduce failure rate and increase service life. The design has been patented by Chinese State Patent Office.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE L. UNIT XII, PART I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM (PART II), CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, PART II--UNIT INSTALLATION (ENGINE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR DIESEL ENGINE INSTALLATION. TOPICS ARE FUEL FLOW CHARACTERISTICS, PTG FUEL PUMP, PREPARATION FOR INSTALLATION, AND INSTALLING ENGINE. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH…

  3. Experimental investigation on performance characteristics of a diesel engine using diesel-water emulsion with oxygen enriched air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Baskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Diesel engines occupy a crucial position in automobile industry due to their high thermal efficiency and high power to weight ratio. However, they lag behind in controlling air polluting components coming out of the engine exhaust. Therefore, diesel consumption should be analyzed for future energy consumption and this can be primarily controlled by the petroleum fuel substitution techniques for existing diesel engines, which include biodiesel, alcohol-diesel emulsions and diesel water emulsions. Among them the diesel water emulsion is found to be most suitable fuel due to reduction in particulate matter and NOx emission, besides that it also improves the brake thermal efficiency. But the major problem associated with emulsions is the ignition delay, since this is responsible for the power and torque loss. A reduction in NOx emission was observed due to reduction in combustion chamber temperature as the water concentration increases. However the side effect of emulsified diesel is a reduction in power which can be compensated by oxygen enrichment. The present study investigates the effects of oxygen concentration on the performance characteristics of a diesel engine when the intake air is enriched to 27% of oxygen and fueled by 10% of water diesel emulsion. It was found that the brake thermal efficiency was enhanced, combustion characteristics improved and there is also a reduction in HC emissions.

  4. Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Performance of a Diesel Engine Fueled with Waste Plastic Oil / Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punitharani K.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available NOx emission is one of the major sources for health issues, acid rain and global warming. Diesel engine vehicles are the major sources for NOx emissions. Hence there is a need to reduce the emissions from the engines by identifying suitable techniques or by means of alternate fuels. The present investigation deals with the effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR on 4S, single cylinder, DI diesel engine using plastic oil/Diesel blends P10 (10% plastic oil & 90% diesel in volume, P20 and P30 at various EGR rates. Plastic oil blends were able to operate in diesel engines without any modifications and the results showed that P20 blend had the least NOx emission quantity.

  5. BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF VARIABLE COMPRESSION RATIO AT DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivoje B Pešić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The compression ratio strongly affects the working process and provides an exceptional degree of control over engine performance. In conventional internal combustion engines, the compression ratio is fixed and their performance is therefore a compromise between conflicting requirements. One fundamental problem is that drive units in the vehicles must successfully operate at variable speeds and loads and in different ambient conditions. If a diesel engine has a fixed compression ratio, a minimal value must be chosen that can achieve a reliable self-ignition when starting the engine in cold start conditions. In diesel engines, variable compression ratio provides control of peak cylinder pressure, improves cold start ability and low load operation, enabling the multi-fuel capability, increase of fuel economy and reduction of emissions. This paper contains both theoretical and experimental investigation of the impact that automatic variable compression ratios has on working process parameters in experimental diesel engine. Alternative methods of implementing variable compression ratio are illustrated and critically examined.

  6. Effect of biodiesel fuels on diesel engine emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapuerta, Magin; Armas, Octavio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jose [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Camilo Jose Cela, s/n. 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The call for the use of biofuels which is being made by most governments following international energy policies is presently finding some resistance from car and components manufacturing companies, private users and local administrations. This opposition makes it more difficult to reach the targets of increased shares of use of biofuels in internal combustion engines. One of the reasons for this resistance is a certain lack of knowledge about the effect of biofuels on engine emissions. This paper collects and analyzes the body of work written mainly in scientific journals about diesel engine emissions when using biodiesel fuels as opposed to conventional diesel fuels. Since the basis for comparison is to maintain engine performance, the first section is dedicated to the effect of biodiesel fuel on engine power, fuel consumption and thermal efficiency. The highest consensus lies in an increase in fuel consumption in approximate proportion to the loss of heating value. In the subsequent sections, the engine emissions from biodiesel and diesel fuels are compared, paying special attention to the most concerning emissions: nitric oxides and particulate matter, the latter not only in mass and composition but also in size distributions. In this case the highest consensus was found in the sharp reduction in particulate emissions. (author)

  7. Measurements of ion concentration in gasoline and diesel engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangqun; Lanni, Thomas; Frank, Brian P.

    The nanoparticles formed in motor vehicle exhaust have received increasing attention due to their potential adverse health effects. It has been recently proposed that combustion-generated ions may play a critical role in the formation of these volatile nanoparticles. In this paper, we design an experiment to measure the total ion concentration in motor vehicle engine exhaust, and report some preliminary measurements in the exhaust of a gasoline engine (K-car) and a diesel engine (diesel generator). Under the experimental set-up reported in this study and for the specific engines used, the total ion concentration is ca. 3.3×10 6 cm -3 with almost all of the ions smaller than 3 nm in the gasoline engine exhaust, and is above 2.7×10 8 cm -3 with most of the ions larger than 3 nm in the diesel engine exhaust. This difference in the measured ion properties is interpreted as a result of the different residence times of exhaust inside the tailpipe/connecting pipe and the different concentrations of soot particles in the exhaust. The measured ion concentrations appear to be within the ranges predicted by a theoretical model describing the evolution of ions inside a pipe.

  8. Modeling the effects of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate shape on diesel engine combustion and emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Daniel Kelly

    1998-11-01

    The effect of auxiliary gas injection and fuel injection rate-shaping on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied using KIVA a multidimensional computational fluid dynamics code. Auxiliary gas injection (AGI) is the injection of a gas, in addition to the fuel injection, directly into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine. The objective of AGI is to influence the diesel combustion via mixing to reduce emissions of pollutants (soot and NO x). In this study, the accuracy of modeling high speed gas jets on very coarse computational grids was addressed. KIVA was found to inaccurately resolve the jet flows near walls. The cause of this inaccuracy was traced to the RNG k - ɛ turbulence model with the law-of-the-wall boundary condition used by KIVA. By prescribing the lengthscale near the nozzle exit, excellent agreement between computed and theoretical jet penetration was attained for a transient gas jet into a quiescent chamber at various operating conditions. The effect of AGI on diesel engine combustion and emissions was studied by incorporating the coarse grid gas jet model into a detailed multidimensional simulation of a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of AGI timing, composition, amount, orientation, and location were investigated. The effects of AGI and split fuel injection were also investigated. AGI was found to be effective at reducing soot emissions by increasing mixing within the combustion chamber. AGI of inert gas was found to be effective at reducing emissions of NOx by depressing the peak combustion temperatures. Finally, comparison of AGI simulations with experiments were conducted for a TACOM-LABECO engine. The results showed that AGI improved soot oxidation throughout the engine cycle. Simulation of fuel injection rate-shaping investigated the effects of three injection velocity profiles typical of unit-injector type, high-pressure common-rail type, and accumulator-type fuel injectors in the Caterpillar 3401 heavy

  9. Fuel temperature influence on the performance of a last generation common-rail diesel ballistic injector. Part II: 1D model development, validation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payri, R.; Salvador, F.J.; Carreres, M.; De la Morena, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1D model of a solenoid common-rail ballistic injector is implemented in AMESim. • A detailed dimensional and a hydraulic characterization lead to a fair validation. • Fuel temperature influence on injector dynamics is assessed through 1D simulations. • Temperature impacts through changes in inlet orifice regime and viscous friction. • Cold fuel temperature leads to a slower injection opening due to high viscosity. - Abstract: A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-driven common-rail diesel injector has been developed in order to study the influence of fuel temperature on the injection process. The model has been implemented after a thorough characterization of the injector, both from the dimensional and the hydraulic point of view. In this sense, experimental tools for the determination of the geometry of the injector lines and orifices have been described in the paper, together with the hydraulic setup introduced to characterize the flow behaviour through the calibrated orifices. An extensive validation of the model has been performed by comparing the modelled mass flow rate against the experimental results introduced in the first part of the paper, which were performed for different engine-like operating conditions involving a wide range of fuel temperatures, injection pressures and energizing times. In that first part of the study, an important influence of the fuel temperature was reported, especially in terms of the dynamic behaviour of the injector, due to its ballistic nature. The results from the model have allowed to explain and further extend the findings of the experimental study by analyzing key features of the injector dynamics, such as the pressure drop established in the control volume due to the control orifices performance or the forces due to viscous friction, also assessing their influence on the needle lift laws.

  10. Characterisation of diesel particulate emission from engines using commercial diesel and biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajtai, T.; Pintér, M.; Utry, N.; Kiss-Albert, G.; Gulyás, G.; Pusztai, P.; Puskás, R.; Bereczky, Á.; Szabados, Gy.; Szabó, G.; Kónya, Z.; Bozóki, Z.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the number concentration and the size distribution of diluted diesel exhaust particulate matter were measured at three different engine operating points in the speed-load range of the engine as follows: 1600 rpm; 50% load, 1900 rpm; 25% load, 1900 rpm; 75% load, adopted from the UN ECE Vehicle Regulation no. 49 (Revision 2) test protocol using pure diesel and biodiesel fuels, as well as their controlled blends. The emitted particulate assembly had lognormal size distribution in the accumulation mode regardless of the engine operational condition and the type of fuel. The total number and volume concentration emitted by the diesel engine decreased with increasing revolution per minute and rated torque in case of all the fuel types. The mixing ratio of the fuels did not linearly affect the total emission but had a minimum at 75% biodiesel content. We also studied the thermal evolution of the emitted particulates using a specially designed thermodenuder (TD) heated at specific temperatures (50 °C, 120 °C, and 250 °C). The first transition, when the temperature was increased from 50 °C to 120 °C resulted in lower number concentrations with small relative shifts of the peak position. However, in case of the second transition, when the temperature reached 250 °C the individual volatile particulates adsorbed onto the surface of soot particles were completely or partly vaporised resulting in lower total number concentrations with a substantial shift in peak position.

  11. Heat Transfer Analysis of a Diesel Engine Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Diviš

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the research carried out at the Josef Božek Research Center of Engine and Automotive Engineering dealing with extended numerical stress/deformation analyses of engines parts loaded by heat and mechanical forces. It contains a detailed description of a C/28 series diesel engine head FE model and a discussion of heat transfer analysis tunning and results. The head model consisting of several parts allows a description of contact interaction in both thermal and mechanical analysis.

  12. Experimental evaluation of the performance and emissions of diesel engines using blends of crude castor oil and diesel; Avaliacao experimental do desempenho e emissoes de motores diesel usando misturas de oleo de mamona e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Valeria Said de Barros; Pereira, Pedro Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Oceanica

    2004-07-01

    This work refers to the experimental evaluation of diesel generators operating with blend of crude castor oil and diesel. Performance and emissions tests were accomplished in a diesel engine of direct injection. Because of the high viscosity of the blend a device was installed on the engine in order to lower the blend viscosity. A comprehensive analysis of the results obtained in these tests indicates the possibility of use of the blend of castor oil and diesel as fuel for diesel-generators, with modifications introduced in the engines. (author)

  13. Analysis of BJ493 diesel engine lubrication system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F.

    2017-12-01

    The BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine design is based on the primary model of BJ493ZLQ3, of which exhaust level is upgraded to the National GB5 standard due to the improved design of combustion and injection systems. Given the above changes in the diesel lubrication system, its improved properties are analyzed in this paper. According to the structures, technical parameters and indices of the lubrication system, the lubrication system model of BJ493ZLQ4A diesel engine was constructed using the Flowmaster flow simulation software. The properties of the diesel engine lubrication system, such as the oil flow rate and pressure at different rotational speeds were analyzed for the schemes involving large- and small-scale oil filters. The calculated values of the main oil channel pressure are in good agreement with the experimental results, which verifies the proposed model feasibility. The calculation results show that the main oil channel pressure and maximum oil flow rate values for the large-scale oil filter scheme satisfy the design requirements, while the small-scale scheme yields too low main oil channel’s pressure and too high. Therefore, application of small-scale oil filters is hazardous, and the large-scale scheme is recommended.

  14. Effects of diesel/ethanol dual fuel on emission characteristics in a heavy-duty diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junheng; Sun, Ping; Zhang, Buyun

    2017-09-01

    In order to reduce emissions and diesel consumption, the gas emissions characteris-tics of diesel/aqueous ethanol dual fuel combustion (DFC) were carried out on a heavy-duty turbocharged and intercooled automotive diesel engine. The aqueous ethanol is prepared by a blend of anhydrous ethanol and water in certain volume proportion. In DFC mode, aqueous ethanol is injected into intake port to form homogeneous charge, and then ignited by the diesel fuel. Results show that DFC can reduce NOx emissions but increase HC and CO emissions, and this trend becomes more prominent with the increase of water blending ratio. Increased emissions of HC and CO could be efficiently cleaned by diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC), even better than those of diesel fuel. It is also found that DFC mode reduces smoke remarkably, while increases some unconventional emissions such as formaldehyde and acetal-dehyde. However, unconventional emissions could be reduced approximately to the level of baseline engine with a DOC.

  15. Vibration aging of diesel-engine mounted electrical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.J.; Morton, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) in a Nuclear Power Plant is considered to be a component which is essential to safe plant operation. Failures of auxiliary equipment directly mounted on the EDG creates costly repairs, and compromises the engine's availability and reliability. Although IEEE-323 requires addressing of safety-related components due to mechanically induced vibration, very few guidelines exist in the nuclear industry to show how this may be accounted for. Most engine vendors rely on the empirical experience data as the basis of their evaluation for vibration. Upgrade of engine controls, addition of monitoring devices and other engine modifications require design and installation of new equipment to be mounted directly on the engine. This necessitates the evaluation for engine-induced vibration which is considered to be one of the most severe design parameters. This paper discusses the engine vibration characteristics, and the acquisition of extensive field vibration data on the diesel engine under operating conditions. The data is then used to develop life cycle vibration qualification test profiles that can be applied with confidence in a laboratory environment to qualify engine-mounted equipment. The intent is to validate a product's ability to survive under worst case, extended service on-engine conditions. This paper describes the procedures and approaches used to achieve those goals, and provides developed profile examples and test results

  16. Comparison of the effect of biodiesel-diesel and ethanol-diesel on the gaseous emission of a direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel and ethanol to investigate the gaseous emissions of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 rev min -1. Four biodiesel blended fuels and four ethanol blended fuels with oxygen concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% were used. With the increase of oxygen content in the blended fuels, the brake thermal efficiency improves slightly. For the diesel-biodiesel fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions decrease while the brake specific NO x and NO 2 emissions increase. The emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene and overall BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) in general decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. For the diesel-ethanol fuels, the brake specific HC and CO emissions increase significantly at low engine load, NO x emission decreases at low engine load but increases at high engine load. The emissions of benzene and BTX vary with engine load and ethanol content. Similar to the biodiesel-diesel fuels, the formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene and xylene emissions decrease while the acetaldehyde and NO 2 emissions increase. Despite having the same oxygen contents in the blended fuels, there are significant differences in the gaseous emissions between the biodiesel-diesel blends and the ethanol-diesel blends.

  17. Ten years of common-rail injection systems for passenger cars; Gemeine Drucksache. Zehn Jahre Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem fuer Pkw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenthal, M.Y. von

    2007-07-15

    The future of the diesel engine started in 1997 with the Bosch common rail injection system which provided higher power, higher rotary momentum, lower consumption, lower noise and lower pollutant emissions. Since then, high-pressure common-rail injection systems have become state of the art. (orig.)

  18. Effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Kyritsis, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of n-butanol (normal butanol) with conventional diesel fuel, with 8%, 16% and 24% (by volume) n-butanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a standard, fully instrumented, four-stroke, high-speed, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends or neat diesel fuel, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at three different loads. In each test, fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters of the three butanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the diesel engine, i.e., when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. It is revealed that this fuel, which can be produced from biomass (bio-butanol), forms a challenging and promising bio-fuel for diesel engines. The differing physical and chemical properties of butanol against those for the diesel fuel are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior.

  19. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions, with special emphasis on the influence of low temperature on fueling. Furthermore, for each tested fuel the optimal injection pump timing is determined. The obtained optimal injection pump timings for individual fuels are then used to determine and discuss the most important injection and combustion characteristics, engine performance, as well as the emission, economy, and tribology characteristics of the engine at all modes of emission test cycles test. The results show that for each tested fuel it is possible to find the optimized injection pump timing, which enables acceptable engine characteristics at all modes of the emission test cycles test.

  1. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mantas Smolnikovas; Gintas Viselga; Greta Viselgaitė; Algirdas Jasinskas

    2016-01-01

    The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  2. 77 FR 4678 - Nonconformance Penalties for On-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...), optimized turbo-charging, optimized fuel injection, diesel particulate filters), plus liquid urea based...-Highway Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim... manufacturers of heavy heavy-duty diesel engines in model years 2012 and 2013 for emissions of oxides of...

  3. Diesel Engine with Different Kind of Injection Systems Exhaust Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Smolnikovas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an overview of structural evolution of diesel engines’ injection systems, air pollution caused by diesel engines and permissible emission rates. An analytical research on air pollution was also performed. Experimental studies evaluated air pollution during the emission of particulate matter according to diesel engine exploitation time and different constructions emissions.

  4. Analysis the ECFM-3Z Combustion Model for Simulating the Combustion Process and Emission Characteristics in a HSDI Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mobasheri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced CFD simulation has been performed to analyze the ECFM-3Z (Extended Coherent Flame Model-3Z combustion model for simulating the combustion process and emission characteristics in a high speed direct injection (HSDI diesel engine. A four cylinders, HSDI diesel engine based on a Ford production engine with a 2nd generation Delphi common rail fuel injection system has been modeled in this research. 3D CFD simulation was carried out from intake valve closing (IVC to exhaust valve opening (EVO. A good agreement of calculated and measured in-cylinder pressure trace as well as pollutant formation trends could be observed for all investigated operating points. Based on the confidence gained from validation, the study is extended to evaluate the effect of fuel injection timing on engine performance and emissions. For this purpose, a comprehensive study of the effect of injection timing with respect to performance and emissions has been considered. Three main injection timing, (1 2.65 BTDC, (2 0.65 BTDC and (3 1.35 ATDC, all with 30 crank angle pilot separations has been used to investigate the effect of the injection timing. The results show that the current methodology can be applied as a beneficial tool for analyzing the parameters of the diesel combustion under HSDI operating condition.

  5. Comparative performance and emissions study of a direct injection Diesel engine using blends of Diesel fuel with vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.; Hountalas, D.T.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    An extended experimental study is conducted to evaluate and compare the use of various Diesel fuel supplements at blend ratios of 10/90 and 20/80, in a standard, fully instrumented, four stroke, direct injection (DI), Ricardo/Cussons 'Hydra' Diesel engine located at the authors' laboratory. More specifically, a high variety of vegetable oils or bio-diesels of various origins are tested as supplements, i.e. cottonseed oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil and their corresponding methyl esters, as well as rapeseed oil methyl ester, palm oil methyl ester, corn oil and olive kernel oil. The series of tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at a speed of 2000 rpm and at a medium and high load. In each test, volumetric fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and total unburned hydrocarbons (HC) are measured. From the first measurement, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency are computed. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emission parameters from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat Diesel fuel, are determined and compared. This comparison is extended between the use of the vegetable oil blends and the bio-diesel blends. Theoretical aspects of Diesel engine combustion, combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of these Diesel fuel supplements against the normal Diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  6. Effect of Engine Modifications on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Alternative Fuels

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Murthy, B.S.R

    2010-01-01

    Performance and emission characteristics unmodified diesel engines operating on different alternative fuels with smaller blend proportions are comparable with pure diesel operation. But with increased blend proportions due to the associated problems of vegetable oils like high viscosity and low volatility pollution levels increase which however is accompanied by operating and durability problems with the long term usage of engine. This paper discusses the necessary modifications required to o...

  7. Diesel engine exhaust particulate filter with intake throttling incineration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludecke, O.; Rosebrock, T.

    1980-07-08

    A description is given of a diesel engine exhaust filter and particulate incineration system in combination with a diesel engine having a normally unthrottled air induction system for admitting combustion air to the engine and an exhaust system for carrying off spent combustion products exhausted from the engine, said filter and incineration system comprising: a combustion resistant filter disposed in the exhaust system and operative to collect and retain portions of the largely carbonaceous particulate matter contained in the engine exhaust products, said fiber being capable of withstanding without substantial damage internal temperatures sufficient to burn the collected particulate matter, a throttle in the indication system and operable to restrict air flow into the engine to reduce the admittance of excess combustion air and thereby increase engine exhaust gas temperature, and means to actuate said throttle periodically during engine operation to an air flow restricting burn mode capable of raising the particulates in said filter to their combustion temperature under certain engine operating conditions and to maintain said throttle mode for an interval adequate to burn retained particulates in the filter.

  8. Thermodynamic monitoring and misfunction detection in turbocharged diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, A.N.; Bidini, G.

    1992-01-01

    Many kinds of fault detection systems for reciprocating engines have been proposed. Mostly these systems rely on dynamic analysis of engine behavior or chemical analysis of exhaust. Very few systems achieve a real on line diagnosis. On the other hand, land based and aeronautic turbine power plants are mostly equipped with thermodynamic fault detection systems (gas path analysis). The authors are trying to design a simple, cheap and reliable diesel engine monitoring system, performing a real time, continuous service. State of the art dynamics, gas path analysis and some new ideas will be used. Here we present the first part of this project, dealing with thermodynamic engine analysis. Soon we hope to present also a different approach, relying on engine dynamic analysis. This paper is mainly concerned with diesel engines. It seems reasonable to concentrate ourselves on large and based engines, whose size and cost justify the implementation of a fault detection system. Anyway many results are fairly general, and could be used for smaller engines, like vehicle engines, and other cases in which large number of units can lower costs

  9. Role of biodiesel-diesel blends in alteration of particulate matter emanated by diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.N.; Shahid, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study is focused on the investigation of the role of biodiesel in the alteration of particulate matter (PM) composition emitted from a direct injection-compression ignition. Two important blends of biodiesel with commercial diesel known as B20 (20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume) and B50 were used for the comparative analysis of their pollutants with those of 100% or traditional diesel (D). The experiments were performed under the auspices of the Chinese 8-mode steady-state cycle on a test bench by coupling the engine with an AC electrical dynamometer. As per experimental results, over-50 nm aerosols were abated by 8.7-47% and 6-51% with B20 and B50, respectively, on account of lofty nitrogen dioxide to nitrogen oxides (NO2/NO) ratios. In case of B50, sub-50 nm aerosols and sulphates were higher at maximum load modes of the test, owing to adsorption phenomenon of inorganic nuclei leading to heterogeneous nucleation. Moreover, trace metal emissions (TME) were substantially reduced reflecting the reduction rates of 42-57% and 64-80% with B20 and B50, respectively, relative to baseline measurements taken with diesel. In addition to this, individual elements such as Ca and Fe were greatly minimised, while Na was enhanced with biodiesel blended fuels. (author)

  10. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  11. Effects of Aftermarket Control Technologies on Gas and Particle Phase Oxidative Potential from Diesel Engine Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) originating from diesel combustion is a public health concern due to its association with adverse effects on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. This study investigated emissions from three stationary diesel engines (gensets) with var...

