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Sample records for raf direct reaction

  1. Direct Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austern, N. [University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1963-01-15

    In order to give a unified presentation of one point of view, these lectures are devoted only to a detailed development of the standard theories of direct reactions, starting from basic principles. Discussion is given of the present status of the theories, of the techniques used for practical calculation, and of possible future developments. The direct interaction (DI) aspects of a reaction are those which involve only a few of the many degrees of freedom of a nucleus. In fact the minimum number of degrees of freedom which must be involved in a reaction are those required to describe the initial and final channels, and DI studies typically consider these degrees of freedom and no others. Because of this simplicity DI theories may be worked out in painstaking detail. DI processes concern only part of the wave function for a problem. The other part involves complicated excitations of many degrees of freedom, and gives the compound nucleus (CN) effects. While it is extremely interesting to learn how to separate DI and CN effects in an orderly manner, if they are both present in a reaction, no suitable method has yet been found. Instead, current work stresses the kinds of reactions and the kinds of final states in which DI effects dominate and in which CN effects may almost be forgotten. The DI cross-sections which are studied are often extremely large, comparable to elastic scattering cross-sections. (author)

  2. Exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMere, M.; Kanellopoulos, E.J.; Suenkel, W.; Tang, Y.C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of antisymmetrization in direct reactions is examined by studying the properties of the coupling-normalization kernel function occurring in a resonating-group formulation. From this study, one obtains useful information concerning the general behavior of direct-reactiion processes and some justification for the use of three-body models in phenomenological analyses

  3. Medium effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakoc, M; Bertulani, C

    2013-01-01

    We discuss medium corrections of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections and their influence on direct reactions at intermediate energies ≳50 MeV/nucleon. The results obtained with free NN cross sections are compared with those obtained with a geometrical treatment of Pauli-blocking and Dirac-Bruecker methods. We show that medium corrections may lead to sizable modifications for collisions at intermediate energies and that they are more pronounced in reactions involving weakly bound nuclei.

  4. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  5. miR-195 inhibited abnormal activation of osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells via targeting RAF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chen; Li, Feng; Tan, Zhiping; Zhang, Weizhi; Yang, Yifeng; Luo, Cheng

    2018-01-15

    Recent reports have demonstrated that RAF-1 L613V (a mutant of RAF-1) mutant mice show bone deformities similar to Noonan syndrome. It has been suggested that RAF-1 L613V might abnormally activate osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. To demonstrate that RAF-1 is associated with bone deformity and that RAF-1 L613V dependent bone deformity could be inhibited by microRNA-195 (miR-195), we first investigated the amplifying influence of wild-type RAF-1 (WT) or RAF-1 L613V (L613V) on the viability and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Alizarin Red S (ARS) staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Subsequently, we investigated the blocking effect and its mechanism of miR-195 for abnormal activation of osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells via targeting RAF-1. RAF-1, especially RAF-1 L613V , abnormally activates osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells induced by BMP-2. Meanwhile, miR-195 could inhibit the cell viability and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. Transfection of miR-195 largely suppressed the L613V-induced viability and osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and attenuated the accelerative effect of L613V on runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2), Osterix (OSX), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), and distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) osteogenic gene expressions. In addition, miR-195 decreased the expression of RAF-1 mRNA and protein by directly targeting the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) of RAF-1 mRNA in MC3T3-E1 cells. Our findings indicated that miR-195 inhibited WT and L613V RAF-1 induced hyperactive osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells by targeting RAF-1. miR-195 might be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of L613V-induced bone deformity in Noonan syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by

  6. Substrate-Directed Catalytic Selective Chemical Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawano, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2018-05-04

    The development of highly efficient reactions at only the desired position is one of the most important subjects in organic chemistry. Most of the reactions in current organic chemistry are reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions, and the regio- and stereoselectivity of the reactions are determined by the inherent nature of the reagent or catalyst. In sharp contrast, substrate-directed reaction determines the selectivity of the reactions by the functional group on the substrate and can strictly distinguish sterically and electronically similar multiple reaction sites in the substrate. In this Perspective, three topics of substrate-directed reaction are mainly reviewed: (1) directing group-assisted epoxidation of alkenes, (2) ring-opening reactions of epoxides by various nucleophiles, and (3) catalytic peptide synthesis. Our newly developed synthetic methods with new ligands including hydroxamic acid derived ligands realized not only highly efficient reactions but also pinpointed reactions at the expected position, demonstrating the substrate-directed reaction as a powerful method to achieve the desired regio- and stereoselective functionalization of molecules from different viewpoints of reagent- or catalyst-controlled reactions.

  7. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2015-12-15

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  8. Induced isospin mixing in direct nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenske, H.

    1979-07-01

    The effect of charge-dependent interactions on nuclear reactions is investigated. First, a survey is given on the most important results concerning the charge dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The isospin symmetry and invariance principles are discussed. Violations of the isospin symmetry occuring in direct nuclear reactions are analysed using the soupled channel theory, the folding model and microscopic descriptions. Finally, induced isospin mixing in isospin-forbidden direct reactions is considered using the example of the inelastic scattering of deuterons on 12 C. (KBE)

  9. Cross sections for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriou, Paraskevi; Marcinkowski, Andrzej; Marianski, Bohdan

    2002-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions have been analysed at energies ranging from 14 to 27 MeV using the modified multistep direct reaction theory (MSD) of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. The modified theory considers the non-DWBA matrix elements in the MSD cross section formulae and includes both incoherent particle-hole excitations and coherent collective excitations in the continuum, according to the prescriptions. The results show important contributions from multistep processes at all energies considered. (author)

  10. Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Horiuchi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Takashi; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2004-06-30

    A direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of propionate equivalent was achieved via the aldol-Tishchenko reaction. Coupling an irreversible Tishchenko reaction to a reversible aldol reaction overcame the retro-aldol reaction problem and thereby afforded the products in high enantio and diastereoselectivity using 10 mol % of the asymmetric catalyst. A variety of ketones and aldehydes, including propyl and butyl ketones, were coupled efficiently, yielding the corresponding aldol-Tishchenko products in up to 96% yield and 95% ee. Diastereoselectivity was generally below the detection limit of 1H NMR (>98:2). Preliminary studies performed to clarify the mechanism revealed that the aldol products were racemic with no diastereoselectivity. On the other hand, the Tishchenko products were obtained in a highly enantiocontrolled manner.

  11. Direct processes in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Zagrebaev, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    Direct processes in heavy ion reactions are investigated. Relative theoretical contributions in the inclusive spectrum of α particles on processes of stripping breakup and inelastic breakup are estimated using the 22 Ne+ 181 Ta reaction as an example. The consideration is performed taking into account Coulomb and nuclear distortions in the inlet and outlet ion channels. It is shown that the hard edge of α spectrum and its maximum are well described by peripheral direct processes. The hard spectrum edge is conditioned by the pure process of ''incomplete fussion'' bringing about the production af a compound nucleus. The main part of inclusive spectrum is conditioned by reactions of inelastic and elastic breakup not connected with the production of a compound nucleus

  12. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, C.T. de

    1959-01-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [fr

  13. Dispersion Theory of Direct Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, I.S.

    1963-01-01

    The main difficulty of nuclear theory is that nuclei contain many (i. e. more than two) but not too many particles. Therefore, the precise equations of motion (Schrodinger equation) become practically useless, and at the same time it is impossible to apply statistical methods with confidence. The latter circumstance is graphically expressed in direct nuclear reactions. The essence of these phenomena consists in that a particle hitting the target nucleus transfers its energy and momentum either to one nuclear nucleon or to a comparatively small group of nucleons. This fact would not by itself be surprising if at the same time we did not observe a directly opposite picture corresponding to the production of a compound nucleus, i. e. the statistical distribution among all degrees of freedom of the energy transferred to the nucleus. In macroscopic physics the co-existence of. such processes is impossible since they would contradict the second law of thermodynamics. Such processes occur quite often in nuclear physics because of the inapplic- ability of the asymptotic laws of the theory of probabilities. Since statistical methods were obviously unsuited for the direct process theory, this led to the conviction that it was necessary to return to the Schrodinger equation for a system of many interacting particles. But the technique of solving such equations is still confined to perturbation theory and therefore it was the latter that was used to describe direct nuclear reactions despite the fact that the interaction between nucleons is strong and the application of perturb- ation theory to the interaction of free nucleons (to n-p or p-p scattering, for example) leads to results which strongly contradict experimental data. The results of the application of perturbation theory to direct nuclear reactions sometimes agree with experimental data and sometimes cqntradict them, but in either case they can hardly satisfy the investigator because it seems impossible to give the

  14. Dispersion Theory of Direct Nuclear Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, I. S. [Institute Of Theoretical And Experimental Physics, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1963-01-15

    The main difficulty of nuclear theory is that nuclei contain many (i. e. more than two) but not too many particles. Therefore, the precise equations of motion (Schrodinger equation) become practically useless, and at the same time it is impossible to apply statistical methods with confidence. The latter circumstance is graphically expressed in direct nuclear reactions. The essence of these phenomena consists in that a particle hitting the target nucleus transfers its energy and momentum either to one nuclear nucleon or to a comparatively small group of nucleons. This fact would not by itself be surprising if at the same time we did not observe a directly opposite picture corresponding to the production of a compound nucleus, i. e. the statistical distribution among all degrees of freedom of the energy transferred to the nucleus. In macroscopic physics the co-existence of. such processes is impossible since they would contradict the second law of thermodynamics. Such processes occur quite often in nuclear physics because of the inapplic- ability of the asymptotic laws of the theory of probabilities. Since statistical methods were obviously unsuited for the direct process theory, this led to the conviction that it was necessary to return to the Schrodinger equation for a system of many interacting particles. But the technique of solving such equations is still confined to perturbation theory and therefore it was the latter that was used to describe direct nuclear reactions despite the fact that the interaction between nucleons is strong and the application of perturb- ation theory to the interaction of free nucleons (to n-p or p-p scattering, for example) leads to results which strongly contradict experimental data. The results of the application of perturbation theory to direct nuclear reactions sometimes agree with experimental data and sometimes cqntradict them, but in either case they can hardly satisfy the investigator because it seems impossible to give the

  15. Randomness in multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The authors propose a quantum-statistical framework that provides an integrated perspective on the differences and similarities between the many current models for multi-step direct reactions in the continuum. It is argued that to obtain a statistical theory two physically different approaches are conceivable to postulate randomness, respectively called leading-particle statistics and residual-system statistics. They present a new leading-particle statistics theory for multi-step direct reactions. It is shown that the model of Feshbach et al. can be derived as a simplification of this theory and thus can be founded solely upon leading-particle statistics. The models developed by Tamura et al. and Nishioka et al. are based upon residual-system statistics and hence fall into a physically different class of multi-step direct theories, although the resulting cross-section formulae for the important first step are shown to be the same. The widely used semi-classical models such as the generalized exciton model can be interpreted as further phenomenological simplification of the leading-particle statistics theory

  16. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yu

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf

  17. Amyloplast Distribution Directs a Root Gravitropic Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth

    Immobile higher plants are oriented in the gravitational field due to gravitropim that is a physiological growth reaction and consists of three phases: reception of a gravitational signal by statocytes, its transduction to the elongation zone, and finally the organ bending. As it is known, roots are characterized with positive gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction of a gravitational vector, stems - with negative gravitropism, i. e. they grow in the direction opposite to a gravitational vector. According to the Nemec’s and Haberlandt’s starch-statolith hypothesis, amyloplasts in diameter of 1.5 - 3 μ in average, which appear to act as gravity sensors and fulfill a statolythic function in the specialized graviperceptive cells - statocytes, sediment in the direction of a gravitational vector in the distal part of a cell, while a nucleus is in the proximal one. There are reasonable data that confirm the amyloplasts-statoliths participation in gravity perception: 1) correlation between the statoliths localization and the site of gravity sensing, 2) significant redistribution (sedimentation) of amyloplasts in statocytes under gravistimulation in comparison with other cell organelles, 3) root decreased ability to react on gravity under starch removal from amyloplasts, 4) starchless Arabidopsis thaliana mutants are agravitropic, 5) amyloplasts-statoliths do not sediment in the absence of the gravitational vector and are in different parts or more concentrated in the center of statocytes. Plant tropisms have been intensively studied for many decades and continue to be investigated. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which plants do so is still not clearly explained and many questions on gravisensing and graviresponse remain unanswered. Even accepted hypotheses are now being questioned and recent data are critically evaluated. Although the available data show the Ca2+ and cytoskeleton participation in graviperception and signal transduction, the clear evidence

  18. A-RAF kinase functions in ARF6 regulated endocytic membrane traffic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nekhoroshkova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RAF kinases direct ERK MAPK signaling to distinct subcellular compartments in response to growth factor stimulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of the three mammalian isoforms A-RAF is special in that one of its two lipid binding domains mediates a unique pattern of membrane localization. Specific membrane binding is retained by an N-terminal fragment (AR149 that corresponds to a naturally occurring splice variant termed DA-RAF2. AR149 colocalizes with ARF6 on tubular endosomes and has a dominant negative effect on endocytic trafficking. Moreover actin polymerization of yeast and mammalian cells is abolished. AR149/DA-RAF2 does not affect the internalization step of endocytosis, but trafficking to the recycling compartment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A-RAF induced ERK activation is required for this step by activating ARF6, as A-RAF depletion or inhibition of the A-RAF controlled MEK-ERK cascade blocks recycling. These data led to a new model for A-RAF function in endocytic trafficking.

  19. Direct interaction in nuclear reactions: a theory; L'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires: theorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C.T. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    General treatment of the foundations of direct interaction in nuclear reactions; representation of the instantaneous elastic scattering amplitude by the scattering amplitude due to a complex potential; expansion of the instantaneous inelastic scattering amplitude and discussion of the 1. Bohr approximation (distorted waves) contribution to individual and collective states of excitation. (author) [French] Expose general sur les fondements de l'interaction directe dans les reactions nucleaires; representation de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee elastique par celle due a un potentiel complexe; developpement de l'amplitude de diffusion instantanee inelastique et discussion de la contribution de la premiere approximation de Bohr (sur des distendues) a l'excitation d'etats individuels et collectifs. (auteur)

  20. The phosphorylation specificity of B-RAF(WT), B-RAF(D594V), B-RAF(V600E) and B-RAF(K601E) kinases: An in silico study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratev, Filip Filipov; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the B-RAF kinase is an essential process in tumour induction and maintenance in several cancers. Herein the phosphorylation specificity of the activation segment of the wild type B-RAF kinase and the B-RAF(D594V), B-RAF(V600E) and B-RAF(K601E) mutants was examined by molecular ...

  1. Droplet heat transfer and chemical reactions during direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A simplified model of heat transfer and chemical reaction has been adapted to evaluate the expected behavior of droplets containing unreacted Zircaloy and stainless steel moving through the containment atmosphere during postulated accidents involving direct containment heating. The model includes internal and external diffusive resistances to reaction. The results indicate that reactions will be incomplete for many conditions characteristic of direct containment heating sequences

  2. Systematic uncertainties in direct reaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovell, A E; Nunes, F M

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactions are common probes to study nuclei and in particular, nuclei at the limits of stability. The data from reaction measurements depend strongly on theory for a reliable interpretation. Even when using state-of-the-art reaction theories, there are a number of sources of systematic uncertainties. These uncertainties are often unquantified or estimated in a very crude manner. It is clear that for theory to be useful, a quantitative understanding of the uncertainties is critical. Here, we discuss major sources of uncertainties in a variety of reaction theories used to analyze (d,p) nuclear reactions in the energy range E d = 10–20 MeV, and we provide a critical view on how these have been handled in the past and how estimates can be improved. (paper)

  3. Direct nuclear reaction experiments for stellar nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the last two decades indirect methods where proposed and used in many experiments in order to measure nuclear cross sections between charged particles at stellar energies. These are among the lowest to be measured in nuclear physics. One of these methods, the Trojan Horse method, is based on the Quasi- Free reaction mechanism and has proved to be particularly flexible and reliable. It allowed for the measurement of the cross sections of various reactions of astrophysical interest using stable beams. The use and reliability of indirect methods become even more important when reactions induced by Radioactive Ion Beams are considered, given the much lower intensity generally available for these beams. The first Trojan Horse measurement of a process involving the use of a Radioactive Ion Beam dealt with the "1"8F(p,α)"1"5O process in Nova conditions. To obtain pieces of information on this process, in particular about its cross section at Nova energies, the Trojan Horse method was applied to the "1"8F(d,α "1"5O)n three body reaction. In order to establish the reliability of the Trojan Horse method approach, the Treiman-Yang criterion is an important test and it will be addressed briefly in this paper.

  4. Directed Neutron Beams From Inverse Kinematic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoy, J. R.; Guardala, N. A.; Glass, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    Kinematic focusing of an emitted fairly mono-energetic neutron beam by the use of inverse-kinematic reactions, i.e. where the projectile mass is greater than the target atom's mass, can provide for the utilization of a significant fraction of the fast neutron yield and also provide for a safer radiation environment. We examine the merit of various neutron production reactions and consider the practicalities of producing the primary beam using the suitable accelerator technologies. Preliminary progress at the NSWC-Carderock Positive Ion Accelerator Facility is described. Possible important applications for this type of neutron-based system can be both advanced medical imaging techniques and active "stand-off" interrogation of contraband items.

  5. Chemical reactions directed Peptide self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Das, Apurba K

    2015-05-13

    Fabrication of self-assembled nanostructures is one of the important aspects in nanoscience and nanotechnology. The study of self-assembled soft materials remains an area of interest due to their potential applications in biomedicine. The versatile properties of soft materials can be tuned using a bottom up approach of small molecules. Peptide based self-assembly has significant impact in biology because of its unique features such as biocompatibility, straight peptide chain and the presence of different side chain functionality. These unique features explore peptides in various self-assembly process. In this review, we briefly introduce chemical reaction-mediated peptide self-assembly. Herein, we have emphasised enzymes, native chemical ligation and photochemical reactions in the exploration of peptide self-assembly.

  6. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  7. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo, E-mail: jbyue@me.com

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  8. Toward Direct Reaction-in-Flight Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmy, Jerry; Bredeweg, Todd; Fowler, Malcolm; Gooden, Matthew; Hayes, Anna; Rusev, Gencho; Caggiano, Joseph; Hatarik, Robert; Henry, Eugene; Tonchev, Anton; Yeaman, Charles; Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Krishi; Tornow, Werner

    2016-03-01

    At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutrons having energies greater than the equilibrium 14.1 MeV value can be produced via Reaction-in-Flight (RIF) interactions between plasma atoms and upscattered D or T ions. The yield and spectrum of these RIF produced neutrons carry information on the plasma properties as well as information on the stopping power of ions under plasma conditions. At NIF the yield of these RIF neutrons is predicted to be 4-7 orders of magnitude below the peak 14 MeV neutron yield. The current generation of neutron time of flight (nTOF) instrumentation has so far been incapable of detecting these low-yield neutrons primarily due to high photon backgrounds. To date, information on RIF neutrons has been obtained in integral activation experiments using reactions with high energy thresholds such as 169Tm(n,3n)167Tm and 209Bi(n,4n) 206Bi. Initial experiments to selectively suppress photon backgrounds have been performed at TUNL using pulsed monoenergetic neutron beams of 14.9, 18.5, 24.2, and 28.5 MeV impinging on a Bibenzyl scintillator. By placing 5 cm of Pb before the scintillator we were able to selectively suppress the photons from the flash occurring at the production target and enhance the n/_signal by ~6 times.

  9. Direct reactions for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Katherine Louise

    2014-01-01

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106 Sn at the NSCL, and on 131 Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  10. Direct Reactions for Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine Louise [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Experimental Low-Energy Nuclear Physics Group

    2014-12-18

    Direct reactions are powerful probes for studying the atomic nucleus. Modern direct reaction studies are illuminating both the fundamental nature of the nucleus and its role in nucleosynthetic processes occurring in the cosmos. This report covers experiments using knockout reactions on neutron-deficient fragmentation beams, transfer reactions on fission fragment beams, and theoretical sensitivity studies relating to the astrophysical r-process. Results from experiments on 108,106Sn at the NSCL, and on 131Sn at HRIBF are presented as well as the results from the nucleosynthesis study.

  11. On the treatment of exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, G.; Chandler, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL; New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque

    1985-01-01

    Exchange effects in direct reactions are investigated in the framework of the general algebraic theory of identical particle scattering. It is shown that effects due to the permutation symmetry of the system can be separated from the treatment of reaction dynamics. Dynamical aspects of the problem are investigated within the framework of the channel coupling class of N-body theories. (orig.)

  12. Fusion and direct reactions for strongly and weakly bound projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.; Lang, J.; Mueller, R.; Ungricht, E.; Bodek, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Kamys, B.; Magiera, A.; Strzalkowski, A.; Willim, G.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of 6 Li, 9 Be and 12 C projectiles with a 28 Si target was investigated by measuring the angular distributions of the elasitcally scattered projectiles and of the emitted protons, deuterons and α-particles. The experiment was perfomred in order to deduce direct and compound nucleus process contributions to the total reaction cross section and to study the influence of the projectile structure on the relative importance of these two mechanisms. Optical model parameters and therefore the total reaction cross section are strongly influenced by the binding energy of the projectile. The parameters of the Glas-Mosel describing the fusion reaction vary smoothly with the atomic number. In the system 9 B + 28 Si around 50% of all reactions are direct processes even at energies near the Coulomb barrier, whereas in the other systeme the direct part amounts to 15% ( 12 C) and 30% ( 6 Li) only. (orig.)

  13. Regulation of the MAP kinase cascade in PC12 cells: B-Raf activates MEK-1 (MAP kinase or ERK kinase) and is inhibited by cAMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peraldi, P; Frödin, M; Barnier, J V

    1995-01-01

    AMP inhibits B-Raf autokinase activity as well as its ability to phosphorylate and activate MEK-1. This inhibition is likely to be due to a direct effect since we found that PKA phosphorylates B-Raf in vitro. Further, we show that B-Raf binds to p21ras, but more important, this binding to p21ras is virtually...... abolished with B-Raf from PC12 cells treated with CPT-cAMP. Hence, these data indicate that the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of B-Raf hampers its interaction with p21ras, which is responsible for the PKA-mediated decrease in B-Raf activity. Finally, our work suggests that in PC12 cells, cAMP stimulates MAP...

  14. Statistical theory of multi-step compound and direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.; Kerman, A.; Koonin, S.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of nuclear reactions is extended so as to include a statistical treatment of multi-step processes. Two types are distinguished, the multi-step compound and the multi-step direct. The wave functions for the system are grouped according to their complexity. The multi-step direct process involves explicitly those states which are open, while the multi-step compound involves those which are bound. In addition to the random phase assumption which is applied differently to the multi-step direct and to the multi-step compound cross-sections, it is assumed that the residual interaction will have non-vanishing matrix elements between states whose complexities differ by at most one unit. This is referred to as the chaining hypothesis. Explicit expressions for the double differential cross-section giving the angular distribution and energy spectrum are obtained for both reaction types. The statistical multi-step compound cross-sections are symmetric about 90 0 . The classical statistical theory of nuclear reactions is a special limiting case. The cross-section for the statistical multi-step direct reaction consists of a set of convolutions of single-step direct cross-sections. For the many step case it is possible to derive a diffusion equation in momentum space. Application is made to the reaction 181 Ta(p,n) 181 W using the statistical multi-step compound formalism

  15. Direct inner shell ionization accompanying heavy ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1987-07-01

    51 V+ 40 Ar (180 MeV) fusion reaction is studied by means of K X-ray-particle-γ-ray coincidences. K X-ray yields associated with various evaporation residues are determined separately for two ionization processes: the direct ionization by the projectile prior to the nuclear interaction and the postcollisional ionization due to the internal conversion of γ-rays. Implications for possible measurements of nuclear reaction times are discussed. 24 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  16. Directed transverse flow and its disappearance for asymmetric reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovejot; Gautam, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study the directed transverse flow for mass asymmetry reactions. This is done by keeping the target fixed and varying the projectile mass from 4 He to 131 Xe. We find that directed transverse flow is sensitive to the mass of the projectile. We also study the disappearance of flow at a particular impact parameter called Geometry of Vanishing Flow (GVF) for such mass asymmetry reactions. Our results indicate that GVF is sensitive to the beam energy as well as to the mass of the projectile.

  17. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...

  18. Direct activation of allylic alcohols in palladium catalyzed coupling reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gümrükçü, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The direct use of allylic alcohols in substitution reactions without pre-activation of the hydroxyl-group into a better leaving group or the use of additional stoichiometric in situ activators remains challenging due to the poor leaving group ability of the hydroxyl-group. Hence, it is important to

  19. Direct injection of superheated steam for continuous hydrolysis reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-09-01

    The primary intent for previous continuous hydrolysis studies was to minimize the reaction temperature and reaction time. In this work, hydrolysis is the first step of a proprietary chemical process to convert lipids to sustainable, drop-in replacements for petroleum based fuels. To improve the economics of the process, attention is now focused on optimizing the energy efficiency of the process, maximizing the reaction rate, and improving the recovery of the glycerol by-product. A laboratory-scale reactor system has been designed and built with this goal in mind.Sweet water (water with glycerol from the hydrolysis reaction) is routed to a distillation column and heated above the boiling point of water at the reaction pressure. The steam pressure allows the steam to return to the reactor without pumping. Direct injection of steam into the hydrolysis reactor is shown to provide favorable equilibrium conditions resulting in a high quality of FFA product and rapid reaction rate, even without preheating the inlet water and oil and with lower reactor temperatures and lower fresh water demand. The high enthalpy of the steam provides energy for the hydrolysis reaction. Steam injection offers enhanced conditions for continuous hydrolysis of triglycerides to high-purity streams of FFA and glycerol. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. On the treatment of exchange effects in direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencze, Gy.

    1984-11-01

    In the theoretical description of direct nuclear reactions the dynamic effects are combined with 'kinematical' effects due to the quantum mechanical exchange interaction caused by the Pauli principle governing the mechanics of identical particles. In the present paper it is shown that in the frame of general algebraic theory of identical particle scattering the effects of the permutational symmetry of nucleons can be separated on an exact way from the treatment of reaction dynamics. Dynamical approximations may be used only after the separation of permutational effects. (D.Gy.)

  1. Two-component multistep direct reactions: A microscopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-03-01

    The authors present two principal advances in multistep direct theory: (1) A two-component formulation of multistep direct reactions, where neutron and proton excitations are explicitly accounted for in the evolution of the reaction, for all orders of scattering. While this may at first seem to be a formidable task, especially for multistep processes where the many possible reaction pathways becomes large in a two-component formalism, the authors show that this is not so -- a rather simple generalization of the FKK convolution expression 1 automatically generates these pathways. Such considerations are particularly relevant when simultaneously analyzing both neutron and proton emission spectra, which is always important since these processes represent competing decay channels. (2) A new, and fully microscopic, method for calculating MSD cross sections which does not make use of particle-hole state densities but instead directly calculates cross sections for all possible particle-hole excitations (again including an exact book-keeping of the neutron/proton type of the particle and hole at all stages of the reaction) determined from a simple non-interacting shell model. This is in contrast to all previous numerical approaches which sample only a small number of such states to estimate the DWBA strength, and utilize simple analytical formulae for the partial state density, based on the equidistant spacing model. The new approach has been applied, along with theories for multistep compound, compound, and collective reactions, to analyze experimental emission spectra for a range of targets and energies. The authors show that the theory correctly accounts for double-differential nucleon spectra

  2. Direct single-molecule dynamic detection of chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianxin; Jia, Chuancheng; Li, Yanwei; Liu, Zitong; Wang, Jinying; Yang, Zhongyue; Gu, Chunhui; Su, Dingkai; Houk, Kendall N; Zhang, Deqing; Guo, Xuefeng

    2018-02-01

    Single-molecule detection can reveal time trajectories and reaction pathways of individual intermediates/transition states in chemical reactions and biological processes, which is of fundamental importance to elucidate their intrinsic mechanisms. We present a reliable, label-free single-molecule approach that allows us to directly explore the dynamic process of basic chemical reactions at the single-event level by using stable graphene-molecule single-molecule junctions. These junctions are constructed by covalently connecting a single molecule with a 9-fluorenone center to nanogapped graphene electrodes. For the first time, real-time single-molecule electrical measurements unambiguously show reproducible large-amplitude two-level fluctuations that are highly dependent on solvent environments in a nucleophilic addition reaction of hydroxylamine to a carbonyl group. Both theoretical simulations and ensemble experiments prove that this observation originates from the reversible transition between the reactant and a new intermediate state within a time scale of a few microseconds. These investigations open up a new route that is able to be immediately applied to probe fast single-molecule physics or biophysics with high time resolution, making an important contribution to broad fields beyond reaction chemistry.

  3. Direct nuclear reactions and the structure of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterfeld, F.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis deals with two different aspects of direct nuclear reactions, namely on the one hand with the microscopic calculation of the imaginary optical potential for the elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering as well as on the other hand with the microscopic analysis of giant magnetic resonances in atomic nuclei which are excited by (p,n) charge-exchange reactions. In the first part of the thesis the imaginary part of the optical potential for the elastic proton- and neutron-nucleus scattering is microscopically calculated in the framework of the so called nuclear-structure approximation to the optical potential. The calculations are performed in the Feshbach formalism in second-order perturbation theory corresponding to an effective projectile-target-nucleon interaction. In the second part of this thesis in the framework of microscopic nuclear models a complete analysis of different A(p,n)B charge-exchange reactions at high incident energies 160 MeV 90 Zr(p,n) reaction three collective spin-isospin resonances could be uniquely identified. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Multi-step direct reactions at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcinkowski, A.; Marianski, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The theory of the multistep direct (MSD) reactions of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin has for quite some time become a subject of controversy due to the bi orthogonal distorted waves involved in the transition amplitudes describing the MSD cross sections. The bi orthogonal wave functions result in non-normal DWBA matrix elements, that can be expressed in terms of normal DWBA matrix elements multiplied by the inverse elastic scattering S-matrix. It has been argued that the enhancing inverse S-factors are washed out by averaging over energy in the continuum. As a result normal DWBA matrix elements are commonly used in practical calculations. Almost all analyses of inelastic scattering and charge-exchange reactions using the DWBA matrix elements have concluded that nucleon emission at low energies can be described as one-step reaction mainly. On the other hand, it has been shown that the limits imposed by the energy weighted sum rules (EWSR's) on transition of given angular momentum transfer lead to a significant reduction of the one step cross section that can be compensated by the enhanced MSD cross sections obtained with the use of the non-normal DWBA matrix elements. Very recently the MSD theory of FKK was modified to include collective excitations and the non-normal DWBA matrix elements and the prescription for calculations of the cross sections for the MSD reactions was given. In the present paper we present the results of the modified theory used for describing the 93 Nb (n,xn) 93 Nb reaction at incident energy of 20 MeV and the 65 Cu (p,xn) 65 Zn reaction at 27 MeV. The results show enhanced contributions from two-, three- and four step reactions. We investigate the importance of the multi-phonon, multi particle hole and the mixed particle hole-phonon excitations in neutron scattering to the continuum. We also show the importance of the different sequences of collisions of the leading continuum nucleon that contribute to the MSD (p,n) reaction. When all

  5. Integrated modulation of phorbol ester-induced Raf activation in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shujie; Meier, Kathryn E

    2009-05-01

    The EL4 murine lymphoma cell line exists in variant phenotypes that differ with respect to responses to the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA1). Previous work showed that "PMA-sensitive" cells, characterized by a high magnitude of PMA-induced Erk activation, express RasGRP, a phorbol ester receptor that directly activates Ras. In "PMA-resistant" and "intermediate" EL4 cell lines, PMA induces Erk activation to lesser extents, but with a greater response in intermediate cells. In the current study, these cell lines were used to examine mechanisms of Raf-1 modulation. Phospho-specific antibodies were utilized to define patterns and kinetics of Raf-1 phosphorylation on several sites. Further studies showed that Akt is constitutively activated to a greater extent in PMA-resistant than in PMA-sensitive cells, and also to a greater extent in resistant than intermediate cells. Akt negatively regulates Raf-1 activation (Ser259), partially explaining the difference between resistant and intermediate cells. Erk activation exerts negative feedback on Raf-1 (Ser289/296/301), thus resulting in earlier termination of the signal in cells with a higher level of Erk activation. RKIP, a Raf inhibitory protein, is expressed at higher levels in resistant cells than in sensitive or intermediate cells. Knockdown of RKIP increases Erk activation and also negative feedback. In conclusion, this study delineates Raf-1 phosphorylation events occurring in response to PMA in cell lines with different extents of Erk activation. Variations in the levels of expression and activation of multiple signaling proteins work in an integrated fashion to modulate the extent and duration of Erk activation.

  6. Action and reaction in the theories of direct interparticle action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narlikar, J.V.

    1975-01-01

    Newton's third law of motion is examined in the context of the theories of direct interpaticle action. In such theories, interactions between particles travel backward and forward in time at speeds not exceeding the speed of light. It is shown that while in the flat spacetime the equality of action and reaction can be clearly demonstrated, the situation is considerably more complicated in the curved spacetime. The phenomenon of gravitational scattering intervenes to destroy the equality of action and reaction. Nevertheless, when gravitation is taken into account, there is no violation of the conservation law of energy and momentum. These results are discussed in the framework of general relativity for the case of the electromagnetic interaction

  7. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  8. The statistics of multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    We propose a quantum-statistical framework that provides an integrated perspective on the differences and similarities between the many current models for multi-step direct reactions in the continuum. It is argued that to obtain a statistical theory two physically different approaches are conceivable to postulate randomness, respectively called leading-particle statistics and residual-system statistics. We present a new leading-particle statistics theory for multi-step direct reactions. It is shown that the model of Feshbach et al. can be derived as a simplification of this theory and thus can be founded solely upon leading-particle statistics. The models developed by Tamura et al. and Nishioka et al. are based upon residual-system statistics and hence fall into a physically different class of multi-step direct theories, although the resulting cross-section formulae for the important first step are shown to be the same. The widely used semi-classical models such as the generalized exciton model can be interpreted as further phenomenological simplifications of the leading-particle statistics theory. A more comprehensive exposition will appear before long. (author). 32 refs, 4 figs

  9. Direct Reaction of Amides with Nitric Oxide To Form Diazeniumdiolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We report the apparently unprecedented direct reaction of nitric oxide (NO) with amides to generate ions of structure R(C=O)NH–N(O)=NO–, with examples including R = Me (1a) or 3-pyridyl (1b). The sodium salts of both released NO in pH 7.4 buffer, with 37 °C half-lives of 1–3 min. As NO-releasing drug candidates, diazeniumdiolated amides would have the advantage of generating only 1 equiv of base on hydrolyzing exhaustively to NO, in contrast to their amine counterparts, which generate 2 equiv of base. PMID:25210948

  10. Form factors in (HI,HI') direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the semiclassical theory, the inelastic transition form factors are analyzed. For the first order form factors, we find that: (i) In the strong absorption limit, the Austern-Blair theory is a good approximation to the inelastic form factor--even in highly mismatched reactions. (ii) In weak to moderate absorption, the amplitude of the inelastic form factor oscillates due to overlapping potential resonances. The internal part of the form factor can be expressed in a simple form, which may easily be used to analyze heavy-ion inelastic scattering. (iii) In the presence of an isolated resonance, the inelastic form factor is enhanced greatly at the resonance due to multiple reflections inside the potential well. The second order form factors contain two terms, i.e. the one-step direct process (OSD) term and the two-step process (TS) term. It is found that: (i) In the strong absorption limit, OSD and TS form factors are equally important and interfere destructively near the grazing angular momentum. The Austern-Blair theory gives satisfactory results for well-matched reactions. The angular distributions of the mutual and double excitations are out of phase compared with that of the single excitation. (ii) For the weak absorption case, the internal part of the TS form factor is so enhanced that the OSD form factor can simply be neglected. The internal TS form factor can be parameterized in a form proportional to the internal-wave elastic Smatrix, where the angular distribution shows characteristically refractive phenomenon

  11. An in silico study of the molecular basis of B-RAF activation and conformational stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jónsdóttir Svava

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background B-RAF kinase plays an important role both in tumour induction and maintenance in several cancers and it is an attractive new drug target. However, the structural basis of the B-RAF activation is still not well understood. Results In this study we suggest a novel molecular basis of B-RAF activation based on molecular dynamics (MD simulations of B-RAFWT and the B-RAFV600E, B-RAFK601E and B-RAFD594V mutants. A strong hydrogen bond network was identified in B-RAFWT in which the interactions between Lys601 and the well known catalytic residues Lys483, Glu501 and Asp594 play an important role. It was found that several mutations, which directly or indirectly destabilized the interactions between these residues within this network, contributed to the changes in B-RAF activity. Conclusion Our results showed that the above mechanisms lead to the disruption of the electrostatic interactions between the A-loop and the αC-helix in the activating mutants, which presumably contribute to the flipping of the activation segment to an active form. Conversely, in the B-RAFD594V mutant that has impaired kinase activity, and in B-RAFWT these interactions were strong and stabilized the kinase inactive form.

  12. Alternative statistics in multi-step direct reaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1990-06-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories have been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton model': these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relationship between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A common framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high-energy tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imaged that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expressions for the MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that the mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as variants of essentially one and the same theory. However, this appears not to be the case. To show this the usual MSD distinction within the composite reacting nucleus between the fast continuum particle and the residual system is introduced. One implication is that the mutual residual interactions of the nucleons of the residual core are to be distinguished from those of the leading particle with the residual system. This distinction will turn out to be central to the present analysis. (author). 14 refs.; 4

  13. Application of multi-step direct reaction theory to 14 MeV neutron reaction, 3 (n,. cap alpha. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumabe, I.; Matoba, M.; Fukuda, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Multi-step direct-reaction theory proposed by Tamura et al. has been applied to continuous spectra of the 14 MeV (n, ..cap alpha..) reaction with some modifications. Calculated results reproduce well the experimental energy and angular distributions of the 14 MeV (n, ..cap alpha..) reactions.

  14. Theoretical intercomparison of multi-step direct reaction models and computational intercomparison of multi-step direct reaction models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-08-01

    In recent years several statistical theories have been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'. These are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relationship between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates is highlighted. A command framework is outlined that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. However, this appears not to be the case. To show this usual MSD distinction within the composite reacting nucleus between the fast continuum particle and the residual interactions, the nucleons of the residual core are to be distinguished from those of the leading particle with the residual system. This distinction will turn out to be crucial to present analysis. 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  15. Theory of nuclear heavy-ion direct transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, B.J.B.

    1979-01-01

    We review the distorted-wave approach to direct transfer reactions and draw attention to some of the shortcomings of current theories. We show that a reformulated form of the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) for transfer can lead to important simplifications of the theory, which are valid for nuclear heavy-ion induced reactions at energies > or approx. =MeV/nucleon. In particular, in the semiclassical limit, it leads to a new and simple formula for the transfer t-matrix which includes all the essential physics while offering several important advantages over standard ''full-recoil finite-range'' DWBA. One such advantage is that the new formula is more transparent in that it is amendable to interpretation and analytical manipulation. At high-energy it is shown to reduce to one earlier deduced using eikonal-DWBA. The conditions for the validity of the new theory are discussed in detail. They are shown to be generally well satisfied for small-mass transfer between heavy-ions at energies at or above those particularly favour transfer (> or approx. =10 MeV/nucleon for transfer of valence nucleons). The restriction to small mass is not due to any recoil approximation; in fact, it is only a necessary restriction at certain energies. The theory treats recoil exactly. Consideration of the optimum dynamical conditions for transfer leads to a set of matching conditions. The presence of hitherto neglected absorption, arising from dynamical effects of poor matching, it suggested and qualitatively discussed. Condition under which such absorption may be neglected are derived. Results of numerical calculations are presented showing that the theory is capable of good agreement with standard full-recoil finite-range DWBA, and that it is capable of giving at least as good an account of experimental data for nucleon-transfer between heavy-ions at energies approx.10 MeV/nucleon

  16. Direct injection of superheated steam for continuous hydrolysis reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng; Turner, Timothy L.; Roberts, William L.; Stikeleather, Larry F.

    2012-01-01

    The primary intent for previous continuous hydrolysis studies was to minimize the reaction temperature and reaction time. In this work, hydrolysis is the first step of a proprietary chemical process to convert lipids to sustainable, drop

  17. Complete coding sequence of the human raf oncogene and the corresponding structure of the c-raf-1 gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, T I; Oppermann, H; Seeburg, P; Kerby, S B; Gunnell, M A; Young, A C; Rapp, U R

    1986-01-24

    The complete 648 amino acid sequence of the human raf oncogene was deduced from the 2977 nucleotide sequence of a fetal liver cDNA. The cDNA has been used to obtain clones which extend the human c-raf-1 locus by an additional 18.9 kb at the 5' end and contain all the remaining coding exons.

  18. Arabidopsis Raf-Like Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Gene Raf43 Is Required for Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasar Virk

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades are critical signaling modules that mediate the transduction of extracellular stimuli into intracellular response. A relatively large number of MAPKKKs have been identified in a variety of plant genomes but only a few of them have been studied for their biological function. In the present study, we identified an Arabidopsis Raf-like MAPKKK gene Raf43 and studied its function in biotic and abiotic stress response using a T-DNA insertion mutant raf43-1 and two Raf43-overexpressing lines Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13. Expression of Raf43 was induced by multiple abiotic and biotic stresses including treatments with drought, mannitol and oxidative stress or defense signaling molecule salicylic acid and infection with necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Seed germination and seedling root growth of raf43-1 were significantly inhibited on MS medium containing mannitol, NaCl, H2O2 or methyl viologen (MV while seed germination and seedling root growth of the Raf43-OE#1 and Raf43-OE#13 lines was similar to wild type Col-0 under the above stress conditions. Soil-grown raf43-1 plants exhibited reduced tolerance to MV, drought and salt stress. Abscisic acid inhibited significantly seed germination and seedling root growth of the raf43-1 line but had no effect on the two Raf43-overexpressing lines. Expression of stress-responsive RD17 and DREB2A genes was significantly down-regulated in raf43-1 plants. However, the raf43-1 and Raf43-overexpressing plants showed similar disease phenotype to the wild type plants after infection with B. cinerea or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Our results demonstrate that Raf43, encoding for a Raf-like MAPKKK, is required for tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

  19. Classical kinematic model for direct reactions of oriented reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, I.; Prisant, M.G.; Levine, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    A simple kinematic model based on the concept of an orientation-dependent critical configuration for reaction is introduced and applied. The model serves two complementary purposes. In the predictive mode the model provides an easily implemented procedure for computing the reactivity of oriented reagents (including those actually amenable to measure) from a given potential energy surface. The predictions of the model are compared against classical trajectory results for the H + D 2 reaction. By use of realistic potential energy surfaces the model is applied to the Li + HF and O + HCl reactions where the HX molecules are pumped by a polarized laser. A given classical trajectory is deemed reactive or not according to whether it can surmount the barrier at that particular orientation. The essential difference with the model of Levine and Bernstein is that the averaging over initial conditions is performed by using a Monte Carlo integration. One can therefore use the correct orientation-dependent shape (and not only height) of the barrier to reaction and, furthermore, use oriented or aligned reagents. Since the only numerical step is a Monte Carlo sampling of initial conditions, very many trajectories can be run. This suffices to determine the reaction cross section for different initial conditions. To probe the products, they have employed the kinematic approach of Elsum and Gordon. The result is a model where, under varying initial conditions, examining final-state distributions or screening different potential energy surfaces can be efficiently carried out

  20. c-Raf in KRas Mutant Cancers: A Moving Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Frank

    2018-02-12

    Therapies for KRas cancers remain a major clinical need. In the current issue of Cancer Cell, Sanclemente and coworkers in Mariano Barbacid's group validate c-Raf as a prime target for these cancers. c-Raf ablation caused regression of advanced KRas G12V /Trp53 tumors, without obvious systemic toxicity and without affecting MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical Reaction Engineering: Current Status and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudukovic, M. P.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) as the discipline that quantifies the interplay of transport phenomena and kinetics in relating reactor performance to operating conditions and input variables. Addresses the current status of CRE in both academic and industrial settings and outlines future trends. (TW)

  2. MONITORING REACTIONS IN ALKALINE DIRECT ETHANOL FUEL CELLS ASSEMBLED WITH NON-PT-CATALYST

    OpenAIRE

    Gülzow, Erich; Beyer, Monique; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Pengel, Stefanie; Fischer, Peter; Bettermann, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This contribution shows how Raman spectroscopy can be used to pursue chemical reactions within fuel cells. For this, the oxidation of ethanol occurring in an alkaline direct ethanolic fuel cell was investigated. The analysis of a sequence of Raman spectra recorded during the reaction shows that ethanol was solely oxidized to acetate in a unique reaction.

  3. Resume and discussion of session on direct heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A conference divides into sessions, but the physics does not always respect such divisions. I found the subject of barrier penetrabilities viewed in a coupled channels picture new, exciting and central to all heavy-ion reaction dynamics. The subject was discussed in bits and pieces over three different sessions, partly in the talks by Winther, Landowne, Braun-Munzinger and Broglia, and partly from the floor by the same people and by Smilanski, I have concentrated on that subject alone and I therefore must apologize to the speakers in my session who covered different material, that definitely merited further discussions. Also, I apologize to other session chairmen, whose territory I have invaded. (orig.)

  4. Criegee Intermediates: What Direct Production and Detection Can Teach Us About Reactions of Carbonyl Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A.

    2017-05-01

    The carbonyl oxide intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, often known as Criegee intermediates, are potentially important reactants in Earth's atmosphere. For decades, careful analysis of ozonolysis systems was employed to derive an understanding of the formation and reactions of these species. Recently it has proved possible to synthesize at least some of these intermediates separately from ozonolysis, and hence to measure their reaction kinetics directly. Direct measurements have allowed new or more detailed understanding of each type of gas-phase reaction that carbonyl oxides undergo, often acting as a complement to highly detailed ozonolysis experiments. Moreover, the use of direct characterization methods to validate increasingly accurate theoretical investigations can enhance their impact well beyond the set of specific reactions that have been measured. Reactions that initiate particles or fuel their growth could be a new frontier for direct measurements of Criegee intermediate chemistry.

  5. Experimental Guidance of ISB Corrections via Direct Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K. G.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Bianco, L.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Kriicken, R.; Phillips, A. A.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Towner, I. S.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    2011-09-01

    The most recent isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections, δc, of Towner and Hardy for superallowed Fermi β-decay transitions, have included the opening of specific core orbitals. This change has resulted in significant deviations in some of the δc factors from their previous calculations, and an improved agreement of the individual corrected Script Ft values with the overall world average of the 13 most precise cases. While this is consistent with the conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the Standard Model, these new calculations must be thoroughly tested, and guidance must be given for the improvement of calculations for the upper-pf shell nuclei. Using the (d,t) reaction mechanism to probe the single neutron wavefunction overlap, information regarding the relevant shell-model configurations needed in the calculation can be determined. An experiment was therefore performed with a 22 MeV polarized deuterium beam from the MP tandem Van de Graaff accelerator in Munich, Germany. Using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph, and a cathode-strip focal-plane detector, outgoing tritons were analyzed at 9 angles between 10° and 60°, up to an excitation energy of 4.8 MeV. This proceeding reports the motivational and experimental details for the 64Zn(d,t)63Zn transfer work presented.

  6. Use of a recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain expressing C-Raf for protection against C-Raf induced lung adenoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Fensterle, Joachim; Schmidt, Andreas; Potapenko, Tamara; Troppmair, Jakob; Goebel, Werner; Rapp, Ulf R

    2005-01-01

    Serine-threonine kinases of the Raf family (A-Raf, B-Raf, C-Raf) are central players in cellular signal transduction, and thus often causally involved in the development of cancer when mutated or over-expressed. Therefore these proteins are potential targets for immunotherapy and a possible basis for vaccine development against tumors. In this study we analyzed the functionality of a new live C-Raf vaccine based on an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain in two Raf dependent lung tumor mouse models. The antigen C-Raf has been fused to the C-terminal secretion signal of Escherichia coli α-hemolysin and expressed in secreted form by an attenuated aroA Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain via the α-hemolysin secretion pathway. The effect of the immunization with this recombinant C-Raf strain on wild-type C57BL/6 or lung tumor bearing transgenic BxB mice was analyzed using western blot and FACS analysis as well as specific tumor growth assays. C-Raf antigen was successfully expressed in secreted form by an attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium aroA strain using the E. coli hemolysin secretion system. Immunization of wild-type C57BL/6 or tumor bearing mice provoked specific C-Raf antibody and T-cell responses. Most importantly, the vaccine strain significantly reduced tumor growth in two transgenic mouse models of Raf oncogene-induced lung adenomas. The combination of the C-Raf antigen, hemolysin secretion system and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium could form the basis for a new generation of live bacterial vaccines for the treatment of Raf dependent human malignancies

  7. Interference between direct and indirect modes in two-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.; Harvey, B.G.; Hendrie, D.L.; Jahnke, U.; Kraus, L.; Maguire, C.F.; Mahoney, J.; Terrien, Y.; Yagi, K.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1975-01-01

    Direct and indirect transitions to the lowest 2 + collective states are shown to interfere constructively in the pickup reaction 122 Sn( 16 O, 18 O) 120 Sn at 104 MeV, and destructively in the inverse stripping reaction 120 Sn( 18 O, 16 O) 122 Sn at 99 MeV

  8. The catalytic potency of ß-glucosidase from Pyroccus furiosus in the direct glucosylation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de B.M.; Meer, van der T.D.; Kaper, T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, van der A.; Oost, van der J.; Boom, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Enzymes from extremophiles operate at conditions that are different from their `normal' counterparts, and are therefore a useful extension of the enzyme toolbox. In this paper, the direct glucosylation reaction mediated by a hyperthermophilic -glucosidase from Pyrocuccus furiosus was investigated.

  9. KAPSIES: A program for the calculation of multi-step direct reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    We present a program for the calculation of continuum cross sections, sepctra, angular distributions and analyzing powers according to various quantum-mechanical theories for statistical multi-step direct nuclear reactions. (orig.)

  10. B-Raf mutation: a key player in molecular biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M A; Salajegheh, A; Smith, R A; Lam, A K-Y

    2013-12-01

    B-Raf is one of the more commonly mutated proto-oncogenes implicated in the development of cancers. In this review, we consider the mechanisms and clinical impacts of B-Raf mutations in cancer and discuss the implications for the patient in melanoma, thyroid cancer and colorectal cancer, where B-Raf mutations are particularly common. © 2013.

  11. Pd(II/HPMoV-Catalyzed Direct Oxidative Coupling Reaction of Benzenes with Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutaka Ishii

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The direct aerobic coupling reaction of arenes with olefins was successfully achieved by the use of Pd(OAc2/molybdovanadophosphoric acid (HPMoV as a key catalyst under 1 atm of dioxygen. This catalytic system could be extended to the coupling reaction of various substituted benzenes with olefins such as acrylates, aclrolein, and ethylene through the direct aromatic C-H bond activation.

  12. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 and Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein Expression Defines the Proliferative Nature of Cervical Cancer Stem Cells. ... of cervical cancer stem cells and also to validate them in initial and advanced stages of cervical cancer. Keywords: Cervical cancer, ALDH1, BALB/c-nu/nu, HeLa cells, RKIP, Sox2 ...

  13. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S.; Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Lamia, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally

  14. The Trojan Horse method for nuclear astrophysics: Recent results for direct reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Enna Kore, Enna (Italy); Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Romano, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, Italy and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy); Cognata, M. La; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2014-05-09

    The Trojan Horse method is a powerful indirect technique to determine the astrophysical factor for binary rearrangement processes A+x→b+B at astrophysical energies by measuring the cross section for the Trojan Horse (TH) reaction A+a→B+b+s in quasi free kinematics. The Trojan Horse Method has been successfully applied to many reactions of astrophysical interest, both direct and resonant. In this paper, we will focus on direct sub-processes. The theory of the THM for direct binary reactions will be shortly presented based on a few-body approach that takes into account the off-energy-shell effects and initial and final state interactions. Examples of recent results will be presented to demonstrate how THM works experimentally.

  15. Models of direct reactions and quantum pre-equilibrium for nucleon scattering on spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.

    2006-01-01

    When a nucleon collides with a target nucleus, several reactions may occur: elastic and inelastic scatterings, charge exchange... In order to describe these reactions, different models are involved: the direct reactions, pre-equilibrium and compound nucleus models. Our goal is to study, within a quantum framework and without any adjustable parameter, the direct and pre-equilibrium reactions for nucleons scatterings off double closed-shell nuclei. We first consider direct reactions: we are studying nucleon scattering with the Melbourne G-matrix, which represents the interaction between the projectile and one target nucleon, and with random phase approximation (RPA) wave functions which describe all target states. This is a fully microscopic approach since no adjustable parameters are involved. A second part is dedicated to the study of nucleon inelastic scattering for large energy transfer which necessarily involves the pre-equilibrium mechanism. Several models have been developed in the past to deal with pre-equilibrium. They start from the Born expansion of the transition amplitude which is associated to the inelastic process and they use several approximations which have not yet been tested. We have achieved some comparisons between second order cross sections which have been calculated with and without these approximations. Our results allow us to criticize some of these approximations and give several directions to improve the quantum pre-equilibrium models. (author)

  16. Expanding the enzyme universe: accessing non-natural reactions by mechanism-guided directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z Jane; Arnold, Frances H

    2015-03-09

    High selectivity and exquisite control over the outcome of reactions entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature's known repertoire. In this Review, we outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progression has been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been exploited for chemical synthesis, with an emphasis on reactions that do not have natural counterparts. Non-natural activities can be improved by directed evolution, thus mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Finally, we describe the discovery of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for the expansion of the enzyme universe. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Expanding the Enzyme Universe: Accessing Non-Natural Reactions by Mechanism-Guided Directed Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renata, Hans; Wang, Z. Jane

    2015-01-01

    High selectivities and exquisite control over reaction outcomes entice chemists to use biocatalysts in organic synthesis. However, many useful reactions are not accessible because they are not in nature’s known repertoire. We will use this review to outline an evolutionary approach to engineering enzymes to catalyze reactions not found in nature. We begin with examples of how nature has discovered new catalytic functions and how such evolutionary progressions have been recapitulated in the laboratory starting from extant enzymes. We then examine non-native enzyme activities that have been discovered and exploited for chemical synthesis, emphasizing reactions that do not have natural counterparts. The new functions have mechanistic parallels to the native reaction mechanisms that often manifest as catalytic promiscuity and the ability to convert from one function to the other with minimal mutation. We present examples of how non-natural activities have been improved by directed evolution, mimicking the process used by nature to create new catalysts. Examples of new enzyme functions include epoxide opening reactions with non-natural nucleophiles catalyzed by a laboratory-evolved halohydrin dehalogenase, cyclopropanation and other carbene transfer reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 variants, and non-natural modes of cyclization by a modified terpene synthase. Lastly, we describe discoveries of non-native catalytic functions that may provide future opportunities for expanding the enzyme universe. PMID:25649694

  18. RAF 9054 - Strengthening Radioactive Waste Management in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atogo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive waste is waste that contains Radioactive Material . It is usually a by-product of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste management is a requirement to protect human beings and the environment from radioactive hazards now and for the long term. The application of management system requirements shall be graded to deploy resources at appropriate levels. Grading should not be used as a justification for not applying all of the necessary management system elements or required quality controls. The classification of RW is important to allow for easy handling and transportation and enhancement of safety while going through the process of waste management. The AFRA project “Strengthening Waste Management Infrastructure”, RAF/4/015 was initiated in 1996 by the IAEA. The objective of the project was to build the RWM infrastructure of AFRA member state. A follow-up project “Sustaining Waste Management Infrastructure”, RAF/3/005, was approved in 2005 for a duration of 5 years to help sustain the RWM capabilities and programs initiated in the AFRA member states as well as to help the new African countries joining the IAEA. RAF 9054 provides for a framework for the formulation of relevant legislations and technical skills for the establishment for a framework for the safe management of radioactive waste

  19. Neonatal pulmonary arterial hypertension and Noonan syndrome: two fatal cases with a specific RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Rachel K; Feinstein, Jeffrey A; Manning, Melanie A; Benitz, William; Hudgins, Louanne

    2015-04-01

    Mutations in RAF1 are associated with Noonan syndrome and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We present two infants with Noonan syndrome and an identical RAF1 mutation, p.Ser257Leu (c.770C>T), who developed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that proved to be fatal. The RAF1 gene encodes Raf-1 kinase, part of the Ras/mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, which has been linked to the development of PAH. This specific mutation has been associated with dephosphorylation of a critical serine residue and constitutive activation of the Raf-1 kinase. These two cases suggest that abnormal activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway may play a significant role in the development of pulmonary vascular disease in the subset of patients with Noonan syndrome and a specific RAF1 mutation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Direct detection of pyridine formation by the reaction of CH (CD) with pyrrole: a ring expansion reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soorkia, Satchin; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Selby, Talitha M.; Trevitt, Adam J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Leone, Stephen R.

