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Sample records for radurized meat relative

  1. Radurization of fowl meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of pre-slaughter adrenalization and of treatment with additives of semifinished poultry products were studied with a view to improving the storage quality of irradiated poultry. It was found that pre-slaughter adrenalization, pre-irradiation treatment with phosphates and, particularly, a combination of these two methods considerably delayed the formation of carbonyl compounds, the delay being somewhat greater in white meat. (E.T.)

  2. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO 2 , and N 2 ). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D 10 values [doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1] under CO 2 packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N 2 . The D 10 values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D 10 values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium

  3. Perspectives of the radurization of meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmin, V.V.; Silaev, M.P.; Makarova, M.P.; Prizenko, V.K.

    1973-01-01

    At present radiation doses of 0.2-0.6 Mrad are the most promising for meat treatment as they do not result in undesirable changes of the organoleptic properties of the products. Radurization of the half-finished products beefsteak (I), ''schnitzel'' (II) and comminuted salted meat (III), vacuum packed in polymer packages, was studied. In order to exclude exudation and inhibit oxidative changes some samples (II) were rolled in an ascorbic acid-tripolyphosphate mixture. Some samples (III) were cured with pyrophosphate. Irradiation was carried out by means of gamma rays with doses of 0.2-0.4 (I), 0.6 (II) and 0.3 (III) Mrad. Samples were kept at +5 0 C. On the basis of organoleptic and chemical investigations, microbiological and technological tests for III it was found that the shelf-life of high-quality beefsteak irradiated with doses of 0.4 Mrad lasted 4 weeks, with doses of 0.2 Mrad for 2 weeks, with 0.3 Mrad for 3 weeks. Schnitzel breaded and irradiated with 0.6 Mrad was of high quality after 2 months of storage. The meat cured with pyrophosphate kept its technological and consumer qualities during the same period of time. It was calculated that by using a 60 Co installation, with an activity of 400 kg-equivalent of radium and irradiating a ton of half-finished products per day with doses of 0.4 Mrad and a coefficient of radiation utilization of 30%, transport expenses of radurized half-finished meat products (I) would be profitable at distances above 100 km compared to the transport of cattle or, at distances over 700 km, as compared to that of carcasses halves or quarters. (F.J.)

  4. Physiology and taxonomy of lactobacilli surviving radurization of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate radiation-resistant lacto-bacilli from radurized (5 kGy) vacuum-packaged meat and subject them to biochemical, metabolic and physiological testing in order to gain a clearer understanding of the taxonomy of this group as well as determine characteristics which may be of technological significance. All 113 of the lactobacilli isolated were homofermentative, aciduric and were allocated to the sub-genus Streptobacterium. Numerical taxonomy by unweighted pair-group average linkage analysis revealed the existence of 5 clusters of the isolates. The same 113 isolates were classified using a purely classical taxonomic approach where the isolates were divided into 4 groups according to species designation. The basis upon which they were identified as a particular species was mainly their carbohydrate fermentation pattern. Several of the 113 isolates were selected for tests to determine characteristics of technological importance. All L.sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to irradiation in the logarithmic phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycle. This phenomenon was not characteristic of all the bacteria and was not always related to high radiation-resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three authentic strains were subjected to radiation-sensitivity testing in a natural food system where the bacteria were irradiated in minced meat packaged under four different conditions. The organisms exhibited the highest death rates under CO 2 packaging but resistance seemed to increase under N 2 -packaging. The radiation-resistance of the isolates was greater than that of the reference strains and all strains were approximately twice as resistant in the meat microenvironment than in a synthetic medium

  5. Influence radurization on the sensory properties of broiler meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabielski, J.; Fiszer, W.; Mroz, J.; Niewiarowicz, A.

    1981-01-01

    The sensory properties of normal, PSE and DFD chicken carcasses have been investigated. Raw carcasses treated with 2,5 kGy and 5,0 kGy could be distinguished from non-irradiated by its appearance and slight irradiation odour, however all samples were in the acceptable range. The broiler carcasses after 14 days of storage in 4+-1 degC had received sensory acceptance ratings comparable with fresh, non-irradiated samples. Due to unpalatable odour, the shelf-life of radurized PSE carcasses was limited to 14 days in comparison with 21 days for normal and DFD type broiler meat. (author)

  6. Studies on radurization of chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harikumar, P.; Ninjoor, V.; Kumta, U.S.

    1976-01-01

    Process parameters for the preservation of chicken meat by low dose γ-radiation have been defined. Leg muscle and breast muscle samples were separately packed in polythylene pouches with without vacuum and exposed to γ-radiation (0.10 - 0.25 Mrad) at ice temperature. The irradiated samples along with the unirradiated controls were stored at 0-4 degC. The quality attributes of the samples were assessed in terms of the organoleptic score and biochemical parameters such as TMAN, TVBN and TBA values. The results showed that the unirradiated samples spoiled during 10 days storage while irradiated samples were acceptable upto 21 days. Vacuum packaging prior to irradiation was found to suppress the TVBN, and TBA values throughout the storage period. This resulted in the enhanced acceptibility of the product during storage. (author)

  7. Radiation resistance of lactobacilli isolated from radurized meat relative to growth and environment. [Lactobacillus sake; Lactobacillus curvatus; Lactobacillus farciminis; Staphylococcus aureus; Salmonella typimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, J.W.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1986-10-01

    Of 113 lactobacilli isolated from radurized (5 kGy) minced meat, 7 Lactobacillus sake strains, 1 L. curvatus strain, and 1 L. farciminis strain were used for radiation resistance studies in a semisynthetic substrate (i.e., modified MRS broth). Five reference Lactobacillus spp. one Staphylococcus aureus strain, and one Salmonella typhimurium strain were used for comparative purposes. All L. sake isolates exhibited the phenomenon of being more resistant to gamma-irradiation in the exponential (log) phase than in the stationary phase of their growth cycles by a factor of 28%. Four reference strains also exhibited this phenomenon, with L. sake (DSM 20017) showing a 68% increase in resistance in the log phase over the stationary phase. This phenomenon was not common to all bacteria tested and is not common to all strains with high radiation resistance. Four L. sake isolates and three reference strains were used in radiation sensitivity testing in a natural food system (i.e., meat). The bacteria were irradiated in minced meat and packaged under four different conditions (air, vacuum, CO/sub 2/, and N/sub 2/). Organisms exhibited the highest death rate (lowest D/sub 10/ values (doses required to reduce the logarithm of the bacterial population by 1) under CO/sub 2/ packaging conditions, but resistance to irradiation was increased under N/sub 2/. The D/sup 10/ values of the isolates were generally greater than those of the reference strains. The D/sup 10/ values were also higher (approximately two times) in meat than in a semisynthetic growth medium.

  8. Biochemical fundamentals of rational radurization technology of cooled meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.Yu.; Anisimov, B.N.

    1974-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in the last few years to explore the possibility of prolonging the storage life of meat in a cooled state. These experiments have shown that a clearly promising approach is to use relatively low doses of ionizing radiation (300-600 Krad). Irradiation of meat and fowl with such doses strongly reduced microbial contamination while increasing 3- to 5-fold the storage life of the products at low above-zero C temperatures. An important consideration is that the organoleptic and nutritive properties remain largely unchanged. The present communication reports the main results of biochemical studies necessary before an irradiation scheme for semifinished meat products can be developed. (E.T.)

  9. Effect of radurization and combined soaking treatment on meat texture during cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Mahmoud, A.A.; Emam, O.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sensory and objective texture properties of 0, 2, 5, and 10 KGy irradiated beef meat were followed throughout different cold periods at 4 plus or minus 1 degree. Irradiation doses up to KGy caused slight toughness which could only be detected by plasticity measurements. When soaking treatment in 250 ppm butylated hydroxy toluene and 0.5% sodium pyrophosphate was combined with the irradiation treatments in all the tested levels, the texture was not significantly affected. Progressive increase in the meat tenderness was detected during cold storage. The higher the irradiation dose the much less meat tenderness was observed during cold storage. The magnitude of the differently used texture-measurement method responses to ageing was varied. Plasticity measurements gave higher correlation coefficients with sensory panels than intron measurements

  10. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  11. Effect of radurization of the chemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakeil, F.A.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Salama, N.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The possible use of irradiation at three different doses, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad, to prolong the shelf-life of chicken meat was investigated. A pretreatment with salt solution (2.5% NaCl and 0.25% Na 5 PH 3 O 10 ) was also studied. The effect of such pretreatments and irradiation doses on the chemical, microbiological and acceptability characteristics were evaluated. A shelf-life extension of 4 weeks with satisfactorily acceptable scores was obtained at 1.5 Mrad. Salt pretreatment had an improving effect on the acceptability scores, even at 0.8 Mrad after 4 weeks. The microbial level directly after irradiation was reduced by about 80 to 95% in all the samples investigated. The rate of bacterial growth increased during storage and reached a maximum of 10 5 /g at 0.8 Mrad in the samples pretreated with salt. At this level the samples were still acceptable. All the irradiated samples showed neither E. coli nor faecal streptococci, although they were both found in the controls. Irradiation apparently resulted in a net increase in the free amino acids, which increased from abut 0.67 in the control to about 1.9 after four weeks of storage. This increase was clearer in lysine, methionine and valine. On the other hand, salt pretreatment revealed the same trend, reaching about 1.2 especially in glutamic acid, aspartic acid, histidine, methionine and valine. Radiation at a dose of 0.8 Mrad failed to prolong the shelf-life of the birds as TBA values increased significantly and rendered the flesh unacceptable to the consumer after two weeks. Higher radiation doses, i.e. 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad, kept the TBA values and consequently the organoleptic properties within the acceptable range, even after 4 weeks of storage. The use of salt and sodium pyrophosphate clearly lowered the TBA values even at 0.8 Mrad. However, the TBA values at the end of the shelf-life did not exceed the normal range for unspoiled meat. (author)

  12. Radurization of brown shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.; Muenzner, R.

    1976-01-01

    Brown shrimps (Crangon vulgaris) from the North sea coast were blanched on board, and irradiated with cobalt-60 gamma-rays at a minimum dose of 130 krad either before or after peeling. Other samples were irradiated before and after peeling. Control samples remained untreated or were preserved with benzoic acid. Irradiation before peeling did not result in a lasting improvement of keeping quality. However, irradiation of the peeled shrimp meat resulted in a reduction of the total bacterial load by up to 4 orders of magnitude. Shelf life until the initial microbial count was reached was 9 days for chemically treated samples, 18 days for samples irradiated after peeling, and 20 days for samples irradiated before and after peeling. Sensory evaluation and determination of volatile basic nitrogen gave similar results. The obtained diminution of the counts of staphylococci, enterococci and enterobacteriaceae reduces the hygienic hazard. Radurization of shrimp meat proved to be a satisfactory means of preservation. Introduction of the product into the market and best presentation and packaging require further investigations. (orig.) [de

  13. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  14. The contribution of radurization to food provision in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.; Thomas, A.C.; Hill, N.

    1988-01-01

    The preservation of food by radurization on a limited commercial basis has been practised in South Africa since 1980. High capital costs have, however, had a negative effect on the commercialization of radurization technology. The state of radurization in South Africa is presented. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  15. Progress with commercial food radurization in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The commercial radurization of food is not a simple process although it has high potential advantages in a world of malnutrition and undernourishment. Before investing in food technology, the undertaker has to be sure about the user's acceptance of his product and the provitability of his process. The Atomic Energy Corporation undertook a marketing survey in South Africa in which the radurization process, its advantages and its feasibility was tested and demonstrated

  16. Quality assessment of radurized Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadi, S.V.; Alur, M.D.; Ghosh, S.K.; Doke, S.N.; Lewis, N.F.; Nadkarni, G.B.

    1978-01-01

    Radurization of Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) at a dose of 150 krad was found to enhance the storage life from 8-10 to 21-24 days at 0 0 C, and from 5-7 to 13-15 days at 5 0 C. Representative bacterial species isolated from mackerel, differed widely in their spoilage potential. Assessment of alternations in the textural attributes of radurized mackerel during storage, provided a satisfactory index of quality. (author)

  17. Progress with commercial food radurization in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linde, H J

    1986-07-01

    The commercial radurization of food is not a simple process although it has high potential advantages in a world of malnutrition and undernourishment. Before investing in food technology, the undertaker has to be sure about the user's acceptance of his product and the profitability of his process. The Atomic Energy Corporation undertook a marketing survey in South Africa in which the radurization process, its advantages and its feasibility was tested and demonstrated.

  18. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Weijzen, Pascalle; Engels, Wim; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2011-06-01

    What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of colorectal adenomas in relation to meat consumption, meat preparation, and genetic susceptibility in a Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Voskuil, D.W.; Bunschoten, A.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: We studied the association between meat consumption and colorectal adenomas, and potential influence of genetic susceptibility to heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) formed during meat cooking at high temperatures. Methods: We studied HCA concentration in relation to preparation habits

  20. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3 0 C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish; thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement. (author)

  1. Radurization of commercial freshwater fish species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; McDougall, T.E.; Sprung, W.; Sullivan, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of radurization on the shelf life of fresh Whitefish obtained through ordinary commercial channels has been determined. Whitefish fillets irradiated at 1.2 kGy and stored at 3/sup 0/C have a shelf life three times longer than the unirradiated fish. When the fish was irradiated at 0.82 kGy a two fold shelf-life extension was obtained. The shelf life was estimated by sensory, chemical and microbiological evaluations. Sensory evaluation involved organoleptic assessment of raw and cooked samples. Since freshwater fish do not contain trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), alternate tests for freshness were required. It was found the determination of hypoxanthine and total volatile acid number (VAN) are excellent tests for freshness and quality of freshwater fish;thus, these analyses were adopted. The degree of radiation-induced lipid oxidation was measured by the thiobarbituric acid test (TBA). It was found at doses of 0.82 and 1.2 kGy the TBA number remained within acceptable limits in all samples. Microbiological analyses consisted of the total microbial load assessment in the sample, as well as Pseudomonas and total psychrotrophic counts. The estimated shelf lives as determined by the three separate evaluations were in very good agreement

  2. Fish radurization on board of mediterranean fishing boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, M.; Tata, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a feasibility-study carrie out by ENEA with the technical support of ICRAP. Owing to its conclusions, the authors can locate some areas of possible application of fish-radurization both for the inner and for the foreign market. The former may offer in particular the opportunity of the on-board radurization, because of its peculiar characteristics. The latter may be particularly receptive in the case of those countries where refrigerating line is lacking and where the distribution of fresh fish-products seems rather difficult

  3. Influence of cooling preservation prior to rabbit flesh radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, M.E.; Medina de Dias, R.; Blocklet, M.F.; Nacif, N.; Engler, S.A. de.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effects of low gamma irradiation doses (radurization) on rabbit flesh preservation (Lepus cunniculus L), with a 9 days work period and refrigerated up to the treatment. Chopped samples, which receive 1.5, 2 and 2.5 KGy, were used. (Author) [es

  4. Occurrence of Salmonella in retail beef and related meat products in Zaria, Nigeria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafida, S.Y.; Kabir, J.; Kwaga, J.K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is among the most important food borne pathogens worldwide contaminating a wide range of animal products including meat products. Human illnesses due to this pathogen are attributed to poor biosecurity in production, improper processing and handling of meat and meat products....... This is more likely where surveillance and regulatory control is weak. There is however limited information on the occurrence of these pathogens in foods in Nigeria. The extent of contamination of retail-beef and related meat products with Salmonellae in Zaria was evaluated. A total of 435 retailed beef...... and related meat products consisting of muscle meat, offal and processed meat products were tested for the presence of Salmonella species. Sample types included raw meat, ‘suya’ (roasted meat), ‘balangu’ (barbequed meat), ‘Kilishi’ (spiced sun dried meat) and ‘dambu’ (shredded fried meat). Samples were...

  5. Properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2013-04-01

    The properties of raw meat and meat curry from spent goat meat in relation with post-mortem handling conditions were evaluated. The conditions evaluated were: cooking of meat within 1-2 h post-slaughter (condition 1); deboning meat storage at 25 ± 2 °C for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 2); post-slaughter storage of carcass at room temperature for 5-6 h, then deboning followed by storage of meat at refrigeration temperature for 5-6 h and cooking (condition 3); deboning and storage of meat at 25 ± 2 °C for 10-12 h and cooking (condition 4). Significant difference was observed in pH values in condition 1 (p meat as compared to the conditions 2, 3 and 4. However, the moisture content of cooked meat was significantly higher (p meat chunks, that is, the mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for condition 2 and significantly lower for condition 1. Sensory scores were significantly higher in condition 1 and significantly lower in condition 2. However, sensory scores for condition 4 were almost similar to the condition 1.

  6. Radurization of onions for the improvement of storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heins, H.G.

    1974-09-01

    Test results for radiation effects in onions are reported. Low radiation doses of gamma rays may be used and irradiation may take place up to four weeks after harvesting for nearly complete sprout inhibition. Mechanical harvesting has no unfavourable influence. Organoleptic properties remain good. Therefore, radurization on a commercial scale is feasible. A survey is given of the equipment, cost, investment, licensing and admission procedure

  7. meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    These nutrient values determined in meat from red hartebeest could ... percentage of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Wiklund et al., 2001). .... system (1525 HPLC with a binary gradient delivery, 717 auto-sampler and Injector, 1500 ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork: A review.

  8. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Stafleu, Annette; de Graaf, Cees

    2004-06-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, 1997/1998. Vegetarians (n = 63) and consumers of meat substitutes (n = 39) had similar socio-demographic profiles: higher education levels, higher social economic status, smaller households, and more urbanised residential areas, compared to meat consumers (n = 4313). Attitudes to food were assessed by the food-related lifestyle instrument. We found that vegetarians (n = 32) had more positive attitudes towards importance of product information, speciality shops, health, novelty, ecological products, social event, and social relationships than meat consumers (n = 1638). The health consciousness scale, which was used to assess attitudes to health, supported earlier findings that vegetarians are more occupied by health. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of meat substitute consumers (n = 17) were predominantly in-between those from vegetarians and meat consumers. The outcome of this study suggests that in strategies to promote meat substitutes for non-vegetarian consumers, the focus should not only be on health and ecological aspects of foods.

  9. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  10. Impact of Culture on Meat and Related Food Preferences in Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of meat and related food products marketing in Akwa Ibom State is conditioned by the specifics of culture. In this study, cultural effect on meat consumption is examined. A sample of 568 respondents were analysed with OLS regression. The results reveal that meat consumption and preferences for related ...

  11. Vacuum influence in the radurization of the Merluccius Merluccius Hubsi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, Miguel.

    1976-02-01

    A study was performed in order to determine the vacuum influence in the radurization of the merluce fillet in vaccum packed products irradiated at a dose of 0,5 Mrad. The product quality evaluation was performed using the periodical analysis of their organoleptic characteristics and determining the Trimetilamine values, Volatile Acid Number, Total Volatile Bases and Volatile Reducing Substances. The preservation state of the product was determined calculating the ''Edibility Index'' (Esub(I)). The results show that the vacuum packing conditions would allow to preserve at 4 deg C the merluce irradiated fillets during 48 days. (author) [es

  12. Application of ionizing radiation in treatment of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlackova, J.

    1984-01-01

    Processes used for meat treatment for storage (cooling, radurization + cooling, freezing, heat treatment and radappertization) are compared with regard to energy demand. The effect of doses above 10 kGy and below 10 kGy are discussed. Doses of ionizing radiation may be combined with other techniques (heat treatment, the addition of certain chemicals or antibiotics). Czechoslovak experience with irradiation of meat with tapeworm cysticerci is described. (E.F.)

  13. Kinetics of spoilage fermentation in radurized fish and optimization of irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Kinetic studies on radiation-inactivation and the postirradiation growth of spoilage microorganisms during chill storage and their product formation inradurized fish were carried out. Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples unirradiated, and those irradiated at 1,2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma radiation were stored at +2 o C for 21 days. Microbiological analyses of mesophilic, psycrophilic and total bacterial counts (TBC) and chemical analyses of trimethylamine (TMA) and total volatile bases (TVB) of the samples were done immediately after irradiation and periodically during storage. Radiation induced inactivations of bacteria were expressed with a first-order decreasing kinetics. A spoilage fermentation modeling was used to evaluate the quality control parameters of radurized fish in which the increase in TBC of survivor microorganisms during storage was described by a first-order growth with a lag phase and the production of TMA and TVB was described by a growth associated product formation. Examinations of the dose effects on the kinetic parameters resulted in that the relation between the product formation rate constants and the irradiation dose represented a parabolic function which was satisfactorily used to determine optimum irradiation dose. Optimum irradiation dose was found 1.719+- 0.471 kGy with TVB data resulting in an extended shelf-life of 15-16 days of fish. It is suggested that the kinetic evaluation method developed in this study may be substitute for or used with the analytical estimate in use comprising microbiological chemical and organoleptic controls for quality assessment and dose optimization of radurization processing of fish and other sea foods.(2 tab s. and 24 refs.)

  14. RESEARCH ON QUALITY OF POULTRY MEAT RELATED TO GROWTH SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Zeicu E.; Boltea F.; Vatca Gh.; Vekony E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the influence of extensive and intensive growth systems on some physically-chemically characteristics of poultry meat. Humidity, protein and fat contents are higher in case of meat coming from broilers growth in intensive system, and the alteration rate also. High content of minerals was determined in the meat coming from broilers growth in extensive system

  15. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Luning, P.A.; Weijzen, P.; Engels, W.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n = 553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and

  16. Lengthening of the storage life of cooled chicken through radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    Radurization is a particularly suitable method to lengthen the shelf life of chicken carcasses. A study was undertaken to determine the influence of four different dose rates and three storage temperatures, namely 3, 4, 5 and 7 kGy and 2, 4 and 8 degrees Celsius respectively. A total bacteria population of 10 6 per gramme was used as cut-off point for shelf life. Accordingly the untreated samples had a shelf life of 3 days at 4 degrees Celsius in comparison with 13 and 29 days for 3 and 5 kGy respectively. This study showed that low gamma radiation doses is not only an economical preservation method for chicken carcasses, but also destroys typical food pathogens such as Salmonella spp. The method also produces an organoleptic acceptable product

  17. Dietary meat intake in relation to colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Sinha, Rashmi; Graubard, Barry I; Mayne, Susan T; Ma, Xiaomei; Schatzkin, Arthur; Schoenfeld, Philip S; Cash, Brooks D; Flood, Andrew; Cross, Amanda J

    2009-05-01

    No previous study has concurrently assessed the associations between meat intake, meat-cooking methods and doneness levels, meat mutagens (heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, and nitrite from meat and colorectal adenoma in asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy. Of the 807 eligible women in a cross-sectional multicenter colonoscopy screening study, 158 prevalent colorectal adenoma cases and 649 controls satisfactorily completed the validated food frequency and meat questionnaires. Using an established meat mutagen database and new heme iron and nitrite databases, we comprehensively investigated the components of meat that may be involved in carcinogenesis. Using logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) within quartiles of meat-related variables. Red meat was associated positively with colorectal adenoma (OR fourth vs. first quartile = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.06-3.83; P trend = 0.38). Intake of pan-fried meat (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 0.96-3.07; P trend = 0.01) and the HCA: 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) (OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.05-3.42; P trend = 0.07) were also associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma. The new databases yielded lower estimates of heme iron and nitrite than previous assessment methods, although the two methods were highly correlated for both exposures. Although not statistically significant, there were positive associations between iron and heme iron from meat and colorectal adenoma. In asymptomatic women undergoing colonoscopy, colorectal adenomas were associated with high intake of red meat, pan-fried meat, and the HCA MeIQx. Other meat-related exposures require further investigation.

  18. Studies on the Storage Stability and Feasibility of Radurization of Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger Kanagurta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghadi, S. V.; Alur, M. D.; Venugopal, V.; Doke, S. N.; Ghosh, S. K.; Lewis, N. F.; Nadkarni, G. B. [Biochemistry and Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)

    1978-04-15

    Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) is one of the commercially important varieties of fish in India, preferred by the consumer in a fresh condition. Due to its short storage life, large portions of the catch are either sun-dried or cured with salt, yielding products that fetch a very low price. The conservation of fresh fish would facilitate better distribution in the interior of the country. Radurization of mackerel offers a potential for extending the shelf-life in ice by a factor of three. A dose of 150 krad was observed to be optimal to enhance the storage life to 25-28 days from 10 -12 days without inducing undesirable changes in the organoleptic attributes. Time-temperature-tolerance (TTT) between 0-20 Degree-Sign C of the radurized and unirradiated mackerel was ascertained with reference to physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic parameters. The rate of spoilage of unirradiated mackerel was 3-fold higher than that of radurized samples when the storage temperature did not exceed 5 Degree-Sign C. It was observed that alterations in shear force, water-holding capacity and plasticity index were less in radurized samples, pointing to the retention of textural attributes during the extended storage. The microflora of mackerel during storage revealed that the terminal flora of the unirradiated mackerel were predominantly gram-negative including Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria spp. while that of radurized fish comprised mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus spp. The spores of Bacillus sp. 128 isolated from radurized mackerel were observed to exhibit exceptionally high resistance to both u.v. and gamma radiation. Packaging and transportation have also been examined to ascertain the feasibility of this process for general application. (author)

  19. Meat-Related Compounds and Colorectal Cancer Risk by Anatomical Subsite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E.; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M.; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E.; Hartman, Terryl J.

    2012-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends meat type, cooking method, and doneness preference, positive associations between red processed meat and proximal colon cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends nitrites, and nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted. PMID:23441608

  20. Ionizing energy treatment of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, J.J.; Eustace, I.J.; Grau, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation treatments that have received most attention with respect to red meats are radappertization, i.e. radiation sterilization (25-70 kGy), to enable the long term storage of meat without refrigeration, and radurization (0.5-10 kGy) in which a sufficient proportion of spoilage organisms are inactivated to enable the storage life of chilled meat to be extended. Shelf-stable radappertized meats cannot be produced in the fresh-like condition; they need to be heated to about 70 deg. C to inactivate endogenous enzymes that would otherwise cause flavour and texture defects. The products should be vacuum sealed in oxgyen-impermeable packages and irradiated in the frozen state, otherwise pronounced off-flavours and off-odours are formed. The radiation dose required to give a useful degree of microbial inactivation and permit an increase of storage life depends upon treatment and storage conditions. The dose required is likely to be in the range 0.25 to 1.0 kGy if aerobic conditions apply, and 1 to 4 kGy if anaerobic conditions apply. An acceleration in the rate of development of rancidity in meat as a result of irradiation may be of concern when meat is treated under aerobic conditions. At the highest dose indicated above for meat irradiated under anaerobic conditions (4 kGy), effects on the organoleptic attributes of mutton have been detected

  1. Game meat consumption by hunters and their relatives: A probabilistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevillano Morales, Jesus; Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Amaro Lopez, Manual Angel; Arenas Casas, Antonio; Cámara-Martos, Fernando; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2018-06-18

    This study aimed to estimate the consumption of meat and products derived from hunting by the consumer population and, specifically, by hunters and their relatives. For this purpose, a survey was conducted on the frequency of consuming meat from the four most representative game species in Spain, two of big game, wild boar (Sus scrofa) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) and two of small game, rabbit (Oryctolagus cunulucus) and red partridge (Alectoris rufa), as well as of processed meat products (salami-type sausage) made from those big game species. The survey was carried out on 337 habitual consumers of these types of products (hunters and their relatives). The total mean game meat consumption, per capita in this population group, is 6.87 kg/person/year of meat and 8.57 kg/person/year if the processed meat products are also considered. Consumption of rabbit, red partridge, red deer and wild boar, individually, was 1.85, 0.82, 2.28 and 1.92 kg/person/year, respectively. It was observed that hunters generally registered a larger intake of game meat, this being statistically significant in the case of rabbit meat consumption. Using probabilistic methods, the meat consumption frequency distributions for each hunting species studied were estimated, as well as the products made from big game species and the total consumption both of meat by itself and that including the products made from it. The consumption frequency distributions were adjusted to exponential ones, verified by the test suitable for it according to Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, the Chi-Squared and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistics. In addition, the consumption percentiles of the different distributions were obtained. The latter could be a good tool when making nutrition or contaminant studies since they permit the assessment of exposure to the compound in question.

  2. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  3. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Zhu

    Full Text Available Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish or non-meat proteins (casein or soy for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  4. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota.

  5. Intake of Meat Proteins Substantially Increased the Relative Abundance of Genus Lactobacillus in Rat Feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Shi, Xuebin; Zhao, Fan; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    Diet has been shown to have a critical influence on gut bacteria and host health, and high levels of red meat in diet have been shown to increase colonic DNA damage and thus be harmful to gut health. However, previous studies focused more on the effects of meat than of meat proteins. In order to investigate whether intake of meat proteins affects the composition and metabolic activities of gut microbiota, feces were collected from growing rats that were fed with either meat proteins (from beef, pork or fish) or non-meat proteins (casein or soy) for 14 days. The resulting composition of gut microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V4-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA genes and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were analyzed using gas chromatography. The composition of gut microbiota and SCFA levels were significantly different between the five diet groups. At a recommended dose of 20% protein in the diet, meat protein-fed rats had a higher relative abundance of the beneficial genus Lactobacillus, but lower levels of SCFAs and SCFA-producing bacteria including Fusobacterium, Bacteroides and Prevotella, compared with the soy protein-fed group. Further work is needed on the regulatory pathways linking dietary protein intake to gut microbiota. PMID:27042829

  6. Meat, Milk and Eggs. Analysis of animal food environment relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elferink, E.