  12. Tomorrow`s diesel engines: towards a new equilibrium; Moteurs diesel de demain: vers un nouvel equilibre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastenhof, D. [SEMT Pielstick, 93 - Saint Denis (France)

    1997-12-31

    After a review of the main principles governing combustion in diesel engines and the influence of ambient air conditions on pollutant emissions (and more especially NOx), emission level limits concerning NOx, CO, HC and ashes are presented and discussed according to their applications in the various types of diesel engines. The influence of fuel type is also examined and several ways to reduce NOx emissions in liquid fuel diesel engines are reported: mechanical modifications (compression ratio), water injection, exhaust gas recirculation, exhaust gas processing, fume and ash filtration. Cost issues are also discussed, through comparisons with gas turbines

  13. Energy Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Diesel and Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The extensive use of diesel engines in agricultural activities and transportation, led to the emergence of serious challenges in providing and evaluating alternative fuels from different sources in addition to the chemical properties close to diesel fuel, including properties such as renewable, inexpensive and have fewer emissions. Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels. Many studies have been carried out on the use of biodiesel in pure form or blended with diesel fuel about combustion, performance and emission parameters of engines. One of the parameters that have been less discussed is energy balance. In providing alternative fuels, biodiesel from waste cooking oil due to its low cost compared with biodiesel from plant oils, is the promising option. The properties of biodiesel and diesel fuels, in general, show many similarities, and therefore, biodiesel is rated as a realistic fuel as an alternative to diesel. The conversion of waste cooking oil into methyl esters through the transesterification process approximately reduces the molecular weight to one-third, reduces the viscosity by about one-seventh, reduces the flash point slightly and increases the volatility marginally, and reduces pour point considerably (Demirbas, 2009. In this study, effect of different percentages of biodiesel from waste cooking oil were investigated. Energy distribution study identify the energy losses ways in order to find the reduction solutions of them. Materials and Methods Renewable fuel used in this study consists of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil by transesterification process (Table 1. Five diesel-biodiesel fuel blends with values of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 percent of biodiesel that are signs for B0, B12, B22, B32 and B42, respectively. The test engine was a diesel engine, single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition and air¬cooled, series 3LD510 in the laboratory of renewable energies of agricultural faculty, Tarbiat Modarres

  14. Combined effects of thermal barrier coating and blending with diesel fuel on usability of vegetable oils in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of using pure vegetable oils in a thermally insulated diesel engine has been experimentally investigated. Initially, the standard diesel fuel was tested in the engine, as base experiment for comparison. Then the engine was thermally insulated by coating some parts of it, such as piston, exhaust and intake valves surfaces with zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ). The main purpose of engine coating was to reduce heat rejection from the walls of combustion chamber and to increase thermal efficiency and thus to increase performance of the engine that using vegetable oil blends. Another aim of the study was to improve the usability of pure vegetable oils in diesel engines without performing any fuel treatments such as pyrolysis, emulsification and transesterification. Pure inedible cottonseed oil and sunflower oil were blended with diesel fuel. Blends and diesel fuel were then tested in the coated diesel engine. Experimental results proved that the main purpose of this study was achieved as the engine performance parameters such as power and torque were increased with simultaneous decrease in fuel consumption (bsfc). Furthermore, exhaust emission parameters such as CO, HC, and Smoke opacity were decreased. Also, sunflower oil blends presented better performance and emission parameters than cottonseed oil blends. -- Highlights: ► Usability of two different vegetable oils in a coated diesel engine was experimentally investigated. ► A diesel engine was coated with ZrO 2 layer to make the combustion chamber insulated. ► Test results showed significant improvements in performance parameters. ► While only minor reductions were observed in emissions with coated engine operation

  15. Effects of Injection Rate Profile on Combustion Process and Emissions in a Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When multi-injection is implemented in diesel engine via high pressure common rail injection system, changed interval between injection pulses can induce variation of injection rate profile for sequential injection pulse, though other control parameters are the same. Variations of injection rate shape which influence the air-fuel mixing and combustion process will be important for designing injection strategy. In this research, CFD numerical simulations using KIVA-3V were conducted for examining the effects of injection rate shape on diesel combustion and emissions. After the model was validated by experimental results, five different shapes (including rectangle, slope, triangle, trapezoid, and wedge of injection rate profiles were investigated. Modeling results demonstrate that injection rate shape can have obvious influence on heat release process and heat release traces which cause different combustion process and emissions. It is observed that the baseline, rectangle (flat, shape of injection rate can have better balance between NOx and soot emissions than the other investigated shapes. As wedge shape brings about the lowest NOx emissions due to retarded heat release, it produces the highest soot emissions among the five shapes. Trapezoid shape has the lowest soot emissions, while its NOx is not the highest one. The highest NOx emissions were produced by triangle shape due to higher peak injection rate.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: NEW CONDENSATOR, INC.--THE CONDENSATOR DIESEL ENGINE RETROFIT CRANKCASE VENTILATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested New Condensator Inc.'s Condensator Diesel Engine Retrofit Crankcase Ventilation System. Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), the ratio of engine fuel consumption to the engine power output, was evaluated for engine...

  17. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu; Sendilvelan Subramanian; Nagarajan Govindan; Sampath Santhanam

    2017-01-01

    The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The ex...

  18. Desempenho comparativo de um motor de ciclo diesel utilizando diesel e misturas de biodiesel Comparative performance of a cycle diesel engine using diesel and biodiesel mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Leite Barbosa

    2008-10-01

    fixation of man country life, the excellent and varied climatic conditions and several types of terrain become the country, with extensive workable areas, stand out in the world scenery if considering its great potentiality on generation of alternative fuels. The environmental preservation, important subject nowadays, makes that the human being work in searches for the development of alternative energies, mainly those originating from renewable and biodegradable sources of sustantable character. Taking in consideration those searches, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the performance of a diesel engine working in different moments with mineral diesel and mixtures of mineral diesel and biodiesel in the equivalent proportions B2 (98% mineral diesel and 2%biodiesel, B5 (95% mineral diesel and 5%biodiesel, B20 (80% mineral diesel and 20%biodiesel, and, finally, B100 (100% biodiesel. The rehearsal was accomplished in the dependences of the Engineering Department at UFLA - Federal University of Lavras, in Lavras, Minas Gerais, in July, 2005. For the accomplishment of the rehearsals it, was used an engine cycle diesel of a tractor VALMET 85 id, of 58,2kW (78 cv, following it methodology established by the norm NBR 5484 of ABNT (1985, that refers to the rehearsal dynamometric of engines cycle Otto and Diesel being proceeded. One noticed ended that the potency of the motor when using biodiesel was lower than one when using mineral diesel. One observed that, in some rotations, the mixtures B5 and B20 presented the same potency or even higher, in some situations, than the one when if using mineral diesel. The best thermal efficiency of the motor was verified in the rotation of 540 rpm of equivalent TDP to 1720 rpm of the motor.

  19. Study of turbocharged diesel engine operation, pollutant emissions and combustion noise radiation during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel fuel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Dimaratos, A.M.; Giakoumis, E.G.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Turbocharged diesel engine emissions during starting with bio-diesel or n-butanol diesel blends. → Peak pollutant emissions due to turbo-lag. → Significant bio-diesel effects on combustion behavior and stability. → Negative effects on NO emissions for both blends. → Positive effects on smoke emissions only for n-butanol blend. -- Abstract: The control of transient emissions from turbocharged diesel engines is an important objective for automotive manufacturers, as stringent criteria for exhaust emissions must be met. Starting, in particular, is a process of significant importance owing to its major contribution to the overall emissions during a transient test cycle. On the other hand, bio-fuels are getting impetus today as renewable substitutes for conventional fuels, especially in the transport sector. In the present work, experimental tests were conducted at the authors' laboratory on a bus/truck, turbocharged diesel engine in order to investigate the formation mechanisms of nitric oxide (NO), smoke, and combustion noise radiation during hot starting for various alternative fuel blends. To this aim, a fully instrumented test bed was set up, using ultra-fast response analyzers capable of capturing the instantaneous development of emissions as well as various other key engine and turbocharger parameters. The experimental test matrix included three different fuels, namely neat diesel fuel and two blends of diesel fuel with either bio-diesel (30% by vol.) or n-butanol (25% by vol.). With reference to the neat diesel fuel case during the starting event, the bio-diesel blend resulted in deterioration of both pollutant emissions as well as increased combustion instability, while the n-butanol (normal butanol) blend decreased significantly exhaust gas opacity but increased notably NO emission.

  20. Common Rail Direct Injection Mode of CI Engine Operation with Different Injection Strategies - A Method to Reduce Smoke and NOx Emissions Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khandal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression ignition (CI engines are most efficient and robust prime movers used in transportation, power generation applications but suffer from the problems of higher level of exhaust smoke and NOx tailpipe emissions with increased use of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel that replaces diesel and at the same time that result in lower smoke and NOx emissions is presently needed. Therefore the main aim of this experimental study is to lower the smoke and NOx emissions and to use non edible oils that replace the diesel. For this locally available honge biodiesel (BHO and cotton seed biodiesel (BCO were selected as alternative fuels to power CI engine operated in common rail direct injection (CRDI mode. In the first part, optimum fuel injection timing (IT and injection pressure (IP for maximum engine brake thermal efficiency (BTE was obtained. In the second part, performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the CRDI engine was studied with two different fuel injectors having 6 and 7 holes each having 0.2 mm orifice diameter. The CRDI engine results obtained were compared with the baseline date reported. The combustion chamber (CC used for the study was toroidal re-entrant (TRCC. The experimental tests showed that BHO and BCO fuelled CRDI engine showed overall improved performance with 7 hole injector when engine was operated at optimized fuel IT of 10° before top dead centre (bTDC and IP of 900 bar. The smoke emission reduced by 20% to 26% and NOx reduced by 16% to 20% in diesel and biodiesel powered CRDI engine as compared to conventional CI mode besides replacing diesel by biodiesel fuel (BDF.

  1. Investigation of spray characteristics from a low-pressure common rail injector for use in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kihyung; Reitz, Rolf D.

    2004-03-01

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion provides extremely low levels of pollutant emissions, and thus is an attractive alternative for future IC engines. In order to achieve a uniform mixture distribution within the engine cylinder, the characteristics of the fuel spray play an important role in the HCCI engine concept. It is well known that high-pressure common rail injection systems, mainly used in diesel engines, achieve poor mixture formation because of the possibility of direct fuel impingement on the combustion chamber surfaces. This paper describes spray characteristics of a low-pressure common rail injector which is intended for use in an HCCI engine. Optical diagnostics including laser diffraction and phase Doppler methods, and high-speed camera photography, were applied to measure the spray drop diameter and to investigate the spray development process. The drop sizing results of the laser diffraction method were compared with those of a phase Doppler particle analyser (PDPA) to validate the accuracy of the experiments. In addition, the effect of fuel properties on the spray characteristics was investigated using n-heptane, Stoddard solvent (gasoline surrogate) and diesel fuel because HCCI combustion is sensitive to the fuel composition. The results show that the injector forms a hollow-cone sheet spray rather than a liquid jet, and the atomization efficiency is high (small droplets are produced). The droplet SMD ranged from 15 to 30 µm. The spray break-up characteristics were found to depend on the fuel properties. The break-up time for n-heptane is shorter and the drop SMD is smaller than that of Stoddard solvent and diesel fuel.

  2. A computational study of free-piston diesel engine combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikalsen, R.; Roskilly, A.P. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Devonshire Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    This paper investigates the in-cylinder gas motion, combustion process and nitrogen oxide formation in a free-piston diesel engine and compares the results to those of a conventional engine, using a computational fluid dynamics engine model. Enhanced radial gas flow (squish and reverse squish) around top dead centre is found for the free-piston engine compared to a conventional engine, however it is found that this has only minor influence on the combustion process. A higher heat release rate from the pre-mixed combustion phase due to an increased ignition delay was found, along with potential reductions in nitrogen oxides emissions formation for the free-piston engine. (author)

  3. Multi-zone modeling of Diesel engine fuel spray development with vegetable oil, bio-diesel or Diesel fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, C.D.; Antonopoulos, K.A.; Rakopoulos, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    This work presents a model of fuel sprays development in the cylinders of Diesel engines that is two-dimensional, multi-zone, with the issuing jet (from the nozzle) divided into several discrete volumes, called 'zones', formed along the direction of the fuel injection as well as across it. The model follows each zone, with its own time history, as the spray penetrates into the swirling air environment of the combustion chamber before and after wall impingement. After the jet break up time, a group of droplets is generated in each zone, with the model following their motion during heating, evaporation and mixing with the in-cylinder air. The model is applied for the interesting case of using vegetable oils or their derived bio-diesels as fuels, which recently are considered as promising alternatives to petroleum distillates since they are derived from biological sources. Although there are numerous experimental studies that show curtailment of the emitted smoke with possible increase of the emitted NO x against the use of Diesel fuel, there is an apparent scarcity of theoretical models scrutinizing the formation mechanisms of combustion generated emissions when using these biologically derived fuels. Thus, in the present work, a theoretical detailed model of spray formation is developed that is limited to the related investigation of the physical processes by decoupling it from the chemical effects after combustion initiation. The analysis results show how the widely differing physical properties of these fuels, against the normal Diesel fuel, affect greatly the spray formation and consequently the combustion mechanism and the related emissions

  4. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đặng Van Uy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixed fuel supplying to diesel engines inline. In order to ensure a quality of the mixed fuel created by continuous mixer, a homogeneous testing was introduced with believable results. Then, the continuous mixer has been installed into fuel supply system of diesel engine 6LU32 at a lab of Vietnam Maritime University in terms of checking a real operation of the fuel continuous mixer with diesel engine.

  5. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  6. AC maintenance and repair manual for diesel engines

    CERN Document Server

    Pallas, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this book with its detailed step-by-step colour photographs and diagrams, is to enable every owner to fix their diesel engine with ease. Troubleshooting tables help diagnose potential problems, and there is advice on regular maintenance and winterising and repair. Jean-Luc Pallas's enthusiasm for passing on his knowledge, as well as his clear explanations, precise advice and step-by-step instructions make this a unique book.

  7. Inspection of diesel engine injectors by several electromagnetic nondestructive methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vértesy, G.; Balassa, P.; Gasparics, A.; Tomáš, Ivan; Mészáros, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2017), s. 449-459 ISSN 1383-5416 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetic nondestructive testing * diesel engine injector * eddy current testing * magnetic hysteresis measurements * magnetic adaptive testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.769, year: 2016

  8. Combustion and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with rice bran oil methyl ester and its diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gattamaneni Rao Narayana Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a worldwide interest in searching for alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels due to their depletion as well as due to the concern for the environment. Vegetable oils have capability to solve this problem because they are renewable and lead to reduction in environmental pollution. The direct use of vegetable oils as a diesel engine fuel is possible but not preferable because of their extremely higher viscosity, strong tendency to polymerize and bad cold start properties. On the other hand, Biodiesels, which are derived from vegetable oils, have been recently recognized as a potential alternative to diesel oil. This study deals with the analysis of rice bran oil methyl ester (RBME as a diesel fuel. RBME is derived through the transesterification process, in which the rice bran oil reacts with methanol in the presence of KOH. The properties of RBME thus obtained are comparable with ASTM biodiesel standards. Tests are conducted on a 4.4 kW, single-cylinder, naturally aspirated, direct-injection air-cooled stationary diesel engine to evaluate the feasibility of RBME and its diesel blends as alternate fuels. The ignition delay and peak heat release for RBME and its diesel blends are found to be lower than that of diesel and the ignition delay decreases with increase in RBME in the blend. Maximum heat release is found to occur earlier for RBME and its diesel blends than diesel. As the amount of RBME in the blend increases the HC, CO, and soot concentrations in the exhaust decreased when compared to mineral diesel. The NOx emissions of the RBME and its diesel blends are noted to be slightly higher than that of diesel.

  9. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  10. Further developments in performance prediction techniques of adiabatic diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasihhan, Y

    1990-01-01

    The engine cycle simulation program 'SPICE', developed at Bath University, has been used extensively for insulated diesel engine research. The present study introduces more comprehensive engine heat transfer models thus enabling us to study the insulated engine heat transfer and performance characteristics in more detail. The new version of 'SPICE' separates the gas to wall heat transfer into two parts, convective and radiative. For this purpose, a detailed radiative heat transfer model which considers both the flame (gas and soot) and wall to wall radiative heat transfer is written. The previous engine resistance model is refined and replaced by a more detailed resistance model which considers piston-liner conduction heat transfer and 2-D heat flow in the liner. The wall surface temperature swing is also included in the engine heat transfer calculations which is quite significant in low conductivity ceramic insulated engines. A 1-D finite difference model is written for the transient heat transfer region of the wall and linked to the engine resistance model. This new version of 'SPICE' is used to predict the insulated engine heat transfer and performance for the experimental Petter PH1W engine for various insulation levels and schemes. An answer to the controversy of increase in engine heat loss with insulation is looked for. The effect of wall deposits on engine heat transfer and its significance for the insulated engine is highlighted. (Author).

  11. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust and serum cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yufei; Ren, Dianzhi; Bassig, Bryan A; Vermeulen, Roel; Hu, Wei; Niu, Yong; Duan, Huawei; Ye, Meng; Meng, Tao; Xu, Jun; Bin, Ping; Shen, Meili; Yang, Jufang; Fu, Wei; Meliefste, Kees; Silverman, Debra; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Zheng, Yuxin

    2018-03-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified diesel engine exhaust (DEE) as a human lung carcinogen. Given that inflammation is suspected to be an important underlying mechanism of lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated the relationship between DEE exposure and the inflammatory response using data from a cross-sectional molecular epidemiology study of 41 diesel engine testing workers and 46 unexposed controls. Repeated personal exposure measurements of PM 2.5 and other DEE constituents were taken for the diesel engine testing workers before blood collection. Serum levels of six inflammatory biomarkers including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were analyzed in all subjects. Compared to unexposed controls, concentrations of MIP-1β were significantly reduced by ∼37% in DEE exposed workers (P 397 µg/m 3 ) compared to unexposed controls. Further, significant inverse exposure-response relationships for IL-8 and MCP-1 were also found in relation to increasing PM 2.5 levels among the DEE exposed workers. Given that IL-8, MIP-1β, and MCP-1 are chemokines that play important roles in recruitment of immunocompetent cells for immune defense and tumor cell clearance, the observed lower levels of these markers with increasing PM 2.5 exposure may provide insight into the mechanism by which DEE promotes lung cancer. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:144-150, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  13. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 deg. C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized.

  14. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  15. Experimental Study of Using Emulsified Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Pollutants Emitted from Four Stroke Water Cooled Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhrieh, A.; Fouad, R. H.; Yamin, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    A water-cooled, four stroke, four cylinder, direct injection diesel engine was used to study the effect of emulsified diesel fuel on the engine performance and on the main pollutant emissions. Emulsified diesel fuels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% water by volume were used. The experiments were conducted in the speed range from 1000 to 3000 rpm. It was found that, in general, using emulsified fuel improves the engine performance and reduces emissions. While the BSFC has a minimum value at 5% water and 2000 rpm, the torque, the BMEP and efficiency are found to have maximum values under these conditions. CO2 was found to increase with engine speed and to decrease with water content. NOx produced from emulsified fuel is significantly less than that produced from pure diesel under the same conditions.

  16. Approach for energy saving and pollution reducing by fueling diesel engines with emulsified biosolution/ biodiesel/diesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chao, How-Ran; Wang, Shu-Li; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2008-05-15

    The developments of both biodiesel and emulsified diesel are being driven by the need for reducing emissions from diesel engines and saving energy. Artificial chemical additives are also being used in diesel engines for increasing their combustion efficiencies. But the effects associated with the use of emulsified additive/biodiesel/diesel blends in diesel engines have never been assessed. In this research, the premium diesel fuel (PDF) was used as the reference fuel. A soy-biodiesel was selected as the test biodiesel. A biosolution made of 96.5 wt % natural organic enzyme-7F (NOE-7F) and 3.5 wt % water (NOE-7F water) was used as the fuel additive. By adding additional 1 vol % of surfactant into the fuel blend, a nanotechnology was used to form emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends for fueling the diesel engine. We found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did not separate after being kept motionless for 30 days. The above stability suggests that the above combinations are suitable for diesel engines as alternative fuels. Particularly, we found that the emulsified biosolution/soy-biodiesel/PDF blends did have the advantage in saving energy and reducing the emissions of both particulate matters (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from diesel engines as compared with PDF, soy-biodiesel/PDF blends, and emulsified soy-biodiesel/ PDF blends. The results obtained from this study will provide useful approaches for reducing the petroleum reliance, pollution, and global warming. However, it should be noted that NO(x) emissions were not measured in the present study which warrants the need for future investigation.