    2010-03-16

    The reaction of the ground state methylidyne radical CH (X2Pi) with pyrrole (C4H5N) has been studied in a slow flow tube reactor using Multiplexed Photoionization Mass Spectrometry coupled to quasi-continuous tunable VUV synchrotron radiation at room temperature (295 K) and 90 oC (363 K), at 4 Torr (533 Pa). Laser photolysis of bromoform (CHBr3) at 248 nm (KrF excimer laser) is used to produce CH radicals that are free to react with pyrrole molecules in the gaseous mixture. A signal at m/z = 79 (C5H5N) is identified as the product of the reaction and resolved from 79Br atoms, and the result is consistent with CH addition to pyrrole followed by Helimination. The Photoionization Efficiency curve unambiguously identifies m/z = 79 as pyridine. With deuterated methylidyne radicals (CD), the product mass peak is shifted by +1 mass unit, consistent with the formation of C5H4DN and identified as deuterated pyridine (dpyridine). Within detection limits, there is no evidence that the addition intermediate complex undergoes hydrogen scrambling. The results are consistent with a reaction mechanism that proceeds via the direct CH (CD) cycloaddition or insertion into the five-member pyrrole ring, giving rise to ring expansion, followed by H atom elimination from the nitrogen atom in the intermediate to form the resonance stabilized pyridine (d-pyridine) molecule. Implications to interstellar chemistry and planetary atmospheres, in particular Titan, as well as in gas-phase combustion processes, are discussed.

  1. Photochemical Reactions of Particulate Organic Matter: Deciphering the Role of Direct and Indirect Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical reactions of natural organic matter (NOM) represent potentially important pathways for biologically recalcitrant material to be chemically altered in aquatic systems. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools, however, a molecular level understanding of this chemically dynamic system is currently lacking. Photochemical reactions of a target molecule proceed by the direct absorption of a photon, or through reaction with a second photolytically generated species (i.e. the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, excited triplet state NOM, hydrogen peroxide, etc.). Here, we isolate the major direct and indirect photochemical reactions of a lignocellulose-rich POM material (Phragmites australis) to determine their relative importance in changing the the chemical structure of the parent POM, and in the production of DOM. We measured POM molecular structure using a combination of NMR and FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry, while the chemical composition of photo-produced DOM was measured using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results are discussed in the context of the differences in chemical composition of both NOM pools resulting from the isolated photochemical pathways. All treatments result in an increase in DOM with reaction time, indicating that the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller more soluble species. Spectroscopic measurements, on the other hand, point to functionalization reactions which increase the abundance of alcohol, acid, and carbonyl moieties in both carbon pools. This unique dataset provides new insight into how photochemical reactions alter the chemical composition of NOM while highlighting the relative importance of indirect pathways.

  2. Recent results on fusion and direct reactions with weakly bound stable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent measurements of fusion and direct reactions in case of weakly bound stable nuclei at extreme sub-barrier energies using a sensitive off beam technique are presented. First section deals with deep sub-barrier fusion cross-section measurement for 67 Li + 198 Pt followed by the study of fragment capture reaction of 7 Li + 198 Pt. Deviation in the slope of the fusion excitation function, as observed in case of medium heavy systems, is absent in the present asymmetric systems at these low energies. This study shows the absence of fusion hindrance, suggesting modifications in models that explain deep sub-barrier fusion data to incorporate weakly bound asymmetric systems

  3. PTOLEMY, a program for heavy-ion direction-reaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckner, D.H.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Pieper, S.C.

    1976-03-01

    Ptolemy is an IBM/360 program for the computation of nuclear elastic and direct-reaction cross sections. It carries out both optical-model fits to elastic-scattering data at one or more energies, and DWBA calculations for nucleon-transfer reactions. Ptolemy has been specifically designed for heavy-ion calculations. It is fast and does not require large amounts of core. The input is exceptionally flexible and easy to use. This report outlines the types of calculation that Ptolemy can carry out, summarizes the formulas used, and gives a detailed description of its input

  4. Ptolemy: a program for heavy-ion direct-reaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, M.H.; Pieper, S.C.

    1978-04-01

    Ptolemy is an IBM/360 program for the computation of nuclear elastic and direct-reaction cross sections. It carries out optical-model fits to elastic-scattering data at one or more energies and for one or more combinations of projectile and target, collective model DWBA calculations of excitation processes, and finite-range DWBA calculations of nucleon-transfer reactions. It is fast and does not require large amounts of core. The input is exceptionally flexible and easy to use. The types of calculations that Ptolemy can carry out are outlined, the formulas used are summarized, and a detailed description of its input is given

  5. Increased BRAF Heterodimerization Is the Common Pathogenic Mechanism for Noonan Syndrome-Associated RAF1 Mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Yin, Jiani; Simpson, Jeremy; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Gu, Shengqing; Hong, Jenny H.; Bayliss, Peter; Backx, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital heart defects, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. NS is caused by germ line mutations in several components of the RAS–RAF–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, including both kinase-activating and kinase-impaired alleles of RAF1 (∼3 to 5%), which encodes a serine-threonine kinase for MEK1/2. To investigate how kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants cause NS, we generated knock-in mice expressing Raf1D486N. Raf1D486N/+ (here D486N/+) female mice exhibited a mild growth defect. Male and female D486N/D486N mice developed concentric cardiac hypertrophy and incompletely penetrant, but severe, growth defects. Remarkably, Mek/Erk activation was enhanced in Raf1D486N-expressing cells compared with controls. RAF1D486N, as well as other kinase-impaired RAF1 mutants, showed increased heterodimerization with BRAF, which was necessary and sufficient to promote increased MEK/ERK activation. Furthermore, kinase-activating RAF1 mutants also required heterodimerization to enhance MEK/ERK activation. Our results suggest that an increased heterodimerization ability is the common pathogenic mechanism for NS-associated RAF1 mutations. PMID:22826437

  6. C-RAF function at the genome-wide transcriptome level: A systematic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhang, Xin-Yu; An, Su; Yang, Yang; Liu, Ying; Hao, Qian; Guo, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Tian-Rui

    2018-05-20

    C-RAF was the first member of the RAF kinase family to be discovered. Since its discovery, C-RAF has been found to regulate many fundamental cell processes, such as cell proliferation, cell death, and metabolism. However, the majority of these functions are achieved through interactions with different proteins; the genes regulated by C-RAF in its active or inactive state remain unclear. In the work, we used RNA-seq analysis to study the global transcriptomes of C-RAF bearing or C-RAF knockout cells in quiescent or EGF activated states. We identified 3353 genes that are promoted or suppressed by C-RAF. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that these genes are involved in drug addiction, cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity, and regulation of cell metabolism. Our results provide a panoramic view of C-RAF function, including known and novel functions, and have revealed potential targets for elucidating the role of C-RAF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental reactions to parent- and sibling-directed aggression within a domestic violence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desir, Michelle P; Karatekin, Canan

    2018-02-01

    Parent- and sibling-directed aggression by minor children are two forms of family violence that often co-occur and have strong relations to prior exposure to domestic violence, yet are often overlooked in intervention efforts. In addition, current research does not examine these forms of family violence in tandem, and there is very limited research with samples exposed to domestic violence. To better understand how these forms of aggression operate within a domestic violence context, we interviewed 44 women residing in a domestic violence shelter with at least one child over 3.5 years of age who was aggressive toward them and/or siblings. Caregivers reported on their emotional reactions to children's parent-directed aggression and the types of and effectiveness of help they sought for parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression. In line with previous literature, caregivers endorsed a complex mix of emotional reactions to their children's parent-directed aggression, including anger, sadness, guilt, forgiveness, and worthlessness. In contrast to other studies, most caregivers (89%) had sought help for children's parent- and/or sibling-directed aggression and found it effective. Findings contribute to the literature on parent- and sibling-directed aggression and provide implications for how to effectively intervene.

  8. L1{sub 0} phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, 066004 Qinhuangdao (China); Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, 071002 Baoding (China)], E-mail: xyzh66@ysu.edu.cn

    2008-12-07

    Lowering the L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1{sub 0} ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1{sub 0} ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates. The accelerated L1{sub 0} ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1{sub 0} ordering process of the FePt films.

  9. L10 phase transition in FePt thin films via direct interface reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohong; Sun Hongyu; Wang Fengqing; Li Wei; Zhang Xiangyi; Liu Baoting; Guo Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    Lowering the L1 0 ordering temperature of FePt films is of great significance for their application as an ultrahigh density magnetic recording medium. In this study, the L1 0 ordering process of FePt thin films deposited directly on Si substrates has been significantly accelerated by the interface reaction between the thin film and the Si substrate, and thus the thin films show a low L1 0 ordering temperature of T = 310 deg. C as compared with those deposited on Si/SiO 2 substrates. The accelerated L1 0 ordering transition is predominantly dependent on the rapid growth of the ordered domains during the interface reaction. The film thickness has an important effect on the interface reaction and thus can be used to tune the L1 0 ordering process of the FePt films.

  10. Light-Mediated Kinetic Control Reveals the Temporal Effect of the Raf/MEK/ERK Pathway in PC12 Cell Neurite Outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Liting; Ong, Qunxiang; Lin, Ziliang; Varman, Pooja Mahendra; Sung, Kijung; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation, respectively. However, a direct and quantitative linkage between the temporal profile of Raf/MEK/ERK activation and the cellular outputs has not been established due to a lack of means to precisely perturb its signaling kinetics. Here, we construct a light-gated protein-protein interaction system to regulate the activation pattern of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Light-induced activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade leads to significant neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines in the absence of growth factors. Compared with NGF stimulation, light stimulation induces longer but fewer neurites. Intermittent on/off illumination reveals that cells achieve maximum neurite outgrowth if the off-time duration per cycle is shorter than 45 min. Overall, light-mediated kinetic control enables precise dissection of the temporal dimension within the intracellular signal transduction network. PMID:24667437

  11. Direct photon production in heavy-ion reactions at SPS and RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They are considerably below the heavy-ion results which indicates that a simple scaling of prompt photons as observed in pp is not sufficient to explain the direct photons in central. Pb+Pb reactions. It is also instructive to compare the γ/π0 ratio extracted from heavy-ion data to those from pp and pC in figure 3. The value in ...

  12. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cells and their reaction mechanisms - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2014-01-01

    with carbon capture and storage (CCS) due to the high purity of CO2 emitted in the exhaust gas. Direct carbon (or coal) fuel cells (DCFCs) are directly fed with solid carbon to the anode chamber. The fuel cell converts the carbon at the anode and the oxygen at the cathode into electricity, heat and reaction......As coal is expected to continue to dominate power generation demands worldwide, it is advisable to pursue the development of more efficient coal power generation technologies. Fuel cells show a much higher fuel utilization efficiency, emit fewer pollutants (NOx, SOx), and are more easily combined...

  13. The direct oxidative diene cyclization and related reactions in natural product synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Adrian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct oxidative cyclization of 1,5-dienes is a valuable synthetic method for the (diastereoselective preparation of substituted tetrahydrofurans. Closely related reactions start from 5,6-dihydroxy or 5-hydroxyalkenes to generate similar products in a mechanistically analogous manner. After a brief overview on the history of this group of transformations and a survey on mechanistic and stereochemical aspects, this review article provides a summary on applications in natural product synthesis. Moreover, current limitations and future directions in this area of chemistry are discussed.

  14. Murai Reaction on Furfural Derivatives Enabled by Removable N,N'-Bidentate Directing Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzetta, Cristofer; Veiros, Luis F; Oble, Julie; Poli, Giovanni

    2017-06-22

    Furfural and related compounds are industrially relevant building blocks obtained from lignocellulosic biomass. To enhance the added value of these renewable resources, a Ru-catalyzed hydrofurylation of alkenes, involving a directed C-H activation at C3 of the furan ring, was developed. A thorough experimental study revealed that a bidentate amino-imine directing group enabled the desired coupling. Removal of the directing group occurred during the purification step, directly releasing the C3-functionalized furfurals. Development of the reaction as well as optimization and scope of the method were described. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of DFT calculations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Directional Track Selection Technique in CR39 SSNTD for lowyield reaction experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenito, Francesco; Andreoli, Pierluigi; Batani, Dimitri; Bonasera, Aldo; Boutoux, Guillaume; Burgy, Frederic; Cipriani, Mattia; Consoli, Fabrizio; Cristofari, Giuseppe; De Angelis, Riccardo; Di Giorgio, Giorgio; Ducret, Jean Eric; Giulietti, Danilo; Jakubowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    There is a great interest in the study of p-11B aneutronic nuclear fusion reactions, both for energy production and for determination of fusion cross-sections at low energies. In this context we performed experiments at CELIA in which energetic protons, accelerated by the laser ECLIPSE, were directed toward a solid Boron target. Because of the small cross-sections at these energies the number of expected reactions is low. CR39 Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD) were used to detect the alpha particles produced. Because of the low expected yield, it is difficult to discriminate the tracks due to true fusion products from those due to natural background in the CR39. To this purpose we developed a methodology of particle recognition according to their direction with respect to the detector normal, able to determine the position of their source. We applied this to the specific experiment geometry, so to select from all the tracks those due to particles coming from the region of interaction between accelerated protons and solid boron target. This technique can be of great help on the analysis of SSNTD in experiments with low yield reactions, but can be also generally applied to any experiment where particles reach the track detector with known directions, and for example to improve the detection limit of particle spectrometers using CR39.

  16. Comparison of TiO2 photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction and direct electrochemistry for simulation of phase I metabolism reactions of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Gül, Turan; Permentier, Hjalmar; Sikanen, Tiina; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction (EC-Fenton) and direct electrochemical oxidation (EC) for simulation of phase I metabolism of drugs was studied by comparing the reaction products of buspirone, promazine, testosterone and

  17. Unique cerebrovascular anomalies in Noonan syndrome with RAF1 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Yuri A; Lichty, Angie W; Champion, Kristen J; Clarkson, L Kate; Holden, Kenton R; Matheus, M Gisele

    2014-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder caused by gain-of-function germline mutations affecting components of the Ras-MAPK pathway. The authors present the case of a 6-year-old male with Noonan syndrome, Chiari malformation type I, shunted benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, and unique cerebrovascular changes. A de novo heterozygous change in the RAF1 gene was identified. The patient underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance angiography to further clarify the nature of his abnormal brain vasculature. The authors compared his findings to the few cases of Noonan syndrome reported with cerebrovascular pathology. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Direct reactions induced by 16O on 208Pb at high incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Direct reactions induced by 16 O mainly on 208 Pb at 20 MeV/nucleon are reviewed. The quasi-elastic transfer reaction, such as one-proton and one-neutron transfer respectively leading to 209 Bi and 209 Pb single-particle-states, is first discussed, the fragmentation of 16 O projectile on heavy targets is then envisaged. The one-nucleon transfer can be described within the framework of one-step processes using the DWBA formalism to calculate the cross sections. At high incident energy (312.6 MeV), transfer reactions involving nucleons from the deeper 1p 3/2 orbit of 16 O are kinematically favoured and well observed. At 20 MeV/A and above, a large part of the reaction cross sections seems to be due to the fragmentation of the projectile; more especially, an abrasion-ablation model have to be used in order to explain the general trend of the data (energy spectra and angular distribution)

  19. Design and discovery of thioether and nicotinamide containing sorafenib analogues as multikinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, B-RafV600E and VEGFR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shaofeng; He, Zuopeng; Huang, Mindong; Wang, Ningning; He, Zongzhong; Kong, Xiangkai; Yao, Jianwen

    2018-04-03

    New sorafenib derivatives containing thioether and nicotinamide moiety were designed and synthesized as B-Raf, B-Raf V600E and VEGFR-2 multikinase inhibitors. Their in vitro enzymatic inhibitory activities against B-Raf, B-Raf V600E and VEGFR-2 and their antiproliferative activities against HCT-116 and B16BL6 cell lines were evaluated and described. Most of the compounds showed potent activities against both cell lines and specific kinases. Compounds a1, b1 and c4, which exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities against B-Raf with IC 50 of 21 nM, 27 nM and 17 nM, B-Raf V600E with IC 50 of 29 nM, 28 nM and 16 nM, VEGFR-2 with IC 50 of 84 nM, 46 nM and 63 nM, respectively, and good antiproliferative activities, also demonstrated competitive antiangiogenic activities to sorafenib in in vitro HUVEC tube formation assay. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metode Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction untuk Melacak Campylobacter sp. pada Daging Ayam (DIRECT POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD FOR DETECTION CAMPYLOBACTER SP. OF POULTRY MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani .

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter sp. is the most commonly reported as agent of foodborne zoonosis causing acutegastroenteritis in humans. Poultry meat is considered as a major source of C. jejuni infection in human.The conventional methods for detecting foodborne bacteria is time-consuming which rely on the of thebacteria in culture media, followed by biochemical identification. In this study polymerase chain reaction(PCR technique was used for rapid identification of the pathogenic Campylobacter sp. The samples usedwere 298 chicken carcass with sold in supermarkets and traditional markets, and were carried out inaccordance the isolation protocol ISO/ DIS 10272-1994. Identification was performed using biochemicalAPI Campy. The direct PCR (DPCR assay with two sets of primers was employed for isolation andidentification of C. jejuni and C. coli. The result of the isolation and identification both by conventional orPCR methods showed that chicken carcasses both from supermarket and traditional market werecontaminated with C. jejuni and or C. coli. Prevalence of Campylobacter sp. contamination in chicken meatwas higher by DPCR (62.6% than by conventional (19.8%, indicating that DPCR technique was moresensitive than conventional method with detection limit for C. jejuni was103 cfu/ml.

  1. Direct reactions and nuclear spectroscopy; forward into the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeley, N.

    2006-01-01

    The use of direct reactions of the (d,p) (3He,d) etc. type in nuclear spectroscopy has a long history. The availability of beams of exotic nuclei has seen a resurgence of interest in the technique as a means of probing the structure of nuclei close to, or even beyond, the driplines. Analysis of these reactions to extract spectroscopic information has usually been performed with standard DWBA. However, while the DWBA is still useful, as it is based on first-order perturbation theory it should only be used where couplings are weak and proceed predominantly in a single step. Examples where either or both of these conditions are violated, with important consequences for the spectroscopic information extracted, are presented. Some of the sources of uncertainty that remain in the derived quantities are also discussed, along with possible means of reducing them

  2. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  3. Photon Energy Threshold in Direct Photocatalysis with Metal Nanoparticles: Key Evidence from the Action Spectrum of the Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Sarina; Jaatinen, Esa; Xiao, Qi; Huang, Yi Ming; Christopher, Philip; Zhao, Jin Cai; Zhu, Huai Yong

    2017-06-01

    By investigating the action spectra (the relationship between the irradiation wavelength and apparent quantum efficiency of reactions under constant irradiance) of a number of reactions catalyzed by nanoparticles including plasmonic metals, nonplasmonic metals, and their alloys at near-ambient temperatures, we found that a photon energy threshold exists in each photocatalytic reaction; only photons with sufficient energy (e.g., higher than the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals) can initiate the reactions. This energy alignment (and the photon energy threshold) is determined by various factors, including the wavelength and intensity of irradiation, molecule structure, reaction temperature, and so forth. Hence, distinct action spectra were observed in the same type of reaction catalyzed by the same catalyst due to a different substituent group, a slightly changed reaction temperature. These results indicate that photon-electron excitations, instead of the photothermal effect, play a dominant role in direct photocatalysis of metal nanoparticles for many reactions.

  4. Electrified emotions: Modulatory effects of transcranial direct stimulation on negative emotional reactions to social exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Vergallito, Alessandra; DeWall, C Nathan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    Social exclusion, ostracism, and rejection can be emotionally painful because they thwart the need to belong. Building on studies suggesting that the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) is associated with regulation of negative emotions, the present experiment tests the hypothesis that decreasing the cortical excitability of the rVLPFC may increase negative emotional reactions to social exclusion. Specifically, we applied cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the rVLPFC and predicted an increment of negative emotional reactions to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants were either socially excluded or included, while cathodal tDCS or sham stimulation was applied over the rVLPFC. Cathodal stimulation of rVLPFC boosted the typical negative emotional reaction caused by social exclusion. No effects emerged from participants in the inclusion condition. To test the specificity of tDCS effects over rVLPFC, in Study 2, participants were socially excluded and received cathodal tDCS or sham stimulation over a control region (i.e., the right posterior parietal cortex). No effects of tDCS stimulation were found. Our results showed that the rVLPFC is specifically involved in emotion regulation and suggest that cathodal stimulation can increase negative emotional responses to social exclusion.

  5. Direct observation of forward-scattering oscillations in the H+HD→H2+D reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Daofu; Yu, Shengrui; Chen, Wentao; Sang, Jiwei; Luo, Chang; Wang, Tao; Xu, Xin; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Wang, Xingan; Sun, Zhigang; Zhang, Dong H.; Yang, Xueming

    2018-06-01

    Accurate measurements of product state-resolved angular distributions are central to fundamental studies of chemical reaction dynamics. Yet, fine quantum-mechanical structures in product angular distributions of a reactive scattering process, such as the fast oscillations in the forward-scattering direction, have never been observed experimentally and the nature of these oscillations has not been fully explored. Here we report the crossed-molecular-beam experimental observation of these fast forward-scattering oscillations in the product angular distribution of the benchmark chemical reaction, H + HD → H2 + D. Clear oscillatory structures are observed for the H2(v' = 0, j' = 1, 3) product states at a collision energy of 1.35 eV, in excellent agreement with the quantum-mechanical dynamics calculations. Our analysis reveals that the oscillatory forward-scattering components are mainly contributed by the total angular momentum J around 28. The partial waves and impact parameters responsible for the forward scatterings are also determined from these observed oscillations, providing crucial dynamics information on the transient reaction process.

  6. Black Rice Anthocyanins Suppress Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting RAS/RAF/MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Jing-Yao; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Chen, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drives the biology of 30% of breast cancer cases. As a transducer of HER2 signaling, RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) extract and identified their molecular targets in HER2(+) breast cancer cells. Treatment of MDA-MB-453 cells (HER2(+)) with BRACs inhibited cell migration and invasion, suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (RAF), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and downregulated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9. BRACs also weakened the interactions of HER2 with RAF, MEK, and JNK proteins, respectively, and decreased the mRNA expression of raf, mek, and jnk. Further, we found combined treatment with BRACs and RAF, MEK, or JNK inhibitors could enhance the antimetastatic activity, compared with that of each treatment. Transient transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for raf, mek, and jnk inhibited their mRNA expression in MDA-MB-453 cells. Moreover, cotreatment with BRACs and siRNA induces a more remarkable inhibitory effect than that by either substance alone. In summary, our study suggested that BRACs suppress metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway.

  7. [Effects of electromagnetic radiation on RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway in rats hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Hong-yan; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Wang, Shui-ming; Gao, Ya-bing; Xu, Xin-ping; Ma, Jun-Jie

    2009-05-01

    To study the development of changes for signaling molecules related to Raf/MEK/ERK pathway in hippocampus of rats after electromagnetic radiation, and investigate the mechanisms of radiation injury. Rats were exposed to X-HPM, S-HPM and EMP radiation source respectively, and animal model of electromagnetic radiation was established. Western blot was used to detect the expression of Raf-1, phosphorylated Raf-1 and phospholylated ERK. The expression of Raf-1 down-regulated during 6 h-14 d after radiation, most significantly at 7 d, and recovered at 28 d. There was no significant difference between the radiation groups. The expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 and phosphorylated ERK both up-regulated at 6 h and 7 d after radiation, more significantly at 6 h, and the two microwave groups were more serious for phosphorylated ERK. During 6 h-14 d after S-HPM radiation, the expression of phosphorylated Raf-1 increased continuously, but phosphorylated ERK changed wavily, 6 h and 7 d were expression peak. Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway participates in the hippocampus injury induced by electromagnetic radiation. The excessive activation of ERK pathway may result in the apoptosis and death of neurons, which is the important mechanism of recognition disfunction caused by electromagnetic radiation.

  8. Phytochemical constituents and chemosystematic significance of Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mona M; Hussein, Sameh R; Kassem, Mona E S; Kawashty, Salwa A; El Negoumy, Sabry I M

    2016-07-01

    Twelve compounds were isolated from Chrozophora tinctoria (L.) Raf. They were identified as kaempferol, kaempferol 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin, quercetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-(6″-α-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-glucopyranoside, apigenin, apigenin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, acacetin, gallic acid, methyl gallate and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-glucopyranoside. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Furthermore, chemosystematics of the isolated compounds is briefly discussed. It was indicated that C. tinctoria is the only species of Chrozophora that has the capability to synthesis kaempferol aglycone and their glycosides, and the finding is supported by its distinct morphological and anatomical aspects.

  9. Detecting paraprotein interference on a direct bilirubin assay by reviewing the photometric reaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Elena; Aramendía, Maite; González-Tarancón, Ricardo; Romero-Sánchez, Naiara; Rello, Luis

    2017-07-26

    The direct bilirubin (D-Bil) assay on the AU Beckman Coulter instrumentation can be interfered by paraproteins, which may result in spurious D-Bil results. In a previous work, we took advantage of this fact to detect this interference, thus helping with the identification of patients with unsuspected monoclonal gammopathies. In this work, we investigate the possibility to detect interference based on the review of the photometric reactions, regardless of the D-Bil result. The D-Bil assay was carried out in a set of 2164 samples. It included a group of 164 samples with paraproteins (67 of which caused interference on the assay), as well as different groups of samples for which high absorbance background readings could also be expected (i.e. hemolyzed, lipemic, or icteric samples). Photometric reaction data were reviewed and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to establish a cut-off for absorbance that best discriminates interference. The best cut-off was 0.0100 for the absorbance at the first photometric point of the complementary wavelength in the blank cuvette. Once the optimal cut-off for probable interference was selected, all samples analyzed in our laboratory that provided absorbance values above this cut-off were further investigated to try to discover paraproteins. During a period of 6 months, we detected 44 samples containing paraproteins, five of which belonged to patients with non-diagnosed monoclonal gammopathies. Review of the photometric reaction data permits the systematic detection of paraprotein interference on the D-Bil AU assay, even for samples for which reasonable results are obtained.

  10. Monitoring transcranial direct current stimulation induced changes in cortical excitability during the serial reaction time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrus, Géza Gergely; Chaieb, Leila; Stilling, Roman; Rothkegel, Holger; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2016-03-11

    The measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes using single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a common method to observe changes in motor cortical excitability. The level of cortical excitability has been shown to change during motor learning. Conversely, motor learning can be improved by using anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In the present study, we aimed to monitor cortical excitability changes during an implicit motor learning paradigm, a version of the serial reaction time task (SRTT). Responses from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and forearm flexor (FLEX) muscles were recorded before, during and after the performance of the SRTT. Online measurements were combined with anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS for the duration of the SRTT. Negative correlations between the amplitude of online FDI MEPs and SRTT reaction times (RTs) were observed across the learning blocks in the cathodal condition (higher average MEP amplitudes associated with lower RTs) but no significant differences in the anodal and sham conditions. tDCS did not have an impact on SRTT performance, as would be predicted based on previous studies. The offline before-after SRTT MEP amplitudes showed an increase after anodal and a tendency to decrease after cathodal stimulation, but these changes were not significant. The combination of different interventions during tDCS might result in reduced efficacy of the stimulation that in future studies need further attention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct reactions in inverse kinematics for nuclear structure studies far off stability at low incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egelhof, P.

    1997-02-01

    The investigation of light-ion induced direct reactions with exotic beams in inverse kinematics gives access to a wide field of nuclear structure studies in the region far off stability. The present contribution will focus on the investigation of few-nucleon transfer reactions, which turn out to be most favourably studied with good-quality low-energy radioactive beams, as provided by the new generation of radioactive beam facilities presently planned or under construction at Caen, Grenoble, Munich, and elsewhere. An overview on the physics motivation, basically concerning nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics questions, is given. Of particular interest are the nuclear shell model in the region far off stability, the two-body residual interaction in nuclei, the structure of halo nuclei, as well as the understanding of the r-process scenario. The experimental conditions, along with the experimental concept, for such measurements are discussed with particular emphasis on the kinematical conditions, the observables, as well as the appropriate detection schemes. The concept of a large solid angle TPC ionization chamber as an active target for experiments with low-energy radioactive beams is presented. It turns out to be a highly effective detection scheme, well suited for the present experimental conditions, at least for light exotic beams up to Z∼20. (orig.)

  12. On the theory of direct reactions with many particle final states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, D.; Baur, G.

    1977-01-01

    We study the theory of direct reactions with many particle final states. First, we concentrate on the DWBA formulation of the break-up of deuterons on heavy nuclei below the Coulomb barrier. Because there are no free parameters, this permits a clean test of the theory by comparing it to the experimental data. The agreement is very good. The theory is applied to the break-up of antideuteronic atoms. Then the effect of virtual deuteron break-up on Rutherford scattering is studied. It is small, but it seems to be measurable. Also the deuteron break-up above the Coulomb barrier can be well explained theoretically. In this context, small effects are studied briefly. A semiclassical theory of the break-up process is given, which results in an intuitive picture and a fast computational method. Our theory lends itself in a natural way to the study of stripping reactions to unbound states. The relation of stripping into the continuum to elastic scattering of the transferred particle on the same target nucleus is explained. Then the connection of stripping to bound and unbound states is established. Finally various examples of stripping of uncharged and charged particles into the continuum are given to illustrate the theory. Resonance wave functions describing the transferred particle are discussed. In a conclusion an outlook for possible future developments of experiment and theory is given. (author)

  13. Computational comparison of quantum-mechanical models for multistep direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Akkermans, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a computational comparison of all existing quantum-mechanical models for multistep direct (MSD) reactions. The various MSD models, including the so-called Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin, Tamura-Udagawa-Lenske and Nishioka-Yoshida-Weidenmueller models, have been implemented in a single computer system. All model calculations thus use the same set of parameters and the same numerical techniques; only one adjustable parameter is employed. The computational results have been compared with experimental energy spectra and angular distributions for several nuclear reactions, namely, 90 Zr(p,p') at 80 MeV, 209 Bi(p,p') at 62 MeV, and 93 Nb(n,n') at 25.7 MeV. In addition, the results have been compared with the Kalbach systematics and with semiclassical exciton model calculations. All quantum MSD models provide a good fit to the experimental data. In addition, they reproduce the systematics very well and are clearly better than semiclassical model calculations. We furthermore show that the calculated predictions do not differ very strongly between the various quantum MSD models, leading to the conclusion that the simplest MSD model (the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model) is adequate for the analysis of experimental data

  14. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. pH-dependent electron transfer reaction and direct bioelectrocatalysis of the quinohemoprotein pyranose dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kouta [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Matsumura, Hirotoshi; Ishida, Takuya [Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Yoshida, Makoto [Department of Environmental and Natural Resource Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro [Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Ohno, Hiroyuki [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuhumi, E-mail: nobu1@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2016-08-26

    A pyranose dehydrogenase from Coprinopsis cinerea (CcPDH) is an extracellular quinohemoeprotein, which consists a b-type cytochrome domain, a pyrroloquinoline-quinone (PQQ) domain, and a family 1-type carbohydrate-binding module. The electron transfer reaction of CcPDH was studied using some electron acceptors and a carbon electrode at various pH levels. Phenazine methosulfate (PMS) reacted directly at the PQQ domain, whereas cytochrome c (cyt c) reacted via the cytochrome domain of intact CcPDH. Thus, electrons are transferred from reduced PQQ in the catalytic domain of CcPDH to heme b in the N-terminal cytochrome domain, which acts as a built-in mediator and transfers electron to a heterogenous electron transfer protein. The optimal pH values of the PMS reduction (pH 6.5) and the cyt c reduction (pH 8.5) differ. The catalytic currents for the oxidation of L-fucose were observed within a range of pH 4.5 to 11. Bioelectrocatalysis of CcPDH based on direct electron transfer demonstrated that the pH profile of the biocatalytic current was similar to the reduction activity of cyt c characters. - Highlights: • pH dependencies of activity were different for the reduction of cyt c and DCPIP. • DET-based bioelectrocatalysis of CcPDH was observed. • The similar pH-dependent profile was found with cyt c and electrode. • The present results suggested that IET reaction of CcPDH shows pH dependence.

  16. Reaction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 oct. 2017 ... Reaction to Mohamed Said Nakhli et al. concerning the article: "When the axillary block remains the only alternative in a 5 year old child". .... Bertini L1, Savoia G, De Nicola A, Ivani G, Gravino E, Albani A et al ... 2010;7(2):101-.

  17. Direct determination of enthalpies of solid phase reactions by immersion method; Determination directe des enthalpies de reaction en phase solide par une methode de plongee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, A; Richard, M; Eyraud, L; Stevanovic, M; Elston, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    It is not generally possible to measure the enthalpy change corresponding to solid phase reactions using the dynamic differential thermal analysis method because these reactions are usually too slow at the temperature of operation of present equipment. A ballistic differential thermal analysis apparatus has been developed which is based on an immersion-compensation method; it overcomes the difficulties previously encountered. This apparatus has been used after calibration for determining the enthalpies of formation of calcium and cadmium titanates. and also the Wigner energies of BeO, MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples irradiated at variable dose at a temperature of under 100 deg. C. (authors) [French] Il n'est generalement pas possible de mesurer la variation d'enthalpie correspondant aux reactions en phase solide par la methode d'analyse thermique differentielle dynamique. En effet, ces reactions sont le plus souvent trop lentes aux temperatures d'utilisation des dispositifs actuels. Un appareil d'analyse thermique differentielle balistique, base sur une methode de plongee avec compensation, a ete mis au point et permet de surmonter les difficultes precedentes. Apres etalonnages, cet appareil a ete utilise pour la determination des enthalpies de formation du titanate de calcium et du titanate de cadmium ainsi que pour celle des energies Wigner emmagasinees dans des echantillons de BeO, MgO et Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} irradies a une temperature inferieure a 100 deg. C et a differentes doses. (auteurs)

  18. DA-Raf, a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, is a putative tumor suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Emiri; Kawasaki, Osamu; Takahashi, Kazuya; Takano, Kazunori; Endo, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Activating mutations of RAS genes, particularly KRAS, are detected with high frequency in human tumors. Mutated Ras proteins constitutively activate the ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK phosphorylation cascade), leading to cellular transformation and tumorigenesis. DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf) is a splicing variant of A-Raf and contains the Ras-binding domain (RBD) but lacks the kinase domain. Accordingly, DA-Raf antagonizes the Ras-ERK pathway in a dominant-negative fashion and suppresses constitutively activated K-Ras-induced cellular transformation. Thus, we have addressed whether DA-Raf serves as a tumor suppressor of Ras-induced tumorigenesis. DA-Raf(R52Q), which is generated from a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the RBD, and DA-Raf(R52W), a mutant detected in a lung cancer, neither bound to active K-Ras nor interfered with the activation of the ERK pathway. They were incapable of suppressing activated K-Ras-induced cellular transformation and tumorigenesis in mice, in which K-Ras-transformed cells were transplanted. Furthermore, although DA-Raf was highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelial type 2 (AE2) cells, its expression was silenced in AE2-derived lung adenocarcinoma cell lines with oncogenic KRAS mutations. These results suggest that DA-Raf represents a tumor suppressor protein against Ras-induced tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Purification of crude glycerol from transesterification reaction of palm oil using direct method and multistep method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, N. F.; Mirus, M. F.; Ismail, M.

    2017-09-01

    Crude glycerol which produced from transesterification reaction has limited usage if it does not undergo purification process. It also contains excess methanol, catalyst and soap. Conventionally, purification method of the crude glycerol involves high cost and complex processes. This study aimed to determine the effects of using different purification methods which are direct method (comprises of ion exchange and methanol removal steps) and multistep method (comprises of neutralization, filtration, ion exchange and methanol removal steps). Two crude glycerol samples were investigated; the self-produced sample through the transesterification process of palm oil and the sample obtained from biodiesel plant. Samples were analysed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Gas Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The results of this study for both samples after purification have showed that the pure glycerol was successfully produced and fatty acid salts were eliminated. Also, the results indicated the absence of methanol in both samples after purification process. In short, the combination of 4 purification steps has contributed to a higher quality of glycerol. Multistep purification method gave a better result compared to the direct method as neutralization and filtration steps helped in removing most excess salt, fatty acid and catalyst.

  20. Investigation of direct photon production in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct thermal photons in the p T range of 0--5 GeV/c are expected to provide a sensitive probe of the early conditions of the Quark Gluon Plasma which may be formed in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The production of single photons in 200 A GeV S + Au reactions has been investigated using the 3,800 element Pbglass calorimeter of CERN experiment WA80. Neutral π 0 and η cross sections have been measured via their two-photon decay branch yields. The measured π 0 and η cross sections have been used to calculate the expected inclusive yield of decay photons. Excess photon yield, beyond that attributed to radiative decays and background sources, may be associated with thermal photon emission. Excess, ''direct'' photon yields have been extracted from high-statistics S + Au photon data for different event centrality classes. A slight excess photon yield above that which may be accounted for by hadronic decays was observed for central events

  1. Molecular Basis of Inactive B-RAF(WT) and B-RAF(V600E) Ligand Inhibition, Selectivity and Conformational Stability: An in Silico Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratev, Filip Filipov; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Mihaylova, E.

    2009-01-01

    -PBSA and local-binding energy (LBE) approaches. The conformational stability of the unbounded kinases and in particular the processes of the B-RAF(V600E) mutant activation were analyzed. A unique salt bridge network formed mainly by the catalytic residues was identified in the unbounded B...... effects on B-RAF(V600E) was revealed, which can explain the low mutant selectivity observed for numerous inhibitors. Our results suggest that the interactions between the activation segment and the alpha C-helix, as well as between the residues in the salt bridge network, are the major mechanism of the B...

  2. Crystalline state photoreactions direct observation of reaction processes and metastable intermediates

    CERN Document Server

    Ohashi, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Offering some 300 references, this book focuses on chemical reactions in the crystalline state. The reactions span many fields in inorganic and organic chemistry, making this a useful resource for inorganic, organic and physical chemists and graduate students.

  3. ROS mediates interferon gamma induced phosphorylation of Src, through the Raf/ERK pathway, in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibara, Kazem; Zeidan, Asad; Bjeije, Hassan; Kassem, Nouhad; Badran, Bassam; El-Zein, Nabil

    2017-03-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-ɣ) is a pleiotropic cytokine which plays dual contrasting roles in cancer. Although IFN-ɣ has been clinically used to treat various malignancies, it was recently shown to have protumorigenic activities. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are overproduced in cancer cells, mainly due to NADPH oxidase activity, which results into several changes in signaling pathways. In this study, we examined IFN-ɣ effect on the phosphorylation levels of key signaling proteins, through ROS production, in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. After treatment by IFN-ɣ, results showed a significant increase in the phosphorylation of STAT1, Src, raf, AKT, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling molecules, in a time specific manner. Src and Raf were found to be involved in early stages of IFN-ɣ signaling since their phosphorylation increased very rapidly. Selective inhibition of Src-family kinases resulted in an immediate significant decrease in the phosphorylation status of Raf and ERK1/2, but not p38 and AKT. On the other hand, IFN-ɣ resulted in ROS generation, through H 2 O 2 production, whereas pre-treatment with the ROS inhibitor NAC caused ROS inhibition and a significant decrease in the phosphorylation levels of AKT, ERK1/2, p38 and STAT1. Moreover, pretreatment with a selective NOX1 inhibitor resulted in a significant decrease of AKT phosphorylation. Finally, no direct relationship was found between ROS production and calcium mobilization. In summary, IFN-ɣ signaling in MCF-7 cell line is ROS-dependent and follows the Src/Raf/ERK pathway whereas its signaling through the AKT pathway is highly dependent on NOX1.

  4. Intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char combustion by direct measurement of ignition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ryang-Gyoon; Jeon, Chung-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A wire heating reactor that can use a synchronized experimental method was developed to obtain the intrinsic kinetics of large coal char particles ranging in size from 0.4 to 1 mm. This synchronization system consists of three parts: a thermocouple wire for both heating and direct measurement of the particle temperature, a photodetector sensor for determining ignition/burnout points by measuring the intensity of luminous emission from burning particles, and a high-speed camera–long-distance microscope for observing and recording the movement of luminous zone directly. Coal char ignition was found to begin at a spot on the particle's external surface and then moved across the entire particle. Moreover, the ignition point determined according to the minimum of dT/dt is a spot point and not a full growth point. The ignition temperature of the spot point rises as the particle diameter increases. A spot ignition model, which describes the ignition in terms of the internal conduction and external/internal oxygen diffusion, was then developed to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics and predict the ignition temperature of the coal char. Internal conduction was found to be important in large coal char particles because its effect becomes greater than that of oxygen diffusion as the particle diameter increases. In addition, the intrinsic kinetics of coal char obtained from the spot ignition model for two types of coal does not differ significantly from the results of previous investigators. -- Highlights: • A novel technique was used to measure the coal char particle temperature. • The ignition point determined from a dT/dt minimum is a spot ignition point. • A spot ignition model was suggested to analyze the intrinsic reaction kinetics of coal char. • Internal conduction has to be considered in order to evaluate the intrinsic kinetics for larger particle (above 1 mm)

  5. Direct synthesis of bimetallic PtCo mesoporous nanospheres as efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongjing; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Yinghao; Yin, Shuli; Xue, Hairong; Li, Xiaonian; Xu, You; Wang, Liang

    2018-04-01

    The engineering of electrocatalysts with high performance for cathodic and/or anodic catalytic reactions is of great urgency for the development of direct methanol fuel cells. Pt-based bimetallic alloys have recently received considerable attention in the field of fuel cells because of their superior catalytic performance towards both fuel molecule electro-oxidation and oxygen reduction. In this work, bimetallic PtCo mesoporous nanospheres (PtCo MNs) with uniform size and morphology have been prepared by a one-step method with a high yield. The as-made PtCo MNs show superior catalytic activities for both oxygen reduction reaction and methanol oxidation reaction relative to Pt MNs and commercial Pt/C catalyst, attributed to their mesoporous structure and bimetallic composition.

  6. The Reaction Mechanism of Claisen Rearrangement Obtained by Transition State Spectroscopy and Single Direct-Dynamics Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Kobayashi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bond breaking and formation during chemical reactions can be observed using “transition state spectroscopy”. Comparing the measurement result of the transition state spectroscopy with the simulation result of single direct-dynamics trajectory, we have elucidated the reaction dynamics of Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether. Observed the reaction of the neat sample liquid, we have estimated the time constants of transformation from straight-chain structure to aromatic-like six-membered ring structure forming the C1-C6 bond. The result clarifies that the reaction proceeds via three steps taking longer time than expected from the gas phase calculation. This finding provides new hypothesis and discussions, helping the development of the field of reaction mechanism analysis.

  7. A new NFIA:RAF1 fusion activating the MAPK pathway in pilocytic astrocytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christina Westmose; Sehested, Astrid; Regué, Àngels Mateu

    2016-01-01

    of a comprehensive genomic tumor profiling. We show that the NFIA:RAF1 fusion results in constitutive Raf1 kinase activity, leading to activation of downstream MEK1/2 cascade and increased proliferation of cancer cells. The NFIA:RAF1 fusion displayed distinct subcellular localization towards the plasma membrane...... in order to refine diagnostics of PA and to unravel potential treatment options, e.g. with MEK inhibitors....

  8. Acetate self-mixing and direct thermal reaction for preparation of LiCoO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Bum-Young; Kang, Hyun-Koo; Jeong, In-Seong; Han, Kyoo-Seung; Lee, Youngil; Choo, Jaebum; Ryu, Kwang Sun

    2004-01-01

    Layered LiCoO 2 as a cathode material for rechargeable lithium battery is prepared using the acetate self-mixing method. Using this method, the preparation procedure consists of just two steps: spontaneous and homogeneous mixing of molten acetates at 80 deg. C, as well as direct thermal reaction at high temperature without any pulverization, grinding, agglomeration, particle morphology controlling, particle size controlling, and even artificial stirring of reactants. When lithium and cobalt acetates are exposed to the temperature of 80 deg. C, they can be fluidized substances by themselves without any solvents and spontaneously mixed together. In this way, layered LiCoO 2 phase is prepared by just simple heat treatment. The heating at 350 deg. C is interposed to accomplish steady intermediate phase translation without any intermittent cooling. The 7 Li MAS NMR and Raman spectra upon the thermal exposure of the reactants demonstrate the feature of the spontaneous mixing process of the molten reactants. The LiCoO 2 prepared by the acetate self-mixing method show quite prospective properties as a cathode material for lithium rechargeable battery, an initial discharge capacity of 149.5 mAh/g and the discharge capacity retention of 98.9% and 97.5% after 10 and 20 cycles, respectively

  9. Description of heavy-ion fusion in terms of direct reaction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    A direct reaction description of the heavy-ion fusion, proposed by Udagawa, Kim and Tamura, has been successfully used in calculating the fusion cross sections and the spin distributions for a number of systems in the energy regions from the sub-barrier to the above-barrier region. A fusion potential is introduced in this theory and the radius of the fusion potential is treated as an adjustable parameter. The theory is thus a one-parameter theory. The results obtained by Udagawa, Kim and Tamura showed that the radius parameter ranges from 1.4 to 1.5 fm, which is much larger than the radius (1.0 fm) used in other models. A hard evidence is shown to demonstrate the necessity of the long-ranged fusion potential radius in the near-barrier region. In the above-barrier region, the use of the energy-dependent optical potential and the energy-dependent fusion potential radius is proved to be essential in reproducing the measured fusion cross sections. As a further application of the theory, the double folded potential model is utilized to provide the real part of the optical potential. The imaginary part of the optical potential is determined so that not only the elastic scattering but also the fusion cross sections can be reproduced

  10. Comparison of TiO2 photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction and direct electrochemistry for simulation of phase I metabolism reactions of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruokolainen, Miina; Gul, Turan; Permentier, Hjalmar; Sikanen, Tiina; Kostiainen, Risto; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2016-02-15

    The feasibility of titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis, electrochemically assisted Fenton reaction (EC-Fenton) and direct electrochemical oxidation (EC) for simulation of phase I metabolism of drugs was studied by comparing the reaction products of buspirone, promazine, testosterone and 7-ethoxycoumarin with phase I metabolites of the same compounds produced in vitro by human liver microsomes (HLM). Reaction products were analysed by UHPLC-MS. TiO2 photocatalysis simulated the in vitro phase I metabolism in HLM more comprehensively than did EC-Fenton or EC. Even though TiO2 photocatalysis, EC-Fenton and EC do not allow comprehensive prediction of phase I metabolism, all three methods produce several important metabolites without the need for demanding purification steps to remove the biological matrix. Importantly, TiO2 photocatalysis produces aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation products where direct EC fails. Furthermore, TiO2 photocatalysis is an extremely rapid, simple and inexpensive way to generate oxidation products in a clean matrix and the reaction can be simply initiated and quenched by switching the UV lamp on/off. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Construction and expression of eukaryotic expression vectors of full-length, amino-terminus and carboxyl-terminus Raf gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuomin WANG

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Raf is a key molecule in the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway and is highly activated in different human carcinomas. However, its biological functions and regulation mechanisms are still unclear. The aims of this study were to construct eukaryotic expression vectors with Raf full encoding region, truncated amino-terminus and carboxyl-terminus, respectively. Methods Eukaryotic expression vectors of pCMV-Tag2b-Raf-1, pCMV-Tag2b-N-Raf and pCMV-Tag2b-C-Raf were constructed by gene recombination technique and confirmed by restriction enzyme analysis and DNA sequencing. Furthermore, the expression of these fusion proteins was detected by western blot in transient transfected 293T cells. Results The sequences and open reading frames of these three vectors were completely consistent with experimental design. All target proteins can be detected in 293T cells. Conclusion Eukaryotic expression vectors of pCMV-Tag2b-Raf-1, pCMV-Tag2b-N-Raf and pCMV-Tag2b-C-Raf were successfully constructed and can be expressed in 293T cells.

  12. F/Cl + C2H2 reactions: Are the addition and hydrogen abstraction direct processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jilai; Geng Caiyun; Huang Xuri; Zhan Jinhui; Sun Chiachung

    2006-01-01

    The reactions of atomic radical F and Cl with acetylene have been studied theoretically using ab initio quantum chemistry methods and transition state theory. The doublet potential energy surfaces were calculated at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//CCSD/6-31G(d,p), CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVDZ//UMP2/6-311++G(d,p) and compound method Gaussian-3 levels. Two reaction mechanisms including the addition-elimination and the hydrogen abstraction reaction mechanisms are considered. In the addition-elimination reactions, the halogen atoms approach C 2 H 2 , perpendicular to the C≡C triple bond, forming the pre-reactive complex C1 at the reaction entrance. C1 transforms to intermediate isomer I1 via transition state TSC1/1 with a negative/small barrier for C 2 H 2 F/C 2 H 2 Cl system, which can proceed by further eliminating H atom endothermally. While the hydrogen abstraction reactions also involve C1 for the fluorine atom abstraction of hydrogen, yet the hydrogen abstraction by chlorine atom first forms a collinear hydrogen-bonded complex C2. The other reaction pathways on the doublet PES are less competitive due to thermodynamical or kinetic factors. According to our results, the presence of pre-reactive complexes indicates that the simple hydrogen abstraction and addition in the halogen atoms reaction with unsaturated hydrocarbon should be more complex. Furthermore, based on the analysis of the kinetics of all channels through which the addition and abstraction reactions proceed, we expect that the actual feasibility of the reaction channels may depend on the reaction conditions in the experiment. The present study may be helpful for probing the mechanisms of the title reactions and understanding the halogen chemistry

  13. Atorvastatin inhibits insulin synthesis by inhibiting the Ras/Raf/ERK/CREB pathway in INS-1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongxi; Li, Yu; Sun, Bei; Hou, Ningning; Yang, Juhong; Zheng, Miaoyan; Xu, Jie; Wang, Jingyu; Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Xianwei; Shan, Chunyan; Chang, Bai; Chen, Liming; Chang, Baocheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Backround: Type 2 diabetes has become a global epidemic disease. Atorvastatin has become a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. However, increasing evidence showed that statins can dose-dependently increase the risk of diabetes mellitus. The mechanism is not clear. Objective: The Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]/cAMP response element-binding protein [CREB]) is the major pathway that regulates the gene transcription. Except for the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by inhibiting the 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-COA) reductase, statins can also downregulate the phosphorylation of a series of downstream substrates including the key proteins of the Ras complex pathway, therefore may inhibit the insulin syntheses in pancreatic beta cells. In our study, we investigated the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of atorvastatin on insulin synthesis in rat islets. Methods: Islets were isolated from Wistar rats and cultured in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI)-1640 medium. The insulin content in the medium was measured by radioimmunoassay before and after the treatment of 50 μM atorvastatin. Effect of atorvastatin on the expression of insulin message Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in pancreatic islet beta cells was also detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to explore the possible role of the Ras complex pathway (Ras/Raf/ERK/CREB) in atorvastatin-inhibited insulin synthesis. The effects of atorvastatin on the binding of nuclear transcription factor p-CREB with CRE in INS-1 cells were examined via chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Results: Compared with the control group, the insulin level decreased by 27.1% at 24 hours after atorvastatin treatment. Atorvastatin inhibited insulin synthesis by decreasing insulin mRNA expression of pancreatic islet beta cells. The activities of Ras, Raf-1, and p-CREB in the Ras complex

  14. Fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on silicon by a solid phase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Golap; Hirano, Ryo; Ayhan, Muhammed E; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on n-Si by the solid phase reaction approach. Metal-assisted crystallization of a-C thin film was performed to synthesize transfer-free graphene directly on a SiO 2 patterned n-Si substrate. Graphene formation at the substrate and catalyst layer interface is achieved in presence of a Co catalytic and CoO carbon diffusion barrier layer. The as-synthesized material shows a linear current–voltage characteristic confirming the metallic behaviour of the graphene structure. The direct grown graphene on n-Si substrate creates a Schottky junction with a potential barrier of 0.44 eV and rectification diode characteristic. Our finding shows that the directly synthesized graphene on Si substrate by a solid phase reaction process can be a promising technique to fabricate an efficient Schottky junction device. (paper)

  15. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  16. Direct Measurements of Half-Cycle Reaction Heats during Atomic Layer Deposition by Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lownsbury, James M. [Department; Gladden, James A. [Department; Campbell, Charles T. [Department; Department; Kim, In Soo [Materials; Martinson, Alex B. F. [Materials

    2017-10-05

    We introduce a new high-temperature adsorption calorimeter that approaches the ideal limit of a heat detector whereby the signal at any time is proportional to the heat power being delivered to the sample and prove its sensitivity for measuring pulse-to-pulse heats of half-reactions during atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 400 K. The heat dynamics of amorphous Al2O3 growth via sequential self-limiting surface reaction of trimethylaluminum (TMA) and H2O is clearly resolved. Calibration enables quantitation of the exothermic TMA and H2O half-reactions with high precision, -343 kJ/mol TMA and -251 kJ/mol H2O, respectively. A time resolution better than 1 ms is demonstrated, allowing for the deconvolution of at least two distinct surface reactions during TMA microdosing. It is further demonstrated that this method can provide the heat of reaction versus extent of reaction during each precursors half-reaction, thus providing even richer mechanistic information on the surface processes involved. The broad applicability of this novel calorimeter is demonstrated through excellent signal-to-noise ratios of less exothermic ALD half-reactions to produce TiO2 and MnO.