    2009-09-25

    This thesis aims at providing options for reduction of the consumption of natural resources by animal source food production and consumption. To formulate options for reducing the natural resource use of animal source food production systems, insight into how these systems function and knowledge of their natural resource use is required. The research goals of the thesis originate from this understanding: To gain insight into the natural resource use of animal source food production systems; To identify possibilities and options to reduce the natural resource use of animal source food production. The land requirements of beef, chicken and pork are determined in Chapter 2. Furthermore, the effect of system changes on the land requirement for meat is analyzed. The various factors that affect land requirements for meat production are identified.Chapter 3 analyses the energy use in the animal source food production systems for chicken, pork, eggs and milk. Results are compared on the basis of fresh weight and on their nutritional value as protein sources. The chapter identifies multiple options for reducing the energy use of animal source food products. A case study of how a change in policy (the banning of meat and bone meal in feed as a result of BSE) can affect the environmental impact of animal source food production is presented in Chapter 4. It also shows the global scale of the animal source food system and the trade-offs that can occur. The relationship between food consumption and the availability of human-inedible residues, feed composition and the environmental impact of meat is analysed in Chapter 5. This chapter shows the possible effect dietary changes can have on the environmental impact of meat. Chapter 6 compares organic and industrial pork production with respect to their natural resource use for different system settings. This chapter shows the factors that determine the natural resource use of feed. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an overview of the

  7. Meat-related compounds and colorectal cancer risk by anatomical subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Lazarus, Philip; Lesko, Samuel M; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi; Laio, Jason; Zhu, Jay; Harper, Gregory; Muscat, Joshua E; Hartman, Terryl J

    2013-01-01

    Since meat may be involved in the etiology of colorectal cancer, associations between meat-related compounds were examined to elucidate underlying mechanisms in a population-based case-control study. Participants (989 cases/1,033 healthy controls) completed a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-specific module. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between meat variables and colorectal cancer; polytomous logistic regression was used for subsite-specific analyses. The following significant positive associations were observed for meat-related compounds: 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and colorectal, distal colon, and rectal tumors; 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and colorectal and colon cancer tumors; nitrites/nitrates and proximal colon cancer; 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and rectal cancer; and benzo[a]pyrene and rectal cancer (P-trends cancer and pan-fried red meat and colorectal cancer were found (P-trends cancer; and well-done/charred poultry and colorectal, colon, and proximal colon tumors (P-trends nitrates may be involved in colorectal cancer etiology. Further examination into the unexpected inverse associations between poultry and colorectal cancer is warranted.

  8. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Large prospective investigation of meat intake, related mutagens, and risk of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Carrie R; Cross, Amanda J; Graubard, Barry I; Park, Yikyung; Ward, Mary H; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Chow, Wong-Ho; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    The evidence for meat intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk is inconsistent. Mutagens related to meat cooking and processing, and variation by RCC subtype may be important to consider. In a large US cohort, we prospectively investigated intake of meat and meat-related compounds in relation to risk of RCC, as well as clear cell and papillary RCC histologic subtypes. Study participants (492,186) completed a detailed dietary assessment linked to a database of heme iron, heterocyclic amines (HCA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrate, and nitrite concentrations in cooked and processed meats. Over 9 (mean) y of follow-up, we identified 1814 cases of RCC (498 clear cell and 115 papillary adenocarcinomas). HRs and 95% CIs were estimated within quintiles by using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Red meat intake [62.7 g (quintile 5) compared with 9.8 g (quintile 1) per 1000 kcal (median)] was associated with a tendency toward an increased risk of RCC [HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.40; P-trend = 0.06] and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC [P-trend = 0.002]. Intakes of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a marker of PAHs, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), an HCA, were associated with a significant 20-30% elevated risk of RCC and a 2-fold increased risk of papillary RCC. No associations were observed for the clear cell subtype. Red meat intake may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds BaP and PhIP. Our findings for RCC appeared to be driven by strong associations with the rarer papillary histologic variant. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.

  10. Campylobacter contamination and the relative risk of illness from organic broiler meat in comparison with conventional broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Boysen, Louise; Krogh, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    Danish organic broiler meat, represented by carcasses sampled at the end of processing after chilling, was more frequently contaminated with thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. than conventional broiler carcasses; the yearly mean prevalence being 54.2% (CI: 40.9-67.5) for organic and 19.7% (CI: 14.......8-24.7) for conventional carcasses. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently isolated species. The difference in prevalence was obvious in all quarters of the year. Contamination of organic and conventional broiler carcasses was more likely to occur in the warmer summer months, in this case in the third quarter......, as also documented for conventional broiler flocks. When contaminated, the mean concentration of Campylobacter on neck skin samples of organic and conventional carcasses was not significantly different (P=0.428); 2.0±0.65log10cfu/g and 2.1±0.93log10cfu/g, respectively. Assessing the relative risk...

  11. Problems of judging new technologies using the example of radurization ('radiopasteurization') of fresh fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, E.; Antonacopoulos, N.; Ehlermann, D.

    1977-01-01

    Criteria areNov 5, discussed that must be taken into account in the evaluation of the success of fresh fish radurization. Assuming that the fish is unobjectionable sanitarily and incontestable with regard to bacteriological and chemical requirements, the paper mainly examins sensorial characteristics required along the lines of an 'increase in the supply of fresh fish of salable quality' to be strived for. (orig.) [de

  12. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Luning, P.A.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in the Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants ≥18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food

  13. Food-related lifestyle and health attitudes of Dutch vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Luning, P.A.; Stafleu, A.; Graaf, de C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to investigate socio-demographic characteristics, and attitudes to food and health of vegetarians, non-vegetarian consumers of meat substitutes, and meat consumers in The Netherlands. The sample used for this study (participants > or =18 years) was taken from the Dutch National Food

  14. Meat and meat-related compounds and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rashmi; Park, Yikyung; Graubard, Barry I; Leitzmann, Michael F; Hollenbeck, Albert; Schatzkin, Arthur; Cross, Amanda J

    2009-11-01

    The authors examined associations between meat consumption (type, cooking method, and related mutagens), heme iron, nitrite/nitrate, and prostate cancer in a cohort of 175,343 US men aged 50-71 years. During 9 years of follow-up (1995-2003), they ascertained 10,313 prostate cancer cases (1,102 advanced) and 419 fatal cases. Hazard ratios comparing the fifth intake quintile with the first revealed elevated risks associated with red and processed meat for total (red meat: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.21; processed meat: HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.14) and advanced (red meat: HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.65; processed meat: HR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.61) prostate cancer. Heme iron, barbecued/grilled meat, and benzo[a]pyrene were all positively associated with total (HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.17), HR = 1.11 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.19), and HR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.18), respectively) and advanced (HR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.58), HR = 1.36 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), and HR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.65), respectively) disease. Nitrite (HR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.51) and nitrate (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.61) intakes were associated with advanced prostate cancer. There were no clear associations for fatal prostate cancer. Red and processed meat may be positively associated with prostate cancer via mechanisms involving heme iron, nitrite/nitrate, grilling/barbecuing, and benzo[a]pyrene.

  15. Red meat intake may increase the risk of colon cancer in Japanese, a population with relatively low red meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takachi, Ribeka; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Baba, Keisuke; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Asian populations have changed from traditional to Westernized diets, with increased red meat intake. They are suggested to be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of red meat on the development of colorectal cancers, however, few prospective studies of this putative link have been conducted. We examined associations between the consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer by gender in a large Japanese cohort. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to 80,658 men and women aged 45-74 years. During 758,116 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2006, 1,145 cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Higher consumption of red meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of colon cancer among women [multivariate hazard ratios (95%CIs) for the highest versus lowest quintiles (HR): 1.48 (1.01, 2.17; trend p=0.03)], as was higher consumption of total meat among men [HR=1.44 (1.06, 1.98; trend p=0.07)]. By site, these positive associations were found for the risk of proximal colon cancer among women and for distal colon cancer among men. No association was found between the consumption of processed meat and risk of either colon or rectal cancer. In conclusion, red meat intake may modestly increase the risk of colon cancer in middle-aged Japanese, although the highest quintile of red meat consumption could be considered moderate by Western standards.

  16. Consumer segmentation based on food-related lifestyles and analysis of rabbit meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Buitrago-Vera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation divides the market into small groups of consumers who share similar characteristics. As all consumers within the same group have a common profile, marketing strategies can be adapted to target a specific type of consumer. Owing to the rapid changes in today’s society, consumer lifestyle has become the ideal criterion for market segmentation. In this study, we employed the food-related lifestyle model, which scholars have shown to be suitable and valid in several countries. Using data from a survey (with 3.53% error, we segmented the Spanish food market based on consumers’ food-related lifestyles. For each segment, we identified the consumer profile and analysed consumers’ consumption of rabbit meat. Factor analysis and cluster analysis yielded 4 segments: (i ‘Unconcerned’ (36.8% of the sample mainly consists of male consumers. Consumers in this segment value neither the freshness nor the price/quality ratio of their food items and consume rabbit meat rarely (39.4% or sporadically (29.3%. (ii ‘Cooks’ (18.4% predominantly consists of middle-aged women. Consumers in this segment are highly demanding and critical of the quality of food products. They like cooking and are regular consumers of rabbit meat (40.6%. (iii ‘Out-of-home consumers and convenience shoppers’ (28.6% mostly consists of consumers aged between 25 and 34 y old and contains a large proportion of upper-class consumers. Consumers in this segment prefer to eat out and consume convenience products. This segment has the second highest percentage of regular consumers of rabbit meat (36.9%. The segment also has the second highest percentage of consumers who rarely or never eat rabbit meat (43.9%. (iv ‘Rational purchaser with little interest in cooking’ (16.2% has the highest proportion of consumers aged 55 to 74 y old. Consumers in this segment have the least interest in cooking, the most interest in the purchasing process, and the lowest

  17. Comparison of the amounts of taste-related compounds in raw and cooked meats from broilers and Korean native chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jung, Samooel; Lee, Jun Heon; Park, Hee Bok; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-12-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the taste-related compound content in the breast and leg meat from 100-d-old Korean native chickens (KNC-100) and 32-d-old commercial broilers (CB-32) and determining the changes in these compounds during cooking. Cocks from certified meat-type commercial broiler (Ross) and Korean native chicken (Woorimatdag) strains were raised under similar standard commercial conditions, and a total of 10 birds from each breed were slaughtered at 32 and 100 d of age, which represents their market ages, respectively. Raw and cooked meat samples were prepared separately from the breast and leg and analyzed. The KNC-100 showed significantly higher concentrations of inosine 5'-monophosphate, reducing sugars, glutamic acid, linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid than CB-32 did. Additionally, significantly higher inosine 5'-monophosphate, cysteine, arachidonic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid concentrations were observed in the breast meat, whereas the leg meat had higher concentration of glutamic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid (P cooking process, except oleic and linoleic acids. We suggest that the higher levels of taste-related compounds present in KNC-100 meat compared with CB-32 meat may result in the unique taste of the former meat, as has been previously reported. In addition, the results of this study may provide useful information for selection and breeding programs. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. The progress made over nearly two decades with food radurization in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    The progress made with the irradiation of foods at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa over the past eighteen years is discussed. High on the list of priorities are the education of the consumer and the technology transfer to the private industry. This is especially relevant when it is stated that future trends in the food industry appear to be towards convenience and fresh food products and it is in this area that the radurization process could make a significant contribution. 6 refs., 1 tab

  19. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance-related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  20. Polymorphism screening and mapping of nine meat performance-related genes in the pig

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Stratil, Antonín; Svatoňová, Martina; Maštálková, Lucie; Patáková, Jitka; Van Poucke, M.; Bartenschlager, H.; Peelman, L. J.; Geldermann, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2010), s. 334-335 ISSN 0268-9146 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500450801; GA ČR GA523/09/0844; GA ČR(CZ) GA523/06/1302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : genomics * meat performance -related genes * pig Subject RIV: GI - Animal Husbandry ; Breeding Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2010

  1. Too humanlike to increase my appetite: Disposition to anthropomorphize animals relates to decreased meat consumption through empathic concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemyjska, Aleksandra; Cantarero, Katarzyna; Byrka, Katarzyna; Bilewicz, Michał

    2018-04-12

    People who exclude meat from their diets are not only devoid of situational pressures to disengage morally and deny humanlike mental states to animals but also they may be dispositionally more inclined to ascribe human-like qualities to non-human animals than omnivores. The aim of this research was to test whether individual differences in anthropomorphism are related to empathic connection with non-human animals and hence decreased meat consumption. In two studies (N = 588) we confirmed that decreased meat consumption was associated with both increased recognition of human features of animals and increased empathy to animals. Most importantly, our data support a model in which animals' anthropomorphism predicts empathy. Empathy, in turn, increases the importance that potential animal harm plays in dietary choices regarding meat, leading to reduced meat consumption. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. THE ACCEPTANCE OF HEALTH RELATED INNOVATIONS IN TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS BY CROATIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Croatian consumers’ acceptance of health related innovations in traditional meat products. A face-to-face survey was conducted with a sample of 151 visitors of a specialized fair of traditional food products in Zagreb in 2013. The respondents were asked to indicate their attitudes on a fivepoint scale, where 1 meant rejection or no impact and 5 meant full acceptance or high impact. Results (mean±SD showed the highest level of acceptance for innovations related to better control of smoking conditions (3.3± 1.14 and reduction of salt content (3.1±1.15, followed by reduced fat content (3.0±1.14 and controlled fermentation (2.9±1.12. The perceived negative impact of innovations on traditional character of meat products was highest for fat (3.4±0.99 and salt (3.4±1.03 reduction and lowest for controlled fermentation (3.2±1.04 and smoking conditions (3.2±1.05. With regards to respondents’ socio-demographic features a nonparametric test statistic (Mann-Whitney U revealed a higher acceptance of fat reduction and higher willingness to increase a consumption of healthier traditional meat products among females, while age, education level and income had no influence on the investigated parameters. In addition, some health related innovations; e.g. fat reduction and controlled fermentation were generally less acceptable among respondents with a high consumption frequency of traditional meat products. The results of this preliminary study indicated controlled smoking conditions as the best accepted health related innovation by Croatian consumers with the least negative impact on perceived traditional character of product. In general terms, women were more likely to accept some of the investigated innovations and consequently to increase their consumption of innovate products. However, the most regular consumers of traditional meat products were less open towards innovations which may pose a challenge to

  3. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  4. Public Understanding and Attitudes towards Meat Chicken Production and Relations to Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erian, Ihab; Phillips, Clive J C

    2017-03-09

    Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds' welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland; Australia; to determine how knowledge of meat chicken production and slaughter links to attitudes and consumption. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions and low scores were supported by respondents' self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that a lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken was more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public's knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of chicken.

  5. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, P [Warsaw Agricultural University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author).

  6. Effect of irradiation on oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was an evaluation of the effect of ionizing radiation on detection of oxytetracycline residues in poultry meat. Oxytetracycline was chosen as a representative of tetracyclines which are often applied in poultry for therapeutical reasons. The experiment was conducted using both broiler meat treated by oxytetracycline and slurry of broiler meat containing appropriate concentration of this antibiotic. A traditional microbiological method for determination of antibiotics antimicrobial activity was used. A significant decrease of oxytetracycline concentration in meat slurry as a result of irradiation was noted. A dose of 1 kGy reduced concentration of tetracycline to ca 40% and a dose of 3 kGy reduced it to ca 3%. In ground poultry meat a dose of 1 kGy reduced this antibiotic concentration to 70%, a dose of 3 kGy reduced oxytetracycline concentration to 35% and a 5 kGy dose reduced it up to ca 18% of initial concentration. It can be concluded that irradiation of poultry meat with radurization doses can cause some difficulties in detection of tetracycline residues in meat using traditional microbiological methods of detection. (author)

  7. Toxin formation by Clostridium botulinum type B in radurized fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.; Thayib, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The relation between maximum storage life and earliest toxin formation by proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of C. botulinum type B in irradiated and unirradiated raw fish was determinated. The fish species used were Rastrelliger sp., Euthynnus sp. and Scomberomorus sp. Uninoculated fish samples held under the same treatment conditions were evaluated for the estimation of storage life by untrained panelist. The results showed that a storage temperature at or lower than 5.6 0 C is recommended in order to avoid botulism hazard caused by nonproteolytic type B. When the samples were inoculated with spores of proteolytic strains, no toxic samples were found during the storage life in all treatments with storage temperatures at or lower than 10.2 0 C. Toxin formation by proteolytic strains of C. botulinum type B in boiled (''Pindang'') chub mackerel (Rastrelliger sp.) under storage at ambient temperatures (27-31 0 C) was also determinated. The results showed that in the samples which were inoculated before the process of ''Pindang'', the earliest toxin formations were detected after the samples were spoiled regardless of the irradiation dose, strain and inoculum level; while in control unsalted samples, toxin was detected before or after the samples were spoiled, depending on the strain and inoculum level. Salt content in ordinary ''Pindang'' fish plays a major role both in extension of the storage life and the delay in toxin formation. When the samples were inoculated after the process of ''Pindang'', toxin was detected before or after the samples were spoiled, depending on the strain, salt content, irradiation dose and inoculum level. Irradiation does not prevent the toxin formation in ''Pindang'' fish if the samples are heavily contaminated with proteolytic strains of C. botulinum type B after cooking. (author)

  8. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  9. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolińska, Katarzyna; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-08-30

    The colon and rectum are common sites of food-related cancer in developed countries. Recent studies strongly suggest that red meat intake is associated with colon cancer, whereas for rectal cancer such an association still needs to be proved. The aim of the study was to assess the role of total amount and frequency of red meat intake in colorectal carcinogenesis based on published data using meta-analysis methods. The literature published until 2009 was selected from: MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, CancerLit, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library databases. The used search terms were: colorectal cancer, colon cancer, rectal cancer, meat intake, red meat intake, red meat consumption, meat consumption, colorectal cancer risk, colon cancer risk, rectal cancer risk and lifestyle. Articles investigating red meat intake of more often than once a day or 50 g per day were reviewed and selected for further analysis. Twenty-two studies fulfilled the established criteria. A meta-analysis confirmed the carcinogenic effect of the consumption of over 50 g of red meat per day for the colon (relative risk 1.21, 1.07-1.37) but not for the rectum (relative risk 1.30, 0.90-1.89). Red meat intake more frequently than once a day can induce both colonic (relative risk 1.37, 1.09-1.71) and rectal cancer (relative risk 1.43, 1.24-1.64). Red meat intake is associated with elevated risk of developing colorectal cancer. The frequency of red meat consumption rather than total amount of consumed meat is associated with a higher risk of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  10. Consumer behaviour and knowledge related to freezing and defrosting meat at home: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, F.W.M.; Steenbekkers, L.P.A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the ways consumers freeze and defrost meat, the reasons for their behaviour and the knowledge they have about the process of freezing and defrosting. Consumers are aware of the microbiological safety risks involved in the consumption of meat.

  11. A second look into fibre typing--relation to meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaucheur, L

    2010-02-01

    Despite intensive research, a large variation in meat quality is still observed in most meat producing species. It is widely accepted that myofibre type composition is an important source of variation in meat quality. However, the identification of specific and universal relationships between myofibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality traits remains a challenge. After the presentation of recent knowledge underlying fibre typing, this review describes the involvements of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms, and the energy state of the myofibres in the control of contractile and metabolic properties, with a special attention to the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway and mitochondrial compartment. In order to identify muscle components which could mask specific relationships between fibre type composition and meat quality, an analysis of the interactions between myofibres and other muscle cellular components is presented. After a brief description of myogenesis, the significance of the total number of fibres, myofibre cross-sectional area and fibre type composition for growth performance and meat quality is presented. Then, some genetic and environmental factors are proposed as possible tools to control meat quality trough the modulation of fibre type characteristics. Finally, a conclusion makes the point on bottlenecks still preventing the identification of specific relationships between fibre characteristics, growth performance and meat quality, and suggests future perspectives such as direct selection on fibre traits and study of correlated responses, the development of in vitro approaches using cell cultures, manipulation of myogenesis during the fetal period, and the production and use of genetically modified animals.

  12. Relations between the occurrence of resistance to antimicrobial growth promoters among Enterococcus faecium isolated from broilers and broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Andersen, J. S.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    2003-01-01

    and streptogramin. By February 1998, all antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs) were withdrawn from the Danish broiler production. The present study investigates, by logistic regression analyses, the (1) changes in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat from the fourth...... quarter of 1995 to the fourth quarter of 2001 and (2) relations between the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from Danish broilers and AGP resistance among E. faecium isolates from the broiler meat of Danish and unknown origin collected in the same quarter within the year....... In the present study, we showed that after the AGP withdrawal, a significant decline in resistance to avilamycin, erythromycin, vancomycin and virginiamycin was observed among E. faecium from broilers and broiler meat. In addition, a decline in the occurrence of AGP resistance among E. faecium from Danish...

  13. Relation between selected nutrients in the chicken meat depending on phytogenic feed additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Angelovičová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to evaluate the relation between selected nutrients in the breast and thigh muscles after the application of different phytogenic additives in the diet of broiler chickens and between same indicators of meat disregarding additive and parts of carcass, from which muscles originate. We realized an in vivo experiment on the Zámostie Company poultry test station with deep litter breeding system. The experiment included 100 pcs of one-day-old hybrid chickens Cobb 500 divided into 2 groups (n = 50: the 1st experimental group with an application of feed additive from chestnut tree and lemon fruit extracts and the 2nd experimental group with an application of feed additive from citrus fruits extract. We used a cereal and soybean basal diet and we divided the fattening period into four phases: starter (1 - 10 days, grower I (11 - 20 days, grower II (21 - 28 days and finisher (29 - 42 days. We applied a powder form feed mixtures. Nutritive value of feed mixtures was the same in each experimental group during the whole experiment and in accordance with the physiological needs of broiler chickens. We fed the 1st experimental group with a basal diet enriched by feed additive from chestnut tree and lemon fruit extracts (50 g/100 kg. As for the 2nd experimental group, we applied feed additive from citrus fruits extracts through the drinking water (100 mL/100 L. In the 2nd part of our experiment, we compared results obtained from two experimental groups with other four groups of diet. We applied other phytogenic additives to these four groups and we did not take into account the origin of the meat sample. We measured indicators of the chemical composition of protein, fat, water and cholesterol on a sample (50 g of breast and thigh muscle without skin by the method of FT IR by use of the apparatus Nicolet 6700. Detected relations between nutrients of breast and thigh muscles were defined by correlation coefficient of -0.6 ≤ r ≥ +0

  14. A prospective investigation of fish, meat and cooking-related carcinogens with endometrial cancer incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, H; Gunter, M J; Cross, A J; Hollenbeck, A R; Sinha, R

    2013-08-06

    There are limited prospective studies of fish and meat intakes with risk of endometrial cancer and findings are inconsistent. We studied associations between fish and meat intakes and endometrial cancer incidence in the large, prospective National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. Intakes of meat mutagens 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) were also calculated. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed no associations with endometrial cancer risk comparing the highest to lowest intake quintiles of red (HR=0.91, 95% CI 0.77-1.08), white (0.98, 0.83-1.17), processed meats (1.02, 0.86-1.21) and fish (1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.29). We also found no associations between meat mutagen intakes and endometrial cancer. Our findings do not support an association between meat or fish intakes or meat mutagens and endometrial cancer.

  15. Performance of food safety management systems in poultry meat preparation processing plants in relation to Campylobacter spp. contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampers, Imca; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel A; Marcelis, Willem J; Dumoulin, Ann; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the company's contextual factors, i.e., starting from raw materials (poultry carcasses) with possible high numbers and prevalence of pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., requires advanced core control and assurance activities in the FSMS to guarantee food safety. The level of the core FSMS activities differed between the companies, and this difference was reflected in overall microbial quality (mesophilic aerobic count), presence of hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli), and contamination with pathogens such as Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter spp. The food safety output expressed as a microbial safety profile was related to the variability in the prevalence and contamination levels of Campylobacter spp. in poultry meat preparations found in a Belgian nationwide study. Although a poultry meat processing company could have an advanced FSMS in place and a good microbial profile (i.e., lower prevalence of pathogens, lower microbial numbers, and less variability in microbial contamination), these positive factors might not guarantee pathogen-free products. Contamination could be attributed to the inability to apply effective interventions to reduce or eliminate pathogens in the production chain of (raw) poultry meat preparations.

  16. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  17. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  18. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huby, Marie; Griffon, Laurent; Moureaux, Sophie; De Rochambeau, Hubert; Danchin-Burge, Coralie; Verrier, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH), Blanc du Massif Central (BMC), Charollais (CHA) and Limousin (LIM); the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH) and Solognot (SOL). Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount). The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not) for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH), 144 (BMC), 112 (CHA), 69 (LIM), 40 (RLH) and 49 (SOL). Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH), +0.045 (CHA), +0.036 (LIM), +0.098 (RLH) and +0.062 (SOL). The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  19. Genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds in relation to their genetic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralie Danchin-Burge

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some demographic parameters, the genetic structure and the evolution of the genetic variability of six French meat sheep breeds were analysed in relation with their management. Four of these breeds are submitted to more or less intense selection: the Berrichon du Cher (BCH, Blanc du Massif Central (BMC, Charollais (CHA and Limousin (LIM; the other two breeds are under conservation: the Roussin de La Hague (RLH and Solognot (SOL. Genealogical data of the recorded animals born from 1970 to 2000 and of their known ancestors were used. The most balanced contributions of the different flocks to the sire-daughter path was found in the SOL. In the BCH, a single flock provided 43% of the sire-AI sire path, whereas the contributions of the flocks were more balanced in the BMC and LIM (the only other breeds where AI is used to a substantial amount. The distribution of the expected genetic contribution of the founder animals was found to be unbalanced, especially in the BCH and LIM. The effective numbers of ancestors (founders or not for the ewes born from 1996 to 2000 were equal to 35 (BCH, 144 (BMC, 112 (CHA, 69 (LIM, 40 (RLH and 49 (SOL. Inbreeding was not analysed in the BMC, due to incomplete pedigree information. From 1980 on, the rates of inbreeding, in percentage points per year, were +0.112 (BCH, +0.045 (CHA, +0.036 (LIM, +0.098 (RLH and +0.062 (SOL. The implications of the observed trends on genetic variability are discussed in relation to the genetic management of each breed. The need for a larger selection basis in the BCH, the efficiency of the rules applied in the SOL to preserve the genetic variability and the need for a more collective organisation in the CHA and RLH are outlined.

  20. Excessive red and processed meat intake: relations with health and environment in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Aline Martins de; Selem, Soraya Sant'ana de Castro; Miranda, Andreia Machado; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2016-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to verify the proportion of population that consumed more red and processed meat than the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) dietary recommendation, to estimate the environmental impact of beef intake and the possible reduction of greenhouse gas emissions if the dietary recommendation was followed. We used the largest, cross-sectional, population-based survey entitled the National Dietary Survey (34 003 participants aged 10-104 years). The usual meat intake was obtained by two food records completed on 2 non-consecutive days. The usual intake was estimated by the multiple source method. The environmental impact was analysed according to estimates of CO2 equivalent emissions from beef intake as a proxy for beef production in Brazil. The red and processed meat intake mean was 88 g/d. More than 80 % of the population consumed more red and processed meat than the WCRF recommendation. Beef was the type of meat most consumed, accounting to almost 50 %. Each person contributed 1005 kg of CO2 equivalents from beef intake in 2008, the same quantity of CO2 produced if a car travelled a distance between the extreme north and south of Brazil (5370 km). The entire Brazilian population contributed more than 191 million tons of CO2 equivalents, which could have been reduced to more than 131 million tons if the dietary recommendation was followed. The present study shows that the magnitude of the excessive red and processed meat intake in Brazil can impact on health and the environment, pointing to the urgency of promoting a sustainable diet.

  1. Toxin production of non-proteolytic Cl. botulinum type B in radurized fish. Part of a coordinated programme on the wholesomeness of the process of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhadi, F.

    1981-02-01

    Toxin formation by proteolytic and nonproteolytic strains of C. botulinum type B in radurized raw fish and in radurized Pindang fish was investigated. In radurized Pindang fish samples, inoculation was done either before or after cooking. Radurization process with 2 and 3 kGy caused the extension of storage life of Rastrelliger sp., Euthynnus sp., and Scomberomorus sp. by factors of 2 and 2.5 at storage temperatures between 5 and 10 0 C. In general at 10.5 +- 0.3 0 C, no toxin was formed before the samples were spoiled both in irradiated and unirradiated samples. At 5.6 +- 0.5 0 C no toxin was formed until after the samples were spoiled. The earliest toxin formation in unirradiated Pindang samples stored at ambient temperature was detected after the samples were spoiled. In irradiated Pindang samples inoculated with C. botulinum spores after cooking and stored at ambient temperature the toxin formation was detected before the samples were spoiled. However, if the inoculation was done before the fish was processed into Pindang, the toxin was always detected after the samples were spoiled regardless of the irradiation dose, strain and inoculation level. As fish may be contaminated - if at all - with spores of C. botulinum in its raw state, processing of fish into Pindang and irradiation would not contribute to the health hazard concerning botulism even if the samples are stored at ambient temperature

  2. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Membré, J.M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this

  3. Some conclusions from shipboard experiments on the radurization of whole fish in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlermann, D.A.E.; Reinacher, E.