  17. A concise wall temperature model for DI Diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torregrosa, A.; Olmeda, P.; Degraeuwe, B. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Reyes, M. [Centro de Mecanica de Fluidos y Aplicaciones, Universidad Simon Bolivar (Venezuela)

    2006-08-15

    A concise resistor model for wall temperature prediction in diesel engines with piston cooling is presented here. The model uses the instantaneous in-cylinder pressure and some usually measured operational parameters to predict the temperature of the structural elements of the engine. The resistor model was adjusted by means of temperature measurements in the cylinder head, the liner and the piston. For each model parameter, an expression as a function of the engine geometry, operational parameters and material properties was derived to make the model applicable to other similar engines. The model predicts well the cylinder head, liner and piston temperature and is sensitive to variations of operational parameters such as the start of injection, coolant and oil temperature and engine speed and load. (author)

  18. Performance, Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled with Blends of Jatropha Methyl Ester and Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasish Padhee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the energy requirements, there has been growing interest in alternative fuels like biodiesels, ethyl alcohol, biogas, hydrogen and producer gas to provide a suitable diesel substitute for internal combustion engines. An experimental investigation was performed to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with blends of Jatropha methyl ester and diesel. In the present work three different fuel blends of Jatropha methyl ester (B10, B20, B40 and B100 were used. The increments in load on the engine increase the brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and lowered the brake specific fuel consumption. The biodiesel blends produce lower carbon monoxide & unburned hydrocarbon emission and higher carbon dioxide & oxides of nitrogen than neat diesel fuel. From the results it was observed that the ignition delays decreased with increase in concentration of biodiesel in biodiesel blends with diesel. The combustion characteristics of single-fuel for biodiesel and diesel have similar combustion pressure and HRR patterns at different engine loads but it was observed that the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were lower for biodiesel blends compared to those of diesel fuel combustion.

  19. Two-stage supercharging of a passenger car diesel engine; Zweistufige Aufladung eines Pkw-Dieselmotors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmer, A.; Albrecht, P.; Becker, B.; Vogt, G.; Fischer, R. [Erphi Elektronik GmbH, Holzkirchen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Two-stage supercharging of internal combustion engines with specific capacities beyond 70 kW/l opens up new options for smaller charge volumes. A low-pressure and a high-pressure supercharger are connected in series, with by-passes. The control strategy is described in this contribution using a model of exhaust counterpressure. The potential of a two-stage supercharged diesel engine with CR injection was proved in two engines and in dynamic driving tests. The new concept offers optimum chances for downsizing provided that the driving performance is not affected. (orig.) [German] Die zweistufige Aufladung von Verbrennungsmotoren eroeffnet mit spezifischen Leistungen jenseits von 70 kW/l weitere Moeglichkeiten der Hubraumverkleinerung. Dabei werden ein Niederdruck- und ein Hochdrucklader mit Umgehungsleitungen in Reihe geschaltet. Die erforderliche Regelungsstrategie zum kontrollierten Uebergang von einer Stufe auf die naechste erfolgt in dem hier vorliegenden Beitrag anhand eines Modells fuer den Abgasgegendruck. Hierbei wird das Regelorgan so angesteuert, dass sich der gewuenschte Druck vor den Turbinen einstellt. An zwei Motoren konnten stationaere Ergebnisse das Leistungspotential eines zweistufig aufgeladenen Dieselmotors mit 'Common Rail' Einspritzung nachgewiesen werden. Die dynamischen Fahrversuche belegen eindrucksvoll den schnellen Ladedruckaufbau auch aus tiefen Drehzahlbereichen bei gleichzeitig gutem Uebergangsverhalten von der Hochdruck- auf die Niederdruckstufe. Damit bietet der zweistufig aufgeladene Dieselmotor mit dem hier dargestellten Regelungsverfahren optimale Voraussetzungen fuer 'Downsizing' unter der Randbedingung, dass moeglichst keine Einbussen bei den Fahrleistungen hinzunehmen sind. (orig.)

  20. Heat transfers through diesel-engine cylinder liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R T; Jambunathan, K; Probert, S D

    1983-01-01

    A computer package has been developed, using a finite-element technique, to predict the steady-state rate of heat transfer radially through the cylinder liner, or other axisymmetric components, of a medium-speed diesel engine. Comparisons between experimentally measured and computer predicted results have been made: better corroboration occurs for engine loads above 1034 k N m/sup -2/ BMEP. The predictive computer package DIESHT needs only a simple 'user input' and produces a complete graphical output of generated mesh and computed isotherms. Computational storage requirements are modest so that the program can be used with a CAD system, if required, in order to facilitate an interactive design procedure.

  1. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  2. FUEL CONTAMINATION IN A MARINE DIESEL ENGINE. A RADIOTRACER STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    A radiotracer method was applied to the problem of elucidating the mechanism of contamination of crankcase oil by fuel combustion products in a marine diesel engine. The method consisted of adding an oil soluble radioisotope to the fuel and tracing its route to the various lubricants used in the engine. It was found that of the total amount of combustion products and by-products which enter the crankcase oil, 65% enters by simple contamination via reintroduction of used cylinder lubricant and 35% by a condensation mechanism. (auth)

  3. Effect of biodiesel blends on engine performance and exhaust emission for diesel dual fuel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, R.; Majid, Z.A.; Shihnan, A.H.; Nasri, N.S.; Sharer, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Engine and emission characteristics of biodiesel DDF engine system were measured. • Biodiesel DDF fuelled system produced high engine performance. • Lower hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide was emitted by biodiesel DDF system. • Biodiesel DDF produced slightly higher carbon monoxide and nitric oxides emission. - Abstract: Biodiesel derived from biomass is a renewable source of fuel. It is renovated to be the possible fuel to replace fossil derived diesel due to its properties and combustion characteristics. The integration of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engine known as diesel dual fuel (DDF) system offered better exhaust emission thus become an attractive option for reducing the pollutants emitted from transportation fleets. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emission of HINO H07C DDF engine; fuelled by diesel, biodiesel, diesel–CNG, and biodiesel–CNG, were experimentally studied. Biodiesel and diesel fuelled engine system respectively generated 455 N m and 287 N m of torque. The horse power of biodiesel was found to be 10–20% higher compared to diesel. Biodiesel–CNG at 20% (B20-DDF) produced the highest engine torque compared to other fuel blends Biodiesel significantly increase the carbon monoxide (15–32%) and nitric oxides (6.67–7.03%) but in contrast reduce the unburned hydrocarbons (5.76–6.25%) and carbon dioxide (0.47–0.58%) emissions level. These results indicated that biodiesel could be used without any engine modifications as an alternative and environmentally friendly fuel especially the heavy transportation fleets

  4. Effects of ethanol-diesel fuel blends on the performance and exhaust emissions of heavy duty DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakopoulos, D.C.; Rakopoulos, C.D.; Kakaras, E.C.; Giakoumis, E.G.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of ethanol with conventional diesel fuel, with 5% and 10% (by vol.) ethanol, on the performance and exhaust emissions of a fully instrumented, six-cylinder, turbocharged and after-cooled, heavy duty, direct injection (DI), Mercedes-Benz engine, installed at the authors' laboratory, which is used to power the mini-bus diesel engines of the Athens Urban Transport Organization sub-fleet with a view to using bio-ethanol produced from Greek feedstock. The tests are conducted using each of the above fuel blends, with the engine working at two speeds and three loads. Fuel consumption, exhaust smokiness and exhaust regulated gas emissions such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbons are measured. The differences in the measured performance and exhaust emissions of the two ethanol-diesel fuel blends from the baseline operation of the engine, i.e. when working with neat diesel fuel, are determined and compared. Theoretical aspects of diesel engine combustion combined with the widely differing physical and chemical properties of the ethanol against those for the diesel fuel, are used to aid the correct interpretation of the observed engine behavior

  5. Experimental studies on natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled with corn seed oil methyl ester as a bio-diesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Krishna Reddy, E.; Dhana Raju, V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper evaluates the possibilities of using corn seed oil methyl ester as a fuel for compression ignition engines. The biodiesels are contained high oxygen content, and high Cetane number, due to this properties efficiency of biodiesel is higher than diesel fuel. The experiments were conducted with different biodiesel blends of (B10, B15, B20 and B25) corn seed oil on single cylinder four stroke natural aspirated diesel engines. Performance parameters and exhaust emissions are investigated in this experimental with the blends of the corn seed oil methyl ester and diesel fuel. The test results showed that the bio-diesel blends gives improved results for brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption when compared with the diesel fuel. The emissions of corn seed methyl esters follow the same trend of diesel but the smoke opacity was reduces for all blends. From the investigation, corn seed methyl ester is also having the properties similar to diesel fuel; it is biodegradable and renewable fuel, so it will be used as an alternative for diesel fuel.

  6. USING CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO AS DIESEL ENGINE FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, heating was used to lower the viscosity of CPO to an acceptable level. 60°C was found to be the optimum heating temperature for CPO to ensure smooth flow in the fuel system, but heating further up to 100°C did not improve the engine performance. A comparison between CPO and diesel in terms of engine performance, combustion characteristics and emission showed that the brake specific fuel consumprion (bsfc for CPO was 13% higher at 400 kPa brake mean effective pressure (bmep, and the highest bmep achieved was 13.5% lower. However, CPO fuel gave a brake thermal efficiency. Combustion analyses indicated that CPO combustion produced a 7% higher peak pressure, a 3.3-degree earlier ignition and an 11.6-degree longer burning duration, but a 26% lower peak heat release rate. After 500 hours of  running CPO, performance and power of the engine dropped even while running with diesel. With a 26% higher bsfc and a 20% lowe maximum bmep. Visual inspection of the dismantled engine parts discovered heavy carbon deposits but normal wear. Overhaul of the engine restored the power and performance.

  7. Effect of vegetable de-oiled cake-diesel blends on diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, C.S. [Bharathiyar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikal (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arivalagar, A.; Sendilvelan, S. [MGR Univ., Chennai (India). MGR Educational and Research Inst.; Arul, S. [Panimalar College of Engineering, Channai (India)

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the use of coconut oil methyl ester (COME) as a blending agent with the vegetable de-oiled cakes used in biodiesel production. Different proportions of the de-oiled cake were combined with diesel in order to investigate performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics. The experiments were conducted on a 4-stroke single cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine. Fuel flow rates were measured and a thermocouple was used to measure exhaust gas temperatures. A combustion analyzer was used to measure cylinder pressure and heat release rates. Brake thermal efficiency, brake power, and specific fuel consumption performance was monitored. Results of the study showed that rates of heat release were reduced for the de-oiled cake blended fuels as a result of the change in fuel molecular weight. The variation of NOx with load for neat diesel blends was examined. There was no variation of NOx emission up to 50 per cent of load for all blended oils, and it increased with load. Smoke density was reduced for all blends. Soot production was decreased by the oxygen present in the de-oiled cake. The study showed that fossil fuel oil consumption decreased by 14 to 15 per cent when the de-oiled biodiesel was used at low loads, and 4 to 5 per cent at peak loads. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  8. Acoustical monitoring of diesel engines in reverberant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mein, M.

    1995-10-01

    The feed-back knowledge of emergency diesel generators in nuclear power plants shows that some malfunctions, mainly affecting fuel-injection or distribution system of the engine can be heard and detected by experienced maintenance agents. This study consists in the feasibility,v of acoustical monitoring of those diesel engines, taking into account the reverberant environment of the machine. The operating cycle of the diesel is composed of transient events (injection, combustion, valve closure...) which generate highly non stationary acoustical signals. The detection of a malfunction appearing on such transients requires the use of adapted signal processing techniques. Visual analysis of the phenomena is first proceeded using time-frequency and time-scale representations. The second step will be parametric modeling of acoustical signatures for the extraction of characteristic parameters, in order to characterize the fault and to use an automatic classification system. The lest part of the study will concern the evaluation of the robustness of the detection methods in regard to acoustical reverberation. (author). 10 refs., 6 figs

  9. Diesel reformulation using bio-derived propanol to control toxic emissions from a light-duty agricultural diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainayagam, Muthukkumar; Venkatesan, Krishnamoorthy; Dipak, Rana; Subramani, Saravanan; Sethuramasamyraja, Balaji; Babu, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification. This study evaluates the use of n-propanol addition in fossil diesel by up to 30% by vol. and concurrently reports the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions of an agricultural DI diesel engine. Three blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 were prepared by mixing 10, 20, and 30% by vol. of n-propanol with fossil diesel. Results when compared to baseline diesel case indicated that smoke density reduced with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced smoke density by 13.33, 33.33, and 60%, respectively. NOx emissions increased with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. Later, three EGR rates (10, 20, and 30%) were employed. At any particular EGR rate, smoke density remained lower with increasing n-propanol content in the blends under increasing EGR rates. NOx reduced gradually with EGR. At 30% EGR, the blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced NOx emissions by 43.04, 37.98, and 34.86%, respectively when compared to baseline diesel. CO emissions remained low but hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were high for n-propanol/diesel blends under EGR. Study confirmed that n-propanol could be used by up to 30% by vol. with diesel and the blends delivered lower soot density, NOx, and CO emissions under EGR.

  10. Complete modeling for systems of a marine diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahim, Hassan Moussa; Younes, Rafic; Nohra, Chadi; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a simulator model of a marine diesel engine based on physical, semi-physical, mathematical and thermodynamic equations, which allows fast predictive simulations. The whole engine system is divided into several functional blocks: cooling, lubrication, air, injection, combustion and emissions. The sub-models and dynamic characteristics of individual blocks are established according to engine working principles equations and experimental data collected from a marine diesel engine test bench for SIMB Company under the reference 6M26SRP1. The overall engine system dynamics is expressed as a set of simultaneous algebraic and differential equations using sub-blocks and S-Functions of Matlab/Simulink. The simulation of this model, implemented on Matlab/Simulink has been validated and can be used to obtain engine performance, pressure, temperature, efficiency, heat release, crank angle, fuel rate, emissions at different sub-blocks. The simulator will be used, in future work, to study the engine performance in faulty conditions, and can be used to assist marine engineers in fault diagnosis and estimation (FDI) as well as designers to predict the behavior of the cooling system, lubrication system, injection system, combustion, emissions, in order to optimize the dimensions of different components. This program is a platform for fault simulator, to investigate the impact on sub-blocks engine's output of changing values for faults parameters such as: faulty fuel injector, leaky cylinder, worn fuel pump, broken piston rings, a dirty turbocharger, dirty air filter, dirty air cooler, air leakage, water leakage, oil leakage and contamination, fouling of heat exchanger, pumps wear, failure of injectors (and many others).

  11. Characterisation, control, and energy management of electrified turbocharged diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dezong; Winward, Edward; Yang, Zhijia; Stobart, Richard; Steffen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A real-time energy management framework for electrified engines is proposed. • A multi-variable robust controller is designed. • Characterisation on the air system of electrified diesel engines is given. • Reliable for engine downsizing because of the promising transient performance. - Abstract: The electrification of engine components offers significant opportunities for fuel efficiency improvements. The electrified turbocharger is one of the most attractive options since it recovers part of the engine exhaust gas mechanical energy to assist boosting. Therefore, the engine can be downsized through improved transient responsiveness. In the electrified turbocharger, an electric machine is mounted on the turbine shaft and changes the air system dynamics, so characterisation of the new layout is essential. A systematic control solution is required to manage energy flows in the hybrid system. In this paper, a framework for characterisation, control, and energy management for an electrified turbocharged diesel engine is proposed. The impacts of the electric machine on fuel economy and air system variables are analysed. Based on the characterisation, a two-level control structure is proposed. A real-time energy management strategy is employed as the supervisory level controller to generate the optimal values of critical variables, while a model-based multi-variable controller is designed as the low level controller to track the values. The two controllers work together in a cascade to address both fuel economy optimisation and battery state-of-charge maintenance. The proposed control strategy is validated on a high fidelity physical engine model. The tracking performance shows the proposed framework is a promising solution in regulating the behavior of electrified engines.

  12. 75 FR 68179 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... pumps failed as a result of pressure oscillations in the fuel supply line. We are issuing this AD to.... Analyses have shown that high pressure (HP) fuel pumps failed as a result of pressure oscillations in the...

  13. Modeling of Engine Parameters for Condition-Based Maintenance of the MTU Series 2000 Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    particles in the analysis of engine oil samples (Jiang and Yan 2008). Lee monitors the exhaust gas temperature of the diesel engine for a roll-on...roll-off-passenger commercial vessel (Lee 2013). Jardine, Lin and Banjevic note other monitoring parameters, such as acoustic, moisture , humidity...expressed in terms of a constant y- intercept , , a disturbance, , an independent variable, , their past, −

  14. Experimental study on fuel economies and emissions of direct-injection premixed combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jiakun; Sun, Wanchen; Guo, Liang; Xiao, Senlin; Tan, Manzhi; Li, Guoliang; Fan, Luyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound combustion concept was proposed and investigated. • Premixed combustion near the top dead center was investigated using blended fuels. • Increasing gasoline blend ratio was found to enhance the mixture preparation. • Too much addition of gasoline decreases indicated thermal efficiency. • Gasoline/diesel blends may be a promising alternative for premixed combustion. - Abstract: The effects of gasoline/diesel blended fuel composed of diesel fuel with gasoline as additives in volume basis, on combustion, fuel economies and exhaust emissions were experimentally investigated. Tests were carried out based on a turbocharged Common-rail Direct Injection engine at a constant engine speed of 1800 r/min and different loads of 3.2 bar, 5.1 bar Indicated Mean Effective Pressure. Additionally, the effect of combustion phasing and Exhaust Gas Recirculation were evaluated experimentally for various fuels. The results indicated that with the fraction of gasoline increasing in blends, the ignition delay was prolonged and the combustion phasing was retarded with the common injection timing. This led to a significant increase of premixed burning phase, which was in favor of smoke reduction; although, too much gasoline might be adverse to fuel consumption. An optimum combustion phasing was identified, leading to a higher thermal efficiency and better premixed combustion with blended fuels. A combined application of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and blended fuel with a high gasoline fraction was confirmed effective in reducing the oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions simultaneously at the optimum combustion phasing without giving significant penalty of fuel consumption. A compound combustion mode with its emission lower than the conventional Compression Ignition engines, and efficiency higher than the typical Spark Ignition engines, could be achieved with a cooperative control of Exhaust Gas Recirculation and combustion phasing of the gasoline/diesel

  15. Diesel engine performance and exhaust emission analysis using diesel-organic germanium fuel blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafiq Zulkifli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bio-alcohol and other biomass sources have been extensively research to find its potential as an alternative sources to fossil fuels. This experiment compared the performance of diesel (D, biodiesel (BD and diesel-organic germanium blend (BG5 at five different speeds ranging from 1200-2400 rpm. BG5 shows significant combustion performance compared to BD. No significant changes of power observed between BG5 and BD at a low speed (1200 rpm. On the contrary, at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm, BG5 blend fuel shows increased engine power of 12.2 % and 9.2 %, respectively. Similarly, torque shows similar findings as engine power, whereby the improvement could be seen at higher speeds (1800 rpm and 2400 rpm when torque increased by 7.3 % and 2.3 %, respectively. In addition, the emission results indicated that for all speeds, CO2, and NO had reduced at an average of 2.1 % and 177 %, respectively. Meanwhile, CO emission had slightly increased compared to BD at low speeds by 0.04 %. However, the amount of CO released had decreased at an average of 0.03 % as the engine speed increased. Finally, measurement of O2 shows an increment at 16.4 % at all speed range.

  16. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  17. Performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fueled with ethanol-diesel blends in different altitude regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jilin; Bi, Yuhua; Shen, Lizhong

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype) and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30) under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa). The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NO(x) emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  18. Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fueled with Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Different Altitude Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilin Lei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects ethanol-diesel blends and altitude on the performance and emissions of diesel engine, the comparative experiments were carried out on the bench of turbo-charged diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (as prototype and ethanol-diesel blends (E10, E15, E20 and E30 under different atmospheric pressures (81 kPa, 90 kPa and 100 kPa. The experimental results indicate that the equivalent brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC of ethanol-diesel blends are better than that of diesel under different atmospheric pressures and that the equivalent BSFC gets great improvement with the rise of atmospheric pressure when the atmospheric pressure is lower than 90 kPa. At 81 kPa, both HC and CO emissions rise greatly with the increasing engine speeds and loads and addition of ethanol, while at 90 kPa and 100 kPa their effects on HC and CO emissions are slightest. The changes of atmospheric pressure and mix proportion of ethanol have no obvious effect on NOx emissions. Smoke emissions decrease obviously with the increasing percentage of ethanol in blends, especially atmospheric pressure below 90 kPa.

  19. Utilisation of VOC in Diesel Engines. Ignition and combustion of VOC released in crude oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melhus, Oeyvin

    2002-01-01

    the cylinder is hard to obtain as the piston only is moved one half stroke (from BDC to TDC) for each test. External heating of the test rig is necessary, and this makes it difficult to obtain correct thermal conditions for other than low load conditions. An injector of a new, common rail type design is developed for injection of the VOC Fuel. The design, based on a conventional, redesigned diesel fuel nozzle involved a lot of practical problems. Leakages of gas into the combustion chamber have led to some accidents resulting in too high cylinder pressures. However, broken quartz glasses have been the most serious result of the malfunctions. The main purpose of this investigation has been to study the combustion of alkanes present in the VOC evaporated from crude oil. The primary objective was to verify whether or not the concept of the ''Condensate Diesel Process'' with pilot ignition can be used to utilise these hydrocarbons as fuel in Diesel engines. VOC Fuels of different composition have been tested. The experiments carried out have not revealed any problems concerning combustion when using pilot ignited VOC Fuel. Both ignition and combustion seem to follow the traditional diesel scheme. The composition of the VOC Fuel seems not to affect the ignition delay. A study of varying the value of different parameters has not unveiled any surprises regarding the ignition or early combustion. Separate tests with pure VOC Fuel components, however, show great differences in the ignition delay (both regarding mean value and variance) for different components. The component being most unwillingly and most unstable to ignite is propane. If, for some reason, the pilot ignition should fail, a VOC Fuel with mainly n-butane and higher alkanes will probably give no great operating problems, at least not at medium to high engine load. The use of Schlieren images has been found to be less valuable for the Diesel process than for the Otto process. The reason for this is mainly that

  20. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-03-07

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  1. Effect of EGR on a sationary VCR diesel engine using cottonseed biodiesel (B20 fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin M. Sakhare

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a view on comparative study of use of diesel fuel with B20 biodieselblend (Diesel (80 %, by vol. and Cotton seed oil (20 %, by vol. derived from Cotton seeds. As higher NOx emission and higher brake specific fuel consumption are main challenges for effective utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine, there is alarming need to find out the long term solution to reduce NOx emission for better utilization of biodiesel fuel in a diesel engine. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR is one of the useful technologies to reduce the NOx emission of a diesel engine. In the present research work test is conducted on 3 KW single cylinder, four stroke, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR computerized diesel engine using diesel and B20 cotton seed biodiesel blend to study the effect of exhaust gas recirculation on performance and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine in terms of fuel consumption, thermal efficiency and emissions such as hydrocarbon (HC, carbon monoxide (CO, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and carbon dioxide (CO2 of a diesel engine. The constant engine speed of 1500 rpm was maintained through-out the experiment test. The exhaust gas recirculation was varied as 4 % and 6 % at different loading conditions with diesel and B20 biodiesel. The results show that the significant reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx with 4 % and 6 % EGR for B20 whereas marginal increment in CO and HC emissions.