  17. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Shemon

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1, a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function.We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/- MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle.These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  18. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemon, Anne N; Eves, Eva M; Clark, Matthew C; Heil, Gary; Granovsky, Alexey; Zeng, Lingchun; Imamoto, Akira; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-06-24

    Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP, also PEBP1), a member of the Phosphatidylethanolamine Binding Protein family, negatively regulates growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. Since an organic compound, locostatin, was reported to bind RKIP and inhibit cell migration by a Raf-dependent mechanism, we addressed the role of RKIP in locostatin function. We analyzed locostatin interaction with RKIP and examined the biological consequences of locostatin binding on RKIP function. NMR studies show that a locostatin precursor binds to the conserved phosphatidylethanolamine binding pocket of RKIP. However, drug binding to the pocket does not prevent RKIP association with its inhibitory target, Raf-1, nor affect RKIP phosphorylation by Protein Kinase C at a regulatory site. Similarly, exposure of wild type, RKIP-depleted HeLa cells or RKIP-deficient (RKIP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to locostatin has no effect on MAP kinase activation. Locostatin treatment of wild type MEFs causes inhibition of cell migration following wounding. RKIP deficiency impairs migration further, indicating that RKIP protects cells against locostatin-mediated inhibition of migration. Locostatin treatment of depleted or RKIP(-/-) MEFs reveals cytoskeletal disruption and microtubule abnormalities in the spindle. These results suggest that locostatin's effects on cytoskeletal structure and migration are caused through mechanisms independent of its binding to RKIP and Raf/MAP kinase signaling. The protective effect of RKIP against drug inhibition of migration suggests a new role for RKIP in potentially sequestering toxic compounds that may have deleterious effects on cells.

  19. RAF Suppression Synergizes with MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Lamba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancer, yet no therapies are available to treat KRAS mutant cancers. We used two independent reverse genetic approaches to identify components of the RAS-signaling pathways required for growth of KRAS mutant tumors. Small interfering RNA (siRNA screening of 37 KRAS mutant colorectal cancer cell lines showed that RAF1 suppression was synthetic lethal with MEK inhibition. An unbiased kinome short hairpin RNA (shRNA-based screen confirmed this synthetic lethal interaction in colorectal as well as in lung cancer cells bearing KRAS mutations. Compounds targeting RAF kinases can reverse resistance to the MEK inhibitor selumetinib. MEK inhibition induces RAS activation and BRAF-RAF1 dimerization and sustains MEK-ERK signaling, which is responsible for intrinsic resistance to selumetinib. Prolonged dual blockade of RAF and MEK leads to persistent ERK suppression and efficiently induces apoptosis. Our data underlie the relevance of developing combinatorial regimens of drugs targeting the RAF-MEK pathway in KRAS mutant tumors.

  20. Insight into organic reactions from the direct random phase approximation and its corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn [Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 (United States); Zhang, Igor Ying; Scheffler, Matthias [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-10-14

    The performance of the random phase approximation (RPA) and beyond-RPA approximations for the treatment of electron correlation is benchmarked on three different molecular test sets. The test sets are chosen to represent three typical sources of error which can contribute to the failure of most density functional approximations in chemical reactions. The first test set (atomization and n-homodesmotic reactions) offers a gradually increasing balance of error from the chemical environment. The second test set (Diels-Alder reaction cycloaddition = DARC) reflects more the effect of weak dispersion interactions in chemical reactions. Finally, the third test set (self-interaction error 11 = SIE11) represents reactions which are exposed to noticeable self-interaction errors. This work seeks to answer whether any one of the many-body approximations considered here successfully addresses all these challenges.

  1. Insight into organic reactions from the direct random phase approximation and its corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Zhang, Igor Ying; Scheffler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the random phase approximation (RPA) and beyond-RPA approximations for the treatment of electron correlation is benchmarked on three different molecular test sets. The test sets are chosen to represent three typical sources of error which can contribute to the failure of most density functional approximations in chemical reactions. The first test set (atomization and n-homodesmotic reactions) offers a gradually increasing balance of error from the chemical environment. The second test set (Diels-Alder reaction cycloaddition = DARC) reflects more the effect of weak dispersion interactions in chemical reactions. Finally, the third test set (self-interaction error 11 = SIE11) represents reactions which are exposed to noticeable self-interaction errors. This work seeks to answer whether any one of the many-body approximations considered here successfully addresses all these challenges

  2. Study of some direct reactions at 00 in 18O+26Mg and 18O+12C systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payet, J.

    1984-01-01

    Direct transfer reactions induced by a 18 O beam on 12 C and 26 Mg targets, have been studied at the MP tandem (Orsay) with an experimental set up giving the possibility to have angular distributions up to 0 0 . Transfer reactions to discrete levels were analysed in the D.W.B.A. framework. This analysis confirms the interest as a spectroscopic tool of this 0 0 measurements. The ( 18 O, 16 O) and ( 18 O, 20 Ne) reactions were observed up to 40 MeV excitation energy. A diffractionnal model, including the one step direct transfer hypothesis, gives a qualitative agreement with the angular distributions and the energy spectra. A parametrization of a specific small angles development of the transfer amplitudes does not give good results with physical values for the parameters. 32 refs [fr

  3. From waste to value - direct utilization of limonene from orange peel in a biocatalytic cascade reaction towards chiral carvolactone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberleitner, N.; Ressmann, A. K.; Bica, K.; Gaertner, P.; Fraaije, M. W.; Bornscheuer, U. T.; Rudroff, F.; Mihovilovic, M. D.

    2017-01-01

    In this proof of concept study we demonstrate direct utilization of limonene containing waste product orange peel as starting material for a biocatalytic cascade reaction. The product of this cascade is chiral carvolactone, a promising building block for thermoplastic polymers. Four different

  4. The "SWOT" of BRAF inhibition in melanoma: RAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, Moriah H; Solit, David B

    2011-12-01

    Activating mutations in the BRAF gene are among the most prevalent kinase mutations in human cancer. BRAF mutations are most frequent in patients with melanoma where they occur in approximately 50% of patients with advanced disease. Remarkable clinical activity has recently been reported with highly selective RAF inhibitors in melanoma patients whose tumors harbor V600E BRAF mutations. The response rates of RAF inhibitors in patients with BRAF-mutant melanomas far exceed the activity level of any prior therapy studied in this disease. The results suggest that we have entered an era of personalized therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma in which treatment selection will be guided by BRAF mutational status. This review will discuss the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats ("SWOT") of developing RAF and MEK selective inhibitors as anti-cancer therapies, recent insights into the mechanisms of intrinsic and acquired resistance to these agents, and current efforts to develop mechanism-based combination therapies.

  5. Influence of hot rolling and high speed hydrostatic extrusion on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an ODS RAF steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksiuta, Z., E-mail: oksiuta@pb.edu.pl [Bialystok Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Wiejska 45c, 15-352 Bialystok (Poland); Lewandowska, M.; Kurzydlowski, K.J. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Woloska 141, 02-504 Warsaw (Poland); Baluc, N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-02-15

    An argon gas atomized, pre-alloyed Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti (wt.%) reduced activation ferritic (RAF) steel powder was mechanically alloyed with 0.3wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nano-particles in an attritor ball mill and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing at 1150 {sup o}C under a pressure of 200 MPa for 3 h. In the aim to improve its mechanical properties the ODS steel was then submitted to a thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT): hot rolling (HR) at 850 deg. C or high speed hydrostatic extrusion (HSHE) at 900 deg. C, followed by heat treatment (HT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the ODS alloys after TMT and heat treatment revealed the presence of elongated grains in the longitudinal direction, with an average width of 8 {mu}m and an average length of 75 {mu}m, and equiaxed grains, a few microns in diameter, in the transverse direction. Two populations of oxide particles were observed by TEM: large Ti-Al-O particles, up to 250 nm in diameter, usually located at the grain boundaries and small Y-Ti-O nanoclusters, about 2.5 nm in diameter, uniformly distributed in the matrix. Charpy impact tests revealed that the HSHE material exhibits a larger upper shelf energy (5.8 J) than the HR material (2.9 J). The ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of both alloys is relatively high, in the range of 55-72 deg. C. Tensile mechanical properties of both ODS alloys were found satisfactory over the full range of investigated temperatures (23-750 deg. C). The HSHE material exhibits better tensile strength and ductility than the HR material. These results indicate that HSHE can be considered as a promising TMT method for improving the mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels.

  6. Direct Energy Supply to the Reaction Mixture during Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal and Combustion Synthesis of Inorganic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwaves to perform inorganic synthesis allows the direct transfer of electromagnetic energy inside the reaction mixture, independently of the temperature manifested therein. The conversion of microwave (MW radiation into heat is useful in overcoming the activation energy barriers associated with chemical transformations, but the use of microwaves can be further extended to higher temperatures, thus creating unusual high-energy environments. In devising synthetic methodologies to engineered nanomaterials, hydrothermal synthesis and solution combustion synthesis can be used as reference systems to illustrate effects related to microwave irradiation. In the first case, energy is transferred to the entire reaction volume, causing a homogeneous temperature rise within a closed vessel in a few minutes, hence assuring uniform crystal growth at the nanometer scale. In the second case, strong exothermic combustion syntheses can benefit from the application of microwaves to convey energy to the reaction not only during the ignition step, but also while it is occurring and even after its completion. In both approaches, however, the direct interaction of microwaves with the reaction mixture can lead to practically gradient-less heating profiles, on the basis of which the main observed characteristics and properties of the aforementioned reactions and products can be explained.

  7. Effect of antisense c-raf-1 on tumorigenicity and radiation sensitivity of a human squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Pfeifer, A.; Brennan, T.; Beckett, M.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Dritschilo, A.; Mark, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    Antisense RNA-mediated inhibition of gene expression was used to investigate the biological function of the c-raf-1 gene in a radiation-resistant human squamous carcinoma cell line, SQ-20B. S1 nuclease protection assays revealed that transfection of full-length raf complementary DNA in the antisense orientation (AS) leads to a specific reduction (greater than tenfold) of steady-state levels of the endogenous c-raf-1 sense (S) transcript in SQ-20B cells. In nude mice, the malignant potential of SQ-20B cells transfected with raf (S) was significantly increased relative to that of SQ-20B cells transfected with raf (AS). SQ-20B cells containing transfected raf (S) maintained a radiation-resistant phenotype as compared to those cells harboring the AS version, which appeared to have enhanced radiation sensitivity. These data indicate that the reduced expression of endogenous c-raf-1 is sufficient to modulate the tumorigenicity and the radiation-resistant phenotype of SQ-20B cells, thus implicating c-raf-1 in a pathway important to the genesis of this type of cancer

  8. Design and synthesis of N-(4-aminopyridin-2-yl)amides as B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaokai; Shen, Jiayi; Tan, Li; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Donglin; Luo, Jinfeng; Cheng, Huimin; Zhou, Xiaoping; Ma, Jie; Ding, Ke; Lu, Xiaoyun

    2016-06-15

    B-Raf(V600E) was an effective target for the treatment of human cancers. Based on a pan-Raf inhibitor TAK-632, a series of N-(4-aminopyridin-2-yl)amide derivatives were designed as novel B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors. Detailed structure-activity studies of the compounds revealed that most of the compounds displayed potent enzymatic activity against B-Raf(V600E), and good selectivity over B-Raf(WT). One of the most promising compound 4l exhibited potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 38nM for B-raf(V600E), and displayed antiproliferative activities against colo205 and HT29 cells with IC50 values of 0.136 and 0.094μM, respectively. It also displayed good selectivity on both enzymatic and cellular assays over B-Raf(WT). These inhibitors may serve as lead compounds for further developing novel B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Direct Enantioselective Reaction between Hemiacetals and Phosphorus Ylides: Important Role of a By-Product in the Asymmetric Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Linqing; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Dan; Liu, Xihong; Wang, Pengxin; Wang, Kezhou; Zhu, Haiyong; Bai, Lutao

    2018-05-16

    By employing a simple in-situ generated magnesium catalyst, the direct asymmetric reaction between hemiacetals and P-ylides is achieved via a tandem Wittig-oxa-Michael reaction sequence. Enantioenriched chromans, isochromans and tetrahydropyrans can be obtained in good chemical yields. (-)-Erythrococcamide B can be asymmetrically synthesized through this synthetic technique. In this work, the by-product, TPO, was identified as a necessary additive in this asymmetric synthetic method. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Impaired binding of 14-3-3 to C-RAF in noonan syndrome suggests new approaches in diseases with increased ras signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molzan, M.; Schumacher, B.; Ottmann, C.; Baljuls, A.; Polzien, L.; Weyand, M.; Thiel, P.; Rose, R.; Rose, M.; Kuhenne, P.; Kaiser, M.; Rapp, U.R.; Kuhlmann, J.; Ottmann, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Ras-RAF-mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras-RAF-MAPK) pathway is overactive in many cancers and in some developmental disorders. In one of those disorders, namely, Noonan syndrome, nine activating C-RAF mutations cluster around Ser(259), a regulatory site for inhibition by 14-3-3 proteins. We

  11. Direct conversion from Jerusalem artichoke to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using the Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeong Hwan; Han, Jong-In

    2014-05-15

    A simple method for hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) production from non-crop biomass of the Jerusalem artichoke was developed using the Fenton reaction, in a mixture of 2-butanol and water. Four parameters (temperature, reaction time, Fe(2+) concentration, and H2O2 concentration) were identified as experimental factors, and HMF yield was selected as the response parameter. The experimental factors were optimised by employing Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The maximum HMF yield, of 46%, was obtained with a reaction time of 90 min, Fe(2+) concentration of 1.3 mM, and 0.47 M of H2O2 at 180 °C. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Directing Reaction Pathways through Controlled Reactant Binding at Pd-TiO2 Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Bingwen; Nikolla, Eranda; Medlin, J Will

    2017-06-01

    Recent efforts to design selective catalysts for multi-step reactions, such as hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), have emphasized the preparation of active sites at the interface between two materials having different properties. However, achieving precise control over interfacial properties, and thus reaction selectivity, has remained a challenge. Here, we encapsulated Pd nanoparticles (NPs) with TiO 2 films of regulated porosity to gain a new level of control over catalyst performance, resulting in essentially 100 % HDO selectivity for two biomass-derived alcohols. This catalyst also showed exceptional reaction specificity in HDO of furfural and m-cresol. In addition to improving HDO activity by maximizing the interfacial contact between the metal and metal oxide sites, encapsulation by the nanoporous oxide film provided a significant selectivity boost by restricting the accessible conformations of aromatics on the surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Directing reaction pathways by catalyst active-site selection using self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Simon H; Schoenbaum, Carolyn A; Schwartz, Daniel K; Medlin, J Will

    2013-01-01

    One key route for controlling reaction selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is to prepare catalysts that exhibit only specific types of sites required for desired product formation. Here we show that alkanethiolate self-assembled monolayers with varying surface densities can be used to tune selectivity to desired hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation products during the reaction of furfural on supported palladium catalysts. Vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the selectivity improvement is achieved by controlling the availability of specific sites for the hydrogenation of furfural on supported palladium catalysts through the selection of an appropriate alkanethiolate. Increasing self-assembled monolayer density by controlling the steric bulk of the organic tail ligand restricts adsorption on terrace sites and dramatically increases selectivity to desired products furfuryl alcohol and methylfuran. This technique of active-site selection simultaneously serves both to enhance selectivity and provide insight into the reaction mechanism.

  14. Hantzsch Reaction Starting Directly from Alcohols through a Tandem Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Brønsted acidic ionic liquid, 3-(N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium propanesulfonic acid hydrogen sulphate ([DDPA][HSO4], has been successfully applied to catalyze sequential oxidation of aromatic alcohols with NaNO3 followed by their condensation with dicarbonyl compound and ammonium acetate. The corresponding pyridine analogues of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines could be obtained as a major product with high yields by the multicomponent reaction. The present work utilizing alcohols instead of aldehyde in Hantzsch reaction is a valid and green alternative to the classical synthesis of the corresponding pyridine analogues of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines.

  15. Constraining the 19Ne(p,γ)20Na Reaction Rate Using a Direct Measurement at DRAGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, R.; Lotay, G.; Lennarz, A.; Ruiz, C.; Christian, G.; Akers, C.; Catford, W. N.; Chen, A. A.; Connolly, D.; Davids, B.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Jedrejcic, D.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; McNeice, E.; Riley, J.; Williams, M.

    2018-01-01

    A direct measurement of the 19Ne(p, γ)20 Na reaction has been performed in inverse kinematics at the DRAGON recoil separator, at an energy ˜ 10 keV higher than previous measurements. The key resonance in the 19 Ne + p system relevant for ONe novae and Type-I X-ray burst temperatures have been successfully measured for the first time. Preliminary estimates of the resonance energy and strength are reported as Ec.m. ≈ 458 keV and ωγ ≈ 18 meV. These results are consistent with previous direct measurements, but disagree with the most recent study of the 19Ne(p, γ)20 Na reaction rate. These preliminary results will be finalised after a forthcoming negative log-likelihood analysis.

  16. Direct mapping of the angle-dependent barrier to reaction for Cl + CHD3 using polarized scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huilin; Wang, Fengyan; Czakó, Gábor; Liu, Kopin

    2017-12-01

    The transition state, which gates and modulates reactive flux, serves as the central concept in our understanding of activated reactions. The barrier height of the transition state can be estimated from the activation energy taken from thermal kinetics data or from the energetic threshold in the measured excitation function (the dependence of reaction cross-sections on initial collision energies). However, another critical and equally important property, the angle-dependent barrier to reaction, has not yet been amenable to experimental determination until now. Here, using the benchmark reaction of Cl + CHD3(v1 = 1) as an example, we show how to map this anisotropic property of the transition state as a function of collision energy from the preferred reactant bond alignment of the backward-scattered products—the imprints of small impact-parameter collisions. The deduced bend potential at the transition state agrees with ab initio calculations. We expect that the method should be applicable to many other direct reactions with a collinear barrier.

  17. Modelling and simulation of a direct ethanol fuel cell considering multistep electrochemical reactions, transport processes and mixed potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marco; Melke, Julia; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. → The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. → Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. → Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH 3 CO, CO, CH 3 and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO 2 . A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.

  18. Direct-semidirect (DSD) codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvelbar, F.

    1999-01-01

    Recent codes for direct-semidirect (DSD) model calculations in the form of answers to a detailed questionnaire are reviewed. These codes include those embodying the classical DSD approach covering only the transitions to the bound states (RAF, HIKARI, and those of the Bologna group), as well as the code CUPIDO++ that also treats transitions to unbound states. (author)

  19. Exploiting Synergistic Effects in Organozinc Chemistry for Direct Stereoselective C-Glycosylation Reactions at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernan-Gomez, Alberto; Orr, Samantha; Uzelac, Marina; Kennedy, Alan; Barroso, Santiago; Jusseau, Xavier; Lemaire, Sebastien; Farina, Vittorio; Hevia, Eva

    2018-06-01

    Pairing a range of bis(aryl) zinc reagents ZnAr2 with the stronger Lewis acidic [(ZnArF2)] (ArF = C6F5), enables highly stereoselective cross-coupling between glycosyl bromides and ZnAr2 without the use of a transition metal. Reactions occur at room temperature with excellent levels of stereoselectivity, where ZnArF2 acts as a non-coupling partner although its presence is crucial for the execution of the C(sp2)-C(sp3) bond formation process. Mechanistic studies have uncovered a unique synergistic partnership between the two zinc reagents, which circumvents the need for transition-metal catalysis or forcing reaction conditions. Key to the success of the coupling is the avoidance of solvents that act as Lewis bases vs. diarylzinc compounds (e.g. THF. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Raf oncogene is associated with a radiation-resistant human laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Pfeifer, A.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Dritschilo, A.; Mark, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    In order to identify the genetic factors associated with the radiation-resistant human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (SQ-20B), tumor cell DNA was transfected into NIH/3T3 cells. A high incidence (six out of six) of raf sequences was found in transfected NIH/3T3 clones and the tumorigenic potential of SQ-20B DNA could be linked to genomic fragments that represent most of the kinase domain of human c-raf-1. An apparently unaltered 3.5-kilobase pair (kb) human c-raf transcript was identified in SQ-20B cells but was not observed in the transfected NIH/3T3 cell clones. Two new transcripts (4.2 kb and 2.6 kb) were found in tumorigenic clones; the large transcript was missing in a very poorly tumorigenic clone. Cytogenetic analysis indicated that the normal autosomes of chromosome 3 were absent in SQ-20B karyotypes and had formed apparently stable marker chromosomes. Unlike the recipient NIH/3T3 cell line, 30% of the transformed clone-1 metaphases had minute and double-minute chromosomes representative of amplified DNA sequences. The frequency of the c-raf-1 identification by NIH/3T3 transfection of SQ-20B DNA suggests the presence of some genetic abnormality within this locus

  1. RAF V Sweatman (162/2014) [2015] ZASCA 22 (20 march 2015) A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAF V Sweatman (162/2014) [2015] ZASCA 22 (20 march 2015) A simple illustration of the SCA's statutory ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The effect is that one of the primary purposes of the Amendment Act is ...

  2. Identification of novel B-RafV600E inhibitors employing FBDD strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Han-Yue; Wang, Ze-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jiao; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2017-05-15

    B-Raf kinase is the key point in a main branch of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and some of its mutations, such as the V600E mutation, lead to the persistent activation of ERK signaling and the trigger of severe diseases, including melanoma and other somatic cancers. Several potent drugs have been approved to treat B-Raf-related tumors, however, cases of resistance and relapse have been reported universally. Hence, differential scaffolds are in need to alleviate the scarcity of drugs and benefit the therapy of B-Raf-mutant cancers. Herein we report our recent work on the construction of novel B-Raf V600E inhibitors employing fragment-based drug design strategy. In this research, we decomposed known inhibitors to fragments and rebuilt new candidates using these blocks according to the evaluation of their potential. Lead compounds were synthesized after selection by means of virtual screening and molecular dynamics validation. Afterwards, we tested the pharmacological efficiency of these entities both in vitro and in vivo utilizing A375 xenograft model. The results favored our rational design intention and hinted this new kind of inhibitors might be helpful in the further explorations of potent agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. issn 1727-3781 the interpretation of the amended raf act 56 of 1996 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    except for secondary emotional shock suffered due to the motor-vehicle accident. 4 ... the Amendment Act these claims are no longer limited or excluded and thus the potential ..... issue to a mystical Appeal Tribunal in his view would amount to an “unnecessary or .... The RAF should provide relevant, rational and substantial.

  4. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective reactions of γ-substituted butenolides through direct vinylogous conjugate additions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wen; Tan, Davin; Lee, Richmond; Tong, Guanghu; Chen, Wenchao; Qi, Baojian; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Tan, Choonhong; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    The strength of the weak: An L-tert-leucine-derived amine-thiourea catalyst (see scheme, green box) promotes the asymmetric vinylogous conjugate addition reaction between γ-aryl- and alkyl-substituted butenolides with the butenamides and enoates shown. Computational studies show the preference for the observed stereochemistry is a result of favourable weak non-bonding interactions, which stabilize the transition state. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Highly enantio- and diastereoselective reactions of γ-substituted butenolides through direct vinylogous conjugate additions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wen

    2012-09-05

    The strength of the weak: An L-tert-leucine-derived amine-thiourea catalyst (see scheme, green box) promotes the asymmetric vinylogous conjugate addition reaction between γ-aryl- and alkyl-substituted butenolides with the butenamides and enoates shown. Computational studies show the preference for the observed stereochemistry is a result of favourable weak non-bonding interactions, which stabilize the transition state. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Recent developments in fusion and direct reactions with weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canto, L.F.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Donangelo, R.; Lubian, J.; Hussein, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this Report we give a balanced account of the experimental and theoretical advances acquired over the last decade in the field of near-barrier fusion reactions induced by weakly bound stable and unstable nuclei. The elastic scattering and breakup reactions of these systems are also extensively reviewed as they play an important role in the fusion process. We review several theoretical tools used in the description of the data. The concepts of Complete Fusion (CF), Incomplete Fusion (ICF) and Total Fusion (TF), which is the sum of CF and ICF, are discussed and recent work on the calculation of these quantities is reviewed. The Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels (CDCC) method and its semiclassical version are described in detail and their limitations are pointed out. More importantly, we describe the salient features of the conclusions reached from the more than 40 measurements made, over a decade, of near-barrier fusion, elastic scattering and breakup reactions, and confront these data with the CDCC or other methods appropriate for these processes at the energy regime in question.

  7. Children's direct fright and worry reactions to violence in fiction and news television programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Juliette H Walma; Bushman, Brad J

    2008-09-01

    To examine whether violence in fictional and news television content frightens and worries children. Mixed factorial. Type of reaction (fright, worry) and television programming (violent news, violent fiction) were within-subjects factors, whereas age, sex, and television viewing frequency were between-subjects factors. Participants included 572 children (47% boys), aged 8 to 12 years, from 9 urban and rural primary schools in the Netherlands. The main exposure was to descriptions of 8 threats frequently depicted in fictional and news programs (eg, murder, war, house fires). Children reported whether they were frightened or worried by these threats. Violent threats increased both fright and worry. These 2 reactions could be distinguished from one another in a factor analysis. When violent content was described as news, it produced more fear reactions than when it was described as fiction. Fright and worry were greater in girls than in boys, in younger children than in older children, and in light television viewers than in heavy television viewers. Pediatricians should inform parents, educators, policy makers, and broadcasters about the potentially harmful effect of violent programming on children's emotions, especially in the case of news programming.

  8. Study of In-Cylinder Reactions of High Power-Density Direct Injection Diesel Engines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansons, M

    2004-01-01

    Direct-injection (DI) Diesel or compression-ignition (CI) engine combustion process is investigated when new design and operational strategies are employed in order to achieve a high power-density (HPD) engine...

  9. Licochalcone A, a Polyphenol Present in Licorice, Suppresses UV-Induced COX-2 Expression by Targeting PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nu Ry Song

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is a traditional botanical medicine, and has historically been commonly prescribed in Asia to treat various diseases. Glycyrrhizin (Gc, a triterpene compound, is the most abundant phytochemical constituent of licorice. However, high intake or long-term consumption of Gc has been associated with a number of side effects, including hypertension. However, the presence of alternative bioactive compounds in licorice with anti-carcinogenic effects has long been suspected. Licochalcone A (LicoA is a prominent member of the chalcone family and can be isolated from licorice root. To date, there have been no reported studies on the suppressive effect of LicoA against solar ultraviolet (sUV-induced cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression and the potential molecular mechanisms involved. Here, we show that LicoA, a major chalcone compound of licorice, effectively inhibits sUV-induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 PGE2 generation through the inhibition of activator protein 1 AP-1 transcriptional activity, with an effect that is notably more potent than Gc. Western blotting analysis shows that LicoA suppresses sUV-induced phosphorylation of Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2/p90 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (RSK in HaCaT cells. Moreover, LicoA directly suppresses the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1, and B-Raf, but not Raf-1 in cell-free assays, indicating that PI3K, MEK1, and B-Raf are direct molecular targets of LicoA. We also found that LicoA binds to PI3K and B-Raf in an ATP-competitive manner, although LicoA does not appear to compete with ATP for binding with MEK1. Collectively, these results provide insight into the biological action of LicoA, which may have potential for development as a skin cancer chemopreventive agent.

  10. Model-independent spectroscopic information and the peripheral direct capture A(a,γ)B reaction at stellar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Despite the impressive progress in our understanding of these processes has been made in the last decades, there are still many problems connected with obtaining precise data on the A(p,γ )B and A(α,γ )B reactions cross sections at stellar energies to be solved. One of the possibilities of solving these problems is based on the principally peripheral character of charged particles interaction at low energy and the possibility of using the information on asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANC) (or respective nuclear vertex constants (NVC) for the virtual decay B→A+a ) of the overlap functions for the A(p,γ )B and A(α,γ)B reactions. This review is devoted to critical analysis of traditional methods of obtaining ANC information from DWBA - method calculation of proton transfer reactions and two - body potential model calculation of the direct capture reactions. Moreover in this review modified two - body potential approach allowing to determine both the ANC for virtual decays B→p+A and B→α+A and astrophysical S-factor, S(E), for the A(p,γ)B and A(α,γ)B at stellar energies E (∼ 25 keV) is discussed. This method involves two additional conditions that allow to verify the peripheral character of the considered reactions. New information about rates of t( α ,γ ) 7 Li, 3 He(α ,γ ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p,γ ) 8 B and 12 C(p,γ ) 13 N reactions and estimation of the values of the ANC's for 7 Li →α+t, 7 Be→α+ 3 He, and 8 B→ 7 Be+p has also been presented

  11. Direct Dynamics Simulation of the Thermal 3CH2 + 3O2 Reaction. Rate Constant and Product Branching Ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Sandhiya; Pratihar, Subha; Machado, Francisco Bolivar Correto; Hase, William Louis

    2018-04-26

    The reaction of 3CH2 with 3O2 is of fundamental importance in combustion and the reaction is complex as a result of multiple extremely exothermic product channels. In the present study, direct dynamics simulations were performed to study the reaction on both the singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces (PESs). The simulations were performed at the UM06/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Trajectories were calculated at a temperature of 300 K and all reactive trajectories proceeded through the carbonyl oxide Criegee intermediate, CH2OO, on both the singlet and triplet PESs. The triplet surface leads to only one product channel, H2CO + O(3P), while the singlet surface leads to 8 product channels with their relative importance as: CO + H2O > CO + OH + H ~ H2CO + O(1D) > HCO + OH ~ CO2 + H2 ~ CO + H2 + O(1D) > CO2 + H + H > HCO + O(1D) + H. Reaction on the singlet PES is barrierless, consistent with experiment and the total rate constant on the singlet surface is 0.93 ± 0.22 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1 in comparison to the recommended experimental rate constant of 3.3 x 10-12 cm3molecule-1s-1. The simulation product yields for the singlet PES are compared with experiment and the most significant differences are for H, CO2, and H2O. Reaction on the triplet surface is also barrierless, inconsistent with experiment. A discussion is given of the need for future calculations to address the: (1) barrier on the triplet PES for 3CH2 + 3O2 → 3CH2OO; (2) temperature dependence of the 3CH2 + 3O2 reaction rate constant and product branching ratios; and (3) possible non-RRKM dynamics of the 1CH2OO Criegee intermediate.

  12. [Direct costs and clinical aspects of adverse drug reactions in patients admitted to a level 3 hospital internal medicine ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribiño, Gabriel; Maldonado, Carlos; Segura, Omar; Díaz, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occur frequently in hospitals and increase costs of health care; however, few studies have quantified the clinical and economic impact of ADRs in Colombia. These impacts were evaluated by calculating costs associated with ADRs in patients hospitalized in the internal medicine ward of a Level 3 hospital located in Bogotá, Colombia. In addition, salient clinical features of ADRs were identified and characterized. Intensive follow-ups for a cohort of patients were conducted for a five month period in order to detect ADRs; different ways to classify them, according to literature, were considered as well. Information was collected using the INVIMA reporting format, and causal probability was evaluated with the Naranjo algorithm. Direct costs were calculated from the perspective of payer, based on the following costs: additional hospital stay, medications, paraclinical tests, additional procedures, patient displacement to intermediate or intensive care units, and other costs. Of 836 patients admitted to the service, 268 adverse drug reactions were detected in 208 patients (incidence proportion 25.1%, occurence rate 0.32). About the ADRs found, 74.3% were classified as probable, 92.5% were type A, and 81.3% were moderate. The body system most often affected was the circulatory system (33.9%). Drugs acting on the blood were most frequently those ones associated with adverse reactions (37.6%). The costs resulting from medical care of adverse drug reactions varied from COL dollar 93,633,422 (USD dollar 35,014.92) to COL dollar 122,155,406 (USD dollar 45,680.94), according to insurance type, during the study period. Adverse drug reactions have a significant negative health and financial impact on patient welfare. Because of the substantial resources required for their medical care and the significant proportion of preventable adverse reactions, active programs of institutional pharmacovigilance are highly recommended.

  13. Direct projectile break up its relation to the astrophysically revelant fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertulani, C.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1990-05-01

    The break-up into two pieces of weakly bound nuclei passing by the Coulomb field of a large Z nucleus can provide useful information on the inverse fusion reactions which are important for the elemental formation in the stars. However, the nuclear interaction complicates considerably the extraction of such information. A study is made of the contributions of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction to the process, showing when the Coulomb break-up prevails and how a reliable separation of multipolarities can be done. (author)

  14. Direct gas-phase epoxidation of propylene to propylene oxide through radical reactions: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilkaya, Ali Can; Fellah, Mehmet Ferdi; Onal, Isik

    2010-03-01

    The gas-phase radical chain reactions which utilize O 2 as the oxidant to produce propylene oxide (PO) are investigated through theoretical calculations. The transition states and energy profiles were obtained for each path. The rate constants were also calculated. The energetics for the competing pathways indicate that PO can be formed selectively due to its relatively low activation barrier (9.3 kcal/mol) which is in a good agreement with the experimental value (11 kcal/mol) of gas-phase propylene epoxidation. The formation of the acrolein and combustion products have relatively high activation barriers and are not favored. These results also support the recent experimental findings.

  15. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A Otubanjo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities. Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%; oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%; rashes (3.4% and body weakness (2.4%. Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4: 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en

  16. Detection of up to 65% of Precancerous Lesions of the Human Colon and Rectum by Mutation Analysis of APC, K-Ras, B-Raf and CTNNB1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Mandy; Scholtka, Bettina; Gottschalk, Uwe; Faiss, Siegbert; Schatz, Daniela; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia; Steinberg, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a recently conceived 4-gene marker panel covering the Wnt and Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK signaling pathways was used to analyze 20 colorectal serrated lesions and 41 colorectal adenoma samples and to determine the percentage of each of the above-mentioned potentially precancerous lesions carrying at least one of the four above-mentioned genes in a mutated form. CTNNB1 and B-Raf were screened by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, K-Ras by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and the APC gene mutation cluster region (codons 1243–1567) by direct DNA sequencing. APC mutations were only detected in 10% of the serrated lesions but in 34% of the adenomas. Twenty percent of the serrated lesions and 14% of the adenomas carried a mutated K-Ras. B-Raf was found to be mutated in 50% of the serrated lesions and in 22% of the adenomas. CTNNB1 was altered in 12% of the adenomas, but not in serrated lesions. By using the above gene marker panel it could be shown that 65% of the serrated lesions and 61% of the adenomas carried at least one of the four genes in a mutated form. Based on its excellent performance in detecting mutations in sporadic preneoplastic (in this study) and neoplastic lesions (in a previous study) of the human colon and rectum, this primer combination might also be suited to efficiently and non-invasively detect genetic alterations in stool DNA of patients with early colorectal cancer

  17. Detection of up to 65% of Precancerous Lesions of the Human Colon and Rectum by Mutation Analysis of APC, K-Ras, B-Raf and CTNNB1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Mandy; Scholtka, Bettina, E-mail: scholtka@uni-potsdam.de [Chair of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Arthur- Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Gottschalk, Uwe [Maria Heimsuchung Caritas-Klinik Pankow, Breite Straße 46/47, 13187 Berlin (Germany); Faiss, Siegbert [III. Medizinische Abteilung - Gastroenterologie und Hepatologie, Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Rubenkamp 220, 22291 Hamburg (Germany); Schatz, Daniela; Berghof-Jäger, Kornelia [BIOTECON Diagnostics GmbH, Hermannswerder Haus 17, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Steinberg, Pablo, E-mail: scholtka@uni-potsdam.de [Chair of Nutritional Toxicology, Institute of Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Arthur- Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal (Germany); Institute for Food Toxicology and Analytical Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    In the present study a recently conceived 4-gene marker panel covering the Wnt and Ras-Raf-MEK-MAPK signaling pathways was used to analyze 20 colorectal serrated lesions and 41 colorectal adenoma samples and to determine the percentage of each of the above-mentioned potentially precancerous lesions carrying at least one of the four above-mentioned genes in a mutated form. CTNNB1 and B-Raf were screened by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, K-Ras by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and the APC gene mutation cluster region (codons 1243–1567) by direct DNA sequencing. APC mutations were only detected in 10% of the serrated lesions but in 34% of the adenomas. Twenty percent of the serrated lesions and 14% of the adenomas carried a mutated K-Ras. B-Raf was found to be mutated in 50% of the serrated lesions and in 22% of the adenomas. CTNNB1 was altered in 12% of the adenomas, but not in serrated lesions. By using the above gene marker panel it could be shown that 65% of the serrated lesions and 61% of the adenomas carried at least one of the four genes in a mutated form. Based on its excellent performance in detecting mutations in sporadic preneoplastic (in this study) and neoplastic lesions (in a previous study) of the human colon and rectum, this primer combination might also be suited to efficiently and non-invasively detect genetic alterations in stool DNA of patients with early colorectal cancer.

  18. Dual-level direct dynamics studies for the hydrogen abstraction reaction of 1,1-difluoroethane with O( 3P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yao; Li, Ze-sheng; Dai, Zhen-wen; Zhang, Gang; Sun, Chia-chung

    2004-01-01

    We present dual-level direct dynamics calculations for the CH 3CHF 2 + O( 3P) hydrogen abstraction reaction in a wide temperature range, based on canonical variational transition-state theory including small curvature tunneling corrections. For this reaction, three distinct transition states, one for α-abstraction and two for β-abstraction, have been located. The potential energy surface information is obtained at the MP2(full)/6-311G(d,p) level of theory, and higher-level single-point calculations for the stationary points are preformed at several levels, namely QCISD(T)/6-311+G(3df,3pd), G2, and G3 using the MP2 geometries, as well as at the G3//MP4SDQ/6-311G(d,p) level. The energy profiles are further refined with the interpolated single-point energies method at the G3//MP2(full)/6-311G(d,p) level. The total rate constants match the experimental data reasonable well in the measured temperature range 1110-1340 K. It is shown that at low temperature α-abstraction may be the major reaction channel, while β-abstraction will have more contribution to the whole reaction rate as the temperature increases.

  19. Low-lying states and structure of the exotic 8He via direct reactions on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaza, F.; Lapoux, V.; Keeley, N.; Alamanos, N.; Auger, F.; Beaumel, D.; Becheva, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Delaunay, F.; Drouart, A.; Gillibert, A.; Giot, L.; Khan, E.; Nalpas, L.; Pakou, A.; Pollacco, E.; Raabe, R.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rusek, K.; Scarpaci, J.-A.; Sida, J.-L.; Stepantsov, S.; Wolski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the light exotic nucleus 8 He was investigated using direct reactions of the 8 He SPIRAL beam on a proton-rich target. The (p,p') scattering to the 2 1 + state, the (p,d) 7 He and (p,t) 6 He transfer reactions, were measured at the energy E lab =15.7 A.MeV. The light charged particles (p,d,t) were detected in the MUST Si-strip telescope array. The excitation spectrum of 8 He was extracted from the (p,p') reaction. Above the known 2 1 + excited state at 3.6 MeV, a second resonance was found around 5.4 MeV. The cross sections were analyzed within the coupled-reaction channels framework, using microscopic potentials. It is inferred that the 8 He ground state has a more complex neutron-skin structure than suggested by previous α+4n models assuming a pure (1p 3/2 ) 4 configuration

  20. Fluctuation effects on average cross sections in compound, direct and doorway state resonance reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    The main features of the effects of S-matrix flucturations on average cross sections are reviewed with emphasis on recent developments on the enhancement of small cross sections and cross sections between directly coupled channels. Examples are given in which the effect can distort the shape of a doorway state resonance so as to reduce its observed width. 4 figures

  1. Direct photon production in heavy-ion reactions at SPS and RHIC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An outlook on the perspective of photon measurements at ... QCD, the theory of strong interaction, enters the perturbative regime and is calculable. ... While photon production may be less difficult to treat than some other processes ... the context of both prompt and thermal direct photons, as they are dominated by the lowest.

  2. Direct formation of LiAlH4 by a mechanochemical reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Yoshitsugu; Kawai, Yasuaki; Haga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Mitsuru; Koiwai, Akihiko

    2007-01-01

    A small amount of lithium tetrahydridoaluminate (LiAlH 4 ) was directly synthesized by ball-milling of lithium hydride LiH and aluminum Al in a H 2 atmosphere (1 MPa) at room temperature. Concomitant formation of lithium hexahydridoaluminate Li 3 AlH 6 was confirmed

  3. Investigation of chemical and electrochemical reactions mechanisms in a direct carbon fuel cell using olive wood charcoal as sustainable fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amal; Halouani, Kamel; Li, Yongdan

    2015-05-01

    Direct carbon fuel cell (DCFC) is a high temperature fuel cell using solid carbon as fuel. The use of environmentally friendly carbon material constitutes a promising option for the DCFC future. In this context, this paper focuses on the use of biomass-derived charcoal renewable fuel. A practical investigation of Tunisian olive wood charcoal (OW-C) in planar DCFCs is conducted and good power density (105 mW cm-2) and higher current density (550 mA cm-2) are obtained at 700 °C. Analytical and predictive techniques are performed to explore the relationships between fuel properties and DCFC chemical and electrochemical mechanisms. High carbon content, carbon-oxygen groups and disordered structure, are the key parameters allowing the achieved good performance. Relatively complex chain reactions are predicted to explain the gas evolution within the anode. CO, H2 and CH4 participation in the anodic reaction is proved.

  4. Electrochemical characterization of Pt-Ru-Pd catalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M; Han, C; Kim, I T; An, J C; Lee, J J; Lee, H K; Shim, J

    2011-01-01

    PtRuPd nanoparticles on carbon black were prepared and characterized as electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation reaction in direct methanol fuel cells. Nano-sized Pd (2-4 nm) particles were deposited on Pt/C and PtRu/C (commercial products) by a simple chemical reduction process. The structural and physical information of the PtRuPd/C were confirmed by TEM and XRD, and their electrocatalytic activities were measured by cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry. The catalysts containing Pd showed higher electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction than the other catalysts. This might be attributed to an increase in the electrochemical surface area of Pt, which is caused by the addition of Pd; this results in increased catalyst utilization.

  5. Feasibility of Traveling Wave Direct Energy Conversion of Fission Reaction Fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, A. G.; George, J. A.; Miley, G. H.; Scott, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Fission fragment direct energy conversion has been considered in the past for the purpose of increasing nuclear power plant efficiency and for advanced space propulsion. Since the fragments carry electric charge (typically in the order of 20 e) and have 100 MeV-range kinetic energy, techniques utilizing very high-voltage DC electrodes have been considered. This study is focused on a different approach: the kinetic energy of the charged fission fragments is converted into alternating current by means of a traveling wave coupling scheme (Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter, TWDEC), thereby not requiring the utilization of high voltage technology. A preliminary feasibility analysis of the concept is introduced based on a conceptual level study and on a particle simulation model of the beam dynamics.

  6. Direct costs of managing adverse drug reactions during rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnippel, K; Firnhaber, C; Berhanu, R; Page-Shipp, L; Sinanovic, E

    2018-04-01

    To estimate the provider costs of managing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to standard long-course treatment for multidrug- and rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/RR-TB) according to South African guidelines. We parameterised a published Markov health state model for MDR/RR-TB with guidelines-based, bottom-up public-sector provider costing of ADR management. Frequency of ADR occurrence was extracted from the literature. Costs were estimated over 10 years, discounted 3% annually and tested using probabilistic sensitivity analysis. On average, guidelines-based costing of moderate ADRs weighted by the frequency of occurrence was US$135.76 (standard deviation [SD] US$17.18) and the cost of serious ADRs was US$521.29 (SD US$55.99). We estimated that the incremental costs of ADR management were US$380.17 annually per patient initiating MDR/RR-TB treatment. The incremental costs of ADR management for the public health sector in South Africa was US$4.76 million, 8.3% of the estimated cohort costs of MDR/RR-TB treatment ($57.55 million) for the 2015 cohort of 12 527 patients. Management of multiple ADRs and serious ADRs, which are common during the first 6 months of standard, long-course MDR/RR-TB treatment, substantially increases provider treatment costs. These results need to be taken into account when comparing regimen costs, and highlight the urgent need to identify drug regimens with improved safety profiles.

  7. Directed surfaces structures and interfaces for enhanced electrocatalyst activity, selectivity, and stability for energy conversion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Shriram Center

    2016-04-20

    In this project, we have employed a systematic approach to develop active, selective, and stable catalyst materials for important electrochemical reactions involving energy conversion. In particular, we have focused our attention on developing active catalyst materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). HER: We have synthesized and investigated several highly active and acid stable non-precious metal HER catalysts, including: [Mo3S13]2- nanoclusters (Nature Chemistry, 2014) and molybdenum phosphosulfide (MoP|S) (Angewandte Chemie, 2014). We have also aimed to engineer these catalyst formulations in a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for fundamental studies of water electrolysis at high current densities, approximately 1 A/cm2 (ChemSusChem, 2015). We furthermore investigated transition metal phosphide (TMP) catalysts for HER by a combined experimental–theoretical approach (Energy & Environmental Science, 2015). By synthesizing different TMPs and comparing experimentally determined HER activities with the hydrogen adsorption free energies, ΔGH, calculated by density functional theory, we showed that the TMPs follow a volcano relationship for the HER. Using our combined experimental–theoretical model, we predicted that the mixed metal TMP, Fe0.5Co0.5P, should have a near-optimal ΔGH. We synthesized several mixtures of Co and Fe phosphides alloys and confirmed that Fe0.5Co0.5P exhibits the highest HER activity of the investigated TMPs (Energy & Environmental Science, 2015). The understanding gained as to how to improve catalytic activity for the HER, particularly for non-precious metal materials, is important to DOE targets for sustainable H2 production. OER: We have developed a SrIrO3/IrOx catalyst for acidic conditions (submitted, 2016). The Sr

  8. Amine-catalyzed direct aldol reactions of hydroxy- and dihydroxyacetone: biomimetic synthesis of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popik, Oskar; Pasternak-Suder, Monika; Leśniak, Katarzyna; Jawiczuk, Magdalena; Górecki, Marcin; Frelek, Jadwiga; Mlynarski, Jacek

    2014-06-20

    This article presents comprehensive studies on the application of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines as efficient organocatalysts for the de novo synthesis of ketoses and deoxyketoses. Mimicking the actions of aldolase enzymes, the synthesis of selected carbohydrates was accomplished in aqueous media by using proline- and serine-based organocatalysts. The presented methodology also provides direct access to unnatural L-carbohydrates from the (S)-glyceraldehyde precursor. Determination of the absolute configuration of all obtained sugars was feasible using a methodology consisting of concerted ECD and VCD spectroscopy.

  9. Probing the electronic structure of redox species and direct determination of intrinsic reorganization energies of electron transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2000-01-01

    An experimental technique capable of directly determining the intrinsic reorganization energies of bimolecular electron transfer reactions is described. Appropriate solution phase redox species are prepared in the gas phase using electrospray ionization and probed using photodetachment spectroscopy. Five metal complex anions involved in the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple are investigated and the intramolecular reorganization energies are measured directly from spectral features due to removing the most loosely bound 3d electron from the Fe(II)-complexes. The photodetachment spectra also yield electronic structure information about the Fe 2+ -Fe 3+ redox couple and provide a common electronic structure origin for the reducing capability of the Fe(II)-complexes, the most common redox reagents. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. Enhancing the methanol tolerance of platinum nanoparticles for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells through a geometric design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Ye, Feng; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2015-11-18

    Mastery over the structure of nanoparticles might be an effective way to enhance their performance for a given application. Herein we demonstrate the design of cage-bell nanostructures to enhance the methanol tolerance of platinum (Pt) nanoparticles while remaining their catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. This strategy starts with the synthesis of core-shell-shell nanoparticles with Pt and silver (Ag) residing respectively in the core and inner shell regions, which are then agitated with saturated sodium chloride (NaCl) solution to eliminate the Ag component from the inner shell region, leading to the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles with a cage-bell structure, defined as a movable Pt core enclosed by a metal shell with nano-channels, which exhibit superior methanol-tolerant property in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction due to the different diffusion behaviour of methanol and oxygen in the porous metal shell of cage-bell structured nanoparticles. In particular, the use of remarkably inexpensive chemical agent (NaCl) to promote the formation of cage-bell structured particles containing a wide spectrum of metal shells highlights its engineering merit to produce highly selective electrocatalysts on a large scale for the cathode reaction of direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. Fragmentation and direct transfer reactions for 40Ar incident beam on 27Al target at 1760 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisse, Ousmane

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral collision studies performed with 40 Ar projectiles at 44 MeV/A and 27 Al target show that both fragmentation and transfer reactions can be discerned in this type of interaction. The experimental observation of fragments with masses charges and velocities close to those of the incident beam are the signature of transfer reactions and a detailed analysis of the energy spectra of such fragments has been carried out and interpreted in terms of a direct diffraction transfer model. On the other hand, for large mass transfer reactions, abrasion is the suitable mechanism. Inclusive fragment measurement together with the appropriate residual nuclei-fragment coincidence results then provides experimental data in good agreement with the theoretical predictions obtained from a participant spectator model. These investigations also indicate that the separation energies of the participant from the spectator nucleus, at least within the framework of the above model, can be interpreted in terms of a friction force which becomes more efficient as the projectile energy decreases. (author) [fr

  12. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga, E-mail: leticiamoraes@usp.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  13. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  14. Metal oxide nanoparticle mediated enhanced Raman scattering and its use in direct monitoring of interfacial chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hutter, Tanya; Finnemore, Alexander S; Huang, Fu Min; Baumberg, Jeremy J; Elliott, Stephen R; Steiner, Ullrich; Mahajan, Sumeet

    2012-08-08

    Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) have widespread usage across many disciplines, but monitoring molecular processes at their surfaces in situ has not been possible. Here we demonstrate that MONPs give highly enhanced (×10(4)) Raman scattering signals from molecules at the interface permitting direct monitoring of their reactions, when placed on top of flat metallic surfaces. Experiments with different metal oxide materials and molecules indicate that the enhancement is generic and operates at the single nanoparticle level. Simulations confirm that the amplification is principally electromagnetic and is a result of optical modulation of the underlying plasmonic metallic surface by MONPs, which act as scattering antennae and couple light into the confined region sandwiched by the underlying surface. Because of additional functionalities of metal oxides as magnetic, photoelectrochemical and catalytic materials, enhanced Raman scattering mediated by MONPs opens up significant opportunities in fundamental science, allowing direct tracking and understanding of application-specific transformations at such interfaces. We show a first example by monitoring the MONP-assisted photocatalytic decomposition reaction of an organic dye by individual nanoparticles.

  15. High-pressure synthesis of rhombohedral α-AgGaO{sub 2} via direct solid state reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhtar, Meysam [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, 102 Natural Science Building, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Menon, Madhu [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Kentucky, 325 McVey Hall, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Sunkara, Mahendra [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Sumanasekera, Gamini [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, 102 Natural Science Building, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Durygin, Andriy [Center for the Study of Matter at Extreme Conditions, Florida International University, VH 140, University Park, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Jasinski, Jacek B., E-mail: jacek.jasinski@louisville.edu [Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Ernst Hall Room 102A, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • Direct synthesis of α-AgGaO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction of Ag{sub 2}O and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. • Utilizing high pressure diamond anvil cell to facilitate solid state reaction. • Experimental and theoretical study of vibrational modes for α-AgGaO{sub 2}. • Extensive characterization of synthesized α-AgGaO{sub 2} samples. • GGA + U formalism-based DFT calculations of electronic structure and band gap in α-AgGaO{sub 2}. - Abstract: In this work, we demonstrate the application of high pressure conditions to enable the direct synthesis of α-AgGaO{sub 2} via a solid state reaction of Ag{sub 2}O and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Synthesis experiments were carried out at pressures and temperatures up to ∼10 GPa and ∼600 °C, respectively, using a resistively-heated diamond anvil cell. Thus synthesized α-AgGaO{sub 2} samples were characterized and their chemical composition and crystal structure were confirmed. In particular, electron diffraction confirmed the rhombohedral delafossite crystal structure of the synthesized AgGaO{sub 2} and its corresponding lattice parameters of a = 2.99 Å and c = 18.43 Å. The vibrational modes analysis was also conducted using a combination of ab initio density functional theory (DFT) and Raman spectroscopy. This analysis yielded good agreement between the calculated Raman-active modes and experimental Raman data. Finally, the application of the GGA + U formalism-based on DFT to calculate the electronic band structure of α-AgGaO{sub 2} provided a more realistic theoretical band gap value than those reported previously.

  16. Replacing the IRAF/PyRAF Code-base at STScI: The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ray A.; Desjardins, Tyler D.; STScI ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys) Team

    2018-06-01

    IRAF/PyRAF are no longer viable on the latest hardware often used by HST observers, therefore STScI no longer actively supports IRAF or PyRAF for most purposes. STScI instrument teams are in the process of converting all of our data processing and analysis code from IRAF/PyRAF to Python, including our calibration reference file pipelines and data reduction software. This is exemplified by our latest ACS Data Handbook, version 9.0, which was recently published in February 2018. Examples of IRAF and PyRAF commands have now been replaced by code blocks in Python, with references linked to documentation on how to download and install the latest Python software via Conda and AstroConda. With the temporary exception of the ACS slitless spectroscopy tool aXe, all ACS-related software is now independent of IRAF/PyRAF. A concerted effort has been made across STScI divisions to help the astronomical community transition from IRAF/PyRAF to Python, with tools such as Python Jupyter notebooks being made to give users workable examples. In addition to our code changes, the new ACS data handbook discusses the latest developments in charge transfer efficiency (CTE) correction, bias de-striping, and updates to the creation and format of calibration reference files among other topics.