    1978-01-01

    Redfish and haddock were radurized (100krad) with the X-ray facility onboard the research vessel ''Anton Dohrn''. The whole fish were stored under crushed ice. In addition whole haddock packaged in plastic pouches under vacuum were studied. In general, during the first 16 days of storage no marked difference in the sensory quality between irradiated and unirradiated samples was observed. Bacteriological and chemical analyses proved the effectiveness of radurization to reduce the microbial flora usually responsible for spoilage. When compared with the results from other shipboard experiments and laboratory studies, the results of sensory evaluation are also in general accordance - if the same criterion for the judgement of final quality is used. After a storage period longer than 16 days occasionally the irradiated samples were scored higher than the unirradiated ones, but then the quality was no longer acceptable. If a lower criterion for shelf-life extension is used, it may be stated that a considerable shelf-life extension results from irradiation. By the standards used in our experiments, it is not possible to preserve an acceptable quality and to extend the shelf-life of ocean fish under the conditions prevailing in practical fishing. Taking into account the many factors that influence the results of such studies, it is not excluded that under other conditions the beneficial effects of radiation processing may be observed. (author)

  4. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  5. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Z. Njisane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  6. Czech Foreign Trade with Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pohlová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.

  7. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled. It is apparent that the market prices for broilers at the time of this study are not fully reflected in the quantitative and qualitative measurements included in this study. It appears that consumers may be placing significant value on more intangible attributes associated with broilers marketed as organic and free-range chicken than on those attributes measured in this study.

  8. Risk of colorectal cancer in relation to frequency and total amount of red meat consumption. Systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Smolińska, Katarzyna; Paluszkiewicz, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The colon and rectum are common sites of food-related cancer in developed countries. Recent studies strongly suggest that red meat intake is associated with colon cancer, whereas for rectal cancer such an association still needs to be proved. The aim of the study was to assess the role of total amount and frequency of red meat intake in colorectal carcinogenesis based on published data using meta-analysis methods. Material and methods The literature published until 2009 was selec...

  9. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between...

  10. Genetic variation in meat production related traits in reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Muuttoranta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} In reindeer husbandry, animal breeding could offer tools for improving productivity by selection. The traits affecting meat production efficiency are primarily related to calf growth and survival, and to dam’s longevity and lifetime ability to raise heavy calves. Information on genetic (covariation in these traits is scarce but needed in estimating the potential and effectiveness of selection as well as biological constraints. The objectives of the study were to estimate these genetic parameters from the data of an experimental reindeer herd at Kutuharju (Inari, Finland. Heritabilities (h2 and genetic correlations (rg among the average daily gain of calves (ADG, dams’ age at maturity, individual fitness (λind and the cumulative sum of her calves’ weaning weight over seven years (WW7 were studied with AS-Reml software using the dataset from the experimental herd. The pedigree included also sire information to allow the separation of the maternal effects. Direct and maternal heritabilities of ADG were moderate (0.24±0.09 and 0.18±0.05, respectively and the direct-maternal correlation was highly negative (-0.73±0.17. Indeed, selection on growth necessitates information on both calf and dam. The genetic correlation of growth with birth date and birth weight could not be detected with the data. The age

  11. Radiotracer studies of agrochemical residues in meat, milk and related products of livestock and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The joint FAO/IAEA programme was initiated in 1981 and terminates with this report. The specific objectives of the programme have been to evaluate the magnitude, fate and significance of agricultural chemical residues in edible tissues and by-products of livestock and poultry, aided by radiotracer techniques. It was anticipated that the data arising from studies conducted under this programme would be useful in assessing the toxicological significance of studied chemicals to exposed animals and to humans who may consume potentially polluted meat, milk or eggs. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 13 papers in this report

  12. Quality Evaluation of Meat Products in Relation to Packaging and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Ingles, M.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of low-dose radiation ( 2 and 80% N 2 gas and stored at 5 degree celsius for eight weeks. Fresh samples were irradiated with 1 kGy while smoked sausages were irradiated to 2 and 4 kGy doses. Quality evaluation were conducted every week. Mechanical properties of films were determined at the start and at the end of the storage period. Vacuum alone extended the shelf life of fresh meat to 40 days while MAP to 44 days. Vacuum packaging or MAP with 1 kGy made meat still acceptable up to the 48th day. Packaging system with NPI and PVNP were able to protect sausages against deterioration for 8 weeks. While two kGy with vacuum and MAP extended the storage life of sausages for more than the eight weeks of storage, 4 kGy dose can double the shelf life of unirradiated samples. Sensory tests showed no effects on the acceptability of the irradiated products. Tensile and tear strength of all films used decreased after storage periol. Irradiation did not significantly affect these properties of film, transmission rates for gas and water vapor through NPI and PVNP

  13. Consumer attitudes to meat eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, N J; Macfie, H J; Shepherd, R

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on current meat consumption in the UK and the factors that are percieved by the subjects to be influential in their choice of diet. A random sample of individuals from the population (n-1018) were questioned on their consumption and attitudes towards meat by a postal survey. The study revealed that 28·3% of the population considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption; attitudes found to be determinant in changes in the consumption of meat were healthiness, taste and concerns over additives. Hypothetical future events were found to affect people's estimated meat-eating. Knowledge of meat-related information was investigated with specific reference to the respondents' trust in the various sources used; food package labels were found to be an influential source of meat-related information. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Bekker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  15. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Johan L; Hoffman, Louw C; Jooste, Piet J

    2012-12-05

    With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  16. Wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases in some southern African countries in relation to game meat safety: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L. Bekker

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With on-going changes in land use practices from conventional livestock farming to commercial, wildlife-based activities, the interface or interaction between livestock and wildlife is increasing. As part of the wildlife-based activities of ecotourism, breeding and hunting, game farmers are also exploring the utilisation of meat from hunted or harvested game. The expanding interface or increased interaction between livestock and wildlife increases the risk of disease incidence and the emergence of new diseases or the re-emergence of previously diagnosed diseases. The risk is not only related to domestic and wild animal health, but also to the occupational hazards that it poses to animal handlers and the consumers of game meat. This review endeavours to highlight the role that game plays in the spreading of zoonotic diseases to other animals and humans. Examples of zoonotic diseases that have occurred in wild animals in the past, their relevance and risk have been summarised and should function as a quick reference guide for wildlife veterinarians, ecologists, farmers, hunters, slaughter staff, processors and public health professionals.

  17. Meet meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  18. Relation of unprocessed, processed red meat and poultry consumption to blood pressure in East Asian and Western adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Griep, L.M.; Seferidi, Paraskevi; Stamler, J.; Horn, van L.; Chan, Queenie; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Steffen, L.M.; Miura, K.; Ueshima, H.; Okuda, N.; Zhao, Liancheng; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Daviglus, M.L.; Elliott, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that relationships of red meat consumption with risk of cardiovascular diseases depends on whether or not the meat is processed, including addition of preservatives, but evidence is limited for blood pressure (BP). Objective: To examine cross-sectional

  19. Spoilage-related activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum strains in air-stored and vacuum-packed meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2011-10-01

    One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall.

  20. Spoilage-Related Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum Strains in Air-Stored and Vacuum-Packed Meat ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Nasi, Antonella; Ferrocino, Ilario; Di Monaco, Rossella; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2011-01-01

    One hundred three isolates of Carnobacterium spp. from raw meat were analyzed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and PCR and were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Forty-five strains of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum were characterized for their growth capabilities at different temperatures, NaCl concentrations, and pH values and for in vitro lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Moreover, their spoilage potential in meat was investigated by analyzing the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in meat stored in air or vacuum packs. Almost all the strains were able to grow at 4, 10, and 20°C, at pH values of 6 to 9, and in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. The release of VOCs by each strain in beef stored at 4°C in air and vacuum packs was evaluated by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. All the meat samples inoculated and stored in air showed higher numbers of VOCs than the vacuum-packed meat samples. Acetoin, 1-octen-3-ol, and butanoic acid were the compounds most frequently found under both storage conditions. The contaminated meat samples were evaluated by a sensory panel; the results indicated that for all sensory odors, no effect of strain was significant (P > 0.05). The storage conditions significantly affected (P meat, and mozzarella cheese odors, which were more intense in meat stored in air than in vacuum packs but were never very intense. In conclusion, different strains of C. maltaromaticum can grow efficiently in meat stored at low temperatures both in air and in vacuum packs, producing volatile molecules with low sensory impacts, with a negligible contribution to meat spoilage overall. PMID:21784913

  1. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  2. A simple bacterial turbidimetric method for detection of some radurized foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sharma, Arun; Thomas, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A simple and quick method for detection of irradiated food is proposed. The method is based on the principle of microbial contribution to the development of turbidity in a clear medium. It employs measurement of absorbance at 600 nm of the medium after the test commodity has been suspended and shaken in it for a fixed interval. The differences in the bacterial turbidity from irradiated and nonirradiated samples are quite marked so as to allow identification of the irradiated foods like fish, lamb meat, chicken and mushroom. (author)

  3. Effects of Dietary Fermented Chlorella vulgaris (CBT®) on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S T.; Zheng, L.; Kwon, H. J.; Choo, Y. K.; Lee, K. W.; Kang, C. W.; An, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate) and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT®) at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001) increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001) and feed intake (p = 0.001) especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044). Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness), shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats. PMID:25557680

  4. Effects of Dietary Fermented (CBT on Growth Performance, Relative Organ Weights, Cecal Microflora, Tibia Bone Characteristics, and Meat Qualities in Pekin Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S T. Oh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented Chlorella vulgaris was examined for its effects on growth performance, cecal microflora, tibia bone strength, and meat qualities in commercial Pekin ducks. A total of three hundred, day-old male Pekin ducks were divided into three groups with five replicates (n = 20 ducklings per replicate and offered diets supplemented with commercial fermented C. vulgaris (CBT® at the level of 0, 1,000 or 2,000 mg/kg, respectively for 6 wks. The final body weight was linearly (p = 0.001 increased as the addition of fermented C. vulgaris into diets increased. Similarly, dietary C. vulgaris linearly increased body weight gain (p = 0.001 and feed intake (p = 0.001 especially at the later days of the feeding trial. However, there was no C. vulgaris effect on feed efficiency. Relative weights of liver were significantly lowered by dietary fermented C. vulgaris (linear effect at p = 0.044. Dietary fermented C. vulgaris did not affect total microbes, lactic acid bacteria, and coliforms in cecal contents. Finally, meat quality parameters such as meat color (i.e., yellowness, shear force, pH, or water holding capacity were altered by adding fermented C. vulgaris into the diet. In our knowledge, this is the first report to show that dietary fermented C. vulgaris enhanced meat qualities of duck meats. In conclusion, our study indicates that dietary fermented C. vulgaris exerted benefits on productivity and can be employed as a novel, nutrition-based strategy to produce value-added duck meats.

  5. Consumption of red meat and whole-grain bread in relation to biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, glucose metabolism and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montonen, Jukka; Boeing, Heiner; Fritsche, Andreas; Schleicher, Erwin; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schulze, Matthias B; Steffen, Annika; Pischon, Tobias

    2013-02-01

    To examine the association of red meat and whole-grain bread consumption with plasma levels of biomarkers related to glucose metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation and obesity. Our cross-sectional study was based on 2,198 men and women who were selected as a sub-cohort for an investigation of biological predictors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam study. Circulating levels of glycated hemoglobin, adiponectin, hs-CRP, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, fetuin-A, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured from random blood samples. Diet and lifestyle data were assessed by questionnaires, and anthropometric data were measured. After multivariable adjustment, higher consumption of whole-grain bread was significantly (P trend consumption of red meat was significantly associated with higher levels of GGT and hs-CRP when adjusted for potential confounding factors related to lifestyle and diet. Further adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference attenuated the association between red meat and hs-CRP (P = 0.19). The results of this study suggest that high consumption of whole-grain bread is related to lower levels of GGT, ALT and hs-CRP, whereas high consumption of red meat is associated with higher circulating levels of GGT and hs-CRP.

  6. Effect of radurization on the storage life of pollen substitutes utilized in the feeding of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymas, B.; Przybyl, A.

    1993-01-01

    In spite of treatment under high pressure and in elevated temperature, the pollen substitutes are not free from microbial contamination, and the pasteurizing effect may be achieved through the use of gamma irradiation. In the case of feed for honey bees, the dose of 5 KGy resulted in decrease of bacterial contamination by 2-3 log cycles. The problem whether such treatment could influence the nutritive value of two protein-rich feeds for honey bees, was the scope of this work. Two protein feeds were used for the feeding studies. The feeds had the following composition: powder milk, casein, Torula fodder yeasts, extruded maize, potato pulp, maltodextrin, sunflower oil, vitamin mixture, milk acid. Besides, feed I contained blood meal and ground rape, while feed II contained fish meal and soya meal instead. On the basis of the experiment, it was found that extruded and radurized protein feeds, after one-years storage at 6 C, did not lose their nutritive value. (orig./vhe)

  7. Dietary Intake of Meat Cooking-Related Mutagens (HCAs) and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavarini, Manuela; Bertarelli, Gaia; Minelli, Liliana; Fabiani, Roberto

    2017-05-18

    Much evidence suggests that the positive association between meat intake and colorectal adenoma (CRA) and cancer (CRC) risk is mediated by mutagenic compounds generated during cooking at high temperature. A number of epidemiological studies have estimated the effect of meat-related mutagens intake on CRC/CRA risk with contradictory and sometimes inconsistent results. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus) to identify articles reporting the relationship between the intake of meat-related mutagens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline: DiMeIQx, benzo(a) pyrene (B(a)P) and "meat derived mutagenic activity" (MDM)) and CRC/CRA risk. A random-effect model was used to calculate the risk association. Thirty-nine studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Polled CRA risk (15229 cases) was significantly increased by intake of PhIP (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13,1.28; p CRA risk in association with PhIP, MDM, and MeIQx. CRC risk (21,344 cases) was increased by uptake of MeIQx (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04,1.25; p = 0.004), DiMeIQx (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.02,1.22; p = 0.014) and MDM (OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06,1.19; p meat at high temperature may be responsible of its carcinogenicity.

  8. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.; Leonova B. I.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of spe...

  9. Interactions between meat intake and genetic variation in relation to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Vogel, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    intake and polymorphisms in PTGS2 (encoding COX-2), ABCB1, IL10, NFKB1, MSH3, XPC (P int = 0.006, 0.01, 0.04, 0.03, 0.002, 0.01, respectively), but not IL1B, HMOX1, ABCC2, ABCG2, NR1I2 (encoding PXR), NR1H2 (encoding LXR), NAT1, NAT2, MSH6, or MLH1 in relation to CRC were found. Interaction between...

  10. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...

  11. Nutrient-rich meat proteins in offsetting age-related muscle loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-11-01

    From a health perspective, an underappreciated consequence of the normal aging process is the impacts that the gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, termed sarcopenia, has on health beyond an effect on locomotion. Sarcopenia, refers to the loss of muscle mass, and associated muscle weakness, which occurs in aging and is thought to proceed at a rate of approximately 1% loss per year. However, periods of inactivity due to illness or recovery from orthopedic procedures such as hip or knee replacement are times of accelerated sarcopenic muscle loss from which it may be more difficult for older persons to recover. Some of the consequences of age-related sarcopenia are easy to appreciate such as weakness and, eventually, reduced mobility; however, other lesser recognized consequences include, due to the metabolic role the skeletal muscle plays, an increased risk for poor glucose control and a predisposition toward weight gain. What we currently know is that two stimuli can counter this age related muscle loss and these are physical activity, specifically resistance exercise (weightlifting), and nutrition. The focus of this paper is on the types of dietary protein that people might reasonably consume to offset sarcopenic muscle loss. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Of Meat and Men: Sex Differences in Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish J. Love

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Sex differences in the relationship between meat and masculinity have not been previously explored. In the current study we used two IATs (implicit association tasks, a visual search task, and a questionnaire to measure implicit and explicit attitudes toward meat in men and women. Men exhibited stronger implicit associations between meat and healthiness than did women, but both sexes associated meat more strongly with ‘healthy’ than ‘unhealthy’ concepts. As ‘healthy’ was operationalized in the current study using terms such as “virile” and “powerful,” this suggests that a meat-strength/power association may mediate the meat-masculinity link readily observed across western cultures. The sex difference was not related to explicit attitudes to meat, nor was it attributable to a variety of other factors, such as a generally more positive disposition toward meat in men than women. Men also exhibited an attention bias toward meats, compared to non-meat foods, while females exhibited more caution when searching for non-meat foods, compared to meat. These biases were not related to implicit attitudes, but did tend to increase with increasing hunger levels. Potential ultimate explanations for these differences, including sex differences in bio-physiological needs and receptivity to social signals are discussed.

  13. Meat and Meat Product Consumption among Infants in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Širina Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.

  14. Performance of Food Safety Management Systems in Poultry Meat Preparation Processing Plants in Relation to Campylobacter spp. Contamination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampers, I.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Marcelis, W.J.; Dumoulin, F.H.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic instrument comprising a combined assessment of core control and assurance activities and a microbial assessment instrument were used to measure the performance of current food safety management systems (FSMSs) of two poultry meat preparation companies. The high risk status of the

  15. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways toward meat substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable diet necessitates less reliance on foods of animal origin. This study presents data from a representative survey of Dutch consumers on their practices related to meat, meat substitution and meat reduction. The practices reflected a cultural gradient of meat

  16. Effects of Dietary Chromium Methionine on Growth Performance, Carcass Composition, Meat Colour and Expression of the Colour-related Gene Myoglobin of Growing-finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of dietary chromium (Cr as Cr methionine (CrMet on growth performance, carcass traits, pork quality, meat colour and expression of meat colour-related genes in growing-finishing pigs, 189 crossbred Duroc×(Landrace×Yorkshire growing-finishing pigs (male, castrated, average initial BW 74.58±1.52 kg were selected and randomly allocated into four groups. Dietary treatments per kg of feed were as follows: 0 (CT, 0.3 mg/kg (T1, 0.6 mg/kg (T2 and 0.9 mg/kg (T3 Cr (in the form of CrMet; as-fed basis, and each treatment was replicated five times with 8 to 10 pigs per replicate pen. During the 28 d of the experiment, both the ADG and the ADFI increased linearly (p<0.05 as the level of dietary Cr increased. The F/G ratio decreased linearly (p<0.05. As dietary Cr increased, loin muscle areas (linear, p = 0.013 and average backfat thickness (linear, p = 0.072 decreased. Shear force (linear, p = 0.070 and Commission Internationale de I’Éclairage (CIE redness (quadratic, p = 0.028 were increased. In addition, CIE Lightness (quadratic, p = 0.053 were decreased as dietary Cr increased. As dietary Cr increased, total myglobin (Mb content (quadratic, p = 0.015 and the mb mRNA levels (quadratic, p = 0.046 in longissimus muscles of pigs were up-regulated. In conclusion, supplementation of dietary Cr improved growth and meat colour, but increased shear force and decreased IMF reduced palatability of longissimus muscles. Moreover, the increasing total Mb content and mb mRNA levels indicated that CrMet dietary supplementation may improve meat colour via up-regulating expression of the mb gene.

  17. Closely related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from retail meat, cows with mastitis, and humans in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomomi; Usui, Masaru; Konishi, Noriko; Kai, Akemi; Matsui, Hidehito; Hanaki, Hideaki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pervasive healthcare-acquired (HA) pathogen with recent emergence as a community-acquired (CA) pathogen. To elucidate whether meat mediates MRSA transmission between animals and humans in Japan, this study examined MRSA isolates from retail meat (n = 8), cows with mastitis (n = 7), and humans (HA-MRSA = 46 and CA-MRSA = 54) by molecular typing, virulence gene analyses, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. MRSA isolates from retail meat were classified into sequence type (ST) 8/spa type t1767 (n = 4), ST8/t4133 (n = 1), ST59/t3385 (n = 1), ST88/t375 (n = 1), and ST509/t375 (n = 1). All seven MRSA isolates from cows with mastitis were ST8/t1767. 46 HA-MRSA were clonal complex (CC) 5, divided into t002 (n = 30), t045 (n = 12), and t7455 (n = 4). 54 CA-MRSA were classified into 6 different CCs: CC1 (n = 14), CC5 (n = 7), CC8 (n = 29), CC45 (n = 1), CC89 (n = 1), CC509 (n = 1), and into 16 different spa types including newly identified t17177, t17193, and t17194. The majority were CC8/t1767 (n = 16). CC of one CA-MRSA isolate (spa type t1767) was not classified. Among 41 CC8 MRSA (five from meat, seven from cows with mastitis, and 29 CA-MRSA), 14 ST8/SCCmec IVl isolates (three from meat, one from a cow with mastitis, and 10 CA-MRSA) had identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns and similar spa type (t1767, t4133, and t17177), and were typed as CA-MRSA/J (ST8/SCCmec IVl, positive for sec + sel + tst but negative for Panton-Valentine leukocidin and the arginine catabolic mobile element). These results suggest that there is a transmission cycle of CA-MRSA/J among meat, cows, and humans in Japan, although it is unclear whether the origin is cow.

  18. Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.; Aiking, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior,

  19. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2014. Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to the maintenance of the cold chain during storage and transport of meat. Part 2 (minced meat from all species)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    Fresh meat intended for the production of minced meat may be contaminated by a range of pathogens including Salmonella spp. and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC). These may grow if the temperatures are not maintained below 5 °C along the continuum from carcass chilling to mincing. Moreove...

  20. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  1. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  2. RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON BUCHAREST MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze consumer behavior for meat on Bucharest market, using a sample of 100 individuals, representatives as age, sex and profession, who were interviewed within a structured questionaire based survey on their preference to buy and consume meat. The answers were processed using the semantic differential and Likert Scale. The obtained results pointed out that white meat is the top preference, because it is healthier and its price is more acceptable compared to red meat. However, men prefer red meat, no matter its price. The most prefered meat sorts in order of their importance are chicken meat, pork and beef. Consumers prefer to buy 1-2 kg fresh meat from supermarket every 2-3 days. Income/family and meat pice are the major factors limiting the amount of consumed meat and buying frequence. The term of availability and meat origin have become more and more important criteria on which buying decision is based, besides meat quality. All consumers prefer to consume Romanian meat which is tasty and has a pleasant flavor. As a conclusion, consumers expectations from meat producers are related to a large variety of meat of a higher quality. Also, presentation form in packed portionated meat parts on the shelf as wellas hygiene come on the next positions from consumers side in order to satisfy their needs better.

  3. Influence of dietary vitamin E supplementation on meat quality traits and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in the Beijing-you chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W J; Zhao, G P; Chen, J L; Zheng, M Q; Wen, J

    2009-03-01

    1. The effects of dietary vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) on carcase and meat quality, oxidative stability, fatty acid composition of muscle lipids, and gene expression related to lipid metabolism were studied in Beijing-you chickens. 2. A total of 360 female birds were distributed among 6 treatments, containing 6 replicates, each of 10 birds. The feed for each treatment was supplemented with vitamin E (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg feed). At 120 d, 30 birds from each treatment were slaughtered to examine the effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on evaluated traits. 3. The results showed that supplemental vitamin E in diet significantly increased alpha-tocopherol contents of breast and thigh muscles, reduced the drip loss and improved tenderness but did not influence carcase yield, meat colour or pH value 24 h after slaughter. 4. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values decreased with increase in dietary vitamin E, and the addition of 100 mg/kg or more vitamin E had a beneficial effect on oxidative stability as indicated by TBARS values during storage up to 7 d. 5. Dietary vitamin E supplementation significantly altered fatty acid composition of breast muscle. Supplementing with 200 mg/kg vitamin E led to lower saturated fatty acids and greater polyunsaturated fatty acids proportions in breast muscle than control and 10 mg/kg vitamin E treatments. 6. Vitamin E supplementation significantly inhibited expression of the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) gene (cPLA(2)) in breast muscle, while enhancing that of the peroxisome proliterator-activated receptor beta (PPAP-beta) and heart fatty acid binding protein genes (H-FABP). The results indicate that dietary supplementation with vitamin E increased lipid stability in muscle and improved meat quality and fatty acid composition, probably by its influence on the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism.

  4. Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

    2013-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with

  5. Meat Juice Serology and Improved Food Chain Information as Control Tools for Pork-Related Public Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, E; Jukola, E; Raulo, S; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2015-09-01

    The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (≥ 1000 pig places), small fattening farms (Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, T. gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of pigs. The seroprevalence of these important zoonotic pathogens was low in Finland, except that of Yersinia. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was significantly higher in pigs originating from small-scale fattening farms (P food chain information (FCI). © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  7. Meat consumption, meat cooking and risk of lung cancer among Uruguayan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Uruguay, including 876 male cases of lung cancer and 876 male hospitalized controls, frequency matched for age (ten-year intervals), residence and hospital. The following explanatory variables were included in the study: fried red meat, barbecued red meat, boiled red meat, and salted red meat. These items were log transformed and energy-adjusted by the residuals method. The following potential confounders were included into the models: age, residence, hospital, education, family history of lung cancer, body mass index, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy intake, non-meat fatty foods and total fruits. The main objective was to estimate the odds ratios associated with lung cancer risk. Whereas fried meat, barbecued meat, and salted meat were positively associated with risk (OR of the highest quartile of salted meat versus the lowest, 2.90, 95 % CI 1.99-4.25, p-value for trend<0.0001), boiled red meat was mainly protective. We conclude that salted meat was the main risk factor. The mechanisms could be related to the content of N-nitroso compounds in salted meat.

  8. Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellan Welin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788

  9. The role of red meat in a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie

    Lean red meat is rich in essential nutrients, such as iron and zinc. Recent changes in farming practice have lowered the fat content of meat significantly. Observational studies have associated high meat consumption with negative health outcomes, but these studies have limitations. The only consistent data relate to colorectal cancer, although it is unclear whether the risk relates to all red meat or to processed or overcooked meats only. The UK government has recently recommended that high consumers of red meat should reduce their intake to 500g per week, although average meat consumption is actually below this figure. This article describes patterns of meat consumption, discusses associations with health and offers guidance on how patients can consume meat as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

  10. Radurization of Korean horse mackerel. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation preservation of Asian fish and fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.R.

    1977-03-01

    Samples of fresh horse mackerel (Trachrus japonicus) meat, packaged in plastic bags, were irradiated with various doses from 0 to 1.0Mrad and held at either 0,5 or 10 degrees C. Analyses of histamine concentration, total volatile base (TVB), trimethylamine (TMA) content and total bacterial counts of the samples were carried out periodically during storage. The minimum and maximum doses for Korean horse mackerel were decided to be 0.2 and 0.4Mrad respectively. Histamine accumulation in horse mackerel samples stored at ice temperature up to 35 days did not take place appreciably irrespective of irradiation. At 5 and 10 degrees C storage, however, irradiation showed marked effect on suppressing the histamine accumulation in the samples. There were practically no differences on TVB and TMA contents in horse mackerel stored at 0 degree C, whether irradiated or not, until the 28th day of storage when TVB and TMA contents of unirradiated samples increased sharply. At 5 and 10 degrees C storage, TVB and TMA values in irradiated samples were significantly lower than those in unirradiated ones. Total bacterial counts in horse mackerel were also significantly reduced in irradiated samples, especially those stored at 0 degree C. It appears that a good correlation exists in the histamine, TVB and TMA formations in horse mackerel. The histamine content of various fish species marketed in Seoul, with the exception of certain samples collected during summer months, were unalarmingly low. Relatively low histamine contents were also observed in canned fish in Korea. It was observed that irradiation caused reddening of the flesh of horse mackerel. The reddening effect appeared to be dose-dependent, especially at doses above 0.4Mrad. At lower doses, the reddening contributed positively to the overall sensory quality of the fish

  11. Radiation preservation with reduced nitrites of bacon and other cured meats - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.

    1987-01-01

    The main problem caused by nitrite as a preservative is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines in bacon and other cured meats. This has led to a search for alternatives to the use of nitrite. Irradiation with reduced level of nitrite is a promising alternative to the use of current levels of nitrite. Radurization (radiation pasteurization) of bacon containing 20 to to 40 mg/kg of nitrite in evacuated packages, irradiated and stored at 4 degrees C, gives a product with good organoleptic qualities and extended shelf life of > 80 days vs. < days 30 days for the conventionally treated bacon. Radappertization (radiation sterilization) of bacon containing 20 mg/kg of nitrite at a dose of about 30 kGy, irradiated at -20 degrees or lower in evacuated packages, results in a product that is shelf stable for months to years at room temperature (∼ 25 degrees C). It has organoleptic properties comparable to commercial bacon in terms of color, flavor, odor and texture. Irradiation also reduces the nitrite and preformed nitrosamines present in bacon. Lower levels of nitrosamines are formed on cooking irradiated bacon containing presently used commercial levels of nitrite (120-150 mg/kg) and the levels of nitrosamines become negligible with 20 mg/kg of nitrite. Various aspects of preservation of bacon and other cured meats are reviewed in this report with emphasis on radiation processing. 357 refs

  12. Meat and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J

    1999-05-01

    In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.

  13. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The authors comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. METHODS: During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder-cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and...

  15. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the public health risks related to mechanically separated meat (MSM) derived from poultry and swine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    The purpose of this assessment was to identify public health risks linked to mechanically separated meat (MSM) types from pork and poultry and compare them with fresh meat, minced meat and meat preparations (non-MSM); and to select, rank and suggest objective measurement methods and values...... is a promising method for distinction of MSM types, but further validation is needed. In order to improve methods for MSM identification, specifically designed studies for the collection of data obtained by standardised methods on indicators such as calcium and cholesterol should be undertaken, while studies...