  2. Systems engineering approach towards performance monitoring of emergency diesel generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhayati Ramli; Lee, Y.K.

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. In this study, systems engineering approach towards the performance monitoring of Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) is presented. Performance monitoring is part and parcel of predictive maintenance where the systems and components conditions can be detected before they result into failures. In an effort to identify the proposal for addressing performance monitoring, the EDG boundary has been defined. Based on the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) results and industry operating experiences, the most critical component is identified. This paper proposed a systems engineering concept development framework towards EDG performance monitoring. The expected output of this study is that the EDG reliability can be improved by the performance monitoring alternatives through the systems engineering concept development effort. (author)

  3. Simulation and control of a HD diesel engine equipped with new EGR technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.J.; Sturm, W.L.

    1996-01-01

    A dynamic model of a Heavy Duty (HD) turbocharged and aftercooled diesel engine was developed. The engine was equipped with high pressure diesel injection, a Variable Geometry Turbine (VGT) and an Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. This engine was targeted at meeting EURO4 emission

  4. Impacts of fuel formulation and engine operating parameters on the nanostructure and reactivity of diesel soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehliu, Kuen

    This study focuses on the impacts of fuel formulations on the reactivity and nanostructure of diesel soot. A 2.5L, 4-cylinder, turbocharged, common rail, direct injection light-duty diesel engine was used in generating soot samples. The impacts of engine operating modes and the start of combustion on soot reactivity were investigated first. Based on preliminary investigations, a test condition of 2400 rpm and 64 Nm, with single and split injection strategies, was chosen for studying the impacts of fuel formulation on the characteristics of diesel soot. Three test fuels were used: an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (BP15), a pure soybean methyl-ester (B100), and a synthetic Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT) produced in a gas-to-liquid process. The start of injection (SOI) and fuel rail pressures were adjusted such that the three test fuels have similar combustion phasing, thereby facilitating comparisons between soots from the different fuels. Soot reactivity was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to TGA, B100 soot exhibits the fastest oxidation on a mass basis followed by BP15 and FT derived soots in order of apparent rate constant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) indicates no relation between the surface oxygen content and the soot reactivity. Crystalline information for the soot samples was obtained using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The basal plane diameter obtained from XRD was inversely related to the apparent rate constants for soot oxidation. For comparison, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) provided images of the graphene layers. Quantitative image analysis proceeded by a custom algorithm. B100 derived soot possessed the shortest mean fringe length and greatest mean fringe tortuosity. This suggests soot (nano)structural disorder correlates with a faster oxidation rate. Such results are in agreement with the X-ray analysis, as the observed fringe length is a measure of basal plane diameter. Moreover the relation

  5. Analysis of pre-heated fuel combustion and heat-emission dynamics in a diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, S. A.; Kartashevich, A. N.; Buzikov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article explores the feasibility of diesel fuel pre-heating. The research goal was to obtain and analyze the performance diagrams of a diesel engine fed with pre-heated fuel. The engine was tested in two modes: at rated RPMs and at maximum torque. To process the diagrams the authors used technique developed by the Central Diesel Research Institute (CDRI). The diesel engine’s heat emission curves were obtained. The authors concluded that fuel pre-heating shortened the initial phase of the combustion process and moderated the loads, thus making it possible to boost a diesel engine’s mean effective pressure.

  6. Experimental investigation of performance and emissions of a VCR diesel engine fuelled with n-butanol diesel blends under varying engine parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyar, Ashish; Sharma, Dilip; Soni, Shyam Lal; Mathur, Alok

    2017-09-01

    The continuous rise in the cost of fossil fuels as well as in environmental pollution has attracted research in the area of clean alternative fuels for improving the performance and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines. In the present work, n-butanol is treated as a bio-fuel and investigations have been made to evaluate the feasibility of replacing diesel with a suitable n-butanol-diesel blend. In the current research, an experimental investigation was carried out on a variable compression ratio CI engine with n-butanol-diesel blends (10-25% by volume) to determine the optimum blending ratio and optimum operating parameters of the engine for reduced emissions. The best results of performance and emissions were observed for 20% n-butanol-diesel blend (B20) at a higher compression ratio as compared to diesel while keeping the other parameters unchanged. The observed deterioration in engine performance was within tolerable limits. The reductions in smoke, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed up to 56.52, 17.19, and 30.43%, respectively, for B20 in comparison to diesel at rated power. However, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and hydrocarbons (HC) were found to be higher by 17.58 and 15.78%, respectively, for B20. It is concluded that n-butanol-diesel blend would be a potential fuel to control emissions from diesel engines. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  7. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  8. International Standards to Reduce Emissions from Marine Diesel Engines and Their Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of EPA coordination with International Maritime Organization including a list of all international regulations and materials related to emissions from marine compression-ignition (diesel) engines.

  9. Performance of single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine using water fuel emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Zaid, M.

    2004-01-01

    A single cylinder Diesel engine study of water-in-Diesel emulsions was conducted to investigate the effect of water emulsification on the engine performance and gases exhaust temperature. Emulsified Diesel fuels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 water/Diesel ratios by volume, were used in a single cylinder, direct injection Diesel engine, operating at 1200-3300 rpm. The results indicate that the addition of water in the form of emulsion improves combustion efficiency. The engine torque, power and brake thermal efficiency increase as the water percentage in the emulsion increases. The average increase in the brake thermal efficiency for 20% water emulsion is approximately 3.5% over the use of Diesel for the engine speed range studied. The proper brake specific fuel consumption and gases exhaust temperature decrease as the percentage of water in the emulsion increases

  10. Research into operational parameters of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lebedevas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of motor experimental researches on operational parameters of diesel engines F2L511 and A41 are presented in the publication. Change of harmful emission of exhaust gases was determined and evaluated, fuel economy and thrust characteristics of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. The influence of technical condition of fuel injection aggregates was evaluated for parameters of harmful emission of diesel engines running on biodiesel by simulation of setback of fuel injection in alowable range of technical conditions – the coking of nozzles of fuel injector. The complex improvement of all ecological parameters was evaluated by optimisation of fuel injection phase of diesel engines running on RME biodiesel. Objectives and aspects of further researches on indicator process of diesel engines were determined.

  11. Generation and characterization of diesel engine combustion emissions from petroleum diesel and soybean biodiesel fuels and application for inhalation exposure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel made from the transesterification of plant- and anmal-derived oils is an important alternative fuel source for diesel engines. Although numerous studies have reported health effects associated with petroleum diesel emissions, information on biodiesel emissions are more ...

  12. Computer simulation of a turbocharged direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannikiv, M.G.; Saeed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Engine model described in this paper was developed to investigate the working process and overall performance of a heavy-duty turbocharged direct injection diesel engine. The primary focus was made on exploring the methods of engine power boosting, study of engine behaviour after their implementation and optimization of all engine parameters. Engine model is classified as on zone, zero dimensional and phenomenological and includes submodels for in cylinder heat transfer, heat release and valve flow processes. Turbocharger model is developed using the available maps of turbine and compressor. The whole engine system is zero dimensional and the different system components are liked by means of mean values for mass flow, temperatures, pressures and gas composition. NASA polynomials are used for computing thermal properties of mixture of gasses. Model is flexible and easy to accommodate additional submodels of various physical phenomena such as emission formation, fuel injection, ignition delay period calculation etc. The software is developed in MATLAB. Software was used to analyse an evaporative cooling of boost air as a method of an increase of engine power. Results of simulation are provided in the paper. For the augmented engine, mechanical and thermal loads required for the strength analyses were obtained. (author)

  13. Increase of diesel car raises health risk in spite of recent development in engine technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Han Leem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diesel exhaust particles (DEP contain elemental carbon, organic compounds including Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, metals, and other trace compounds. Diesel exhaust is complex mixture of thousands of chemicals. Over forty air contaminants are recognized as toxicants, such as carcinogens. Most diesel exhaust particles have aerodynamic diameters falling within a range of 0.1 to 0.25 μm. DEP was classified as a definite human carcinogen (group 1 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer at 2012 based on recently sufficient epidemiological evidence for lung cancer. Significant decreases in DEP and other diesel exhaust constituents will not be evident immediately, and outworn diesel car having longer mileage still threatens health of people in spite of recent remarkable development in diesel engine technology. Policy change in South Korea, such as introduction of diesel taxi, may raise health risk of air pollution in metropolitan area with these limitations of diesel engine. To protect people against DEP in South Korea, progressive strategies are needed, including disallowance of diesel taxi, more strict regulation of diesel engine emission, obligatory diesel particulate filter attachment in outworn diesel car, and close monitoring about health effects of DEP.

  14. Using vegetable oils and animal fats in Diesel Engines: chemical analyses and engine texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmino, I.; Verhelst, S.; Sierens, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, some vegetable oils (rapeseed oil, palm oil) and animal fat were tested in a Diesel engine at a range of engine spreads and torque settings, after preheating at 70 0 C. Engine performance, fuel consumption and NOx, unburnt hydrocarbons and soot emissions have been recorded. The results have been compared to those obtained with diesel fuel in the same test conditions. The oils and fats were also analyzed for their physical and chemical properties (viscosity, composition, unsaturation, heating value). NOx emissions were found to be lower for the oils than for the diesel fuel. This, combined with higher HC emissions, can probably be explained through less effective atomization due to the higher viscosity of the oils and fat. On the other hand, soot emissions were found to decrease. [it

  15. Investigation of the effects of steam injection on performance and NO emissions of a diesel engine running with ethanol–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonca, Guven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combustion simulation is conducted by using two-zone combustion model. • Effect of steam injection into engine fueled ethanol–diesel blend are investigated. • It is shown that this method improves performance and diminish NO emissions. - Abstract: The use of ethanol–diesel blends in diesel engines without any modifications negatively affects the engine performance and NOx emissions. However, steam injection method decreases NOx emissions and improves the engine performance. In this study, steam injection method is applied into a single cylinder, four-stroke, direct injection, naturally aspirated diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend in order improve the performance and NOx emissions by using two-zone combustion model for 15% ethanol addition and 20% steam ratios at full load condition. The results obtained are compared with conventional diesel engine (D), steam injected diesel engine (D + S20), diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend (E15) and steam injected diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend (E15 + S20) in terms of performance and NO emissions. The results showed that as NO emissions considerably decrease the performance significantly increases with steam injection method

  16. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions. Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  17. Continuous injection rate-shaping for passenger-car diesel engines. Potential, limits and feasibility; Kontinuierliche Einspritzverlaufsformung in Pkw-Dieselmotoren. Potenziale, Grenzen und Realisierungschancen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predelli, Oliver; Gratzke, Ralf; Sommer, Ansgar; Marohn, Ralf [Ingenieurgesellschaft Auto und Verkehr GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Atzler, Frank; Schuele, Harry; Kastner, Oliver; Nozeran, Nicolas [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Injection-rate shaping for passenger-car diesel engines is a technique on the verge of a breakthrough. In addition to reducing particulate emission, the method is capable of significantly cutting combustion noise, the Achilles heel of the DI diesel combustion process. As a result, injection-rate shaping shows clear advantages over alternative lowemission combustion processes, such as PCCI, which, although also capable of improving raw emissions in relation to NO{sub x} and soot, are less convincing from the aspect of diesel knock and the emission of CO and CO{sub 2}. Of the modern Common-Rail injection systems, only two permit continuous injection-rate shaping in addition to the hitherto customary strategy of multiple injection. One of them is the Continental PCR NG system. This uses piezo-actuated Common-Rail injectors with direct actuation of the injector nozzle needle. The electronic engine control system provides the capability of determining how far the injector nozzle needle opens. The ability to control the injection curve of each individual injection event gives the engine developer new degrees of freedom in optimizing the combustion process. This paper investigates the way in which the operating behavior of a passenger-car diesel engine is affected by an injection-rate that can be shaped flexibly across broad ranges. Injection-rate shaping aims to use high injection pressures at part load without affecting acoustics and with a view to achieving a significant improvement in emission behavior. The investigation also points out this technique's limits in individual operating points. It furthermore demonstrates approaches suitable for use in mass production with regard to controlling injection-rate shaping in real time in the engine control unit as a way of providing combustion-process stability over the life of the engine. (orig.)

  18. Understanding safety and production risks in rail engineering planning and protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John R; Ryan, Brendan; Schock, Alex; Ferreira, Pedro; Smith, Stuart; Pitsopoulos, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Much of the published human factors work on risk is to do with safety and within this is concerned with prediction and analysis of human error and with human reliability assessment. Less has been published on human factors contributions to understanding and managing project, business, engineering and other forms of risk and still less jointly assessing risk to do with broad issues of 'safety' and broad issues of 'production' or 'performance'. This paper contains a general commentary on human factors and assessment of risk of various kinds, in the context of the aims of ergonomics and concerns about being too risk averse. The paper then describes a specific project, in rail engineering, where the notion of a human factors case has been employed to analyse engineering functions and related human factors issues. A human factors issues register for potential system disturbances has been developed, prior to a human factors risk assessment, which jointly covers safety and production (engineering delivery) concerns. The paper concludes with a commentary on the potential relevance of a resilience engineering perspective to understanding rail engineering systems risk. Design, planning and management of complex systems will increasingly have to address the issue of making trade-offs between safety and production, and ergonomics should be central to this. The paper addresses the relevant issues and does so in an under-published domain - rail systems engineering work.

  19. Experimental investigation of particle emissions under different EGR ratios on a diesel engine fueled by blends of diesel/gasoline/n-butanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haozhong; Liu, Qingsheng; Wang, Qingxin; Zhou, Chengzhong; Mo, Chunlan; Wang, Xueqiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of EGR and blend fuels on particulate emission were studied in CI engine. • EGR ⩽ 20%, gasoline or n-butanol increases total particulate number concentration. • EGR ⩾ 30%, gasoline or n-butanol reduces total particulate number concentration. • As EGR ratio increased, the particulate mass concentrations of four fuels increased. • Gasoline or n-butanol increases the ratio of sub-25 nm particles number concentration. - Abstract: The particle emission characteristics of a high-pressure common-rail engine under different EGR conditions were investigated, using pure diesel (D100), diesel/gasoline (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70G30), diesel/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:30, D70B30) and diesel/gasoline/n-butanol (with a volume ratio of 70:15:15, D70G15B15) for combustion. Our results show that, with increasing EGR ratios, the in-cylinder pressure peak decreases and the heat release is delayed for the combustion of each fuel. At an EGR ratio of 30%, the combustion pressure peaks of D70G30, D70B30, D70G15B15 and D100 have similar values; with an EGR ratio of 40%, the combustion pressure peaks and release rate peaks of D70G30 and D70G15B15 are both lower with respect to D100. For small and medium EGR ratios (⩽20%), after the addition of gasoline and/or n-butanol to the fuel, the total particle number concentration (TPNC) increases, while both the soot emissions and the average geometric size of particles decrease. At large EGR ratios (30% and 40%), the TPNC of D70B30, D70G15B15 and D70G20 compared to D100 are reduced by a maximum amount of 74.7%, 66.7% and 28.6%, respectively. As the EGR ratio increases, the total particle mass concentration increases gradually for all four fuels. Blending gasoline or/and n-butanol into diesel induces an increase in the number concentration of sub-25 nm particles (PN25) which may be harmful in terms of health. However, the PN25 decreases with increasing the EGR ratio for all the tested fuels

  20. Impact of low temperature combustion attaining strategies on diesel engine emissions for diesel and biodiesels: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtenan, S.; Varman, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Sajjad, H.; Arbab, M.I.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Various low-temperature combustion strategies have been discussed briefly. • Effect on emissions has been discussed under low temperature combustion strategies. • Low-temperature combustion reduces NO x and PM simultaneously. • Higher CO, HC emissions with lower performance are the demerits of these strategies. • Biodiesels are also potential to attain low temperature combustion conditions. - Abstract: Simultaneous reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emissions from diesel exhaust is the key to current research activities. Although various technologies have been introduced to reduce emissions from diesel engines, the in-cylinder reduction techniques of PM and NO x like low temperature combustion (LTC) will continue to be an important field in research and development of modern diesel engines. Furthermore, increasing prices and question over the availability of diesel fuel derived from crude oil have introduced a growing interest. Hence it is most likely that future diesel engines will be operated on pure biodiesel and/or blends of biodiesel and crude oil-based diesel. Being a significant technology to reduce emissions, LTC deserves a critical analysis of emission characteristics for both diesel and biodiesel. This paper critically investigates both petroleum diesel and biodiesel emissions from the view point of LTC attaining strategies. Due to a number of differences of physical and chemical properties, petroleum diesel and biodiesel emission characteristics differ a bit under LTC strategies. LTC strategies decrease NO x and PM simultaneously but increase HC and CO emissions. Recent attempts to attain LTC by biodiesel have created a hope for reduced HC and CO emissions. Decreased performance issue during LTC is also being taken care of by latest ideas. However, this paper highlights the emissions separately and analyzes the effects of significant factors thoroughly under LTC regime

  1. NOx Reduction Technology in Diesel Engine Exhaust by the Plasmatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joa, Sang Beom

    2008-02-01

    The diesel vehicle is relatively superior to gasoline vehicle on the fuel consumption, durability and combustion efficiency. However, exhaust emissions from diesel vehicles are known to be harmful to human health and environment. An experimental study of the diesel fuel reformation by a plasmatron and diesel engine exhaust cleaning by means of plasma chemical pretreatment of fuel is described. Plasma chemical reformation of fuel was carried by a DC arc plasmatron that was fabricated to increase an ability of the gas activation. Some portion of the fuel was activated in an arc discharge and turned into the hydrogen-rich synthesis gas. The yield of reformation for the diesel fuel showed 80 % ∼ 100 % when the small quantities of fuel (flow rate up to about 6 cc/min) were reformed. The regulation for an emission from the diesel vehicle is getting more stringent, the research in the field of the in-cylinder processing technologies (pretreatment) becomes more important issue as well as the catalyst after-treatment. The used high durability plasmatron has the characteristics of low contamination level, low anode erosion rate, low plasma temperature, and effective activation of the process gas. The developed fuel reformation system with the plasmatron was connected to the air feeding inlet sleeve of the diesel engine Kookje 3T90LT-AC (Korea) in order to study the reduction of NOx content in the engine's emission. Tubular reformation chamber was connected to the engine through the heat exchanger DOVER B10Hx20/1P-SC-S. Its cooling jacket was connected in series with the cooling system of the plasmatron. At the exit of this device gas temperature did not exceed ∼40 .deg. C at plasmatron power up to 1.5 kW which seemed quite acceptable. Gas composition was studied here using RBR-Ecom KD gas analyzer. The design of the DC arc plasmatron applied for the plasma chemical fuel reformation was improved boosting the degree of fuel-air mixture activation that provided the

  2. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Alirio; Benjumea, Pedro; Pashova, Veselina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO 2 emissions practically remain constants

  3. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 1,4 DIOXANE-ETHANOL-DIESEL BLENDS ON DIESEL ENGINES WITH AND WITHOUT THERMAL BARRIER COATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Sundar Raj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available 1,4 dioxane, a new additive allows the splash blending of ethanol in diesel in a clear solution. The objective of this investigation is to first create a stable ethanol-diesel blended fuel with 10% 1,4 dioxane additive, and then to generate performance, combustion and emissions data for evaluation of different ethanol content on a single cylinder diesel engine with and without thermal barrier coating. Results show improved performance with blends compared to neat fuel for all conditions of the engine. Drastic reduction in smoke density is found with the blends as compared to neat diesel and the reduction is still better for coated engine. NOx emissions were found to be high for coated engines than the normal engine for the blends. The oxygen enriched fuel increases the peak pressure and rate of pressure rise with increase in ethanol ratio and is still superior for coated engine. Heat release pattern shows higher premixed combustion rate with the blends. Longer ignition delay and shorter combustion duration are found with all blends than neat diesel fuel.

  4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF 1,4 DIOXANE-ETHANOL-DIESEL BLENDS ON DIESEL ENGINES WITH AND WITHOUT THERMAL BARRIER COATING

    OpenAIRE

    Chockalingam Sundar Raj; Sambandam Arul; Subramanian Sendilvelan; Ganapathy Saravanan

    2010-01-01

    1,4 dioxane, a new additive allows the splash blending of ethanol in diesel in a clear solution. The objective of this investigation is to first create a stable ethanol-diesel blended fuel with 10% 1,4 dioxane additive, and then to generate performance, combustion and emissions data for evaluation of different ethanol content on a single cylinder diesel engine with and without thermal barrier coating. Results show improved performance with blends compared to neat fuel for all conditions of th...

  5. Combustion Characterization and Ignition Delay Modeling of Low- and High-Cetane Alternative Diesel Fuels in a Marine Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, John; Seivwright, Doug; Caton, Patrick; Millsaps, Knox

    2014-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef500565t In support of an ongoing U.S. Navy alternative fuel evaluation program, the combustion characteristics of two very different alternative diesel fuels were evaluated in a direct-injection marine diesel engine across a variety of speeds and loads. The fuels were an algal-based hydrotreated renewable diesel fuel (HRD) with cetane number of ∼75 and a synthetic paraffinic kerosene (SPK) with cetane n...

  6. PIXE analysis of exhaust gas from diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Hirosi; Michijima, Masami; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujitani, Tatsuya.

    1986-01-01

    The variation of elemental concentrations in exhaust gas of a Diesel engine with the outputs was studied. Particulates in high temperature gas were collected on silica fiber filters and analyzed by PIXE method. Concentrations of S and V were nearly proportional to particulate masses and fuel consumption rates per discharging rates of exhaust gas respectively. While, concentrations of Fe and Mn were markedly increased together with engine outputs, and Mn/Fe ratios were nearly equal to those of the material of piston rings and the cylinder liner. Concentrations of the elements contained in lubricant, such as Ca and Mo, were also conspicuously increased with the outputs. It was shown that PIXE analysis is a useful tool for engine diagonostics owing to its high sensitive multi-elemental availability without chemical treatments. (author)

  7. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL AND PREMIUM DIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELMER ACEVEDO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel es promocionado como combustible alternativo para sustituir combustibles de origen fósil y reducir emisiones de carbono. Algunos estudios han sido llevados a cabo para estudiar las emisiones de vehículos diesel de baja potencia. Sin embargo, las emisiones sólidas y gaseosas emitidas por vehículos de trabajo operados con biodiesel de palma africana y diesel de bajo contenido de azufre (~ 15 ppm han sido poco estudiadas. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el desempeño y emisiones de un motor Diesel Cummins, 4 tiempos, 9.5 litros, 6 cilindros con sistema de inyección "common rail", y sistema de recirculación de gases. El motor desarrolló una menor potencia (10 % cuando fue operado con biodiesel de palma africana. El motor cumplió con la norma ambiental 2004 cuando fue operado con combustible diesel, sin embargo, con biodiesel de palma africana las emisiones de material particulado y los óxidos de nitrógeno estuvieron fuera de norma.