  17. Activation of c-Raf-1 kinase signal transduction pathway in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, G; Hildt, E

    1999-09-24

    Integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice develop a novel form of muscular dystrophy. Here we report that deficiency of alpha(7) integrin causes an activation of the c-Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) 2 kinase signal transduction pathway in muscle cells. The observed activation of c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases is a specific effect, because the alpha(7) integrin deficiency does not cause unspecific stress as determined by measurement of the Hsp72/73 level and activity of the JNK2 kinase. Because an increased level of activated FAK was found in muscle of alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the activation of c-Raf-1 kinase is triggered most likely by an integrin-dependent pathway. In accordance with this, in the integrin alpha(7)-deficient mice, part of the integrin beta(1D) variant in muscle is replaced by the beta(1A) variant, which permits the FAK activation. A recent report describes that integrin activity can be down-modulated by the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinase pathway. Specific activation of the c-Raf-1/MAP2 kinases by cell-permeable peptides in skeletal muscle of rabbits causes degeneration of muscle fibers. Therefore, we conclude that in alpha(7) integrin-deficient mice, the continuous activation of c-Raf-1 kinase causes a permanent reduction of integrin activity diminishing integrin-dependent cell-matrix interactions and thereby contributing to the development of the dystrophic phenotype.

  18. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  19. Random Access Frames (RAF): Alternative to Rack and Standoff for Deep Space Habitat Outfitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Polit-Casillas, Raul

    2014-01-01

    A modular Random Access Frame (RAF) system is proposed as an alternative to the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) for internal module layout and outfitting in a Deep Space Habitat (DSH). The ISPR approach was designed to allow for efficient interchangeability of payload and experiments for the International Space Station (ISS) when frequent resupply missions were available (particularly the now-retired Space Shuttle). Though the standard interface approach to the ISPR system allowed integration of subsystems and hardware from a variety of sources and manufacturers, the heavy rack and standoff approach may not be appropriate when resupply or swap-out capabilities are not available, such as on deep space, long-duration missions. The lightweight RAF concept can allow a more dense packing of stowage and equipment, and may be easily broken down for repurposing or reuse. Several example layouts and workstations are presented.

  20. Woodbridge RAF United Kingdom. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-07

    GLOcAL CLIMATOLOY 4PANCH uoAFETAC CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITY AIP WEATHER SERVIC[/PAC 6 !� .0ODB8RI)E RAF UK _"_-_ " ___ .-8’ PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY OF...OSIVATIONWS A USAF ETAC 0. . -14.5(OL A) owvo I wv s op wpwm i -- GLOCAL CLIMATOLOGY RRANCH AT CEILING VERSUS VISIBILITYA’.P WEATHr SERVICE/MAC 7 .951

  1. The interpretation of the amended RAF Act 56 of 1996 and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The RAF Amendment Act 19 of 2005 came into effect on 1 August 2008 and sections 17(1) and 17(1A) introduced the concept of “serious injury”. This entails that a third-party claimant who wishes to claim compensation for non-patrimonial loss suffered after a motor-vehicle accident has to prove that his or her injury is ...

  2. New Directions: Ozone-initiated reaction products indoors may be more harmful than ozone itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have found associations between ozone concentrations measured at outdoor monitoring stations and certain adverse health outcomes. As a recent example, Gent et al. (2003, Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 1859-1867) have observed an association between ozone levels and respiratory symptoms as well as the use of maintenance medication by 271 asthmatic children living in Connecticut and the Springfield area of Massachusetts. In another example, Gilliland et al. (2001, Epidemiology 12, 43-54) detected an association between short-term increases in ozone levels and increased absences among 4th grade students from 12 southern California communities during the period from January to June 1996. Although children may spend a significant amount of time outdoors, especially during periods when ozone levels are elevated, they spend a much larger fraction of their time indoors. I hypothesize that exposure to the products of ozone-initiated indoor chemistry is more directly responsible for the health effects observed in the cited epidemiological studies than is exposure to outdoor ozone itself.

  3. An in silico study of the molecular basis of B-RAF activation and conformational stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratev, Filip Filipov; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk

    2009-01-01

    B-RAF kinase plays an important role both in tumour induction and maintenance in several cancers and it is an attractive new drug target. However, the structural basis of the B-RAF activation is still not well understood. RESULTS: In this study we suggest a novel molecular basis of B-RAF activation...... based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of B-RAFWT and the B-RAFV600E, B-RAFK601E and B-RAFD594V mutants. A strong hydrogen bond network was identified in B-RAFWT in which the interactions between Lys601 and the well known catalytic residues Lys483, Glu501 and Asp594 play an important role...... the A-loop and the alphaC-helix in the activating mutants, which presumably contribute to the flipping of the activation segment to an active form. Conversely, in the B-RAFD594V mutant that has impaired kinase activity, and in B-RAFWT these interactions were strong and stabilized the kinase inactive...

  4. Giant resonance spectroscopy of 40Ca with the (e,e'x) reaction (III): Direct versus statistical decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, J.; Diesener, H.; Helm, U.; Herbert, G.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Richter, A.; Schrieder, G.; Strauch, S.

    2001-01-01

    The present article is the third out of three on a study of the 40 Ca(e,e'x) reaction discussing the role of direct and statistical contributions to the decay of the observed giant resonance strengths. The proton and α decay modes leading to low-lying final states in 36 Ar and 39 K were investigated. The branching ratios for the p 0 , p 123 , α 0 and α 1 channels are compared to statistical model calculations. In the excitation region of dominant isoscalar E2 strength (E x =12-18 MeV) good agreement is observed. Model predictions of direct E2 decay for the (α 0 +α 1 )/(p 0 +p 1 ) ratio describe the data poorly. In the isovector E1 excitation region large excess strength is found in the population of low-lying states in 39 K. A fluctuation analysis shows the direct contributions to the p 0 , p 1 channels to be ≥85%. The presence of preequilibrium components is indicated by the significant nonstatistical decay to the p 3 level which has a dominant 'phonon·hole' structure. Cross correlations reveal no significant branching between the different channels. The correlations between different electron scattering angles in the p 0 , p 1 and p 3 decay result in an interaction radius compatible with the whole nucleus acting as an emitting source

  5. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molins, Sergi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Trebotich, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division; Steefel, Carl I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Shen, Chaopeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Computational Research Division

    2012-03-30

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO2. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. In this study we investigate the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is composed of high-performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1-D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high-resolution model is used to demonstrate that nonuniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. In conclusion, the effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  7. High temperature synthesis of ceramic composition by directed reaction of molten titanium or zirconium with boron carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Alternative methods of producing ceramics and ceramic composites include sintering, hot pressing and more recently hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Though each of these techniques has its advantages, each suffers from several restrictions as well. Sintering may require long times at high temperatures and for most materials requires sintering aids to get full density. These additives can, and generally do, change (often degrade) the properties of the ceramic. Hot pressing and hot isostatic pressing are convenient methods to quickly prepare samples of some materials to full density, but generally are expensive and may damage some types of reinforcements during densification. This paper focuses on the preparation and processing of composites prepared by the directed reaction of molten titanium or zirconium with boron carbide. Advantages and disadvantages of this approach when compared to traditional methods are discussed, with reference to specific examples. Examples of microstructure are properties of these materials are reported

  8. Discovery of EBI-907: A highly potent and orally active B-Raf(V600E) inhibitor for the treatment of melanoma and associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Biao; Cao, Hu; Cao, Jingsong; Huang, Song; Hu, Qiyue; Liu, Dong; Shen, Ru; Shen, Xiaodong; Tao, Weikang; Wan, Hong; Wang, Dan; Yan, Yinfa; Yang, Liuqing; Zhang, Jiayin; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Lianshan; Zhang, Minsheng

    2016-02-01

    A novel series of pyrazolo[3,4-c]isoquinoline derivatives was discovered as B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors through scaffold hopping based on a literature lead PLX4720. Further SAR exploration and optimization led to the discovery of potent B-Raf(V600E) inhibitors with good oral bioavailability in rats and dogs. One of the compounds EBI-907 (13g) demonstrated excellent in vivo efficacy in B-Raf(V600E) dependent Colo-205 tumor xenograft models in mouse and is under preclinical studies for the treatment of melanoma and B-Raf(V600E) associated cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE INTERPRETATION OF THE AMENDED RAF ACT 56 OF 1996 AND THE REGULATIONS THERETO BY THE COURTS WITH REGARD TO “SERIOUS INJURY” CLAIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Steynberg

    2012-08-01

    -injury assessment report on the RAF 4. If the RAF is not satisfied that the injury has been correctly assessed they must (a reject the serious-injury assessment report within 60 days and furnish reasons for the rejection; or (b direct that the third party submit himself or herself, at the cost of the Fund, to a further assessment. Thereafter the RAF must either accept the further assessment or dispute the further assessment within 90 days. An Appeal Tribunal, consisting of three independent medical practitioners, has been created to hear these disputes.

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Polymerase Chain Reaction and Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for Diagnosis of Genital Herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Vrushali; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Sardana, Kabir; Sethi, Sumit

    2017-01-01

    To compare laboratory tests that can simultaneously detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) directly from the genital ulcer specimens in clinically suspected cases of genital herpes. A study was conducted over 10 months and 44 adult male and female patients clinically suspected with genital herpes were recruited. Genital ulcer swab specimens were subjected to glycoprotein-G gene-based conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and commercially available direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and the results were compared. PCR for HSV was positive in 82% (36/44) cases. DFA was positive in 68.2% (30/44) cases. There was 100% agreement between HSV types detected by DFA and PCR. The strength of agreement between the results was better in primary genital herpes than recurrent cases. PCR was found to be better in the detection of HSV in recurrent genital herpes patients. It is a better modality, especially when genital herpes clinically presents with ulcerative or crusted lesions, and is also a cheaper alternative as compared to DFA.

  11. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein Function Is Regulated via a Flexible Pocket and Novel Phosphorylation-Dependent Mechanism▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E.; Clark, Matthew C.; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-01-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics. PMID:19103740

  12. Raf kinase inhibitory protein function is regulated via a flexible pocket and novel phosphorylation-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Matthew C; McElheny, Dan; Heil, Gary; Hong, Jia; Liu, Xuedong; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Koide, Shohei; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2009-03-01

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP/PEBP1), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein family that possesses a conserved ligand-binding pocket, negatively regulates the mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade. Mutation of a conserved site (P74L) within the pocket leads to a loss or switch in the function of yeast or plant RKIP homologues. However, the mechanism by which the pocket influences RKIP function is unknown. Here we show that the pocket integrates two regulatory signals, phosphorylation and ligand binding, to control RKIP inhibition of Raf-1. RKIP association with Raf-1 is prevented by RKIP phosphorylation at S153. The P74L mutation increases kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation, enhancing Raf-1/MAPK signaling. Conversely, ligand binding to the RKIP pocket inhibits kinase interaction and RKIP phosphorylation by a noncompetitive mechanism. Additionally, ligand binding blocks RKIP association with Raf-1. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies reveal that the pocket is highly dynamic, rationalizing its capacity to interact with distinct partners and be involved in allosteric regulation. Our results show that RKIP uses a flexible pocket to integrate ligand binding- and phosphorylation-dependent interactions and to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway. This mechanism is an example of an emerging theme involving the regulation of signaling proteins and their interaction with effectors at the level of protein dynamics.

  13. An Investigation of Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamic Simulation on Imidazopyridines as B-Raf Kinase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiding Xie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the recent cancer treatment, B-Raf kinase is one of key targets. Nowadays, a group of imidazopyridines as B-Raf kinase inhibitors have been reported. In order to investigate the interaction between this group of inhibitors and B-Raf kinase, molecular docking, molecular dynamic (MD simulation and binding free energy (ΔGbind calculation were performed in this work. Molecular docking was carried out to identify the key residues in the binding site, and MD simulations were performed to determine the detail binding mode. The results obtained from MD simulation reveal that the binding site is stable during the MD simulations, and some hydrogen bonds (H-bonds in MD simulations are different from H-bonds in the docking mode. Based on the obtained MD trajectories, ΔGbind was computed by using Molecular Mechanics Generalized Born Surface Area (MM-GBSA, and the obtained energies are consistent with the activities. An energetic analysis reveals that both electrostatic and van der Waals contributions are important to ΔGbind, and the unfavorable polar solvation contribution results in the instability of the inhibitor with the lowest activity. These results are expected to understand the binding between B-Raf and imidazopyridines and provide some useful information to design potential B-Raf inhibitors.

  14. Direct dynamics trajectory study of the reaction of formaldehyde cation with D2: vibrational and zero-point energy effects on quasiclassical trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbo; Song, Kihyung; Hase, William L; Anderson, Scott L

    2005-12-22

    Quasiclassical, direct dynamics trajectories have been used to study the reaction of formaldehyde cation with molecular hydrogen, simulating the conditions in an experimental study of H2CO+ vibrational effects on this reaction. Effects of five different H2CO+ modes were probed, and we also examined different approaches to treating zero-point energy in quasiclassical trajectories. The calculated absolute cross-sections are in excellent agreement with experiments, and the results provide insight into the reaction mechanism, product scattering behavior, and energy disposal, and how they vary with impact parameter and reactant state. The reaction is sharply orientation-dependent, even at high collision energies, and both trajectories and experiment find that H2CO+ vibration inhibits reaction. On the other hand, the trajectories do not reproduce the anomalously strong effect of nu2(+) (the CO stretch). The origin of the discrepancy and approaches for minimizing such problems in quasiclassical trajectories are discussed.

  15. MoS2 nanosheets direct supported on reduced graphene oxide: An advanced electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiamu Cao

    Full Text Available Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets/reduced graphene oxide (MoS2 NSs/rGO nanohybrid as a highly effective catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER have been successfully synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. The results clearly reveal that direct grown of MoS2 NSs on rGO have been achieved. Electrochemical tests show that the as-prepared hybrid material exhibited excellent HER activity, with a small Tafel slope of 57 mV dec-1, an overpotential of 130 mV and remarkable cycling stability. After analysis, the observed outstanding catalytic performance can be attributed to the uniform distribution of the MoS2 NSs, which are characterized by the presence of multiple active sites as well as the effective electron transport route provided by the conductive rGO substrate. Moreover, according to the classic theory, the mechanism governing of the catalytic HER on the MoS2 NSs/rGO nanohybrid has been clarified.

  16. An ab initio chemical reaction model for the direct simulation Monte Carlo study of non-equilibrium nitrogen flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankodi, T K; Bhandarkar, U V; Puranik, B P

    2017-08-28

    A new ab initio based chemical model for a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) study suitable for simulating rarefied flows with a high degree of non-equilibrium is presented. To this end, Collision Induced Dissociation (CID) cross sections for N 2 +N 2 →N 2 +2N are calculated and published using a global complete active space self-consistent field-complete active space second order perturbation theory N 4 potential energy surface and quasi-classical trajectory algorithm for high energy collisions (up to 30 eV). CID cross sections are calculated for only a selected set of ro-vibrational combinations of the two nitrogen molecules, and a fitting scheme based on spectroscopic weights is presented to interpolate the CID cross section for all possible ro-vibrational combinations. The new chemical model is validated by calculating equilibrium reaction rate coefficients that can be compared well with existing shock tube and computational results. High-enthalpy hypersonic nitrogen flows around a cylinder in the transition flow regime are simulated using DSMC to compare the predictions of the current ab initio based chemical model with the prevailing phenomenological model (the total collision energy model). The differences in the predictions are discussed.

  17. Forebrain-specific knockout of B-raf kinase leads to deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation, learning, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Adele P; Ohno, Masuo; Giese, K Peter; Kühn, Ralf; Chen, Rachel L; Silva, Alcino J

    2006-01-01

    Raf kinases are downstream effectors of Ras and upstream activators of the MEK-ERK cascade. Ras and MEK-ERK signaling play roles in learning and memory (L&M) and neural plasticity, but the roles of Raf kinases in L&M and plasticity are unclear. Among Raf isoforms, B-raf is preferentially expressed in the brain. To determine whether B-raf has a role in synaptic plasticity and L&M, we used the Cre-LoxP gene targeting system to derive forebrain excitatory neuron B-raf knockout mice. This conditional knockout resulted in deficits in ERK activation and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and impairments in hippocampus-dependent L&M, including spatial learning and contextual discrimination. Despite the widespread expression of B-raf, this mutation did not disrupt other forms of L&M, such as cued fear conditioning and conditioned taste aversion. Our findings demonstrate that B-raf plays a role in hippocampal ERK activation, synaptic plasticity, and L&M.

  18. RSK3 is required for concentric myocyte hypertrophy in an activated Raf1 model for Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passariello, Catherine L; Martinez, Eliana C; Thakur, Hrishikesh; Cesareo, Maria; Li, Jinliang; Kapiloff, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a congenital disorder resulting from mutations of the Ras-Raf signaling pathway. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with RAF1 "RASopathy" mutations is a major risk factor for heart failure and death in NS and has been attributed to activation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinases. We recently discovered that type 3 p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK3) is an ERK effector that is required, like ERK1/2, for concentric myocyte hypertrophy in response to pathological stress such as pressure overload. In order to test whether RSK3 also contributes to NS-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, RSK3 knock-out mice were crossed with mice bearing the Raf1(L613V) human NS mutation. We confirmed that Raf1(L613V) knock-in confers a NS-like phenotype, including cardiac hypertrophy. Active RSK3 was increased in Raf1(L613V) mice. Constitutive RSK3 gene deletion prevented the Raf1(L613V)-dependent concentric growth in width of the cardiac myocyte and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in female mice. These results are consistent with RSK3 being an important mediator of ERK1/2-dependent growth in RASopathy. In conjunction with previously published data showing that RSK3 is important for pathological remodeling of the heart, these data suggest that targeting of this downstream MAP-kinase pathway effector should be considered in the treatment of RASopathy-associated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RAF/7/013: Enhancing the Use of Isotope Hydrology in Planning, Management and Development of Water Resources (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opiyo, A.N.

    2017-01-01

    The project is a follow-up of RAF/8/048. Building capacity on isotope studies in Africa. It also relates IAEA KEN 7005 project on Evaluation of Surface and Groundwater Interaction of the Kilimanjaro Aquifer applying Isotope Techniques. The main aim of the project is to carry out Hydrological, Hydrogeological and geological, hydrogeo-chemical and geochemical studies and Water resources risks and vulnerability studies. AfriWatSan Project Relates to RAF/7/013 and it contribute to the overall objective

  20. Raf kinase inhibitory protein: a signal transduction modulator and metastasis suppressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Alexey E; Rosner, Marsha Rich

    2008-04-01

    Cells have a multitude of controls to maintain their integrity and prevent random switching from one biological state to another. Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein (RKIP), a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP) family, is representative of a new class of modulators of signaling cascades that function to maintain the "yin yang" or balance of biological systems. RKIP inhibits MAP kinase (Raf-MEK-ERK), G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase and NFkappaB signaling cascades. Because RKIP targets different kinases dependent upon its state of phosphorylation, RKIP also acts to integrate crosstalk initiated by multiple environmental stimuli. Loss or depletion of RKIP results in disruption of the normal cellular stasis and can lead to chromosomal abnormalities and disease states such as cancer. Since RKIP and the PEBP family have been reviewed previously, the goal of this analysis is to provide an update and highlight some of the unique features of RKIP that make it a critical player in the regulation of cellular signaling processes.

  1. A desk evaluation review of project RAF/9/005 radiation protection development. Project desk evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Agency has been assisting member nations through a number of national TC projects in radiation protection and related areas over the years. In addition, a regional project RAF/9/005 - Radiation Protection Development (which is under this review) was approved in 1988, with the aim of assessing existing radiation protection practices in the African Member States in relation to the Agency's new basic safety standards for radiation protection, and to advise Governments on improvements. The project was subsequently extended up to 1994 as an umbrella project to assist all African Member States in the development of appropriate radiation protection services; to co-ordinate the implementation of the relevant national TC projects; and to develop co-operation amongst groups of Member States on a regional and sub-regional basis. Particular emphasis was to be given to manpower development through workshops, seminars and training courses in radiation protection and safety. In parallel thereto, the Agency's Radiation Protection Advisory Teams (RAPATs) visited nineteen African Member States during the period 1986 through 1993, to review and assess their radiation protection activities, identify priorities, and design long-term radiation protection programmes. RAPAT findings and recommendations were considered in drawing up programmes for implementation under project RAF/9/005

  2. Study of ions - molecules reactions in the gas phase with collision reaction cell devices: Applications to the direct resolution of spectroscopic interferences in ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, G.

    2008-12-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry emerged as the most widespread mass spectrometry technique in inorganic analytical chemistry for determining the concentration of a given isotope or an isotope ratio. The problem of spectroscopic interferences, inherent to this technique, finds a solution through the use of reaction cell devices. An in situ interference removal is feasible with the addition of a well selected gas in the cell. The understanding of the chemistry of ions-molecules interactions in the gas phase is however fundamental to optimize the efficiency of such devices. An accurate knowledge of experimental conditions in the reaction zone according to instrumental parameters appears crucial in order to interpret observed reactivities. This preliminary study is then used for the resolution of two nuclear field characteristic interferences. (author)

  3. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    In reviewing work at Harwell over the past 25 years on nuclear reactions it is stated that a balance has to be struck in both experiment and theory between work on cross-sections of direct practical relevance to reactors and on those relevant to an overall understanding of reaction processes. The compound nucleus and direct process reactions are described. Having listed the contributions from AERE, Harwell to developments in nuclear reaction research in the period, work on the optical model, neutron capture theory, reactions at doorway states with fine structure, and sum-rules for spectroscopic factors are considered in more detail. (UK)

  4. Chemical and physical factors which control the substitution reactions of direct fission-produced iodine with gaseous methane and the methyl halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, M.; Church, L.B.

    1976-01-01

    The factors controlling the hydrogen and halogen substitution reactions resulting from direct fission-produced iodine isotopes (*I) with gaseous methane and methyl halides were investigated. The chemical reaction probabilities, corrected for any secondary decomposition, were compared as a function of various chemical and physical parameters. These include carbon-halogen bond strength, halogen electronegativity, volume and cross sectional area of the substituted and neighboring atoms. On the basis of this analysis, it is concluded that *I-for-X (where X = H, F, Cl, Br and I) substitution reactions are controlled by the cross sectional area of the X atom. The *I-for-H substitution probability is reduced in proportion to the volume of X, suggesting that steric interference is the dominant factor influencing the reaction probability. (orig.) [de

  5. Cu-catalyzed C(sp³)-H bond activation reaction for direct preparation of cycloallyl esters from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jincan; Fang, Hong; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2014-05-02

    Cu-catalyzed dehydrogenation-olefination and esterification of C(sp(3))-H bonds of cycloalkanes with TBHP as an oxidant has been developed. The reaction involves four C-H bond activations and gives cycloallyl ester products directly from cycloalkanes and aromatic aldehydes.

  6. Comparative gas-exchange in leaves of intact and clipped, natural and planted cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Lockhart; John D. Hodges

    2005-01-01

    Gas-exchange measurements, including C022-exchange rate (net photosynthesis), stomatal conductance, and transpiration, were conducted on intact and clipped cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) seedlings growing in the field and in a nursery bed. Seedlings in the field, released from midstory and understory woody competition,...

  7. Inhibition of cerebrovascular raf activation attenuates cerebral blood flow and prevents upregulation of contractile receptors after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Maddahi, Aida; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide...

  8. Genetic Validation of Cell Proliferation via Ras-Independent Activation of the Raf/Mek/Erk Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Carmen G; Simón-Carrasco, Lucía; Jacob, Harrys K C; Drosten, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Signaling transmitted by the Ras family of small GTPases (H-, N-, and K-Ras) is essential for proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). However, constitutive activation of the downstream Raf/Mek/Erk pathway can bypass the requirement for Ras proteins and allow cells to proliferate in the absence of the three Ras isoforms. Here we describe a protocol for a colony formation assay that permits evaluating the role of candidate proteins that are positive or negative regulators of cell proliferation mediated via Ras-independent Raf/Mek/Erk pathway activation. K-Ras lox (H-Ras -/- , N-Ras -/- , K-Ras lox/lox , RERT ert/ert ) MEFs are infected with retro- or lentiviral vectors expressing wild-type or constitutively activated candidate cDNAs, shRNAs, or sgRNAs in combination with Cas9 to ascertain the possibility of candidate proteins to function either as an activator or inhibitor of Ras-independent Raf/Mek/Erk activation. These cells are then seeded in the absence or presence of 4-Hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), which activates the resident CreERT2 alleles resulting in elimination of the conditional K-Ras alleles and ultimately generating Rasless cells. Colony formation in the presence of 4-OHT indicates cell proliferation via Ras-independent Raf/Mek/Erk activation.

  9. Salinity and ripening on/off the plant effects on lycopene synthesis and chlorophyll breakdown in hybrid Raf tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-González, María J.; Schouten, Rob E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Cruz Sánchez-Guerrero, M.; Medrano, Evangelina; Rio-Celestino, del Mercedes; Lorenzo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the physiology of fruit colour in tomato as affected by salinity and ripening on and off the plant. Chlorophyll and lycopene levels were repeatedly measured in ninety Raf tomatoes over a period of eight days using remittance spectroscopy. Fruits were

  10. Recalcitrant Behavior of Cherrybark Oak Seed: An FT-IR Study of Desiccation Sensitivity in Quercus pagoda Raf. Acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon Sowa; Kristina F. Connor

    2003-01-01

    The recalcitrant behavior of cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf.) acorns was examined in terms of effects of moisture content on seed storage longevity and (short term) seed germination. Seed samples collected over two consecutive years were fully hydrated, then subjected to drying under ambient conditions of temperature and relative humidity on the...

  11. Effects of 5-fluorouracil on biological characteristics and drug resistance mechanisms of liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Kangwen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo study the changes in biological characteristics of a liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 after repeated exposure to a chemotherapy drug, 5-fluorouraci (5-FU, and to investigate the relationship between drug-resistant liver cancer cells and liver cancer stem cells. MethodsA low concentration of 5-FU (1 μg/ml was used to treat the human liver cancer cell line PLC/RAF/5 repeatedly to establish the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line. Morphological differences between the two types of cells were observed. The inhibitory effects of different concentrations of 5-FU (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/ml on the proliferation of the two types of cells were determined using the CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis of the two types of cells after exposure to different concentrations of 5-FU (0.5, 1, and 2 μg/ml for 48 h was analyzed using flow cytometry. The proportions of side population cells in both types of cells were measured using flow cytometry. The colony-forming ability was compared between the two types of cells by the plate colony-forming assay. The expression of Bax, Bcl-2, ABCG2, and FoxM1 proteins in both types of cells was examined by Western blot. Between-group comparison was performed by t test. ResultsThe PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cell line was successfully established using the chemotherapy drug 5-FU. Compared with the PLC/RAF/5 cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a larger volume, fewer protrusions, a changed shape of a long shuttle, and enhanced refractivity. Moreover, compared with the parent cells, the PLC/RAF/5/5-FU cells had a significantly lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on proliferation, a significantly lower proportion of cells at the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, significantly higher proportions of cells at the S and G2/M phases, significantly higher resistance to apoptosis, a significantly higher proportion of side population cells, and significantly enhanced proliferation (P<0.05. According to the results of Western blot assay, the

  12. Novel Rearrangements in the Reactions Directed Toward Preparation of Spiro-N,N-ketals: Reactions of Naphthalene-1,8-diamine with Ninhydrin and Isatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Kobayashi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Spiro-N,N-ketal 5, consisting of a phthaloperine heterocyclic ring and a naphtha[1,8-ef][1,4]diazepine ring, was obtained along with spiro-N,N-ketal 2 via 2,2-condensation in the reaction of ninhydrin with naphthalene-1,8-diamine. Their molecular structures were elucidated by X-ray crystal structural analysis. Aside from these spiro compounds, the diazapleiadiene compound 3 formed by 1,2-condensation and the 1,4-isoquinolinedione compound 4 arising from ring expansion were isolated. When isatin was reacted with naphthalene-1,8-diamine, spiro-N,N-ketal 6 and the two 1H-perimidine-based compounds 7 and 8 were isolated. Compound 8 was revealed to undergo a fast dynamic prototropic tautomerization in solution. Plausible mechanisms of the formation of the products are proposed.

  13. Direct Kinetic Evidence for the Formation of an Acylpyridinium Intermediate in Synthetic p-Nitrophenyl Esterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis Reactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guang-Jia

    1996-01-01

    .... The deacylation rate was also found to exhibit a maximum for the same substrate 2 (n=6). These results are similar to those previously reported with cholesterol esterase as catalyst for the same hydrolysis reaction...

  14. Direct asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction of allyl ketones with isatins: Divergent synthesis of 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Wen; Lee, Richmond; Han, Zhiqiang; Yang, Wenguo; Tan, Davin; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Jiang, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    6 in 1: The highly enantioselective title reaction is mediated by a bifunctional catalyst and leads to E-configured vinylogous aldol products (see scheme). These products are used as common intermediates in the synthesis of six biologically active 3

  15. Characterization of the Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) binding pocket: NMR-based screening identifies small-molecule ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemon, Anne N; Heil, Gary L; Granovsky, Alexey E; Clark, Mathew M; McElheny, Dan; Chimon, Alexander; Rosner, Marsha R; Koide, Shohei

    2010-05-05

    Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP), also known as phoshaptidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP), has been shown to inhibit Raf and thereby negatively regulate growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. RKIP has also been shown to suppress metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that RKIP/Raf interaction is regulated by two mechanisms: phosphorylation of RKIP at Ser-153, and occupation of RKIP's conserved ligand binding domain with a phospholipid (2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; DHPE). In addition to phospholipids, other ligands have been reported to bind this domain; however their binding properties remain uncharacterized. In this study, we used high-resolution heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy to screen a chemical library and assay a number of potential RKIP ligands for binding to the protein. Surprisingly, many compounds previously postulated as RKIP ligands showed no detectable binding in near-physiological solution conditions even at millimolar concentrations. In contrast, we found three novel ligands for RKIP that specifically bind to the RKIP pocket. Interestingly, unlike the phospholipid, DHPE, these newly identified ligands did not affect RKIP binding to Raf-1 or RKIP phosphorylation. One out of the three ligands displayed off target biological effects, impairing EGF-induced MAPK and metabolic activity. This work defines the binding properties of RKIP ligands under near physiological conditions, establishing RKIP's affinity for hydrophobic ligands and the importance of bulky aliphatic chains for inhibiting its function. The common structural elements of these compounds defines a minimal requirement for RKIP binding and thus they can be used as lead compounds for future design of RKIP ligands with therapeutic potential.

  16. Characterization of the Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP binding pocket: NMR-based screening identifies small-molecule ligands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne N Shemon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP, also known as phoshaptidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP, has been shown to inhibit Raf and thereby negatively regulate growth factor signaling by the Raf/MAP kinase pathway. RKIP has also been shown to suppress metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that RKIP/Raf interaction is regulated by two mechanisms: phosphorylation of RKIP at Ser-153, and occupation of RKIP's conserved ligand binding domain with a phospholipid (2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine; DHPE. In addition to phospholipids, other ligands have been reported to bind this domain; however their binding properties remain uncharacterized.In this study, we used high-resolution heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy to screen a chemical library and assay a number of potential RKIP ligands for binding to the protein. Surprisingly, many compounds previously postulated as RKIP ligands showed no detectable binding in near-physiological solution conditions even at millimolar concentrations. In contrast, we found three novel ligands for RKIP that specifically bind to the RKIP pocket. Interestingly, unlike the phospholipid, DHPE, these newly identified ligands did not affect RKIP binding to Raf-1 or RKIP phosphorylation. One out of the three ligands displayed off target biological effects, impairing EGF-induced MAPK and metabolic activity.This work defines the binding properties of RKIP ligands under near physiological conditions, establishing RKIP's affinity for hydrophobic ligands and the importance of bulky aliphatic chains for inhibiting its function. The common structural elements of these compounds defines a minimal requirement for RKIP binding and thus they can be used as lead compounds for future design of RKIP ligands with therapeutic potential.

  17. Nuclear structure of weakly bound radioactive nuclei through elastic and and inelastic scattering on proton. Impacts of the couplings induced by these exotic nuclei on direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapoux, V.

    2005-09-01

    Information on the structure, spectroscopy and target interaction potentials of exotic nuclei can be inferred by interpreting measured data from direct reactions on proton such as elastic or inelastic scattering of proton (p,p') or one-nucleon transfer reaction (p,d). A series of experimental results has been obtained at the GANIL facilities on the setting composed of the MUST telescope array used for the detection of light charged-particles and of CATS beam detectors. This setting aims at measuring reactions on light proton or deuteron targets through reverse kinematics. Particularly, results on C 10 , C 11 and on direct reactions with the He 8 beam of Spiral are presented. The first chapter is dedicated to the description of the most important theories concerning the nucleus. The experimental tools used to probe the nucleus are reported in the second chapter. The third and fourth chapters present the framework that has allowed us to analyse results from (p,p') and (p,d) reactions on weakly bound exotic nuclei. The last chapter is dedicated to the description of future experimental programs. (A.C.)

  18. Epithelial tissue hyperplasia induced by the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 is attenuated by a clinically well-tolerated dose of the MEK inhibitor PD-0325901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Vince R; Wojciechowicz, Donald; Hu, Wenyue; John-Baptiste, Annette; Evering, Winston; Troche, Gabriel; Marroquin, Lisa D; Smeal, Tod; Yamazaki, Shinji; Palmer, Cynthia L; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann; Bagrodia, Shubha

    2012-10-01

    Clinical trials of selective RAF inhibitors in patients with melanoma tumors harboring activated BRAFV600E have produced very promising results, and a RAF inhibitor has been approved for treatment of advanced melanoma. However, about a third of patients developed resectable skin tumors during the course of trials. This is likely related to observations that RAF inhibitors activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, stimulate proliferation, and induce epithelial hyperplasia in preclinical models. Because these findings raise safety concerns about RAF inhibitor development, we further investigated the underlying mechanisms. We showed that the RAF inhibitor PF-04880594 induces ERK phosphorylation and RAF dimerization in those epithelial tissues that undergo hyperplasia. Hyperplasia and ERK hyperphosphorylation are prevented by treatment with the mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD-0325901 at exposures that extrapolate to clinically well-tolerated doses. To facilitate mechanistic and toxicologic studies, we developed a three-dimensional cell culture model of epithelial layering that recapitulated the RAF inhibitor-induced hyperplasia and reversal by MEK inhibitor in vitro. We also showed that PF-04880594 stimulates production of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin 8 in HL-60 cells, suggesting a possible mechanism for the skin flushing observed in dogs. The complete inhibition of hyperplasia by MEK inhibitor in epithelial tissues does not seem to reduce RAF inhibitor efficacy and, in fact, allows doubling of the PF-04880594 dose without toxicity usually associated with such doses. These findings indicated that combination treatment with MEK inhibitors might greatly increase the safety and therapeutic index of RAF inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma and other cancers. ©2012 AACR.

  19. Melanoma cells show a heterogeneous range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and are radiosensitized by inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambade, Maria J.; Peters, Eldon C.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Kaufmann, William K.; Kimple, Randall J.; Shields, Janiel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the relative radiosensitivities of a large collection of melanoma cell lines and to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of mutant B-RAF with PLX-4032 can radiosensitize B-Raf+ melanoma cells. Materials and methods: A large collection of melanoma cell lines (n = 37) were treated with 0-8 Gy IR and clonogenic survival assays used to generate survival curves to rank relative radiosensitivities among the cell lines. The ability of a B-RAF inhibitor, PLX-4032, to radiosensitize highly radioresistant B-Raf+ cells was also assessed by clonogenic cell survival and spheroid invasion assays and the effects of treatment on the cell cycle assessed by FACS. Results: Melanoma cell lines displayed a very large, heterogeneous range of SF2 values (1.002-0.053) with a mean of 0.51. Cell lines with surviving fractions of 0.29 or less at SF2 and SF4 were observed at a high frequency of 18.9% and 70.2%, respectively. Treatment of B-Raf+ cells with the B-RAF inhibitor PLX-4032 in combination with radiation provided enhanced inhibition of both colony formation and invasion, and radiosensitized cells through an increase in G 1 arrest. Conclusions: Our data suggest that melanomas are not uniformly radioresistant with a significant subset displaying inherent radiosensitivity. Pharmacologic inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032 effectively radiosensitized B-Raf+ melanoma cells suggesting that this combination approach could provide improved radiotherapeutic response in B-Raf+ melanoma patients.

  20. A novel Noonan syndrome RAF1 mutation: lethal course in a preterm infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ratola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Noonan syndrome is a relatively common and heterogeneous genetic disorder, associated with congenital heart defect in about 50% of the cases. If the defect is not severe, life expectancy is normal. We report a case of Noonan syndrome in a preterm infant with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and lethal outcome associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by Adenovirus pneumonia. A novel mutation in the RAF1 gene was identified: c.782C>G (p.Pro261Arg in heterozygosity, not described previously in the literature. Consequently, the common clinical course in this mutation and its respective contribution to the early fatal outcome is unknown. No conclusion can be established regarding genotype/phenotype correlation.

  1. The prognostic value of simultaneous tumor and serum RAS/RAF mutations in localized colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner Thomsen, Caroline Emilie; Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Andersen, Rikke Fredslund

    2017-01-01

    The impact of RAS/RAF mutations in localized colon cancer needs clarification. Based on analysis of tumor-specific DNA, this study aimed at elucidating the prognostic influence of mutational status in tumor and serum using an extended panel of mutations. The study retrospectively included 294.......0057), and disease-free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.26-3.77, P = 0.0053). BRAF mutation in the serum and proficient mismatch repair (pMMR) protein in tumor also indicated significantly worse prognosis, OS (HR = 3.45, 95% CI = 1.52-7.85, P = 0.0032) and DFS (HR = 3.61, 95% CI = 1.70-7.67, P = 0...

  2. RAF 0/047: Promoting the sustainability & networking of National Nuclear Institutions (NNI) for Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanjala, F.

    2017-01-01

    RAF/0/047 is being participated by Eleven Countries, namely, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia. The Main objective of the project is to enhance the sustainability of African nuclear institutions by improving their performance and relevance to development programmes through good managerial practices, partnership building and marketing, including upgrading and strengthening of human resources capabilities”. There is government commitment to support and promote the development and training in nuclear science and technology. Inadequate or aging equipment equipment’s in some fields of nuclear science and technology is one of weakness in implementing this project. Income generating activities remain the most powerful force that influences NNI’s sustainability

  3. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population...... structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild...... populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops...

  4. A Novel Mutation on RAF1 in Association with Fetal Findings Suggestive of Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneitel, Anna W; Norby, Audrey; Vettraino, Ivana; Treadwell, Marjorie C

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a multisystem genetic disorder caused by genes encoding proteins involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Affected fetuses have variable presentations ranging from the absence of prenatal findings to increased nuchal fold, cystic hygromas, pleural effusions, cardiac malformations, or skin edema. We describe a male fetus who had features consistent with Noonan syndrome at the time of fetal anatomic survey, including hydrops and a possible cardiac defect. Subsequent scan revealed persistent bilateral pleural effusions (with predominance of lymphocytes). After bilateral thoracoamniotic shunt placement, the fetus did well and delivered at term. Prenatal testing revealed an S650F missense mutation in the RAF1 gene, which had not previously been associated with Noonan syndrome.

  5. RAF/9/049: Enhancing and Sustaining the National Regulatory Bodies for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keter, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to enhance regulatory infrastructure, sustainability and cooperation among national regulatory bodies. This will support strengthening of the existing regulatory framework and capacity building in the region. Self-Assessment using the Self-Assessment Regulatory Infrastructure for Safety (SARIS) was completed on 26th May 2016. Changes made to the legislation is ongoing. The Nuclear Regulatory Bill 2017 is at an advanced stage and about to be tabled to Cabinet. The project objectives shall be addressed under a new project, RAF/9/058 – Improving the Regulatory Framework for the Control of Radiation Sources in Member States. Two major tasks for Kenya to focus include Review of regulations on waste safety, radiation sources and on safety of NPP and advising on drafting of radiation safety guides

  6. Evaluation of the extent of initial Maillard reaction during cooking some vegetables by direct measurement of the Amadori compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahao; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhang, Lianfu

    2018-01-01

    During vegetable cooking, one of the most notable and common chemical reactions is the Maillard reaction, which occurs as a result of thermal treatment and dehydration. Amadori compound determination provides a very sensitive indicator for early detection of quality changes caused by the Maillard reaction, as well as to retrospectively assess the heat treatment or storage conditions to which the product has been subjected. In this paper, a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the analysis of eight Amadori compounds, and the initial steps of the Maillard reaction during cooking (steaming, frying and baking) bell pepper, red pepper, yellow onion, purple onion, tomato and carrot were also assessed by quantitative determination of these Amadori compounds. These culinary treatments reduced moisture and increased the total content of Amadori compounds, which was not dependent on the type of vegetable or cooking method. Moreover, the effect of steaming on Amadori compound content and water loss was less than that by baking and frying vegetables. Further studies showed that the combination of high temperature and short time may lead to lower formation of Amadori compounds when baking vegetables. Culinary methods differently affected the extent of initial Maillard reaction when vegetables were made into home-cooked products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Histochemical detection of the in vivo produced cellular aldehydes by means of direct Schiff's reaction in CCl/sub 4/ intoxicated rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taper, H.S.; Somer, M.P.; Lans, M.; Gerlache, J. de; Roberfroid, M.

    1988-04-01

    A histochemical technique for detection of the in vivo induced cellular aldehydes based on the direct Schiff's reaction is reported in this paper. CCl/sub 4/-intoxicated rat liver was used as an experimental model. Fresh and non-pretreated rat liver cryostat sections fixed in 10% formol calcium solution and washed in distilled water were exposed to Schiff's reagent. The sections were then immersed in two baths of sodium bisulphite solution, then in water, dehydrated in ethanol, cleared in xylene and mounted in a synthetic anhydrous mounting medium. As Schiff positive areas presented well circumscribed foci which increased with time following intoxication, semiquantitative planimetric measurements were feasible. The direct Schiff's reaction detects cellular aldehydes in a sensitive, rapid histologically and topographically estimable way. The appearance of these aldehydes precedes distinctly morphological alterations detectable by other histochemical of histological techniques. No positive results were obtained in control, non-intocicated rat livers. Inhibitons of this direct Schiff's was obtained in positive control rat liver sections preincubated in solutions of aldehyde blockers. Histochemical detection of aldehydes may give useful information on different aspects of tissue and organ intoxication such as their topography, appearance, evolution, extension, consequences and effects of treatment. The direct Schiff's reaction can be considered as a valuable tool in fundamental and applied reasearch dealing with various toxicological, environmental, pathological, cancer-related and therapeutic problems.

  8. Direct and inverse reactions of LiH+ with He(1S) from quantum calculations: mechanisms and rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconi, M; Bovino, S; Gianturco, F A

    2012-01-14

    The gas-phase reaction of LiH(+) (X(2)Σ) with He((1)S) atoms, yielding Li(+)He with a small endothermicity for the rotovibrational ground state of the reagents, is analysed using the quantum reactive approach that employs the Negative Imaginary Potential (NIP) scheme discussed earlier in the literature. The dependence of low-T rates on the initial vibrational state of LiH(+) is analysed and the role of low-energy Feshbach resonances is also discussed. The inverse destruction reaction of LiHe(+), a markedly exothermic process, is also investigated and the rates are computed in the same range of temperatures. The possible roles of these reactions in early universe astrophysical networks, in He droplets environments or in cold traps are briefly discussed.

  9. Direct measurement of the 7Be(n, α4 He reaction cross sections for the cosmological Li problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross sections of the 7Be(n, α4He reaction for p-wave neutrons were experimentally determined at Ec.m. = 0.20−0.81 MeV close to the Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN energy window for the first time on the basis of the detailed balance principle by measuring the time-reverse reaction. The obtained cross sections are much larger than the cross sections for s-wave neutrons inferred from the recent measurement at the n_TOF facility in CERN, but significantly smaller than the theoretical estimation widely used in the BBN calculations. The present results suggest the 7Be(n, α4 He reaction rate is not large enough to solve the cosmological lithium problem

  10. The Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction for the Direct Synthesis of Chiral Piperidones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbeer, Claudia; Sickert, Marcel; Naumov, Sergei; Schneider, Christoph

    2017-01-12

    We disclose herein the first enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of β-alkyl-substituted vinylketene silyl-O,O-acetals and imines furnishing a broad range of optically highly enriched 4-alkyl-substituted 2-piperidones. As a catalyst for this one-pot reaction we employed a chiral phosphoric acid which effects a vinylogous Mannich reaction directly followed by ring-closure to the lactam. Subsequent fully diastereoselective transformations including hydrogenation, enolate alkylation, and lactam alkylation/reduction processes converted the cycloadducts into various highly substituted piperidines of great utility for the synthesis of natural products and medicinally active compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Evaluation of the AGCU Expressmarker 16 and 22 PCR Amplification Kits Using Biological Samples Applied to FTA Micro Cards in Reduced Volume Direct PCR Amplification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Ogden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the performance of the  Wuxi AGCU ScienTech Incorporation (HuiShan, Wuxi, China AGCU Expressmarker 16 (EX 16 and 22 (EX22 short tandem repeat (STR amplification kits in reduced reaction volumes using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification workflows. The commercially available PowerPlex® 21 (PP21 System (Promega, Wisconsin, USA, which follows similar direct workflows, was used as a reference. Anticoagulate blood applied to chemically impregnated  FTA TM Micro Cards (GE Healthcare UK Limited, Amersham Place, Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, HP7 9NA, UK was used to represent a complex biological sample. Allelic concordance, first-pass success rate, average peak heights, heterozygous peak height ratios (HPHRs, and intracolor and intercolor peak height balance were determined. In reduced volume PCR reactions, the performances of both the EX16 and EX22 STR amplification kits were comparable to that of the PP21 System. The level of performance was maintained at PCR reaction volumes, which are 40% of that recommended. The EX22 and PP21 System kits possess comparable overlapping genome coverage. This study evaluated the performance of the AGCU EX16 and EX22 STR amplification kits in reduced PCR reaction volumes using direct workflows in combination with whole blood applied to FTA TM Micro Cards. Allelic concordance, first-pass success rate, average peak heights, HPHRs, and intracolor and intercolor peak height balance were determined. A concordance analysis was completed that compared the performance of the EX16 and EX22 kits using human blood applied to FTA Micro Cards in combination with full, half, and reduced PCR reaction volumes. The PP21 System (Promega was used as a reference kit. Where appropriate, the distributions of data were assessed using the Shapiro-Wilk test. For normally-distributed data, statistics were calculated using analysis of variance (ANOVA and for nonparametric data the Wilcoxon

  12. Model independent spectroscopic information from an analysis of peripheral direct radiative capture reaction and its application for an extrapolation of an astrophysical S-factor to stellar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Tursunmuratov, T.M.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, within the framework of the cluster potential approach we develop a method which can be used an independent source of getting information on the value of the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) (or respective asymptotical normalization coefficient (ANC)) from the analysis of the direct radiative capture cross section σ(E)(or the astrophysical S-factor S(E)) at extremely low energies by a model independent way as possible. The main idea of the proposed method is that at stellar energies peripheral direct radiative capture reaction of astrophysical interest proceeds mainly through the tail of the overlap integral, which is completely determined by the binding energy and the respective ANC (or NVC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that it allows us to determine both the absolute value of NVC (or ANC) and the astrophysical S-factor S(E) at solar energies (0-50 keV) by means of the analysis of the same experimental astrophysical S-factor S exp (E) in a correct self consistent way using the same potential both for the bound state and for scattering state. The method has been applied for an investigation of the direct radiative capture t(α, γ) 7 Li and 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be reactions at extremely low energies. At first, this method was used for analysis of the S exp (E) to determine values of the modulus squared of the NVC's (or the respective ANC's). The values of NVC's are presented. Then, the obtained NVC's are used by us for extrapolation of the S(E) of the reactions considered to stellar energies (E=0-50 keV) for the 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be reaction and for the t(α, γ) 7 Li reaction. The obtained results are compared with those other authors

  13. A Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics Approach to Study the Transition between Statistical and Direct Mechanisms in the H2 + H3+ → H3+ + H2 Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, Yury V; Aguado, Alfredo; Gómez-Carrasco, Susana; Roncero, Octavio

    2018-05-03

    Because of its fundamental importance in astrochemistry, the H 2 + H 3 + → H 3 + + H 2 reaction has been studied experimentally in a wide temperature range. Theoretical studies of the title reaction significantly lag primarily because of the challenges associated with the proper treatment of the zero-point energy (ZPE). As a result, all previous theoretical estimates for the ratio between a direct proton-hop and indirect exchange (via the H 5 + complex) channels deviate from the experiment, in particular, at lower temperatures where the quantum effects dominate. In this work, the ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) method is applied to study this reaction, providing very good agreement with the experiment. RPMD is immune to the shortcomings associated with the ZPE leakage and is able to describe the transition from direct to indirect mechanisms below room temperature. We argue that RPMD represents a useful tool for further studies of numerous ZPE-sensitive chemical reactions that are of high interest in astrochemistry.

  14. Reaction of a chemotherapeutic agent, 6-mercaptopurine, with a direct-acting, electrophilic carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, M C; Stewart, E; Daylong, A; Lew, L K; Evans, F E

    1991-01-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) has been shown to react covalently with the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene, 7-r,8-t-dihydroxy-9-t,10-t-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE), in aqueous solution, forming a single adduct. NMR studies of the HPLC-purified product were consistent with its identification as 10(S)-(6'-mercaptopurinyl)-7,8,9-trihydroxy-7,8,9,10- tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene. Reaction kinetics were analyzed by using both HPLC separation of the products formed and a spectrophotometric assay for adduct formation. A simple model in which direct reaction between 6-MP and BPDE takes place without formation of a physical complex was found to adequately predict the dependence of product ratios on 6-MP concentration. Variations in the observed rate constant for this reaction with changes in temperature, pH, and buffer concentration were determined and compared to the effects of these variables on the observed rate constant for BPDE hydrolysis. In each case, the processes were affected quite differently, suggesting that different rate-determining steps are involved. The data suggest that the reaction mechanism involves SN2 attack of the anion of 6-MP, formed by ionization of the sulfhydryl group, on carbon 10 of BPDE, resulting in a trans-9,10 reaction product.

  15. Evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy from the Coulomb-barrier to relativistic energies. - Two-center effects in nucleon transfer between nuclei. - Signatures of nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions at barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertzen, W. von; Voit, H.; Imanishi, B.

    1988-10-01

    This report contains a review article considering the evolution of direct mechanisms with incident energy in heavy ion reactions and two theoretical articles concerning two-center effects in transfer reactions between heavy ions and the nucleon promotion in heavy ion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  16. Directional errors of movements and their correction in a discrete tracking task. [pilot reaction time and sensorimotor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, R. J.; Agarwal, G. C.; Gottlieb, G. L.

    1978-01-01

    Subjects can correct their own errors of movement more quickly than they can react to external stimuli by using three general categories of feedback: (1) knowledge of results, primarily visually mediated; (2) proprioceptive or kinaesthetic such as from muscle spindles and joint receptors, and (3) corollary discharge or efference copy within the central nervous system. The effects of these feedbacks on simple reaction time, choice reaction time, and error correction time were studied in four normal human subjects. The movement used was plantarflexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle joint. The feedback loops were modified, by changing the sign of the visual display to alter the subject's perception of results, and by applying vibration at 100 Hz simultaneously to both the agonist and antagonist muscles of the ankle joint. The central processing was interfered with when the subjects were given moderate doses of alcohol (blood alcohol concentration levels of up to 0.07%). Vibration and alcohol increase both the simple and choice reaction times but not the error correction time.

  17. MEK-ERK pathway modulation ameliorates disease phenotypes in a mouse model of Noonan syndrome associated with the Raf1L613V mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Simpson, Jeremy; Hong, Jenny H.; Kim, Kyoung-Han; Thavarajah, Nirusha K.; Backx, Peter H.; Neel, Benjamin G.; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a leading cause of sudden death in children and young adults. Abnormalities in several signaling pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of HCM, but the role of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK pathway has been controversial. Noonan syndrome (NS) is one of several autosomal-dominant conditions known as RASopathies, which are caused by mutations in different components of this pathway. Germline mutations in RAF1 (which encodes the serine-threonine kinase RAF1) account for approximately 3%–5% of cases of NS. Unlike other NS alleles, RAF1 mutations that confer increased kinase activity are highly associated with HCM. To explore the pathogenesis of such mutations, we generated knockin mice expressing the NS-associated Raf1L613V mutation. Like NS patients, mice heterozygous for this mutation (referred to herein as L613V/+ mice) had short stature, craniofacial dysmorphia, and hematologic abnormalities. Valvuloseptal development was normal, but L613V/+ mice exhibited eccentric cardiac hypertrophy and aberrant cardiac fetal gene expression, and decompensated following pressure overload. Agonist-evoked MEK-ERK activation was enhanced in multiple cell types, and postnatal MEK inhibition normalized the growth, facial, and cardiac defects in L613V/+ mice. These data show that different NS genes have intrinsically distinct pathological effects, demonstrate that enhanced MEK-ERK activity is critical for causing HCM and other RAF1-mutant NS phenotypes, and suggest a mutation-specific approach to the treatment of RASopathies. PMID:21339642

  18. Modification, biological evaluation and 3D QSAR studies of novel 2-(1,3-diaryl- 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-ylphenol derivatives as inhibitors of B-Raf kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shun Yang

    Full Text Available A series of novel 2-(1,3-diaryl- 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-ylphenol derivatives (C1-C24 have been synthesized. The B-Raf inhibitory activity and anti-proliferation activity of these compounds have been tested. Compound C6 displayed the most potent biological activity against B-RafV600E (IC50 = 0.15 µM and WM266.4 human melanoma cell line (GI50 = 1.75 µM, being comparable with the positive control (Vemurafenib and Erlotinib and more potent than our previous best compounds. The docking simulation was performed to analyze the probable binding models and poses while the QSAR model was built to check the previous work as well as to introduce new directions. This work aimed at seeking more potent inhibitors as well as discussing some previous findings. As a result, the introduction of ortho-hydroxyl group on 4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole skeleton did reinforce the anti-tumor activity while enlarging the group on N-1 of pyrazoline was also helpful.

  19. Direct asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction of allyl ketones with isatins: Divergent synthesis of 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2013-05-03

    6 in 1: The highly enantioselective title reaction is mediated by a bifunctional catalyst and leads to E-configured vinylogous aldol products (see scheme). These products are used as common intermediates in the synthesis of six biologically active 3-hydroxy-2-oxindole derivatives (e.g., CPC-1). Computational studies indicated that the observed stereoselectivity is a result of favorable secondary π-π* and H-bonding interactions in the transition state. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Oligopolistic Reaction and Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of the U.S. Tire and Textiles Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Chwo-Ming J Yu; Kiyohiko Ito

    1988-01-01

    This paper empirically tests the impact of oligopolistic reaction and some firm–related and host country–related factors on FDI activities in the U.S. tire and textile industries. The results reveal that in an oligopolistic industry, firms' motivation of FDI is based on the behavior of rivals as well as host country–related and firm–related factors, while in a more competitively structured industry, firms do not actively counter the competitors' FDI activities.© 1988 JIBS. Journal of Internat...