  16. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by "1H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  17. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  18. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  19. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  20. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Meat and Seafood Consumption in Relation to Plasma Metabolic Profiles in a Chinese Population: A Combined Untargeted and Targeted Metabolomics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yonghai; Zou, Li; Su, Jin; Tai, E Shyong; Whitton, Clare; Dam, Rob M van; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-06-30

    We examined the relationship between different patterns of meat and seafood consumption and plasma metabolic profiles in an Asian population. We selected 270 ethnic Chinese men and women from the Singapore Prospective Study Program based on their dietary habits assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were divided into four subgroups: high meat and high seafood ( n = 60), high meat and low seafood ( n = 64), low meat and high seafood ( n = 60), and low meat and low seafood ( n = 86) consumers. Plasma metabolites were measured using both targeted and untargeted mass spectroscopy-based analyses. A total of 42 metabolites differed significantly by dietary group. Higher concentrations of essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and d-glucose were found in high meat and/or seafood consumers as compared with the group with a low consumption of these animal foods. Red meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, soy products, and dairy were each correlated with at least one differential metabolite ( r = -0.308 to 0.448). Some observations, such as the correlation between fish and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF), confirmed previous studies. Other observations, such as the correlation between shellfish and phosphatidylethanolamine (p36:4), were novel. We also observed significant correlations between plasma metabolites and clinical characteristics, such as CMPF with fasting blood glucose ( r = 0.401). These findings demonstrate a significant influence of meat and seafood consumption on metabolic profiles in the Asian population.

  2. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extraintestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  3. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat.

  4. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  5. In vitro meat: A future animal-free harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-03-04

    In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods. This new way of animal-free meat production may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and resource use associated with current meat production systems and will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe, and disease-free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controllable and manipulatable. Theoretically, this system is believed to be efficient enough to supply the global demand for meat; however, establishment of a sustainable in vitro meat production would face considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish this animal-free meat culturing system on an industrial scale.

  6. Demand Potential for Goat Meat in Southern States: Empirical Evidence from a Multi-State Goat Meat Consumer Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mack C.; Liu, Xuanli

    2005-01-01

    A survey conducted in 11 Southeastern states elicits consumers' demand and preferences for various goat meat products. The data permit examination of goat meat demand of ethnic populations and the diversity among the states surveyed. The study uses five econometric models to examine the current demand, potential demand, and demand related to season and occasions on the goat meat market. Our analysis suggests that there exist a substantial demand for goat meat and the potential increase in the...

  7. Changes in protein abundance between tender and tough meat from bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle assessed by isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnadóttir, S G; Hollung, K; Høy, M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find potential biomarkers for meat tenderness in bovine Longissimus thoracis muscle and to compare results from isobaric Tag for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. The experiment included 4 tender and 4...

  8. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  9. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  10. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  11. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  12. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  13. Managing meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  14. Investigating the effect of a 3-month workplace-based pedometer-driven walking programme on health-related quality of life in meat processing workers: a feasibility study within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Suliman; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Tumilty, Steve; Hendrick, Paul; Higgs, Chris; Baxter, David G

    2015-04-22

    In New Zealand, meat processing populations face many health problems as a result of the nature of work in meat processing industries. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of using a pedometer-based intervention to increase physical activity and improve health-related outcomes in a population of meat processing workers. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. A convenience sample of meat workers (n = 58; mean age 41.0 years; range: 18-65) participated in the trial. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups. Intervention participants (n = 29) utilized a pedometer to self monitor their activity, whilst undertaking a brief intervention, and educational material. Control participants (n = 29) received educational material only. The primary outcomes of ambulatory activity, and health-related quality of life, were evaluated at baseline, immediately following the 12-week intervention and three months post-intervention. Fifty three participants completed the program (91.3% adherence). Adherence with the intervention group was high, 93% (n = 27/29), and this group increased their mean daily step count from 5993 to 9792 steps per day, while the control group steps changed from 5788 to 6551 steps per day from baseline. This increase in step counts remained significant within the intervention group p workplace setting over the short term. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12613000087752.

  15. Meat : a natural symbol.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddes, Nick

    1989-01-01

    In Britain, and in cultures around the world, meat's significance extends beyond what might be anticipated from its nutritional utility. By looking at the academic and popular literature, and through a series of looselystructured interviews, this study investigates the range of ideas that people hold about meat in modern Britain for evidence as to what it is that makes animal flesh such an esteemed foodstuff. The principle conclusion is that meat's pre-eminence derives from ...

  16. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  17. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  18. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Prevalence, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Genetic Diversity of Listeria spp. Isolated from Raw Chicken Meat and Chicken-Related Products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Pui San; Ang, Geik Yong; Yu, Choo Yee; Tan, Eng Lee; Tee, Kok Keng; Yin, Wai Fong; Chan, Kok Gan; Tan, Geok Yuan Annie

    2018-02-01

    Listeria spp. are ubiquitous in nature and can be found in various environmental niches such as soil, sewage, river water, plants, and foods, but the most frequently isolated species are Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. In this study, the presence of Listeria spp. in raw chicken meat and chicken-related products sold in local markets in Klang Valley, Malaysia was investigated. A total of 44 Listeria strains (42 L. innocua and 2 L. welshimeri) were isolated from 106 samples. Antibiotic susceptibility tests of the L. innocua strains revealed a high prevalence of resistance to clindamycin (92.9%), ceftriaxone (76.2%), ampicillin (73.8%), tetracycline (69%), and penicillin G (66.7%). Overall, 31 L. innocua and 1 L. welshimeri strain were multidrug resistant, i.e., nonsusceptible to at least one antimicrobial agent in three or more antibiotic classes. The majority of the L. innocua strains were placed into five AscI pulsogroups, and overall 26 distinct AscI pulsotypes were identified. The detection of multidrug-resistant Listeria strains from different food sources and locations warrants attention because these strains could serve as reservoirs for antimicrobial resistance genes and may facilitate the spread and emergence of other drug-resistant strains.

  20. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R

    1965-05-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

  1. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  2. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  3. Identification of candidate genes associated with porcine meat color traits by genome-wide transcriptome analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bojiang Li; Chao Dong; Pinghua Li; Zhuqing Ren; Han Wang; Fengxiang Yu; Caibo Ning; Kaiqing Liu; Wei Wei; Ruihua Huang; Jie Chen; Wangjun Wu; Honglin Liu

    2016-01-01

    Meat color is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying traits related to meat color remain mostly unknown. In this study, to elucidate the molecular basis of meat color, we constructed six cDNA libraries from biceps femoris (Bf) and soleus (Sol), which exhibit obvious differences in meat color, and analyzed the whole-transcriptome differences between Bf (white muscle) and Sol (red muscle) using high-throughput sequencing techn...

  4. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  5. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karltun, J; Vogel, K; Bergstrand, M; Eklund, J

    2016-09-01

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Meat and meat product preservation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egginger, R.

    A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)

  9. Effects of progressive resistance training combined with a protein-enriched lean red meat diet on health-related quality of life in elderly women: secondary analysis of a 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Susan J; Robinson, Sian; Orellana, Liliana; O'Connell, Stella L; Grimes, Carley A; Mundell, Niamh L; Dunstan, David W; Nowson, Caryl A; Daly, Robin M

    2017-06-01

    Resistance training (RT) and increased dietary protein are recommended to attenuate age-related muscle loss in the elderly. This study examined the effect of a lean red meat protein-enriched diet combined with progressive resistance training (RT+Meat) on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in elderly women. In this 4-month cluster randomised controlled trial, 100 women aged 60-90 years (mean 73 years) from self-care retirement villages participated in RT twice a week and were allocated either 160 g/d (cooked) lean red meat consumed across 2 meals/d, 6 d/week or ≥1 serving/d (25-30 g) carbohydrates (control group, CRT). HR-QoL (SF-36 Health Survey questionnaire), lower limb maximum muscle strength and lean tissue mass (LTM) (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed at baseline and 4 months. In all, ninety-one women (91 %) completed the study (RT+Meat (n 48); CRT (n 43)). Mean protein intake was greater in RT+Meat than CRT throughout the study (1·3 (sd 0·3) v. 1·1 (sd 0·3) g/kg per d, P<0·05). Exercise compliance (74 %) was not different between groups. After 4 months there was a significant net benefit in the RT+Meat compared with CRT group for overall HR-QoL and the physical component summary (PCS) score (P<0·01), but there were no changes in either group in the mental component summary (MCS) score. Changes in lower limb muscle strength, but not LTM, were positively associated with changes in overall HR-QoL (muscle strength, β: 2·2 (95 % CI 0·1, 4·3), P<0·05). In conclusion, a combination of RT and increased dietary protein led to greater net benefits in overall HR-QoL in elderly women compared with RT alone, which was because of greater improvements in PCS rather than MCS.

  10. Towards a reduced meat diet: Mindset and motivation of young vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna; Aiking, Harry

    2017-06-01

    This study provides insight into differences and similarities in the mindset and motivation of four dietary groups (young self-declared vegetarians, low, medium and high meat-eaters) to support the development of strategies for a general transition to a less meat-based diet. The paper highlights the value of the identity concept for our understanding of both vegetarians and meat eaters. The analysis involves a comparison of the four dietary groups focusing on the strength and the profile of their food-related motivation and their reasons for and against frequent meat eating. To check for the generalizability of the results, the analyses were performed in two samples of adults (aged 18-35) in the Netherlands (native Dutch, n = 357, and second generation Chinese Dutch, n = 350). In both samples, the vegetarians had the same level of food-related motivation as the other groups, but a different motivational profile and distinctive, taste- and animal-welfare related reasons to justify their abstinence from eating meat. The low and medium meat-eaters often considered health a reason to eat meat as well as to moderate meat eating, plus they liked to vary their meals. In these aspects they were different from both the vegetarians and the high meat-eaters. The findings are relevant for (non) governmental organizations that aim to influence dietary choices, as well as for businesses that operate in the market of meat substitutes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  12. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius STANCIU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Roxana ION; Costel NISTOR

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appea...

  13. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  14. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: a population based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C

    2009-01-13

    Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish leads to the formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in the acidic stomach. This study investigated whether consumed cured/smoked meat and fish, the major dietary resource for exposure to nitrites and nitrosamines, is associated with childhood acute leukemia. A population-based case-control study of Han Chinese between 2 and 20 years old was conducted in southern Taiwan. 145 acute leukemia cases and 370 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited between 1997 and 2005. Dietary data were obtained from a questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression models were used in data analyses. Consumption of cured/smoked meat and fish more than once a week was associated with an increased risk of acute leukemia (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.15-2.64). Conversely, higher intake of vegetables (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37-0.83) and bean-curd (OR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.34-0.89) was associated with a reduced risk. No statistically significant association was observed between leukemia risk and the consumption of pickled vegetables, fruits, and tea. Dietary exposure to cured/smoked meat and fish may be associated with leukemia risk through their contents of nitrites and nitrosamines among children and adolescents, and intake of vegetables and soy-bean curd may be protective.

  15. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intakes in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, Heather A.; Norat, Teresa; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H.B.; Jenab, Mazda; Fedirko, Veronika; Duijnhoven, Van Fränzel J.B.; Skeie, Guri; Romaguera-Bosch, Dora; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Carbonnel, Franck; Affret, Aurélie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Aleksandrova, Krassimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Mattiello, Amalia; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Åsli, Lene Angell; Jakszyn, Paula; Ramón Quirós, J.; Sánchez, María José; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Jirström, Karin; Ericson, Ulrika; Johansson, Ingegerd; Gylling, Björn; Bradbury, Kathryn E.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Stepien, Magdalena; Freisling, Heinz; Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Riboli, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with

  16. Vegetarianism and food perception : selective visual attention to meat pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific fo...

  17. Religiosity Aspect in Consumer Behaviour: Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Jusmaliani; Hanny Nasution

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that religion may influence consumer attitude and behavior in general, especially in food purchasing decisions and eating habits. There are limited studies that examined the role of religiosity in consumer behaviour; especially in relations to halal meat consumption. Due to gaps found in the literature, this study investigates the determinants of intention to eat halal meat. It also examines the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian M...

  18. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  19. Meat for keeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of gamma irradiation as a food preservation technique for meat are such that the author envisages its wide acceptance and application during this decade both locally and internationally

  20. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  1. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

  2. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of special strains of microorganisms in production of functional meat products offers some opportunities. Thus, such action is associated with formation of the following specific dietary components: organic acids, bactericins, enzymes, vitamins and others. They promote to improve the sanitary microbiological, organoleptic, functional and technological parameters of meat products. Using of denitrifying microbial strains could reduce the residual content of sodium nitrite in the finished product, minimizing the possible carcinogenic and mutagenic impact of this compound on a human body, producing functional safe products while maintaining its high organoleptic characteristics.

  3. Are meat substitutes liked better over time? A repeated in-home use test with meat substitutes or meat in meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Elzerman, J.E.; Hageman, R.; Kok, F.J.; Luning, P.A.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to explore long-term consumer acceptance of new environmentally sustainable alternatives to meat. We investigated whether meat substitutes, which are relatively new food products, would be better appreciated after repeated consumption. Eighty-nine non-vegetarian

  4. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Characteristics of Meat Duck, Problems and Prevention of Off Flavor Due to Lipid Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Procula R Matitaputty

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Source of poultry meat in Indonesia is currently dominated by chicken while local resources such as ducks have the potential to grow and be used as an alternative meat producer. Duck contribution towards the provision of a relatively small meat of 2.29%, compared with free-range chicken to reachs 20.33%. Sources of duck meat in Indonesia comes from local duck, and culled female ducks. Acceptance of most local duck meat is still relatively low, although in some areas local duck dishes are excellent. Meat ducks are generally less desirable, because taste and smell is different from chicken. Because consumers are not accustomed to the taste of typical meat, especially those that give the sensation of irregularities off meat – flavor or smell fishy/ rancid. Similarly, the color of duck meat is darker than that of chicken meat, high fat content of about 2.7 to 6.8%, which also influences consumer preferences. The high fat content, especially acid-unsaturated fatty acids in meat duck gives a tendency to produce off – flavors. Efforts to increase the consumption of duck meat should be based on the cause of the lack of acceptance by consumers. The smell of rancid meat duck is the most dominant cause of which is not liked by consumers. Efforts to reduce the off flavor of duck meat could be by adding antioxidant in feed stuffs.

  6. PRODUCTION AND SUPPLY BALANCE OF POULTRY MEAT IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Grgić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an important protein source in the human consumption. The main factors that have a positive effect on the development of the poultry industry are short production cycle, relatively low cost and the lack of religious restrictions on consumption. Chicken meat has the biggest share in the structure of poultry meat. The paper objective was to calculate the level of self-sufficiency degree in poultry meat in Croatia in the period from 2000 to 2012 and the degree of self-sufficiency in 2016 based on the results obtained. The method of balancing was used for calculation of self-sufficiency degree. The degree of self-sufficiency in the production of poultry meat in Croatia is higher than in other types of meat being between 80 and 90%. However, further decrease is expected and in 2016 domestic production would meet 81.17% of the domestic needs.

  7. Concentration and Competition in the Global Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Yuliia G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the condition, development specifics, concentration and competition in the global meat market. Both significance and role of meat in providing the food security has been substantiated. An analysis of the dynamics and structure (both geographical and commodity of production volumes, consumption, exports and imports of meat has been conducted. The major producers, consumers, exporters and importers of meat in the context of globalization have been identified. The country-based features, patterns of consumption and imports of meat have been characterized. On the basis of calculated five indicators of concentration (coefficient of concentration, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, coefficient of relative concentration, dispersion of logarithms of market shares, index of the maximum share the features of competition in the global market of producers and consumers of meat have been determined.

  8. Meat flavour in pork and beef - From animal to meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, Margit D; Meinert, Lene

    2017-10-01

    An intense meat flavour is greatly appreciated by consumers. Meat flavour is generated during the cooking process through a complex series of chemical reactions between precursors, intermediate reaction products and degradation products. The content and nature of the precursors present in the meat are affected by several factors including genetics, feed, handling of the live animals and subsequent handling of the meat. The fatty acid composition can easily be altered though feeding, especially in monogastric animals, while the carbohydrate content is more closely related to genetics (pigs), feeding in the last days before slaughter and handling at slaughter (both ante and post mortem). Ageing of the meat is not particularly important for the flavour, unless the meat is dry-aged. In comparison, cooking is crucial for the development of flavour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer profile analysis for different types of meat in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba-Perez, Carmen; Baviera-Puig, Amparo; Buitrago-Vera, Juan; Montero-Vicente, Luis

    2017-07-01

    It is important to analyse the consumer profile of each type of meat to better adapt the marketing mix to each one. To this end, we examined the average consumption frequency of different types of meat based on two methodologies: consumer segmentation using the food-related lifestyle (FRL) framework, giving rise to 4 segments, and analysis of socio-demographic profiles. The variables used were: sex, age, educational level, social class, number of people in the household, presence of children younger than 18 in the home, geographical area and habitual residence. Beef was the only meat type significant in both analyses. Turkey meat only appeared as significant in the FRL analysis. The other meats (chicken, pork, rabbit and lamb) were only significant in the sociodemographic variables analysis. From the outcomes we may conclude that there is no single consumer profile, which rather depends on the type of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. STUDY ON THE MEAT CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GENOVEVA BUZAMĂT

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we performed a quantitative research on the consumption of meat and meat products on individuals from the counties Timis, Caras-Severin and Arad. The work instrument was represented by the anonymous questionnaire with simple and multiple-answer variants, consisted of 13 questions. At the end of this questionnaire, we may find questions related to the investigated person status, age, sex, origin environment, education, income, family. The sample on which the research was performed was consisted of 425 individuals. The objectives of this research are: evaluation of the frequency of meat and meat products consumption, evaluation of meat quantity consumed per capita, evaluation of consumers’ preferences for meat types and products, identification of the place where consumers purchase meat and meat products from, identification of some correlations between meat consumption and consumer’s income level, education and age.

  11. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat's particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  12. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1 and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overvad Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1 and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2 may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC, and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. Methods The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642 in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142, the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466 and G-765C (rs20417 in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275 polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Results Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.12-2.06. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00. There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16 whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02. COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T

  13. Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette; Christensen, Jane; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Vogel, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    The xenobiotic transporters, Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1/ABCB1) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2) may restrict intestinal absorption of various carcinogens, including heterocyclic amines (HCA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandins promote gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, affecting angiogenesis, apoptosis, and invasiveness. The aim of this study was to investigate if polymorphisms in these genes were associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and to investigate possible interactions with lifestyle factors such as smoking, meat consumption, and NSAID use. The following polymorphisms were analyzed; a synonymous MDR1 C3435T (rs1045642) in exon26, G-rs3789243-A in intron3, the functional BCRP C421A (rs2231142), the two COX-2 A-1195G (rs689466) and G-765C (rs20417) in the promoter region, and the COX-2 T8473C (rs5275) polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated region. The polymorphisms were assessed together with lifestyle factors in a nested case-cohort study of 359 cases and a random cohort sample of 765 participants from the Danish prospective Diet, Cancer and Health study. Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 intron 3 polymorphism were at 1.52-fold higher risk of CRC than homozygous wild type allele carriers (Incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.52, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.12-2.06). Carriers of the variant allele of MDR1 C3435T exon 26 had a lower risk of CRC than homozygous C-allele carriers (IRR = 0.71 (CI:0.50-1.00)). There was interaction between these MDR1 polymorphisms and intake of red and processed meat in relation to CRC risk. Homozygous MDR1 C3435T C-allele carriers were at 8% increased risk pr 25 gram meat per day (CI: 1.00-1.16) whereas variant allele carriers were not at increased risk (p for interaction = 0.02). COX-2 and BCRP polymorphisms were not associated with CRC risk. There was interaction between NSAID use and MDR1 C3435T and COX-2 T8473C (p-values for interaction 0

  14. Vegetarianism and food perception. Selective visual attention to meat pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, Jessica; Renner, Britta; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2009-04-01

    Vegetarianism provides a model system to examine the impact of negative affect towards meat, based on ideational reasoning. It was hypothesized that meat stimuli are efficient attention catchers in vegetarians. Event-related brain potential recordings served to index selective attention processes at the level of initial stimulus perception. Consistent with the hypothesis, late positive potentials to meat pictures were enlarged in vegetarians compared to omnivores. This effect was specific for meat pictures and obtained during passive viewing and an explicit attention task condition. These findings demonstrate the attention capture of food stimuli, deriving affective salience from ideational reasoning and symbolic meaning.

  15. Human risk from thermotolerant Campylobacter on broiler meat in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Louise; Nauta, Maarten; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia

    2013-01-01

    2005 to 2008 in the human risk from Danish produced broiler meat, and a decrease from 2005 to 2010 in the risk from imported chilled meat. This risk reduction coincides with control measures implemented to reduce Campylobacter in Danish and imported chilled broiler meat. The human risk...... providing the most relevant outcome for food safety risk managers.......This paper describes a new approach by which changes over time in the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis from broiler meat are evaluated through quantitative microbiological risk assessment modelling. Danish surveillance data collected at retail from 2001 to 2010 on numbers of thermotolerant...

  16. Meat consumption, cooking methods, mutagens, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Aune, Dagfinn; Mendilaharsu, María; Acosta, Gisele; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E

    2012-01-01

    The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy.

  17. Differences in Health-related Fatty Acids, Intramuscular Fat and the Physico-chemical Quality in Mutton as Affected by Season, Place of Purchase and Meat Portion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikhona T. Rani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the quality and fatty acid profiles of mutton cuts purchased from rural and urban localities in South Africa. Five hundred and ten samples were collected in four seasons from both rural and urban shops and butcheries. Samples were immediately transported to the laboratory in cooler boxes with ice where the following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH, color (L*, a*, and b*, cooking losses and Warner Braztler shear force and replicates stored at −20°C pending fatty acid analysis. Meat L* values were lowest (24.7±0.49 in winter and highest (32.2±0.49 in spring. The loin and sirloin cuts recorded the highest intramuscular fat whilst rib and leg cuts recorded the lowest intramuscular fat. In conclusion intramuscular fat, fatty acid profiles and physico-chemical quality of mutton were significantly affected by season and meat portion and not necessarily by the locality and class of shop.

  18. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  19. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  20. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  2. Effect of hunting awareness on wild game meat purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Although wild game meat constitutes a sustainable and healthy alternative to conventional meat and hunting contributes to the control of game populations, international studies on consumer attitudes towards this type of meat are still limited and no previous research has been focused on the Italian population. For the development of successful marketing strategies and/or public policy intervention, the knowledge of consumers’ purchase behavior is a key factor. Among all the determinants that can influence the behavior of consumers of hunted wild game meat (i.e. animal welfare, sustainability, ecological food choice, product safety, nutritional quality, the consumers’ awareness of hunting activity and their perceptions of wild game meat assume a crucial role. Accordingly, in this paper an online survey on a sample of 741 Italian meat consumers has been conducted to investigate the relationship between consumers’ purchase behavior and their awareness of hunted game meat and hunting practices (chi-square test, F-test. Statistically significant differences were found among segments of consumers with different levels of wild game meat consumption frequency. The analysis shows that, as expected, the highest consumption level of wild game meat relates to the highest level of general awareness of wild game meat and hunting practices. Our findings are in line with previous literature, that links positive behaviors of consumers towards wild game meat and hunting to familiarity and experience with hunting and hunters. Nonetheless, the present study provides a deeper understanding of the Italian consumers’ attitudes and perceptions of wild game meat and could suggests policy guidelines for the development of future targeted marketing strategies.

  3. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  4. Nanotechnology in meat processing and packaging: potential applications - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandraiah, Karna; Han, Sung Gu; Chin, Koo Bok

    2015-02-01

    Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  5. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-07-26

    The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, "the pig in the backyard". Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on "normal" meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities.

  6. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Driessen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities.

  7. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  9. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance (γ-D 10 = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of γ-D 10 values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N 2 , whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO 2 . (orig.) [de

  10. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  11. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  12. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  13. Ecological safety of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  14. Sustainability and meat consumption: is reduction realistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; Voordouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meat is critical with respect to sustainability because meat products are among the most energy-intensive and ecologically burdensome foods. Empirical studies of the meat-consumption frequency of Dutch consumers show that, apart from meat-avoiders and meat-eaters, many people are meat-reducers that

  15. Polina Fedorova, About Camel Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the Kalmyks ate beef and horse meat. The poor ate camel meat. People who ate camel meat had pimples on their faces. The camel’s pelt and humps were used to make vessels. The intestines were cleaned, stretched and dried. It was used to make strings for dombra instruments. Arcadia

  16. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.

  17. ECOSYS-87: Model calculations of the activity in cattle meat related to deposition time and feeding regimes after a nuclear fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesen, T.K.; Gottofrey, J.; Heiz, H.J.; Schenker-Wicki, A.

    1996-01-01

    The radioecological model ECOSYS087 was used to evaluate the effect of countermeasures for reducing the ingestion dose by eating cattle meat after an accidental release of radioactive material. Calculations were performed using a database adapted to Swiss conditions for the case that (1) contaminated grass or hay is replaced by clean fodder; (2) the last 100 days before slaughter, taking place one year after an accident, only uncontaminated fodder is given; and (3) alternative feeding regimes are chosen. Seasonal effects were considered by doing all calculations for a deposition at each month of the year. Feeding uncontaminated forage 100 d before slaughter (case 2) proved to be the most effective countermeasure and reduced the integrated activity in meat by 90% to 99%. The effect of replacing contaminated grass (case 1) was less uniform and depended strongly on the time a deposition occurred. In this case the reduction was between 50% and 100% one year after deposition. The substitution of contaminated hay (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 1) was less effective compared to the substitution of grass. The choice of alternative feeding regimes (case 3) led to a reduction of the integrated activity of up to 40% one year after deposition. The present model calculations clearly reveal the importance of the seasonality and demonstrate the usefulness of such calculations as a basis for generating countermeasures in decision support systems. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  18. Factors predicting meat and meat products consumption among middle-aged and elderly people: evidence from a consumer survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Gille, Doreen; Piccinali, Patrizia; Bütikofer, Ueli; Chollet, Magali; Altintzoglou, Themistoklis; Honkanen, Pirjo; Walther, Barbara; Stoffers, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Background : An adequate diet contributes to health and wellbeing in older age. This is nowadays more important than ever since in industrialised countries the elderly population is growing continually. However, information regarding the consumption behaviour of older persons in Switzerland is limited. Objective : The objective of this investigation was to explore how middle-aged and elderly Swiss view animal products in relation to diet and health, and what factors predict consumption frequency. Design : A representative consumer survey among 632 people over the age of 50 years, living in the German-, French- and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland was conducted. Results : This paper presents the results related to meat and meat products consumption. Most participants consumed meat and meat products regularly. The majority of participants with low meat intake indicated that eating small amounts would be enough. Respondents judged fresh meat (except pork) to be healthier than meat products, and poultry to be the healthiest meat. Overall meat consumption frequency was predicted by language region, gender, household size, and BMI. Furthermore, participants' opinion about healthiness, taste and safety of meat but not their adherence to the Swiss food pyramid was found to be correlated to the consumption frequency of individual types of meat. Conclusion : Several factors have an impact on consumption frequency of meat and meat products in the middle-aged and elderly Swiss population and the importance varies according to the individual types of meat and meat products. The results show that the traditional food pyramid is not one of these factors for which reason new tools must be explored to support elderly people in regard to a healthy dietary behaviour.

  19. Antimicrobial Edible Films and Coatings for Meat and Meat Products Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irais Sánchez-Ortega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal origin foods are widely distributed and consumed around the world due to their high nutrients availability but may also provide a suitable environment for growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays consumers demand high quality food with an extended shelf life without chemical additives. Edible films and coatings (EFC added with natural antimicrobials are a promising preservation technology for raw and processed meats because they provide good barrier against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. This review gathers updated research reported over the last ten years related to antimicrobial EFC applied to meat and meat products. In addition, the films gas barrier properties contribute to extended shelf life because physicochemical changes, such as color, texture, and moisture, may be significantly minimized. The effectiveness showed by different types of antimicrobial EFC depends on meat source, polymer used, film barrier properties, target microorganism, antimicrobial substance properties, and storage conditions. The perspective of this technology includes tailoring of coating procedures to meet industry requirements and shelf life increase of meat and meat products to ensure quality and safety without changes in sensory characteristics.

  20. Technology for meat-grinding systems to improve removal of hard particles from ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Sebranek, J G

    1997-03-01

    With increased consumption of ground meat, especially ground beef, quality issues for these products have become more important to industry and consumers alike. Ground meats are usually obtained from relatively low-value cuts and trimmings, and may on occasion contain undesirable hard particles. Hard particles in coarse-ground meat products may include bone chips or fragments, cartilage and dense connective tissue; all of which are considered undesirable defects and which can be reduced by utilizing hard-particle removal systems during grinding operations. This review discusses the principles of hard-particle separation from ground meat, the factors which influence performance of particle separation and some commercially available particle removal systems. Product and processing parameters such as initial bone and connective tissue content, fat content, temperature, pre-grinding size and grinder knife design are considered important for removing hard particles effectively. Pressure gradient on the grinder knife/plate interface was found to play a significant role in particle separation from soft (fat and lean) tissue. Various commercial systems, which are classified as central removal and periphery removal systems, are also discussed. Finally, the authors suggest some processing considerations for meat grinding to help achieve the best quality ground meat for consumers' satisfaction.

  1. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    A total of 50 sticks of Suya weighing from 38.10 - 59.30 grams of sliced meat per stick were prepared for .... prolong shelflife and provide a natural alternative (or supplement) to chemical preservatives. Its antimicrobial ... Although O. gratissimum appears safe to use in both food and as medicine, its level of inclusion in food.

  2. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  3. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  4. Market of venison meat in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  5. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...... obtained (SP, SE, and AC were 100, 95, and 97%, respectively). This test is under implementation by the Danish meat industry, and can be useful for screening of large number of samples in the meat production, especially for fast release of minced meat with a short shelf life....

  6. ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SAFETY OF CHILLED MEAT USING THE METHOD OF ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Timakova

    2016-01-01

    calculation according to GOST R 52529-2006. The need for further research of meat and meat products by the EPR method is obvious: to determine a fact of sterilization or radurization, to determine a radiation dose, to accumulate reliablyestablished information on radiation sensitivity and to develop a methodological base for the use of an EPR spectrometer.