  8. Performance evaluation of a diesel engine using biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, E.M.; Jamal, Y.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of use of mineral diesel and biodiesel derived from cotton seed oil of Pakistani origin. The main problems associated with biodiesel are, its very high viscosity and specific gravity, which are due to long chain triglyceride esters with free fatty acids. The esters are converted into simple structure mono-glycerides esters via transesterification process. The experiments were carried out using blends of diesel and biodiesel with different ratios, to investigate the performance characteristics of engine and exhaust emissions. The experimental results show that the engine using B100 resulting in about 10% higher brake specific fuel consumption and about 10% lower brake thermal efficiency as compared to the use of B0. The engine emissions were almost free from SO/sub x/, having reduced amount of CO, CO/sub 2/0, and THC, but having higher amount of NOx, when B100 was used as fuel. The fuel is becoming more popular due to the reduction in nasty pollutant emissions. (author)

  9. Palm oil transesterified by metanolysis as diesel engine biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudelo Santamaria, John R; Pena, Diego Leon; Mejia, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews a general background of biodiesel and its potentialities and possibilities as automotive fuel. The paper also compares the colombian production capacity in the world context, and shows its advantages and disadvantages as diesel engine biofuel. The paper discusses some relevant processing techniques of crude palm oil, the methanol transesterification technique being found to be the most suitable one. Finally it shows the results of some important physicochemical characterization of a crude palm oil transesterificated with methanol at the Universidad de Antioquia

  10. Two Stroke Diesel Engines for Large Ship Propulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Sajjad

    In low speed large two-stroke marine diesel engines, uniflow scavenging is used to remove the exhaust gases from the cylinder and fill the cylinder with fresh air charge for the next cycle. The swirl enhances the mixing of fuel with air and improves combustion efficiency. The thesis focuses...... downstream. As the port closes, the mixing of smoke particles in the core with surrounding regions is enhanced. The hollow conical smoke pattern disappears and resembles to a jet. Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements are conducted in the swirl generator and at the entrance to the test cylinder. The results...

  11. Utilization of diesel fuel, anhydrous ethanol and additives blend of a stationary diesel engine with rotatory pump; Utilizacao de mistura ternaria alcool, diesel e aditivo em motores do ciclo diesel com bomba de injecao rotativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes Cruz, Yordanka; Cavado Osorio, Alberto [Centro de Pesquisas de Petroleo (CEINPET), Havana (Cuba); Belchior, Carlos Rodrigues Pereira; Pereira, Pedro P.; Pinto, Nauberto Rodrigues [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia Naval e Mecanica; Aranda, Donato A. Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    In this paper is analyzed the performance and fuel consumption of a stationary Diesel engine, with rotary diesel fuel injection pump, using (diesel fuel + anhydrous ethanol + 0.5% additive) blend. The engine performance parameters and fuel consumption tests were performed at the Termic Machine Laboratory, located in Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and evaluated using a MWM Series 10 model 4.10 TCA. Two test cycles were used for this test program: the tests were carried out starting from the base diesel S-500, used as a reference; the engine operated with (diesel fuel S-500 - 8% anhydrous ethanol - DIOLEFECT additive (0,5% SPAN80 + 0,1% Biomix-D)) blend. The results indicate that: the reduction levels in power and torque of engine are approximately the same which is (2,55{+-}2%), the brake specific fuel consumption increased in 1,8%. (author)

  12. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The experimental results show that both the blends can be used as fuels for diesel engine without any major modification in the engines. It is also seen that the carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions are reduced at all loads for both the blends compared to diesel fuel while NOx emissions are observed to be slightly higher.

  13. THE EFFECT OF SKULDUGGERY IN FUEL OF DIESEL ENGINES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF I. C. ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed R. Jasem

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current research aimed to study the effect of fraud in the diesel fuel on environmental pollution,  the study included two samples of diesel fuel., first sample is used currently in all diesel engines vehicles, and it produced in colander of oil  of Baiji, the second sample is producer manually from mixing of the Lubricating oils and kerosene with ratio(1/40, were prepared and tested in research laboratories and quality control of the North Refineries Company /BAIJI by using standard engine (CFR. comparison between two models of fuel in terms of the properties of the mixing fuel and the properties of diesel fuel standard. The results proved that the process of mixing these ,  leading to the minimization of Cetane number and flash point. While the viscosity increase in  mixing fuel, comparison with fuel producer in the refinery, and which identical to the minimum standard specifications of diesel fuel.The tests had been carried out using the engine of (TQ four stroke type (TD115 with a single-cylinder and compression ratio (21:1 a complement to the hydraulic type Dynamo meter (TD115.

  14. Diesel and gas engines: evolution facing new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daverat, Ph. [Bergetat Monnoyeur (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper analyzes the influence of new pollution regulations on the new design of diesel and gas engines with the example of Caterpillar`s experience, one of the leaders of diesel and gas engines manufacturers worldwide. The technical problems to solve are introduced first (reduction of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, CO, unburned compounds and dusts), and then the evolution of engines and of exhaust gas treatment systems are described (fuel injection systems, combustion and ignition control, sensors, catalytic conversion and filtering systems). (J.S.)

  15. Development of a Real-Time Virtual Nitric Oxide Sensor for Light-Duty Diesel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungha Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the development of a semi-physical, real-time nitric oxide (NO prediction model that is capable of cycle-by-cycle prediction in a light-duty diesel engine. The model utilizes the measured in-cylinder pressure and information obtained from the engine control unit (ECU. From the inputs, the model takes into account the pilot injection burning and mixing, which affects the in-cylinder mixture formation. The representative in-cylinder temperature for NO formation was determined from the mixture composition calculation. The selected temperature and mixture composition was substituted using a simplified form of the NO formation rate equation for the cycle-by-cycle estimation. The reactive area and the duration of NO formation were assumed to be limited by the fuel quantity. The model predictability was verified not only using various steady-state conditions, including the variation of the EGR rate, the boost pressure, the rail pressure, and the injection timing, but also using transient conditions, which represent the worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure (WLTC. The WLTC NO prediction results produced less than 3% error with the measured value. In addition, the proposed model maintained its reliability in terms of hardware aging, the changing and artificial perturbations during steady-state and transient engine operations. The model has been shown to require low computational effort because of the cycle-by-cycle, engine-out NO emission prediction and control were performed simultaneously in an embedded system for the automotive application. We expect that the developed NO prediction model can be helpful in emission calibration during the engine design stage or in the real-time controlling of the exhaust NO emission for improving fuel consumption while satisfying NO emission legislation.

  16. An example of a diesel generator model with fluctuating engine torque for transient analysis using XTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orie Sakamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In remote site power systems with small diesel generators, weak distribution feeders with diesel generators may suffer from voltage and power fluctuations due to misfiring of the engine cylinder. An electromagnetic transient (EMT program named XTAP is considered to be useful to analyze these phenomena. In this study, a new diesel generator model with example fluctuating engine torque has been developed using XTAP for analyses of small power systems with those diesel engines. The configuration and verification results of the developed model are presented in the paper.

  17. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Non-Conformance Penalties for 2004 and later Model Year Emission Standards for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines and Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

  18. FTIR analysis of surface functionalities on particulate matter produced by off-road diesel engines operating on diesel and biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovicheva, Olga B; Kireeva, Elena D; Shonija, Natalia K; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Schwarz, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is applied as a powerful analytic technique for the evaluation of the chemical composition of combustion aerosols emitted by off-road engines fuelled by diesel and biofuels. Particles produced by burning diesel, heated rapeseed oil (RO), RO with ethylhexylnitrate, and heated palm oil were sampled from exhausts of representative in-use diesel engines. Multicomponent composition of diesel and biofuel particles reveal the chemistry related to a variety of functional groups containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. The most intensive functionalities of diesel particles are saturated C-C-H and unsaturated C=C-H aliphatic groups in alkanes and alkenes, aromatic C=C and C=C-H groups in polyaromatics, as well as sulfates and nitrated ions. The distinguished features of biofuel particles were carbonyl C=O groups in carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, and lactones. NO2, C-N and -NH groups in nitrocompounds and amines are found to dominate biofuel particles. Group identification is confirmed by complementary measurements of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, and water-soluble ion species. The relationship between infrared bands of polar oxygenated and non-polar aliphatic functionalities indicates the higher extent of the surface oxidation of biofuel particles. Findings provide functional markers of organic surface structure of off-road diesel emission, allowing for a better evaluation of relation between engine, fuel, operation condition, and particle composition, thus improving the quantification of environmental impacts of alternative energy source emissions.

  19. Prediction and Validation of Heat Release Direct Injection Diesel Engine Using Multi-Zone Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anang Nugroho, Bagus; Sugiarto, Bambang; Prawoto; Shalahuddin, Lukman

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop simulation model which capable to predict heat release of diesel combustion accurately in efficient computation time. A multi-zone packet model has been applied to solve the combustion phenomena inside diesel cylinder. The model formulations are presented first and then the numerical results are validated on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine at various engine speed and timing injections. The model were found to be promising to fulfill the objective above.

  20. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  1. Compressed Biogas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine Optimization Study for Ultralow Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Koten

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to find out the optimum operating conditions in a diesel engine fueled with compressed biogas (CBG and pilot diesel dual-fuel. One-dimensional (1D and three-dimensional (3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD code and multiobjective optimization code were employed to investigate the influence of CBG-diesel dual-fuel combustion performance and exhaust emissions on a diesel engine. In this paper, 1D engine code and multiobjective optimization code were coupled and evaluated about 15000 cases to define the proper boundary conditions. In addition, selected single diesel fuel (dodecane and dual-fuel (CBG-diesel combustion modes were modeled to compare the engine performances and exhaust emission characteristics by using CFD code under various operating conditions. In optimization study, start of pilot diesel fuel injection, CBG-diesel flow rate, and engine speed were optimized and selected cases were compared using CFD code. CBG and diesel fuels were defined as leading reactants using user defined code. The results showed that significantly lower NOx emissions were emitted under dual-fuel operation for all cases compared to single-fuel mode at all engine load conditions.

  2. Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine Tests with Unstabilized Water-in-Fuel Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-01

    A single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle diesel engine was operated on unstabilized water-in-fuel emulsions. Two prototype devices were used to produce the emulsions on-line with the engine. More than 350 test points were run with baseline diesel fuel an...

  3. Comparison of EGR-VTG control schemes for an EPA2010 heavy-duty diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criens, C.H.A.; Willems, F.P.T.; Steinbuch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Next generation heavy-duty diesel engines require tight air path control to meet upcoming emission legislation with minimal fuel consumption. This study concentrates on the emission control of a 13l, 360 kW EGR diesel engine, which is compliant with EPA2010 emission targets. Currently, an

  4. Nitric oxide in a diesel engine : laser-based detection and interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoffels, G.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most polluting components in the exhaust gases of a diesel engines. Therefore, knowledge of the time and place where it is produced during the combustion process is of interest to find a way to reduce diesel engine emissions. Non-intrusive optical diagnostics, based

  5. METHOD OF IMPROVING ENERGY, ECOLOGICAL AND STENGTH CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEHICLE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Abramchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a complex method of deterioration of economic, ecological, and strength indicators of 16ЧН26/27 transport diesel engine. According to the offered method, there were considered conjugated problems applicable to the transport diesel engine combustion chamber and cooling cavities of the cylinder head. Based on the complex research conducted.

  6. Experimental setup for combustion characteristics in a diesel engine using derivative fuel from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andi Mulkan; Zainal, Z.A.

    2006-01-01

    Reciprocating engines are normally run on petroleum fuels or diesel fuels. Unfortunately, energy reserves such as gas and oil are decreasing. Today, with renewable energy technologies petroleum or diesel can be reduced and substituted fully or partly by alternative fuels in engine. The objective of this paper is to setup the experimental rig using producer gas from gasification system mix with diesel fuel and fed to a diesel engine. The Yanmar L60AE-DTM single cylinder diesel engine is used in the experiment. A 20 kW downdraft gasifier has been developed to produce gas using cut of furniture wood used as biomass source. Air inlet of the engine has been modified to include the producer gas. An AVL quartz Pressure Transducer P4420 was installed into the engine head to measure pressure inside the cylinder of the engine. Several test were carried out on the downdraft gasifier system and diesel engine. The heating value of the producer gas is about 4 MJ/m 3 and the specific biomass fuel consumption is about 1.5 kg/kWh. Waste cooking oil (WCO) and crude palm oil (CPO) were used as biomass fuel. The pressure versus crank angle diagram for using blend of diesel are presented and compared with using diesel alone. The result shows that the peak pressure is higher. The premixed combustion is lower but have higher mixing controlled combustion. The CO and NO x emission are higher for biomass fuel

  7. Diesel engine exhaust initiates a sequence of pulmonary and cardiovascular effects in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooter, I.M.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Boere, A.J.F.; Leseman, D.L.A.C.; Fokkens, P.H.B.; Spronk, H.M.H.; Frederix, K.; Ten Cate, H.; Knaapen, A.M.; Vreman, H.J.; Cassee, F.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the sequence of events leading to cardiopulmonary effects following acute inhalation of diesel engine exhaust in rats. Rats were exposed for 2h to diesel engine exhaust (1.9mg/m3), and biological parameters related to antioxidant defense, inflammation,

  8. Combustion performance and pollutant emissions analysis using diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Mingrui; Li, Song; Xiao, Helin; Guo, Guanlun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends were investigated in a CI engine. • Blend with gasoline or iso-butanol produce higher HC emission. • CO increase at low loads and decrease at medium and high loads with blend fuels. • Gasoline or iso-butanol decrease large particles but increase small particles. • Blend fuels reduce total PM number and mass concentrations. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of diesel/gasoline/iso-butanol blends, including pure diesel (D100), diesel (70%)/gasoline (30%) (D70G30, by mass), diesel (70%)/iso-butanol (30%) (D70B30) and diesel (70%)/gasoline (15%)/iso-butanol (15%) (D70G15B15), on combustion and exhaust pollutant emissions characteristics in a four-cylinder diesel engine were experimentally investigated under various engine load conditions with a constant speed of 1800 rpm. The results indicated that D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 delayed the ignition timing and shortened the combustion duration compared to D100. Additionally, CA50 was retarded when engine fuelled with D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 at low engine load conditions, but it was advanced at medium and high engine loads. The maximum pressure rise rates (MPRRs) of D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 were increased compared with D100 except for at engine load of 0.13 MPa BMEP (brake mean effective pressure). Meanwhile, D70G15B15 and D70B30 produced higher brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) than that of D100. The effects of diesel blend with gasoline or iso-butanol on exhaust pollutant emissions were varied with loads. CO emissions were increased obviously and NOx emissions were decreased under low engine loads. However, CO emissions were decreased and NOx emissions were slightly increased under the medium and high engine load conditions. However, D70G30, D70G15B15 and D70B30 leaded to higher HC emissions than D100 regardless the variation of engine load. Moreover, the particulate matter (PM) (diameter, number and mass concentrations) emissions by using

  9. Theoretical investigation of heat balance in direct injection (DI) diesel engines for neat diesel fuel and gasoline fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durgun, O.; Sahin, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of the presented study is to evaluate energy balance theoretically in direct injection (DI) diesel engines at different conditions. To analyze energy balance, a zero-dimensional multi-zone thermodynamic model has been developed and used. In this thermodynamic model, zero-dimensional intake and exhaust approximations given by Durgun, zero-dimensional compression and expansion model given by Heywood and quasi-dimensional phenomenological combustion model developed by Shahed and then improved Ottikkutti have been used and developed with new approximations and assumptions. By using the developed model, complete diesel engine cycle, engine performance parameters and exhaust emissions can be determined easily. Also, by using this model energy balance can be analyzed for neat diesel fuel and for light fuel fumigation easily. In the presented study, heat balance has been investigated theoretically for three different engines and various numerical applications have been conducted. In the numerical applications two different turbocharged DI diesel engines and a naturally aspirated DI diesel engine have been used. From these numerical applications, it is determined that, what portion of available fuel energy is converted to useful work, what amount of fuel energy is lost by exhaust gases or lost by heat transfer. In addition, heat balance has been analyzed for gasoline fumigation and some numerical results have been given. Brake effective power and brake specific fuel consumption increase and brake effective efficiency decreases for gasoline fumigation for turbocharged diesel engines used in numerical applications. Combustion duration increases with increasing fumigation ratio and thus heat transfer to the walls increases. Because exhaust temperature increases, exhaust losses also increases for fumigation case

  10. Preparation of diesel emulsion using auxiliary emulsifier mono ethylene glycol and utilization in a turbocharged diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Emre; Solmaz, Hamit; Polat, Seyfi; Uyumaz, Ahmet; Şahin, Fatih; Salman, M. Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mono-ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier. • Using mono ethylene glycol prolonged precipitation duration of emulsions. • With using E5 and E10 fuels engine torque averagely increased by 0.35% and 1.73% respectively. • It was found that specific fuel consumption of emulsions is lower than diesel. • Using E10 fuel reduced CO, NO x and soot emissions 44%, 47% and 5% respectively. - Abstract: Diesel engines are used widely as they have lower fuel consumption and higher thermal efficiency in transportation sector. However, the emitted high NO x , CO and soot emissions have led researchers to search different alternative fuels. At this point, diesel fuels emulsions help to reduce exhaust emissions. In this study, the effects of diesel fuel emulsions containing 5% (E5) and 10% (E10) water on engine performance an exhaust emissions has been investigated. Mono ethylene glycol was used as an auxiliary emulsifier in the preparation of the emulsion. Use of the mono ethylene glycol reduced the subsidence rate of the E5 and E10 about 34.5% and 47.1% respectively. The experiments were conducted at full load condition and at 2500, 3250 and 4000 rpm engine speeds. Engine torque and power increased according to diesel fuel between 2400 and 3600 engine speed range when emulsified fuels were used. But significant reductions were observed after that engine speed range. It was observed that the nitrogenoxide (NO x ) emission reduced 5.42% and 11.01% with using E5 and E10 fuel respectively according to diesel fuel at 2500 rpm. Also the soot emissions reduced 12.39% and 22.97% with using E5 and E10

  11. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  12. Experimental and regression analysis for multi cylinder diesel engine operated with hybrid fuel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Rajendiran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research work is to build a multiple linear regression model for the characteristics of multicylinder diesel engine using multicomponent blends (diesel- pungamia methyl ester-ethanol as fuel. Nine blends were tested by varying diesel (100 to 10% by Vol., biodiesel (80 to 10% by vol. and keeping ethanol as 10% constant. The brake thermal efficiency, smoke, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, maximum cylinder pressure, angle of maximum pressure, angle of 5% and 90% mass burning were predicted based on load, speed, diesel and biodiesel percentage. To validate this regression model another multi component fuel comprising diesel-palm methyl ester-ethanol was used in same engine. Statistical analysis was carried out between predicted and experimental data for both fuel. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics of multi cylinder diesel engine using similar fuel blends can be predicted without any expenses for experimentation.

  13. Heat Transfer in Large Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael Vincent

    Heat transfer between the cylinder gas and the piston surface during combustion in large two-stroke uniflow scavenged marine diesel engines has been investigated in the present work. The piston surface experiences a severe thermal load during combustion due to the close proximity of the combustion...... zone to the surface. At the same time, cooling of the piston crown is relatively complicated. This can cause large thermal stresses in the piston crown and weakening of the material strength, which may be critical as it can lead to formation of cracks. Information about the piston surface heat transfer...... is thus important for the engine manufactures. The piston surface heat transfer was studied in the event of impingement of hot combustion products on the piston during combustion, and an estimate was obtained of the peak heat flux level experienced on the piston surface. The investigation was carried out...

  14. Potentials and limitations of alternative fuels for diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Radinko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in the world has increased continuously. The most important primary energy source is oil. The supply of automotive fuels today is based almost entirely on oil, and the demand for liquid transportation fuels worldwide will rise significantly in the next fifty years. Growing energy consumption and decreasing fossil resources are reasons for increasing prices of fossil fuel. Besides limited availability, contribution to greenhouse effect and pollutant emission represent another problem of fossil fuel. Both of these problems can be overcome by increased application of renewable biofuels. Therefore, great effort is made to supplement the primary energy sources by including renewable energies. There are alternative fuels 1st and 2nd generation. Some of them show high potential for reduction of engine out emission. But there are economical and technical barriers when such fuels are applied. This paper shows both advantage and disadvantage of alternative fuels, especially when used for diesel engines.

  15. 76 FR 33660 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Model E4 Diesel Piston Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... pressure supply for excessive oscillations to determine if high-pressure fuel pumps have been exposed to damaging pressure oscillations. Pumps that have been exposed require replacement before further flight...

  16. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  17. Use of radioisotopes for monitoring the operating conditions of marine Diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backofen, R.; Strickert, H.

    1981-01-01

    For assessing wear in marine Diesel engines a two-sample activation technique has been developed. The procedure is described, taking the determination of wear of piston rings in the running engine as an example

  18. Development of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    A natural gas and diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compression ignition (CI) engine is developed to reduce emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG) pressure regulator is specially designed to feed back the boost pressure to simplify the fuel metering system. The natural gas bypass improves the engine response to acceleration. The modes of diesel injection are set according to the engine operating conditions. The application of honeycomb mixers changes the flowrate shape of natural gas and reduces hydrocarbon (HC) emission under low-load and lowspeed conditions. The cylinder pressures of a CI engine fuelled with diesel and dual fuel are analysed. The introduction of natural gas makes the ignition delay change with engine load. Under the same operating conditions, the emissions of smoke and NO{sub x} from the dual-fuel engine are both reduced. The HC and CO emissions for the dual-fuel engine remain within the range of regulation. (Author)

  19. Study of In-Cylinder Reactions of High Power-Density Direct Injection Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansons, M

    2004-01-01

    Direct-injection (DI) Diesel or compression-ignition (CI) engine combustion process is investigated when new design and operational strategies are employed in order to achieve a high power-density (HPD) engine...