  1. Anatomical confirmation of root parasitism in Brazilian Agalinis Raf. species (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Ismael Elias

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Agalinis Raf. consists approximately of 60 species, 14 of which occur in Brazil. The genus presents predominantly american distribution and the Brazilian species appears mainly in high areas of Minas Gerais. The North-American species are refered as hemiparasites, but there is no anatomical data about it in relation to the Brazilian species. Anatomical studies were conducted to verify whether the Agalinis species from Brazil were root parasites or not. The eight species analysed were presented haustoria which varied in shape, arrangement and size. They were generally elliptic or globose structures and mostly were tightly sticked to other roots in a solitary or clustered manner. The seriate sections of haustoria showed that there was a xylem connection between them and the roots in which they were attached. This fact has confirmed for the first time the occurrence of parasitism in the Brazilian species of Agalinis.Agalinis Raf. (Scrophulariaceae consiste de aproximadamente 60 espécies, das quais 14 ocorrem no Brasil. O gênero apresenta distribuição predominantemente americana, e as espécies brasileiras ocorrem principalmente em áreas de altitude de Minas Gerais. As espécies Norte-Americanas de Agalinis são referidas como hemiparasitas, mas não há dados anatômicos sobre este fato em relação às espécies brasileiras. Neste sentido, este trabalho apresenta estudos anatômicos com a finalidade de verificar se as espécies de Agalinis do Brasil são parasitas ou não. As oito espécies analisadas aqui apresentam haustórios que variam em forma, arranjo e tamanho. Geralmente são estruturas elípticas ou globosas e na maioria das vezes encontram-se firmemente aderidas a outras raízes de maneira solitária ou agrupada. Os cortes seriados dos haustórios revelam que há uma conexão xilemática entre eles e as raízes às quais estão conectados. Este fato confirma pela primeira vez a ocorrência de parasitismo nas espécies brasileiras de

  2. miR-322 stabilizes MEK1 expression to inhibit RAF/MEK/ERK pathway activation in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Björn; Ehlen, Harald W A; Holzer, Tatjana; Georgieva, Veronika S; Heilig, Juliane; Pitzler, Lena; Etich, Julia; Bortecen, Toman; Frie, Christian; Probst, Kristina; Niehoff, Anja; Belluoccio, Daniele; Van den Bergen, Jocelyn; Brachvogel, Bent

    2017-10-01

    Cartilage originates from mesenchymal cell condensations that differentiate into chondrocytes of transient growth plate cartilage or permanent cartilage of the articular joint surface and trachea. MicroRNAs fine-tune the activation of entire signaling networks and thereby modulate complex cellular responses, but so far only limited data are available on miRNAs that regulate cartilage development. Here, we characterize a miRNA that promotes the biosynthesis of a key component in the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in cartilage. Specifically, by transcriptome profiling we identified miR-322 to be upregulated during chondrocyte differentiation. Among the various miR-322 target genes in the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, only Mek1 was identified as a regulated target in chondrocytes. Surprisingly, an increased concentration of miR-322 stabilizes Mek1 mRNA to raise protein levels and dampen ERK1/2 phosphorylation, while cartilage-specific inactivation of miR322 in mice linked the loss of miR-322 to decreased MEK1 levels and to increased RAF/MEK/ERK pathway activation. Such mice died perinatally due to tracheal growth restriction and respiratory failure. Hence, a single miRNA can stimulate the production of an inhibitory component of a central signaling pathway to impair cartilage development. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Dynamic structural change of the self-assembled lanthanum complex induced by lithium triflate for direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yoshihiro; Gnanadesikan, Vijay; Ohshima, Takashi; Masu, Hyuma; Katagiri, Kosuke; Sei, Yoshihisa; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2005-09-05

    The development of a direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction and the nature of its catalyst are described. An aldol-Tishchenko reaction of various propiophenone derivatives with aromatic aldehydes was promoted by [LaLi3(binol)3] (LLB), and reactivity and enantioselectivity were dramatically enhanced by the addition of lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiOTf). First, we observed a dynamic structural change of LLB by the addition of LiOTf using 13C NMR spectroscopy, electronspray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and cold-spray ionization mass spectrometry (CSI-MS). X-ray crystallography revealed that the structure of the newly generated self-assembled complex was a binuclear [La2Li4(binaphthoxide)5] complex 6. A reverse structural change of complex 6 to LLB by the addition of one equivalent of Li2(binol) was also confirmed by ESI-MS and experimental results. The drastic concentration effects on the direct catalytic asymmetric aldol-Tishchenko reaction suggested that the addition of LiOTf to LLB generated an active oligomeric catalyst species.

  4. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-01-01

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N—H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N—H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. PMID:25959544

  5. The role of autophagy in cytotoxicity induced by new oncogenic B-Raf inhibitor UI-152 in v-Ha-ras transformed fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jun-Ho; Ahn, Soon Kil; Lee, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We recently discovered a potent and selective B-Raf inhibitor, UI-152. ► UI-152 displayed a selective cytotoxicity toward v-Ha-ras transformed cells. ► UI-152-induced growth inhibition was largely meditated by autophagy. ► UI-152 induced paradoxical activation of Raf-1. -- Abstract: In human cancers, B-Raf is the most frequently mutated protein kinase in the MAPK signaling cascade, making it an important therapeutic target. We recently discovered a potent and selective B-Raf inhibitor, UI-152, by using a structure-based drug design strategy. In this study, we examined whether B-Raf inhibition by UI-152 may be an effective therapeutic strategy for eliminating cancer cells transformed with v-Ha-ras (Ras-NIH 3T3). UI-152 displayed selective cytotoxicity toward Ras-NIH 3T3 cells while having little to no effect on non-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. We found that treatment with UI-152 markedly increased autophagy and, to a lesser extent, apoptosis. However, inhibition of autophagy by addition of 3-MA failed to reverse the cytotoxic effects of UI-152 on Ras-NIH 3T3 cells, demonstrating that apoptosis and autophagy can act as cooperative partners to induce growth inhibition in Ras-NIH 3T3 cells treated with UI-152. Most interestingly, cell responses to UI-152 appear to be paradoxical. Here, we showed that although UI-152 inhibited ERK, it induced B-Raf binding to Raf-1 as well as Raf-1 activation. This paradoxical activation of Raf-1 by UI-152 is likely to be coupled with the inhibition of the mTOR pathway, an intracellular signaling pathway involved in autophagy. We also showed for the first time that, in multi-drug resistant cells, the combination of UI-152 with verapamil significantly decreased cell proliferation and increased autophagy. Thus, our findings suggest that the inhibition of autophagy, in combination with UI-152, offers a more effective therapeutic strategy for v-Ha-ras-transformed cells harboring wild-type B-Raf.

  6. Direct RNA detection without nucleic acid purification and PCR: Combining sandwich hybridization with signal amplification based on branched hybridization chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yao; Zheng, Zhi

    2016-05-15

    We have developed a convenient, robust and low-cost RNA detection system suitable for high-throughput applications. This system uses a highly specific sandwich hybridization to capture target RNA directly onto solid support, followed by on-site signal amplification via 2-dimensional, branched hybridizing chain polymerization through toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction. The assay uses SYBR Green to detect targets at concentrations as low as 1 pM, without involving nucleic acid purification or any enzymatic reaction, using ordinary oligonucleotides without modification or labeling. The system was demonstrated in the detection of malaria RNA in blood and GAPDH gene expression in cell lysate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct synthesis of acid-base bifunctionalized hexagonal mesoporous silica and its catalytic activity in cascade reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Fanpeng; Sun, Jianrui; Wu, Shujie; Liu, Heng; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2011-03-01

    A series of efficient acid-base bifunctionalized hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) catalysts contained aminopropyl and propanesulfonic acid have been synthesized through a simple co-condensation by protection of amino group. The results of small-angle XRD, TEM, and N(2) adsorption-desorption measurements show that the resultant materials have mesoscopic structures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, elemental analysis (EA), back titration, (29)Si NMR and (13)C NMR confirm that the organosiloxanes were condensed as a part of the silica framework. The resultant catalysts exhibit excellent acid-basic properties, which make them possess high activity for one-pot deacetalization-Knoevenagel and deacetalization-nitroaldol (Henry) reactions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Monte Carlo FLUKA code simulation for study of {sup 68}Ga production by direct proton-induced reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari Oranj, Leila; Kakavand, Tayeb [Physics Faculty, Zanjan University, P.O. Box 451-313, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Mahdi, E-mail: msadeghi@nrcam.org [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aboudzadeh Rovias, Mohammadreza [Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-11

    {sup 68}Ga is an important radionuclide for positron emission tomography. {sup 68}Ga can be produced by the {sup 68}Zn(p,n){sup 68}Ga reaction in a common biomedical cyclotrons. To facilitate optimization of target design and study activation of materials, Monte Carlo code can be used to simulate the irradiation of the target materials with charged hadrons. In this paper, FLUKA code simulation was employed to prototype a Zn target for the production of {sup 68}Ga by proton irradiation. Furthermore, the experimental data were compared with the estimated values for the thick target yield produced in the irradiation time according to FLUKA code. In conclusion, FLUKA code can be used for estimation of the production yield.

  9. From Jugendbewegung to RAF: Youth, Friendship, and Protest in Post-Wall German Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Thesz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent German-language films frame anti-establishment activities as a rejuvenating force. In Die fetten Jahre sind vorbei (2004 and Was tun, wenn’s brennt? (2001, the young filmmakers Hans Weingartner and Gregor Schnitzler take a nostalgic approach to the tradition of protest in Germany. Volker Schlöndorff, in contrast, builds on first-hand memories of the 1970s and the RAF, depicting the escalation of violence in Die Stille nach dem Schuß (2000. This paper explores the ways in which the three films foreground personal motivations, rather than political causes, arguing that friendship is used to gauge the success of protest. While the friends in Die fetten Jahre and Was tun? are (reunited through their activism, the terrorist plots portrayed in Stille lead to the protagonist’s isolation and untimely death. Ultimately, Schlöndorff places German history at the center of the tragic plotline, whereas the younger filmmakers take a position of ironic distance vis-à-vis the past. By placing a strong emphasis on community, these three films indicate that reunification and globalization give rise to dreams of friendship and protest in post-Wall Berlin.

  10. Perturbation biology nominates upstream–downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04640.001 PMID:26284497

  11. Perturbation biology nominates upstream-downstream drug combinations in RAF inhibitor resistant melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Anil; Wang, Weiqing; Demir, Emek; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Jing, Xiaohong; Molinelli, Evan J; Babur, Özgün; Bemis, Debra L; Onur Sumer, Selcuk; Solit, David B; Pratilas, Christine A; Sander, Chris

    2015-08-18

    Resistance to targeted cancer therapies is an important clinical problem. The discovery of anti-resistance drug combinations is challenging as resistance can arise by diverse escape mechanisms. To address this challenge, we improved and applied the experimental-computational perturbation biology method. Using statistical inference, we build network models from high-throughput measurements of molecular and phenotypic responses to combinatorial targeted perturbations. The models are computationally executed to predict the effects of thousands of untested perturbations. In RAF-inhibitor resistant melanoma cells, we measured 143 proteomic/phenotypic entities under 89 perturbation conditions and predicted c-Myc as an effective therapeutic co-target with BRAF or MEK. Experiments using the BET bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 affecting the level of c-Myc protein and protein kinase inhibitors targeting the ERK pathway confirmed the prediction. In conclusion, we propose an anti-cancer strategy of co-targeting a specific upstream alteration and a general downstream point of vulnerability to prevent or overcome resistance to targeted drugs.

  12. Biolistic transformation of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Acanda, Yosvanis; Jia, Hongge; Wang, Nian; Zale, Janice

    2016-09-01

    The development of transgenic citrus plants by the biolistic method. A protocol for the biolistic transformation of epicotyl explants and transgenic shoot regeneration of immature citrange rootstock, cv. Carrizo (Citrus sinensis Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) and plant regeneration is described. Immature epicotyl explants were bombarded with a vector containing the nptII selectable marker and the gfp reporter. The number of independent, stably transformed tissues/total number of explants, recorded by monitoring GFP fluorescence 4 weeks after bombardment was substantial at 18.4 %, and some fluorescing tissues regenerated into shoots. Fluorescing GFP, putative transgenic shoots were micro-grafted onto immature Carrizo rootstocks in vitro, confirmed by PCR amplification of nptII and gfp coding regions, followed by secondary grafting onto older rootstocks grown in soil. Southern blot analysis indicated that all the fluorescing shoots were transgenic. Multiple and single copies of nptII integrations were confirmed in five regenerated transgenic lines. There is potential to develop a higher throughput biolistics transformation system by optimizing the tissue culture medium to improve shoot regeneration and narrowing the window for plant sampling. This system will be appropriate for transformation with minimal cassettes.

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of leafy kale and Brassica rupestris Raf. in south Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Lorenzo; von Bothmer, Roland; Poulsen, Gert; Branca, Ferdinando; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke

    2014-12-01

    Local varieties of leafy kales (Brassica oleracea L.) are grown in home gardens in Calabria and Sicily for self-consumption, in the same area where the wild relative Brassica rupestris Raf. also grows. With the use of AFLP markers, comparisons were made of the genetic diversity and population structure of ten wild and 22 cultivated populations, as well as of a hybrid population and of four commercial cultivars of different B. oleracea crops. The level of genetic diversity was higher in leafy kales than in wild populations and this diversity was mainly distributed within populations. Wild populations remained distinct from cultivated material. Additionally, most wild populations were distinctively isolated from each other. On the other hand, it was not possible to molecularly distinguish even geographically distant leafy kale populations from each other or from different B. oleracea crops. It was possible to detect inter-crossing between leafy kales and B. rupestris. Findings from this study illustrate the existing level of genetic diversity in the B. oleracea gene pool. Individual populations (either wild or leafy kales) with higher levels of genetic diversity have been identified and suggestions are given for an informed conservation strategy. Domestication hypotheses are also discussed. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. It came from outer space wearing an RAF blazer! a fan's biography of Sir Patrick Moore

    CERN Document Server

    Mobberley, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To British television viewers, the name ‘Patrick Moore’ has been synonymous with Astronomy and Space Travel since he first appeared on The Sky at Night in 1957. To amateur astronomers he has been a source of inspiration, joy, humour and even an eccentric role model since that time. Most people know that his 55 years of presenting The Sky at Night is a world record, but what was he really like in person?  What did he do away from the TV cameras, in his observatory, and within the British Astronomical Association, the organisation that inspired him as a youngster? Also, precisely what did he do during the War Years, a subject that has always been shrouded in mystery? Martin Mobberley, a friend of Patrick Moore’s for 30 years, and a former President of the British Astronomical Association, has spent ten years exhaustively researching Patrick’s real life away from the TV cameras. His childhood, RAF service, tireless voluntary work for astronomy and charity and his endless book writing are all examined in...

  15. Direct measurements of the total rate constant of the reaction NCN + H and implications for the product branching ratio and the enthalpy of formation of NCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassheber, Nancy; Dammeier, Johannes; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2014-06-21

    The overall rate constant of the reaction (2), NCN + H, which plays a key role in prompt-NO formation in flames, has been directly measured at temperatures 962 K rate constants are best represented by the combination of two Arrhenius expressions, k2/(cm(3) mol(-1) s(-1)) = 3.49 × 10(14) exp(-33.3 kJ mol(-1)/RT) + 1.07 × 10(13) exp(+10.0 kJ mol(-1)/RT), with a small uncertainty of ±20% at T = 1600 K and ±30% at the upper and lower experimental temperature limits.The two Arrhenius terms basically can be attributed to the contributions of reaction channel (2a) yielding CH + N2 and channel (2b) yielding HCN + N as the products. A more refined analysis taking into account experimental and theoretical literature data provided a consistent rate constant set for k2a, its reverse reaction k1a (CH + N2 → NCN + H), k2b as well as a value for the controversial enthalpy of formation of NCN, ΔfH = 450 kJ mol(-1). The analysis verifies the expected strong temperature dependence of the branching fraction ϕ = k2b/k2 with reaction channel (2b) dominating at the experimental high-temperature limit. In contrast, reaction (2a) dominates at the low-temperature limit with a possible minor contribution of the HNCN forming recombination channel (2d) at T < 1150 K.

  16. Degradation mechanism of Direct Pink 12B treated by iron-carbon micro-electrolysis and Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiquan; Gong, Xiaokang; Zhang, Qiuxia; Du, Haijuan

    2013-12-01

    The Direct Pink 12B dye was treated by iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and Fenton oxidation. The degradation pathway of Direct Pink 12B dye was inferred by ultraviolet visible (UV-Vis), infrared absorption spectrum (IR) and high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The major reason of decolorization was that the conjugate structure was disrupted in the iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) process. However, the dye was not degraded completely because benzene rings and naphthalene rings were not broken. In the Fenton oxidation process, the azo bond groups surrounded by higher electron cloud density were first attacked by hydroxyl radicals to decolorize the dye molecule. Finally benzene rings and naphthalene rings were mineralized to H2O and CO2 under the oxidation of hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2013 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear structure of weakly bound radioactive nuclei through elastic and and inelastic scattering on proton. Impacts of the couplings induced by these exotic nuclei on direct reactions; Structure de noyaux radioactifs faiblement lies par diffusions elastiques et inelastiques sur proton. Effets des couplages induits par ces noyaux exotiques sur les reactions directes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapoux, V

    2005-09-15

    Information on the structure, spectroscopy and target interaction potentials of exotic nuclei can be inferred by interpreting measured data from direct reactions on proton such as elastic or inelastic scattering of proton (p,p') or one-nucleon transfer reaction (p,d). A series of experimental results has been obtained at the GANIL facilities on the setting composed of the MUST telescope array used for the detection of light charged-particles and of CATS beam detectors. This setting aims at measuring reactions on light proton or deuteron targets through reverse kinematics. Particularly, results on C{sup 10}, C{sup 11} and on direct reactions with the He{sup 8} beam of Spiral are presented. The first chapter is dedicated to the description of the most important theories concerning the nucleus. The experimental tools used to probe the nucleus are reported in the second chapter. The third and fourth chapters present the framework that has allowed us to analyse results from (p,p') and (p,d) reactions on weakly bound exotic nuclei. The last chapter is dedicated to the description of future experimental programs. (A.C.)

  18. Direct measurements of OH and other product yields from the HO2  + CH3C(OO2 reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Winiberg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction CH3C(OO2 + HO2  →  CH3C(OOOH + O2 (Reaction R5a, CH3C(OOH + O3 (Reaction R5b, CH3 + CO2 + OH + O2 (Reaction R5c was studied in a series of experiments conducted at 1000 mbar and (293 ± 2 K in the HIRAC simulation chamber. For the first time, products, (CH3C(OOOH, CH3C(OOH, O3 and OH from all three branching pathways of the reaction have been detected directly and simultaneously. Measurements of radical precursors (CH3OH, CH3CHO, HO2 and some secondary products HCHO and HCOOH further constrained the system. Fitting a comprehensive model to the experimental data, obtained over a range of conditions, determined the branching ratios α(R5a  =  0.37 ± 0.10, α(R5b =  0.12 ± 0.04 and α(R5c =  0.51 ± 0.12 (errors at 2σ level. Improved measurement/model agreement was achieved using k(R5  =  (2.4 ± 0.4  ×  10−11 cm3 molecule−1 s−1, which is within the large uncertainty of the current IUPAC and JPL recommended rate coefficients for the title reaction. The rate coefficient and branching ratios are in good agreement with a recent study performed by Groß et al. (2014b; taken together, these two studies show that the rate of OH regeneration through Reaction (R5 is more rapid than previously thought. GEOS-Chem has been used to assess the implications of the revised rate coefficients and branching ratios; the modelling shows an enhancement of up to 5 % in OH concentrations in tropical rainforest areas and increases of up to 10 % at altitudes of 6–8 km above the equator, compared to calculations based on the IUPAC recommended rate coefficient and yield. The enhanced rate of acetylperoxy consumption significantly reduces PAN in remote regions (up to 30 % with commensurate reductions in background NOx.

  19. Monitoring of an esterification reaction by on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry and in-line mid infrared spectrometry with an attenuated total reflectance probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Andrew W.; McAulay, Edith A.J.; Nordon, Alison; Littlejohn, David; Lynch, Thomas P.; Lancaster, J. Steven; Wright, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High efficiency thermal vaporiser designed and used for on-line reaction monitoring. • Concentration profiles of all reactants and products obtained from mass spectra. • By-product formed from the presence of an impurity detected by MS but not MIR. • Mass spectrometry can detect trace and bulk components unlike molecular spectrometry. - Abstract: A specially designed thermal vaporiser was used with a process mass spectrometer designed for gas analysis to monitor the esterification of butan-1-ol and acetic anhydride. The reaction was conducted at two scales: in a 150 mL flask and a 1 L jacketed batch reactor, with liquid delivery flow rates to the vaporiser of 0.1 and 1.0 mL min −1 , respectively. Mass spectrometry measurements were made at selected ion masses, and classical least squares multivariate linear regression was used to produce concentration profiles for the reactants, products and catalyst. The extent of reaction was obtained from the butyl acetate profile and found to be 83% and 76% at 40 °C and 20 °C, respectively, at the 1 L scale. Reactions in the 1 L reactor were also monitored by in-line mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry; off-line gas chromatography (GC) was used as a reference technique when building partial least squares (PLS) multivariate calibration models for prediction of butyl acetate concentrations from the MIR spectra. In validation experiments, good agreement was achieved between the concentration of butyl acetate obtained from in-line MIR spectra and off-line GC. In the initial few minutes of the reaction the profiles for butyl acetate derived from on-line direct liquid sampling mass spectrometry (DLSMS) differed from those of in-line MIR spectrometry owing to the 2 min transfer time between the reactor and mass spectrometer. As the reaction proceeded, however, the difference between the concentration profiles became less noticeable. DLSMS had advantages over in-line MIR spectrometry as it was easier to generate

  20. Focal adhesion kinase, a downstream mediator of Raf-1 signaling, suppresses cellular adhesion, migration, and neuroendocrine markers in BON carcinoid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Chen, Herbert; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2010-05-01

    We have recently reported that activation of the Raf-1/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2)/ERK1/2 signaling cascade in gastrointestinal carcinoid cell line (BON) alters cellular morphology and neuroendocrine phenotype. The mechanisms by which Raf-1 mediates these changes in carcinoid cells are unclear. Here, we report that activation of the Raf-1 signaling cascade in BON cells induced the expression of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein, suppressed the production of neuroendocrine markers, and resulted in significant decreases in cellular adhesion and migration. Importantly, inactivation of MEK1/2 by 1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis[2-aminophenylthio]butadiene or abolition of FAK induction in Raf-1-activated BON cells by targeted siRNA led to reversal of the Raf-1-mediated reduction in neuroendocrine markers and cellular adhesion and migration. Phosphorylation site-specific antibodies detected the phosphorylated FAK(Tyr407), but not FAK(Tyr397), in these Raf-1-activated cells, indicating that FAK(Tyr407) may be associated with changes in the neuroendocrine phenotype. Overexpression of constitutively active FAK plasmids (wild-type FAK or FAK(Tyr397) mutant) into BON cells reduced neuroendocrine markers, whereas the FAK(Tyr407) mutant plasmid did not show any decrease in the levels of neuroendocrine markers, indicating that phosphorylation of FAK at the Tyr(407) residue may be important for these effects. Our results showed for the first time that FAK is an essential downstream effector of the Raf-1/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 signaling cascade and negatively regulated the neuroendocrine and metastatic phenotype in BON cells. (c)2010 AACR.

  1. Raf-1/CK2 and RhoA/ROCK signaling promote TNF-α-mediated endothelial apoptosis via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lifeng; Tang, Lian; Dai, Fan; Meng, Guoliang; Yin, Runting; Xu, Xiaole; Yao, Wenjuan

    2017-08-15

    Both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway play essential roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and multiple other common cellular functions. We previously reported that vimentin is responsible for TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis. Herein, we investigated the regulation of RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin filaments and endothelial apoptosis mediated by TNF-α. Treatment with TNF-α significantly induced the activation of RhoA and ROCK, and the expression of ROCK1. RhoA deficiency could obviously inhibit ROCK activation and ROCK1 expression induced by TNF-α. Both RhoA deficiency and ROCK activity inhibition (Y-27632) greatly inhibited endothelial apoptosis and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Also vimentin phosphorylation and the remodeling of vimentin or phospho-vimentin induced by TNF-α were obviously attenuated by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition. TNF-α-mediated vimentin cleavage was significantly inhibited by RhoA suppression and ROCK inhibition through decreasing the activation of caspase3 and 8. Furthermore, TNF-α treatment greatly enhanced the activation of Raf-1. Suppression of Raf-1 or CK2 by its inhibitor (GW5074 or TBB) blocked vimentin phosphorylation, remodeling and endothelial apoptosis, and preserved cell viability in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. However, Raf-1 inhibition showed no significant effect on TNF-α-induced ROCK expression and activation, suggesting that the regulation of Raf-1/CK2 signaling on vimentin was independent of ROCK. Taken together, these results indicate that both RhoA/ROCK and Raf-1/CK2 pathway are responsible for TNF-α-mediated endothelial cytotoxicity via regulating vimentin cytoskeleton. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to directly detect malaria parasites in blood samples from the Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Hamlin, D M; Almera, R; Fuentes, M; Carrasquel, A; Barker, R H

    1994-02-01

    We have examined the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting Plasmodium falciparum using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the species-specific probe pPF14 under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon. Up to eight samples were field collected from each of 48 consenting Amerindians presenting with symptoms of malaria. Sample processing and analysis was performed at the Centro Amazonico para la Investigacion y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Simon Bolivar. A total of 229 samples from 48 patients were analyzed by PCR methods using four different P. falciparum-specific probes. One P. vivax-specific probe and by conventional microscopy. Samples in which results from PCR and microscopy differed were reanalyzed at a higher sensitivity by microscopy. Results suggest that microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples are true positives, and that microscopy-positive and PCR-negative samples are true negatives. The sensitivity of the DNA probe/PCR method was 78% and its specificity was 97%. The positive predictive value of the PCR method was 88%, and the negative predictive value was 95%. Through the analysis of multiple blood samples from each individual, the DNA probe/PCR methodology was found to have an inherent reproducibility that was highly statistically significant.

  3. Investigation of a Pt-Fe/C catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Luna, A. M.; Bonesi, A.; Triaca, W. E.; Blasi, A. Di; Stassi, A.; Baglio, V.; Antonucci, V.; Arico, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Three cathode catalysts (60% Pt/C, 30% Pt/C and 60% Pt-Fe/C), with a particle size of about 2-3 nm, were prepared to investigate the effect of ethanol cross-over on cathode surfaces. All samples were studied in terms of structure and morphology by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. Their electrocatalytic behavior in terms of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) was investigated and compared using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). The tolerance of cathode catalysts in the presence of ethanol was evaluated. The Pt-Fe/C catalyst showed both higher ORR activity and tolerance to ethanol cross-over than Pt/C catalysts. Moreover, the more promising catalysts were tested in 5 cm 2 DEFC single cells at 60 and 80 o C. An improvement in single cell performance was observed in the presence of the Pt-Fe catalyst, due to an enhancement in the oxygen reduction kinetics. The maximum power density was 53 mW cm -2 at 2 bar rel. cathode pressure and 80 o C.

  4. Direct Synthesis of 5-Aryl Barbituric Acids by Rhodium(II)-Catalyzed Reactions of Arenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Daniel; Burns, David J; Lam, Hon Wai

    2015-06-15

    A commercially available rhodium(II) complex catalyzes the direct arylation of 5-diazobarbituric acids with arenes, allowing straightforward access to 5-aryl barbituric acids. Free N-H groups are tolerated on the barbituric acid, with no complications arising from N-H insertion processes. This method was applied to the concise synthesis of a potent matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  5. Increased expression of microRNA-221 inhibits PAK1 in endothelial progenitor cells and impairs its function via c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Mao, Haian; Chen, Jin-yuan; Wen, Shengjun; Li, Dan; Ye, Meng; Lv, Zhongwei

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► MicroRNA-221 is upregulated in the endothelial progenitor cells of atherosclerosis patients. ► PAK1 is a direct target of microRNA-221. ► MicroRNA-221 inhibits EPCs proliferation through c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. -- Abstract: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with high mortality and occurs via endothelial injury. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) restore the integrity of the endothelium and protect it from atherosclerosis. In this study, we compared the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in EPCs in atherosclerosis patients and normal controls. We found that miR-221 expression was significantly up-regulated in patients compared with controls. We predicted and identified p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) as a novel target of miR-221 in EPCs. We also demonstrated that miR-221 targeted a putative binding site in the 3′UTR of PAK1, and absence of this site was inversely associated with miR-221 expression in EPCs. We confirmed this relationship using a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-221 in EPCs significantly decreased EPC proliferation, in accordance with the inhibitory effects induced by decreased PAK1. Overall, these findings demonstrate that miR-221 affects the MEK/ERK pathway by targeting PAK1 to inhibit the proliferation of EPCs

  6. CREBBP knockdown enhances RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK signaling in Ras pathway mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia but does not modulate chemotherapeutic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Zach A; Nicholson, Lindsay; Zeppetzauer, Martin; Matheson, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Paul; Harrison, Christine J; Irving, Julie A E

    2017-04-01

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality in young people and new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve outcome. Recent studies have shown that heterozygous inactivating mutations in the histone acetyl transferase, CREBBP , are particularly frequent in relapsed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and associated with a hyperdiploid karyotype and KRAS mutations. To study the functional impact of CREBBP haploinsufficiency in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, RNA interference was used to knock down expression of CREBBP in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and various primagraft acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. We demonstrate that attenuation of CREBBP results in reduced acetylation of histone 3 lysine 18, but has no significant impact on cAMP-dependent target gene expression. Impaired induction of glucocorticoid receptor targets was only seen in 1 of 4 CREBBP knockdown models, and there was no significant difference in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis, sensitivity to other acute lymphoblastic leukemia chemotherapeutics or histone deacetylase inhibitors. Importantly, we show that CREBBP directly acetylates KRAS and that CREBBP knockdown enhances signaling of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in Ras pathway mutated acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, which are still sensitive to MEK inhibitors. Thus, CREBBP mutations might assist in enhancing oncogenic RAS signaling in acute lymphoblastic leukemia but do not alter response to MEK inhibitors. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  7. Modified two-body potential approach to the peripheral direct capture astrophysical a+A->B+γ reaction and asymptotic normalization coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igamov, S.B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2007-01-01

    A modified two-body potential approach is proposed for determination of both the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) (or the respective nuclear vertex constant (NVC)) for the A+a->B (for the virtual decay B->A+a) from an analysis of the experimental S-factor for the peripheral direct capture a+A->B+γ reaction and the astrophysical S-factor, S(E), at low experimentally inaccessible energy regions. The approach proposed involves two additional conditions which verify the peripheral character of the considered reaction and expresses S(E) in terms of the ANC. The connection between NVC (ANC) and the effective range parameters for Aa-scattering is derived. To test this approach we reanalyse the precise experimental astrophysical S-factors for t+α->Li7+γ reaction at energies E= Li7(g.s.), α+t->Li7(0.478 MeV) and of S(E) at E=<50 keV. These ANC values have been used for getting information about the ''indirect'' measured values of the effective range parameters and the p-wave phase shift for αt-scattering in the energy range of 100-bar E-bar 180 keV

  8. Direct detection of OH formation in the reactions of HO2 with CH3C(OO2 and other substituted peroxy radicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work details the first direct observation of OH as a product from (R1: HO2+CH3C(OO2→(products, which has generally been considered an atmospheric radical termination process. The technique of pulsed laser photolysis radical generation, coupled to calibrated laser induced fluorescence detection was used to measure an OH product yield for (R1 of α1(298 K=(0.5±0.2. This study of (R1 included the measurement of a rate coefficient k1(298 K=(1.4±0.5×10−11cm3 molecule−1 s−1, substantially reducing the uncertainties in modelling this important atmospheric reaction. OH was also detected as a product from the reactions of HO2 with three other carbonyl-containing peroxy radicals, albeit at smaller yield, e.g. (R2: HO2+CH3C(OCH2O2→(products, α2≈0.15. By contrast, OH was not observed (α<0.06 as a major product from reactions where carbonyl functionality was absent, e.g. HO2+HOCH2CH2O2 (R8, and HO2+CH3CH(OHCH2O2 (R9.

  9. Study of the direct electron production in the reaction π-p at 70 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennion, P.

    1980-06-01

    This experiment tries to answer the following questions. What is the dependence with the transverse impulsion psub(T) of the production rate l/π. Are the direct leptons produced alone or by pairs. If they are produced alone, are they issued from a charm particle. Are there lepton pairs whose origin is not understood. This experiment is a collaboration between Bologne, Glasgow, Rutherford, Saclay and Turin laboratories. Data are from the CERN bubble chamber, equipped with a sensitive target. This equipment is described in the chapter one, together with experimental process. In chapter two, results on single electron production are given. Pairs production is studied in chapter three. Pairs issuing from the π zero decay in e + , e - and gamma are also analyzed [fr

  10. Directed evolution and in silico analysis of reaction centre proteins reveal molecular signatures of photosynthesis adaptation to radiation pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary mechanisms adopted by the photosynthetic apparatus to modifications in the Earth's atmosphere on a geological time-scale remain a focus of intense research. The photosynthetic machinery has had to cope with continuously changing environmental conditions and particularly with the complex ionizing radiation emitted by solar flares. The photosynthetic D1 protein, being the site of electron tunneling-mediated charge separation and solar energy transduction, is a hot spot for the generation of radiation-induced radical injuries. We explored the possibility to produce D1 variants tolerant to ionizing radiation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and clarified the effect of radiation-induced oxidative damage on the photosynthetic proteins evolution. In vitro directed evolution strategies targeted at the D1 protein were adopted to create libraries of chlamydomonas random mutants, subsequently selected by exposures to radical-generating proton or neutron sources. The common trend observed in the D1 aminoacidic substitutions was the replacement of less polar by more polar amino acids. The applied selection pressure forced replacement of residues more sensitive to oxidative damage with less sensitive ones, suggesting that ionizing radiation may have been one of the driving forces in the evolution of the eukaryotic photosynthetic apparatus. A set of the identified aminoacidic substitutions, close to the secondary plastoquinone binding niche and oxygen evolving complex, were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in un-transformed strains, and their sensitivity to free radicals attack analyzed. Mutants displayed reduced electron transport efficiency in physiological conditions, and increased photosynthetic performance stability and oxygen evolution capacity in stressful high-light conditions. Finally, comparative in silico analyses of D1 aminoacidic sequences of organisms differently located in the evolution chain, revealed a higher ratio of residues

  11. Magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment associated with excitation of the primary electron donor in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, D.J.; Boxer, S.G.

    1987-02-10

    The magnitude and direction of the change in dipole moment, ..delta mu.., associated with the Q/sub y/ transition of the dimeric primary electron donor (special pair or P870) in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides reaction centers have been measured by Stark spectroscopy at 20 /sup 0/C. The magnitude of ..delta mu.. is found to be f/sup -1/ (10.3 +/- 0.7) D, where f is a correction factor for the local dielectric properties of the protein matrix. With the spherical cavity approximation and an effective local dielectric constant of 2, f = 1.2, and absolute value of ..delta mu.. is 8.6 +/- 0.6 D. Absolute value of ..delta mu.. for the Q/sub y/ transition of the special pair is approximately a factor of 3.4 and 2 greater than for the monomeric bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins, respectively, in the reaction center. The angle between ..delta mu.. and the transition dipole moment for excitation of the first singlet electron state of the special pair was found to be 24 +/- 2/sup 0/. The measured values are combined to suggest a physical model in which the lowest excited singlet state of the special pair has substantial charge-transfer character and where charge is separated between the two monomers comprising the dimeric special pair. This leads to the hypothesis that the first charge-separated state in bacterial photosynthesis is formed directly upon photoexcitation. These data provide stringent values for comparison with theoretical calculations of the electronic structure of the chromophores in the reaction center.

  12. What makes Ras an efficient molecular switch: a computational, biophysical, and structural study of Ras-GDP interactions with mutants of Raf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filchtinski, Daniel; Sharabi, Oz; Rüppel, Alma; Vetter, Ingrid R; Herrmann, Christian; Shifman, Julia M

    2010-06-11

    Ras is a small GTP-binding protein that is an essential molecular switch for a wide variety of signaling pathways including the control of cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. In the GTP-bound state, Ras can interact with its effectors, triggering various signaling cascades in the cell. In the GDP-bound state, Ras looses its ability to bind to known effectors. The interaction of the GTP-bound Ras (Ras(GTP)) with its effectors has been studied intensively. However, very little is known about the much weaker interaction between the GDP-bound Ras (Ras(GDP)) and Ras effectors. We investigated the factors underlying the nucleotide-dependent differences in Ras interactions with one of its effectors, Raf kinase. Using computational protein design, we generated mutants of the Ras-binding domain of Raf kinase (Raf) that stabilize the complex with Ras(GDP). Most of our designed mutations narrow the gap between the affinity of Raf for Ras(GTP) and Ras(GDP), producing the desired shift in binding specificity towards Ras(GDP). A combination of our best designed mutation, N71R, with another mutation, A85K, yielded a Raf mutant with a 100-fold improvement in affinity towards Ras(GDP). The Raf A85K and Raf N71R/A85K mutants were used to obtain the first high-resolution structures of Ras(GDP) bound to its effector. Surprisingly, these structures reveal that the loop on Ras previously termed the switch I region in the Ras(GDP).Raf mutant complex is found in a conformation similar to that of Ras(GTP) and not Ras(GDP). Moreover, the structures indicate an increased mobility of the switch I region. This greater flexibility compared to the same loop in Ras(GTP) is likely to explain the natural low affinity of Raf and other Ras effectors to Ras(GDP). Our findings demonstrate that an accurate balance between a rigid, high-affinity conformation and conformational flexibility is required to create an efficient and stringent molecular switch. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  14. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). → Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). → Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. → The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. → Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF

  15. Enhanced B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation contributes to ABCC1-mediated chemoresistance and glutathione-mediated survival in acquired topoisomerase II poison-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huang-Hui; Chang, Hsin-Huei; Chang, Jang-Yang; Tang, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Lin, Li-Mei; Cheng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Sun, Man-Wu; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Kuo, Ching-Chuan

    2017-12-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) mainly regulates transcriptional activation through antioxidant-responsive elements (AREs) present in the promoters of NRF2 target genes. Recently, we found that NRF2 was overexpressed in a KB-derived drug-resistant cancer cell panel. In this panel, KB-7D cells, which show acquired resistance to topoisomerase II (Top II) poisons, exhibited the highest NRF2 activation. To investigate whether NRF2 directly contributed to acquired resistance against Top II poisons, we manipulated NRF2 by genetic and pharmacological approaches. The result demonstrated that silencing of NRF2 by RNA interference increased the sensitivity and treatment with NRF2 activator decreased the sensitivity of KB and KB-7D cells toward Top II poisons. Further, increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation activated NRF2 signaling in KB-7D cells. Moreover, increased binding of NRF2 to an ARE in the promoter of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1) directly contributed to Top II poison resistance. In addition, activation of NRF2 increased glutathione level and antioxidant capacity in KB-7D cells compared with that in KB cells; moreover, high glutathione level provided survival advantage to KB-7D cells. Our study is the first to show that aberrant NRF2 activation is via increased B-Raf-mediated NRF2 gene transcription and HATs-mediated NRF2 protein acetylation, which increases the acquired resistance and promote the survival of Top II poison-resistant cancer cells. Importantly, NRF2 downstream effectors ABCC1 and glutathione directly contribute to acquired resistance and survival, respectively. These results suggest that blockade of NRF2 signaling may enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce the survival of Top II poison-refractory tumors in clinical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMMUNOSTIMULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF FLAMBOYANT LEAF [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook. Raf.] IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Eriani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Flamboyant [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook Raf.] leaf contains flavonoid compounds that are expected to have immunostimulatory effect. This research was done to determine the effect of flamboyant leaf extract on immune response by accessing the activity of immune cells and capability test the extract as immunostimulant in mice. Leaf extraction was done by maceration using methanol in the Laboratory of Biology of Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Syiah Kuala University whereas animal treatment and testing were carried out Micro-technique Laboratory of Biology Department of the same faculty. This research used 20 male mice strain Swiss-Webster aged 7-8 weeks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups with five replications each. Group 1 (P0 was untreated control; group 1-3 were mice administration flamboyant leaf extract 250 mg/kg BW (P1, 500 mg/kg BW (P2, and 750 mg/kg BW (P3 per oral. The treatments were given for 14 days after one week of adaptation period. Blood samples were collected before and after extract treatment and used for leukocyte count analysis. Phagocytosis activity was accessed by carbon clearance assay on day 15. At the end of the study, all mice were sacrificed for spleen weight analysis. Data obtained was analyzed by Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey test (Leukocyte count and spleen weight or regression analysis (carbon clearance. The results showed a flamboyant leaf extract administration resulted in increased leukocyte counts that were significantly different (p<0.05 between treatment groups.  Phagocytosis test indicated the extract had moderate to strong immunostimulatory effect whereas spleen weight analysis did not show any difference among treatment groups. In conclusion, flamboyant leaf methanol extract was able to increase immune cells and had potential immunostimulatory activity in mice. Keywords: Delonix regia, immunostimulant, leukocytes, lymphocyte proliferation.

  17. The role of direct parameter specification and attentional capture in near-threshold priming of motor reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob H. J. van der Lubbe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The priming of motor responses can be induced by preceding visual stimuli that have been made invisible by metacontrast masking ('primes'. According to the concept of direct parameter specification (DPS;Neumann,1990, strong similarity between prime and target results in the processing operations that are to be applied to the target being also induced by the prime. As targets have to be attended to, this also implies that attention is captured by the location of a prime, thereby facilitating motor priming effects. This hypothetical effect may be viewed as a form of top-down attentional capture. In some subliminal priming experiments (e.g. Jaśkowski, Skalska, & Verleger, 2003, however, attentional capture may have been unrelated to target identity, as stimuli with unique features (singletons are known to induce bottom-up attentional capture. Three experiments were performed that largely confirmed the view that the result sof these earlier experiments were due to top-down attentional capture, in line with DPS. However, the priming effect was also evoked by a singleton irrelevant to the participants' task, although this effect was weaker than in case of strong similarity between prime and target. Priming effects remained when singletons were absent from one side of the visual field,suggesting that the presence of singletons is not a requirement for the observation of motor priming effects.

  18. Tyr phosphatase-mediated P-ERK inhibition suppresses senescence in EIA + v-raf transformed cells, which, paradoxically, are apoptosis-protected in a MEK-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Sonia Treglia, Antonella; Ulianich, Luca; Turco, Stefano; Terrazzano, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Angela; Miele, Claudia; Garbi, Corrado; Beguinot, Francesco; Di Jeso, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Activation of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway causes not only proliferation and suppression of apoptosis but also the antioncogenic response of senescence. How these contrasting effects are reconciled to achieve cell transformation and cancer formation is poorly understood. In a system of two-step carcinogenesis (dedifferentiated PC EIA, transformed PC EIA-polyoma-middle T [PC EIA + Py] and PC EIA-v-raf [PC EIA + raf] cells], v-raf cooperated with EIA by virtue of a strong prosurvival effect, not elicited by Py-middle T, evident toward serum-deprivation-and H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining. The prosurvival function of v-raf was, in part, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent, as shown by pharmacological MEK inhibition. The MEK-dependent antiapoptotic effect of v-raf was exerted despite a lower level of P-ERK1/2 in EIA + raf cells with respect to EIA + Py/EIA cells, which was dependent on a high tyrosine phosphatase activity, as shown by orthovanadate blockade. An ERK1/2 tyrosine phosphatase was likely involved. The high tyrosine phosphatase activity was instrumental to the complete suppression of senescence, detected by β-galactosidase activity, because tyrosine phosphatase blockade induced senescence in EIA + raf but not in EIA + Py cells. High tyrosine phosphatase activity and evasion from senescence were confirmed in an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line. Therefore, besides EIA, EIA + raf cells suppress senescence through a new mechanism, namely, phosphatase-mediated P-ERK1/2 inhibition, but, paradoxically, retain the oncogenic effects of the Raf-ERK pathway. We propose that the survival effect of Raf is not a function of absolute P-ERK1/2 levels at a given time but is rather dynamically dependent on greater variations after an apoptotic stimulus.

  19. Tyr Phosphatase-Mediated P-ERK Inhibition Suppresses Senescence in EIA + v-raf Transformed Cells, Which, Paradoxically, Are Apoptosis-Protected in a MEK-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania De Vitis

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway causes not only proliferation and suppression of apoptosis but also the antioncogenic response of senescence. How these contrasting effects are reconciled to achieve cell transformation and cancer formation is poorly understood. In a system of two-step carcinogenesis (dedifferentiated PC EIA, transformed PC EIA-polyoma-middle T [PC EIA + Py] and PC EIA-v-raf [PC EIA + raf] cells], v-raf cooperated with EIA by virtue of a strong prosurvival effect, not elicited by Py-middle T, evident toward serum-deprivation-and H2O2-induced apoptosis. Apoptosis was detected by DNA fragmentation and annexin V staining. The prosurvival function of v-raf was, in part, mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK-dependent, as shown by pharmacological MEK inhibition. The MEK-dependent antiapoptotic effect of v-raf was exerted despite a lower level of P-ERK1/2 in EIA + raf cells with respect to EIA + Py/EIA cells, which was dependent on a high tyrosine phosphatase activity, as shown by orthovanadate blockade. An ERK1/2 tyrosine phosphatase was likely involved. The high tyrosine phosphatase activity was instrumental to the complete suppression of senescence, detected by β-galactosidase activity, because tyrosine phosphatase blockade induced senescence in EIA + raf but not in EIA + Py cells. High tyrosine phosphatase activity and evasion from senescence were confirmed in an anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line. Therefore, besides EIA, EIA + raf cells suppress senescence through a new mechanism, namely, phosphatase-mediated P-ERK1/2 inhibition, but, paradoxically, retain the oncogenic effects of the Raf-ERK pathway. We propose that the survival effect of Raf is not a function of absolute P-ERK1/2 levels at a given time but is rather dynamically dependent on greater variations after an apoptotic stimulus.

  20. Lead acetate induces EGFR activation upstream of SFK and PKCα linkage to the Ras/Raf-1/ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-Y.; Wang, Y.-T.; Tzeng, D.-W.; Yang, J.-L.

    2009-01-01

    Lead acetate (Pb), a probable human carcinogen, can activate protein kinase C (PKC) upstream of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2). Yet, it remains unclear whether Pb activation of PKC → ERK1/2 involves receptor/non-receptor tyrosine kinases and the Ras signaling transducer. Here we demonstrate a novel mechanism elicited by Pb for transmitting ERK1/2 signaling in CL3 human non-small-cell lung adenocarcinoma cells. Pb induction of higher steady-state levels of Ras-GTP was essential for increasing phospho-Raf-1 S338 and phospho-ERK1/2. Pre-treatment of the cells with a conventional PKC inhibitor Goe6976 or depleting PKCα using specific small interfering RNA blocked Pb induction of Ras-GTP. Pb also activated cellular tyrosine kinases. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, PD153035 for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SU6656 for Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK), but not AG1296 for platelet-derived growth factor receptor, could suppress the Pb-induced tyrosine kinases, PKCα, Ras-GTP, phospho-Raf-1 S338 and phospho-ERK1/2. Furthermore, phosphorylation of tyrosines on the EGFR multiple autophosphorylation sites and the conserved SFK autophosphorylation site occurred during exposure of cells to Pb for 1-5 min and 5-30 min, respectively. Intriguingly, Pb activation of EGFR required the intrinsic kinase activity but not dimerization of the receptor. Inhibition of SFK or PKCα activities did not affect EGFR phosphorylation, while knockdown of EGFR blocked SFK phosphorylation and PKCα activation following Pb. Together, these results indicate that immediate activation of EGFR in response to Pb is obligatory for activation of SFK and PKCα and subsequent the Ras-Raf-1-MKK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling cascade

  1. Expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein in human hepatoma tissues by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, D A; Shiau, Y F; Tseng, C S; Chang, H R

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common malignant liver tumor. To reduce the mortality and improve the effectiveness of therapy, it is important to search for changes in tumor-specific biomarkers whose function may involve in disease progression and which may be useful as potential therapeutic targets. Materials and Mehtods: In this study, we use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to observe proteome alterations of 12 tissue pairs isolated from HCC patients: Normal and tumorous tissue. Comparing the tissue types with each other, 40 protein spots corresponding to fifteen differentially expressed between normal and cancer part of HCC patients. Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), an inhibitor of Raf-mediated activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase, may play an important role in cancer metastasis and cell proliferation and migration of human hepatoma cells. RKIP may be considered as a marker for HCC, because its expression level changes considerably in HCC compared with normal tissue. In addition, we used the methods of Western blotting and real time-polymerase chain reaction to analysis the protein expression and gene expression of RKIP. The result showed RKIP protein and gene expression in tumor part liver tissues of HCC patient is lower than peritumorous non-neoplastic liver tissue of the corresponding HCC samples. These results strongly suggest that RKIP may be considered to be a marker for HCC and RKIP are down-regulated in liver cancer cell.

  2. PENGARUH EKSTRAK BUNGA FLAMBOYAN (Delonix regia Hook Raf TERHADAP PERKECAMBAHAN DAN PERTUMBUHAN CABAI MERAH BESAR (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royana Pakpahan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The reach aim to the effect of flamboyant (Delonix regia Hook Raf. flower extract on the growth of large red pepper plant (Capsicum annuum L., for use a land under of flamboyant trees. The research design used was Random Block Design, with five treatments extract concentration, control, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, each treatment was repeated five time. Observations were made during the 15 weeks. The results showed the percentage of germination and plant height are effect significant, while the number of leaves, root length and dry weight of the plant does not provide effect for the growth of large red pepper plant. Keywords : flamboyant, allelopathy, large red pepper

  3. Investigations of the mass and charge distribution of fission products from the 238U(n14,f) reaction by direct Ge(Li) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daroczy, S.

    1979-01-01

    The fission yields can be measured by the well-known activation method if it is taken into account that the fission process results in 5-6 nuclides in an isobaric chain. The method which is based only on the gamma-spectrometric measurement of the irradiated fissioning sample is referred to as the direct Ge(Li) method for fission yield measurement. The thesis contains detailed description of the direct Ge(Li) method. The method was tested by the measurement of cumulative yields of 47 fission products and independent yields of 7 products in the reaction of 238 U(n 14 ,f). These are the members of 37 mass chains in the A=83-149 mass number region. The half-lives of the studied products are in the range of Tsub(1/2)=10 2 -10 9 s; the gamma spectrometric method was improved by extending its applicability to the measurement of short-lived products. Applying short irradiation time (5 min) the yields of 16 fission products with half-lives shorter than 1 hour could be measured. The lowest measured partial fission cross sections (yields) are in the order of 1 mb (0.1%). The accuracy of the yield measured by the direct Ge(Li) method is as high as or higher than that obtained radiochemically, especially for the products measured by many intensive gamma lines. (author)

  4. Locostatin, a disrupter of Raf kinase inhibitor protein, inhibits extracellular matrix production, proliferation, and migration in human uterine leiomyoma and myometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjusevic, Milijana; Greco, Stefania; Islam, Md Soriful; Castellucci, Clara; Ciavattini, Andrea; Toti, Paolo; Petraglia, Felice; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the presence of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) in human myometrium and leiomyoma as well as to determine the effect of locostatin (RKIP inhibitor) on extracellular matrix (ECM) production, proliferation, and migration in human myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Laboratory study. Human myometrium and leiomyoma. Thirty premenopausal women who were admitted to the hospital for myomectomy or hysterectomy. Myometrial and leiomyoma tissues were used to investigate the localization and the expression level of RKIP through immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Myometrial and leiomyoma cells were treated with locostatin (10 μM) to measure ECM expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction, GSK3β expression by Western blotting, cell migration by wound-healing assay, and cell proliferation by MTT assay and immunocytochemistry. The expression of RKIP in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue; ECM components and GSK3β expression, migration, and proliferation in myometrial and leiomyoma cells. RKIP is expressed in human myometrial and leiomyoma tissue. Locostatin treatment resulted in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal pathway (ERK phosphorylation), providing a powerful validation of our targeting protocol. Further, RKIP inhibition by locostatin reduces ECM components. Moreover, the inhibition of RKIP by locostatin impaired cell proliferation and migration in both leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Finally, locostatin treatment reduced GSK3β expression. Therefore, even if the activation of MAPK pathway should increase proliferation and migration, the destabilization of GSK3β leads to the reduction of proliferation and migration of myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Our results indicate that RKIP may be involved in leiomyoma pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental and modeling study of high performance direct carbon solid oxide fuel cell with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoran; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Houcheng; Tan, Peng; Yang, Guangming; Irvine, John T. S.; Ni, Meng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, 2D models for direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (DC-SOFCs) with in situ catalytic steam-carbon gasification reaction are developed. The simulation results are found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The performance of DC-SOFCs with and without catalyst are compared at different operating potential, anode inlet gas flow rate and operating temperature. It is found that adding suitable catalyst can significantly speed up the in situ steam-carbon gasification reaction and improve the performance of DC-SOFC with H2O as gasification agent. The potential of syngas and electricity co-generation from the fuel cell is also evaluated, where the composition of H2 and CO in syngas can be adjusted by controlling the anode inlet gas flow rate. In addition, the performance DC-SOFCs and the percentage of fuel in the outlet gas are both increased with increasing operating temperature. At a reduced temperature (below 800 °C), good performance of DC-SOFC can still be obtained with in-situ catalytic carbon gasification by steam. The results of this study form a solid foundation to understand the important effect of catalyst and related operating conditions on H2O-assisted DC-SOFCs.

  6. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Előd L.; Oloman, Colin W.

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness ∼350 μm) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m -2, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m -2, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m -2 with PtRuMo at 5500 A m -2 and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m -2. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation.