  7. Decontamination of Rooibostea by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The microbiological quality of a 'raw' agricultural commodity such as Rooibos tea is determined by a set of factors during harvesting and processing. Results suggest that a fermentation process takes place during processing, with members of the Enterobacteriaceae playing a dominant role. Against this background, as well as fluctuating hygienic conditions during processing, the high microbial population (10 7 to 5 x 10 8 /g) and even the possible presence of food-borne pathogens such as salmonellae, may be explaned. No real quarantee for the microbiological status of the product can be given, unless it is subjected to a terminal decontamination process (preferably after final packaging). Radurisation appears to be an ideal process for this purpose, and treatment at 8 kGy resulted in more than a 5000-fold (>99,9%) reduction of the microbial population. This was sufficient to eliminate all pathogens without harming the organoleptic quality of the product

  8. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Vackier, Isabelle

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates the profile and effects of consumer involvement in fresh meat as a product category based on cross-sectional data collected in Belgium. Analyses confirm that involvement in meat is a multidimensional construct including four facets: pleasure value, symbolic value, risk importance and risk probability. Four involvement-based meat consumer segments are identified: straightforward, cautious, indifferent, and concerned. Socio-demographic differences between the segments relate to gender, age and presence of children. The segments differ in terms of extensiveness of the decision-making process, impact and trust in information sources, levels of concern, price consciousness, claimed meat consumption, consumption intention, and preferred place of purchase. The two segments with a strong perception of meat risks constitute two-thirds of the market. They can be typified as cautious meat lovers versus concerned meat consumers. Efforts aiming at consumer reassurance through quality improvement, traceability, labelling or communication may gain effectiveness when targeted specifically to these two segments. Whereas straightforward meat lovers focus mainly on taste as the decisive criterion, indifferent consumers are strongly price oriented.

  10. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  11. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-05-01

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  13. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  14. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Leah M; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H; Graubard, Barry I; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S; Cross, Amanda J

    2010-09-15

    Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The authors comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder-cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who had completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. The authors estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat by using quantitative databases of measured values. Total dietary nitrate and nitrite were calculated based on literature values. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.96-1.54; P(trend) = .07) and the HCA 2-amino-1 methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.95-1.48; P(trend) = .06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. Positive associations were observed in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; P(trend) = .06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.67; P(trend) = .11). These findings provided modest support for an increased risk of bladder cancer with total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat. Results also suggested a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  15. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them

  16. Trichinella spp. imported with live animals and meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2015-09-30

    Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are widely distributed throughout the world in omnivorous and carnivorous animals (mammals, birds, and reptiles) and in incidental hosts. To prevent the transmission of these zoonotic parasites to humans, meat samples from Trichinella spp. susceptible animals are tested at the slaughterhouse or in game processing plants. The aim of the present review was to collect documented cases on Trichinella infected animals, meat, or meat derived products which reached the international trade or were illegally introduced from one to another country in personal baggage. In the course of the last 60 years in the international literature, there have been 43 reports of importation of Trichinella spp. infected animals or meat, most of which (60%, 26/43) related to live horses or their meat. Meat or meat derived products from pigs, wild boar and bears, account only for 18.6% (8/43), 4.7% (3/43), and 14.3% (6/43), respectively. However, only live horses or their meat intended for human consumption, meat from a single wild boar, and live polar bears caught in the wild for zoos, were imported through the international market; whereas, meat from pigs, wild boars and bears were illegally introduced in a country in personal baggage. Trichinella infected animals or meat which were officially or illegally introduced in a country were the source of 3443 Trichinella infections in humans in a 40-year period (1975-2014). Most of these infections (96.8%) have been linked to horsemeat consumption, whereas meat from pigs, wild boars and bears accounted only for 2.2%, 0.7% and 0.3% of cases, respectively. This review shows the Trichinella spp. risk in the international animal and meat trade has been linked mainly to horses and only one time to wild boar, if they carcasses are not adequately tested, whereas pigs and other wild animals or their derived products infected with Trichinella spp. are unlikely to reach the international market by the official animal and

  17. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  18. Lamb meat radiodecontamination by application of some technological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganovicj, B.; Michicj, G.; Stankovicj, S.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we consider radiodecontamination of lamb meat by deep freezing, defrosting, pressure cooking, rubbing in salt and cooking. The radiodecontamination effect of radiocesium 134 137 was 63-83% in relation to the control group. (author). 2 refs

  19. A Pilot Study of Halal Goat-Meat Consumption in Atlanta, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Liu, Xuanli; Nelson, Mack C.

    2008-01-01

    Atlanta is a relatively large market for goat meat. As in most metropolitan areas around the U.S., goat-meat consumption has grown steadily in Atlanta over the past decade (Northwest Cooperative Development Center 2005; Nettles and Bukenya 2004). This growth is attributed to the influx of immigrants from goat-meat-eating countries into the U.S. over the same period (Gipson 1999). The increase in demand for goat meat has made the U.S. a net importer of competitively priced goat meat from Austr...

  20. Behavioral, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Meat-Eating by Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardus, Madeleine E.; Lameira, Adriano R.; Zulfa, Astri; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; de Vries, Han; Wich, Serge A.

    2012-01-01

    Meat-eating is an important aspect of human evolution, but how meat became a substantial component of the human diet is still poorly understood. Meat-eating in our closest relatives, the great apes, may provide insight into the emergence of this trait, but most existing data are for chimpanzees. We report 3 rare cases of meat-eating of slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang, by 1 Sumatran orangutan mother–infant dyad in Ketambe, Indonesia, to examine how orangutans find slow lorises and share meat....

  1. Meat and fiber intake and interaction with pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR10) in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective, case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Tjonneland, Anne; Andersen, Vibeke

    2018-03-01

    Meat and dietary fiber are associated with increased and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate the intestinal immune response in a complex interplay between the mucosal epithelium and the microbiota and may therefore be important modulators of diet-induced CRC together with other inflammatory mediators. Our aim was to investigate the association between functional TLR polymorphisms and risk of CRC and the interaction with dietary factors. Additionally, interactions with previously studied polymorphisms in IL10, IL1B, PTGS2, and NFKB1 were assessed in order to examine possible biological pathways in meat-induced CRC. A nested case-cohort study of 897 CRC cases and 1689 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using Cox proportional hazard models and the likelihood ratio test. We found associations between polymorphisms in TLR2 (P = 0.018) and TLR4 (P = 0.044) and risk of CRC per se, interactions between intake of red and processed meat (10 g/d) and polymorphisms in TLR1 (P-interaction = 0.032) and TLR10 (P-interaction = 0.026 and 0.036), and intake of cereals (50 g/d) and TLR4 (P-interaction = 0.044) in relation to risk of CRC. Intake of red and processed meat also interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR1 and TLR10 and polymorphisms in NFKB1, IL10, IL1B, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR1/rs4833095 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.021, TLR10/rs11096955 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.047, TLR10/rs11096955 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.017, TLR10/rs4129009 × NFKB1/rs28362491 = 0.027, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs4848306 = 0.020, TLR10/rs4129009 × IL1B/rs1143623 = 0.021, TLR10/rs4129009 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.027), whereas intake of dietary fiber (10 g/d) interacted with combinations of polymorphisms in TLR4, IL10, and PTGS2 (P-interaction; TLR4/rs1554973 × IL10/rs3024505 = 0.0012, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS2/rs20417 = 0.0041, TLR4/rs1554973 × PTGS

  2. Identification of new food alternatives: how do consumers categorize meat and meat substitutes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Voordouw, J.; Luning, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    New meat substitutes need to be recognized as alternatives to meat. We therefore investigated which category representations consumers have of meat and meat substitutes. Thirty-four non-vegetarian participants performed a free sorting task with 17 meat products and 19 commercially available meat

  3. A Diet Pattern with More Dairy and Nuts, but Less Meat Is Related to Lower Risk of Developing Hypertension in Middle-Aged Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron R. Folsom

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake among other lifestyle factors influence blood pressure. We examined the associations of an ―a priori‖ diet score with incident high normal blood pressure (HNBP; systolic blood pressure (SBP 120–139 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure (DBP 80–89 mmHg and no antihypertensive medications and hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication. We used proportional hazards regression to evaluate this score in quintiles (Q and each food group making up the score relative to incident HNBP or hypertension over nine years in the Atherosclerosis Risk of Communities (ARIC study of 9913 African-American and Caucasian adults aged 45–64 years and free of HNBP or hypertension at baseline. Incidence of HNBP varied from 42.5% in white women to 44.1% in black women; and incident hypertension from 26.1% in white women to 40.8% in black women. Adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors, the ―a priori‖ food score was inversely associated with incident hypertension; but not HNBP. Compared to Q1, the relative hazards of hypertension for the food score Q2–Q5 were 0.97 (0.87–1.09, 0.91 (0.81–1.02, 0.91 (0.80–1.03, and 0.86 (0.75–0.98; ptrend = 0.01. This inverse relation was largely attributable to greater intake of dairy products and nuts, and less meat. These findings support the 2010 Dietary Guidelines to consume more dairy products and nuts, but suggest a reduction in meat intake.

  4. The World Cancer Research Fund report 2007: A challenge for the meat processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeyer, Daniël; Honikel, Karl; De Smet, Stefaan

    2008-12-01

    One of the 10 universal guidelines for healthy nutrition in a report of the World Cancer Research Fund released at the end of 2007 is to "limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat", as a result of the "convincing evidence" for an association with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. In the present paper, the scientific evidence for the association between processed meats intake and colorectal cancer development is explored and the most probable hypothesis on the mechanism underlying this relationship formulated. It seems that the present state of knowledge is not well understood but relates to a combination of haem iron, oxidative stress, formation of N-nitroso compounds and related residues in the digestive tract as the causal factors. Although criticisms of the inaccurate definition of processed meats and the insufficient accounting for the large variability in composition of meat products have been expressed, it is clear that the report urges proper action by the meat and nutrition research community and the meat industry. Research items that in our view should be addressed are discussed. They include: (1) evaluating the health risks associated with processed meats intake within the context of the supply of beneficial nutrients and other nutrition associated health risks; (2) definition of the role of nitrites and nitrates in meat processing; (3) investigating the role of red and processed meats on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the digestive tract; and (4) developing improved processed meats using new ingredients.

  5. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L; Spangholm, D. J.; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates...... causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of Ex......PEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported...

  6. Effects of protein phosphorylation on color stability of ground meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Li, Xin; Xin, Jianzeng; Li, Zheng; Li, Guixia; Zhang, Yan; Du, Manting; Shen, Qingwu W; Zhang, Dequan

    2017-03-15

    The influence of protein phosphorylation on meat color stability was investigated in this study. Phosphatase and protein kinase inhibitors were added to minced ovine Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle to manipulate the global phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. The data obtained show that the rate and extent of pH decline, along with lactate accumulation in postmortem muscle, were related to protein phosphorylation. Analysis of meat color and the relative content of myoglobin redox forms revealed that meat color stability was inversely related to the phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins. Thus, this study suggests that protein phosphorylation may be involved in meat color development by regulating glycolysis and the redox stability of myoglobin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  8. Quantifying and predicting meat and meat products quality attributes using electromagnetic waves: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damez, Jean-Louis; Clerjon, Sylvie

    2013-12-01

    The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. Besides laboratory researches, food scientists often try to adapt their tools to industrial conditions and easy handling devices useable on-line and in slaughterhouses already exist. This paper overviews the recently developed approaches and latest research efforts related to assessing the quality of different meat products by electromagnetic waves and examines the potential for their deployment. The main meat quality traits that can be assessed using electromagnetic waves are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of techniques, from low frequency, high frequency impedance measurement, microwaves, NMR, IR and UV light, to X-ray interaction, involves a wide range of physical interactions between the electromagnetic wave and the sample. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Authentic sheep meat in the European Union: Factors influencing and validating its unique meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Sara W; Muller, Magdalena; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2017-05-01

    Authentic meat products are gaining attention through their unique quality characteristics linked to their origin. Various factors are known to influence the quality of fresh meat. This review describes the different Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) and Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) lamb types and discusses the factors which influences its unique sensory and chemical characteristics. Flavour, aroma, texture and colour play an integral part in the sensory quality of denomination of origin fresh meat products. For authentic fresh sheep meat the sensory (as well as chemical) quality is largely influenced by diet followed by breed, age and gender. However, diet forms the link with the geographical area of origin, which together with the traditional production system and sheep breeds used, lends the product its authentic nature. This review shows how diet linked to origin can affect the quality of the meat and furthermore how other factors such as breed can also have an effect. Research relating to the authentic lamb types were evaluated and the shortcomings highlighted in order to assist with the development of PDO and PGI specifications in the future. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Fatty acid composition of meat of Sarda suckling lamb

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of dietary fat has an important role in human nutrition because can help to reduce the risk of appearance of some diseases. In this work fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb was studied in order to improve meat fat quality in relation to human health. Aim of this thesis was firstly to assess the effect of different management systems, indoor vs. outdoor, on fatty acid profile of meat of Sarda suckling lamb. Lambs which followed their mother on pasture h...

  12. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  13. Breast meat yield, muscle linear measurements and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...

  14. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Tolušić; T. Florijančić; I. Kralik; M. Sesar; M. Tolušić

    2006-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume g...

  15. Can we improve the nutritional quality of meat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollan, Nigel D; Price, Eleri M; Morgan, Sarah A; Huws, Sharon A; Shingfield, Kevin J

    2017-11-01

    The nutritional value of meat is an increasingly important factor influencing consumer preferences for poultry, red meat and processed meat products. Intramuscular fat content and composition, in addition to high quality protein, trace minerals and vitamins are important determinants of nutritional value. Fat content of meat at retail has decreased substantially over the past 40 years through advances in animal genetics, nutrition and management and changes in processing techniques. Evidence of the association between diet and the incidence of human non-communicable diseases has driven an interest in developing production systems for lowering total SFA and trans fatty acid (TFA) content and enrichment of n-3 PUFA concentrations in meat and meat products. Typically, poultry and pork has a lower fat content, containing higher PUFA and lower TFA concentrations than lamb or beef. Animal genetics, nutrition and maturity, coupled with their rumen microbiome, are the main factors influencing tissue lipid content and relative proportions of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. Altering the fatty acid (FA) profile of lamb and beef is determined to a large extent by extensive plant and microbial lipolysis and subsequent microbial biohydrogenation of dietary lipid in the rumen, and one of the major reasons explaining the differences in lipid composition of meat from monogastrics and ruminants. Nutritional strategies can be used to align the fat content and FA composition of poultry, pork, lamb and beef with Public Health Guidelines for lowering the social and economic burden of chronic disease.

  16. Metabonomics profiling of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Yangfang; Pan, Daodong; Sun, Yangying; Wang, Ying; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-03-01

    Marinated meat in soy sauce is one of the most popular traditional cured meat products in China. Its taste quality is directly related to primary and secondary metabolites. Herein, the change of metabolite composition of marinated meat in soy sauce during processing was systematically characterised using 1 H NMR and multivariate data analysis. The marinated meat in soy sauce metabonome was dominated by 26 metabolites, including amino acids, sugars, organic acids, nucleic aides and their derivatives. PC1 and PC2 explained a total of 78.6% and 16.6% of variables, respectively. Amino acids, sugars, acetate, succinate, uracil and inosine increased during marinating, while lactate, creatine, inosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) and anserine decreased (P meat in soy sauce during the late stage of dry-ripening. These findings indicated that the potential of NMR-based metabonomics is of importance for taste quality of marinated meat in soy sauce, which could contribute to a better understanding of the changes of taste compounds in meat products during processing. Shortening the dry-ripening period could be considered to improve the taste quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Religiosity Aspect in Consumer Behaviour: Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusmaliani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that religion may influence consumer attitude and behavior in general, especially in food purchasing decisions and eating habits. There are limited studies that examined the role of religiosity in consumer behaviour; especially in relations to halal meat consumption. Due to gaps found in the literature, this study investigates the determinants of intention to eat halal meat. It also examines the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta and Melbourne. Respondents were personally and electronically contacted. In total, 160 questionnaires were completed for this initial study. The results indicate that behavioural control and availability of halal meat have significant impact on intention to eat halal meat. The results further suggest that in general there are no significant differences in the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta compared to those of in Melbourne, except for availability of halal meat. This study contributes to the marketing literature focuses on the impacts of religion on consumer behaviour which is still under researched.

  18. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color. It can also occur when vegetables containing nitrites are cooked along with the meat. Because doneness and safety cannot be judged by ... or greenish cast when exposed to heat and processing. Wrapping the meat in airtight packages and storing it away from ...

  19. Ecological safety of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  20. The In vitro meat cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van K.M.; Grievink, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    With the world's population expected to reach nine billion people by 2050, it becomes impossible to produce and consume meat like we do today. In vitro meat, grown from cells in a laboratory, could provide a sustainable and animal-friendly alternative. Yet, before we can decide if we are willing to

  1. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  2. CHICKEN MEAT IN HUMAN NUTRITION FOR HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The meat of chicken is very significant animal food in human nutrition. Because of high nutrition value, characterized by high protein content and relatively low fat content, it is also considered as dietetic product. The aim of our research was to analyze chemical composition of muscles of "white" and "red" meat (mucles of breast and thighs with drumsticks regarding the contents of protein, fat, ash, water, macro and microelements. The composition of saturated (SFA, monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated (PUFA fatty acids was also analysed. The content of basic nutritive matters in white and red meat was as follows: protein 24.15% and 20.96% resp., water 74.01% and 74.56% resp., fat 0.62% and 3.29% resp., ash 1.22% and 1.19% resp. The following contents of macro and trace elements were determined in 100 g white and red meat: K 359.22 mg and 322.00 mg resp., Mg 39.35 mg and 27.11 mg resp., Na 61.86 mg and 86.45 mg resp., Mn 0.08 mg and 0.09 mg resp., Zn 1.09 mg and 2.30 mg resp., Fe 1.79 mg and 1.98 mg resp. PUFA omega 3 (C 18:3ω3, C 20:5ω3, C 22:5ω3 and C 22:6ω3 and PUFA omega 6 (C18:2ω6, C 20:2ω6 and C 20:4ω6 fatty acids ratio in white and red meat was 3.11 and 4.43 resp.

  3. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure

  4. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways towards meat substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schösler, Hanna; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2012-02-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable diet necessitates less reliance on foods of animal origin. This study presents data from a representative survey of Dutch consumers on their practices related to meat, meat substitution and meat reduction. The practices reflected a cultural gradient of meat substitution options running from other products of animal origin and conventional meat free meals to real vegetarian meals. To investigate feasible substitution options, a variety of meals without meat were presented using photos, which were rated by the participants in terms of attractiveness and chances that they would prepare a similar meal at home. The results demonstrated the influence of meal formats, product familiarity, cooking skills, preferences for plant-based foods and motivational orientations towards food. In particular, a lack of familiarity and skill hampered the preparation of real vegetarian meals. Based on the findings we propose a diversified understanding of meat substitution and we specify four policy-relevant pathways for a transition towards a more plant-based diet, including an incremental change towards more health-conscious vegetarian meals, a pathway that utilizes the trend towards convenience, a pathway of reduced portion size, and practice-oriented change towards vegetarian meals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  6. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  7. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  8. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  9. Secular trends in meat and seafood consumption patterns among Chinese adults, 1991-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z H; Zhai, F Y; Wang, H J; Zhang, J G; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhang, B

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have suggested differential health effects in relation to different meat composition in Western population. The purpose of the study was to examine secular trends in meat and seafood consumption patterns among Chinese adults between 1991 and 2011. Our longitudinal data are from 21,144 adults aged 18-75 in the China Health and Nutrition Survey, prospective cohort study. We assessed the intakes of meat and subtypes with three 24-h dietary recalls. We conducted multilevel mixed-effect logistic and linear regression models to examine meat consumption dynamics. The proportions of Chinese adults who consumed red meat, poultry and seafood increased from 65.7% in 1991 to 86.1% in 2011, from 7.5 to 20.9% and from 27.4 to 37.8%, respectively. With rapid decrease in meat intakes since 2009, the intakes of total meat, red meat, poultry and seafood among their consumers were 86.7 g/day, 86.4 g/day, 71.0 g/day and 70.3 g/day in 2011, respectively, which were just slightly higher compared with those in 1991. Fatty fresh pork has been predominantly component of total meat overtime, which consituted 54.0% of total meat intake, 80.0% of fresh red meat intake and 98.7% of fatty fresh red meat intake in 2011. Over the past two decades, meat consumption patterns of Chinese adults have been characterized by having a predominant intake of fatty fresh pork, suboptimal intakes of seafood and increased proportion of adults having excessive intakes of red meat and poultry overtime.

  10. Introduction: meat and the nineteenth-century city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Baics, Gergely

    2017-01-01

    The articles gathered in this special section explore the complex and layered relationship between meat and the nineteenth-century city. For urban historians interested in food provisioning, meat represents a critical juncture because no other food item was so deeply and, in so many ways, tied...... to urban modernity. This introduction outlines five central themes of the urban meat nexus: city and country relations, geography and urban space, technology and infrastructure, government and regulation, and changing nutritional standards. The four articles speak to these larger issues in specific...... and novel ways. They advance the existing scholarship by opening up new questions and approaches, focusing on hitherto understudied locations, while also collectively covering the entire spectrum of meat provisioning from supply hinterlands to urban consumption....

  11. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  12. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats. Barbecued meats, such as product labeled “Beef Barbecue” or “Barbecued Pork,” shall be cooked by the direct... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80...

  13. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tolušić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.

  14. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  15. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  16. Water diffusion to assess meat microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Luca; Venturi, Luca; Dellarosa, Nicolò; Petracci, Massimiliano

    2017-12-01

    In the quest for setting up rapid methods to evaluate water retention ability of meat microstructures, time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) has gained a prominent role, due to the possibility to observe water located outside the myofibrils, easily lost upon storage or cooking. Diffusion weighted signals could be used to monitor the shape and dimension of the pores in which water is confined, thus boosting the information offered by TD-NMR. The work outlines a parsimonious model to describe relative abundance and diffusion coefficient of intra and extra myofibrillar water populations, exchange rate between them, diameter of the myofibrillar cells. To test our model, we registered diffusion and T 2 weighted NMR signals at 20MHz on fresh meat from pectoralis major muscle of 100days old female turkey. We then purposely altered water distribution and myofibrils shape by means of freezing. The model predicted nicely the consequences of the imposed modifications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  18. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2018-01-01

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...

  19. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: The Takayama study

    OpenAIRE

    Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population?based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ?35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorecta...

  20. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.

  1. Consumer consciousness on meat and the environment - Exploring differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjolainen, Pasi; Tapio, Petri; Vinnari, Markus; Jokinen, Pekka; Räsänen, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Global environmental challenges require changes in both the production and the consumption of goods. In this paper we analyse how consumers perceive the high environmental burden of meat. We analysed consumer environmental consciousness, including problem awareness and a support to action dimensions, latter including perceived self-efficacy as well as solutions to problems. The solutions were positioned on a continuum from increasing the efficiency of production to discussing sufficiency levels in consumption practices (techno-optimism, local meat, organic meat and meat reduction, respectively). We used a statistically representative survey sample (n = 1890) from the population of Finland and cluster analysis to explore differences among consumers. The analysis revealed that most Finns seem to be rather unsure of the study topic. At the same time they tend to have a comparably high level of self-efficacy (55 per cent of respondents) and endorsement of particularly local meat solution type (55%), followed by organic meat (35%), meat reduction (25%) and techno-optimism (15%), though the neutral stand was the most common one across the data. We also identified six consumer groups that reveal not only a high number of Highly unsure consumers (40%), but also some Rather conscious (20%) and a relatively small number of Highly conscious (8%). In addition, there were also easily observable groups of Careless conscious (14%), Rather unsure (9%) and Resistant (8%). The results highlight the need for a multitude of political actions to guide meat consumption, as there are groups that may benefit from practical tools for making dietary changes as well as groups in need for more comprehensive selection of measures, including environmental information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    /neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species....... Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally......, lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin...

  3. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  4. Behavioral, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Meat-Eating by Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Zulfa, Astri; Atmoko, S Suci Utami; de Vries, Han; Wich, Serge A

    2012-04-01

    Meat-eating is an important aspect of human evolution, but how meat became a substantial component of the human diet is still poorly understood. Meat-eating in our closest relatives, the great apes, may provide insight into the emergence of this trait, but most existing data are for chimpanzees. We report 3 rare cases of meat-eating of slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang, by 1 Sumatran orangutan mother-infant dyad in Ketambe, Indonesia, to examine how orangutans find slow lorises and share meat. We combine these 3 cases with 2 previous ones to test the hypothesis that slow loris captures by orangutans are seasonal and dependent on fruit availability. We also provide the first (to our knowledge) quantitative data and high-definition video recordings of meat chewing rates by great apes, which we use to estimate the minimum time necessary for a female Australopithecus africanus to reach its daily energy requirements when feeding partially on raw meat. Captures seemed to be opportunistic but orangutans may have used olfactory cues to detect the prey. The mother often rejected meat sharing requests and only the infant initiated meat sharing. Slow loris captures occurred only during low ripe fruit availability, suggesting that meat may represent a filler fallback food for orangutans. Orangutans ate meat more than twice as slowly as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggesting that group living may function as a meat intake accelerator in hominoids. Using orangutan data as a model, time spent chewing per day would not require an excessive amount of time for our social ancestors (australopithecines and hominids), as long as meat represented no more than a quarter of their diet. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-011-9574-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  5. Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Destefanis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.

  6. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

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    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  7. Effect of sex and genotype on carcase composition and nutritional characteristics of chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, E; Chartrin, P; Meteau, K; Bordeau, T; Juin, H; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Lessire, M; Berri, C

    2010-06-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of sex and genotype on carcase composition and nutritional and sensory characteristics of chicken meat. The "Geline de Touraine" (GT) characterised by high carcase fatness was compared with an experimental crossbreed (EC) and "Label rouge" (LR) genotype. 2. Females compared with males, and GT chickens compared with LR and EC chickens were characterised by increased carcase fatness and an increased lipid level in thigh meat. 3. In both breast and thigh meat, the percentage of monounsaturated fatty acids was increased and the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids was decreased. However, these effects did not affect sensory characteristics of meat particularly those of roasted breast fillets containing very low lipid level by comparison with thigh meat. 4. Finally, in our study, high carcase fatness was related to high intermuscular fatness affecting the nutritional characteristics of meat but not its sensory attributes.

  8. Radiocaesium contents of meat in Italy after the Chernobyl accident and their changes during the cooking process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfi, M.; Notaro, M.; Piermattei, S.; Tommasino, L.; Azimi-Garakani, D.

    1990-01-01

    Levels of radioactive contamination in meat have been studied, along with ways of decreasing them. Specifically, radiocaesium concentrations in a range of samples of different types of meat collected throughout Italy since April 1986 are presented here. The samples are of beef, lamb, pork, chicken, turkey and rabbit. It was found that the radiocesium content of lamb is higher than that in any of the other meat types considered here. Studies of the decrease in the radiocaesium content of meat during cooking showed that, when the meat is cooked in salt water (1%), the activity decreases by as much as 80% relative to uncooked samples. (author)

  9. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour. - Highlights: • Effect of radiation processing on tenderness of three meat systems was evaluated. • Dose dependant reduction in shear force seen in buffalo meat. • Collagen solubility increased with irradiation

  10. Relação entre o genótipo e o temperamento de novilhos em pastejo e seu efeito na qualidade da carne Relation between genotype and temperament of grazing steers on meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Dias Barbosa Silveira

    2006-04-01

    . Conversely, AA steers had greater FT values than NA steers on evaluations 1 and 4: 2.1 vs. 1.3 e 4.7 vs. 2.3 seconds, respectively. Mean daily weight gain was negatively related with overall BS (r = -0.47, P=0.0075, n=30 while the opposite was observed with overall FT (r = 0.39, P=0.0336, n=30. Within the NA group, more reactive animals gained less weight. Steers with higher BS showed lower pH1 values: 6.47, 6.28 and 6.09, respectively, for BS of 1, 2 and 3. Steers with smaller FT showed lower pH1: 6.1, 6.43, and 6.43, respectively, for TF of 1, 2 and 3. Meat of NA steers showed pH1 lower than that of AA steers: 6.17 vs. 6.57. It was observed 23% more color a* (P=0.0394 and 9% more color b* (P=0.0808 on meat from NA steers with larger FT values. Color L* was negatively related with BS3 and pH24 (r= -0.54 and -0.39, respectively whereas color b* was negatively related with pH3 and pH7 (r= -0.39 and r= -0.45, respectively. Crossbred and more nervous steers had lower weight gain and poorer meat quality.