  20. Adaptation of Advanced Diesel Engines for Military Requirements Under Severe Environmental Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henein, Naeim A; Taraza, Dinu; Chalhoub, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    .... The second area is to examine the different control strategies used in advanced diesel engines to meet the emission goals and their effect on engine performance, fuel economy and exhaust emissions...

  1. Optimization of diesel engine performances for a hybrid wind-diesel system with compressed air energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Younes, R.; Basbous, T.; Ilinca, A.; Dimitrova, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity supply in remote areas around the world is mostly guaranteed by diesel generators. This relatively inefficient and expensive method is responsible for 1.2 million tons of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in Canada annually. Some low- and high-penetration wind-diesel hybrid systems (WDS) have been experimented in order to reduce the diesel consumption. We explore the re-engineering of current diesel power plants with the introduction of high-penetration wind systems together with compressed air energy storage (CAES). This is a viable alternative to major the overall percentage of renewable energy and reduce the cost of electricity. In this paper, we present the operative principle of this hybrid system, its economic benefits and advantages and we finally propose a numerical model of each of its components. Moreover, we are demonstrating the energy efficiency of the system, particularly in terms of the increase of the engine performance and the reduction of its fuel consumption illustrated and supported by a village in northern Quebec. -- Highlights: → The Wind-Diesel-Compressed Air Storage System (WDCAS) has a very important commercial potential for remote areas. → The WDCAS is conceived like the adaptation of the existing engines at the level of the intake system. → A wind turbine and an air compression and storage system are added on the diesel plant. → This study demonstrates the potential of WDCAS to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of the diesel engine. → This study demonstrates that we can expect savings which can reach 50%.

  2. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XIV, I--MAINTAINING THE AIR SYSTEM, CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT REMOVAL--TRANSMISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATING PRINCIPLES AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE AIR SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR TRANSMISSION REMOVAL. TOPICS ARE (1) DEFINITION OF TERMS RELATED TO THE DIESEL AIR SYSTEM, (2) PRNCIPLES OF DIESEL AIR COMPRESSORS, (3) PRINCIPLES OF AIR STARTING MOTORS, (4)…

  3. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of diesel exhaust catalysts, particulate filters and engine modification control technologies for highway and nonroad use diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    This ETV test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research (DER) describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR Part 89 for nonroad engines, will be ...

  4. Design and Performance of LPG Fuel Mixer for Dual Fuel Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrial; Saputro, W.; Garcia, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    Small horizontal diesel engines are commonly used for agricultural machinery, however, availability of diesel fuel become one of big problems especially in remote area. Conversely, in line with government policy for conversion of kerosene into LPG for cooking, then LPG become more popular and available even in remote area. Therefore, LPG is potential fuel to replace the shortage of diesel fuel for operating diesel engine in remote area. The purpose of this study was to design mixing device for using dual fuel i.e. LPG and diesel fuel and evaluate its performance accordingly. Simulation by using CFD was done in order to analyze mixture characteristics of LPG in air intake manifold. The performance test was done by varying the amount of LPG injected in intake air at 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, until 40%, respectively. Result of CFD contour simulation showed the best combination when mixing 30% LPG into the intake air. Performance test of this research revealed that mixing LPG in air intake can reduce the diesel fuel consumption about 0.7 l/hour (without load) and 1.14 l/hour (with load). Diesel engine revolution increases almost 300 rpm faster than when using diesel fuel only. Based on economic analysis, using the fuel combination (diesel fuel – LPG) is not recommended in the area near SPBU where the price of diesel fuel is standard. However, using the fuel combination LPG-diesel fuel is highly recommended in the remote areas in Indonesia where price of diesel fuel is comparatively expensive which will provide cheaper total fuel cost for diesel engine operation.

  5. CFD simulations of the diesel jet primary atomization from a multihole injector

    OpenAIRE

    Chasos, Charalambos

    2017-01-01

    [EN] High pressure multi-hole diesel injectors are currently used in direct-injection common-rail diesel engines for the improvement of fuel injection and air/fuel mixing, and the overall engine performance. The resulting spray injection characteristics are dictated by the injector geometry and the injection conditions, as well as the ambient conditions into which the liquid is injected. The main objective of the present study was to design a high pressure multi-hole diesel inject...

  6. Study of the combined plant for the generator diesel engine; Hatsudenki diesel engine no combined plant no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Y [Kumamoto Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan); Hanada, S; Watase, M; Nakajima, T

    1997-10-01

    It is intended to recover more effectively thermal energy currently discharged from marine vessels into air. This paper describes a diesel engine combined power generation system in which medium-order waste heat energy from a diesel engine for power generation in a marine vessel is recovered and utilized to operate a Rankine cycle system (using the waste gas as the high temperature source and sea water as the low temperature source), thus the thermal energy is recovered as a motive force. Two kinds of fluorocarbons and steam were discussed as a working fluid. Due to fluorocarbons making the whole system ultra-high in pressure, and from a viewpoint of high-temperature thermal stability, the temperature was remained at levels from 100 to 200 degC, and a single-stage expansion cycle was used. With the use of steam, a two-stage reheating cycle was employed, by which the temperature is raised fully up to 300 degC and effective head of fluid was taken largely. Ceramic paint was used as a means to prevent sulfur oxide corrosion when the system is used down to the dew point, and its effectiveness was verified. Motive force recovered by combining the steam two-stage reheating cycle and the ceramic painted heat collector was calculated, whereas electric power output of about 45 kW was obtained from a main generator with 450 PS. The derived thermal efficiency was about 26%. 2 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Diesel and gas engines: evolution following new regulations; Moteurs diesel et gaz: evolution face aux nouvelles reglementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverat, Ph. [Bergerat Monnoyeur (France). Direction Industrie

    1997-12-31

    Engine emissions of CO, NMHC and ashes are easily lowered through a low-cost exhaust gas processing, while NOx processing in fumes is rather complex and environmentally hazardous; thus, engine manufacturers have emphasized their researches for NOx decrease on the engine design: lower combustion temperature in diesel engines through water cooling or air/air exchanger, lean mixture with excess air (open chamber or pre-chamber) in spark ignition gas engines. Examples of modifications in Caterpillar engines are given. Exhaust gas processing for CO, NMHC, NOx (3 way catalytic purifier, selective catalytic reduction) and ashes is also discussed

  8. Fuel Continuous Mixer ? an Approach Solution to Use Straight Vegetable Oil for Marine Diesel Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Đặng Van Uy; Tran The Nam

    2018-01-01

    The vegetable oil is well known as green fuel for diesel engines due to its low sunphur content and renewable stock. However, there are some problems raising when vegetable oil is used as fuel for diesel engines such as highly effected by cold weather, lower general efficiency, separation in layer if mixed with diesel oil and so on. To overcome that disadvantiges, the authors propose a new idea that to use a continuous fuel mixer to blend vegetable oil with diesel oil to make so called a mixe...

  9. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XVII, I--MAINTAINING THE LUBRICATION SYSTEM--CUMMINS DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNIT INSTALLATION AND REMOVAL--DRIVE LINES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIESEL ENGINE LUBRICATION SYSTEM AND THE PROCEDURES FOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION OF THE DRIVE LINE USED IN DIESEL ENGINE POWER DISTRIBUTION. TOPICS ARE (1) PROLONGING ENGINE LIFE, (2) FUNCTIONS OF THE LUBRICATING SYSTEM, (3) TRACING THE LUBRICANT FLOW, (4) DETERMINING…

  10. Pressure-time characteristics in diesel engine fueled with natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Helwan Univ., Mechanical Power Engineering Dept., Cairo (Egypt)

    2001-04-01

    Combustion pressure data are measured and presented for a dual fuel engine running on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas, and compared to the diesel engine case. The maximum pressure rise rate during combustion is presented as a measure of combustion noise. Experimental investigation on diesel and dual fuel engines revealed the noise generated from combustion in both cases. A Ricardo E6 diesel version engine is converted to run on dual fuel of diesel and compressed natural gas and is used throughout the work. The engine is fully computerized and the cylinder pressure data, crank angle data are stored in a PC for off-line analysis. The effect of engine speeds, loads, pilot injection angle, and pilot fuel quantity on combustion noise is examined for both diesel and dual engine. Maximum pressure rise rate and some samples of ensemble averaged pressure-crank angle data are presented in the present work. The combustion noise, generally, is found to increase for the dual fuel engine case as compared to the diesel engine case. (Author)

  11. Combustion of n-butanol/diesel mixtures in prechamber diesel engines. Die Verbrennung von n-Butanol-Dieselkraftstoff-Gemischen im Vorkammer-Dieselmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, E

    1989-01-01

    Systematic tests showed that n-butane was the most promising diesel fuel substitute. Mixtures of n-butanol and diesel fuel were tested on an engine test bench, and the performance was compared with commercial diesel fuels. Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust (soot, particulates, and NO/sub x/) were lower than with unmixed diesel fuel, while the engine performance remained more or less constant. In the problematic operating ranges, partial thermal insulation of the combustion chamber improved the performance of the n-butanol/diesel fuel mixture. (orig.) With 60 figs.

  12. METHODS FOR ORGANIZATION OF WORKING PROCESS FOR GAS-DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Vershina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades reduction in pollutant emissions has become one of the main directions for further deve- lopment of engine technology. Solution of such problems has led to implementation of catalytic post-treatment systems, new technologies of fuel injection, technology for regulated phases of gas distribution, regulated turbocharger system and, lately, even system for variable compression ratio of engine. Usage of gaseous fuel, in particular gas-diesel process, may be one of the means to reduce air pollution caused by toxic substances and meet growing environmental standards and regulations. In this regard, an analysis of methods for organization of working process for a gas-diesel engine has been conducted in the paper. The paper describes parameters that influence on the nature of gas diesel process, it contains graphics of specific total heat consumption according to ignition portion of diesel fuel and dependence of gas-diesel indices on advance angle for igni-tion portion injection of the diesel fuel. A modern fuel system of gas-diesel engine ГД-243 has been demonstrated in the pa- per. The gas-diesel engine has better environmental characteristics than engines running on diesel fuel or gasoline. According to the European Natural & bio Gas Vehicle Association a significant reduction in emissions is reached at a 50%-substitution level of diesel fuel by gas fuel (methane and in such a case there is a tendency towards even significant emission decrease. In order to ensure widespread application of gaseous fuel as fuel for gas-diesel process it is necessary to develop a new wor- king process, to improve fuel equipment, to enhance injection strategy and fuel supply control. A method for organization of working process for multi-fuel engine has been proposed on the basis of the performed analysis. An application has been submitted for a patent.

  13. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  14. Properties and use of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and diesel fuel blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofijur, M.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Atabani, A.E.; Arbab, M.I.; Cheng, S.F.; Gouk, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of biodiesel production from crude Moringa oleifera oil. • Characterization of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blend with diesel fuel. • Evaluation of M. oleifera biodiesel blend in a diesel engine. - Abstract: Researchers have recently attempted to discover alternative energy sources that are accessible, technically viable, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera biodiesel and its 10% and 20% by-volume blends (B10 and B20) in comparison with diesel fuel (B0). The performance and emission of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends in a multi-cylinder diesel engine were determined at various speeds and full load conditions. The properties of M. oleifera biodiesel and its blends complied with ASTM D6751 standards. Over the entire range of speeds, B10 and B20 fuels reduced brake power and increased brake specific fuel consumption compared with B0. In engine emissions, B10 and B20 fuels reduced carbon monoxide emission by 10.60% and 22.93% as well as hydrocarbon emission by 9.21% and 23.68%, but slightly increased nitric oxide emission by 8.46% and 18.56%, respectively, compared with B0. Therefore, M. oleifera is a potential feedstock for biodiesel production, and its blends B10 and B20 can be used as diesel fuel substitutes

  15. Influence of distillation on performance, emission, and combustion of a DI diesel engine, using tyre pyrolysis oil diesel blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan Sivalingam

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of waste to energy is one of the recent trends in minimizing not only the waste disposal but also could be used as an alternate fuel for internal combustion engines. Fuels like wood pyrolysis oil, rubber pyrolysis oil are also derived through waste to energy conversion method. Early investigations report that tyre pyrolysis oil derived from vacuum pyrolysis method seemed to possess properties similar to diesel fuel. In the present work, the crude tyre pyrolisis oil was desulphurised and distilled to improve the properties and studied the use of it. Experimental studies were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke air cooled engine fuelled with two different blends, 30% tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (TPO 30 and 30% distilled tyre pyrolysis oil and 70% diesel fuel (DTPO 30. The results of the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of the engine indicated that NOx is reduced by about 8% compared to tire pyrolysis oil and by about 10% compared to diesel fuel. Hydrocarbon emission is reduced by about 2% compared to TPO 30 operation. Smoke increased for DTPO 30 compared to TPO 30 and diesel fuel.

  16. [FTIR detection of unregulated emissions from a diesel engine with biodiesel fuel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pi-qiang; Hu, Zhi-yuan; Lou, Di-ming

    2012-02-01

    Biodiesel, as one of the most promising alternative fuels, has received more attention because of limited fossil fuels. A comparison of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine unregulated exhaust emissions. A diesel fuel, a pure biodiesel fuel, and fuel with 20% V/V biodiesel blend ratio were tested without engine modification The present study examines six typical unregulated emissions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method: formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (C2 H4 O), acetone (C3 H6 O), toluene (C7 H8), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon dioxide (CO2). The results show addition of biodiesel fuel increases the formaldehyde emission, and B20 fuel has little change, but the formaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel shows a clear trend of addition. Compared with the pure diesel fuel, the acetaldehyde of B20 fuel has a distinct decrease, and the acetaldehyde emission of pure biodiesel is lower than that of the pure diesel fuel at low and middle engine loads, but higher at high engine load. The acetone emission is very low, and increases for B20 and pure biodiesel fuels as compared to diesel fuel. Compared with the diesel fuel, the toluene and sulfur dioxide values of the engine show a distinct decrease with biodiesel blend ratio increasing. It is clear that the biodiesel could reduce aromatic compounds and emissions of diesel engines. The carbon dioxide emission of pure biodiesel has a little lower value than diesel, showing that the biodiesel benefits control of greenhouse gas.

  17. Prediction of major pollutants emission in direct injection dual-fuel diesel and natural-gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirouzpanah, V.; Kashani, B.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dual-fuel diesel engine is a conventional diesel engine in which much of the energy released, hence power, comes from the combustion of gaseous fuel such as natural gas. The exhaust emission characteristics of the dual-fuel diesel engine needs further refinements, particularly in terms of reduction of Unburnt Hydrocarbons and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission, because the concentration of these pollutants are higher than that of the baseline diesel engine. Furthermore, the combustion process in a typical dual-fuel diesel engine tends to be complex, showing combination of the problems encountered both in diesel and spark ignition engines. In this work, a computer code has been modified for simulation of dual-fuel diesel engine combustion process. This model simulates dual-fuel diesel engine combustion by using a Multi-Zone Combustion Model for diesel pilot jet combustion and a conventional spark ignition combustion model for modelling of combustion of premixed gas/air charge. Also, in this model, there are four submodels for prediction of major emission pollutants such as: Unburnt Hydrocarbons, No, Co and soot which are emitted from dual-fuel diesel engine. For prediction of formation and oxidation rates of pollutants, relevant s conventional kinetically-controlled mechanisms and mass balances are used. the model has been verified by experimental data obtained from a heavy-duty truck and bus diesel engines. The comparison shows that, there exist good agreements between the experimental and predicted results from the dual-fuel diesel engine

  18. Improvement of combustion in a direct injection diesel engine by micro-hole nozzle; Micro hole nozzle wo mochiita chokusetsu funshashiki diesel kikan no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, M. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Kobori, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Iida, N. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    2000-07-25

    In an attempt to promote the atomization of fuel spray and the mixing of fuel and air in diesel engines, a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter smaller than 0.10mm was developed. In this study, the combustion tests were carried out using a single cylinder diesel engine equipped with a micro-hole nozzle and a common rail type high-pressure fuel injection system. A comparison with the results of a conventional nozzle experiment showed that the peak of initial premixed combustion increased, but the peak of diffusion combustion decreased. As a result, when nozzle orifice diameter become small from {phi} 0.15 mm to {phi} 0.10 mm, the combustion was accompanied by smokeless with the same levels of NO{sub x} emission and fuel economy. And results of a comparison the toroidal type chamber with the shallow dish type chamber revealed that the optimization of combustion chamber is necessary for the increase of the injection stage with increasing of the number of nozzle orifice. If an orifice diameter becomes {phi} 0.06 mm, the diffusion combustion can not be observed and the combustion is formed of only premixed combustion. The combustion in the case of {phi} 0.06 mm was accompanied with the drastic deterioration of fuel economy, smoke and HC with all over load. But the micro-hole nozzle has a potential for the formation of the lean and homogeneous premixed mixture until the fuel-air mixture ignites. (author)

  19. Effects of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on combustion and emission characteristics in a passenger car diesel engine with pilot injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyuntae; Choi, Kibong; Lee, Chang Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of biobutanol blends on NOx and soot emission characteristics in a diesel engine. • Comparison of combustion characteristics between biobutanol and diesel fuels. • Effect of pilot injection on combustion and emissions reduction in a diesel engine. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effect of biobutanol and biobutanol–diesel blends on the combustion and emission characteristics in a four-cylinder compression ignition engine using pilot injection strategies. The test fuels were a mixture of 10% biobutanol and 90% conventional diesel (Bu10), 20% biobutanol and 80% diesel (Bu20), and 100% diesel fuel (Bu0) based on mass. To study the combustion and emission characteristics of the biobutanol blended fuels, we carried out experimental investigations under various pilot injection timings from BTDC 20° to BTDC 60° with constant main injection timing. As the butanol content in the blended fuel increased, the experimental results indicated that the ignition delay was longer than that of diesel fuel for all pilot injection timings. Also, the indicated specific fuel consumption (ISFC) of the blended fuels was higher than that of diesel at all test conditions. However, the exhaust temperature was lower than that of diesel at all injection timings. Nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO) and soot from Bu20 were lower than those from diesel fuel at all test conditions and hydrocarbons (HC) were higher than that from diesel.

  20. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: ECunderground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population-based epidemiological studies and guide future exposure assessment efforts for industrial hygiene and epidemiological studies.

  1. Experimental Investigations on Conventional and Semi-Adiabatic Diesel Engine Using Simarouba Biodiesel as Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, M. U.; Reddy, C. P.; Ravindranath, K.

    2013-04-01

    In view of fast depletion of fossil fuels and the rapid rate at which the fuel consumption is taking place all over the world, scientists are searching for alternate fuels for maintaining the growth industrially and economically. Hence search for alternate fuel(s) has become imminent. Out of the limited options for internal combustion engines, the bio diesel fuel appears to be the best. Many advanced countries are implementing several biodiesel initiatives and developmental programmes in order to become self sufficient and reduce the import bills. Biodiesel is biodegradable and renewable fuel with the potential to enhance the performance and reduce engine exhaust emissions. This is due to ready usage of existing diesel engines, fuel distribution pattern, reduced emission profiles, and eco-friendly properties of biodiesel. Simarouba biodiesel (SBD), the methyl ester of Simarouba oil is one such alternative fuel which can be used as substitute to conventional petro-diesel. The present work involves experimental investigation on the use of SBD blends as fuel in conventional diesel engine and semi-adiabatic diesel engine. The oil was triple filtered to eliminate particulate matter and then transesterified to obtain biodiesel. The project envisaged aims at conducting analysis of diesel with SBD blends (10, 20, 30 and 40 %) in conventional engine and semi-adiabatic engine. Also it was decided to vary the injection pressure (180, 190 and 200 bar) and observe its effect on performance and also suggest better value of injection pressure. The engine was made semi adiabatic by coating the piston crown with partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Kirloskar AV I make (3.67 kW) vertical, single cylinder, water cooled diesel engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer with suitable measuring instrumentation/accessories used for the study. Experiments were initially carried out using pure diesel fuel to provide base line data. The test results were compared based on the performance

  2. Successful testing of an emergency diesel generator engine at very low load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killinger, A.; Loeper, St.

    2001-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the nuclear power industry has been concerned about the ability of emergency diesel generator sets (EDGs) to operate for extended periods of time at low loads (typically less than 33% of design rating) and still be capable of meeting their design safety requirement. Most diesel engine manufacturers today still caution owners and operators to avoid running their diesel engines for extended periods of time at low loads. At one nuclear power plant, the emergency electrical bus arrangement only required approximately 25% of the EDG's design rating, which necessitated that the plant operators monitor EDG operating hours and periodically increase electrical load. In order to eliminate the plant operations burden of periodically loading the EDGs, the nuclear power plant decided to conduct a low-load test of a ''spare'' diesel engine. A SACM Model UD45V16S5D diesel engine was returned to the factory in Mulhouse, France where the week long testing at rated speed and 3% of design rating was completed. The test demonstrated that the engine was capable of operating for seven days (168 hours) at very low loads, with no loss of performance and no unusual internal wear or degradation. The planning and inspections associated with preparing the diesel engine for the test, the engine monitoring performed during the test, the final test results, and the results and material condition of the engine following the test are described. The successful diesel engine low-load test resulted in the elimination of unnecessary nuclear power plant operation restrictions that were based on old concerns about long-term, low-load operation of diesel engines. The paper describes the significance of this diesel engine test to the nuclear power plant and the entire nuclear power industry. (author)

  3. The performance and emissions of diesel engines with biodiesel of sunan pecan seed and diesel oil blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, F.; Sitorus, T. B.; Ginting, E.

    2017-12-01

    An observation was performed to evaluate the performance of direct injection stationary diesel engine which used a blends of biodiesel of Sunan pecan seed. The experiments were done with diesel oil, B5, B10, B15 and B20 in the engine speed variety. Results showed that the values of torque, power and thermal efficiency tend to decrease when the engine is using B5, B10, B15 and B20, compared to diesel oil. It also shown that the specific fuel consumption is increased when using B5, B10, B15 and B20. From the results of experiments and calculations, the maximum power of 3.08 kW, minimum specific fuel consumption of 189.93 g/kWh and maximum thermal efficiency of 45.53% when engine using diesel oil. However, exhaust gases were measured include opacity, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon when the engine using biodiesel B5, B10, B15 and B20 decreased.