  7. Spillover effect induced Pt-TiO2/C as ethanol tolerant oxygen reduction reaction catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meenakshi, S.; Nishanth, K.G.; Sridhar, P.; Pitchumani, S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypo-hyper-d-electronic interactive nature is used to develop a new carbon supported HT-Pt-TiO 2 composite catalyst comprising Pt and Ti in varying atomic ratio, namely 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. The electro-catalysts are characterized by XRD, TEM, SEM-EDAX, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) techniques. HT-Pt-TiO 2 /C catalysts exhibit significant improvement in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) over Pt/C. The effect of composition towards ORR with and without ethanol has been studied. The direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) with HT-Pt-TiO 2 /C cathode catalyst exhibits an enhanced peak power density of 41 mW cm −2 , whereas 21 mW cm −2 is obtained for the DEFCs with carbon-supported Pt catalyst operating under identical conditions

  8. Wafer-scale laser pantography: Fabrication of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and small-scale integrated circuits by direct-write laser-induced pyrolytic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, B.M.; Herman, I.P.; Mitlitsky, F.; Hyde, R.A.; Wood, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    A complete set of processes sufficient for manufacture of n-metal-oxide-semiconductor (n-MOS) transistors by a laser-induced direct-write process has been demonstrated separately, and integrated to yield functional transistors. Gates and interconnects were fabricated of various combinations of n-doped and intrinsic polysilicon, tungsten, and tungsten silicide compounds. Both 0.1-μm and 1-μm-thick gate oxides were micromachined with and without etchant gas, and the exposed p-Si [100] substrate was cleaned and, at times, etched. Diffusion regions were doped by laser-induced pyrolytic decomposition of phosphine followed by laser annealing. Along with the successful manufacture of working n-MOS transistors and a set of elementary digital logic gates, this letter reports the successful use of several laser-induced surface reactions that have not been reported previously

  9. High temperature strength analysis of welded joint of RAF's by small punch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, T. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineeering, Hokkaido (Japan); Komazaki, S.; Kohno, Y. [Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran (Japan); Tanigawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Kohyama, A. [Kyoto Univ., Institute of Advanced Energy (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nucleation and growth of microvoids and/or small cracks in fine-grained heat affected zone (HAZ) after long-term service operation, which is recognized as Type IV creep damage, has recently been a worldwide issue for high Cr ferritic steels. In our group, a small punch (SP) creep test has been successfully applied to evaluate this damage of low alloy ferritic steel. However, the HAZ of fusion reactor material welded by electron-beam (EB) welding is so narrow that it is not easy to evaluate its mechanical properties by conventional tests including the SP creep test with a plate-type specimen (10 x 10 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}). In this study, the SP creep test using a further miniaturized specimen was developed and applied to the welded joint of reduced activation ferritic steels (RAFs), F82H-IEA (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), for measuring creep properties of the HAZ. For the SP creep test, TEM disk-type samples (diam. 3.0 x 0.30 mm) were removed from the base metal (BM), weld metal (WM) and HAZ, respectively. The specimen surfaces were polished up to a 0.05 {mu}m alumina powder finish and the specimen's thickness was finally adjusted to 0.25 mm. The SP creep tests were performed at temperatures of 823{approx}973 K and under loads ranging from 20 to 200 N. A constant load was applied to the center of the specimen through the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} bail (diam. 1.0 mm) using the electric servo motor. The central deflection of the specimen was monitored by measuring the displacement of the compression rod. The tests were carried out in an argon gas atmosphere and the gas was continuously passed through during the test to prevent severe oxidation of the specimen. The differences in SP creep properties such as rupture time and minimum creep rate between the BM, WM and HAZ were discussed in terms of microstructural changes during welding thermal cycles. In addition, the result obtained from the BM was correlated with those of uniaxial creep test

  10. Astrophysical 3He(α ,γ )7Be and 3H(α ,γ )7Li direct capture reactions in a potential-model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursunov, E. M.; Turakulov, S. A.; Kadyrov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The astrophysical 3He(α ,γ )7Be and 3H(α ,γ )7Li direct capture processes are studied in the framework of the two-body model with potentials of a simple Gaussian form, which describe correctly the phase shifts in the s , p , d , and f waves, as well as the binding energy and the asymptotic normalization constant of the ground p3 /2 and the first excited p1 /2 bound states. It is shown that the E 1 transition from the initial s wave to the final p waves is strongly dominant in both capture reactions. On this basis the s -wave potential parameters are adjusted to reproduce the new data of the LUNA Collaboration around 100 keV and the newest data at the Gamov peak estimated with the help of the observed neutrino fluxes from the sun, S34(23-5+6keV ) =0.548 ±0.054 keV b for the astrophysical S factor of the capture process 3He(α ,γ )7Be . The resulting model describes well the astrophysical S factor in the low-energy big-bang nucleosynthesis region of 180-400 keV; however, it has a tendency to underestimate the data above 0.5 MeV. The energy dependence of the S factor is mostly consistent with the data and the results of the no-core shell model with continuum, but substantially different from the fermionic molecular dynamics model predictions. Two-body potentials, adjusted for the properties of the 7Be nucleus, 3He+α elastic scattering data, and the astrophysical S factor of the 3He(α ,γ )7Be direct capture reaction, are able to reproduce the properties of the 7Li nucleus, the binding energies of the ground 3 /2- and first excited 1 /2- states, and phase shifts of the 3H+α elastic scattering in partial waves. Most importantly, these potential models can successfully describe both absolute value and energy dependence of the existing experimental data for the mirror astrophysical 3H(α ,γ )7Li capture reaction without any additional adjustment of the parameters.

  11. Expression of phosphorylated raf kinase inhibitor protein (pRKIP) is a predictor of lung cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Chia, David; Bonavida, Benjamin; Goodglick, Lee; Yoon, Nam K; Hernandez-Cueto, Angeles; Mah, Vei; Rivera-Pazos, Clara M; Chatterjee, Devasis; Vega, Mario I; Maresh, Erin L; Horvath, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) has been reported to negatively regulate signal kinases of major survival pathways. RKIP activity is modulated in part by phosphorylation on Serine 153 by protein kinase C, which leads to dissociation of RKIP from Raf-1. RKIP expression is low in many human cancers and represents an indicator of poor prognosis and/or induction of metastasis. The prognostic power has typically been based on total RKIP expression and has not considered the significance of phospho-RKIP. The present study examined the expression levels of both RKIP and phospho-RKIP in human lung cancer tissue microarray proteomics technology. Total RKIP and phospho-RKIP expression levels were similar in normal and cancerous tissues. phospho-RKIP levels slightly decreased in metastatic lesions. However, the expression levels of phospho-RKIP, in contrast to total RKIP, displayed significant predictive power for outcome with normal expression of phospho-RKIP predicting a more favorable survival compared to lower levels (P = 0.0118); this was even more pronounced in more senior individuals and in those with early stage lung cancer. This study examines for the first time, the expression profile of RKIP and phospho-RKIP in lung cancer. Significantly, we found that phospho-RKIP was a predictive indicator of survival

  12. A Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D QSAR and Virtual Screening Studies on Imidazopyridines as B-Raf Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiding Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available B-Raf kinase is an important target in treatment of cancers. In order to design and find potent B-Raf inhibitors (BRIs, 3D pharmacophore models were created using the Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment of Hypermolecular Alignment of Database (GALAHAD. The best pharmacophore model obtained which was used in effective alignment of the data set contains two acceptor atoms, three donor atoms and three hydrophobes. In succession, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA were performed on 39 imidazopyridine BRIs to build three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR models based on both pharmacophore and docking alignments. The CoMSIA model based on the pharmacophore alignment shows the best result (q2 = 0.621, r2pred = 0.885. This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that are useful for designing potent BRIs. In addition, the obtained best pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening against the NCI2000 database. The hit compounds were further filtered with molecular docking, and their biological activities were predicted using the CoMSIA model, and three potential BRIs with new skeletons were obtained.

  13. A Combined Pharmacophore Modeling, 3D QSAR and Virtual Screening Studies on Imidazopyridines as B-Raf Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huiding; Chen, Lijun; Zhang, Jianqiang; Xie, Xiaoguang; Qiu, Kaixiong; Fu, Jijun

    2015-05-29

    B-Raf kinase is an important target in treatment of cancers. In order to design and find potent B-Raf inhibitors (BRIs), 3D pharmacophore models were created using the Genetic Algorithm with Linear Assignment of Hypermolecular Alignment of Database (GALAHAD). The best pharmacophore model obtained which was used in effective alignment of the data set contains two acceptor atoms, three donor atoms and three hydrophobes. In succession, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were performed on 39 imidazopyridine BRIs to build three dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) models based on both pharmacophore and docking alignments. The CoMSIA model based on the pharmacophore alignment shows the best result (q(2) = 0.621, r(2)(pred) = 0.885). This 3D QSAR approach provides significant insights that are useful for designing potent BRIs. In addition, the obtained best pharmacophore model was used for virtual screening against the NCI2000 database. The hit compounds were further filtered with molecular docking, and their biological activities were predicted using the CoMSIA model, and three potential BRIs with new skeletons were obtained.

  14. Direct and Indirect Determinations of Elementary Rate Constants H + O2: Chain Branching; the Dehydration of tertiary-Butanol; the Retro Diels-Alder Reaction of Cyclohexene; the Dehydration of Isopropanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyne, Joshua S.

    Due to growing environmental concern over the continued use of fossil fuels, methods to limit emissions and partially replace fossil fuel use with renewable biofuels are of considerable interest. Developing chemical kinetic models for the chemistry that affects combustion properties is important to understanding how new fuels affect combustion energy conversion processes in transportation devices. This thesis reports the experimental study of several important reactions (the H + O2 branching reaction, the key decomposition reactions of tertiary-butanol, the dehydration reaction of isopropanol, and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene) and develops robust analysis methods to estimate the absolute uncertainties of specific elementary rate constants derived from the experimental data. In the study of the above reactions, both a direct and indirect rate constant determination technique with associated uncertainty estimation methodologies are developed. In the study of the decomposition reactions, a direct determination technique is applied to experimental data gathered in preparation of this thesis. In the case of the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, both of which are used as internal standards for relative rate studies (Herzler et al. 1997) and chemical thermometry (Rosado-Reyes et al. 2013) , analysis showed an ˜20 K difference in the reaction rate between the reported results and the previous recommendations. In light of these discrepancies, an uncertainty estimation of previous recommendations illuminated an uncertainty of at least 20 K for the dehydration reaction of tertiary-butanol and the retro Diels-Alder reaction of cyclohexene, thus resolving the discrepancies. The determination of the H + O2 branching reaction and decomposition reactions of isopropanol used an indirect determination technique. The uncertainty of the H + O2 branching reaction rate is shown to be underestimated by previous

  15. Comparison of Five Modeling Approaches to Quantify and Estimate the Effect of Clouds on the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF) for Solar Ultraviolet Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A generally accepted value for the Radiation Amplification Factor (RAF), with respect to the erythemal action spectrum for sunburn of human skin, is −1.1, indicating that a 1.0% increase in stratospheric ozone leads to a 1.1% decrease in the biologically damaging UV radiation in ...

  16. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  17. The role of lipid raft translocation of prohibitin in regulation of Akt and Raf-protected apoptosis of HaCaT cells upon ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Wu, Shiyong

    2017-07-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) plays a role in regulation of ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. The regulatory function of PHB appears to be associated with its lipid raft translocation. However, the detailed mechanism for PHB-mediated apoptosis of these keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation is not clear. In this report, we determined the role of lipid raft translocation of PHB in regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis. Our data show that upon UVB irradiation PHB is translocated from the non-raft membrane to the lipid rafts, which is correlated with a release of both Akt and Raf from membrane. Overexpression of Akt and/or Raf impedes UVB-induced lipid raft translocation of PHB. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicates that UVB alters the interactions among PHB, Akt, and Raf. Reduced expression of PHB leads to a decreased phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, as well as a decreased activity of Akt, and increased apoptosis of the cells upon UVB irradiation. These results suggest that PHB regulates UVB-induced apoptosis of keratinocytes via a mechanism that involves detachment from Akt and Raf on the plasma membrane, and sequential lipid raft translocation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Assessment of the Efficacy of Chelate-Assisted Phytoextraction of Lead by Coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Miller

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb, depending upon the reactant surface, pH, redox potential and other factors can bind tightly to the soil with a retention time of many centuries. Soil-metal interactions by sorption, precipitation and complexation processes, and differences between plant species in metal uptake efficiency, transport, and susceptibility make a general prediction of soil metal bioavailability and risks of plant metal toxicity difficult. Moreover, the tight binding characteristic of Pb to soils and plant materials make a significant portion of Pb unavailable for uptake by plants. This experiment was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, or acetic acid (HAc can enhance the phytoextraction of Pb by making the Pb soluble and more bioavailable for uptake by coffeeweed (Sesbania exaltata Raf.. Also we wanted to assess the efficacy of chelates in facilitating translocation of the metal into the above-ground biomass of this plant. To test the effect of chelates on Pb solubility, 2 g of Pb-spiked soil (1000 mg Pb/kg dry soil were added to each 15 mL centrifuge tube. Chelates (EDTA, EGTA, HAc in a 1:1 ratio with the metal, or distilled deionized water were then added. Samples were shaken on a platform shaker then centrifuged at the end of several time periods. Supernatants were filtered with a 0.45 μm filter and quantified by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES to determine soluble Pb concentrations. Results revealed that EDTA was the most effective in bringing Pb into solution, and that maximum solubility was reached 6 days after chelate amendment. Additionally, a greenhouse experiment was conducted by planting Sesbania seeds in plastic tubes containing top soil and peat (2:1, v:v spiked with various levels (0, 1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil of lead nitrate. At six weeks after emergence, aqueous solutions of EDTA and/or HAc (in a 1:1 ratio

  19. PKI-587 and sorafenib targeting PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Ras/Raf/MAPK pathways synergistically inhibit HCC cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedaly, Roberto; Angulo, Paul; Hundley, Jonathan; Daily, Michael F; Chen, Changguo; Evers, B Mark

    2012-08-01

    Deregulated Ras/Raf/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways are found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to test the inhibitory effects of PKI-587 and sorafenib as single agents or in combination on HCC (Huh7 cell line) proliferation. (3)H-thymidine incorporation and MTT assay were used to assess Huh7 cell proliferation. Phosphorylation of the key enzymes in the Ras/Raf/MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways was detected by Western blot. We found that PKI-587 is a more potent PI3K/mTOR inhibitor than PI-103. Combination of PKI-587 and sorafenib was a more effective inhibitor of Huh7 proliferation than the combination of PI-103 and sorafenib. Combination of PKI-587 and sorafenib synergistically inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated Huh7 proliferation compared with monodrug therapy. EGF increased phosphorylation of Ras/Raf downstream signaling proteins MEK and ERK; EGF-stimulated activation was inhibited by sorafenib. However, sorafenib, as a single agent, increased AKT (Ser473) phosphorylation. EGF-stimulated AKT (ser473) activation was inhibited by PKI-587. PKI-587 is a potent inhibitor of AKT (Ser473), mTOR (Ser2448), and S6K (Thr389) phosphorylation; in contrast, rapamycin stimulated mTOR complex 2 substrate AKT(Ser473) phosphorylation although it inhibited mTOR complex 1 substrate S6K phosphorylation. PKI-587, as a single agent, stimulated MEK and ERK phosphorylation. However, when PKI-587 and sorafenib were used in combination, they inhibited all the tested kinases in the Ras/Raf /MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. The combination of PKI-587 and sorafenib has the advantage over monodrug therapy on inhibition of HCC cell proliferation by blocking both PI3K/AKT/mTOR and Ras/Raf/MAPK signaling pathways. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  1. Direct methanol fuel cell with extended reaction zone anode: PtRu and PtRuMo supported on graphite felt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Alex; Gyenge, Elod L.; Oloman, Colin W. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-05-15

    Pressed graphite felt (thickness {proportional_to}350 {mu}m) with electrodeposited PtRu (43 g m{sup -2}, 1.4:1 atomic ratio) or PtRuMo (52 g m{sup -2}, 1:1:0.3 atomic ratio) nanoparticle catalysts was investigated as an anode for direct methanol fuel cells. At temperatures above 333 K the fuel cell performance of the PtRuMo catalyst was superior compared to PtRu. The power density was 2200 W m{sup -2} with PtRuMo at 5500 A m{sup -2} and 353 K while under the same conditions PtRu yielded 1925 W m{sup -2}. However, the degradation rate of the Mo containing catalyst formulation was higher. Compared to conventional gas diffusion electrodes with comparable PtRu catalyst composition and load, the graphite felt anodes gave higher power densities mainly due to the extended reaction zone for methanol oxidation. (author)

  2. Key pharmacovigilance stakeholders' experiences of direct patient reporting of adverse drug reactions and their prospects of future development in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, P; Cavaco, A; Allan, E; Airaksinen, M

    2018-02-01

    In the European Union (EU), legislation allows patients to directly report adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to competent authorities. Five years after its implementation, patient reporting is not equal in all countries. This study aimed to explore key stakeholders' perceptions of patient reporting in four EU countries. Qualitative study design. Twelve representatives from national pharmacovigilance centres and/or authorities as well as national pharmaceutical industry bodies in four EU countries participated in the study. Supranational organizations were also included. Data collection was via face-semi-structured interviews. Inductive content analysis was performed thereafter, applying principles of risk management as a theoretical framework. Four themes (attitudes and beliefs, system maturation factors, regulatory improvements, and cultural shifts) emerged, conceptually interconnected. Participants from countries introducing patient reporting recently expressed a negative attitude. Participants highlighted the need for additional resources, both human and financial, to address patient reporting and associated advantages. The findings identified perceived barriers and facilitators of patient reporting. The involvement of patients, use of information, and dissemination of patient reporting are far from optimal. A better integration of the work by EU regulatory authorities is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Based on 1D Ternary Doped Porous Carbons Derived from Carbon Nanotube Directed Conjugated Microporous Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yafei; Gehrig, Dominik; Zhang, Fan; Lu, Chenbao; Zhang, Chao; Cai, Ming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.One-dimensional (1D) porous materials have shown great potential for gas storage and separation, sensing, energy storage, and conversion. However, the controlled approach for preparation of 1D porous materials, especially porous organic materials, still remains a great challenge due to the poor dispersibility and solution processability of the porous materials. Here, carbon nanotube (CNT) templated 1D conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are prepared using a layer-by-layer method. As-prepared CMPs possess high specific surface areas of up to 623 m2 g-1 and exhibit strong electronic interactions between p-type CMPs and n-type CNTs. The CMPs are used as precursors to produce heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons through direct pyrolysis. As-produced ternary heteroatom-doped (B/N/S) 1D porous carbons possess high specific surface areas of up to 750 m2 g-1, hierarchical porous structures, and excellent electrochemical-catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction. Both of the diffusion-limited current density (4.4 mA cm-2) and electron transfer number (n = 3.8) for three-layered 1D porous carbons are superior to those for random 1D porous carbon. These results demonstrate that layered and core-shell type 1D CMPs and related heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons can be rationally designed and controlled prepared for high performance energy-related applications.

  4. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome and Adverse Reactions in Patients Receiving Directly Observed Treatment Strategy in India: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nasir Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite successful implementation of directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS in India, the growing number of diabetes mellitus (DM patients appears to be a cause in the increasing tuberculosis (TB incidence, affecting their management. In this regard, a prospective study was conducted on DOTS patients in three primary health care centers in urban slum region of South Delhi, India, to evaluate the effect of DM on sputum conversion, treatment outcome, and adverse drug reactions (ADR due to anti-TB treatment. Eligible TB patients underwent blood glucose screening at treatment initiation. Disease presentation, clinical outcome, and ADRs were compared between patients of TB with and without DM. Out of 316 patients, the prevalence of DM was found to be 15.8%, in which 19.4% and 9.6% were PTB and EPTB patients, respectively. DM patients have observed higher sputum positivity (OR 1.247 95% CI; 0.539–2.886 at the end of 2-month treatment and poor outcome (OR 1.176 95% CI; 0.310–4.457 at the completion of treatment compared with non DM patients. Presence of DM was significantly associated (OR 3.578 95% CI; 1.114–11.494, p=0.032 with the development of ADRs. DM influences the treatment outcome of PTB patients in our setting and also on the ADR incidence.

  5. Highly Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction Based on 1D Ternary Doped Porous Carbons Derived from Carbon Nanotube Directed Conjugated Microporous Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    He, Yafei

    2016-10-11

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.One-dimensional (1D) porous materials have shown great potential for gas storage and separation, sensing, energy storage, and conversion. However, the controlled approach for preparation of 1D porous materials, especially porous organic materials, still remains a great challenge due to the poor dispersibility and solution processability of the porous materials. Here, carbon nanotube (CNT) templated 1D conjugated microporous polymers (CMPs) are prepared using a layer-by-layer method. As-prepared CMPs possess high specific surface areas of up to 623 m2 g-1 and exhibit strong electronic interactions between p-type CMPs and n-type CNTs. The CMPs are used as precursors to produce heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons through direct pyrolysis. As-produced ternary heteroatom-doped (B/N/S) 1D porous carbons possess high specific surface areas of up to 750 m2 g-1, hierarchical porous structures, and excellent electrochemical-catalytic performance for oxygen reduction reaction. Both of the diffusion-limited current density (4.4 mA cm-2) and electron transfer number (n = 3.8) for three-layered 1D porous carbons are superior to those for random 1D porous carbon. These results demonstrate that layered and core-shell type 1D CMPs and related heteroatom-doped 1D porous carbons can be rationally designed and controlled prepared for high performance energy-related applications.

  6. High Performance and Cost-Effective Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Fe-N-C Methanol-Tolerant Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, David; Serov, Alexey; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Gordon, Jonathan; Atanassov, Plamen; Aricò, Antonino S; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2016-08-09

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) offer great advantages for the supply of power with high efficiency and large energy density. The search for a cost-effective, active, stable and methanol-tolerant catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still a great challenge. In this work, platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalysts based on Fe-N-C are investigated in acidic medium. Post-treatment of the catalyst improves the ORR activity compared with previously published PGM-free formulations and shows an excellent tolerance to the presence of methanol. The feasibility for application in DMFC under a wide range of operating conditions is demonstrated, with a maximum power density of approximately 50 mW cm(-2) and a negligible methanol crossover effect on the performance. A review of the most recent PGM-free cathode formulations for DMFC indicates that this formulation leads to the highest performance at a low membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) cost. Moreover, a 100 h durability test in DMFC shows suitable applicability, with a similar performance-time behavior compared to common MEAs based on Pt cathodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterization of the free energy dependence of an interprotein electron transfer reaction by variation of pH and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Brian A; Davidson, Victor L

    2015-10-01

    The interprotein electron transfer (ET) reactions of the cupredoxin amicyanin, which mediates ET from the tryptophan tryptophylquinone (TTQ) cofactor of methylamine dehydrogenase to cytochrome c-551i have been extensively studied. However, it was not possible to perform certain key experiments in that native system. This study examines the ET reaction from reduced amicyanin to an alternative electron acceptor, the diheme protein MauG. It was possible to vary the ΔG° for this ET reaction by simply changing pH to determine the dependence of kET on ΔG°. A P94A mutation of amicyanin significantly altered its oxidation-reduction midpoint potential value. It was not possible to study the ET from reduced P94A amicyanin to cytochrome c-551i in the native system because that reaction was kinetically coupled. However, the reaction from reduced P94A amicyanin to MauG was a true ET reaction and it was possible to determine values of reorganization energy (λ) and electronic coupling for the reactions of this variant as well as native amicyanin. Comparison of the λ values associated with the ET reactions between amicyanin and the TTQ of methylamine dehydrogenase, the diheme center of MauG and the single heme of cytochrome c-551i, provides insight into the factors that dictate the λ values for the respective reactions. These results demonstrate how study of ET reactions with alternative redox partner proteins can complement and enhance our understanding of the reactions with the natural redox partners, and further our understanding of mechanisms of protein ET reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of rifampin resistance patterns in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in Iran by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Nasr Isfahani

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the rpoB locus confer conformational changes leading to defective binding of rifampin (RIF to rpoB and consequently resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP was established as a rapid screening test for the detection of mutations in the rpoB gene, and direct sequencing has been unambiguously applied to characterize mutations. A total of 37 of Iranian isolates of M. tuberculosis, 16 sensitive and 21 resistant to RIF, were used in this study. A 193-bp region of the rpoB gene was amplified and PCR-SSCP patterns were determined by electrophoresis in 10% acrylamide gel and silver staining. Also, 21 samples of 193-bp rpoB amplicons with different PCR-SSCP patterns from RIFr and 10 from RIFs were sequenced. Seven distinguishable PCR-SSCP patterns were recognized in the 21 Iranian RIFr strains, while 15 out of 16 RIFs isolates demonstrated PCR-SSCP banding patterns similar to that of sensitive standard strain H37Rv. However one of the sensitive isolates demonstrated a different pattern. There were seen six different mutations in the amplified region of rpoB gene: codon 516(GAC/GTC, 523(GGG/GGT, 526(CAC/TAC, 531(TCG/TTG, 511(CTG/TTG, and 512(AGC/TCG. This study demonstrated the high specificity (93.8% and sensitivity (95.2% of PCR-SSCP method for detection of mutation in rpoB gene; 85.7% of RIFr strains showed a single mutation and 14.3% had no mutations. Three strains showed mutations caused polymorphism. Our data support the common notion that rifampin resistance genotypes are generally present mutations in codons 531 and 526, most frequently found in M. tuberculosis populations regardless of geographic origin.

  9. Primary care patients' views and decisions about, experience of and reactions to direct-to-consumer genetic testing: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Katherine; Sanders, Tonya Nashay; Hogan, Nancy S; Cherny, Sara; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the decisions and perspectives of participants undergoing direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT). The aims of this study were to examine the views, attitudes and decision-making factors of primary care patients regarding DTCGT. Their experience of and reactions to testing also emerged during the study. In this longitudinal, qualitative study, 20 primary care patients participated in DTCGT and individual interviews: (1) prior to testing after the informed consent session, (2) after receiving results, (3) 3 months post-test, and (4) 12 months post-test. Interviews included open-ended questions and all transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory, constant comparison methods. Five key themes emerged from data analysis as participants underwent DTCGT and reflected on their decision over time: (1) limited concerns about DTCGT, (2) motivations for testing, (3) expectations of testing, (4) understanding of results, and (5) impact of testing and results. While a few participants expressed concerns before testing, participants were motivated to test by curiosity, gaining actionable knowledge, and altruism. Most were uncertain of what to expect from DTCGT and needed assistance in understanding results. While many reported testing had no significant impact on them, being relieved or pleased after testing was the most common emotional effect. Notably, a few participants made positive health changes in response to testing. Given the paucity of information about primary care patients and DTCGT, this study adds more in-depth information to the emerging research on how such participants' view, make decisions about, experience and react to DTCGT over time. Because uncertainty remains about the accuracy of DTCGT, the response of primary care patients to this testing requires further investigation.

  10. Achievement report for fiscal 1993 on research under Sunshine Program. Research on direct liquefaction reaction of coal; 1993 nendo sekitan no chokusetsu ekika hanno ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-01

    The reaction velocity constant of coal or the distribution of products in a high-pressure hydrocracking process of coal are found not to be affected by the temperature rise rate. The liquefaction of coal using CO and water is analyzed using a high-pressure differential thermal analyzer. The hydrogen gas generated during the water gas reaction reacts with CO for the formation of alcohols, carbonic acid, etc. The reaction rate is found to be higher when the specimen contains more oxygen. When coals greatly different from each other in terms of thermolytic reactivity, caking property, and intersolubility with medium oils are mixed, synergistic effects are exhibited, positive when active hydrogen supply is abundant and negative when it is short. In the case of the Hokkaido coal which contains 73.0-87.4% carbon, the grain diameter does not affect the liquefaction rate when the coal is crushed to the 48-mesh size approximately. Reaction velocity in direct liquefaction does not relate to hydrogen pressure. Asphaltenes in coal liquefaction are produced at the beginning of reaction, to be reduced in molecular weight due to cleavage of methylene crosslinks with the progress of reaction. Studies are conducted in a 0.1t/d-capable bench plant about liquefaction reaction characteristics and coal liquid properties, and chemical structures. (NEDO)

  11. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, Neil G.; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Isaacs, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6 1 22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of RafE, a sugar-binding lipoprotein from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Neil G., E-mail: neison@chem.gla.ac.uk; Riboldi-Tunnicliffe, Alan [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Mitchell, Timothy J. [Division of Infection and Immunity (IBLS), Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom); Isaacs, Neil W. [Department of Chemistry and WestCHEM, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre (GBRC), University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA,Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The mature form of RafE has been expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 3.65 and 2.90 Å resolution from native and selenomethionine-derivative crystals, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae contains a large number of sugar-transport systems and the system responsible for raffinose uptake has recently been identified. The substrate-binding protein component of this system shares strong sequence homology with the multiple sugar metabolism substrate-binding protein MsmE from S. mutans and contains a lipoprotein-attachment site at cysteine residue 23. A truncated form (residues 24–419) of RafE from S. pneumoniae was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Native and selenomethionine-labelled protein have been crystallized in the hexagonal space group P6{sub 1}22. Diffraction data have been successfully phased to 2.90 Å using Se SAD data and model building is in progress.

  13. Electrochemically assisted organosol method for Pt-Sn nanoparticle synthesis and in situ deposition on graphite felt support: Extended reaction zone anodes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lycke, Derek R.; Gyenge, Elod L. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-03-20

    Two electrochemically assisted variants of the Boenneman organosol method were developed for Pt-Sn nanoparticle synthesis and in situ deposition on graphite felt electrodes (e.g. thickness up to 2 mm). Tetraoctylammonium triethylhydroborate N(C{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4}BH(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3} was employed as colloid stabilizer and reductant dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF). The role of the electric field at a low deposition current density of 1.25 mA cm{sup -2} was mainly electrophoretic causing the migration and adsorption of N(C{sub 8}H{sub 17}){sub 4}BH(C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 3} on the graphite felt surface where it reduced the PtCl{sub 2}-SnCl{sub 2} mixture. Faradaic electrodeposition was detected mostly for Sn. Typical Pt-Sn loadings were between 0.4 and 0.9 mg cm{sup -2} depending on the type of pre-deposition exposure of the graphite felt: surfactant-adsorption and metal-adsorption variant, respectively. The catalyst surface area and Pt:Sn surface area ratio was determined by anodic striping of an underpotential deposited Cu monolayer. The two deposition variants gave different catalyst surfaces: total area 233 and 76 cm{sup 2} mg{sup -1}, with Pt:Sn surface area ratio of 3.5:1 and 7.7:1 for surfactant and metal adsorption, respectively. Regarding electrocatalysis of ethanol oxidation, voltammetry and chronopotentiometry studies corroborated by direct ethanol fuel cell experiments using 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as electrolyte, showed that due to a combination of higher catalyst load and Pt:Sn surface ratio, the graphite felt anodes prepared by the metal-adsorption variant gave better performance. The catalyzed graphite felt provided an extended reaction zone for ethanol electrooxidation and it gave higher catalyst mass specific peak power outputs compared to literature data obtained using gas diffusion anodes with carbon black supported Pt-Sn nanoparticles. (author)

  14. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  15. Conformational heterogeneity of the bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor HA in reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas viridis revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, J; Bibikova, M; Oesterhelt, D; Nabedryk, E

    1999-08-31

    The light-induced Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectra corresponding to the photoreduction of either the HA bacteriopheophytin electron acceptor (HA-/HA spectrum) or the QA primary quinone (QA-/QA spectrum) in photosynthetic reaction centers (RCs) of Rhodopseudomonas viridis are reported. These spectra have been compared for wild-type (WT) RCs and for two site-directed mutants in which the proposed interactions between the carbonyls on ring V of HA and the RC protein have been altered. In the mutant EQ(L104), the putative hydrogen bond between the protein and the 9-keto C=O of HA should be affected by changing Glu L104 to a Gln. In the mutant WF(M250), the van der Waals interactions between Trp M250 and the 10a-ester C=O of HA should be modified. The characteristic effects of both mutations on the FTIR spectra support the proposed interactions and allow the IR modes of the 9-keto and 10a-ester C=O of HA and HA- to be assigned. Comparison of the HA-/HA and QA-/QA spectra leads us to conclude that the QA-/QA IR signals in the spectral range above 1700 cm-1 are largely dominated by contributions from the electrostatic response of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA upon QA photoreduction. A heterogeneity in the conformation of the 10a-ester C=O mode of HA in WT RCs, leading to three distinct populations of HA, appears to be related to differences in the hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carbonyls of ring V of HA and the RC protein. The possibility that this structural heterogeneity is related to the observed multiexponential kinetics of electron transfer and the implications for primary processes are discussed. The effect of 1H/2H exchange on the QA-/QA spectra of the WT and mutant RCs shows that neither Glu L104 nor any other exchangeable carboxylic residue changes appreciably its protonation state upon QA reduction.

  16. Flavopiridol Synergizes with Sorafenib to Induce Cytotoxicity and Potentiate Antitumorigenic Activity in EGFR/HER-2 and Mutant RAS/RAF Breast Cancer Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy S Nagaria

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling through the Ras-Raf-Mek-Erk (Ras-MAPK pathway is implicated in a wide array of carcinomas, including those of the breast. The cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs are implicated in regulating proliferative and survival signaling downstream of this pathway. Here, we show that CDK inhibitors exhibit an order of magnitude greater cytotoxic potency than a suite of inhibitors targeting RTK and Ras-MAPK signaling in cell lines representative of clinically recognized breast cancer (BC subtypes. Drug combination studies show that the pan-CDK inhibitor, flavopiridol (FPD, synergistically potentiated cytotoxicity induced by the Raf inhibitor, sorafenib (SFN. This synergy was most pronounced at sub-EC50 SFN concentrations in MDA-MB-231 (KRAS-G13D and BRAF-G464V mutations, MDA-MB-468 [epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR overexpression], and SKBR3 [ErbB2/EGFR2 (HER-2 overexpression] cells but not in hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T47D cells. Potentiation of SFN cytotoxicity by FPD correlated with enhanced apoptosis, suppression of retinoblastoma (Rb signaling, and reduced Mcl-1 expression. SFN and FPD were also tested in an MDA-MB-231 mammary fat pad engraftment model of tumorigenesis. Mice treated with both drugs exhibited reduced primary tumor growth rates and metastatic tumor load in the lungs compared to treatment with either drug alone, and this correlated with greater reductions in Rb signaling and Mcl-1 expression in resected tumors. These findings support the development of CDK and Raf co-targeting strategies in EGFR/HER-2-overexpressing or RAS/RAF mutant BCs.

  17. B-Raf and CRHR1 internalization mediate biphasic ERK1/2 activation by CRH in hippocampal HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfiglio, Juan J; Inda, Carolina; Senin, Sergio; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Refojo, Damián; Giacomini, Damiana; Turck, Christoph W; Holsboer, Florian; Arzt, Eduardo; Silberstein, Susana

    2013-03-01

    CRH is a key regulator of neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral response to stress. CRH-stimulated CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates ERK1/2 depending on intracellular context. In a previous work, we demonstrated that CRH activates ERK1/2 in limbic areas of the mouse brain (hippocampus and basolateral amygdala). ERK1/2 is an essential mediator of hippocampal physiological processes including emotional behavior, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CRH activates ERK1/2 in hippocampal neurons, we used the mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. We document for the first time that ERK1/2 activation in response to CRH is biphasic, involving a first cAMP- and B-Raf-dependent early phase and a second phase that critically depends on CRHR1 internalization and β-arrestin2. By means of mass-spectrometry-based screening, we identified B-Raf-associated proteins that coimmunoprecipitate with endogenous B-Raf after CRHR1 activation. Using molecular and pharmacological tools, the functional impact of selected B-Raf partners in CRH-dependent ERK1/2 activation was dissected. These results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins, protein kinase A, and Rap1, are essential for early CRH-induced ERK1/2 activation, whereas dynamin and vimentin are required for the CRHR1 internalization-dependent phase. Both phases of ERK1/2 activation depend on calcium influx and are affected by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inactivation. Thus, this report describes the dynamics and biphasic nature of ERK1/2 activation downstream neuronal CRHR1 and identifies several new critical components of the CRHR1 signaling machinery that selectively controls the early and late phases of ERK1/2 activation, thus providing new potential therapeutic targets for stress-related disorders.

  18. Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI live birth rate in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Perrin, Jeanne; Mancini, Julien; Agostini, Aubert; Boubli, Léon; Courbiere, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    To assess the factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF live birth rate (LBR) in women with stage III and IV endometriosis according to the revised classification of the American Fertility Society (rAFS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, in our Reproductive Medicine Center. We analyzed different factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF LBR in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. A total of 101 patients were included, representing 232 IVF-ICSI cycles and 212 embryo transfers. The primary endpoint was the cumulative LBR per cycle and per patient. The cumulative LBR per cycle was 14.7% (n = 34) and that per patient was 31.7% (n = 32). The cumulative LBR was significantly decreased by active smoking [ adj OR = 3.4, 95% CI (1.12-10.60), p = 0.031], poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria [ adj OR = 11.5, 95% CI (1.37-96.83), p = 0.024], and rAFS stage IV [ adj OR = 3.2, 95% CI (1.13-8.95), p = 0.024]. The cumulative LBR per women was 59.4% without factors associated with a poor prognosis and 25.6% in the case of one factor, and it decreased to 7.7% in the case of two or three factors (p endometriosis had a negative impact on the IVF-ICSI cumulative LBR for women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. Because smoking dramatically decreases the LBR with endometriosis, stopping smoking before IVF-ICSI should be strongly advised.

  19. Direct observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water: Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR3) study of the isobromoform reaction with water to produce a CHBr2OH product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, W.M.; Zhao Cunyuan; Li Yunliang; Guan Xiangguo; Phillips, David Lee

    2004-01-01

    Picosecond time-resolved resonance Raman (ps-TR 3 ) spectroscopy was used to obtain the first definitive spectroscopic observation of an isopolyhalomethane O-H insertion reaction with water. The ps-TR 3 spectra show that isobromoform is produced within several picoseconds after photolysis of CHBr 3 and then reacts on the hundreds of picosecond time scale with water to produce a CHBr 2 OH reaction product. Photolysis of low concentrations of bromoform in aqueous solution resulted in noticeable formation of HBr strong acid. Ab initio calculations show that isobromoform can react with water to produce a CHBr 2 (OH) O-H insertion reaction product and a HBr leaving group. This is consistent with both the ps-TR 3 experiments that observe the reaction of isobromoform with water to form a CHBr 2 (OH) product and photolysis experiments that show HBr acid formation. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for the phase dependent behavior of polyhalomethane photochemistry in the gas phase versus water solvated environments

  20. Session 4: Test of a reactor for water-gas-shift reaction on a 3 kW{sub el.} scale at direct combination with auto-thermal reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasel, J.; Cremer, P.; Peters, R.; Stolten, D. [Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems (IWV 3), Julich (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The goal of the work described in this paper was to test a reactor for WGS reaction on a larger scale of approx. 3 kW{sub el.} and to demonstrate a successful direct combination of two important components of fuel processing, i.e. a combination of ATR with WGS reaction. The value for the electric power of 3 kW{sub el.} fulfils quite well the demands of a technical application of a fuel cell system if e.g. a so-called Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) is considered. An APU can be used in passenger cars, heavy duty vehicles, ships and air planes. (authors)

  1. Compositional change of some first wall materials by considering multiple step nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako; Fujita, Mitsutane [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(SUS), 9Cr-2WLi{sub 2}O/H{sub 2}O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}/He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V-SiC-RAF-SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  2. Direct characterization of phase transformations and morphologies in moving reaction zones in Al/Ni nanolaminates using dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S., E-mail: judy.kim@materials.ox.ac.uk [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chemical Engineering and Materials Science/Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); LaGrange, T.; Reed, B.W. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Knepper, R.; Weihs, T.P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Browning, N.D. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chemical Engineering and Materials Science/Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of California-Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Campbell, G.H. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > Fast phase transformations are examined in Al/Ni reactive nanolaminates. > Results visible only by dynamic transmission electron microscopy at ns resolution. > NiAl forms under 15 ns after reaction front in all three stoichiometries studied. > DTEM imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in nonequiatomic films. - Abstract: Phase transformations and transient morphologies are examined as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate across Al/Ni nanolaminate films. The rapid evolution of these phases and sub-micrometer morphological features requires nanoscale temporal and spatial resolution that is not available with traditional in situ electron microscopy. This work uses dynamic transmission electron microscopy to identify intermetallic products and phase morphologies, as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate in nanolaminate films grown with 3:2, 2:3 and 1:1 Al/Ni atomic ratios. Single-shot diffraction patterns with 15 ns temporal resolution reveal that the NiAl intermetallic forms within {approx}15 ns of the reaction front's arrival in all three types of films and is the only intermetallic phase to form, as the reactions self-propagate and quench very rapidly. Time-resolved imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in the Al-rich and Ni-rich foils, but not in the equiatomic films. The cellular features in the Al-rich and Ni-rich films are attributed to a cooling trajectory through a two-phase field of liquid + NiAl.

  3. Tetraploidy enhances boron-excess tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRuiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B toxicity responses in diploid (2x and tetraploid (4x plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf., a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport.

  4. Loss of p53 induces cell proliferation via Ras-independent activation of the Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Sum, Eleanor Y. M.; Lechuga, Carmen G.; Simón-Carrasco, Lucía; Jacob, Harrys K. C.; García-Medina, Raquel; Huang, Sidong; Beijersbergen, Roderick L.; Bernards, Rene; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    The Ras family of small GTPases constitutes a central node in the transmission of mitogenic stimuli to the cell cycle machinery. The ultimate receptor of these mitogenic signals is the retinoblastoma (Rb) family of pocket proteins, whose inactivation is a required step to license cell proliferation. However, little is known regarding the molecular events that connect Ras signaling with the cell cycle. Here, we provide genetic evidence to illustrate that the p53/p21 Cdk-interacting protein 1 (Cip1)/Rb axis is an essential component of the Ras signaling pathway. Indeed, knockdown of p53, p21Cip1, or Rb restores proliferative properties in cells arrested by ablation of the three Ras loci, H-, N- and K-Ras. Ras signaling selectively inactivates p53-mediated induction of p21Cip1 expression by inhibiting acetylation of specific lysine residues in the p53 DNA binding domain. Proliferation of cells lacking both Ras proteins and p53 can be prevented by reexpression of the human p53 ortholog, provided that it retains an active DNA binding domain and an intact lysine residue at position 164. These results unveil a previously unidentified role for p53 in preventing cell proliferation under unfavorable mitogenic conditions. Moreover, we provide evidence that cells lacking Ras and p53 proteins owe their proliferative properties to the unexpected retroactivation of the Raf/Mek/Erk cascade by a Ras-independent mechanism. PMID:25288756

  5. Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Minh Truong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Dong Hee; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment. - Highlights: • Metformin inhibits HO-1 expression in cancer cells. • Metformin attenuates Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling. • Suppression of HO-1 by metformin is independent of AMPK. • HO-1 inhibition contributes to anti-proliferative effects of metformin

  6. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo

    2016-09-09

    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Palladium-catalyzed aerobic regio- and stereo-selective olefination reactions of phenols and acrylates via direct dehydrogenative C(sp2)-O cross-coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Bin; Xie, Dan; Zang, Zhong-Lin; Zhou, Cheng-He; Cai, Gui-Xin

    2018-04-26

    An efficient olefination protocol for the oxidative dehydrogenation of phenols and acrylates has been achieved using a palladium catalyst and O2 as the sole oxidant. This reaction exhibits high regio- and stereo-selectivity (E-isomers) with moderate to excellent isolated yields and a wide substrate scope (32 examples) including ethyl vinyl ketone and endofolliculina.

  8. The novel RAF1 mutation p.(Gly361Ala) located outside the kinase domain of the CR3 region in two patients with Noonan syndrome, including one with a rare brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Frederike L; Alawi, Malik; Amor, David J; Tan, Tiong Y; Cuturilo, Goran; Lissewski, Christina; Brinkmann, Julia; Schanze, Denny; Kutsche, Kerstin; Zenker, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Noonan syndrome is characterized by typical craniofacial dysmorphism, postnatal growth retardation, congenital heart defect, and learning difficulties and belongs to the RASopathies, a group of neurodevelopmental disorders caused by germline mutations in genes encoding components of the RAS-MAPK pathway. Mutations in the RAF1 gene are associated with Noonan syndrome, with a high prevalence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). RAF1 mutations cluster in exons encoding the conserved region 2 (CR2), the kinase activation segment of the CR3 domain, and the C-terminus. We present two boys with Noonan syndrome and the identical de novo RAF1 missense variant c.1082G>C/p.(Gly361Ala) affecting the CR3, but located outside the kinase activation segment. The p.(Gly361Ala) mutation has been identified as a RAF1 allele conferring resistance to RAF inhibitors. This amino acid change favors a RAF1 conformation that allows for enhanced RAF dimerization and increased intrinsic kinase activity. Both patients with Noonan syndrome showed typical craniofacial dysmorphism, macrocephaly, and short stature. One individual developed HCM and was diagnosed with a disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumor (DOLT) of childhood at the age of 9 years. While there is a well-established association of NS with malignant tumors, especially childhood hemato-oncological diseases, brain tumors have rarely been reported in Noonan syndrome. Our data demonstrate that mutation scanning of the entire coding region of genes associated with Noonan syndrome is mandatory not to miss rare variants located outside the known mutational hotspots. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major: a comparison with direct microscopy of smears and sections from lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gaafar, A; El-Hassan, A M

    1996-01-01

    We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopi......We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed......%, respectively. The PCR should be considered as a valuable and sensitive diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis; it has the added advantage of identification of the species of Leishmania causing the lesion....

  10. Effect of reagents and medium nature on direction of cation-radical transformations in the reaction of diarylamines with nitrosonium borofluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshechko, V.G.; Inozemtsev, A.N.; Pokhodenko, V.O.

    1983-01-01

    Diphenylamine and 4, 4'-dimethoxydiphenylamine in acetonitrile are oxidized monoelectronically by NOBF 4 . On the 4, 4'-dimethoxydiphenylamine example a maximum current concentration of intermediate cation-radicals formed in this reaction is measured. Cation-radicals in acetonitrile get dimeric transforming into products of oxidizing condensation of amines, with no respective nitrozamines being observed. Nitrosamines production on through cation-radical-NO recombination is realized but in the presence of protonoacceptor solvents, in particular pyridine

  11. The direct asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction of furanones with α-ketoesters: Access to chiral γ-Butenolides and glycerol derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie; Wang, Haifei; Han, Xiao; Xu, Liwen; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lu, Yixin

    2011-01-01

    Twice as good: The title reaction using the tryptophan-derived bifunctional organic catalyst 1 has been developed. The reported method led to the synthesis of chiral γ-substituted butenolides in excellent yields, with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Facile synthesis of chiral glycerol derivatives containing a tertiary hydroxy group has also been demonstrated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The direct asymmetric vinylogous aldol reaction of furanones with α-ketoesters: Access to chiral γ-Butenolides and glycerol derivatives

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Jie

    2011-01-11

    Twice as good: The title reaction using the tryptophan-derived bifunctional organic catalyst 1 has been developed. The reported method led to the synthesis of chiral γ-substituted butenolides in excellent yields, with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Facile synthesis of chiral glycerol derivatives containing a tertiary hydroxy group has also been demonstrated. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. DA-Raf-Mediated Suppression of the Ras--ERK Pathway Is Essential for TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Alveolar Epithelial Type 2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Takano, Kazunori; Hatano, Masahiko; Tokuhisa, Takeshi; Endo, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Myofibroblasts play critical roles in the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by depositing components of extracellular matrix. One source of lung myofibroblasts is thought to be alveolar epithelial type 2 cells that undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Rat RLE-6TN alveolar epithelial type 2 cells treated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) are converted into myofibroblasts through EMT. TGF-β induces both canonical Smad signaling and non-canonical signaling, including the Ras-induced ERK pathway (Raf-MEK-ERK). However, the signaling mechanisms regulating TGF-β1-induced EMT are not fully understood. Here, we show that the Ras-ERK pathway negatively regulates TGF-β1-induced EMT in RLE-6TN cells and that DA-Raf1 (DA-Raf), a splicing isoform of A-Raf and a dominant-negative antagonist of the Ras-ERK pathway, plays an essential role in EMT. Stimulation of the cells with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which activated the ERK pathway, prominently suppressed TGF-β1-induced EMT. An inhibitor of MEK, but not an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, rescued the TGF-β1-treated cells from the suppression of EMT by FGF2. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of a component of the Ras-ERK pathway, i.e., H-Ras, B-Raf, or MEK1, interfered with EMT. Knockdown of DA-Raf expression with siRNAs facilitated the activity of MEK and ERK, which were only weakly and transiently activated by TGF-β1. Although DA-Raf knockdown abrogated TGF-β1-induced EMT, the abrogation of EMT was reversed by the addition of the MEK inhibitor. Furthermore, DA-Raf knockdown impaired the TGF-β1-induced nuclear translocation of Smad2, which mediates the transcription required for EMT. These results imply that intrinsic DA-Raf exerts essential functions for EMT by antagonizing the TGF-β1-induced Ras-ERK pathway in RLE-6TN cells.

  14. Association between raf kinase inhibitor protein loss and prognosis in cancers of the digestive system: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Qian; Ding, Jiang-Wu; Yang, Zhen; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) may contribute to metastasis in a variety of human cancers. Many studies have evaluated whether loss of RKIP expression is a prognostic factor for survival in cancers of the digestive system, however, its predictive value remains controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to obtain a more comprehensive estimate of the prognostic value of RKIP expression in digestive system cancers. Studies were identified by searching multiple electronic databases through December 12, 2013, and by reviewing reference lists of obtained articles. Studies reported hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between RKIP and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in cancers of the digestive system were eligible, including esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer. Nineteen studies involving approximately 3700 participants were included in the final analysis. The pooled results suggested that loss of RKIP expression was associated with unfavorable OS (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.46-0.65) and DFS (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.30-0.62) among patients with digestive system cancers, whereas the difference was not statistically significant in pancreatic cancer specifically (OS, HR 0.76; 95% CI 0.51-1.01; DFS, HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.28-1.13). Loss of RKIP expression might be an independent indicator of poor prognosis in patients with digestive tract cancers, which includes esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. More studies are needed to further clarify the prognostic value of RKIP in pancreatic cancer. Future studies, preferably large prospective studies utilizing formal marker assessment processes, are needed to establish the prognostic value of RKIP before these results can be clinically applied.

  15. Microsatellite instability and B-type Raf proto-oncogene mutation in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Batur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of MSI was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3% patients. Female gender (p = 0.001, lesion size ≥5 cm (p = 0.013, Crohn-like response (p = 0.035, and right-sided localization (p < 0.001 were significantly more frequent among MMR-deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1 ± 5.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.7-54.4. Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: odd ratio, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7, p = 0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n = 30, a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7 ± 2.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.2 months, p = 0.048. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5% and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%, respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted.

  16. Tetraploidy Enhances Boron-Excess Tolerance in Carrizo Citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta; Quiñones, Ana; Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Aleza, Pablo; Morillon, Raphaël; Navarro, Luis; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus

    2016-01-01

    Tetraploidy modifies root anatomy which may lead to differentiated capacity to uptake and transport mineral elements. This work provides insights into physiological and molecular characters involved in boron (B) toxicity responses in diploid (2x) and tetraploid (4x) plants of Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.), a widely used citrus rootstock. With B excess, 2x plants accumulated more B in leaves than 4x plants, which accounted for their higher B uptake and root-to-shoot transport rates. Ploidy did not modify the expression of membrane transporters NIP5 and BOR1 in roots. The cellular allocation of B excess differed between ploidy levels in the soluble fraction, which was lower in 4x leaves, while cell wall-linked B was similar in 2x and 4x genotypes. This correlates with the increased damage and stunted growth recorded in the 2x plants. The 4x roots were found to have fewer root tips, shorter specific root length, longer diameter, thicker exodermis and earlier tissue maturation in root tips, where the Casparian strip was detected at a shorter distance from the root apex than in the 2x roots. The results presented herein suggest that the root anatomical characters of the 4x plants play a key role in their lower B uptake capacity and root-to-shoot transport. Tetraploidy enhances B excess tolerance in citrange CarrizoExpression of NIP5 and BOR1 transporters and cell wall-bounded B are similar between ploidiesB tolerance is attributed to root anatomical modifications induced by genome duplicationThe rootstock 4x citrange carrizo may prevent citrus trees from B excess.

  17. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, December 1, 1981-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.B.; Rao, V.S.; Wood, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This is the seventh annual progress report on this project. During the period covered by the first six reports (June 1976 through December 1980) a shock tube and optical systems to measure H, D and O atom concentrations were built and fully characterized. The performance of our microwave discharge lamps were defined by numerous high-resolution spectroscopic profiles, while empirical calibrations were also made for all three of the above species. H, D and O atom concentrations were measured in gas mixtures containing H 2 , D 2 , O 2 , CD 4 , C 2 H 6 , C 2 D 6 , C 3 H 8 and C 3 D 8 in various proportions, and rate constants of several elementary reactions were deduced from the data. During the period covered by this report (December 1, 1981 to December 31, 1982) we have made kinetic modelling calculations to correlate H, D and O atom concentrations measured in shock-heated mixtures of C 2 H 6 -O 2 -Ar, C 2 D 6 -O 2 -Ar, C 3 H 8 -O 2 -Ar and C 3 D 8 -O 2 -Ar. These computations are difficult because there are several reactions for which rate constants are not known, so that it is necessary to do many calculations to completely optimize the results. Consequently, work is still going on with these calculations. We have completed an extensive series of measurements of H and D atom concentrations in pyrolysis experiments of benzene, toluene and neopentane and deuterium analogs, that have led to rate constants for the initial dissociation of these compounds, and for the reaction of H atoms with benzene and toluene

  18. Interfacial redox reaction-directed synthesis of silver@cerium oxide core-shell nanocomposites as catalysts for rechargeable lithium-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Man; Cao, Lu-Jie; Yang, Ming-Yang; Ho-Sum Cheng, Samson; Cao, Chen-Wei; Leung, Kwan-Lan; Chung, Chi-Yuen; Lu, Zhou-Guang

    2015-07-01

    A facile oxidation-reduction reaction method has been implemented to prepare pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites. Under Ar atmosphere, redox reaction automatically occurs between AgNO3 and Ce(NO3)3 in an alkaline solution, where Ag+ is reduced to Ag nanopartilces and Ce3+ is simultaneously oxidized to form CeO2, followed by the self-assembly to form the pomegranate-like multicore-shell structured Ag@CeO2 nanocomposites driven by thermodynamic equilibrium. No other organic amines or surfactants are utilized in the whole reaction system and only NaOH instead of organic reducing agent is used to prevent the introduction of a secondary reducing byproduct. The as-obtained pomegranate-like Ag@CeO2 multicore-shell structured nanocomposites have been characterized as electro-catalysts for the air cathode of lithium-air batteries operated in a simulated air environment. Superior electrochemical performance with high discharge capacity of 3415 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1, stable cycling and small charge/discharge polarization voltage is achieved, which is much better than that of the CeO2 or simple mixture of CeO2 and Ag. The enhanced properties can be primarily attributed to the synergy effect between the Ag core and the CeO2 shell resulting from the unique pomegranate-like multicore-shell nanostructures possessing plenty of active sites to promote the facile formation and decomposition of Li2O2.