  11. Radiation preservation of meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, J F

    1985-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980 clarified the position regarding the medical acceptability of irradiated foods when it said'…no health hazard results from consuming any food irradiated up to a dose of one megarad (1 Mrad)'. This resulted in renewed interest in irradiation as a cost-effective alternative to traditional preservation methods such as canning and freezing. Thus, radurisation (the application of ionising radiation at a dose level which substantially reduces the microbial population) increases the shelf life of poultry, comminuted meat and meat dishes significantly. Low dose irradiation, or radicidation, eliminates parasites such as Trichinae and cysticerci in pork and, very importantly, salmonella organisms in poultry and red meat. Therefore, irradiation has an important rôle to play in public health protection. High dose irradiation, or radappertisation ('cold sterilisation'), uses doses in excess of 1 Mrad and is analogous to retorting as understood in the canning industry. However, it can adversely affect quality in producing 'free radicals' in high protein foods such as meat. To prevent this, special precautions are necessary, e.g. irradiation is conducted at very low temperatures and the product is usually vacuum packed. A further potential use of irradiation is its ability to reduce the quantity of nitrite necessary in cured meats. This may become of practical significance if legislation further reduces the amount of nitrite permitted in these products. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

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    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  13. An empirical assessment of the impact of technical standards on the export of meat in Nigeria

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    Queeneth Odichi Ekeocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is an assessment of the impact of technical standards on meat export in Nigeria. Several literatures were reviewed in relation to meat standards, issues associated with standards compliance, the effects of SPS standards on food exports in developing countries, causes of non-export of meat in Nigeria, amongst others. A survey method was used and a cross tabulation analysis was made to ascertain the relationship among various variables and how significant they were in relation to food product standards. The findings of the study among others include- sanitary conditions for meat processing is a significant factor for meat export; standards compliance is a step in the right direction towards agricultural export diversification, food standard compliance can create market access for meat exports, etc. The study concluded that technical standard is very significant to meat exports in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends among others that the government should invest in the productive capacity of SPS requirements for meat export, standard abattoirs should be built and maintained, policymakers should re-think flexible export diversification policy that could attract foreign investor and meat companies in Nigeria.

  14. Bioactive Components in The Meat and Their Functional Properties: A Literature Study

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    Khothibul Umam Al Awwaly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumer awareness in meat and meat products is generally recognized as a good source of food, with high biological value protein, B group vitamins, minerals and minor elements like several other bioactive compounds that are beneficial to the human body. But in many cases, a processing error is affecting the bioactive compounds of functional foods and consumer impression are relatively negative to some levels of substances in meat such as fat, cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, salt and other substances, which however also involves a diseases of western society such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory, carcinogenesis, obesity, impaired immune system and accelerate the aging process. Hence there is a need for adequate information related to favorable nutritional value of meat that has not been widely disclosed. Bioactive components in the meat can be anserin, karnosin and bioactive peptides. The generation of bioactive components in the meat in the form of bioactive peptides can be done in three ways: (1 aging or storage of meat, (2 meat fermentation, and (3 the enzyme treatment. Functional properties of bioactive components in meat varies greatly as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antimicrobial, anticancer and immunomodulatory.

  15. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

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    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  16. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-04-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  17. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  18. Meat intake and risk of diverticulitis among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Strate, Lisa L; Keeley, Brieze R; Tam, Idy; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L; Chan, Andrew T

    2018-03-01

    Diverticulitis is a common disease with a substantial clinical and economic burden. Besides dietary fibre, the role of other foods in the prevention of diverticulitis is underexplored. We prospectively examined the association between consumption of meat (total red meat, red unprocessed meat, red processed meat, poultry and fish) with risk of incident diverticulitis among 46 461 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2012). Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During 651 970 person-years of follow-up, we documented 764 cases of incident diverticulitis. Compared with men in the lowest quintile (Q1) of total red meat consumption, men in the highest quintile (Q5) had a multivariable RR of 1.58 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.11; p for trend=0.01). The increase in risk was non-linear, plateauing after six servings per week (p for non-linearity=0.002). The association was stronger for unprocessed red meat (RR for Q5 vs Q1: 1.51; 95% CI 1.12 to 2.03; p for trend=0.03) than for processed red meat (RR for Q5 vs Q1: 1.03; 95% CI 0.78 to 1.35; p for trend=0.26). Higher consumption of poultry or fish was not associated with risk of diverticulitis. However, the substitution of poultry or fish for one serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a decrease in risk of diverticulitis (multivariable RR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.99). Red meat intake, particularly unprocessed red meat, was associated with an increased risk of diverticulitis. The findings provide practical dietary guidance for patients at risk of diverticulitis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  20. Measurement of trimethylamine concentration and evaluation of pig meat natural quality by a spectrophotometric method

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    Mohammod Abdul HAMID,Xi WANG,Xiangdong DING,Chuduan WANG,Xingbo ZHAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pig meat off-flavor is attributed to trimethylamine (TMA concentration, and it is considered as the precursor of the fishy off-flavor problems. In this study, TMA concentrations in pig meat were determined, and the interactions with breed and gender effects were discussed. In addition, the TMA threshold for meat off-flavor and pig meat natural quality was measured in relation to meat storage and movement, and the influential factors including the pig breed and storage time were discussed. The results indicated positive effects on the precursor of the fishy off-flavor and the TMA threshold. Native breeds were found to have lower TMA concentrations than European breeds (P<0.01, and females and castrated males had significantly lower TMA concentration than males (P<0.01, The threshold concentration of TMA when meat was classed as off-flavored was 25 μg·g-1, and this occurred after 35–38 h of storage. The natural qualities, such as appearance, flavor, color and overall acceptable scores declined significantly after 4 days in storage (P<0.01. It is concluded that pig meat off-flavor, breed and gender were essential factors affecting flavor for meat breeding programs, and storage time is important for pig meat natural quality.

  1. Identification of candidate genes associated with porcine meat color traits by genome-wide transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bojiang; Dong, Chao; Li, Pinghua; Ren, Zhuqing; Wang, Han; Yu, Fengxiang; Ning, Caibo; Liu, Kaiqing; Wei, Wei; Huang, Ruihua; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-10-17

    Meat color is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying traits related to meat color remain mostly unknown. In this study, to elucidate the molecular basis of meat color, we constructed six cDNA libraries from biceps femoris (Bf) and soleus (Sol), which exhibit obvious differences in meat color, and analyzed the whole-transcriptome differences between Bf (white muscle) and Sol (red muscle) using high-throughput sequencing technology. Using DEseq2 method, we identified 138 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Bf and Sol. Using DEGseq method, we identified 770, 810, and 476 DEGs in comparisons between Bf and Sol in three separate animals. Of these DEGs, 52 were overlapping DEGs. Using these data, we determined the enriched GO terms, metabolic pathways and candidate genes associated with meat color traits. Additionally, we mapped 114 non-redundant DEGs to the meat color QTLs via a comparative analysis with the porcine quantitative trait loci (QTL) database. Overall, our data serve as a valuable resource for identifying genes whose functions are critical for meat color traits and can accelerate studies of the molecular mechanisms of meat color formation.

  2. Consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa under blind and informed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; Nalério, Elen Silveira; Giongo, Citieli; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2018-03-01

    The development of air-dried cured sheep meat products represents an interesting option to add value to the meat of adult animals. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate consumer sensory and hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa, an innovative product. Four sheep meat coppa samples were formulated by varying smoking (smoked vs. non-smoked) and salt content (4.5% vs. 3.4%), and compared with two commercial samples of regular pork meat coppa. Samples were evaluated under blind or informed conditions by 202 consumers, who had to rate their liking and to answer a check-all-that-apply question. Sheep and pork meat coppa samples did not largely differ in their overall liking in both experimental conditions. Smoking and high salt content significantly increased consumers' hedonic perception of sheep meat coppa. The information included in the labels did not modify consumer hedonic perception but influenced their sensory description, particularly for the terms related to the type of meat used in their manufacture. Results indicate positive market opportunities for sheep meat coppa in the Brazilian market. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional and social aspects of consumption of ostrich meat: the case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aguilar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of ostrich meat was introduced into Europe in a relatively short time. Considered even today as an exotic meat, its inclusion in the usual sources of animal protein in our context has been repeatedly assessed, because it converge some of the most interesting nutritional characteristics of poultry and red meat. Over ten years later, the consumption of ostrich meat continues crossing a road that lies increasingly away from the exotic to become very slow, in usual. Although information on their nutritional value is still limited, we have more data showing protein values quite similar to other meats but with a smaller proportion of histidine and serine; fat values close to poultry meat low in fat; cholesterol values, vary according to the court, but similar to beef or chicken, and an improved lipid profile compared to the meat of turkey meat, lamb or beef. The information on its vitamins and minerals throws elevated iron and vitamin B12, higher amounts of vitamin E and Zn than other types of meat and a low concentration of sodium.

  4. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Żaneta; Marchewka, Joanna; Horbańczuk, Jarosław Olav; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka; Lipińska, Paulina; Jóźwik, Artur; Atanasov, Atanas G; Huminiecki, Łukasz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Sieroń, Karolina; Strzałkowska, Nina; Stelmasiak, Adrian; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Thomas; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-05-25

    The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef), biologically active peptides (carnosine-in beef, anserine-in ostrich then in chicken meat). The, beneficial to human health, n -3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  5. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich (m. ambiens, beef (m. semimembranosus, and broiler chicken meat (m. pectoralis major. The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef, biologically active peptides (carnosine—in beef, anserine—in ostrich then in chicken meat. The, beneficial to human health, n-3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  6. Nanotechnology in Meat Processing and Packaging: Potential Applications — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Ramachandraiah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for sustainable production, increasing competition and consideration of health concerns have led the meat industries on a path to innovation. Meat industries across the world are focusing on the development of novel meat products and processes to meet consumer demand. Hence, a process innovation, like nanotechnology, can have a significant impact on the meat processing industry through the development of not only novel functional meat products, but also novel packaging for the products. The potential benefits of utilizing nanomaterials in food are improved bioavailability, antimicrobial effects, enhanced sensory acceptance and targeted delivery of bioactive compounds. However, challenges exist in the application of nanomaterials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients such as nanopowders, stability of delivery systems in meat products and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. For the success of nanotechnology in meat products, challenges in public acceptance, economics and the regulation of food processed with nanomaterials which may have the potential to persist, accumulate and lead to toxicity need to be addressed. So far, the most promising area for nanotechnology application seems to be in meat packaging, but the long term effects on human health and environment due to migration of the nanomaterials from the packaging needs to be studied further. The future of nanotechnology in meat products depends on the roles played by governments, regulatory agencies and manufacturers in addressing the challenges related to the application of nanomaterials in food.

  7. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues...... in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed....

  8. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2006-09-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.

  9. Meat consumption patterns in Vietnam: effects of household characteristics on pork and poultry consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Van Phuong; Mergenthaler, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    This study relates social-demographic characteristics of Vietnamese households to their consumption of meat. Tobit models are estimated drawing on the latest Vietnamese Household Living Standard Survey in 2010 (VHLSS 2010). The analysis of demand for pork and poultry in Vietnamese households demonstrates that the meat demand in Vietnam is significantly affected by socio-economic and geographic factors.

  10. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Fischer, A.R.; Tobi, H.; Trijp, H.C.M. van

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit

  11. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Learning from Dioxin & PCBs in meat - problems ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.

  13. The importance of wild meat in the Global South

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin R.; Meilby, Henrik; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Information on the economic importance of wild meat to rural people is mainly based on small case studies conducted in limited geographical areas with high hunting intensities, which impede generalization of results. Through a one-year quarterly income survey of 7978 households in 24 countries...... is highest among the poorest households and inversely related to their reliance on domestic animal income. Seasonally, reliance on wild meat is inversely related to other incomes, suggesting a gap filling function. The fact that hunting is of low economic importance but widespread and mostly for subsistence...... suggests that wild meat is important in rural households’ diets. Through an approximated yield-effort curve estimation, we show that hunting appears economically sustainable in 78% of the observed communities although in most cases this might represent post-depletion sustainability. Our results imply...

  14. The biofilm formation ability of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from meat, poultry, fish and processing plant environments is related to serotype and pathogenic profile of the strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Meloni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the relationships between serotype, pathogenic profile and in vitro biofilm formation of 106 Listeria monocytogenes strains, having no epidemiological correlation and isolated from different environmental and food sources, were analyzed. The quantitative assessment of the in vitro biofilm formation was carried out by using a microtiter plate assay with spectrophotometric reading (OD620. The isolates were also submitted to serogrouping using the target genes lmo0737, lmo1118, ORF2819, ORF2110, prs, and to the evaluation of the presence of the following virulence genes: prfA, hlyA, rrn, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, plcB, actA and mpl, by multiplex PCRs. The 62% of the strains showed weak or moderate in vitro ability in biofilm formation, in particular serotypes 1/2b and 4b, frequently associated with sporadic or epidemic listeriosis cases. The 25% of these isolates showed polymorphism for the actA gene, producing a fragment of 268-bp instead of the expected 385-bp. The deletion of nucleotides in this gene seems to be related to enhanced virulence properties among these strains. Strains belonging to serotypes associated with human infections and characterized by pathogenic potential are capable to persist within the processing plants forming biofilm.

  15. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  16. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  17. Will novel protein foods beat meat? : consumer acceptance of meat substitutes - a multidisciplinary research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Meat production places a heavy burden on the environment and therefore options are sought to reduce meat consumption. One option is to let new meat substitutes take the place of meat on the plate. This can only succeed when these products are acceptable to consumers. The thesis investigated which

  18. The Efficacy of the clay meat ball as a method of traditional meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: meat ball, protein, mineral content. This work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of clay meat balls (an African traditional method of preserving meat) in extending the shelf life of meat over a period of months against microbial (bacterial and fungal) spoilage and contamination without ...

  19. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  20. Priority Environmental Chemical Contaminants in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Iamiceli, Annalaura; di Domenico, Alessandro

    Generally, foods of animal origin play an important role in determining the exposure of human beings to contaminants of both biological and chemical origins (Ropkins & Beck, 2002; Lievaart et al., 2005). A potentially large number of chemicals could be considered, several of them deserving a particular attention due to their occurrence (contaminations levels and frequencies) and intake scenarios reflecting the differences existing in the economical, environmental, social and ecological contexts in which the “from-farm-to-fork” activities related to meat production are carried out (FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008).

  1. Goat Meat Consumer Preferences: Implications for Goat Meat Marketing in Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia

    2013-01-01

    Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...

  2. Effect of protective atmosphere on color of goose meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkusz, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the work was to characterize the color of the of the goose breast meat packaged in protective atmosphere and stored in the refrigerated conditions. The aim was realized by determination of total heme pigment concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L* (lightness), a* (redness), and b* (yellowness); and sensory evaluation of the surface color. The experimental material was White Kołuda goose boneless breast meat with the skin from industrial slaughter. The following 2 protective atmospheres were used in the study: vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) consisting of 80% O2 and 20% CO2. The muscles packed in protective atmosphere were examined on d 4, 7, 11, and 14 of storage. A control sample was goose breast meat stored in air and tested after 24 h after slaughter. The total pigment concentration decreased gradually within 14 d of storage for samples packed in 2 types of atmospheres. The increase in relative concentration of metmyoglobin and the decrease in oxymyoglobin relative concentration in total heme pigments in the meat stored in MA was noticed. However, in all times of storage, the relative concentration of the 3 samples of myoglobin forms stored in vacuum was unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 14 d of storage in the muscles packed in vacuum. One can state a decrease of the value of the color parameter a* as well as an increase of the value of the color parameter b* in the samples packed in MA. From d 11 to 14 of storage, goose meat packed under MA had lower sensory evaluation intensity of color than muscles under vacuum. The obtained data indicated that the surface color of goose breast meat packed in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum packed was maintained for 11 and 14 d, respectively.

  3. Raman spectroscopy in determination of horse meat content in the mixture with other meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, A; Hanuza, J; Dymińska, L

    2014-08-01

    A new method based on FT-Raman measurements that allows to determine the content of horse meat in its mixture with beef has been proposed. In the analysis of the Raman spectra of the meat mixtures, the integral intensity ratios of the 937/1003, 879/1003, 856/1003, 829/1003, and 480/1003cm(-1) pairs of bands have been determined the intensities of which were related to the reference intensity of the band at 1003cm(-1). The reasonable results that show good fitting between the spectroscopic parameters and chemical content of the studied samples have been obtained. The analytical equations between these parameters have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaojun; Jiang, Hai

    2012-06-01

    Meat consumption is inconsistently associated with the development of bladder cancer in several epidemiological studies. We performed a meta-analysis of evidence for relationships of meat consumption with risk of bladder cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to October 2010. Twenty publications from 10 cohort studies and 11 case-control studies were included in the analyses. We quantified associations with bladder cancer using meta-analysis of relative risk (RR) associated with the highest versus the lowest category of meat intake using random effect model. Pooled results indicate that overall meat intake was not related to the risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.80-1.27), while high red and processed meat consumer had a significantly increased 17 and 10% risk, respectively, when comparing the highest with the lowest category of meat intake. In subgroup analyses, studies conduced in Unites States/Canada exhibited a positive relationship between high meat intake and bladder cancer risk, and studies using self-administered questionnaires for exposure assessment also showed a significant increased relative risk for high meat consumers. However, because of borderline significance and small number of publications in individual analyses, more studies, particularly well-designed prospective studies, are needed to confirm these findings.

  5. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P meat leucine in the plasma ( P meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  7. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  8. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  9. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain

  10. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food...

  11. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  12. Meat consumption, diabetes and its complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding

  13. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  14. The role of meat in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, W B

    2000-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by inflammation of the synovial tissues in the joints. A number of papers related to dietary components that are associated with this inflammation are reviewed. In addition, the ecological approach is used to study the links between diet and RA. Multi-country data for prevalence of RA for females from eight and fifteen countries were compared statistically with components of national dietary supply. Fat from meat and offal for the period 2 years before the prevalence data was found to have the highest statistical association with the prevalence of RA (r(2) 0.877, Pmeat and offal were almost as high as those for their fat. Similar correlations were found for temporal changes in indices of effects of RA in several European countries between 1968 and 1978 as more meat was added to the national diets, although the correlations were higher for meat than for fat. It is hypothesized that meat and offal may be a major factor contributing to the inflammation in RA. In the present short review, the author examines some of the data that associate meat consumption with RA and the possible factors, e.g. fat, Fe and nitrite, which may contribute to the inflammation.

  15. Meat and nutritional quality comparison of purebred and crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chai, Jie; Luo, Zonggang; He, Hang; Chen, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhou, Qinfei

    2018-01-01

    Crossbreeding is an effective method of improving the efficiency and profit of production in commercial pig operations. To understand the effect of crossbreeding on meat and nutrient quality, a combination including three purebred (Duroc, D; Landrace, L; Yorkshire, Y) and two crossbred pig lines (Landrace × Yorkshire, LY; Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire), DLY) frequently used internationally were studied. The results showed that meat from the LY and DLY crosses had lower values for lightness L24h∗, shear force and epinephrine and higher values for drip loss, C18:1, insulin, glucagon and monounsaturated fatty acids than D, L and Y pigs. Moreover, LY had higher values for post mortem pH and lower values for a* and b* than the purebreds. In contrast, DLY had lower values for pH and higher values for a* and b* than the purebreds. Meat quality-related gene analysis showed that the CAST, IGF2 and MC4R gene expression levels in the LY and DLY pigs were significantly higher than those in the D, L and Y pigs. These results indicate that crossbreeding can alter the meat quality, nutritive value, energy metabolism and gene expression of pigs. Future research should focus on microRNA expression and DNA methylation that regulate gene expression and thus affect the meat quality. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  18. The Netherlands Cohort Study−Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilsing, Anne M J; Weijenberg, Matty P; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van den Brandt, Piet A; Schouten, Leo J

    2013-11-29

    Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2-5 days/week- and 6-7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g., higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up.

  19. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.

  20. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  1. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meeting the demand for meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    Renewed fears expressed by the United Nations about worldwide population growth have coincided with international concerns about the increased consumption of meat. This article, which draws upon long-term fieldwork in the Guatemalan highlands and ongoing scientific research in the Netherlands,

  3. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J

    2014-01-01

    interval = -67 to 37), -14 (-82 to 28), and -78 (-202 to -5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P = 0......BACKGROUND: In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters...... and reproductive hormone levels in young men. METHODS: Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters...

  4. Mycobiota in the processing areas of two different meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Louise Marie; Jacobsen, Tomas; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2008-01-01

    processing plants and was in addition found on moulded meat products. Sixteen Penicillium species were identified. The most frequently isolated were P. brevicompactum and the closely related P. bialowiezense, P. solitum, P. palitans, P. fagi and a new, not described species named P. “milanense” (ined......Mould growth is not accepted on most types of North European meat products and is considered as both an economic and aesthetic problem for the producers. In order to determine the mycobiota in processing areas of fermented sausage and liver pâté, filamentous fungi were isolated from air, equipment.......; Frisvad, 2007 personal com.). Isolation of a new species illustrates that the mycobiota in the processing areas of North European meat products has not yet been intensively investigated. Several mycotoxin producing species were isolated; the most prevalent were P. brevicompactum/P. bialowiezense and P...

  5. ELISA for Detection of Soya Proteins in Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Renčová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Indirect competitive ELISA method for the detection of soya proteins in meat products was developed. The detection limit of the method is 0.5% of the weight of added soya protein. A total of 131 meat product samples such as salamis or sausages from the Czech Republic market were investigated for the presence of soya proteins. Soya proteins were detected in 84% of the investigated samples without any declaration on the package of the product. The use of vegetable additives, namely soya in meat products in the market of the Czech Republic is very frequent and the restriction of its usage by legislation relates only to some kinds of durable products and ham (Act 264/2003 Coll.. The need for sensitive inspecting methods for soya protein detection is not only associated with the economic aspect (adulteration, but mainly with consumer health protection in case of allergy to soya proteins.

  6. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  7. MEAT AND FAT CONTENT AND MEAT QUALITY OF PIGS OF POLISH LARGE WHITE BREED OF DIFFERENT GROWTH RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy NOWACHOWICZ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research were 40 gilts of Polish Large White breed, which were separatively kept and fed under control. They were slaughtered on 185th day of life. Particular dissection of primary cuts and evaluation of some traits of meat quality such as pH1, meat colour and soluble protein content were conducted according to methodology applied in Polish Pig Testing Station. Depending on growth rate during fattening period gilts were divided into two groups (20 individuals each, i.e. lower daily gains of body weight (up to 680 g and higher daily gains of body weight (above 680 g. The limit value regarding daily gain of body weight amounted 680 g and resulted from distribution of this trait in tested population of animals. Significance of differences between tested groups of different growth rate was estimated by using t-Student test and computer program Statistica PL. Tested gilts characterized by higher growth rate had statistically high significant meat weight in primary cuts such as proper ham, loin, belly and ribs by 0.52; 0.38, 0.26 and 0.07 kg, respectively. Differences in total meat weight in primary cuts between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains were 1.58 kg (P≤0.01. However, percentage meat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass shaped on similar level in tested groups of gilts. Fat weight in particular primary cuts and percentage fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and relations between percentage meat content and percentage fat content in 1 kg of half-carcass in gilts of tested groups were statistically not diversed. In range of traits characterizing meat quality statistically significant differences between group of pigs of higher and lower daily gains of body weight also were not stated. Therefore, the impact of growth rate on percentage meat and fat content re-calculated on 1 kg of half-carcass and meat quality of pigs of Polish Large White breed was not proved.

  8. Low Dose Food Irradiation at Natick

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-06-01

    radurized chickens were oven- roasted at 177 0 C. White and dark meat were separately evaluated. The scores in Table 21 indicate all samples were in the...acceptable range and the 2.5 kGy samples were slightly superior to the 5 kGy samples. Although the scores of the radurized, roasted chicken were...insect disin- festation,and chicken for radurization or radicidation. The authors express appreciation to Dr. L.W. Smith, Jr. for the entomology

  9. Fascioliasis: Prevalence, protein content and attitude of meat sellers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotten smell was considered the only indicator for liver unfit for consumption. The enactment and enforcement of government policies in relation to condemnation of Fasciola infected liver is strongly recommended. Keywords: fascioliasis, liver, meat sellers, protein content, Abeokuta. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  10. Personality and attitudinal correlates of meat consumption: Results of two representative German samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiler, Tamara M; Egloff, Boris

    2018-02-01

    The vast amount of meat consumed in the Western world is critically discussed with regard to negative health consequences, environmental impact, and ethical concerns for animals, emphasizing the need to extend knowledge regarding the correlates of meat consumption in the general population. In the present article, we conducted two studies examining the associations between meat consumption and personality traits, political attitudes, and environmental attitudes in two large German representative samples (N total  = 8,879, aged 18-96 years). Cross-sectional data on frequency of meat consumption, socio-demographics, personality traits, and political and environmental attitudes were collected via self-reports. In both studies, male sex, younger age, and lower educational attainment were significantly positively related to meat consumption. In Study 1, results of the partial correlations and the hierarchical regression analysis controlling for socio-demographics showed that the personality traits of openness and agreeableness, as well as conservative political and social views, explained unique variance in meat consumption. In Study 2, partial correlations and hierarchical regression analyses showed that openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were all uniquely negatively related to meat consumption. Moreover, these analyses documented that people scoring high in right-wing attitudes and low in pro-environmental attitudes reported more overall meat consumption. Taken together, these two studies provided evidence that socio-demographics, personality traits, and attitudes are indeed related to how much meat is consumed. Implications and future prospects for the study of individual differences in meat consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of lowering consumption of meat and meat products in the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimized and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation...... to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...... of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat....

  12. Organic beef production by Maremmana breed: qualitative meat characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Prof. Marcello; Morbidini, Prof. Luciano; Cozza, Dr. Francesca; Pauselli, Prof. Mariano; Pollicardo, Dr. Alice

    2008-01-01

    Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a low...

  13. Nitrite, nitrite alternatives, and the control of Clostridium botulinum in cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, M D; Smoot, L A

    1982-01-01

    Historically, nitrite has been a component of meat-curing additives for several centuries. In recent years the safety of nitrite as an additive in cured meats has been questioned mainly because of the possible formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Nitrite has many important functions in meat curing including its role in color development, flavor, antioxidant properties, and antimicrobial activity. The inhibition of Clostridium botulinum growth and toxin production is an especially important antimicrobial property of nitrite. This review discusses the effects of processing, curing ingredients (especially nitrite), and storage of cured meats in relation to the control of C. botulinum. If nitrite is eliminated from cured meats or the level of usage decreased, then alternatives for the antibotulinal function of nitrite need to be considered. Several potential alternatives including sorbates, parabens, and biological acidulants are discussed.

  14. Influence of familiarity with goat meat on liking and preference for capretto and chevon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Corazzin, Mirco; Saccà, Elena; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2015-08-01

    The research aimed at assessing liking and preference for capretto and chevon as a function of consumer familiarity with goat meat. Five meats were produced: traditional milk capretto (MC), heavy summer capretto (HSC), summering (SCh), fall (FCh) and late fall chevon (LFCh). HSC was the most tender meat, having less cooking losses than both MC and redder chevon types. The instrumental profile corresponded with the appearance and texture attributes perceived by panellists. With aging of kids, meat lost its milk aroma (MC) and sweet taste (HSC) and acquired an increasing intensity of goat flavour and livery notes, partially related to feeding regime and fatty acid profile. A niche market preferred chevon over capretto, while the cluster of consumers who were unfamiliar with chevon showed a decrease in pleasantness when tasting chevon, the familiar group reduced their ratings only for meat from the oldest kids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Review of the Poultry Meat Production Industry for Food Safety in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, N. D.; Utami, M. M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Poultry meat is an indispensable source of animal protein in human growth and development, so it is in great demand by people all over the world. Poultry meat has several advantages, namely the quality of nutrition is good enough, delicious taste, relatively affordable price, easy to get and accepted all levels of society with diverse backgrounds. The era of globalization requires competitive products, such as chicken meat in Indonesia, the current chicken meat industry is not only based on high production capacity and decreased production costs but also chicken products are safe to eat. As a consequence of trade liberalization, the poultry industry faces the threat of competition with cheaper products with better quality. The food safety of chicken meat starts from the farm, processing process until consumed. Food safety is a requirement of food products that must be handled by involving government, industry and consumers.

  16. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  17. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  18. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINIKA GUZEK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  19. Influence of Duroc breed inclusion into Polish Landrace maternal line on pork meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-05-31

    Crossbreeding with Duroc breed allows to improve meat quality, but no data is available regarding specific influence of Duroc breed on characteristics of meat in the case of crossbreeding with various breeds. The aim of the present research was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Polish Landrace dames with Duroc sires on quality features of meat in reference to Polish Landrace breed. The objects of the study were Longissimus dorsi lumborum pork muscles obtained from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed animals. Sarcomere length measurements were conducted using microscopic method and basic chemical composition measurement was analyzed using spectrophotometric scanning. Texture analysis of meat samples, performed after thermal treatment was expressed by Warner-Bratzler shear force and color analysis was obtained using CIE L*a*b* color system. No differences in sarcomere length, shear force as well as components of color values between pork meat originated from Polish Landrace breed and Polish Landrace x Duroc crossbreed were observed. Analysis of basic chemical composition revealed higher fat and lower ash contents in the case of meat of Polish Landrace breed animals. It was concluded that the actual impact of breed on meat characteristics is possibly altered by other factors. It may be suggested that influence of basic chemical composition on color of meat is breed-related.

  20. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhmud, T.; Rehman, R.; Anwar, J.; Ali, S.

    2011-01-01

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  1. Beneficial Effects of Poultry Meat Consumption on Cardiovascular Health and the Prevention of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Metin Donma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Poultry meat is an animal product important in human nutrition. A variable, and moderate energy content, highly digestible proteins of good nutritional quality, unsaturated lipids, fat-soluble and B-complex vitamins as well as minerals make poultry meat a valuable food. Poultry meat is one of the recommended constituents of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet as well as the Mediterranean Diet. The substitution of red meat with poultry as well as fish, nuts and legumes decreases the risk of developing type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus, improves glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors. Low-fat diets supported by fruits, grains, nuts, fish and poultry instead of red meat yields cardiovascular health benefits. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative diet enriched with high-quality foods reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines. This favors anti-inflammatory milieu which in turn improves insulin sensitivity and endothelial function and ultimately act as a barrier to obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and development of atherosclerosis. The nutritive value of poultry meat depends on different factors such as age, feeding, keeping, hybrids, carcass parts and type of meat. Preventive measures against risky aspects of the matter should be developed. Since the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant pathogens, antibiotics must be replaced by herbs and spices with growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health related benefits to solve the problem. Enrichment and fortification with nutrients may cause poultry meat to gain even more functional food character.