  4. Use of calophyllum inophyllum biofuel blended with diesel in DI diesel engine modified with nozzle holes and its size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairamuthu, G.; Sundarapandian, S.; Thangagiri, B.

    2016-05-01

    Improved thermal efficiency, reduction in fuel consumption and pollutant emissions from biodiesel fueled diesel engines are important issues in engine research. To achieve these, fast and perfect air-biodiesel mixing are the most important requirements. The mixing quality of biodiesel spray with air can be improved by better design of the injection system. The diesel engine tests were conducted on a 4-stroke tangentially vertical single cylinder (TV1) kirloskar 1500 rpm water cooled direct injection diesel engine with eddy current dynamometer. In this work, by varying different nozzles having spray holes of 3 (base, Ø = 0.280 mm), 4 (modified, Ø = 0.220 mm) and 5 (modified, Ø = 0.240 mm) holes, with standard static injection timing of 23° bTDC and nozzle opening pressure (NOP) of 250 bar maintained as constant throughout the experiment under steady state at full load condition of the engine. The effect of varying different nozzle configuration (number of holes), on the combustion, performance and exhaust emissions, using a blend of calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester by volume in diesel were evaluated. The test results showed that improvement in terms of brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption for 4 holes and 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar. Substantial improvements in the reduction of emissions levels were also observed for 5 holes nozzle operated at NOP 250 bar.

  5. 150 years of Rudolf Diesel; 150 Jahre Rudolf Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basshuysen, R. van; Siebenpfeiffer, W. (eds.)

    2008-03-15

    'My engine is still making great progress', Rudolf Diesel wrote in a letter to his wife on 3 July 1895. The fact that Diesel's statement still holds true can be seen every day on our roads and at sea. But it is equally true that the idea of this eccentric and doubter who wanted to dedicate himself with an over-inflated self-belief to the welfare of humanity, needed a certain time to take a form that others could recognise in order to continuously refine this life's work. Diesel himself did not live to see most of the milestones that were repeatedly set thanks to his engine. It was not until 23 years after his unexplained death in 1913 that people were able to buy the first passenger car to be equipped with a diesel engine - with a top speed of 90 km/h. Today, diesel cars can easily reach speeds of up to 300 km/h, and even if there is little point in such excessive speeds outside racetracks like Le Mans, they are nevertheless clear evidence of the incredible evolution of the noisy, smoky truck engine to a high-tech racing power unit, from the ear-splitting rattle of the pre-chamber diesel to the highly refined, soot-free, common-rail diesel engine of today. The Publisher hopes you enjoy reading this unique progress report. (orig.)

  6. Study on Emission and Performance of Diesel Engine Using Castor Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saiful Islam

    2014-01-01

    performance of diesel engine using the castor biodiesel and its blend with diesel from 0% to 40% by volume. The acid-based catalyzed transesterification system was used to produce castor biodiesel and the highest yield of 82.5% was obtained under the optimized condition. The FTIR spectrum of castor biodiesel indicates the presence of C=O and C–O functional groups, which is due to the ester compound in biodiesel. The smoke emission test revealed that B40 (biodiesel blend with 40% biodiesel and 60% diesel had the least black smoke compared to the conventional diesel. Diesel engine performance test indicated that the specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blend was increased sufficiently when the blending ratio was optimized. Thus, the reduction in exhaust emissions and reduction in brake-specific fuel consumption made the blends of caster seed oil (B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution.

  7. Entropy generation in a diesel engine turbocharging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakonieczny, K.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes a model of entropy production in a diesel engine turbocharging system, discussing the processes occurring in the compressor, turbine, piping system, charge-air cooler and valves with the exclusion of combustion. The charging efficiency of the system is studied in two distinct engine operating states, conforming to maximum torque and nominal power conditions. Unlike in the standard approach, where the irreversibilities are derived from the balance equation for exergy and thus are addressed inexactly, the criterion function based on the notion of entropy generation, introduced in this paper, improves second law analysis of turbocharged engines by accounting for a direct description of the system internal irreversibilities. This function is used for the examination of an impact of the system design parameters on its efficiency. Computations based on the unsteady one-dimensional flow model show that, under the variations of the inlet pipe length, the timings of inlet valve opening and exhaust valve closure, and the valve overlap period, a favourable correlation can be found between the decrease of entropy production and the increase in amount of air charged into the engine cylinders. The other variables under study, including the turbine equivalent area, temperature decrease in intercooler and wastegate effective area ratio, show an opposite correlation, and thus, can be viewed as constraints in the system optimisation

  8. Diesel engine development in view of reduced emission standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Diesel engine development for use in light-, medium- and heavy-duty road vehicles is mainly driven by more and more stringent emission standards. Apart from air quality related emissions such as nitrogen oxides and particulates, also greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to become of more and more importance. Furthermore, oil-based fuel availability might become a problem due to limited reserves or due to political influences which leads to significantly increased fuel costs. Based on the above aspects, advanced engine technologies become essential and are discussed. Fuel injection with rate shaping capability and elevated injection pressures, air handling systems to increase the brake mean effective pressures (BMEPs) and specific power with a downsizing approach, while retaining a good dynamic response using possibly two-stage turbocharging. Heterogeneous and near-homogeneous combustion processes where the latter could possibly reduce the requirements on the exhaust gas aftertreatment system. Improvement and further development of engine management and control systems, exhaust gas aftertreatment for a reduction of nitrogen oxides and especially particulates and last but not least, energy recovery from the exhaust gas. Furthermore, alternative fuel usage in road vehicles is becoming important and their application in internal combustion engines is discussed

  9. Effect of hydrogen-diesel combustion on the performance and combustion parameters of a dual fuelled diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.K.; Banerjee, Rahul; Deb, Madhujit [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura-799055 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Petroleum crude is expected to remain main source of transport fuels at least for the next 20 to 30 years. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. In this paper, experiments are performed in a fur stroke, single cylinder, compression ignition diesel engine with dual fuel mode. Diesel and hydrogen are used as pilot liquid and primary gaseous fuel, respectively. The objective of this study is to find out the effects on combustion and performance parameters observed at diesel hydrogen fuel mixture for all the different loadings (2kg,4kg,6kg,8kg,10kg and 12kg) in the engine.

  10. Performance evaluation of common rail direct injection (CRDI engine fuelled with Uppage Oil Methyl Ester (UOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Basavarajappa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For economic and social development of any country energy is one of the most essential requirements. Continuously increasing price of crude petroleum fuels in the present days coupled with alarming emissions and stringent emission regulations has led to growing attention towards use of alternative fuels like vegetable oils, alcoholic and gaseous fuels for diesel engine applications. Use of such fuels can ease the burden on the economy by curtailing the fuel imports. Diesel engines are highly efficient and the main problems associated with them is their high smoke and NOx emissions.  Hence there is an urgent need to promote the use of alternative fuels in place of high speed diesel (HSD as substitute. India has a large agriculture base that can be used as a feed stock to obtain newer fuel which is renewable and sustainable. Accordingly Uppage oil methyl ester (UOME biodiesel was selected as an alternative fuel. Use of biodiesels in diesel engines fitted with mechanical fuel injection systems has limitation on the injector opening pressure (300 bar. CRDI system can overcome this drawback by injecting fuel at very high pressures (1500-2500 bar and is most suitable for biodiesel fuels which are high viscous. This paper presents the performance and emission characteristics of a CRDI diesel engine fuelled with UOME biodiesel at different injection timings and injection pressures. From the experimental evidence it was revealed that UOME biodiesel yielded overall better performance with reduced emissions at retarded injection timing of -10° BTDC in CRDI mode of engine operation.

  11. Rail Safety/Equipment Crashworthiness : Volume 3. Proposed Engineering Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The document, the third of four volumes, contains recommended Engineering Standards prepared in the format of the standards published in the Code of Federal Regulations (Title 49, Transportation, Parts 200). The standards proposed provide improved oc...

  12. Experimental Analysis of DI Diesel Engine Performance with Blend Fuels of Oxygenated Additive and COME Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkateswara Rao; B.V. Appa Rao; D. Radhakrishna

    2012-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of using Triacetin (T) as an additive with biodiesel on direct injection diesel engine for performance and combustion characteristics. Normally in the usage of diesel fuel and neat biodiesel, knocking can be detected to some extent. By adding triacetin [C9H14O6] additive to biodiesel, this problem can be alleviated to some extent and the tail pipe emissions are reduced. Comparative study was conducted using petro-diesel, bio...

  13. An Optical Method for Measuring Injection Timing in Diesel Engines, Using a Single Port

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    injection, naturally aspirated marine diesel engine with mechanical unit injectors and showed satisfactory results with blends ranging from 25% HRD/75... injector technology, they further concluded that the mechanical unit injectors found throughout the naval fleet and on the Detroit Diesel 3–53 in the...injection timing in a pump-line- nozzle system of blending Fischer- Tropsch derived diesel fuel with low sulfur, ultra-low sulfur and biodiesel fuels. The

  14. Exergy and Energy Analysis of Combustion of Blended Levels of Biodiesel, Ethanol and Diesel Fuel in a DI Diesel Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoobbakht, Golmohammad; Akram, A.; Karimi, Mahmoud; Najafi, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis showed that thermal efficiency of diesel engine was 36.61%. • Energy loss and work output rates were 71.36 kW and 41.22 kW, respectively. • Exergy efficiency increased with increasing engine load and speed. • Exergy efficiency increased with increasing biodiesel and bioethanol. • 0.17 L of biodiesel, 0.08 L of ethanol in 1 L of diesel at 1900 rpm and 94% load had maximum exergy efficiency. - Abstract: In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to analyze the energy and energy in a four-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine using blended levels of biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel. Also investigated the effect of operating factors of engine load and speed as well as blended levels of biodiesel and ethanol in diesel fuel on the exergy efficiency. The experiments were designed using a statistical tool known as Design of Experiments (DoE) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) of response surface methodology (RSM). The resultant quadratic models of the response surface methodology were helpful to predict the response parameter (exergy efficiency) further to identify the significant interactions between the input factors on the responses. The results depicted that the exergy efficiency decreased with increasing percent by volume biodiesel and ethanol fuel. The fuel blend of 0.17 L biodiesel and 0.08 L of ethanol added to 1 L of diesel (equivalent with D80B14E6) at 1900 rpm and 94% load was realized have the most exergy efficiency. The results of energy and exergy analyses showed that 43.09% of fuel exergy was destructed and the average thermal efficiency was approximately 36.61%, and the exergetic efficiency was approximately 33.81%.

  15. Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh; Kumar, Naveen; Pal, Shyam Sunder; Du Jun, Yong

    2011-01-01

    To diversify the mix of domestic energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is widely investigated for applying in combination with Diesel fuel to reduce pollutants, including smoke and NO x . Present work aims at developing a fumigation system for introduction of ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine and to determine its effects on emission. Fumigation was achieved by using a constant volume carburetor. Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were then introduced in the Diesel engine, under various load conditions. Ethanol is an oxygenated fuel and lead to smooth and efficient combustion. Atomization of ethanol also results in lower combustion temperature. During the present study, gaseous emission has been found to be decreasing with ethanol fumigation. Results from the experiment suggest that ethanol fumigation can be effectively employed in existing compression ignition engine to achieve substantial saving of the limited Diesel oil. Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibit better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. Ethanol fumigation has resulted in increase of unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emission in the entire load range. Considering the parameters, the optimum percentage was found as 15% for ethanol fumigation. -- Research highlights: → To diversify energy resources and to reduce dependence on imported oil, ethanol is used in Diesel engine to reduce pollutants. → Developing a fumigation system to inject ethanol in a small capacity Diesel engine, to determine its effects on emissions. → Different percentages of ethanol fumes with air were introduced in Diesel engine, under various load conditions by using a constant volume carburetor. → Results show that fumigated Diesel engine exhibits better engine performance with lower NOx, CO, CO 2 and exhaust temperature. → Results show increase of unburned hydrocarbon emission in entire load range. Optimum percentage found as 15% for

  16. Power and Torque Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled by Palm-Kernel Oil Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguntola J. ALAMU

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term engine performance tests were carried out on test diesel engine fuelled with Palm kernel oil (PKO biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was produced through transesterification process using 100g PKO, 20.0% ethanol (wt%, 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst at 60°C reaction temperature and 90min. reaction time. The diesel engine was attached to a general electric dynamometer. Torque and power delivered by the engine were monitored throughout the 24-hour test duration at 1300, 1500, 1700, 2000, 2250 and 2500rpm. At all engine speeds tested, results showed that torque and power outputs for PKO biodiesel were generally lower than those for petroleum diesel. Also, Peak torque for PKO biodiesel occurred at a lower engine speed compared to diesel.

  17. Unsupervised Condition Change Detection In Large Diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Larsen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can be investig...... be investigated further. The method is successfully applied to unsupervised condition change detection in large diesel engines from acoustical emission sensor signal and compared to more classical techniques based on principal component analysis and Gaussian mixture models.......This paper presents a new method for unsupervised change detection which combines independent component modeling and probabilistic outlier etection. The method further provides a compact data representation, which is amenable to interpretation, i.e., the detected condition changes can...

  18. A review on the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, Natalina; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Tong, Chong Wen; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Silitonga, Arridina Susan

    2018-06-01

    Biodiesels have gained much popularity because they are cleaner alternative fuels and they can be used directly in diesel engines without modifications. In this paper, a brief review of the key studies pertaining to the engine performance and exhaust emission characteristics of diesel engines fueled with biodiesel blends, exhaust aftertreatment systems, and low-temperature combustion technology is presented. In general, most biodiesel blends result in a significant decrease in carbon monoxide and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions. There is also a decrease in carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, and total unburned hydrocarbon emissions while the engine performance increases for diesel engines fueled with biodiesels blended with nano-additives. The development of automotive technologies, such as exhaust gas recirculation systems and low-temperature combustion technology, also improves the thermal efficiency of diesel engines and reduces nitrogen oxide and particulate matter emissions.

  19. Performance of compression ignition engine with indigenous castor oil bio diesel in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Castor oil available indigenously in Pakistan was converted successfully to bio diesel and blended to 10% quantity (by volume) with high speed mineral diesel (HSD) fuel. This fuel was tested in a compression-ignition engine in order to assess its environmental emissions as well as engine performance parameters. The blended fuel was found to give lower environmental emissions in most accounts except for higher CO/sub 2/ and higher NOx. In addition, three engine performance parameters were assessed; which were engine brake power, engine torque and exhaust temperature. In the first two cases, blended bio diesel fuel gave lower figures than pure mineral diesel due to lower calorific value. However, its higher flash point resulted in higher engine exhaust temperatures than pure mineral diesel. Overall, in terms of engine performance, castor oil bio diesel (from non edible oil of castor bean -growing on marginal lands of Pakistan) fared better in comparison to canola oil bio diesel (from expensive edible oil) and can be recommended for further tests at higher blend ratios. (author)

  20. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Diesel Equipment Repair & Service (Program CIP: 47.0605--Diesel Engine Mechanic & Repairer). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for diesel engine mechanics I and II. Presented first are a program…

  2. Laser-induced-fluorescence imaging of NO in a eta-heptane- and diesel-fuel-driven diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, T.M.; Klein-Douwel, R.J.H.; Huigen, G.; Walwijk, van E.; Meulen, ter J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Continuous on-line imaging by 2D-LIF techniques of in-cylinder NO distributions in a running Diesel engine is explored using an ArF-excimer laser at 193 nm operating at low power. For the first time NO excitation spectra could be measured as a result of high optical transparencies during

  3. A comparative study of almond biodiesel-diesel blends for diesel engine in terms of performance and emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamdeh, Nidal H; Alnefaie, Khaled A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the opportunity of using almond oil as a renewable and alternative fuel source. Different fuel blends containing 10, 30, and 50% almond biodiesel (B10, B30, and B50) with diesel fuel (B0) were prepared and the influence of these blends on emissions and some performance parameters under various load conditions were inspected using a diesel engine. Measured engine performance parameters have generally shown a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature and in brake specific fuel consumption and a slight decrease in brake thermal efficiency. Gases investigated were carbon monoxide (CO) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Furthermore, the concentration of the total particulate and the unburned fuel emissions in the exhaust gas were tested. A blend of almond biodiesel with diesel fuel gradually reduced the engine CO and total particulate emissions compared to diesel fuel alone. This reduction increased with more almond biodiesel blended into the fuel. Finally, a slight increase in engine NO x using blends of almond biodiesel was measured.

  4. Development of generalized dynamic model of oscillations of cylinder case of diesel engine of locomotive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina YUTKINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An engineering method of design, worked out by the authors, is considered in the paper. It allows to carry out design of amplitude-frequency specter and vibration loading of cylinder cases of the diesel engine of locomotive with account of cavitation-erosion damage. Offered method of design of parameters of cavitation-erosion damage may be used in design of new structures of diesel engines of locomotives and systems of cooling.

  5. Fuel saving performances of marine diesel engine oils on board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yasunori; Henmi, Takashi; Minamitani, Hiromu; Akizawa, Hayao; Hamada, Minoru; Ashida, Jiro

    1988-05-01

    After the second oil crisis, the percentage of the fuel cost against the operational cost of a ship has been showing the rising tendency, engine manufacturers have placed the top priority on the improvement of fuel consumption, operators have been conducting various energy saving measures and refiners have been paying efforts to improve lubricating oil. This article reports the study on the lubricating oil characteristics affecting the fuel consumption per power output, particularly the viscosity and the adding effect of friction modifier additives by using dynamo-generator diesel engines on board the ships already in commission. The investigation was conducted by comparing the cases of using several sample oils with the cases of using the reference oils. According to the results, the viscous property of engine oil was most effective on fuel consumption and the lower the viscosity of oil, the more the fuel consumption effect was. However, the addition of friction modifier additives did hardly show any improvement of the above effect. (5 figs, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  6. Performance and emission characteristics of a turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Melmaruvathur, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [I.C. Engines Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes an experimental study concerning the feasibility of using bio-oil namely turpentine obtained from the resin of pine tree. The emission and performance characteristics of a D.I. diesel engine were studied through dual fuel (DF) mode. Turpentine was inducted as a primary fuel through induction manifold and diesel was admitted into the engine through conventional fueling device as an igniter. The result showed that except volumetric efficiency, all other performance and emission parameters are better than those of diesel fuel with in 75% load. The toxic gases like CO, UBHC are slightly higher than that of the diesel baseline (DBL). Around 40-45% smoke reduction is obtained with DF mode. The pollutant No{sub x} is found to be equal to that of DBL except at full load. This study has proved that approximately 75% diesel replacement with turpentine is possible by DF mode with little engine modification. (author)

  7. Proposal for future trend of engine mechatronics in marine diesel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, Ichiro; Higashi, Tadanori (Ashiya Univ., Hyogo (Japan))

    1989-02-01

    A future condition of engine mechatronics in the marine diesel engines was proposed. As a result of investigation, it was understood that the diesel engine, as mechatronicalized for the land plant use with an already high technology, is done for the marine use as an amplification of applying that for the land plant use. The marine diesel engine, if only maintaining the good performance in all the operating conditions, is low in mechatronicalized effect as compared with that for the land plant use. Particularly, there is no expectation of effect on the large ship. While as a reply to an inquiry to 100 enterprises, expectation, in the all automation electronic control, was of, in the order of expectation, reliability, automation, energy and labor saving, and anomaly diagnosis, which showed the most desired expectation to be of reliability. In other words, the reliability is presently one of the weakest points to apply the electronic control, which inversely requires the solution for the reliability. However there can be no expectation of decrease in fuel coat due to the mechatronicalization. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  9. Reduction of exhaust gas emission for marine diesel engine. Hakuyo engine no taisaku (hakuyo engine no mondaiten to tenbo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Y. (Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-05

    Since bunker fuel became extremely expensive through the first and second oil crisis, the share of steam turbines having lower thermal efficiency than diesel engines became less, and at present, almost all ships and vessels are equipped with Diesel engines. Also fuel consumption of a diesel engine has successfully been reduced by 24% in about 10 years, but the discharge of air pollutant in the exhaust gas has shown a trend of increase. Air pollutant in exhaust gas of marine engines which has not drawn attention so far has also begun attracting notice, and as marine traffic increases, some control of it will be made sooner or later. Hence economical and effective counter measures against exhaust gas are necessary. In this article, as measures for reducing NO {sub x}, discussions are made on water-emulsion fuel, humidification of air supply, multi-nozzle atomization, injection time delaying and SCR (selective catalitic reduction). Also measures for reducing SO {sub x} is commented upon and the continuation of superiority of Diesel engines in the future is predicted. 5 figs.

  10. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li-Ping, E-mail: yangliping302@hrbeu.edu.cn; Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen [Institute of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, No. 145-1, Nantong Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150001 (China); Litak, Grzegorz [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  11. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Litak, Grzegorz; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions.

  12. Identification and quantification analysis of nonlinear dynamics properties of combustion instability in a diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Ding, Shun-Liang; Song, En-Zhe; Ma, Xiu-Zhen; Litak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    The cycling combustion instabilities in a diesel engine have been analyzed based on chaos theory. The objective was to investigate the dynamical characteristics of combustion in diesel engine. In this study, experiments were performed under the entire operating range of a diesel engine (the engine speed was changed from 600 to 1400 rpm and the engine load rate was from 0% to 100%), and acquired real-time series of in-cylinder combustion pressure using a piezoelectric transducer installed on the cylinder head. Several methods were applied to identify and quantitatively analyze the combustion process complexity in the diesel engine including delay-coordinate embedding, recurrence plot (RP), Recurrence Quantification Analysis, correlation dimension (CD), and the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) estimation. The results show that the combustion process exhibits some determinism. If LLE is positive, then the combustion system has a fractal dimension and CD is no more than 1.6 and within the diesel engine operating range. We have concluded that the combustion system of diesel engine is a low-dimensional chaotic system and the maximum values of CD and LLE occur at the lowest engine speed and load. This means that combustion system is more complex and sensitive to initial conditions and that poor combustion quality leads to the decrease of fuel economy and the increase of exhaust emissions

  13. MTU underfloor rail drives based on Series 1600 engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Norbert; Lieb, Martin; Reich, Christian [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    With the heavy demands now being placed on railcar drive systems, ever more powerful solutions are needed. For the new high-speed trains in Britain's Intercity Express Programme (IEP), Hitachi udorses the use of MTU's underfloor drives based on Series 1600 engines.