  19. Directed ortho metalation-based methodology. Halo-, nitroso-, and boro-induced ipso-desilylation. Link to an in situ Suzuki reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongdong; Snieckus, Victor

    2005-06-23

    [reaction: see text] Treatment of DoM-derived silylated aromatics 2-4 under standard electrophilic halogenation conditions cleanly affords ipso-desilyation products 5-7, while nitration of methoxy-substituted analogues 8, 9 leads to non-ipso isomers 10, 12 and 11, 13, controlled by a silicon steric effect. Sequential ipso-borodesilylation of 2a, 3a, and 20 followed by treatment with aryl halides under Pd-catalyzed conditions constitutes an in situ Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling protocol to biaryls and heterobiaryls 23.

  20. Combining two-directional synthesis and tandem reactions. Part 21: Exploitation of a dimeric macrocycle for chain terminus differentiation and synthesis of an sp(3)-rich library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Thomas E; Cully, Sarah J; Rawling, Michael J; Lewis, William; Hamza, Daniel; Jones, Geraint; Stockman, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    The application of a tandem condensation/cyclisation/[3+2]-cycloaddition/elimination reaction gives an sp(3)-rich tricyclic pyrazoline scaffold with two ethyl esters in a single step from a simple linear starting material. The successive hydrolysis and cyclisation (with Boc anhydride) of these 3-dimensional architectures, generates unprecedented 16-membered macrocyclic bisanhydrides (characterised by XRD). Selective amidations could then be achieved by ring opening with a primary amine followed by HATU-promoted amide coupling to yield an sp(3)-rich natural product-like library. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RAF 7014: Applying Nuclear Analytical Techniques to Support Harmful Algal Bloom Management in the Context of Climate and Environmental Change, Phase II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuku, E.; Mwangi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Saxitoxins tend to inhibit/block voltage-gated sodium channels thus cause numbness of lips and fingertips, loss of coordination, drowsiness, incoherence, paralysis and death of shellfish and pufferfish. The Domoic acid: stimulates glutamate receptors causes nausea, vomiting, loss of coordination, short-term memory loss, seizure and finally death of shellfish. The proposed projects of RAF 7014 aims to increased socio-economic benefits and revenue generation from coastal zones that Safe seafood for local and international markets,Safe recreational and drinking water. For Sustainability, the project activities has been mainstreamed into KMFRI activities, Reaching out to the industry for collaboration, and having Training and mentorship programs

  2. Direct mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR) test in semen at follow-up after testicular biopsy of maldescended testes operated in puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Brandt, B; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens

    1990-01-01

    In thirty patients bilateral orchiopexy was performed in puberty. At the operation twenty-five patients underwent bilateral testicular biopsies, and five patients underwent unilateral biopsies only. In adulthood the semen was analysed for antisperm antibodies by the direct mixed antiglobulin reac...

  3. Use of FTA elute card impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly into the amplification reaction increases the detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla R; Franciscatto, Laura G; Barcellos, Regina B; Almeida, Sabrina E M; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of the FTA elute card(TM) impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly in the PCR amplification for detection of HPV-DNA. The results were compared to a reference technique. This method was more efficient than the protocol indicated by the manufacturer, identifying 91.7% against 54.2% of the positive samples.

  4. Use of FTA elute card impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly into the amplification reaction increases the detection of human papillomavirus DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Carla R.; Franciscatto, Laura G.; Barcellos, Regina B.; Almeida, Sabrina E. M; Rossetti, Maria Lucia R.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of the FTA elute cardTM impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly in the PCR amplification for detection of HPV-DNA. The results were compared to a reference technique. This method was more efficient than the protocol indicated by the manufacturer, identifying 91.7% against 54.2% of the positive samples.

  5. Use of FTA elute card impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly into the amplification reaction increases the detection of human papillomavirus DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of the FTA elute cardTM impregnated with cervicovaginal sample directly in the PCR amplification for detection of HPV-DNA. The results were compared to a reference technique. This method was more efficient than the protocol indicated by the manufacturer, identifying 91.7% against 54.2% of the positive samples.

  6. Production of the charmonium states in the direct channel of pantip annihilation and description of a new experimental method. Exclusive reactions pantip#-> #e+e-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brom, J.M.

    1985-06-01

    The experiment R704 at the CERN Intersecting Storages Rings (ISR) utilised a completely new technique for charmonium spectroscopy, using a cooled antiprotons beam in collision with protons of a dense, molecular H 2 ''jet target''. ISR operations, jet target and experimental apparatus are described. Observation of the reaction pantip#-> #J/Ψ#-> #e + e - (193 evts for an integrated luminosity of 141 nb -1 ) and estimation of the J/Ψ mass using the beam parameters (3096.95±0.1±0.27 MeV) are used to test the method, the energy calibration and the reproductibility of the ISR. From these results, a very good precision of ± 300 KeV is expected in the later results on J PC ≠ 1 -- states. In addition, we give new upper limits for the magnetic form factor of the proton at high transfer [fr

  7. New process of the preparation of catalyzed gas diffusion electrode for PEM fuel cells based on ultrasonic direct solution spray reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, K.; Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a newly developed process for in-situ catalyst deposition on gas diffusion electrodes (GDE) for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. This process has the potential to reduce the number of steps for catalyzed GDE fabrication. In addition, the process offers economic advantages for the fuel cell commercialization. In this study, a home-made catalyst maker with ultrasonic spray method was used to prepare a solution of the carbon supported platinum catalyst on the GDL. The sprayed catalyst powder consisted of carbon support. The catalyst particles did not prevent gas flow channels on the GDL. The catalyst layer was shown to be located only on the top surface of the GDL and was not packed into its flow channel. Results of Cross-section SEM image, crystallization, micro structure and electro-catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction were also discussed. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  8. Direct Determination of the Rate Coefficient for the Reaction of OH Radicals with Monoethanol Amine (MEA) from 296 to 510 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onel, L; Blitz, M A; Seakins, P W

    2012-04-05

    Monoethanol amine (H2NCH2CH2OH, MEA) has been proposed for large-scale use in carbon capture and storage. We present the first absolute, temperature-dependent determination of the rate coefficient for the reaction of OH with MEA using laser flash photolysis for OH generation, monitoring OH removal by laser-induced fluorescence. The room-temperature rate coefficient is determined to be (7.61 ± 0.76) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and the rate coefficient decreases by about 40% by 510 K. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1= (7.73 ± 0.24) × 10(-11)(T/295)(-(0.79±0.11)) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The high rate coefficient shows that gas-phase processing in the atmosphere will be competitive with uptake onto aerosols.

  9. Sorafenib paradoxically activates the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway in polyclonal human NK cells during expansion and thereby enhances effector functions in a dose- and time-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeyer, J; Nerreter, T; Dotterweich, J; Einsele, H; Seggewiss-Bernhardt, R

    2018-03-24

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a major role in host immunity against leukaemia and lymphoma. However, clinical trials applying NK cells have not been as efficient as hoped for. Patients treated with rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (RAF) inhibitors exhibit increased tumour infiltration by immune cells, suggesting that a combination of RAF inhibitors with immunotherapy might be beneficial. As mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (CRAF) regulate NK cell functions, we performed an in-vitro investigation on the potential of clinically relevant short-acting tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) as potential adjuvants for NK cell therapy: NK cells from healthy human blood donors were thus treated with sorafenib, sunitinib or the pan-RAF inhibitor ZM336372 during ex-vivo expansion. Functional outcomes assessed after washout of the drugs included cytokine production, degranulation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction and signal transduction with/without target cell contact. Paradoxically, sorafenib enhanced NK cell effector functions in a time- and dose-dependent manner by raising the steady-state activation level. Of note, this did not lead to NK cell exhaustion, but enhanced activity against target cells such as K562 or Daudis mediated via the RAS/RAF/extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, but not via protein kinase B (AKT). Our data will pave the path to develop a rationale for the considered use of RAF inhibitors such as sorafenib for pre-activation in NK cell-based adoptive immune therapy. © 2018 British Society for Immunology.

  10. Analysis of the /sup 27/Al(p,. gamma. )/sup 28/Si reaction at subbarrier energies in terms of the direct-semidirect model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kicinska-Habior, M; Decowski, P; Dabrowska, M; Grochulski, W; Jaracz, P; Matulewicz, T; Sikora, B; Toke, J; Somorjai, E

    1983-06-01

    Differential cross sections for ..gamma..-transitions to 12 states in /sup 28/Si following nonresonant proton capture in /sup 27/Al nuclei (Esub(p)=1.625 keV) were measured and analysed in terms of the direct-semidirect model. The experimental data ar reproduced only when the complex coupling constant with the GDR is enhanced for the f partial wave in the entrance channel.

  11. Direct determination of atom and radical concentrations in thermal reactions of hydrocarbons and other gases. Progress report, January 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, G.B.; Lifshitz, A.; Wood, D.R.; Chiang, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    This is a second annual progress report on this project. The period covered by the first report (June through December, 1976) was devoted to building and testing a shock tube and an optical system to be used to measure H and D atom concentrations. During 1977 this apparatus was completed and used. The performance of our microwave discharge lamps was characterized by numerous high-resolution spectroscopic profiles, so that the shapes of the Lyman-alpha lines produced under various operating conditions are now quite well-known. Measurements of H or D atom concentrations in shock-heated mixtures of D 2 -N 2 O-Ar, D 2 -O 2 -Ar and H 2 -O 2 -Ar have been made. During the balance of the contract year (January 1 through May 31, 1978) measurements of H or D atom concentrations in shock-heated mixtures of CD 4 -Ar, C 8 H 18 (2,2,3,3, tetramethyl butane)-Ar, C 8 H 18 -CH 4 -Ar, C 3 H 8 -Ar and C 3 H 8 -CH 4 -Ar will be made, and kinetic data on reactions of H and D atoms deduced from the experimental results

  12. Direct sampling of sub-µm atmospheric particulate organic matter in sub-ng m-3 mass concentrations by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armin, W.; Mueller, M.; Klinger, A.; Striednig, M.

    2017-12-01

    A quantitative characterization of the organic fraction of atmospheric particulate matter is still challenging. Herein we present the novel modular "Chemical Analysis of Aerosol Online" (CHARON) particle inlet system coupled to a new-generation proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF 6000 X2, Ionicon Analytik, Austria) that quantitatively detects organic analytes in real-time and sub-pptV levels by chemical ionization with hydronium reagent ions. CHARON consists of a gas-phase denuder for stripping off gas-phase analytes (efficiency > 99.999%), an aerodynamic lens for particle collimation combined with an inertial sampler for the particle-enriched flow and a thermodesorption unit for particle volatilization prior to chemical analysis. With typical particle enrichment factors of around 30 for particle diameters (DP) between 120 nm and 1000 nm (somewhat reduced enrichment for 60 nm 6000) and excellent mass accuracies (< 10 ppm) chemical compositions can be assigned and included in further analyses. In addition to a detailed characterization of the CHARON PTR-TOF 6000 X2 we will present first results on the chemical composition of sub-µm particulate organic matter in the urban atmosphere in Innsbruck (Austria).

  13. Noncanonical Reactions of Flavoenzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Sobrado

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes containing flavin cofactors are predominantly involved in redox reactions in numerous cellular processes where the protein environment modulates the chemical reactivity of the flavin to either transfer one or two electrons. Some flavoenzymes catalyze reactions with no net redox change. In these reactions, the protein environment modulates the reactivity of the flavin to perform novel chemistries. Recent mechanistic and structural data supporting novel flavin functionalities in reactions catalyzed by chorismate synthase, type II isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, UDP-galactopyranose mutase, and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase are presented in this review. In these enzymes, the flavin plays either a direct role in acid/base reactions or as a nucleophile or electrophile. In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a “molecular scaffold” in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates.

  14. Notification of suspected and unexpected serious adverse reactions according to the Clinical Trials Directive - A descriptive analysis of the legislation and the requirements in a European context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Grarup, Jesper; Gey, Daniela Christine

    2010-01-01

    The European Clinical Trials Directive (CTD) came into force on May 1st 2004. The CTD provides the legal basis for monitoring the safety of clinical trials and covers the requirements for notification of SUSAR. Implementation of the CTD into national legislation in each Member State has resulted...... in various interpretations of CTD requirements. The objective of this paper is to investigate how the European Member States administer the safety reporting requirements of the CTD and to clarify the requirements for SUSAR notification in the different Member States. Data was collected through publicly...

  15. Synthesis and characterization of (zinc-layered hydroxide-hippurate) nano hybrid by direct reaction of zinc oxide under aqueous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Samer Hasan Al Ali; Zulkarnain Zainal

    2011-01-01

    A new method for synthesis of hippurate nano hybrid has been developed. In this method, zinc oxide was added directly into aqueous solution of hippurate anions (A - ). The resulting hippurate nano hybrid (HAN) is composed of the organic moieties sandwiched between zinc layered hydroxide (ZLH) inorganic interlayers. HAN synthesized using 0.2 M hippuric acid showed the best crystallinity compared to other samples synthesized in this work. X-ray powder diffraction shows the basal spacing of the HAN was 21.3 Angstrom indicating that the monolayer of A - was arranged vertically to the ZLH interlayers. (author)

  16. Kinetic method of ruthenium ion traces determination, basing on the reaction of oxidation of direct blue 6B, by means of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwinska, T.; Gregorowicz, A.; Matysek-Majewska, D.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method of determination of ruthenium ion traces (1.10 - 3 μg/cm 3 ) has been worked out. The method is based on oxidation of direct blue 6B by hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions at pH = 0,8 - 1,2 in the presence of ruthenium ions as catalyst. The method has been applied for determination of ruthenium traces in Pt, PdCl 2 , PtCl 4 and RhCl 3 .n H 2 O. In these materials ruthenium has been determined within the range of 1,10 - 2 % - 5,10 - 4 %. (author)

  17. Combining two-directional synthesis and tandem reactions, part 11: second generation syntheses of (±-hippodamine and (±-epi-hippodamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcaraz Marie-Lyne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hippodamine is a volatile defence alkaloid isolated from ladybird beetles which holds potential as an agrochemical agent and was the subject of a synthesis by our group in 2005. Results Two enhancements to our previous syntheses of (±-hippodamine and (±-epi-hippodamine are presented which are able to shorten the syntheses by up to two steps. Conclusion Key advances include a two-directional homologation by cross metathesis and a new tandem reductive amination/double intramolecular Michael addition which generates 6 new bonds, 2 stereogenic centres and two rings, giving a single diastereomer in 74% yield.

  18. An exploratory study of adolescent female reactions to direct-to-consumer advertising: the case of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Amy E; Cashman, Rebecca; Voytek, Chelsea D; Baker, Jillian L; Brawner, Bridgette M; Frank, Ian

    2011-10-01

    When the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was approved in 2006, an extensive direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising campaign raised awareness and promoted vaccination. This study explores adolescents' exposure to and understanding of the messages in these advertisements. Sixty-seven African American females participated in a focus group about DTC advertising for the HPV vaccine. Virtually all adolescents had seen an HPV vaccine DTC advertisement, but most did not understand the health information contained in it. If DTC advertising is to be an effective source of health information for adolescents in the future, it must take into account the unique features of an adolescent audience.

  19. The PreS2 activator MHBs(t) of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-02-15

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBs(t)) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBs(t) activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBs(t) is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBs(t) triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBs(t)-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBs(t) specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBs(t) exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control.

  20. The PreS2 activator MHBst of hepatitis B virus activates c-raf-1/Erk2 signaling in transgenic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildt, Eberhard; Munz, Barbara; Saher, Gesine; Reifenberg, Kurt; Hofschneider, Peter Hans

    2002-01-01

    The large hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface protein (LHBs) and C-terminally truncated middle size surface proteins (MHBst) form the family of the PreS2 activator proteins of HBV. Their transcriptional activator function is based on the cytoplasmic orientation of the PreS2 domain. MHBst activators are paradigmatic for this class of activators. Here we report that MHBst is protein kinase C (PKC)-dependently phosphorylated at Ser28. The integrity of the phosphorylation site is essential for the activator function. MHBst triggers PKC-dependent activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling that is a prerequisite for MHBst-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. To analyze the pathophysiological relevance of these data in vivo, transgenic mice were established that produce the PreS2 activator MHBst specifically in the liver. In these mice, a permanent PreS2-dependent specific activation of c-Raf-1/Erk2 signaling was observed, resulting in an increased hepatocyte proliferation rate. In transgenics older than 15 months, an increased incidence of liver tumors occurs. These data suggest that PreS2 activators LHBs and MHBst exert a tumor promoter-like function by activation of key enzymes of proliferation control. PMID:11847101

  1. The C-type lectin OCILRP2 costimulates EL4 T cell activation via the DAP12-Raf-MAP kinase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Guangchao; Ma, Yuanfang

    2014-01-01

    OCILRP2 is a typical Type-II transmembrane protein that is selectively expressed in activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and B cells and functions as a novel co-stimulator of T cell activation. However, the signaling pathways underlying OCILRP2 in T cell activation are still not completely understood. In this study, we found that the knockdown of OCILRP2 expression with shRNA or the blockage of its activity by an anti-OCILRP2 antagonist antibody reduced CD3/CD28-costimulated EL4 T cell viability and IL-2 production, inhibit Raf1, MAPK3, and MAPK8 activation, and impair NFAT and NF-κB transcriptional activities. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results indicated that OCILRP2 could interact with the DAP12 protein, an adaptor containing an intracellular ITAM motif that can transduce signals to induce MAP kinase activation for T cell activation. Our data reveal that after binding with DAP12, OCILRP2 activates the Raf-MAP kinase pathways, resulting in T cell activation.

  2. The C-type lectin OCILRP2 costimulates EL4 T cell activation via the DAP12-Raf-MAP kinase pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Lou

    Full Text Available OCILRP2 is a typical Type-II transmembrane protein that is selectively expressed in activated T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and B cells and functions as a novel co-stimulator of T cell activation. However, the signaling pathways underlying OCILRP2 in T cell activation are still not completely understood. In this study, we found that the knockdown of OCILRP2 expression with shRNA or the blockage of its activity by an anti-OCILRP2 antagonist antibody reduced CD3/CD28-costimulated EL4 T cell viability and IL-2 production, inhibit Raf1, MAPK3, and MAPK8 activation, and impair NFAT and NF-κB transcriptional activities. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation results indicated that OCILRP2 could interact with the DAP12 protein, an adaptor containing an intracellular ITAM motif that can transduce signals to induce MAP kinase activation for T cell activation. Our data reveal that after binding with DAP12, OCILRP2 activates the Raf-MAP kinase pathways, resulting in T cell activation.

  3. Direct measurements of rate constants for the reactions of CH3 radicals with C2H6, C2H4, and C2H2 at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peukert, S L; Labbe, N J; Sivaramakrishnan, R; Michael, J V

    2013-10-10

    The shock tube technique has been used to study the reactions CH3 + C2H6 → C2H4 + CH4 + H (1), CH3 + C2H4 → Products + H (2), and CH3 + C2H2 → Products + H (3). Biacetyl, (CH3CO)2, was used as a clean high temperature thermal source for CH3-radicals for all the three reactions studied in this work. For reaction 1, the experiments span a T-range of 1153 K ≤ T ≤ 1297 K, at P ~ 0.4 bar. The experiments on reaction 2 cover a T-range of 1176 K ≤ T ≤ 1366 K, at P ~ 1.0 bar, and those on reaction 3 a T-range of 1127 K ≤ T ≤ 1346 K, at P ~ 1.0 bar. Reflected shock tube experiments performed on reactions 1-3, monitored the formation of H-atoms with H-atom Atomic Resonance Absorption Spectrometric (ARAS). Fits to the H-atom temporal profiles using an assembled kinetics model were used to make determinations for k1, k2, and k3. In the case of C2H6, the measurements of [H]-atoms were used to derive direct high-temperature rate constants, k1, that can be represented by the Arrhenius equation k1(T) = 5.41 × 10(-12) exp(-6043 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1153 K ≤ T ≤ 1297 K) for the only bimolecular process that occurs, H-atom abstraction. TST calculations based on ab initio properties calculated at the CCSD(T)/CBS//M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory show excellent agreement, within ±20%, of the measured rate constants. For the reaction of CH3 with C2H4, the present rate constant results, k2', refer to the sum of rate constants, k(2b) + k(2c), from two competing processes, addition-elimination, and the direct abstraction CH3 + C2H4 → C3H6 + H (2b) and CH3 + C2H4 → C2H2 + H + CH4 (2c). Experimental rate constants for k2' can be represented by the Arrhenius equation k2'(T) = 2.18 × 10(-10) exp(-11830 K/T) cm(3) molecules(-1) s(-1) (1176 K ≤ T ≤ 1366 K). The present results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical predictions. The present study provides the only direct measurement for the high-temperature rate constants for these channels

  4. Soil pretreatment and fast cell lysis for direct polymerase chain reaction from forest soils for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of fungal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Abstract Humic substances in soil DNA samples can influence the assessment of microbial diversity and community composition. Using multiple steps during or after cell lysis adds expenses, is time-consuming, and causes DNA loss. A pretreatment of soil samples and a single step DNA extraction may improve experimental results. In order to optimize a protocol for obtaining high purity DNA from soil microbiota, five prewashing agents were compared in terms of their efficiency and effectiveness in removing soil contaminants. Residual contaminants were precipitated by adding 0.6 mL of 0.5 M CaCl2. Four cell lysis methods were applied to test their compatibility with the pretreatment (prewashing + Ca2+ flocculation and to ultimately identify the optimal cell lysis method for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils. The results showed that pretreatment with TNP + Triton X-100 + skim milk (100 mM Tris, 100 mM Na4P2O7, 1% polyvinylpyrrolidone, 100 mM NaCl, 0.05% Triton X-100, 4% skim milk, pH 10.0 removed most soil humic contaminants. When the pretreatment was combined with Ca2+ flocculation, the purity of all soil DNA samples was further improved. DNA samples obtained by the fast glass bead-beating method (MethodFGB had the highest purity. The resulting DNA was successfully used, without further purification steps, as a template for polymerase chain reaction targeting fungal internal transcribed spacer regions. The results obtained by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated that the MethodFGB revealed greater fungal diversity and more distinctive community structure compared with the other methods tested. Our study provides a protocol for fungal cell lysis in soil, which is fast, convenient, and effective for analyzing fungal communities in forest soils.

  5. Complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) study of N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2}O reaction paths on D{sub 1} and D{sub 0} potential energy surfaces: Direct and roaming pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Maeda, Satoshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Morokuma, Keiji, E-mail: morokuma@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We report reaction paths starting from N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2}O for doublet spin states, D{sub 0} and D{sub 1}. The potential energy surfaces are explored in an automated fashion using the global reaction route mapping strategy. The critical points and reaction paths have been fully optimized at the complete active space second order perturbation theory level taking all valence electrons in the active space. In addition to direct dissociation pathways that would be dominant, three roaming processes, two roaming dissociation, and one roaming isomerization: (1) H{sub 2}ON → H–O(H)N → H–HON → NO({sup 2}Π) + H{sub 2}, (2) cis-HNOH → HNO–H → H–HNO → NO + H{sub 2}, (3) H{sub 2}NO → H–HNO → HNO–H → trans-HNOH, are confirmed on the D{sub 0} surface.

  6. Self-Rated Attentiveness Interacts with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Noise Stimulation in Reaction Time in a Go/No-Go Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikström, Sverker; Jürgensen, Anna-Maria; Haghighi, Maryam; Månsson, Daniel; Smidelik, David; Habekost, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found that stimulating inattentive people with auditory white noise induces enhancement in cognitive performance. This enhancement is believed to occur due to a statistical phenomenon called stochastic resonance, where noise increases the probability of a signal passing the firing threshold in the neural cells. Here we investigate whether people with low attentiveness benefit to a larger extent than attentive people from stimulation by auditory white noise and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). The results show, for both auditory noise and tDCS stimulation, that the changes in performance relative to nonstimulation correlate with the degree of attentiveness in a Go/No-Go task, but not in a N-back task. These results suggest that the benefit of tDCS may interact with inattentiveness.

  7. RAF and SOF Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    must continue efforts to change the Service’s cultural perspective on the AC-RC dynamic. Far too much parochialism exists with the net effect of...based on their ability to operate independently. These leaders must think creatively and solve problems, all within the legal, moral and ethical

  8. Essential Roles of Raf/Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway, YY1, and Ca2+ Influx in Growth Arrest of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by Bilirubin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckius, Marlon; Erat, Anna; Fujikawa, Tatsuya; Hiromura, Makoto; Koulova, Anna; Otterbein, Leo; Bianchi, Cesario; Tobiasch, Edda; Dagon, Yossi; Sellke, Frank W.; Usheva, Anny

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway and the cellular Raf and cyclin D1 content that results in retinoblastoma protein hypophosphorylation on amino acids S608 and S780. These events impede the release of YY1 to the nuclei and its availability to regulate the expression of genes and to support cellular proliferation. Moreover, altered calcium influx and calpain II protease activation leads to proteolytical degradation of transcription factor YY1. We conclude that in the serum-stimulated human vascular smooth muscle primary cell cultures, bilirubin favors growth arrest, and we propose that this activity is regulated by its interaction with the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway, effect on cyclin D1 and Raf content, altered retinoblastoma protein profile of hypophosphorylation, calcium influx, and YY1 proteolysis. We propose that these activities together culminate in diminished 5 S and 45 S ribosomal RNA synthesis and cell growth arrest. The observations provide important mechanistic insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition of human vascular smooth muscle cells from proliferative to contractile phenotype and the role of bilirubin in this transition. PMID:22262839

  9. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niluka Gunawardhana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF, and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori-induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori-related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  10. Helicobacter pylori-Induced HB-EGF Upregulates Gastrin Expression via the EGF Receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and Erk2 in the MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardhana, Niluka; Jang, Sungil; Choi, Yun Hui; Hong, Youngmin A; Jeon, Yeong-Eui; Kim, Aeryun; Su, Hanfu; Kim, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Merrell, D Scott; Kim, Jinmoon; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with hypergastrinemia, which has been linked to the development of gastric diseases. Although the molecular mechanism is not fully understood, H. pylori is known to modulate the Erk pathway for induction of gastrin expression. Herein we found that an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor kinase inhibitor significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting involvement of EGF receptor ligands. Indeed, H. pylori induced mRNA expression of EGF family members such as amphiregulin, EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor-α. Of these, specific siRNA targeting of HB-EGF significantly blocked H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Moreover, H. pylori induced HB-EGF ectodomain shedding, which we found to be a critical process for H. pylori -induced gastrin expression. Thus, we demonstrate a novel role for human mature HB-EGF in stimulating gastrin promoter activity during H. pylori infection. Further investigation using specific siRNAs targeting each isoform of Raf, Mek, and Erk elucidated that the mechanism underlying H. pylori -induced gastrin expression can be delineated as the sequential activation of HB-EGF, the EGF receptor, C-Raf, Mek1, and the Erk2 molecules in the MAPK pathway. Surprisingly, whereas Erk2 acts as a potent activator of gastrin expression, siRNA knockdown of Erk1 induced gastrin promoter activity, suggesting that Erk1 typically acts as a repressor of gastrin expression. Elucidation of the mechanism of gastrin modulation by HB-EGF-mediated EGF receptor transactivation should facilitate the development of therapeutic strategies against H. pylori -related hypergastrinemia and consequently gastric disease development, including gastric cancers.

  11. The search for a main cause of uncertainty of the calculated astrophysical S factor for the direct radiative capture d(α, γ)6Li reaction at stellar energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Igamov, S.B.; Nishonov, M.M.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: It is well known that the d( α,γ ) 6 Li reaction is one of the sources of the 6 Li production in the Big Bang nucleosynthesis. At the present time rather large uncertainties exist in the prediction of the rate of this reaction, which are mainly due to the absence both of the reliable experimental cross section (or the astrophysical S factor, S(E)) and of the theoretical calculations at extremely low energies E (E ≤ 600 keV) (see [1] and references therein). The aim of our work is to find out the principal cause of the existing large spread of the calculated values of S(E) at extremely low energies obtained by different authors, including the results of the present work. The basic idea of our consideration is that the d( α, γ) 6 Li reaction at such energies is predominantly peripheral [2]-[4]. Therefore the values of S(E) at extremely low energies are mainly determined by the nuclear vertex constant (NVC) (or by the asymptotic normalization constant (ANC)) for the virtual decay 6 Li→α+ d. Taking this circumstance into account, we calculated the NVC for the virtual decay 6 Li→α + d in the framework of three- body ( np) Faddeev equations in the momentum space. The Malfliet-Tjon and Graz potentials for NN interaction and the Sack-Biedenharn-Breit and Yamaguchi type potentials for αN interaction were used. The results of our calculations show that the obtained values of the NVC (or the ANC) are sensitive to the form of NN and αN potentials. This result is also corroborated by the values of the NVC calculated within the microscopic model using the Minnesota and Volkov potentials for NN- interaction [5]. The values of the NVC obtained in the present work were used to determine the values of the astrophysical S factor for the direct radiative capture d( α,γ ) 6 Li reaction at extremely low energies. It is shown that the values of the NVC corresponding to the different forms of NN and αN potentials lead to the different values of the

  12. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.

    1979-01-01

    Quasielastic reaction studies, because of their capability to microscopically probe nuclear structure, are still of considerable interest in heavy-ion reactions. The recent progress in understanding various aspects of the reaction mechanism make this aim appear closer. The relation between microscopic and macroscopic behavior, as suggested, for example, by the single proton transfer data to individual final states or averaged excitation energy intervals, needs to be explored. It seems particularly useful to extend measurements to higher incident energies, to explore and understand nuclear structure aspects up to the limit of the energy range where they are important

  13. Direct evidence for a chronic CD8+-T-cell-mediated immune reaction to tax within the muscle of a human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1-infected patient with sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Simona; Cochet, Madeleine; Mikol, Jacqueline; Teixeira, Antonio; Gessain, Antoine; Pique, Claudine

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection can lead to the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), concomitantly with or without other inflammatory disorders such as myositis. These pathologies are considered immune-mediated diseases, and it is assumed that migration within tissues of both HTLV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells and anti-HTLV-1 cytotoxic T cells represents a pivotal event. However, although HTLV-1-infected T cells were found in inflamed lesions, the antigenic specificity of coinfiltrated CD8(+) T cells remains to be determined. In this study, we performed both ex vivo and in situ analyses using muscle biopsies obtained from an HTLV-1-infected patient with HAM/TSP and sporadic inclusion body myositis. We found that both HTLV-1-infected CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells directed to the dominant Tax antigen can be amplified from muscle cell cultures. Moreover, we were able to detect in two successive muscle biopsies both tax mRNA-positive mononuclear cells and T cells recognized by the Tax11-19/HLA-A*02 tetramer and positive for perforin. These findings provide the first direct demonstration that anti-Tax cytotoxic T cells are chronically recruited within inflamed tissues of an HTLV-1 infected patient, which validates the cytotoxic immune reaction model for the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-associated inflammatory disease.

  14. Multistep processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1988-01-01

    The theories of nuclear reactions are reviewed with particular attention to the recent work on multistep processes. The evidence for compound nucleus and direct interaction reactions is described together with the results of comparisons between theories and experimental data. These theories have now proved inadequate, and there is evidence for multistep processes that take place after the initial direct stage but long before the attainment of the statistical equilibrium characteristic of compound nucleus processes. The theories of these reactions are described and it is shown how they can account for the experimental data and thus give a comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactions. (author)

  15. Design and Discovery of N -(2-Methyl-5'-morpholino-6'-((tetrahydro-2 H -pyran-4-yl)oxy)-[3,3'-bipyridin]-5-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzamide (RAF709): A Potent, Selective, and Efficacious RAF Inhibitor Targeting RAS Mutant Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Gisele A.; Rico, Alice; Tanner, Huw; Aversa, Robert J.; Taft, Benjamin R.; Subramanian, Sharadha; Setti, Lina; Burger, Matthew T.; Wan, Lifeng; Tamez, Victoriano; Smith, Aaron; Lou, Yan; Barsanti, Paul A.; Appleton, Brent A.; Mamo, Mulugeta; Tandeske, Laura; Dix, Ina; Tellew, John E.; Huang, Shenlin; Griner, Lesley A. Mathews; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Van Abbema, Anne; Merritt, Hanne; Ma, Sylvia; Gampa, Kalyani; Feng, Fei; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Yingyun; Haling, Jacob R.; Vaziri; #8741; , Sepideh; Hekmat-Nejad, Mohammad; Jansen, Johanna M.; Polyakov, Valery; Zang, Richard; Sethuraman, Vijay; Amiri, Payman; Singh, Mallika; Lees, Emma; Shao, Wenlin; Stuart, Darrin D.; Dillon, Michael P.; Ramurthy, Savithri (Novartis)

    2017-06-06

    RAS oncogenes have been implicated in >30% of human cancers, all representing high unmet medical need. The exquisite dependency on CRAF kinase in KRAS mutant tumors has been established in genetically engineered mouse models and human tumor cells. To date, many small molecule approaches are under investigation to target CRAF, yet kinase-selective and cellular potent inhibitors remain challenging to identify. Herein, we describe 14 (RAF709) [Aversa, Biaryl amide compounds as kinase inhibitors and their preparation. WO 2014151616, 2014], a selective B/C RAF inhibitor, which was developed through a hypothesis-driven approach focusing on drug-like properties. A key challenge encountered in the medicinal chemistry campaign was maintaining a balance between good solubility and potent cellular activity (suppression of pMEK and proliferation) in KRAS mutant tumor cell lines. We investigated the small molecule crystal structure of lead molecule 7 and hypothesized that disruption of the crystal packing would improve solubility, which led to a change from N-methylpyridone to a tetrahydropyranyl oxy-pyridine derivative. 14 proved to be soluble, kinase selective, and efficacious in a KRAS mutant xenograft model.

  16. cycloaddition reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Molecular Modeling Group, Organic Chemical Sciences, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology,. Hyderabad ... thus obtained are helpful to model the regioselectivity ... compromise to model Diels–Alder reactions involving ...... acceptance.

  17. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, D.C.

    1977-06-01

    To complement discussions on the role of γ rays in heavy ion induced reactions, the author discusses the role played by particle detection. Transfer reactions are part of this subject and are among those in which one infers the properties of the residual nucleus in a reaction by observing the emerging light nucleus. Inelastic scattering ought not be excluded from this subject, although no particles are transferred, because of the role it plays in multistep reactions and in fixing O.M. parameters describing the entrance channel of the reaction. Heavy ion transfer reaction studies have been under study for some years and yet this research is still in its infancy. The experimental techniques are difficult and the demands on theory rigorous. One of the main products of heavy ion research has been the thrust to re-examine the assumptions of reaction theory and now include many effects neglected for light ion analysis. This research has spurred the addition of multistep processes to simple direct processes and coupled channel calculations. (J.R.)

  18. Enhancing chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, John R.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of enhancing selected chemical reactions. The population of a selected high vibrational energy state of a reactant molecule is increased substantially above its population at thermal equilibrium by directing onto the molecule a beam of radiant energy from a laser having a combination of frequency and intensity selected to pump the selected energy state, and the reaction is carried out with the temperature, pressure, and concentrations of reactants maintained at a combination of values selected to optimize the reaction in preference to thermal degradation by transforming the absorbed energy into translational motion. The reaction temperature is selected to optimize the reaction. Typically a laser and a frequency doubler emit radiant energy at frequencies of .nu. and 2.nu. into an optical dye within an optical cavity capable of being tuned to a wanted frequency .delta. or a parametric oscillator comprising a non-centrosymmetric crystal having two indices of refraction, to emit radiant energy at the frequencies of .nu., 2.nu., and .delta. (and, with a parametric oscillator, also at 2.nu.-.delta.). Each unwanted frequency is filtered out, and each desired frequency is focused to the desired radiation flux within a reaction chamber and is reflected repeatedly through the chamber while reactants are fed into the chamber and reaction products are removed therefrom.

  19. ERK mediated upregulation of death receptor 5 overcomes the lack of p53 functionality in the diaminothiazole DAT1 induced apoptosis in colon cancer models: efficiency of DAT1 in Ras-Raf mutated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamkachy, Reshma; Kumar, Rohith; Rajasekharan, K N; Sengupta, Suparna

    2016-03-08

    p53 is a tumour suppressor protein that plays a key role in many steps of apoptosis, and malfunctioning of this transcription factor leads to tumorigenesis. Prognosis of many tumours also depends upon the p53 status. Most of the clinically used anticancer compounds activate p53 dependent pathway of apoptosis and hence require p53 for their mechanism of action. Further, Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK axis is an important signaling pathway activated in many cancers. Dependence of diaminothiazoles, compounds that have gained importance recently due to their anticancer and anti angiogenic activities, were tested in cancer models with varying p53 or Ras/Raf mutational status. In this study we have used p53 mutated and knock out colon cancer cells and xenograft tumours to study the role of p53 in apoptosis mediated by diaminothiazoles. Colon cancer cell lines with varying mutational status for Ras or Raf were also used. We have also examined the toxicity and in vivo efficacy of a lead diaminothiazole 4-Amino-5-benzoyl-2-(4-methoxy phenylamino)thiazole (DAT1) in colon cancer xenografts. We have found that DAT1 is active in both in vitro and in vivo models with nonfunctional p53. Earlier studies have shown that extrinsic pathway plays major role in DAT1 mediated apoptosis. In this study, we have found that DAT1 is causing p53 independent upregulation of the death receptor 5 by activating the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway both in wild type and p53 suppressed colon cancer cells. These findings are also confirmed by the in vivo results. Further, DAT1 is more efficient to induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells with mutated Ras or Raf. Minimal toxicity in both acute and subacute studies along with the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of DAT1 in cancers with both wild type and nonfunctional p53 place it as a highly beneficial candidate for cancer chemotherapy. Besides, efficiency in cancer cells with mutations in the Ras oncoprotein or its downstream kinase Raf raise interest in

  20. Destruction of microcystins (cyanotoxins) by UV-254 nm-based direct photolysis and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): influence of variable amino acids on the degradation kinetics and reaction mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiang; de la Cruz, Armah A; Hiskia, Anastasia; Kaloudis, Triantafyllos; O'Shea, Kevin; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2015-05-01

    Hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs) are the most frequently detected group of cyanobacterial toxins. This study investigated the degradation of common MC variants in water, MC-LR, MC-RR, MC-YR and MC-LA, by UV-254 nm-based processes, UV only, UV/H2O2, UV/S2O8(2-) and UV/HSO5(-). Limited direct photolysis of MCs was observed, while the addition of an oxidant significantly improved the degradation efficiency with an order of UV/S2O8(2-) > UV/HSO5(-) > UV/H2O2 at the same initial molar concentration of the oxidant. The removal of MC-LR by UV/H2O2 appeared to be faster than another cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin, at either the same initial molar concentration or the same initial organic carbon concentration of the toxin. It suggested a faster reaction of MC-LR with hydroxyl radical, which was further supported by the determined second-order rate constant of MCs with hydroxyl radical. Both isomerization and photohydration byproducts were observed in UV only process for all four MCs; while in UV/H2O2, hydroxylation and diene-Adda double bond cleavage byproducts were detected. The presence of a tyrosine in the structure of MC-YR significantly promoted the formation of monohydroxylation byproduct m/z 1061; while the presence of a second arginine in MC-RR led to the elimination of a guanidine group and the absence of double bond cleavage byproducts. It was therefore demonstrated in this study that the variable amino acids in the structure of MCs influenced not only the degradation kinetics but also the preferable reaction mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of collision/reaction gases for determination of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry after direct introduction of air via a gas-exchange device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Ohara, Ryota; Matsunaga, Kirara

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear power plant accidents release radioactive strontium 90 (90Sr) into the environment. Monitoring of 90Sr, although important, is difficult and time consuming because it emits only beta radiation. We have developed a new analytical system that enables real-time analysis of 90Sr in atmospheric particulate matter with an analytical run time of only 10 min. Briefly, after passage of an air sample through an impactor, a small fraction of the sample is introduced into a gas-exchange device, where the air is replaced by Ar. Then the sample is directly introduced into an inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) system equipped with a collision/reaction cell to eliminate isobaric interferences on 90Sr from 90Zr+, 89Y1H+, and 90Y+. Experiments with various reaction gas conditions revealed that these interferences could be minimized under the following optimized conditions: 1.0 mL min- 1 O2, 10.0 mL min- 1 H2, and 1.0 mL min- 1 NH3. The estimated background equivalent concentration and estimated detection limit of the system were 9.7 × 10- 4 and 3.6 × 10- 4 ng m- 3, respectively, which are equivalent to 4.9 × 10- 6 and 1.8 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. Recoveries of Sr in PM2.5 measured by real-time analysis compared to those obtained by simultaneously collection on filter was 53 ± 23%, and using this recovery, the detection limit as PM2.5 was estimated to be 3.4 ± 1.5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3. That is, this system enabled detection of 90Sr at concentrations < 5 × 10- 6 Bq cm- 3 even considering the insufficient fusion/vaporization/ionization efficiency of Sr in PM2.5.

  2. Adverse drug reactions in tuberculosis patients due to directly observed treatment strategy therapy: Experience at an outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in the city of Imphal, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs due to directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS, there is no report available in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB chemotherapy in Manipur, India. One of the main reasons for non-adherence to anti-TB therapy (ATT is ADRs, even under DOTS. Aims: This study aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a TB population of Manipur, India. Setting and Design: A prospective institution-based cohort study, and performed during July 2009-December 2010. Materials and Methods: The study included 102 diagnosed TB patients on anti-TB treatment under DOTS. Every patient was followed-up for the duration he/she received the treatment. Statistical Analysis: Frequency of different ADRs was assessed and p value was determined. Results: Incidence of TB was more among males than female (76.47% against 23.53%. Seventy-one patients (69.01% showed one or more ADR. Incidence of ADRs based on affected organ was: Gastrointestinal (GI disorders in 38 patients (53.52%, generalized weakness in 12 patients (16.9%, liver dysfunction in 11 patients (15.49%, allergic skin reactions in six patients (8.45%, neurological system disorders in two patients (2.82%, and fever in two patients (2.82%. However, 30.99% did not experience any ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 69.01%. Majority of cases suffered from GI symptoms. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely.

  3. Asymmetric 1,8/13,2,x-M2C2B10 14-vertex metallacarboranes by direct electrophilic insertion reactions; the VCD and BHD methods in critical analysis of cage C atom positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnaw, Amelia; Lopez, Maria Elena; Ellis, David; Rosair, Georgina M; Welch, Alan J

    2014-04-07

    The isolation of six isomeric, low-symmetry, dicobaltacarboranes with bicapped hexagonal antiprismatic cage structures, always in low yield, is described from reactions in which 13-vertex cobaltacarborane anions and sources of cobalt-containing cations were present. The vertex-to-centroid distance (VCD) and boron-H distance (BHD) methods are used to locate the correct C atom positions in the cages, thus allowing the compounds to be identified as 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (1), 1,8-Cp2-3-OEt-1,8,2,10-closo-Co2C2B10H11 (2), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,9-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (3), 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (4), 1,13-Cp2-1,13,2,4-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (5) and 1,8-Cp2-1,8,2,5-closo-Co2C2B10H12 (6). It is shown that a common alternative method of cage C atom identification, using refined (as B) U(eq) values, does not work well, at least in these cases. Having identified the correct isomeric forms of the six dicobaltacarboranes, their syntheses are tentatively rationalised in terms of the direct electrophilic insertion of a {CpCo(+)} fragment into [CpCoC2B10](-) anions and it is demonstrated that compounds 1, 4, 5 and 6 can be successfully prepared by deliberately performing such reactions.

  4. Reaction mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Anh

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Reaction Mechanisms laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The research topics are: the valence bond methods, the radical chemistry, the modelling of the transition states by applying geometric constraints, the long range interactions (ion - molecule) in gaseous phase, the reaction sites in gaseous phase and the mass spectroscopy applications. The points of convergence between the investigations of the mass spectroscopy and the theoretical chemistry teams, as well as the purposes guiding the research programs, are discussed. The published papers, the conferences, the congress communications and the thesis, are also reported [fr

  5. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  6. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Gil, D.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  7. Ion-Molecule Reaction Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jennifer; Wester, Roland

    2017-05-05

    We review the recent advances in the investigation of the dynamics of ion-molecule reactions. During the past decade, the combination of single-collision experiments in crossed ion and neutral beams with the velocity map ion imaging detection technique has enabled a wealth of studies on ion-molecule reactions. These methods, in combination with chemical dynamics simulations, have uncovered new and unexpected reaction mechanisms, such as the roundabout mechanism and the subtle influence of the leaving group in anion-molecule nucleophilic substitution reactions. For this important class of reactions, as well as for many fundamental cation-molecule reactions, the information obtained with crossed-beam imaging is discussed. The first steps toward understanding micro-solvation of ion-molecule reaction dynamics are presented. We conclude with the presentation of several interesting directions for future research.

  8. Allergic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that don't bother most people (such as venom from bee stings and certain foods, medicines, and pollens) can ... person. If the allergic reaction is from a bee sting, scrape the ... more venom. If the person has emergency allergy medicine on ...

  9. Didymin Alleviates Hepatic Fibrosis Through Inhibiting ERK and PI3K/Akt Pathways via Regulation of Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Didymin has been reported to have anti-cancer potential. However, the effect of didymin on liver fibrosis remains illdefined. Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in rats. The effects of didymin on liver pathology and collagen accumulation were observed by hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining, respectively. Serum transaminases activities and collagen-related indicators levels were determined by commercially available kits. Moreover, the effects of didymin on hepatic stellate cell apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial membrane potential was detected by using rhodamine-123 dye. The expression of Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP and the phosphorylation of the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were assessed by Western blot. Results: Didymin significantly ameliorated chronic liver injury and collagen deposition. It strongly inhibited hepatic stellate cells proliferation, induced apoptosis and caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. Moreover, didymin notably attenuated mitochondrial membrane potential, accompanied by release of cytochrome C. Didymin significantly inhibited the ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. The effects of didymin on the collagen accumulation in rats and on the biological behaviors of hepatic stellate cells were largely abolished by the specific RKIP inhibitor locostatin. Conclusion: Didymin alleviates hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting ERK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways via regulation of RKIP expression.

  10. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Ji Sup [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  11. Prevalence of the B Type Raf Kinase V600E Mutation in Cytologically Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules: Correlation with Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chae Hyun; Choi, Yoon Jung; Choi, Seon Hyeong; Rho, Myong Ho Kook Shin Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Dong Hoon; Sohn, Jin Hee; Yun, Ji Sup

    2012-01-01

    To study the prevalence of B type Raf kinase (BRAF) mutations, and to evaluate the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features associated with thyroid cytology of indeterminate nodules. We assessed the presence or absence of BRAF mutation in 44 specimens from patients with cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules according to two consecutive preoperative fine needle aspiration cytology procedures. In 9 specimens, the test for BRAF mutation was not possible due to scant cellularity. DNA was extracted from the atypical cells and then analyzed for the BRAF V600E mutation by pyrosequencing. The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of the patients were characterized according to their mutation status. The BRAF V600E mutation was present in 17 (48.6%) of 35 patients with indeterminate cytology results and in 17 (54.8%) of the 31 patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Twenty two of 35 cytologically indeterminate nodules had calcifications, and among them 14 cases were proven to be positive for BRAF V600E mutations. Extrathyroid extension was significantly more frequent in the presence of the BRAF V600E mutation (p = 0.027), while tumor size, lympho-vascular invasion, or lymph node metastasis were not associated with the mutation. Screening for BRAF V600E mutations in conjunction with cytology may increase the diagnostic accuracy for PTC with indeterminate cytology results.

  12. In situ Observation of Direct Electron Transfer Reaction of Cytochrome c Immobilized on ITO Electrode Modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-Methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic Acid Self-assembled Monolayer Film by Electrochemical Slab Optical Waveguide Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Naoki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Omura, Ayako; Nakano, Miki; Miyake, Koji

    2017-01-01

    To immobilize cytochrome c (cyt.c) on an ITO electrode while keeping its direct electron transfer (DET) functionality, the ITO electrode surface was modified with 11-{2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]ethoxy}undecylphosphonic acid (CH 3 O (CH 2 CH 2 O) 3 C 11 H 22 PO(OH) 2 , M-EG 3 -UPA) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) film. After a 100-times washing process to exchange a phosphate buffer saline solution surrounding cyt.c and ITO electrode to a fresh one, an in situ observation of visible absorption spectral change with slab optical waveguide (SOWG) spectroscopy showed that 87.7% of the cyt.c adsorbed on the M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode remained on the ITO electrode. The SOWG absorption spectra corresponding to oxidized and reduced cyt.c were observed with setting the ITO electrode potential at 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, while probing the DET reaction between cyt.c and ITO electrode occurred. The amount of cyt.c was evaluated to be about 19.4% of a monolayer coverage based on the coulomb amount in oxidation and reduction peaks on cyclic voltammetry (CV) data. The CV peak current maintained to be 83.4% compared with the initial value for a M-EG 3 -UPA modified ITO electrode after 60 min continuous scan with 0.1 V/s between 0.3 and -0.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl.

  13. A nonsense mutation causing decreased levels of insulin receptor mRNA: Detection by a simplified technique for direct sequencing of genomic DNA amplified by the polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, T.; Kadowaki, H.; Taylor, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    Mutations in the insulin receptor gene can render the cell resistant to the biological action of insulin. The authors have studied a patient with leprechaunism (leprechaun/Minn-1), a genetic syndrome associated with intrauterine growth retardation and extreme insulin resistance. Genomic DNA from the patient was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction catalyzed by Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, and the amplified DNA was directly sequenced. A nonsense mutations was identified at codon 897 in exon 14 in the paternal allele of the patient's insulin receptor gene. Levels of insulin receptor mRNA are decreased to <10% of normal in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts and cultured skin fibroblasts from this patient. Thus, this nonsense mutation appears to cause a decrease in the levels of insulin receptor mRNA. In addition, they have obtained indirect evidence that the patient's maternal allele of the insulin receptor gene contains a cis-acting dominant mutation that also decreases the level of mRNA, but by a different mechanism. The nucleotide sequence of the entire protein-coding domain and the sequences of the intron-exon boundaries for all 22 exons of the maternal allele were normal. Presumably, the mutation in the maternal allele maps elsewhere in the insulin receptor gene. Thus, they conclude that the patient is a compound heterozygote for two cis-acting dominant mutations in the insulin receptor gene: (i) a nonsense mutation in the paternal allel that reduces the level of insulin receptor mRNA and (ii) an as yet unidentified mutation in the maternal allele that either decreases the rate of transcription or decreases the stability of the mRNA

  14. Quasielastic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the experimental and theoretical situation regarding transfer reactions and inelastic scattering. In the first category there is little (very little) precision data for heavy projectiles and consequently almost no experience with quantitative theoretical analysis. For the inelastic scattering the rather extensive data strongly supports the coupled channels models with collective formfactors. At the most back angles, at intensities about 10 -5 of Rutherford scattering, a second, compound-like mechanism becomes dominant. The description of the interplay of these two opposite mechanisms provides a new challenge for our understanding

  15. Nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.; Richardson, K.; Fenton, N.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear reactions' marks a new development in the study of television as an agency of public policy debate. During the Eighties, nuclear energy became a major international issue. The disasters at Three-mile Island and Chernobyl created a global anxiety about its risks and a new sensitivity to it among politicians and journalists. This book is a case-study into documentary depictions of nuclear energy in television and video programmes and into the interpretations and responses of viewers drawn from many different occupational groupings. How are the complex and specialist arguments about benefit, risk and proof conveyed through the different conventions of commentary, interview and film sequence? What symbolic associations does the visual language of television bring to portrayals of the issue? And how do viewers make sense of various and conflicting accounts, connecting what they see and hear on the screen with their pre-existing knowledge, experience and 'civic' expectations. The authors examine some of the contrasting forms and themes which have been used by programme makers to explain and persuade, and then give a sustained analysis of the nature and sources of viewers' own accounts. 'Nuclear Reactions' inquires into the public meanings surrounding energy and the environment, spelling out in its conclusion some of the implications for future media treatments of this issue. It is also a key contribution to the international literature on 'television knowledge' and the processes of active viewing. (author)

  16. Peripheral reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.

    1978-01-01

    Peripheral collisions, that is, collisions involving a small amount of overlap of nuclear matter, are discussed including inclusive interactions, the magnitude of the peripheral cross section, fragmentation, a compilation of experiments and available data, limiting fragmentation, factorization, some models, fragment momentum distributions, and future research directions

  17. Spallation reactions; Reactions de spallation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cugon, J.

    1996-12-31

    Spallation reactions dominate the interactions of hadrons with nuclei in the GeV range (from {approx} 0.1 to {approx} 10 GeV). They correspond to a sometimes important ejection of light particles leaving most of the time a residue of mass commensurate with the target mass. The main features of the experimental data are briefly reviewed. The most successful theoretical model, namely the intranuclear cascade + evaporation model, is presented. Its physical content, results and possible improvements are critically discussed. Alternative approaches are shortly reviewed. (author). 84 refs.

  18. Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined

  19. A method of coupling the Paternò-Büchi reaction with direct infusion ESI-MS/MS for locating the C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond in glycerophospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Craig A; Xia, Yu

    2016-06-21

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled with soft ionization is established as an essential platform for lipid analysis; however, determining high order structural information, such as the carbon-carbon double bond (C[double bond, length as m-dash]C) location, remains challenging. Recently, our group demonstrated a method for sensitive and confident lipid C[double bond, length as m-dash]C location determination by coupling online the Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction with nanoelectrospray ionization (nanoESI) and MS/MS. Herein, we aimed to expand the scope of the PB reaction for lipid analysis by enabling the reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS at much higher flow rates than demonstrated in the nanoESI setup (∼20 nL min(-1)). In the new design, the PB reaction was effected in a fused silica capillary solution transfer line, which also served as a microflow UV reactor, prior to ESI. This setup allowed PB reaction optimization and kinetics studies. Under optimized conditions, a maximum of 50% PB reaction yield could be achieved for a standard glycerophosphocholine (PC) within 6 s of UV exposure over a wide flow rate range (0.1-10 μL min(-1)). A solvent composition of 7 : 3 acetone : H2O (with 1% acid or base modifier) allowed the highest PB yields and good lipid ionization, while lower yields were obtained with an addition of a variety of organic solvents. Radical induced lipid peroxidation was identified to induce undesirable side reactions, which could be effectively suppressed by eliminating trace oxygen in the solution via N2 purge. Finally, the utility of coupling the PB reaction with infusion ESI-MS/MS was demonstrated by analyzing a yeast polar lipid extract where C[double bond, length as m-dash]C bond locations were revealed for 35 glycerophospholipids (GPs).