  2. Meat and Nicotinamide: A Causal Role in Human Evolution, History, and Demographics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C Williams

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hunting for meat was a critical step in all animal and human evolution. A key brain-trophic element in meat is vitamin B 3 /nicotinamide. The supply of meat and nicotinamide steadily increased from the Cambrian origin of animal predators ratcheting ever larger brains. This culminated in the 3-million-year evolution of Homo sapiens and our overall demographic success. We view human evolution, recent history, and agricultural and demographic transitions in the light of meat and nicotinamide intake. A biochemical and immunological switch is highlighted that affects fertility in the ‘de novo’ tryptophan-to-kynurenine-nicotinamide ‘immune tolerance’ pathway. Longevity relates to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide consumer pathways. High meat intake correlates with moderate fertility, high intelligence, good health, and longevity with consequent population stability, whereas low meat/high cereal intake (short of starvation correlates with high fertility, disease, and population booms and busts. Too high a meat intake and fertility falls below replacement levels. Reducing variances in meat consumption might help stabilise population growth and improve human capital.

  3. Objective assessment of knife sharpness over a working day cutting meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savescu, Adriana; Cuny-Guerrier, Aude; Wild, Pascal; Reno, Gilles; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès; Claudon, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    Knife sharpness is one of multiple factors involved in musculoskeletal disorders in industrial meat cutting. The aim of this study was to objectively evaluate, in real working situations, how knife sharpness changed over a working day cutting meat, and to analyse the impact of sharpening, steeling and meat-cutting activities on these variations. Twenty-two meat-cutting workers from three different companies participated in the study. The methods included measurements of knife sharpness in relation to real work situations and consideration of the way meat-cutting and sharpening operations were organised. Results showed that the type of meat-cutting activities, the steeling strategy adopted by the worker, including the types of tool used, and the overall organisation of the sharpening task all had a significant influence on how knife sharpness evolved over a 2-h period and over an entire working day. To improve MSD prevention, sharpening and steeling operations should not be considered as independent activities, but taken into account as a continuity of working actions. Appropriate assessment of knife sharpness by meat cutters affects how they organise meat-cutting and sharpening tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of gender and group membership on food safety: the case of meat sellers in Bodija market, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Delia; Olowoye, Janice; Dipeolu, Morenike; Odebode, Stella; Randolph, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    We describe a study to assess the bacteriological quality and safety of meat in Bodija market in Ibadan and to investigate the influence of gender and group membership on food safety. Mixed methods were used to gather information on meat safety and related socioeconomic factors. These methods included a participatory urban appraisal, focus group discussions with eight butchers' associations, in depth discussions with six key informants, a questionnaire study of 269 meat sellers and a cross-sectional survey of meat quality (200 samples from ten associations). We found that slaughter, processing and sale of beef meat take place under unhygienic conditions. The activities involve both men and women, with some task differentiation by gender. Meat sold by association members is of unacceptable quality. However, some groups have consistently better quality meat and this is positively correlated with the proportion of women members. Women also have significantly better food safety practice than men, though there was no significant difference in their knowledge of and attitude towards food safety. Most meat sellers (85 %) reported being ill in the last 2 weeks and 47 % reported experiencing gastrointestinal illness. Eating beef, eating chicken, eating offal, consuming one's own products and belonging to a group with poor quality of meat were all strong and significant predictors of self-reported gastrointestinal illness. We include that gender and group membership influence meat quality and self-reported gastrointestinal illness and that butchers' associations are promising entry points for interventions to improve food safety.

  5. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  6. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  7. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  8. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  9. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, E; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, J T M; Wit, B; Huijsdens, X W; de Neeling, A J; Bosch, T; van Oosterom, R A A; Vila, A; Heuvelink, A E

    2009-08-31

    Recently the isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains from several food-producing animals has been reported. During slaughtering of MRSA-positive animals, contamination of carcasses with MRSA may occur and consequently the meat of these animals may get contaminated. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of MRSA in raw meat samples from the retail trade. Samples of raw beef, pork, veal, lamb/mutton, chicken, turkey, fowl and game were collected from the retail trade. A detection method including a two-step enrichment in Mueller-Hinton broth+6.5% NaCl and phenol red mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam, followed by isolation on MRSA ID agar (bioMérieux) was evaluated and subsequently applied for the detection of MRSA in samples of raw meats. MRSA strains were isolated from 264 (11.9%) of 2217 samples analyzed. Isolation percentages for the meat species were: beef (10.6%), veal (15.2%), lamb and mutton (6.2%), pork (10.7%), chicken (16.0%), turkey (35.3%), fowl (3.4%) and game (2.2%). The majority (85%) of the isolated strains belonged to spa-types of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) non-typeable (NT)-MRSA, corresponding to the multilocus sequence type ST398, a type also recently isolated in the Netherlands from pigs. However, a smaller part of these strains were found to be of other ST's, possibly of human origin. Further studies are needed to elucidate transmission routes of MRSA in relation to meat and other foods and to provide the tools for preventing the spread of MRSA. At present the high prevalence of MRSA in meat has not been shown to contribute significantly to the dissemination of MRSA to humans and the possible health hazard for consumers of the presence of MRSA in foods should be further elucidated.

  10. Meat and fiber intake and interaction with pattern recognition receptors (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR10) in relation to colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective, case-cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Tjonneland, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background: Meat and dietary fiber are associated with increased and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) regulate the intestinal immune response in a complex interplay between the mucosal epithelium and the microbiota and may therefore be important...... modulators of diet-induced CRC together with other inflammatory mediators. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the association between functional TLR polymorphisms and risk of CRC and the interaction with dietary factors. Additionally, interactions with previously studied polymorphisms in IL10, IL1B, PTGS2......, and NFKB1 were assessed in order to examine possible biological pathways in meat-induced CRC. Design: A nested case-cohort study of 897 CRC cases and 1689 randomly selected participants from the Danish prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" study encompassing 57,053 persons was performed using Cox...

  11. Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk in Japan: The Takayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Oba, Shino; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Mizuta, Fumi; Koda, Sachi; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2017-05-01

    Compared with the abundant data from Western countries, evidence regarding meat consumption and colorectal cancer is limited in the Japanese population. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to meat consumption in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Participants were 13 957 men and 16 374 women aged ≥35 years in September 1992. Meat intake, assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, was controlled for the total energy intake. The incidence of colorectal cancer was confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries and histological identification from colonoscopy in two main hospitals in the study area. From September 1992 to March 2008, 429 men and 343 women developed colorectal cancer. After adjustments for multiple confounders, a significantly increased relative risk of colorectal cancer was observed in the highest versus lowest quartile of the intake of total and red meat among men; the estimated hazard ratios were 1.36 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.79) for total meat (P for trend = 0.022), and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.89) for red meat (P for trend = 0.009). A positive association between processed meat intake and colon cancer risk was also observed in men. There was no significant association between colorectal cancer and meat consumption in women. These results suggest that the intake of red and processed meat increases the risk of colorectal or colon cancer among Japanese men. Abstaining from excessive consumption of meat might be protective against developing colorectal cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  12. Eating like there's no tomorrow: Public awareness of the environmental impact of food and reluctance to eat less meat as part of a sustainable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Douglas, Flora; Campbell, Jonina

    2016-01-01

    Reducing meat consumption is central to many of the scientific debates on healthy, sustainable diets because of the high environmental impact of meat production. Missing from these debates are the public perspectives about eating less meat and consideration of cultural and social values associated with meat. The aim of this study was to explore public awareness of the environmental impact of food and their willingness to reduce meat consumption. Twelve focus groups and four individual interviews were conducted with adults from a range of socio-economic groups living in both rural and urban settings in Scotland. Public understanding of the link between food, environment and climate change was explored, with a focus on meat and attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. Data were transcribed and analysed thematically. Three dominant themes emerged: a lack of awareness of the association between meat consumption and climate change, perceptions of personal meat consumption playing a minimal role in the global context of climate change, and resistance to the idea of reducing personal meat consumption. People associated eating meat with pleasure, and described social, personal and cultural values around eating meat. Some people felt they did not need to eat less meat because they had already reduced their consumption or that they only ate small quantities. Scepticism of scientific evidence linking meat and climate change was common. Changing non-food related behaviours was viewed as more acceptable and a greater priority for climate change mitigation. The study highlights the role meat plays in the diet for many people, beyond nutritional needs. If healthy, sustainable dietary habits are to be achieved, cultural, social and personal values around eating meat must be integrated into the development of future dietary recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of meat, particularly salmon, to body size, population productivity, and conservation of North American brown bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.V. Hilderbrand; C.C. Schwartz; C.T. Robbins; M.E. Hanley Jacoby; S.M. Arthur; C. Servheen

    1999-01-01

    We hypothesized that the relative availability of meat, indicated by contribution to the diet, would be positively related to body size and population productivity of North American brown, or grizzly, bears (Ursus arctos). Dietary contributions of plant matter and meat derived from both terrestrial and marine sources were quantified by stable-...

  14. Beef and beyond: exploring the meat consumption practices of Christians in India

    OpenAIRE

    Staples, J

    2015-01-01

    Meat-eating in India cannot be analysed simply as a marker of ritual impurity: the culinary experiences of South Indian Christians also indicate the importance of meat in forging positive identities. In this paper, I draw out some of the fine-grained distinctions made by my informants in relation to meat-eating, which suggest that its consumption is shaped not only by caste and religion, but in relation to gender, age, status and other personal considerations. Secondly, I attempt to situate t...

  15. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  17. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3 were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu, color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43. There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97, suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76, it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58, and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84. Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line.

  18. Red meat consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases-is increased iron load a possible link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana Pacheco, Daniel A; Sookthai, Disorn; Wittenbecher, Clemens; Graf, Mirja E; Schübel, Ruth; Johnson, Theron; Katzke, Verena; Jakszyn, Paula; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2018-01-01

    High iron load and red meat consumption could increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). As red meat is the main source of heme iron, which is in turn a major determinant of increased iron load, adverse cardiometabolic effects of meat consumption could be mediated by increased iron load. The object of the study was to assess whether associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk are mediated by iron load in a population-based human study. We evaluated relations between red meat consumption, iron load (plasma ferritin), and risk of CVD in the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg Study using a case-cohort sample including a random subcohort (n = 2738) and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI, n = 555), stroke (n = 513), and CVD mortality (n = 381). Following a 4-step mediation analysis, associations between red meat consumption and iron load, red meat consumption and CVD risk, and iron load and CVD risk were assessed by multivariable regression models before finally testing to which degree associations between red meat consumption and CVD risk were attenuated by adjustment for iron status. Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and MI risk [HR per 50 g daily intake: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.33)], but no significant associations with stroke risk and CVD mortality were observed. While direct associations between ferritin concentrations and MI risk as well as CVD mortality were significant in age- and sex-adjusted Cox regression models, these associations were substantially attenuated and no longer significant after multivariable adjustment for classical CVD risk factors. Strikingly, ferritin concentrations were positively associated with a majority of classical CVD risk factors (age, male sex, alcohol intake, obesity, inflammation, and lower education). Increased ferritin concentrations may be a marker of an overall unfavorable risk factor profile rather than a mediator of greater CVD risk due to meat

  19. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  20. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  1. Differences between spent hens of different genotype in performance, meat yield and suitability of the meat for sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loetscher, Y; Albiker, D; Stephan, R; Kreuzer, M; Messikommer, R E

    2015-02-01

    The valorization of spent hens via the food chain has some major limitations, which include low meat yield and tough meat. The latter issue can be overcome by producing convenience foods; the first may be alleviated by employing a genotype with higher meatiness. To quantitatively compare two common layer genotypes in production performance, meat yield and sausage quality, 2200 57 weeks old Institut de Sélection Animale (ISA) Warren and Dekalb White hens each were investigated during the last 60 days of egg laying. The hens were housed in an aviary system in 2×10 compartments (10 compartments/each genotype). Measurements included feed intake, laying performance, egg weight and feed conversion ratio as measured per compartment. BW was determined twice on 10 animals per compartment. Finally, two sub-groups of five hens per compartment were slaughtered, meat yield was recorded and bratwurst-type sausages were produced (n=20 per genotype). Fat proportion, cooking loss, connective tissue properties and Kramer shear energy were measured. After 1, 4, 7 and 10 months of frozen storage, oxidative stability (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and microbiological status were determined as shelf-life related criteria. ANOVA was performed considering genotype as the main effect. The ISA Warren hens were inferior in laying performance (-11%) and feed conversion ratio (+10%) compared with Dekalb White, but had the same feed intake. The ISA Warren had higher BW and carcass weight than the Dekalb White. Carcass yield was higher by 5.9%. There were 80 g (23%) more meat available for sausage production from ISA Warren compared with Dekalb White. Sausages prepared from meat of ISA Warren hens contained less fat than those from Dekalb White, but showed the same cooking loss. Although the collagen proportion of the sausages produced from ISA Warren was lower than from Dekalb White, collagen solubility was lower and shear energy was higher. During the 10 months of frozen

  2. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. We investigated the associations of meat intake and the intera...

  3. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  4. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye

    2009-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...

  5. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri...

  6. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hathwar, Swapna C.; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared t...

  7. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, relig...

  8. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...

  9. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  10. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  11. Lactobacilli and ionising radiation: an example of the application to meat and meat products. Laktobazillen und ionisierende Strahlung als Beispiel einer Anwendung auf Fleisch und Fleischprodukte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzapfel, W.H. (Inst. fuer Hygiene und Toxikologie, Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Karlsruhe (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Ionising radiation provides a practical pasteurisation method for the terminal treatment of refrigerated vacuum-packaged meat products with the aim of shelf life extension. However, the relatively high radiation resistance ([gamma]-D[sub 10] = 0.70-1.2 kGy) of typical meat Lactobacilli, especially Lb. sake, selectively favours their total domination after treatments with 5 kGy. Typical meat strains show higher resistance (in term of [gamma]-D[sub 10] values the decimal reduction value due to irradiation) in the log (exponential) than in the stationary phase. This phenomenon was observed both in semi-synthetic broth and in meat, and may be explained in terms of a DNA repair mechanism operative during the exponential phase. Packaging under different gas atmospheres resulted in increased resistance to radiation in presence of N[sub 2], whilst the highest death rate was observed in presence of CO[sub 2]. (orig.)

  12. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  13. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  14. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products.

  15. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2006-01-01

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues ...... in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.......Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues...

  16. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues ...... in quality perception, shopping fast and easy vs. shopping in specialized outlets, the role of convenience and meat avoidance in cooking, and the role of concerns about the meat production process in purchasing. Indicators for each of these trends are discussed.......Using the food-related lifestyle model as a conceptual framework, one possible trend each is discussed for the following four components of food-related lifestyle: quality aspects, ways of shopping, cooking methods, and purchase motives. These trends refer to the increasing use of extrinsic cues...

  17. Variation of meat quality traits among five genotypes of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Gong, Y Z; Wu, C X; Jiang, J; Wang, Y; Li, K

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the diversity of meat quality traits among 5 chicken genotypes. The genotypes included 2 Chinese native breeds (Wenchang,WCH, and Xianju), 1 commercial broiler line (Avian, AV), 1 commercial layer line (Hy-Line Brown, HLB), and 1 Chinese commercial broiler line (Lingnanhuang, LNH) synthesized by exotic and native breeds, which were slaughtered at their market ages: 16, 7, 16, and 8 wk, respectively. The effects of genotype, muscle type, and sex on meat quality traits were examined. Birds from slow-growing genotypes (WCH, Xianju, and HLB) exhibited higher shear value, inosine-5'-monophosphate concentration, lower cook loss, and more fat than those from fast-growing genotypes (AV and LNH). Chickens from WCH possessed the lowest expressible moisture, cook loss, and the highest lipid (%) among the 3 slow-growing genotypes. The HLB birds were intermediate in expressible moisture and cook loss and lowest in lipid among all genotypes. The LNH cross birds were similar to AV broilers in most meat quality parameters, although they had a lower shear force value and higher fat content than AV broilers. Breast muscle had higher expressible moisture, shear force, protein (%), inosine-5'-monophosphate content, lower cook loss, and lipid (%) than leg muscle. Muscles from male chickens had higher expressible moisture than those from the females. Variability of meat quality characteristics is mainly related to genotype and muscle type differences.

  18. Meat, fish and egg intake and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle D; Colditz, Graham A; Hunter, David J; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard; Speizer, Frank E; Willett, Walter C

    2003-03-20

    Intakes of animal protein, meat, and eggs have been associated with breast cancer incidence and mortality in ecological studies, but data from long-term prospective studies are limited. We therefore examined these relationships in the Nurses' Health Study. We followed 88,647 women for 18 years, with 5 assessments of diet by food frequency questionnaire, cumulatively averaged and updated over time. We calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk of developing invasive breast cancer, over categories of nutrient and food intake. During follow-up, 4,107 women developed invasive breast cancer. Compared to the lowest quintile of intake, the RR and 95% CI for the highest quintile of intake were 1.02 (0.92-1.14) for animal protein, 0.93 (0.83-1.05) for red meat and 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for all meat. Results did not differ by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer. We found no evidence that intake of meat or fish during mid-life and later was associated with risk of breast cancer. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The Use of Starter Cultures in Traditional Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Laranjo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Starter cultures could play an essential role in the manufacture of traditional cured meat products. In order to achieve objectives related to meat products’ quality and safety improvement, the selection of particular strains constituting a starter culture should be carried out in the context of its application, since its functionality will depend on the type of sausage and process conditions. Also, strain selection should comply with particular requirements to warrant safety. The aim of the current review is to update the knowledge on the use of starter cultures in traditional meat products, with focus on dry-fermented products. In this manuscript, we will try to give answers to some relevant questions: Which starter cultures are used and why? Why are LAB used? What are their role and their specific mode of action? Which other groups of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi are used as starter cultures and how do they act? A particular revision of omics approach regarding starter cultures is made since the use of these techniques allows rapid screening of promising wild strains with desirable functional characteristics, enabling the development of starter cultures better adapted to the meat matrix.

  20. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. BULLA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  1. GENETICS AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PIG MEAT QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BULLA, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goals in pig breeding have for many years been to improve growth rate, feedconversion and carcass composition. There have been less efforts to improve meat qualityparameters (WHC, pH, tenderness, colour etc. but the main contribution has been areduction of stress susceptibility and PSE meat. Unfortunately, the quantitative geneticapproach has yielded few clues regarding the fundamental genetic changes that accompaniedthe selection of animal for superior carcass attributes. While mapping efforts are makingsignificant major effects on carcass and his quality composition DNA test would be availableto detect some positive or negative alleles. There are clear breed effects on meat quality,which in some cases are fully related to the presence of a single gene with major effect (RYR1,MYF4, H-FABP, LEPR, IGF2. Molecular biology methods provides excellent opportunitiesto improve meat quality in selection schemes within breeds and lines. Selection on majorgenes will not only increase average levels of quality but also decrease variability (ei increaseuniformity. The aim of this paper is to discuss there genetic and non-genetic opportunities.

  2. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  3. Carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Fernandes, S; Sartori, J R; Teixeira, P S S; Moura, A S A M T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are very sensitive to heat stress because they have difficulty eliminating excess body heat. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of heat stress on slaughter weight, dressing percentage and carcass and meat quality traits of rabbits from two genetic groups. Ninety-six weaned rabbits were used: half were from the Botucatu genetic group and half were crossbreds between New Zealand White sires and Botucatu does. They were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (two genetic groups and three ambient temperatures: 18°C, 25°C and 30°C) and kept under controlled conditions in three environmental chambers from 5 to 10 weeks of age. Slaughter took place at 10 weeks, on 2 consecutive days. Meat quality measurements were made in the longissimus muscle. Actual average ambient temperature and relative humidity in the three chambers were 18.4°C and 63.9%, 24.4°C and 80.2% and 29.6°C and 75.9%, respectively. Purebred rabbits were heavier at slaughter and had heavier commercial and reference carcasses than crossbreds at 30°C; however, no differences between genetic groups for these traits were found at lower temperatures. No genetic group × ambient temperature interaction was detected for any other carcass or meat quality traits. The percentages of distal parts of legs, skin and carcass forepart were higher in crossbred rabbits, indicating a lower degree of maturity at slaughter in this group. The percentage of thoracic viscera was higher in the purebreds. Lightness of the longissimus muscle was higher in the purebreds, whereas redness was higher in the crossbreds. Slaughter, commercial and reference carcass weights and the percentages of thoracic viscera, liver and kidneys were negatively related with ambient temperature. Commercial and reference carcass yields, and the percentage of distal parts of legs, on the other hand, had a positive linear relationship with ambient temperature. Meat redness and

  4. N-nitrosamines in processed meat products – analysis, occurrence, formation, mitigation and exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange

    and NVNA in meat. Secondly data on the occurrence of VNA and NVNA in processed meat products on the Danish market were to be generated and used for an evaluation of the exposure level resulting from consumption of processed meat products. A method allowing for the simultaneous determination of both VNA......, NPIP, NTCA and NMTCA were inversely related to the amount of erythorbic acid (396-1104 mg kg-1). The levels of the individual NA were reduced with up to 20 to 75%. No additional protection against NA formation was obtained by also adding ascorbyl palmitate, a fat soluble antioxidant. Sodium chloride...

  5. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Tobi, H.; Fischer, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  6. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces th...

  7. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Liran Christine; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G.; Monahan, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences ...

  8. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  9. Cooking Methods for Red Meats and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study of U.S. Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zong, Geng; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Eisenberg, David M; Sun, Qi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined different cooking methods for red meats in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk among U.S. women who consumed red meats regularly (≥2 servings/week). We monitored 59,033 women (1986-2012) aged 30-55 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline when information on frequency of different cooking methods for red meats, including broiling, barbequing, roasting, pan-frying, and stewing/boiling, was collected. During 1.24 million person-years of follow-up, we documented 6,206 incident cases of T2D. After multivariate adjustment including red meat cooking methods, total red meat and processed red meat intake were both associated with a monotonically increased T2D risk (both P trend cooking methods were further mutually adjusted. Independent of total red meat consumption, high-temperature and/or open-flame cooking methods for red meats, especially broiling and barbequing, may further increase diabetes risk among regular meat eaters. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  10. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P goat meat compared with the control groups (P meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  11. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-16

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.  Created: 4/16/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/16/2009.

  13. In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloned cattle meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam-Jin; Yang, Byoung-Chul; Jung, Yu-Ri; Lee, Jung-Won; Im, Gi-Sun; Seong, Hwan-Hoo; Park, Jin-Ki; Kang, Jong-Koo; Hwang, Seongsoo

    2011-09-01

    Although the nutritional composition and health status after consumption of the meat and milk derived from both conventionally bred (normal) and somatic cell nuclear transferred (cloned) animals and their progeny are not different, little is known about their food safeties like genetic toxicity. This study is performed to examine both in vitro (bacterial mutation and chromosome aberration) and in vivo (micronucleus) genotoxicity studies of cloned cattle meat. The concentrations of both normal and cloned cattle meat extracts (0-10×) were tested to five strains of bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium: TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537; Escherichia coli: WP2uvrA) for bacterial mutation and to Chinese hamster lung (CHL/IU) cells for chromosome aberration, respectively. For micronucleus test, ICR mice were divided into five dietary groups: commercial pellets (control), pellets containing 5% (N-5) and 10% (N-10) normal cattle meat, and pellets containing 5% (C-5) and 10% (C-10) cloned cattle meat. No test substance-related genotoxicity was noted in the five bacterial strains, CHL/IU cells, or mouse bone marrow cells, suggesting that the cloned cattle meat potentially may be safe in terms of mutagenic hazards. Thus, it can be postulated that the cloned cattle meat do not induce any harmful genotoxic effects in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  15. Preservation of Minced Meats by Using Medium and High-doses Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; Swailam, H.M.H.; Taha, S.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of medium (2.5-10 kGy) dose irradiation and high(20-70 kGy) dose irradiation on the microbiological, chemical and organoleptic properties of minced meat samples was studied. It was found that irradiation dose of only 5 kGy greatly reduced all microbial counts and completely eliminated all non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria contaminated minced meat samples. Consequently this irradiation dose extended the refrigerated (3 degree ±1) storage life of these products for more than 8 weeks. This irradiation dose almost did not affect the chemical composition, particularly the main amino acids and main fatty acids of minced meat samples. Panelists could not differentiate between irradiated minced meat samples at this dose and unirradiated samples. High doses irradiation, i.e.40 and 70 kGy were sufficient and efficient in sterilization of minced meat samples and in obtaining long-stable minced meat products (Two years) at ambient temperature. These irradiation doses slightly reduced (not more than 7%) aspartic acid, glutamic acid, methionine and lysine of minced meat. It also decreased the relative percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids by not more than 17 % . These high irradiation doses caused loss of C 18:3 and C 20:1

  16. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products.

  17. The use of ultrasound and slightly acidic electrolyzed water as alternative technologies in the meat industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores, D. R. M.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The quality of meat from different animal species is defined by chemical, physical sensory and microbiological characteristics, which can be influenced by procedures during the slaughter of animals. Technologies such as ultrasound (US and slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW are being studied in order to assist in food processing and in developing methods that are economically viable and environmentally sustainable. The aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between US and SAEW in relation to tenderness, microbiology, and oxidation of meat. The meat industry was a pioneer in the use of the ultrasound, which initially aimed to determine the layer of fat on carcasses and subsequently improve the tenderness of the meat. Recently studies mention that the ultrasound and SAEW can influence the microbiological parameters. The combination of both technologies should also be considered, with the possibility of enhancing the antimicrobial effects. However, there is little information regarding oxidative parameters promoted in meat for these two alternative technologies, where the individual or when interspersed use. Knowing the actions and consequences of ultrasound and SAEW in meat will enable the opening of new perspectives about the application of these technologies in the meat industry.

  18. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  19. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  20. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regulation of taste-active components of meat by dietary branched-chain amino acids; effects of branched-chain amino acid antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanari, M; Kadowaki, M; Fujimura, S

    2008-05-01

    1. The effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) including leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile) and valine (Val) on taste-active components, especially free glutamate (Glu), in meat were investigated. 2. Broiler chickens (28 d old) were given varied dietary BCAA levels for 10 d before marketing. Dietary BCAA content ratios were either 100:100:100 (Low Leu group), 150:100:100 (Control group) or 150:150:150 (High Ile + Val group) for Leu:Ile:Val (% of each BCAA requirement according to NRC, 1994). Taste-related components of meat (free amino acids and ATP metabolites) and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. 3. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by dietary BCAA. Compared to the Control group, free Glu content increased by 30% in the High Ile + Val group. However, the inosine monophosphate (IMP) content in meat did not change among groups. 4. Sensory evaluation of meat soups showed that Control and High Ile + Val groups had different meat flavours. The sensory score of overall taste intensity was significantly higher in the High Ile + Val group. 5. These results suggest that dietary BCAA concentrations regulate free Glu in meat. Increasing dietary Ile + Val induces an increase in free Glu content of meat, improves meat taste and is more effective for increasing free Glu content in meat than decreasing dietary Leu level.

  2. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat Research is concerned with measuring meat quality and quantity and investigating how production methods, processing, storage and transport, display for sale and methods of cooking influence quality. Quality must be defined as the requirements of the consumer, the market place and the processor. Take for example ...

  3. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  4. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  5. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  6. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Tramper, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth

  7. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  8. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  9. Radurization of spices by irradiation in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Gil, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, E.; Pino, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the research results that prove the technical feasibility according to the hygiene conditions existing in Cuba for irradiating different spices. The results show both the possibility and and the benefit of using a one irradiation application to these products. One global average doses of 5 KGy was enough for decontaminating black pepper, paprika, cumin, must meg and oregano without affecting either their chemical components or the quality of their taste. Sausages manufactured with irradiated spices did not irradiating spices is much higher that of fumigation, et has many important social and economic advantages

  10. The radurization of frozen whole eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiarowicz, A.; Fiszer, W.; Zabielski, J.; Starega, M.