  14. Study of the cycle variability at an automotive diesel engine fuelled with LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoianu Liviu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Petroleum Gas is a viable alternative fuel for diesel engines due to its ability of emissions and fuel consumption reduction. Combustion variability at LPG diesel engine is analysed for maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle and indicated mean effective pressure. Combustion variability is influenced by the increase of LPG cycle dose which lead to the increase of the cycle variability coefficients values, but without exceeding the admitted values that provide diesel engine reliability. Analysis of COV values establishes the maximum admitted values of LPG cycle.

  15. PERFORMANCE AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS OF CI ENGINE FUELLED WITH NON EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL AND DIESEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ELANGO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine which is fuelled with different blends of jatropha oil and diesel (10–50%. A single cylinder four stroke diesel engine was used for the experiments at various loads and speed of 1500 rpm. An AVL 5 gas analyzer and a smoke meter were used for the measurements of exhaust gas emissions. Engine performance (specific fuel consumption SFC, brake thermal efficiency, and exhaust gas temperature and emissions (HC, CO, CO2, NOx and Smoke Opacity were measured to evaluate and compute the behaviour of the diesel engine running on biodiesel. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of diesel is higher at all loads. Among the blends maximum brake thermal efficiency and minimum specific fuel consumption were found for blends upto 20% Jatropha oil. The specific fuel consumption of the blend having 20% Jatropha oil and 80% diesel (B20 was found to be comparable with the conventional diesel. The optimum blend is found to be B20 as the CO2 emissions were lesser than diesel while decrease in brake thermal efficiency is marginal.

  16. Soot Formation Modeling of n-dodecane and Diesel Sprays under Engine-Like Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Poon, Hiew Mun; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2015-01-01

    This work concerns the modelling of soot formation process in diesel spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The key aim is to investigate the soot formation characteristics at different ambient temperatures. Prior to simulating the diesel combustion, numerical models including a revised...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION OF EMISSION CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    While lower emissions limits that took effect in 2004 and reduced sulfur content in diesel fuels will reduce emissions from new heavy-duty engines, the existing diesel fleet, which pollutes at much higher levels, may still have a lifetime of 20 to 30 years. Fleet operators seekin...

  18. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  19. STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF BIOFUEL MOTOR QUALITIES ON POWER AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levterov, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of bench tests of D21A (2 Ч 10,5/12 diesel engine at its operation on mixed diesel fuel with improved qualities (Euro and the biofuel synthesized by the way of ethanol intereste-rification of rapeseed oil are offered.

  20. Numerical Analysis of the Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engines with Multiple Injection Strategies Using a Modified 2-D Flamelet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyujin Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The multiple injection strategy has been widely used in diesel engines to reduce engine noise, NOx and soot formation. Fuel injection developments such as the common-rail and piezo-actuator system provide more precise control of the injection quantity and time under higher injection pressures. As various injection strategies become accessible, it is important to understand the interaction of each fuel stream and following combustion process under the multiple injection strategy. To investigate these complex processes quantitatively, numerical analysis using CFD is a good alternative to overcome the limitation of experiments. A modified 2-D flamelet model is further developed from previous work to model multi-fuel streams with higher accuracy. The model was validated under various engine operating conditions and captures the combustion and emissions characteristics as well as several parametric variations. The model is expected to be used to suggest advanced injection strategies in engine development processes.

  1. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? You must equip each diesel engine with an air take device to shut down the... must equip the engine with an automatic shutdown device; (b) For a diesel engine that is continuously manned, you may equip the engine with either an automatic or remote manual air intake shutdown device; (c...

  2. Combustion characteristics of compressed natural gas/diesel dual-fuel turbocharged compressed ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenghua, L.; Longbao, Z.; Ziyan, W.; Jiang, R. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Automotive Engineering

    2003-09-01

    The combustion characteristics of a turbocharged natural gas and diesel dual-fuelled compression ignition (CI) engine are investigated. With the measured cylinder pressures of the engine operated on pure diesel and dual fuel, the ignition delay, effects of pilot diesel and engine load on combustion characteristics are analysed. Emissions of HC, CO, NO{sub x} and smoke are measured and studied too. The results show that the quantity of pilot diesel has important effects on the performance and emissions of a dual-fuel engine at low-load operating conditions. Ignition delay varies with the concentration of natural gas. Smoke is much lower for the developed dual-fuel engine under all the operating conditions. (Author)

  3. Lubrication and wear in diesel engine injection equipment fuelled by dimethyl ether (DME)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2003-01-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. DME fueled engines emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. DME has thereby the potential of reducing the diesel engine emissions without filters or other devices...... that jeopardise the high efficiency of the engine and increase the manufacturing costs. DME has a low toxicity and can be made from anything containing carbon including biomass. If DME is produced from cheap natural gas from remote locations, the price of this new fuel could even become lower than that of diesel...... oil. Fueling diesel engines with DME presents two significant problems: The injection equipment can break down due to extensive wear and DME attacks nearly all known elastomers. The latter problem renders dynamic sealing diƣult whereas the first one involves the poor lubrication qualities of DME which...

  4. Dual fuel operation of used transformer oil with acetylene in a DI diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Pritinika; Murugan, S.; Nagarajan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilisation of Used transformer oil (UTO) as a fuel in a diesel engine. • UTO with acetylene in a diesel engine, on a dual fuel mode technique. • Analysis of combustion characteristics of the diesel engine. • Analysis of performance and emission characteristics of the diesel engine. - Abstract: Used transformer oil (UTO) is a waste oil obtained from power transformers and welding transformers. It possesses considerable heating value and properties similar to diesel fuel. A preliminary investigation on the utilization of the UTO in a single cylinder, four stroke small powered direct injection (DI) diesel engine revealed that at an optimum injection timing of 20°CA the engine exhibited lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher smoke emissions, compared to that of diesel operation. In order to improve the performance and reduce the smoke emission, a dual fuel operation was attempted in the present investigation. Acetylene was inducted as a primary fuel at four different flow rates viz 132 g/h, 198 g/h, 264 g/h and 330 g/h along with the air, to study the combustion, performance and emission behavior of a four-stroke, 4.4 kW diesel engine, while the UTO was injected as pilot fuel with the optimized injection timing. The experimental results were compared with diesel-acetylene dual fuel operation in the same engine. Acetylene aspiration reduced the ignition delay and maximum cylinder pressure by about 3°CA, and 25% respectively at full load in comparison with the sole UTO operation. Higher thermal efficiency and lower exhaust gas were also observed at full load. Smoke was reduced by about 13.7%, in comparison with the UTO operation at full load

  5. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  6. An investigation of using biodiesel/marine diesel blends on the performance of a stationary diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalligeros, S.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E.; Anastopoulos, G.; Teas, Ch.; Sakellaropoulos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high-energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. With the exception of rape seed oil which is the principal raw material for biodiesel fatty acid methyl esters, sunflower oil, corn oil and olive oil, which are abundant in Southern Europe, along with some wastes, such as used frying oils, appear to be attractive candidates for biodiesel production. In this paper, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions measurements from a single cylinder, stationary diesel engine are described. The engine was fueled with pure marine diesel fuel and blends containing two types of biodiesel, at proportions up to 50%. The two types of biodiesel appeared to have equal performance, and irrespective of the raw material used for their production, their addition to the marine diesel fuel improved the particulate matter, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. (Author)

  7. EXPERIMENTAL COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A HSDI DIESEL ENGINE FUELLED WITH PALM OIL BIODIESEL-DIESEL FUEL BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOHN AGUDELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the chemical nature between petroleum diesel fuels and vegetable oils-based fuels lead to differences in their physical properties affecting the combustion process inside the engine. In this work a detailed combustion diagnosis was applied to a turbocharged automotive diesel engine operating with neat palm oil biodiesel (POB, No. 2 diesel fuel and their blends at 20 and 50% POB by volume (B20 and B50 respectively. To isolate the fuel effect, tests were executed at constant power output without carrying out any modification of the engine or its fuel injection system. As the POB content in the blend increased, there was a slight reduction in the fuel/air equivalence ratio from 0.39 (B0 to 0.37 (B100, an advance of injection timing and of start of combustion. Additionally, brake thermal efficiency, combustion duration, maximum mean temperature, temperature at exhaust valve opening and exhaust gas efficiency decreased; while the peak pressure, exergy destruction rate and specific fuel consumption increased. With diesel fuel and the blends B20 and B50 the same combustion stages were noticed. However, as a consequence of the differences pointed out, the thermal history of the process was affected. The diffusion combustion stage became larger with POB content. For B100 no premixed stage was observed.

  8. Mathematical model of marine diesel engine simulator for a new methodology of self propulsion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzuddin, Nur; Sunarsih,; Priyanto, Agoes [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    As a vessel operates in the open seas, a marine diesel engine simulator whose engine rotation is controlled to transmit through propeller shaft is a new methodology for the self propulsion tests to track the fuel saving in a real time. Considering the circumstance, this paper presents the real time of marine diesel engine simulator system to track the real performance of a ship through a computer-simulated model. A mathematical model of marine diesel engine and the propeller are used in the simulation to estimate fuel rate, engine rotating speed, thrust and torque of the propeller thus achieve the target vessel’s speed. The input and output are a real time control system of fuel saving rate and propeller rotating speed representing the marine diesel engine characteristics. The self-propulsion tests in calm waters were conducted using a vessel model to validate the marine diesel engine simulator. The simulator then was used to evaluate the fuel saving by employing a new mathematical model of turbochargers for the marine diesel engine simulator. The control system developed will be beneficial for users as to analyze different condition of vessel’s speed to obtain better characteristics and hence optimize the fuel saving rate.

  9. The influence of turpentine additive on the ecological parameters of diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Butkus

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available After Lithuania’s accession to the EU it is very important to use a larger amount of renewable fuel. Based on economic and environmental considerations in Lithuania, we are interested in studying the effects of turpentine contents in the blended turpentine-diesel fuel on the engine performance and pollutant emission of compression ignition (CI engine. Therefore, we used engine test facilities to investigate the effects on the engine performance and pollutant emission of 5 % turpentine in the fuel blend. The tests were carried out in the laboratory on an engine dynamometer of the car Audi 1Z and tractor D21 diesel engines. The experimental results showed that turpentine used in the fuel blend for these diesel engines had a positive influence on the engine performance and exhaust emission.

  10. Waste Heat Recovery from a High Temperature Diesel Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jonas E.

    Government-mandated improvements in fuel economy and emissions from internal combustion engines (ICEs) are driving innovation in engine efficiency. Though incremental efficiency gains have been achieved, most combustion engines are still only 30-40% efficient at best, with most of the remaining fuel energy being rejected to the environment as waste heat through engine coolant and exhaust gases. Attempts have been made to harness this waste heat and use it to drive a Rankine cycle and produce additional work to improve efficiency. Research on waste heat recovery (WHR) demonstrates that it is possible to improve overall efficiency by converting wasted heat into usable work, but relative gains in overall efficiency are typically minimal ( 5-8%) and often do not justify the cost and space requirements of a WHR system. The primary limitation of the current state-of-the-art in WHR is the low temperature of the engine coolant ( 90 °C), which minimizes the WHR from a heat source that represents between 20% and 30% of the fuel energy. The current research proposes increasing the engine coolant temperature to improve the utilization of coolant waste heat as one possible path to achieving greater WHR system effectiveness. An experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of running a diesel engine at elevated coolant temperatures and to estimate the efficiency benefits. An energy balance was performed on a modified 3-cylinder diesel engine at six different coolant temperatures (90 °C, 100 °C, 125 °C, 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C) to determine the change in quantity and quality of waste heat as the coolant temperature increased. The waste heat was measured using the flow rates and temperature differences of the coolant, engine oil, and exhaust flow streams into and out of the engine. Custom cooling and engine oil systems were fabricated to provide adequate adjustment to achieve target coolant and oil temperatures and large enough temperature differences across the

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIOXANE AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS TO REDUCE EMISSION AND TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    SENDILVELAN S.; SUNDAR RAJ C.

    2017-01-01

    Performance of a compression ignition engine fuelled with 1, 4 Dioxane- diesel blends is evaluated. A single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 5.2 kW at 1500 rev/min is used. Base data is generated with standard diesel fuel subsequently; five fuel blends namely 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 percentages by volume of diesel and dioxane were prepared and tested in the diesel engine. Engine performance and emission data were used to optimize ...

  12. Improving exergetic and sustainability parameters of a DI diesel engine using polymer waste dissolved in biodiesel as a novel diesel additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohammadi, Pouya; Pourvosoughi, Navid; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of diesel engine fuelled with various SBE biodiesel–diesel blends containing EPS. • Profound effect of engine speed and load on exergetic performance parameters of diesel engine. • Selection of B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel as the best mixture. • Potential application of the applied framework for optimizing sustainability index of IC engines. - Abstract: Exergy analysis of a DI diesel engine running on several biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) containing various quantities of expanded polystyrene (EPS) was carried out. Neat diesel and B5 were also investigated during the engine tests. The biodiesel used was produced using waste oil extracted from spend bleaching earth (SBE). The experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fuel type, engine speed, and load on thermal efficiency, exergetic parameters, and sustainability index of the diesel engine. The obtained results revealed that the exergetic parameters strongly depended on the engine speed and load. Generally, increasing engine speed remarkably decreased the exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine. However, increasing engine load initially enhanced the exergy efficiency and sustainability index, while its further augmentation did not profoundly affect these parameters. The maximum exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine (i.e. 40.21% and 1.67, respectively) were achieved using B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel. Generally, the approach presented herein could be a promising strategy for energy recovery from polymer waste, emissions reduction, and performance improvement. The findings of the present study also confirmed that exergy analysis could be employed to minimize the irreversibility and losses occurring in modern engines and to enhance the sustainability index of combustion processes.

  13. Experimental Study on the Production of Karanja Oil Methyl Ester and Its Effect on Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shrivastava

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Fast depletion of fossil fuel resources forces the extensive research on the alternative fuels. Vegetable oils edible or non edible can be a better substitute for the petroleum diesel. Karanja, a non edible oil can be a potential source to replace the diesel fuel. To investigate the feasibility of Karanja oil as an alternative diesel fuel, its biodiesel was prepared through the transesterification process. The Biodiesel was then subjected to performance and emission tests in order to assess its actual performance, when used as a diesel engine fuel. The data generated for the 20, 50 and 100 percent blended biodiesel were compared with base line data generated for neat diesel fuel. Result showed that the Biodiesel and its blend showed lower thermal efficiency. Emission of Carbon monoxide, unburned Hydrocarbon and smoke was found to be reduced where as oxides of nitrogen was higher with biodiesel and its blends. Keywords: alternate Diesel fuel; Biodiesel; Karanja oil methyl ester; performance and emission

  14. Simulation of biodiesel combustion in a light-duty diesel engine using integrated compact biodiesel–diesel reaction mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Hoon Kiat; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Jo-Han

    2013-01-01

    This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is performed to investigate the combustion characteristics and emissions formation processes of biodiesel fuels in a light-duty diesel engine. A compact reaction mechanism with 80 species and 303 reactions is used to account for the effects of chemical...... kinetics. Here, the mechanism is capable of emulating biodiesel–diesel mixture of different blending levels and biodiesel produced from different feedstock. The integrated CFD-kinetic model was validated against a test matrix which covers the entire saturated–unsaturated methyl ester range typical...... of biodiesel fuels, as well as the biodiesel–diesel blending levels. The simulated cases were then validated for in-cylinder pressure profiles and peak pressure values/timings. Errors in the peak pressure values did not exceed 1%, while the variations in peak pressure timings were kept within 1.5 crank angle...

  15. Combustion and emission characteristics of a natural gas-fueled diesel engine with EGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaal, M.M.; Hegab, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An existed DI diesel engine has been modified to suit dual fuel operation with EGR. ► Comparative study has been conducted between different operating modes. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits better performance at high loads than diesel. ► Dual fuel mode exhibits lower NOx and higher HC emissions than diesel. ► EGR improves performance at part loads and emissions of dual fuel mode. - Abstract: The use of natural gas as a partial supplement for liquid diesel fuel is a very promising solution for reducing pollutant emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM), from conventional diesel engines. In most applications of this technique, natural gas is inducted or injected in the intake manifold to mix uniformly with air, and the homogenous natural gas–air mixture is then introduced to the cylinder as a result of the engine suction. This type of engines, referred to as dual-fuel engines, suffers from lower thermal efficiency and higher carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions; particularly at part load. The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is expected to partially resolve these problems and to provide further reduction in NOx emission as well. In the present experimental study, a single-cylinder direct injection (DI) diesel engine has been properly modified to run on dual-fuel mode with natural gas as a main fuel and diesel fuel as a pilot, with the ability to employ variable amounts of EGR. Comparative results are given for various operating modes; conventional diesel mode, dual-fuel mode without EGR, and dual-fuel mode with variable amounts of EGR, at different operating conditions; revealing the effect of utilization of EGR on combustion process and exhaust emission characteristics of a pilot ignited natural gas diesel engine.

  16. STUDY ON THE NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS GENERATED BY THE DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINES RUNNING WITH BIODIESEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Cosofret

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, research results on the use of mixtures of biofuels with fossil fuels to power diesel engines are controversial in terms of reducing emissions of NO in the exhaust gases of diesel engines. This diversity on the results is due to possibly different type of biodiesel used, the type of engine on which the tests were carried out and the methods and conditions for obtaining these results. Therefore research on biodiesel mixed with diesel is still a matter of study. In this regard, we conducted a laboratory study on a 4-stroke diesel engine naturally aspirated, using different mixtures (10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50% of diesel with biodiesel made from rapeseed oil. The study results revealed that the NO emissions of the mixtures used are lower than the same emissions produced when the engine is powered with diesel. Also, the emissions of NO do not have a significant drop in the case of mixtures compared with the diesel fuel.

  17. Performance Testing of Diesel Engine using Cardanol-Kerosene oil blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness of environmental pollution and fossil fuel depletion has necessitated the use of biofuels in engines which have a relatively cleaner emissions. Cardanol is a biofuel, abundantly available in India, which is a by-product of cashew processing industries. In this study performance of raw Cardanol blended with kerosene has been tested in diesel engine. Volumetric blend BK30 (30% kerosene and 70% Cardanol has been used for the test. The properties like flash point, viscosity and calorific value of the blend have been determined. The test was carried out in four stroke diesel engine connected with an eddy current dynamometer. Performance of the engine has been analysed by finding the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and brake thermal efficiency (BTE. The results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the blend is 29.87%, with less CO and smoke emission compared to diesel. The results were also compared with the performance of Cardanol diesel blend and Cardanol camphor oil blend, which were already tested in diesel engines by other researchers. Earlier research work reveals that the blend of 30% camphor oil and 70% Cardanol performs very closer to diesel fuel with a thermal efficiency of 29.1%. Similarly, higher brake thermal efficiency was obtained for 20% Cardanol and 80% diesel blend.

  18. Experimental investigation of particulate emissions from a diesel engine fueled with ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel blended with diglyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C. S.; Huang, Zuohua

    2010-01-01

    Experiments are conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultralow-sulfur diesel as the base fuel and diglyme as the oxygenate component to investigate the particulate emissions of the engine under five engine loads at two engine speeds of 1800 rev min -1 and 2400 rev min -1. Blended fuels containing 5%, 10.1%, 15.2%, 20.4%, 25.7% and 53% by volume of diglyme, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 20% by mass of oxygen, are studied. The study shows that with the increase of oxygen in the fuel blends, smoke opacity, particulate mass concentration, NO x concentration and brake specific particulate emission are reduced at the two engine speeds. However, the proportion of soluble organic fraction is increased. For each blended fuel, the total particle number concentration is higher while the geometric mean diameter is smaller, compared with that of ultralow-sulfur diesel, though the particle number decreases with the oxygen content of the blended fuel. Furthermore, the blended fuels also increase the number concentrations of particles smaller than 100 nm.

  19. Effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using diesel-methanol blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayin, Cenk; Gumus, Metin [Department of Mechanical Education, Marmara University, 34722 Istanbul (Turkey); Ilhan, Murat [Raytheon Training International GmbH, GM Academy, 34843 Istanbul (Turkey); Canakci, Mustafa [Department of Mechanical Education, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli (Turkey)]|[Alternative Fuels R and D Center, Kocaeli University, 41040 Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Environmental concerns and limited resource of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels for internal combustion (IC) engines. For diesel engines, alcohols are receiving increasing attention because they are oxygenated and renewable fuels. Therefore, in this study, the effect of injection timing on the exhaust emissions of a single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke, direct injection diesel engine has been experimentally investigated by using methanol-blended diesel fuel from 0% to 15% with an increment of 5%. The tests were conducted for three different injection timings (15 , 20 and 25 CA BTDC) at four different engine loads (5 Nm, 10 Nm, 15 Nm, 20 Nm) at 2200 rpm. The experimental test results showed that Bsfc, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions increased as BTE, smoke opacity, CO and UHC emissions decreased with increasing amount of methanol in the fuel mixture. When compared the results to those of original injection timing, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions decreased, smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions increased for the retarded injection timing (15 CA BTDC). On the other hand, with the advanced injection timing (25 CA BTDC), decreasing smoke opacity, UHC and CO emissions diminished, and NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} emissions boosted at all test conditions. In terms of Bsfc and BTE, retarded and advanced injection timings gave negative results for all fuel blends in all engine loads. (author)

  20. Design and evaluation of fluidized bed heat recovery for diesel engine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J. R.; Newby, R. A.; Vidt, E. J.; Lippert, T. E.

    1985-01-01

    The potential of utilizing fluidized bed heat exchangers in place of conventional counter-flow heat exchangers for heat recovery from adiabatic diesel engine exhaust gas streams was studied. Fluidized bed heat recovery systems were evaluated in three different heavy duty transport applications: (1) heavy duty diesel truck; (2) diesel locomotives; and (3) diesel marine pushboat. The three applications are characterized by differences in overall power output and annual utilization. For each application, the exhaust gas source is a turbocharged-adiabatic diesel core. Representative subposed exhaust gas heat utilization power cycles were selected for conceptual design efforts including design layouts and performance estimates for the fluidized bed heat recovery heat exchangers. The selected power cycles were: organic rankine with RC-1 working fluid, turbocompound power turbine with steam injection, and stirling engine. Fuel economy improvement predictions are used in conjunction with capital cost estimates and fuel price data to determine payback times for the various cases.