  20. A detailed test of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkervet, Andreas Lambertus

    1978-01-01

    Low-energy nuclear reactions are governed by two principal kinds of mechanisms: direct reaction mechanisms characterized by reaction times of the order of the transit time of the bombarding particle through the nucleus , and compound nucelar reaction mechanisms. The reaction times ot the latter are

  1. Prostaglandin E2 blocks menadione-induced apoptosis through the Ras/Raf/Erk signaling pathway in promonocytic leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Hyun-Seok; Shehzad, Adeeb; Lee, Young Sup

    2012-04-01

    Altered oxidative stress has long been observed in cancer cells, and this biochemical property of cancer cells represents a specific vulnerability that can be exploited for therapeutic benefit. The major role of an elevated oxidative stress for the efficacy of molecular targeted drugs is under investigation. Menadione is considered an attractive model for the study of oxidative stress, which can induce apoptosis in human leukemia HL-60 cell lines. Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) via its receptors not only promotes cell survival but also reverses apoptosis and promotes cancer progression. Here, we present evidence for the biological role of PGE(2) as a protective agent of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with PGE(2) markedly ameliorated the menadione-induced apoptosis and inhibited the degradation of PARP and lamin B. The EP(2) receptor antagonist AH6809 abrogated the inhibitory effect of PGE(2), suggesting the role of the EP(2)/cAMP system. The PKA inhibitor H89 also reversed apoptosis and decreased the PKA activity that was elevated 10-fold by PGE(2). The treatment of HL-60 cells with NAC or zinc chloride showed a similar protective effect as with PGE(2) on menadione-treated cells. Furthermore, PGE(2) activated the Ras/Raf/MEK pathway, which in turn initiated ERK activation, and ultimately protected menadione-induced apoptosis. These results imply that PGE(2) via cell survival pathways may protect oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in monocytic cells. This study warrants further pre-clinical investigation as well as application towards leukemia clinics.

  2. CNS germinomas are characterized by global demethylation, chromosomal instability and mutational activation of the Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt-pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Simone Laura; Waha, Andreas; Steiger, Barbara; Denkhaus, Dorota; Dörner, Evelyn; Calaminus, Gabriele; Leuschner, Ivo; Pietsch, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    CNS germinomas represent a unique germ cell tumor entity characterized by undifferentiated tumor cells and a high response rate to current treatment protocols. Limited information is available on their underlying genomic, epigenetic and biological alterations. We performed a genome-wide analysis of genomic copy number alterations in 49 CNS germinomas by molecular inversion profiling. In addition, CpG dinucleotide methylation was studied by immunohistochemistry for methylated cytosine residues. Mutational analysis was performed by resequencing of candidate genes including KIT and RAS family members. Ras/Erk and Akt pathway activation was analyzed by immunostaining with antibodies against phospho-Erk, phosho-Akt, phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6. All germinomas coexpressed Oct4 and Kit but showed an extensive global DNA demethylation compared to other tumors and normal tissues. Molecular inversion profiling showed predominant genomic instability in all tumors with a high frequency of regional gains and losses including high level gene amplifications. Activating mutations of KIT exons 11, 13, and 17 as well as a case with genomic KIT amplification and activating mutations or amplifications of RAS gene family members including KRAS, NRAS and RRAS2 indicated mutational activation of crucial signaling pathways. Co-activation of Ras/Erk and Akt pathways was present in 83% of germinomas. These data suggest that CNS germinoma cells display a demethylated nuclear DNA similar to primordial germ cells in early development. This finding has a striking coincidence with extensive genomic instability. In addition, mutational activation of Kit-, Ras/Raf/Erk- and Akt- pathways indicate the biological importance of these pathways and their components as potential targets for therapy. PMID:27391150

  3. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Attributes and Phenolics of Different Solvent Extracts from Leaves, Flowers and Bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Raf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser M. Khan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW, respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05 higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW, total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW, inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%, DPPH scavenging capacity (IC50 value 8.89 μg/mL and reducing power (1.87. Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.

  4. Tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) enhances natural chilling stress tolerance of common clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oustric, Julie; Morillon, Raphaël; Luro, François; Herbette, Stéphane; Lourkisti, Radia; Giannettini, Jean; Berti, Liliane; Santini, Jérémie

    2017-07-01

    Low temperatures can disturb the development, growth and geographic distribution of plants, particularly cold-sensitive plants in the Mediterranean area, where temperatures can reach seasonally low levels. In citrus crops, scion/rootstock combinations are used to improve fruit production and quality, and increase tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. In the last decade, several studies have shown that tetraploid citrus seedlings or rootstocks are more tolerant to abiotic stress than their respective diploid. The objective of this study was to test whether the use of tetraploid rootstocks can improve the chilling tolerance of the scion. We compared physiological and biochemical responses to low seasonal temperatures of common Clementine (Citrus sinensis Osb.×Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf.) grafted on diploid and tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstocks, named C/2xCC and C/4xCC, respectively. During the coldest months, C/4xCC showed a smaller decrease in net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (G s ), chlorophyll fluorescence (F v /F m ), and starch levels, and lower levels of malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage than C/2xCC. Specific activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) were higher in C/4xCC during the cold period, whereas chlorophyll, proline, ascorbate and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity did not vary significantly between C/4xCC and C/2xCC throughout the study period. Taken together, these results demonstrate that tetraploid Carrizo citrange rootstock improves the chilling tolerance of common clementine (scion) thanks to a part of the antioxidant system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  5. Metal-catalyzed asymmetric aldol reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Luiz C.; Lucca Junior, Emilio C. de; Ferreira, Marco A. B.; Polo, Ellen C., E-mail: ldias@iqm.unicamp.br [Universidade de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2012-12-15

    The aldol reaction is one of the most powerful and versatile methods for the construction of C-C bonds. Traditionally, this reaction was developed in a stoichiometric version; however, great efforts in the development of chiral catalysts for aldol reactions were performed in recent years. Thus, in this review article, the development of metal-mediated chiral catalysts in Mukaiyama-type aldol reaction, reductive aldol reaction and direct aldol reaction are discussed. Moreover, the application of these catalysts in the total synthesis of complex molecules is discussed. (author)

  6. Chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Brian.

    1991-01-01

    Chain Reaction is a work of recent American political history. It seeks to explain how and why America came to depend so heavily on its experts after World War II, how those experts translated that authority into political clout, and why that authority and political discretion declined in the 1970s. The author's research into the internal memoranda of the Atomic Energy Commission substantiates his argument in historical detail. It was not the ravages of American anti-intellectualism, as so many scholars have argued, that brought the experts back down to earth. Rather, their decline can be traced to the very roots of their success after World War II. The need to over-state anticipated results in order to garner public support, incessant professional and bureaucratic specialization, and the sheer proliferation of expertise pushed arcane and insulated debates between experts into public forums at the same time that a broad cross section of political participants found it easier to gain access to their own expertise. These tendencies ultimately undermined the political influence of all experts. (author)

  7. Frische-Star ile Muamele Edilmiş Taze Karideslerin (Parapenaus longirostris Raf Ömrünün Saptanması Üzerine Bir Araştırma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Arık Çolakoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ülkemizdeki tüketimi genellikle taze olarak gerçekleşen su ürünleri kolay bozulabilen gıdalardır. Bu ürünlerin raf ömrü süresi ve tüketim kalitesinin uzun süre korunabilmesi ülke ekonomisi ve halk sağlığı açısından büyük önem taşımaktadır. Özellikle son yıllarda koruyucu katkı maddeleri kullanılarak, su ürünlerinin raf ömrünün uzatılmasına yönelik çalışmalar ilgi çekmektedir. Bu bağlamda yapılan çalışmada, Çanakkale yöresinde avcılığı yapılan ve frische-star ile muamele edilen taze karideslerin duyusal ve mikrobiyolojik olarak raf ömrü süreleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Mikrobiyolojik analizlerde toplam aerob bakteri sayısına ve ayrıca bozulma bakterilerinden Pseudomonas, Enterobactericea miktarına bakılmıştır. Duyusal analizlerde ise karidesler; renk, koku, tekstür ve tat açısından incelenmiştir

  8. Inhibition of cAMP-Dependent PKA Activates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 via Raf-1/MEK/ERK and IP3-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling in Atrial Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabbidi, M R; Ji, X; Maxwell, J T; Mignery, G A; Samarel, A M; Lipsius, S L

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported in atrial myocytes that inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by laminin (LMN)-integrin signaling activates β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). The present study sought to determine the signaling mechanisms by which inhibition of PKA activates β2-AR stimulation of cPLA2. We therefore determined the effects of zinterol (0.1 μM; zint-β2-AR) to stimulate ICa,L in atrial myocytes in the absence (+PKA) and presence (-PKA) of the PKA inhibitor (1 μM) KT5720 and compared these results with atrial myocytes attached to laminin (+LMN). Inhibition of Raf-1 (10 μM GW5074), phospholipase C (PLC; 0.5 μM edelfosine), PKC (4 μM chelerythrine) or IP3 receptor (IP3R) signaling (2 μM 2-APB) significantly inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in-PKA but not +PKA myocytes. Western blots showed that zint-β2-AR stimulation increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in-PKA compared to +PKA myocytes. Adenoviral (Adv) expression of dominant negative (dn) -PKCα, dn-Raf-1 or an IP3 affinity trap, each inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in + LMN myocytes compared to control +LMN myocytes infected with Adv-βgal. In +LMN myocytes, zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L was enhanced by adenoviral overexpression of wild-type cPLA2 and inhibited by double dn-cPLA2S505A/S515A mutant compared to control +LMN myocytes infected with Adv-βgal. In-PKA myocytes depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by 5 μM thapsigargin failed to inhibit zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L via cPLA2. However, disruption of caveolae formation by 10 mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in-PKA myocytes significantly more than in +PKA myocytes. We conclude that inhibition of PKA removes inhibition of Raf-1 and thereby allows β2-AR stimulation to act via PKCα/Raf-1/MEK/ERK1/2 and IP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling to stimulate cPLA2 signaling within caveolae. These findings may be relevant to the remodeling of

  9. Low Energy Nuclear Reactions?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Faccini, R.

    2014-01-01

    After an introduction to the controversial problem of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) catalyzed by neutrons on metallic hydride surfaces we present the results of an experiment, made in collaboration with ENEA Labs in Frascati, to search neutrons from plasma discharges in electrolytic cells. The negative outcome of our experiment goes in the direction of ruling out those theoretical models expecting LENR to occur in condensed matter systems under specific conditions. Our criticism on the theoretical foundations of such models will also be presented.

  10. Influence of hot rolling and high speed hydrostatic extrusion on the microstructure and mechanical properties of RAF ODS steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksiuta, Z.; Kurzydlowski, K.J.; Baluc, N.

    2009-01-01

    Argon gas atomized, pre-alloyed Fe-14Cr-2W-0.3Ti oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel powder was mechanically alloyed with 0.3Y2O3 (wt.%) nano-particles in attritor ball mill and consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 deg. C under pressure of 200 MPa for 3 hrs. To improve mechanical properties of as HIPped ODS ingots the material was undergone further thermo-mechanical treatment (TMT), namely: hot rolling (HR) at 850 deg. C or high speed hot extrusion (HSHE) at 850 deg. C. After TMT both materials were annealed at 1050 deg. C for 1 h in vacuum. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the ODS alloys after TMT and heat treatment exhibited elongated in a longitudinal direction grains with an average size of 75 μm. However, an equiaxed, smaller than 500 nm grains were also found in the microstructure of both materials. Different size and morphology of oxides particles were also observed. Bigger, about 150 nm Ti-Al-O particles were usually located at grain boundaries whereas Y-Ti-O nanoclusters of about 5 nm were uniformly distributed in ODS steel matrix. The Charpy impact tests revealed significantly better about 90% (5.8 J) upper shelf energy (USE) of material after HSHE but ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of both alloys was unsatisfactory. As-HR ODS steel has shown DBTT of about 55 deg. C whereas HSHE ODS steel has about 75 deg. C. This relatively high values of transition temperature were probably caused by oxides particles present at grain boundaries of the ODS alloys which decreased fracture properties of the ODS steels. High temperature tensile properties of both ODS alloys are found to be satisfactory in full range of the testing temperature from 23 up to 750 deg. C. However, about 15% better UTS and YS0.2 (1350 MPa and 1285 MPa, respectively) as well as ductility were measured in the case of the as-HSHE ODS steel. These results indicates that HSHE process of the ODS steel can be considered as more

  11. Structure of the 8He exotic nucleus by the direct reactions 8He(p, p')8He, 8He(p,d)7He and 8He(p,t)6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaza, Flore

    2004-01-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of an 8 He beam on a proton target have been measured at GANIL. The first 8 He beam produced by the SPIRAL facility at an energy of 15.6 A.MeV impinged on a proton target. The experimental setup was composed by the eight telescopes MUST array dedicated to the measure of the light charged particles, by a scintillator plastic wall for the detection of heavy projectile, and by two beam tracking detectors CATS for the measure event by event of the incident position and angle of the beam on the target. This setup allowed also to measure the one and two neutron transfer reactions 8 He(p,d) 7 He and 8 He(p,t) 6 He. The excitation energy spectrum for 6,7,8 He and the angular distributions associated to each reaction have been measured. The observed excited states are in agreement with the data of the literature. We indicate the presence of a first excited state for 7 He at 0.9 MeV and we give for the first time the position of a second excited state in 8 He at 5.4 MeV; the presence of such state was just suggested in a previous experiment. CCBA calculations allowed to extract a spectroscopic factor of 4.4 ± 1.4 for the pick-up of one neutron from 8 He to 7 He. This value is in agreement with a closed p3/2 sub-shell for 8 He. To analyse the angular distributions for elastic and inelastic scattering, it was necessary to take into account in the formalism used to describe the reactions, via coupled channels reactions calculations, the couplings to the one neutron transfer reaction. (author) [fr

  12. Chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ou Sik; Park, Youn Yeol

    1996-12-01

    This book is about chemical kinetics and reaction mechanism. It consists of eleven chapters, which deal with reaction and reaction speed on reaction mechanism, simple reaction by rate expression, reversible reaction and simultaneous reaction, successive reaction, complicated reaction mechanism, assumption for reaction mechanism, transition state theory, successive reaction and oscillating reaction, reaction by solution, research method high except kinetics on reaction mechanism, high reaction of kinetics like pulsed radiolysis.

  13. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  14. Direct production of D-arabinose from D-xylose by a coupling reaction using D-xylose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase and D-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ishrat; Mizanur, Rahman Md; Takeshita, Kei; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 40bXX, a mutant strain that constitutively produces D-arabinose isomerase (D-AI), was isolated through a series of repeated subcultures from the parent strain on a mineral salt medium supplemented with L-Xylose as the sole carbon source. D-AI could be efficiently immobilized on chitopearl beads. The optimum temperature for the activity of the immobilized enzyme was 40 degrees C and the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C. The D-Al was active at pH 10.0 and was stable in the range of pH 6.0-11.0. The enzyme required manganese ions for maximum activity. Three immobilized enzymes, D-xylose isomerase (D-XI), D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE and D-AI were used for the preparation of D-arabinose from D-xylose in a coupling reaction. After completion of the reaction, degradation of D-xylulose was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reaction mixture containing D-Xylose, D-ribulose and the product was then separated by ion exchange column chromatography. After crystallization, the product was checked by HPLC, IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and optical rotation measurements. Finally, 2.0 g of D-arabinose could be obtained from 5 g of the substrate.

  15. Direct Sulfation of Limestone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Guilin; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Wedel, Stig

    2007-01-01

    The direct sulfation of limestone was studied in a laboratory fixed-bed reactor. It is found that the direct sulfation of limestone involves nucleation and crystal grain growth of the solid product (anhydrite). At 823 K and at low-conversions (less than about 0.5 %), the influences of SO2, O-2...... and CO2 on the direct sulfation of limestone corresponds to apparent reaction orders of about 0.2, 0.2 and -0.5, respectively. Water is observed to promote the sulfation reaction and increase the apparent reaction orders of SO2 and O-2. The influence of O-2 at high O-2 concentrations (> about 15...... %) becomes negligible. In the temperature interval from 723 K to 973 K, an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol is observed for the direct sulfation of limestone. At low temperatures and low conversions, the sulfation process is most likely under mixed control by chemical reaction and solid...

  16. Direct photon experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeggild, H.

    1986-11-01

    The author reviews the experiments on direct photon production in hadronic collisions. After a description of the experimental methods for the study of such processes he presents some results on differential cross sections and the γ/π 0 ratio in π - p, π + p, pp, and anti pp processes as well as in reactions of π - , π + , and p on carbon. (HSI)

  17. RAF and Protection Warfighting Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    countries and challenges (including both the Asian Pacific and the Middle East).10 To execute this strategy in an increasingly complex world, the...of the Force (GEF) to prepare and review theatre campaign plans (TCP).27 The TCP is the CCDR’s vehicle for operationalizing the theater strategy. The

  18. Efeitos de ácido giberélico e carvão ativado no cultivo in vitro de Citrus limonia Osbeck chiPoncirus trifoliata (L. Raf Effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 and activated coal on in vitro culture of Citrus limonia Osbeck chi Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtemir Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de um híbrido do cruzamento Citrus limonia Osb. chi Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf. em meio MS, acrescido de GA3 (0,0, 0,01, 0,1 e 1,0 mg/L e carvão ativado (0,0, 0,5, 1,0 e 2,0 g/L, em todas as combinações possíveis. Após a excisão das sementes os embriões obtidos, independentemente dos estádios, foram inoculados nos respectivos meios de cultura. Cada tratamento permaneceu por 48 horas no escuro e 40 dias em sala de crescimento à temperatura de 27 ± 1ºC, com 16 horas de luminosidade. Após esse período, as plântulas foram avaliadas, considerando-se o porcentual de sobrevivência e comprimento da haste caulinar e do sistema radicular. Verificou-se que a concentação de 0,1 mg/L de GA3 interagiu antagonicamente em meio de cultivo contendo até 2,0 g/L de carvão ativado. O GA3 a 0,01 mg/L associado a concentrações de carvão ativado a partir de 0,5 g/L até 2,0 g/L, maximizou o porcentual de sobrevivência dos em- briões. Os embriões apresentaram o maior comprimento de raiz (4,5 cm e da haste caulinar (2,1 cm com carvão ativado na concentração de 0,5 g/L e 2,0 g/L, respectivamente.This work utilized fruits of a single plant obtained from the cross between Citrus limonia Osb. chi Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf. Seeds were removed and after excision, all the embryos, regardless their development stages, were inoculated in MS medium added with GA3 (0.0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L and activated coal (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/L in every possible combination. These treatments remained for 48 hours in the dark and afterwards in growth room at the temperature of 27 ± 1ºC with 16 hours lighting. After 40 days, seedlings were evaluated by the lengths of the aerial part and root system and percent of survival. The concentration of 0.1 mg/L of GA3 interacts negatively in culture medium containing up to 2.0 g/L of activated coal. The concentration of 0.01 mg/L of GA3 associated to activated coal

  19. FY 1980 Report on results of Sunshine Project. Research and development of coal liquefaction techniques (Development of direct hydrogenation type liquefaction plant and researches on liquefaction reactions in the presence of iron-based catalyst); 1980 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tetsukei shokubai ni yoru ekika hanno no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This program is aimed at development of iron-based catalyst suited for direct hydrogenation type coal liquefaction by elucidating the effects of the catalyst on the liquefaction reactions. The iron-based catalyst seems to act as the radical stabilizer rather than the reaction promoter, because the increased quantity of the catalyst and increased H{sub 2} pressure share the common pattern rather than the catalyst enhances the activity, which is associated with increased reaction temperature or residence time. This is more notably observed when the coal species is changed to brown coal. In other words, recombination of the decomposition products by polycondensation is accelerated in the presence of the catalyst in decomposition of brown coal from bituminous coal, with the result that the catalyst effects are more notably observed. Whether this results from difference in age between brown coal and bituminous coal or content of specific types of ashes should be elucidated, because this point is considered to deeply relate to eventual development of the liquefaction reaction system. The FY 1980 program includes the primary screening of different types of iron compounds and tests of some iron-metal-based catalysts. (NEDO)

  20. Farklı Asitliklerdeki Yoğurtlardan Torba Yoğurdu Üretimi ve Natamisinin Raf Ömrü Üzerine Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray Sahan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, çiğ süte natamisin ilave edilerek ve edilmeyerek farklı asitlikteki yoğurtlardan torba yoğurdu üretilmiştir. +4 oC' de ve  5 günlük depolama süresince natamisin ilavesinin, farklı asitliklerin ve depolama süresinin torba yoğurtlarının raf ömrü üzerine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Natamisin ilavesi torba yoğurtlarının maya-küf sayısı üzerine etkisi önemli (p<0.05, kimyasal, fiziksel ve duyusal özellikleri üzerindeki etkisi önemsiz bulunmuştur (p >0.05. Farklı asitlikteki yoğurt kullanımı torba yoğurtlarının asitlik değeri üzerindeki etkisi önemli bulunurken (p <0.05, asetaldehit, laktoz, penetrometre, tirozin ve maya-küf değerleri üzerine etkisi önemsiz bulunmuştur (p >0.05. Farklı asilikteki yoğurt kullanımı torba yoğurtlarının duyusal özelliklerinden kıvam, tat ve toplam puanları üzerine etkisi önemli (p <0.05, görürüm ve koku puanları üzerindeki etkisi önemsizdir (p> 0.05. Depolama süresince torba yoğurtlarının asitlik değerleri yükselmiş, pH değerleri düşmüştür (p <0.05. Buna bağlı olarak laktoz değerlerinde de bir azalma görülmüştür (p <0.05. Ayrıca depolama süresince, torba yoğurtlarının asetaldehit, tirozin ve penetrometre değerlerindeki değişimi de istatistik olarak önemli bulunmuştur (p <0.05. Duyusal özelliklerden görünüm, kıvam ve toplam puanları arasındaki fark önemli (p<0.05, koku ve tat puanları arasındaki fark önemsizdir (p> 0.05. Natamisin ilave edilmiş örneklerde depolama süresince maya-küf bulunamamıştır. Natamisin ilave edilmemiş örneklerde ise maya-küf bulunmuş ve depolama süresince sayıları artmıştır (p<0.05.

  1. LMW-E/CDK2 Deregulates Acinar Morphogenesis, Induces Tumorigenesis, and Associates with the Activated b-Raf-ERK1/2-mTOR Pathway in Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, MyLinh T.; Akli, Said; Wei, Caimiao; Wingate, Hannah F.; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Yi, Min; Mills, Gordon B.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Keyomarsi, Khandan

    2012-01-01

    Elastase-mediated cleavage of cyclin E generates low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) isoforms exhibiting enhanced CDK2–associated kinase activity and resistance to inhibition by CDK inhibitors p21 and p27. Approximately 27% of breast cancers express high LMW-E protein levels, which significantly correlates with poor survival. The objective of this study was to identify the signaling pathway(s) deregulated by LMW-E expression in breast cancer patients and to identify pharmaceutical agents to effectively target this pathway. Ectopic LMW-E expression in nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells (hMECs) was sufficient to generate xenografts with greater tumorigenic potential than full-length cyclin E, and the tumorigenicity was augmented by in vivo passaging. However, cyclin E mutants unable to interact with CDK2 protected hMECs from tumor development. When hMECs were cultured on Matrigel, LMW-E mediated aberrant acinar morphogenesis, including enlargement of acinar structures and formation of multi-acinar complexes, as denoted by reduced BIM and elevated Ki67 expression. Similarly, inducible expression of LMW-E in transgenic mice generated hyper-proliferative terminal end buds resulting in enhanced mammary tumor development. Reverse-phase protein array assay of 276 breast tumor patient samples and cells cultured on monolayer and in three-dimensional Matrigel demonstrated that, in terms of protein expression profile, hMECs cultured in Matrigel more closely resembled patient tissues than did cells cultured on monolayer. Additionally, the b-Raf-ERK1/2-mTOR pathway was activated in LMW-E–expressing patient samples, and activation of this pathway was associated with poor disease-specific survival. Combination treatment using roscovitine (CDK inhibitor) plus either rapamycin (mTOR inhibitor) or sorafenib (a pan kinase inhibitor targeting b-Raf) effectively prevented aberrant acinar formation in LMW-E–expressing cells by inducing G1/S cell cycle arrest. LMW

  2. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  3. Spallation reactions - physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelic, A.; Ricciardi, M.; Schmidt, K-H.

    2009-01-01

    Spallation reactions have become an ideal tool for studying the equation of state and thermal instabilities of nuclear matter. In astrophysics, the interactions of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium have to be understood in detail for deducing their original composition and their production mechanisms. Renewed interest in spallation reactions with protons around 1 GeV came up recently with the developments of spallation neutron sources. The project of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) as a technological solution for incinerating the radioactive waste even intensified the efforts for better understanding the physics involved in the spallation process. Experiments on spallation reactions were performed for determining the production cross sections and properties of particles, fragments and heavy residues. Traditional experiments on heavy residues, performed in direct kinematics, were limited to the direct observation of long-lived radioactive nuclides and did not provide detailed information on the kinematics of the reaction. Therefore, an innovative experimental method has been developed, based on inverse kinematics, which allowed to identify all reaction residues in-flight, using the high resolution magnetic spectrometer FRS of GSL Darmstadt. It also gives direct access to the reaction kinematics. An experimental campaign has been carried out in a Europe-wide collaboration, investigating the spallation of several nuclei ranging from 56 Fe to 238 U Complementary experiments were performed with a full-acceptance detection system, yielding total fission cross sections. Recently, another detection system using the large acceptance ALADIN dipole and the LAND neutron detector was introduced to measure light particles in coincidence with the heavy residues. Another intense activity was dedicated to developing codes, which cover nuclear reactions occurring in an ADS. The first phase of the reaction is successfully described by a sequence of quasi-free nucleon

  4. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states. (author)

  5. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1978-02-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states

  6. Statistical theory of neutron nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldauer, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The statistical theory of average neutron nucleus reaction cross sections is reviewed with emphasis on the justification of the Hauser Feshbach formula and its modifications for situations including isolated compound nucleus resonances, overlapping and interfering resonances, the competition of compound and direct reactions, and continuous treatment of residual nuclear states. 3 figures

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of the reaction of the OH radical with alkyl sulfides: 1. Direct observations of the formation of the OH-DMS adduct-pressure dependence of the forward rate of addition and development of a predictive expression at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M B; Campuzano-Jost, P; Cossairt, B M; Hynes, A J; Pounds, A J

    2007-01-11

    A pulsed laser photolysis-pulsed laser-induced fluorescence (PLP-PLIF) system was employed to study the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions (1) OH + h6-DMS --> products and (2) OH + d6-DMS --> products. We report direct observations of the rate coefficients for the formation and dissociation of the h6-OHDMS and d6-OHDMS adducts over the pressure range 50-650 Torr and between 240 and 245 K, together with measurements of the oxygen dependence of the effective rate coefficients for reactions 1 and 2 under similar conditions. The effective rate coefficients increased as a function of O2 concentration reaching their limiting values in each case. The values of the adduct formation rate, obtained from the O2 dependencies, were in excellent agreement with values determined from direct observation of adduct equilibration in N2. OH regeneration is insignificant. The rate coefficients for the formation of the adduct isotopomers showed slight differences in their falloff behavior and do not approach the high-pressure limit in either case. The equilibrium constants obtained show no dependence on isotopomer and are in good agreement with previous work. A "second-law" analysis of the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant gives an adduct bond strength (DeltaH degrees =-10.9 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-1)), also in good agreement with previously reported values. Using the entropy calculated from the ab initio vibrational frequencies, we obtain a "third-law" value for the reaction enthalpy at 240 K, DeltaH(240K) degrees = -10.5 kcal mol(-1) in good agreement with the other approach. The rate coefficient for the reactions of the adducts with O2 was obtained from an analysis of the O2 dependence and was determined to be 6.3 +/- 1.2 x 10(-13) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), with no dependence on pressure or isotopomer. The pressure and temperature dependence for all of the elementary processes in the initial steps of the dimethylsulfide (DMS) oxidation mechanism have been characterized in

  8. Resonances in the system of π+π--mesons from np→npπ+π- reaction at Pn=5.20 GeV/c: search, results of direct observations, interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyan, Yu.A.; Plekhanov, E.B.; Pechenov, V.N.; Troyan, A.Yu.; Belyaev, A.V.; Ierusalimov, A.P.; Arakelyan, S.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ten resonances were found in the mass spectrum of a π + π - system based on 66075 events from np→npπ + π - reaction in np-interactions at P n =(5.20±0.16)GeV/c in the one-meter hydrogen bubble chamber of the LHE (JINR) by using the criterion cos Θ* p>0. These masses are the following: (347±12), (418±6), (511±12), (610±5), (678±17), (757±5), (880±12), (987±12), (1133±15), and (1285±22) MeV/c 2 ; their excesses above the background are 2.9, 5.2, 3.5, 1.4, 2.0, 8.5, 4.8, 3.8, 5.2, and 6.0 standard deviations, respectively. The experimental widths of the resonances vary within the region from 16 to 94 MeV/c 2 . Such effects were not found in π - π 0 combinations from np→ppπ - π 0 reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to attribute the value of isotopic spin I=0 to the resonances found in the mass spectrum of the π + π - system. The spin was estimated for the most statistically provided resonances at masses of 418, 511 and 757 MeV/c 2 . We determine with a high degree of confidence that J=0 for the resonances at M R =757 MeV/c 2 and M R =418 MeV/c 2 and the most probable value of J=0 for the resonance at M R =511 MeV/c 2 . Therefore, it can be affirmed that at least 3 states with quantum numbers of σ 0 -meson 0 + (0 ++ ) have been found at masses of 418, 511 and 757 MeV/c 2 . The fact that low-mass σ 0 -mesons are glueballs is one of the possible interpretations. Comparison with the data of other papers has also been made

  9. Small G proteins Rac1 and Ras regulate serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5)·extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) complexes involved in the feedback regulation of Raf1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazalouskas, Matthew D; Godoy-Ruiz, Raquel; Weber, David J; Zimmer, Danna B; Honkanen, Richard E; Wadzinski, Brian E

    2014-02-14

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, PPP5C) is known to interact with the chaperonin heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular signaling cascades that control diverse cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, motility, and apoptosis. Here, we identify PP5 in stable complexes with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Studies using mutant proteins reveal that the formation of PP5·ERK1 and PP5·ERK2 complexes partially depends on HSP90 binding to PP5 but does not require PP5 or ERK1/2 activity. However, PP5 and ERK activity regulates the phosphorylation state of Raf1 kinase, an upstream activator of ERK signaling. Whereas expression of constitutively active Rac1 promotes the assembly of PP5·ERK1/2 complexes, acute activation of ERK1/2 fails to influence the phosphatase-kinase interaction. Introduction of oncogenic HRas (HRas(V12)) has no effect on PP5-ERK1 binding but selectively decreases the interaction of PP5 with ERK2, in a manner that is independent of PP5 and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) activity, yet paradoxically requires ERK2 activity. Additional studies conducted with oncogenic variants of KRas4B reveal that KRas(L61), but not KRas(V12), also decreases the PP5-ERK2 interaction. The expression of wild type HRas or KRas proteins fails to reduce PP5-ERK2 binding, indicating that the effect is specific to HRas(V12) and KRas(L61) gain-of-function mutations. These findings reveal a novel, differential responsiveness of PP5-ERK1 and PP5-ERK2 interactions to select oncogenic Ras variants and also support a role for PP5·ERK complexes in regulating the feedback phosphorylation of PP5-associated Raf1.

  10. Post irradiation examination of RAF/M steels after fast reactor irradiation up to 33 dpa and < 340 C (ARBOR1). RAFM steels. Metallurgical and mechanical characterisation. Final report for TW2-TTMS-001b, D9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, C. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). EURATOM, Inst. fuer Materialforschung, Programm Kernfusion

    2010-07-01

    In an energy generating fusion reactor structural materials will be exposed to very high dpa-levels of about 100 dpa. Due to this fact and because fast reactor irradiation facilities in Europe are not available anymore, a reactor irradiation at the State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation with its Research Institute of Atomic Reactors (SSC RIAR), Dimitrovgrad, had been performed in the fast reactor BOR 60 with an instrumented test rig. This test rig contained tensile, impact and Low Cycle Fatigue type specimens used at FZK since many years. Samples of actual Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic (RAF/M) -steels (e.g. EUROFER 97) had been irradiated in this reactor at a lower temperature (< 340 C) up to a damage of 33 dpa. This irradiation campaign was called ARBOR 1. Starting in 2003 one half of these irradiated samples were post irradiation examined (PIE) by tensile testing, low cycle fatigue testing and impact testing under the ISTC Partner Contract 2781p in the hot cells of SSC RIAR. In the post irradiation instrumented impact tests a significant increase in the Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature as an effect of irradiation has been detected. During tensile testing the strength values are increasing and the strain values reduced due to substantial irradiation hardening. The hardening rate is decreasing with increasing damage level, but it does not show saturation. The low cycle fatigue behaviour of all examined RAF/M - steels show at total strain amplitudes below 1 % an increase of number of cycles to failure, due to irradiation hardening. From these post irradiation experiments, like tensile, low cycle fatigue and impact tests, radiation induced design data, e.g. for verification of design codes, can be generated.

  11. Direct Amination of alpha-Hydroxy Amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandgude, Ajay L.; Dömling, Alexander

    A TiCl4-mediated reaction for the direct amination of alpha-hydroxy amides has been developed. This simple, general, additive/base/ligand-free reaction is mediated by economical TiCl4. The reaction runs under mild conditions. This highly efficient C-N bond formation protocol is valid for diverse

  12. The unified theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobocman, W.

    A unified nuclear reaction theory is a formalism for the scattering reactions of many-body nuclear systems which is capable of describing both direct interaction and compound nucleus formation processes. The Feshbach projection operator formalism is the original unified nuclear reaction theory. An alternative unified nuclear reaction theory called the X-matrix formalism is described. The X-matrix formalism is a generalization of the Brown-de Dominicis formalism. It does not require projection operators and is readly applied to rearrangement collisions

  13. Application of direct thermometric analysis in iodometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marik-Korda, P; Erdey, L

    1970-12-01

    Elementary chlorine was determined by a thermometric method using potassium iodide as reagent. The temperature rise corresponding to the heat of reaction was proportional to the chlorine content. Iodine formed in the reaction was also determined with sodium thiosulphate. The heat of the chlorine-iodide reaction is about five times that of the iodine-thiosulphate reaction. Direct determination with potassium iodide is simpler and more rapid than the indirect one.

  14. Fabrication of MEA based on optimum amount of Co in PdxCo/C alloy nanoparticles as a new cathode for oxygen reduction reaction in passive direct methanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibi, Hussein; Golmohammadi, Farhad; Kheirmand, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimal amount of Pd/Co in the catalyst layer reduces the polarization resistance in comparison with Pd alone. ► The Pd/Co in catalyst layer increases the Pd utilization in the ORR. ► The DMFC test results indicate that the MEA prepared from Pd 3 Co/C cathode exhibits best performance. -- Abstract: Carbon supported Pd and Pd x Co alloy electrocatalysts of different Pd x Co atomic ratios (x = 1, 2, 3 and 10) were prepared by the impregnation synthesis method at room temperature without heat treatment by ethylene glycol (EG) reduction. As prepared Pd x Co bimetallic nanoparticles show a single-phase face-centered-cubic (fcc) disordered structure. The performance of these electrodes in the ORR was measured with cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), chronoamperometry (CA), inductive coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). For synthesized Pd x Co/C electrocatalysts, the highest catalytic activity for the ORR, was found for a Pd:Co atomic ratio of 3:1 in acid media at the presence and absence of methanol with optimal Pd–Pd bond distance (0.2729 nm). Since the Pd x Co/C alloy electrocatalysts are inactive for the adsorption and oxidation of methanol, it can act as a methanol-tolerant ORR catalyst in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) has been prepared by employing of the Pd 3 Co/C as a cathode for passive direct methanol fuel cell and characterized by polarization curves and impedance diagrams. The DMFC test results indicate that the MEA prepared from Pd 3 Co/C cathode exhibits better performance compared to the MEA prepared from Pt/C (Electrochem) and an in-house Pd/C catalyst synthesized, in terms of maximum power density and minimum charge transfer resistance

  15. Treatment and Managing Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reactions. Learn more here. Milk Egg Peanut Tree Nuts Soy Wheat Fish Shellfish Sesame Other Food ... a severe reaction. Consider wearing an emergency medical identification (e.g., bracelet, other jewelry). What to Read ...

  16. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  17. Preequilibrium Nuclear Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmaier, B.

    1988-01-01

    After a survey on existing experimental data on precompound reactions and a description of preequilibrium reactions, theoretical models and quantum mechanical theories of preequilibrium emission are presented. The 25 papers of this meeting are analyzed separately

  18. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Managing Your Emotional Reactions KidsHealth / For Teens / Managing Your Emotional Reactions ... Think about what you might do next time. Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our ...

  19. Heavy ion transfer reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    array (CLARA), extensive investigations of nuclear structure and reaction dynamics have been carried out. In the present paper aspects of these studies will be presented, focussing more closely on the reaction mechanism, in particular on the ...

  20. Direct Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beramendi, Virginia; Ellis, Andrew; Kaufman, Bruno

    While many books on direct democracy have a regional or national approach, or simply focus on one of the many mechanisms associated with direct democracy, this Handbook delves into a global comparison of direct democracy mechanisms, including referendums, citizens' initiatives, agenda initiatives...... learned. In addition, the uniquely comprehensive world survey outlines direct democracy provisions in 214 countries and territories and indicates which, if any, of these provisions are used by each country or territory at both the national and sub-national levels. Furthermore, the world survey includes...

  1. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  2. Thermonuclear reaction rates. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.J.; Fowler, W.A.; Caughlan, G.R.; Zimmerman, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    Stellar thermonuclear reaction rates are revised and updated, adding a number of new important reaction rates. Several reactions with large negative Q-values are included, and examples of them are discussed. The importance of the decay rates for Mg-26(p,n) exp 26 Al and Al-26(n,p) exp 26 Mg for stellar studies is emphasized. 19 references

  3. Maillard Reaction: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia d'Almeida Francisquini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maillard reaction is an important subject of study in food science and technology and different areas of knowledge are involved such as chemistry, food engineering, nutrition and food technology. The objective of this paper is to present the basic concepts of the Maillard reaction, such as the reaction stages, the main compounds producced and some technological consequences for dairy products.

  4. Resonant thermonuclear reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haubold, H.J.; Mathai, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Basic physical principles for the resonant and nonresonant thermonuclear reaction rates are applied to find their standard representations for nuclear astrophysics. Closed-form representations for the resonant reaction rate are derived in terms of Meijer's G-function. Analytic representations of the resonant and nonresonant nuclear reaction rates are compared and the appearance of Meijer's G-function is discussed in physical terms

  5. Directing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintoff, Ernest

    Providing an introduction to anyone considering directing as a field of study or career, this book takes a broad look at the process of directing and encourages students and professionals alike to look outside of the movie industry for inspiration. Chapters in the book discuss selecting and acquiring material; budgeting and financing; casting and…

  6. A cellular automata approach to chemical reactions : 1 reaction controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A direct link between the chemical reaction controlled (shrinking core) model and cellular automata, to study the dissolution of particles, is derived in this paper. Previous research on first and second order reactions is based on the concentration of the reactant. The present paper describes the

  7. Insights into the mechanisms on chemical reactions: reaction paths for chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, T.H. Jr.; Rosen, E.; Eades, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    We report reaction paths for two prototypical chemical reactions: Li + HF, an electron transfer reaction, and OH + H 2 , an abstraction reaction. In the first reaction we consider the connection between the energetic terms in the reaction path Hamiltonian and the electronic changes which occur upon reaction. In the second reaction we consider the treatment of vibrational effects in chemical reactions in the reaction path formalism. 30 refs., 9 figs

  8. Vibrational-rotational excitation: chemical reactions of vibrationally excited molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.B.; Smith, I.W.M.

    1979-03-01

    This review considers a limited number of systems, particularly gas-phase processes. Excited states and their preparation, direct bimolecular reactions, reactions of highly excited molecules, and reactions in condensed phases are discussed. Laser-induced isotope separation applications are mentioned briefly. 109 references

  9. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  10. The chemistry of the carbothermal synthesis of β-SiC : reaction mechanism, reaction rate and grain growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijen, F.K.; Metselaar, R.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence is given that in the present case the reaction mechanism of ß-SiC formation from silica and carbon is a direct solid-state reaction in which silica migrates over the silicon carbide surface to the carbon. A high value (440 kJ/mol) of activation energy is obtained for this reaction. This

  11. Direct Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P J

    1990-01-01

    Potential resources and applications of earth heat in the form of geothermal energy are large. United States direct uses amount to 2,100 MWt thermal and worldwide 8,850 MWt above a reference temperature of 35 degrees Celsius. Space and district heating are the major direct uses of geothermal energy. Equipment employed in direct use projects is of standard manufacture and includes downhole and circulation pumps, transmission and distribution pipelines, heat exchangers and convectors, heat pumps and chillers. Direct uses of earth heat discussed are space and district heating, greenhouse heating and fish farming, process and industrial applications. The economic feasibility of direct use projects is governed by site specific factors such as location of user and resource, resource quality, system load factor and load density, as well as financing. Examples are presented of district heating in Klamath Falls, and Elko. Further developments of direct uses of geothermal energy will depend on matching user needs to the resource, and improving load factors and load density.

  12. Nanoparticles and direct immunosuppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngobili, Terrika A

    2016-01-01

    Targeting the immune system with nanomaterials is an intensely active area of research. Specifically, the capability to induce immunosuppression is a promising complement for drug delivery and regenerative medicine therapies. Many novel strategies for immunosuppression rely on nanoparticles as delivery vehicles for small-molecule immunosuppressive compounds. As a consequence, efforts in understanding the mechanisms in which nanoparticles directly interact with the immune system have been overshadowed. The immunological activity of nanoparticles is dependent on the physiochemical properties of the nanoparticles and its subsequent cellular internalization. As the underlying factors for these reactions are elucidated, more nanoparticles may be engineered and evaluated for inducing immunosuppression and complementing immunosuppressive drugs. This review will briefly summarize the state-of-the-art and developments in understanding how nanoparticles induce immunosuppressive responses, compare the inherent properties of nanomaterials which induce these immunological reactions, and comment on the potential for using nanomaterials to modulate and control the immune system. PMID:27229901

  13. Directed polymers versus directed percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin-Healy, Timothy

    1998-10-01

    Universality plays a central role within the rubric of modern statistical mechanics, wherein an insightful continuum formulation rises above irrelevant microscopic details, capturing essential scaling behaviors. Nevertheless, occasions do arise where the lattice or another discrete aspect can constitute a formidable legacy. Directed polymers in random media, along with its close sibling, directed percolation, provide an intriguing case in point. Indeed, the deep blood relation between these two models may have sabotaged past efforts to fully characterize the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, to which the directed polymer belongs.

  14. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-08-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart.

  15. Proton-transfer reactions in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.; Schmidt, R.; Schuster, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ion-molecule reactions play an important role in various radiolytic processes, e.g. gas-pulse radiolysis, environmental research. For a discussion of mechanisms rate coefficients have to be assessed. Here gas-phase rate coefficients of ion-(polar) molecule reactions are calculated using the ideas of interaction potentials, reactive cross-sections and distribution functions of the translational energies of both the reactants (ions I, molecules M). The starting point of our approach, directed especially to gas-phase proton-transfer reactions, is the idea that the rate coefficient k can be calculated as an ion-molecule capture-rate coefficient multiplied by a 'steric factor' representing the probability for proton transfer. Mutual capture of the reaction partners within a possible reaction zone is caused by the physical interaction between an ion and a polar molecule. A model is discussed. Results are presented. (author)

  16. Nuclear reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, J.M.; Lacey, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Research focused on the statistical and dynamical properties of ''hot'' nuclei formed in symmetric heavy-ion reactions. Theses included ''flow'' measurements and the mechanism for multifragment disassembly. Model calculations are being performed for the reactions C+C, Ne+Al, Ar+Sc, Kr+Nb, and Xe+La. It is planned to study 40 Ar reactions from 27 to 115 MeV/nucleon. 2 figs., 41 refs

  17. Knock-out reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Forest, T. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is pointed out that the primary motivation for performing high energy single nucleon knock-out reactions is based on the concept of quasi-elastic scattering. The validity of and corrections to the partial wave impulse approximation and kinematical invariance of knock-out reactions and tests of the reaction mechanism are treated. The effect of distortions on the momentum distribution in the effective momentum approximation for given parameters are plotted. 12 references

  18. Reaction kinetics of polybutylene terephthalate polycondensation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darda, P. J.; Hogendoorn, J. A.; Versteeg, G. F.; Souren, F.

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the forward polycondensation reaction of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) has been investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PBT - prepolymer with an initial degree of polymerization of 5.5 was used as starting material. The PBT prepolymer was prepared from dimethyl

  19. Thermonuclear reaction listing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, Yuzo

    1993-01-01

    The following 10 elements, including T, are well known as nuclear fusion fuels: p, D, T, 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, 10 B, 11 B, ( 12 C, 13 C), where 12 C and 13 C are considered only in the calculation of Q value. Accordingly the number of the thermonuclear reactions is 55, and 78, if including carbon elements. The reactions have some branches. For the branches having two and three reaction products, the reaction products, Q value and threshold energy are calculated by using a computer. We have investigated those of the branches having more than three products from the papers of Ajzenberg-Selove and so on. And also, by the same papers, we check whether the above mentioned branch has been observed or not. The results are as follows: (I) the number of reactions which have Q 0 branches only with γ ray production, and Q 0 and neutron production is 36(17), and (IV) that of reactions whose branch with Q > 0 does not produce neutrons is 9(3). The value in the parentheses shows the number of the case of the carbon elements. For 55 thermonuclear reactions induced by lighter nuclides than 11 B, the reaction products, the values of Q and threshold energy, and the papers with reaction cross section data are presented in the tables. (author)

  20. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, M Allen [Berkeley, CA; Beeman, Barton V [San Mateo, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hadley, Dean R [Manteca, CA; Landre, Phoebe [Livermore, CA; Lehew, Stacy L [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  1. Tattoo reaction: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. In this series we present three cases of tattoo reaction.

  2. Continuum spectra in light-ion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Udagawa, T. [Texas Univ., Austin (USA). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of multi-step direct reaction method, to fit continuum cross sections of light-ion reactions, are reviewed. There has been a long-standing difficulty in reproducing sufficiently large (p, p') continuum cross section, but it has now been all but removed. It will be discussed in some detail, how this was achieved. Analyses of very recent data on analyzing powers in the continuum of (p, p') and (p, ..cap alpha..) reactions will also be discussed. Finally, analysis of the breakup of h into d and p will be presented.

  3. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Induced Reactions: Quasi-Free Reactions and RIBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Coc, A.; Kubono, S.; Binh, D. N.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; De Sereville, N.

    2010-01-01

    The use of quasi-free reactions in studying nuclear reactions between charged particles of astrophysical interest has received much attention over the last two decades. The Trojan Horse Method is based on this approach and it has been used to study a number of reactions relevant for Nuclear Astrophysics. Recently we applied this method to the study of nuclear reactions that involve radioactive species, namely to the study of the 18 F+p→ 15 O+α process at temperatures corresponding to the energies available in the classical novae scenario. Quasi-free reactions can also be exploited to study processes induced by neutrons. This technique is particularly interesting when applied to reaction induced by neutrons on unstable short-lived nuclei. Such processes are very important in the nucleosynthesis of elements in the sand r-processes scenarios and this technique can give hints for solving key questions in nuclear astrophysics where direct measurements are practically impossible.

  4. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  5. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  6. Precompound Reactions: Basic Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.

    2008-01-01

    Because of the non-zero nuclear equilibration time, the compound-nucleus scattering model fails when the incident energy exceeds 10 or 20 MeV, and precompound reactions become important. Basic ideas used in the quantum-statistical approaches to these reactions are described

  7. Nuclear Reaction Data Centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.; Nordborg, C.; Lemmel, H.D.; Manokhin, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    The cooperating Nuclear Reaction Data Centers are involved in the compilation and exchange of nuclear reaction data for incident neutrons, charged particles and photons. Individual centers may also have services in other areas, e.g., evaluated data, nuclear structure and decay data, reactor physics, nuclear safety; some of this information may also be exchanged between interested centers. 20 refs., 1 tab

  8. Fluorogenic organocatalytic reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raeisolsadati Oskouei, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, we introduce fluorescence spectroscopy as a new tool to gain insight into the interactions between the substrates and catalyst during organocatalytic reactions. The ultimate goal is to resolve the kinetics of the binding and reaction steps and obtain detailed understanding of the

  9. Applications of Reaction Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an assignment in which students are to research and report on a chemical reaction whose increased or decreased rate is of practical importance. Specifically, students are asked to represent the reaction they have chosen with an acceptable chemical equation, identify a factor that influences its rate and explain how and why it…

  10. Chemical burn or reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemicals that touch skin can lead to a reaction on the skin, throughout the body, or both. ... leave the person alone and watch carefully for reactions affecting the entire body. Note: If a chemical gets into the eyes, the eyes should be ...

  11. Degradations and Rearrangement Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianbo

    This section deals with recent reports concerning degradation and rearrangement reactions of free sugars as well as some glycosides. The transformations are classified in chemical and enzymatic ways. In addition, the Maillard reaction will be discussed as an example of degradation and rearrangement transformation and its application in current research in the fields of chemistry and biology.

  12. The nuclear reaction model code MEDICUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibishia, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    The new computer code MEDICUS has been used to calculate cross sections of nuclear reactions. The code, implemented in MATLAB 6.5, Mathematica 5, and Fortran 95 programming languages, can be run in graphical and command line mode. Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been built that allows the user to perform calculations and to plot results just by mouse clicking. The MS Windows XP and Red Hat Linux platforms are supported. MEDICUS is a modern nuclear reaction code that can compute charged particle-, photon-, and neutron-induced reactions in the energy range from thresholds to about 200 MeV. The calculation of the cross sections of nuclear reactions are done in the framework of the Exact Many-Body Nuclear Cluster Model (EMBNCM), Direct Nuclear Reactions, Pre-equilibrium Reactions, Optical Model, DWBA, and Exciton Model with Cluster Emission. The code can be used also for the calculation of nuclear cluster structure of nuclei. We have calculated nuclear cluster models for some nuclei such as 177 Lu, 90 Y, and 27 Al. It has been found that nucleus 27 Al can be represented through the two different nuclear cluster models: 25 Mg + d and 24 Na + 3 He. Cross sections in function of energy for the reaction 27 Al( 3 He,x) 22 Na, established as a production method of 22 Na, are calculated by the code MEDICUS. Theoretical calculations of cross sections are in good agreement with experimental results. Reaction mechanisms are taken into account. (author)

  13. A dynamical theory of incomplete fusion reactions: The breakup-fusion reaction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udagawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    A dynamical theory of partial fusion reactions is presented, which may fill the gap between direct and compound nuclear reaction theories. With the new theory one can calculate partial fusion taking place in three-body (and many more) channels reached via direct reactions, e.g., breakup and knockout reactions. The authors present first the results for the cross section for such reactions, taking as an example breakup followed by fusion. They then discuss a physical picture which emerges from their theory, namely that the partial fusion reactions, particularly of the massive-transfer type, take place in a so-called deep peripheral region. It is also shown that the deep peripheral character of such processes diminishes as the mass of the fused system decreases, so that the reactions essentially evolve to the usual peripheral character. Finally, comparisons are made of results of numerical calculations with experimental data, taking as an example the /sup 159/Tb(/sup 14/N,α) reaction with E/sub lab/ = 95 MeV

  14. The Reaction Wheel Pendulum

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Daniel J; Spong, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    This monograph describes the Reaction Wheel Pendulum, the newest inverted-pendulum-like device for control education and research. We discuss the history and background of the reaction wheel pendulum and other similar experimental devices. We develop mathematical models of the reaction wheel pendulum in depth, including linear and nonlinear models, and models of the sensors and actuators that are used for feedback control. We treat various aspects of the control problem, from linear control of themotor, to stabilization of the pendulum about an equilibrium configuration using linear control, t

  15. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  16. Firefighter Nozzle Reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chin, Selena K.; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    to anchor forces, the hose becomes straight. The nozzle reaction is found to equal the jet momentum flow rate, and it does not change when an elbow connects the hose to the nozzle. A forward force must be exerted by a firefighter or another anchor that matches the forward force that the jet would exert...... on a perpendicular wall. Three reaction expressions are derived, allowing it to be determined in terms of hose diameter, jet diameter, flow rate, and static pressure upstream of the nozzle. The nozzle reaction predictions used by the fire service are 56% to 90% of those obtained here for typical firefighting hand...

  17. The dynamics of the Hg + Br2 reaction: elucidation of the reaction mechanism for the Br exchange reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrina, P G; Menéndez, M; Aoiz, F J

    2017-06-28

    In spite of its importance in the Hg atmospheric chemistry, the dynamics of the Hg + Br 2 → HgBr + Br reaction is poorly understood. In this article, we have carried out a comprehensive study of the reaction mechanism of this reaction by means of quasiclassical trajectories (QCTs) on an existing ab initio potential energy surface (PES). The reaction has a non trivial dynamics, as a consequence of its large endothermicity, the presence of a deep potential well, and the competition between the Br exchange and the collision induced dissociation processes. Our calculations demonstrate that insertion is only relevant at energies just above the reaction threshold and that, at energies above 2.3 eV, HgBr formation typically takes place via a sort of frustrated dissociation. In order to compare directly with the results obtained in extensive cross molecular beam experiments for the homologous reaction with I 2 , angular distributions in the laboratory frame for Hg + Br 2 have been simulated under similar experimental conditions. The lack of agreement at the highest energies considered suggests that either the two reactions have substantially different mechanisms or that calculations on a single PES cannot account for the dynamics at those energies.

  18. New aspects of high energy heavy-ion transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.K.

    1975-03-01

    New aspects of heavy ion reactions at incident energies in the region of 10 MeV/nucleon are discussed with an emphasis on the peripheral nature of the collisions, which leads to simplicities in the differential cross sections. The distortion of the peripheral distribution through the interference of direct and multistep processes is used to illustrate aspects of high energy reactions unique to heavy ions. The simplicities of the distributions for reactions on lighter nuclei are exploited to give new information about nuclear structure from direct and compound reactions at high energy. (16 figures, 32 references) (U.S.)

  19. Nucleon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuca, S.; Antalik, R.; Kristiak, J.

    1988-01-01

    The collection contains full texts of 37 contributions; all fall within the INIS Subject Scope. The topics treated include some unsolved problems of nuclear reactions and relevant problems of nuclear structure at low and intermediate energies. (Z.S.)

  20. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.