    1980-01-01

    The liquid whole eggs packed into polyethylene bags had been frozen at - 12 0 C and then exposed to gamma rays (the doses of 0.25 and 0.50 Mrad). After the irradiation the samples were stored during 76 days at - 12 0 C and then for 5 days at 1 0 C. Microbial sterility was obtained after the exposure and during the storage under freezing conditions. The content of free fatty acids was lower in the irradiated samples in comparison to the control. The significant increase of TBA value was noted in the irradiated whole eggs since the 17th day of storage. There were not found any changes in baking and organoleptic properties except small sensoric differences detected in a triangular panel test. (author)

  11. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Ewelina; Atanasov, Atanas G; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2018-01-31

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i) fatty acids; (ii) minerals; (iii) vitamins; (iv) plant antioxidants; (v) dietary fibers; (vi) probiotics and (vii) bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  12. Meat consumption, heterocyclic amines and colorectal cancer risk: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2012-10-01

    Greater consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in several recent meta-analyses. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) have been hypothesized to underlie this association. In this prospective analysis conducted within the Multiethnic Cohort Study, we examined whether greater consumption of total, red or processed meat was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 165,717 participants who completed a detailed food frequency questionnaire at baseline. In addition, we examined whether greater estimated intake of HCAs was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer among 131,763 participants who completed a follow-up questionnaire that included a meat-cooking module. A total of 3,404 and 1,757 invasive colorectal cancers were identified from baseline to the end of follow-up and from the date of administration of the meat-cooking module to the end of follow-up, respectively. Proportional hazard models were used to estimate basic and multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals for colorectal cancer associated with dietary exposures. In multivariable models, no association with the risk of colorectal cancer was detected for density-adjusted total meat (RR(Q5 vs. Q1) = 0.93 [0.83-1.05]), red meat (RR = 1.02 [0.91-1.16]) or processed meat intake (RR = 1.06 [0.94-1.19]) or for total (RR = 0.90 [0.76-1.05]) or specific HCA intake whether comparing quintiles of dietary exposure or using continuous variables. Although our results do not support a role for meat or for HCAs from meat in the etiology of colorectal cancer, we cannot rule out the possibility of a modest effect. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  13. Intermingled Klebsiella pneumoniae Populations Between Retail Meats and Human Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Gregg S.; Waits, Kara; Nordstrom, Lora; Weaver, Brett; Aziz, Maliha; Gauld, Lori; Grande, Heidi; Bigler, Rick; Horwinski, Joseph; Porter, Stephen; Stegger, Marc; Johnson, James R.; Liu, Cindy M.; Price, Lance B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract of humans, companion animals, and livestock. To better understand potential contributions of foodborne K. pneumoniae to human clinical infections, we compared K. pneumoniae isolates from retail meat products and human clinical specimens to assess their similarity based on antibiotic resistance, genetic relatedness, and virulence. Methods. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from retail meats from Flagstaff grocery stores in 2012 and from urine and blood specimens from Flagstaff Medical Center in 2011–2012. Isolates underwent antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was assessed using multilocus sequence typing and phylogenetic analyses. Extraintestinal virulence of several closely related meat-source and urine isolates was assessed using a murine sepsis model. Results. Meat-source isolates were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant and resistant to tetracycline and gentamicin than clinical isolates. Four sequence types occurred among both meat-source and clinical isolates. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed close relationships among meat-source and clinical isolates. Isolates from both sources showed similar virulence in the mouse sepsis model. Conclusions. Meat-source K. pneumoniae isolates were more likely than clinical isolates to be antibiotic resistant, which could reflect selective pressures from antibiotic use in food-animal production. The close genetic relatedness of meat-source and clinical isolates, coupled with similarities in virulence, suggest that the barriers to transmission between these 2 sources are low. Taken together, our results suggest that retail meat is a potential vehicle for transmitting virulent, antibiotic-resistant K. pneumoniae from food animals to humans. PMID:26206847

  14. Novel trends in development of dietary fiber rich meat products-a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nitin; Ahlawat, S S; Sharma, D P; Dabur, R S

    2015-02-01

    Meat and meat products are generally recognized as good sources of high biological value proteins, fat-soluble vitamins, minerals, trace elements and bioactive compounds. Changes in socioeconomic factors in recent years have increased the consumer's preference for ready to eat foods including meat products. The processing of meat and meat products leads to generation of many functional compounds beneficial to human health but most of those foods are rich in fat, added salts but deficient in complex carbohydrates like dietary fiber and pose a health hazard that somehow is proved to be a predisposing factor for cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, obesity including diabetes mellitus. With increasing consciousness among consumers about their nutrition and well being, there is a growing concern over nutritional diseases of affluence. Therefore an increase in dietary fiber inclusion in daily diet has been recommended. For adults, the recommended acceptable intakes of dietary fiber are 28-36 g/day, 70-80 % of which must be insoluble fiber. The insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been related to intestinal regulation whereas soluble fiber is associated with decrease in cholesterol level and absorption of intestinal glucose. So incorporation of dietary fibers from different sources in meat products would help to enhance their desirability. Dietary fiber sources are generally agricultural byproducts that are comparatively cheap and incorporation in meat products reduces its overall cost. Whole grains and cereal brans are the rich source of insoluble fiber and pectins, gums, starch and other storage polysaccharides have high content of the soluble fraction. With this background, the effect of various dietary fibers on the quality attributes of meat and meat products with its physiological role has been reviewed here.

  15. Effect of storage conditions on the biogenic amine content in wild boar meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Hutařová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of game meat depends on many factors during and after hunting. Freshness of meat is connected with the concentration of biogenic amines which is related to meat spoilage. The aim of this study was to assess changes in concentration of biogenic amines in raw meat of wild boar (n = 20, mean age 1–2 years during storage at different temperatures. Carcases of wild boars hunted in winter 2012 in hunting districts of south Moravia were stored unskinned during 21 days at various temperatures (0, 7 and 15 °C. Concentrations of biogenic amines (putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, phenylethylamine, histamine, spermine and spermidine were determined in the shoulder and leg muscles by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Good hygienic quality was maintained when wild boar carcasses were stored for a maximum of 14 days at 0 °C (content of biogenic amines in 3 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 21 of storage or a maximum of 7 days at 7 °C (content of biogenic amines in 4 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg on day 14 of storage. The temperature of 15 °C should be considered as unsuitable storage temperature if good hygienic quality of game meat during storage is to be guaranteed (content of biogenic amines in 2 meat samples exceed the limit of 5 mg/kg already on day 7 of storage. The study brings new information about the biogenic amine content and its changes in wild boar meat during the storage period of 21 days.

  16. Explicit and implicit attitude toward an emerging food technology: The case of cultured meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Fischer, Arnout R H; Tobi, Hilde; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2017-01-01

    Cultured meat is an unfamiliar emerging food technology that could provide a near endless supply of high quality protein with a relatively small ecological footprint. To understand consumer acceptance of cultured meat, this study investigated the influence of information provision on the explicit and implicit attitude toward cultured meat. Three experiments were conducted using a Solomon four-group design to rule out pretest sensitization effects. The first experiment (N = 190) showed that positive or negative information about cultured meat changed the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. This effect was smaller for participants who were more familiar with cultured meat. In the second experiment (N = 194) positive information was provided about solar panels, an attitude object belonging to the same sustainable product category as sustainable food products such as cultured meat. Positive information about solar panels was found to change the explicit attitude in the direction of the information. Using mood induction, the third experiment (N = 192) ruled out the alternative explanation that explicit attitude change in experiment 1 and 2 was caused by content free affect rather than category based inferences. The implicit attitude appeared insensitive to both information or mood state in all three experiments. These findings show that the explicit attitude toward cultured meat can be influenced by information about the sustainability of cultured meat and information about a positively perceived sustainable product. This effect was shown to be content based rather than merely affect based. Content based information in a relevant context could therefore contribute to the commercial success of cultured meat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Dairy and Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bahador; Sadeghi Kalani; Valian; Irajian; Lotfollahi

    2015-01-01

    Background Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen and a serious threat to the public health in the world. Consumption of traditional foods such as dairy and meat products can be a major reason for relative abundance and isolation of these bacteria. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from dairy and meat products. ...

  18. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of meat products elaborated in the northeast of Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, PUFA/SFA ratio, n-6/n-3 relation, and CLA content. Thirty traditional meat products from different processes were used. Samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage), chorizos (raw sausage), chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked s...

  19. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R H

    2017-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  1. Consumer-perceived quality in 'traditional' food chains: the case of the Greek meat supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystallis, Athanassios; Chryssochoidis, George; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Recent food scares have increased consumer concern about meat safety. However, the Greek 'traditional' meat supply chain from producers to local butchers does not seem to realise the pressing consumer demand for certified meat quality. Or is it that, in such food chains, this demand is not so pressing yet? The present paper seeks to answer this question based on a survey conducted in the Athens area, involving a sample of 268 participants responsible for food purchasing decisions. The survey mainly aims to develop an integrated model of factors that affect consumer-perceived meat quality and to develop the profile of different consumer segments in relation to these perceptions. The substantial findings of the survey include the fact that, despite their enormous per capita consumption, the majority of consumers are not particularly involved in the meat-purchasing process. Rather they attach importance to visual intrinsic quality cues evaluated in a pre-purchasing context. In this respect, intrinsic quality cues are assigned a role similar to that of quality certification; coupled with the choice of traditional channels and the resulting personal relation with the butcher, they can be understood as efforts to decrease risk of the purchasing decision. Moreover, consumers with such behaviour seem to relate domestic country of origin of meat mostly with perceptions of general safety. Finally, a small, but promising trend with substantial marketing implications of frequent purchases of chicken and pork at supermarkets should not be ignored.

  2. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of meat lipids: an alternative approach to the identification of irradiated meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampson, J.W.; Jones, K.C.; Foglia, T.A.; Kohout, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is currently under study as an alternative method for extending the shelf life of meats and meat products. Accordingly, methods are needed to determine if a meat or meat product has been exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, a method is described for the isolation and analysis of volatile hydrocarbons formed in meat lipids after exposure to ionizing radiation. The method is based on supercritical fluid extraction of the hydrocarbons from meat lipids and subsequent identification and quantitation of individual hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) with a mass selection detector (MSD). Supercritical carbon dioxide at 175 bar and 40°C extracted the hydrocarbon fraction from total meat lipids within 20 min. The presence of radiolytic hydrocarbons, as determined by GC/MSD, was then correlated to the degree of irradiation of the meat from 0 to 10 kGy. Besides being faster, this method has the advantage of reduced solvent consumption when compared to current methods for determining if a meat or meat product has been irradiated

  4. Carcass treatments for improved meat quality (In Swedish with Summary in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality is a term that includes many different aspects like e.g. safety, ethics, nutrition, taste and functionality. What is regarded as most important is mainly related to where a person is placed in the chain from production to consumption. Along this chain are also many factors that influence the quality of meat. By measuring the pH value of meat it is possible to get good information about shelf life, tenderness, colour and water-holding capacity. Meat pH also gives an indication to whether the animals have been exposed to stress prior to slaughter or not. Good pastures and supplementary feeding using grain-based feed mixtures have been demonstrated to increase the energy stores in the animals' muscles and therefore have a positive effect on pH values in venison. What the animals had been eating prior to slaughter also affected the fat composition and meat flavour. Meat from animals grazing pasture had more polyunsaturated fatty acids and a "wild" flavour compared with meat from animals fed grain-based pellets. It is possible to change the fat composition in a commercial grain-based feed mixture, without altering the protein or energy content, so that the fat composition mimic that of a natural pasture. Pelvic suspension of a carcass will stretch the muscles in valuable cuts and improve the tenderness of the meat. In fallow deer carcasses the tenderness was improved in several meat cuts and in addition the water-holding capacity of the meat increased after pelvic suspension. Electrical stimulation of the carcass quickly empties the energy stores in the muscles and accelerates the onset of rigor mortis. In red deer venison electrical stimulation accelerated the rate of meat tenderisation, but this benefit was lost after approx. 3 weeks of ageing (-1.5 °C. A study from Alaska demonstrated no effects of electrical stimulation of reindeer carcasses on meat tenderness or water-holding capacity. We recommend further studies of pelvic

  5. Effects of goat milk or milk replacer diet on meat quality and fat composition of suckling goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañón, S; Vila, R; Price, A; Ferrandini, E; Garrido, M D

    2006-02-01

    The effects of a diet with goat milk "GM" or milk replacer "MR" on the meat quality and fat composition of suckling Murciano-Granadina kids were studied. MR consisted of powdered skimmed milk, coconut oil and fat, and cereal products and by-products. Raw meat quality (moisture, protein, lipids, ash, collagen, cholesterol, haem pigments, CIELab colour, pH and water retention capacity), fatty acid "FA" composition and eating quality of cooked meat (odour, flavour and texture) were determined. Diet had only a slight effect on raw meat quality but had a pronounced effect on fatty acid composition and eating quality of cooked meat. MR diet increased the water/protein proportion in the muscle. The saturated/unsaturated FA ratio in GM and MR fat was 0.94 and 2.27, respectively. The major FA in GM and MR fat were C16:0 and C18:1, respectively. Short-chain C4-C12 hardly accumulated in the adipose tissue of suckling kid, increasing the relative percentages of C14-C20. This effect was more pronounced in MR fat, due to the fact that MR contained more short-chain fatty acids than GM. MR diet gave cooked meat a more intense characteristic goat meat odour and flavour, more tenderness and more juiciness than the natural suckling diet. This fact could be related to differences in meat and fat composition.

  6. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  7. Effect of high pressure treatment on the color of fresh and processed meats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Bolumar, Tomas; Karlsson, Anders H.

    2017-01-01

    to a large degree to the oxidation of the bright red oxymyoglobin or the purplish deoxymyoglobin into the brownish metmyoglobin, as well as to the denaturation of myoglobin. Surely, the high myoglobin content makes beef more exposed to this discoloration compared to the white chicken meat. In addition, HP...... changes in meat are discussed in relation to modification of the myoglobin molecule, changes in the meat microstructure, and the impact of the presence of different chemical compounds and physical conditions during processing.......High pressure (HP) treatment often results in discoloration of beef, lamb, pork, and poultry. The degree of color changes depends on the physical and chemical state of the meat, especially myoglobin, and the atmospheric conditions during and after pressurization. A decreased redness is attributed...

  8. Prevalence of Clostridium difficile in uncooked ground meat products from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Scott R; Marsh, Jane W; Schlackman, Jessica L; Harrison, Lee H

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of Clostridium difficile in retail meat samples has varied widely. The food supply may be a source for C. difficile infections. A total of 102 ground meat and sausage samples from 3 grocers in Pittsburgh, PA, were cultured for C. difficile. Brand A pork sausages were resampled between May 2011 and January 2012. Two out of 102 (2.0%) meat products initially sampled were positive for C. difficile; both were pork sausage from brand A from the same processing facility (facility A). On subsequent sampling of brand A products, 10/19 samples from processing facility A and 1/10 samples from 3 other facilities were positive for C. difficile. The isolates recovered were inferred ribotype 078, comprising 6 genotypes. The prevalence of C. difficile in retail meat may not be as high as previously reported in North America. When contamination occurs, it may be related to events at processing facilities.

  9. Preservation of crab meat by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.; Prompubesara, C.; Kraisorn, K.; Noochpramool, K.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh crab meat from swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, Linn.) was irradiated at doses of 0.075, 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad and held at 3 0 C. The storage life of non-irradiated crab meat was approximately 7 days compared with 14 days for crab meat irradiated at 0.075 Mrad and 28 days for samples receiving 0.15 or 0.25 Mrad treatment. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, total volatile basic nitrogen, and ammonia contents were used as objective indices of freshness in comparison with sensory evaluation of the crab meat. All objective indices correlated well with the sensory judgement of the samples. The crab meat used in the study was heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad reduced approximately 2 log cycles in the total count. Acinetobacter (Achromobacter) was predominated in irradiated crab meat, especially after prolonged storage. High coagulase positive staphylococci count was detected in only non-irradiated crab meat

  10. Potential applications of radiation technology in meat industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.; Rao, M.S.; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Microbial load determines shelf-life and safety of meat products. Radiation technology is an effective tool in eliminating spoilage and pathogenic microbes in meat products. Radiation processing of meat can work in synergy with traditional preservation methods to enhance shelf-life and safety of meat products. (author)

  11. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... thus has no bearing on this rulemaking. Goat Meat One commenter expressed concern that inspectors may... goats. It is unlikely that a facility would slaughter a goat and present its meat as ovine meat. As.... APHIS-2008-0085] RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  12. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  13. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in Japan: the Miyagi Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuki; Nakaya, Naoki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    The association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been controversial. We examined this question in a large prospective cohort study in Japan. From June through August 1990, 47,605 residents, aged 40-64 years, of Miyagi Prefecture in northern Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire, including a food frequency questionnaire. In the study population, we observed 474 incident cases of colorectal cancer during 11 years of follow-up, to March 2001. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the relative risk of colorectal cancer (colorectum, colon, rectum and proximal colon and distal colon) according to each of the categories of meat intake (total meat, beef, pork, ham or sausage, chicken and liver), with adjustment for sex, age and other potentially confounding variables. The multivariate relative risk of colorectal cancer in the highest category of total meat consumption compared with the lowest was 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.85-1.53; P-trend=0.22]. We also found no significant association between total meat consumption and the risk of sub-site of colorectal cancer. In conclusion, our data do not support the hypothesis that meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

  14. Nutritional approach for designing meat-based functional food products with nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, B; Granado-Lorencio, F; Herrero-Barbudo, C; Blanco-Navarro, I

    2006-01-01

    Meat and meat products are essential components of diets in developed countries and despite the convincing evidence that relate them to an increased risk for CVD, a growing consumption of meat products is foreseen. Epidemiological studies show that regular consumption of nuts, in general, and walnuts in particular, correlates inversely with myocardial infarction and ischaemic vascular disease. We assess the nutritional basis for and technological approach to the development of functional meat-based products potentially relevant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction. Using the available strategies in the meat industry (reformulation processes) and a food-based approach, we address the design and development of restructured beef steak with added walnuts, potentially functional for CVD risk reduction. Its adequacy as a vehicle for active nutrients is confirmed by a pharmacokinetic pilot study in humans using gamma-tocopherol as an exposure biomarker in chylomicrons during the post-prandial state. Effect and potential "functionality" is being assessed by a dietary intervention study in subjects at risk and markers and indicators related to CVD are being evaluated. Within the conceptual framework of evidence-based medicine, development of meat-based functional products may become a useful approach for specific applications, with a potential market and health benefits of great importance at a population level.

  15. Coping with unpleasant knowledge: Meat eating among students of environmental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Iveta; Slovák, Ľuboš; Ježková, Ivana

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents qualitative research on the attitudes and behaviors of environmental studies graduate students toward meat eating, and their strategies for coping with the cognitive dissonance induced by the issues related to meat eating and production. The research draws on theoretical and empirical research on the issue of meat eating and the psychological processes involved in it, and by analyzing in-depth interviews it reveals that these students exhibit partially different coping strategies than what studies on general population show, as a result of their awareness and their social circle. The results show that even though these people do not usually regard meat eating as wrong or undesirable in principle, they are well aware of the ethical and environmental issues related to it. In their attitudes and behavior the students are significantly influenced by their friends and fellow students amongst whom they perceive avoiding meat as a social norm. A generalization of the results suggests that the psychological dynamics of meat eating among environmentally informed and engaged people in general may be different than in general population. Further research into this group of people is proposed, most importantly from a socio-cultural point of view. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro meat: Zombies on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, NS

    2010-01-01

    In April 2008 the In Vitro Meat Consortium held its first meeting at the Norwegian Food Research Institute. They are a group of scientists and advocates who seek to turn the techniques of tissue engineering to the production of food, producing meat in laboratories that has at no point been part of a living animal. This is a fascinating technology, and one that fits well with the topic of this SCRIPTed analysis section: the ‘zombification’ of meat products. I have been conducting interviews wi...

  17. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    African wildlife meat offers South Africans' a healthy and novel red meat alternative, yet consumption is far less than that of beef and lamb. Laddering interviews with 40 respondents were employed to identify the consequences and values associated with the product's perceived attributes. Important...... attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  18. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  19. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, J M; Hughes, A; Holley, R; Brown, B

    1989-01-01

    The heat resistance of a mixture of 10 different strains of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground meat and ground meat plus cure was examined. D-values for ground meat ranged from 1.01 min at 62 degrees C to 13.18 min at 56 degrees C. The D-values obtained for ground meat plus cure were approximately 5-8 fold times higher than those for ground meat alone. These results imply that rare meats and possibly some cooked fermented meats may not be heated adequately to inactivate Listeria.

  20. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEAT SHOP ON MEAT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.C. Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different meat shops on meat physicalcharacteristics and bacteria population. Sixteen PO carcasses were used in the experiment which wasarranged in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of different meat shops (traditionalmarket, meat shop, supermarket and slaughter house. Parameters measured were meat pH, waterholding capacity, cooking loss and bacterial total count. The result showed that the average of pH was5.25- 6.03; water holding capacity was 17.07-38.87%; cooking loss was 33.15-48.20 and bacterial totalcount was 1.48x106-10.75x106 CFU/g. It was concluded that bacterial total count in slaughter house andspecial market (meat shop and supermarket were less than those in traditional market.

  1. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces the number of pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products. Furthermore, APCP treatment can be used to generate nitrite, which is an essential component of the curing process. Here, we introduce the effectiveness of APCP treatment as a pasteurization method and/or curing process for use in the meat and meat product processing industry.

  3. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species...

  4. The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ≥20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207

  5. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  6. Reduction of radioactive caesium in meat and fish by soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petaejae, E.; Puolanne, E.

    1992-01-01

    The removal of radioactive caesium from meat by soaking in brine or water and the effect of injection curing, temperature, size of meat piece and cooking on this removal were studied. The availability of the brined meat for the manufacture of cured, smoked and cooked meat, oven-cooked meat and cooked sausages was also investigated. The soaking method was also tested on fish. (Author)

  7. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  8. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  9. Meat, beyond the plate. Data-driven hypotheses for understanding consumer willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, João; Oliveira, Abílio; Calheiros, Maria Manuela

    2015-07-01

    A shift towards reduced meat consumption and a more plant-based diet is endorsed to promote sustainability, improve public health, and minimize animal suffering. However, large segments of consumers do not seem willing to make such transition. While it may take a profound societal change to achieve significant progresses on this regard, there have been limited attempts to understand the psychosocial processes that may hinder or facilitate this shift. This study provides an in-depth exploration of how consumer representations of meat, the impact of meat, and rationales for changing or not habits relate with willingness to adopt a more plant-based diet. Multiple Correspondence Analysis was employed to examine participant responses (N = 410) to a set of open-ended questions, free word association tasks and closed questions. Three clusters with two hallmarks each were identified: (1) a pattern of disgust towards meat coupled with moral internalization; (2) a pattern of low affective connection towards meat and willingness to change habits; and (3) a pattern of attachment to meat and unwillingness to change habits. The findings raise two main propositions. The first is that an affective connection towards meat relates to the perception of the impacts of meat and to willingness to change consumption habits. The second proposition is that a set of rationales resembling moral disengagement mechanisms (e.g., pro-meat justifications; self-exonerations) arise when some consumers contemplate the consequences of meat production and consumption, and the possibility of changing habits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A diet high in fruits and low in meats reduces the risk of colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory L; Adair, Linda S; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Satia, Jessie A; Sandler, Robert S

    2007-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests overall dietary patterns, rather than specific dietary components, may be a better predictor of colorectal adenomas or cancers. Using cluster analysis, we aimed to assess the association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas and whether adjusting for total energy consumption prior to creating clusters affects this relation. Data from a case-control study of 725 individuals undergoing a colonoscopy were utilized. Cases (n = 203) had > or =1 adenoma on colonoscopy, and controls (n = 522) were those who had no adenomas. Dietary data were obtained from an FFQ. Daily intake for 18 different food groups was calculated. The values were transformed into Z-scores. Participants were first clustered without energy adjustment, then again based on their consumption per 1000 kcal (4187 kJ). There was no association between dietary patterns and colorectal adenomas without energy adjustment prior to creating dietary clusters, as clusters formed as a by-product of energy consumption. After adjusting for energy consumption, 3 distinct clusters emerged: 1) high fruit-low meat cluster; 2) high vegetable-moderate meat cluster; and 3) high meat cluster. After adjusting for potential confounders, the high vegetable-moderate meat cluster (odds ratio [OR] 2.17: [95% CI] 1.20-3.90) and high meat cluster (OR 1.70: [95% CI] 1.04-2.80) were at significantly increased odds of having had an adenoma compared with the high fruit-low meat cluster. A high-fruit, low-meat diet appears to be protective against colorectal adenomas compared with a dietary pattern of increased vegetable and meat consumption.

  11. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, Amol D.; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Bandekar, Jayant R.; Kapadnis, Balu P.

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 o C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D 10 values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10 5 CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 o C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: → Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. → Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. → No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. → First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  12. Effectiveness of radiation processing in elimination of Campylobacter from poultry meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raut, Amol D. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India); Shashidhar, Ravindranath [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Bandekar, Jayant R., E-mail: jrb@barc.gov.in [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kapadnis, Balu P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Pune, Pune, Ganeshkhind 411007 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Campylobacter, a common poultry intestine commensal, is a well known cause of human gastric illnesses across the globe. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is a major cause of Campylobacter related infections. In the present study, radiation sensitivity of indigenous strains of C. jejuni and C. coli isolated from poultry was evaluated. The decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) values of different Campylobacter isolates at 0-4 {sup o}C in saline and blood broth were in the range of 0.120-0.210 kGy and 0.170-0.234 kGy, respectively. D{sub 10} values in chicken meat homogenate for Campylobacter were in the range of 0.110-0.190 kGy. Chicken meat samples were inoculated with C. jejuni and exposed to gamma radiation to study the effectiveness of radiation treatment in elimination of Campylobacter. Radiation treatment with a dose of 1 kGy could achieve complete elimination of 10{sup 5} CFU of Campylobacter/g in poultry meat samples. No recovery of Campylobacter was observed, even after enrichment and selective plating in 1 kGy treated chicken meat samples stored at 4 {sup o}C up to 7 days. Present study shows that irradiation of poultry meat with 1 kGy can ensure safety of poultry meat. - Highlights: > Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to gamma radiation. > Low dose of 1 kGy is effective for 5-log reduction of Campylobacter in chicken meat. > No recovery of Campylobacter in radiation processed samples during storage. > First report on radiation sensitivity of Indian Campylobacter isolates.

  13. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  14. From killing cows to culturing meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how in Britain, France and Italy the idea of the living animal is being detached from the action of eating meat. It is an ongoing historical process, which has recently been fuelled by the new issue of cultured meat.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Starting from Goody’s developmentalist stages (Production, Distribution, Preparation and Consumption), first this work analyses historically how these stages have undergone the process of the d...

  15. Geriatric dietary meat-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Agunova, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary nutrition pattern referring to different age groups of the population does not meet quantitative and qualitative requirements. In Ukraine the manufacture of geriatric meat-based dietary products is underdeveloped. Therefore, the development of healthy and functional foods is the priority objective for the food industry. The research is devoted to considering the possibility of using quail meat, wheat germ flakes and walnut oil in the production process of the sausages for ...

  16. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  17. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High intake of heterocyclic amines from meat is associated with oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A M; Miranda, A M; Santos, F A; Loureiro, A P M; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2015-04-28

    High meat intake has been related to chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. One hypothesis is that heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are formed during the cooking process of meat, can generate reactive species. These compounds can cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and loss of biological function. This association has been seen in vitro; however, it remains unclear in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between oxidative stress and HCA intake, and oxidative stress and meat intake. Data were from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo--ISA-Capital (561 adult and elderly). Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR) complemented by a detailed FFQ with preferences of cooking methods and level of doneness for meat. HCA intake was estimated linking the meat from the 24HR to a database of HCA. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma, after derivatisation with thiobarbituric acid and quantification by HPLC/diode array. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for smoking, sex, age, BMI, skin colour, energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. A positive association between HCA intake and MDA concentration (OR 1·17; 95% CI 1·01, 1·38) was observed, showing that HCA from meat may contribute to increase oxidative stress, and may consequently increase the risk of chronic diseases.

  19. Factors affecting the water holding capacity of red meat products: a review of recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen

    2008-02-01

    The water holding capacity of meat products is a very important quality attribute which has an influence on product yield, which in turn has economic implications, but is also important in terms of eating quality. A number of pre-and post-mortem factors influence the water holding capacity (WHC) of meat. During the growth and development of meat animals, genotype and animal diet are important due to their direct influence on muscle characteristics. In the immediate pre-slaughter period, stresses on the animal such as fasting, and different stunning methods are likely to influence meat WHC. In the post-slaughter period chilling, ageing, injecting non-meat ingredients, as well as tumbling have important influences on WHC. Furthermore, cooking and cooling procedures for the final meat products can also affect the WHC of the product, in particular the cooking and the cooling methods, the heating and the cooling rate, the cooking temperature, and the endpoint temperature. This paper provides an overview of recent research on important intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect the WHC of beef, pork, and lamb products, and reveals explanations and solutions to some of the critical problems related to WHC and product quality.

  20. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  1. Carcass characteristics, meat quality and nutritional value of horsemeat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Sarriés, María Victoria; Tateo, Alessandra; Polidori, Paolo; Franco, Daniel; Lanza, Massimiliano

    2014-04-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The aim of the present review was to shed light on the nutritional composition of horsemeat and their benefits for human health. One of the reasons for such interest was the occurrence, in Europe several years ago, of dioxin, Bovine Encephalopathy and foot-and-mouth disease problems in farm animals. Therefore, consumers began to look for alternative red meats from other non-traditional species. There is no carcass classification system on horses designated to meat consumption. It would be advisable to standardize the equine meat market to reduce variations that may reflect differences in meat quality. The nutritional composition of horsemeat by comparison with pork, beef or poultry is characterized by low levels of fat and cholesterol (about 20% less), relatively high concentrations of n-3 fatty acids and heme iron indicating that its consumption may be beneficial for health. Therefore, horsemeat may supplement the meat market with good quality products, although as in other dietary components moderation is advisable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ( 234 U, 235 U, 238 U, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of 238 U and 232 Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  3. Study on natural radionuclide activities in meat samples consumed in Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Taddei, Maria HelenaT. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Avegliano, Roseane P.; Maihara, Vera A., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Consumption of food is usually the most important route by which natural and artificial radionuclides can enter the human body. An assessment of radionuclide levels in different foods and diets is therefore important to estimate the intake of these radionuclides by man. The contamination by radionuclides can occur via the food chain (soil, root, plant and animal), with emphasis to the long half-life radionuclides, which can also have their transfer through the animal meat. The inclusion of meat in human nutrition is important because it is an excellent source of high quality protein, nutrient related to construction and cell regeneration. This work aims the determination of natural radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 228}Th, {sup 230}Th, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb) in meat samples. Five groups of samples were analyzed, such as cattle meat (beef), fish, pork, poultry, and processed meat, after radiochemical separation followed by alpha or alpha beta spectrophotometry, and total count quantification. The determination of these radionuclides is very important because they are products of the natural decay series of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, being easily found in meat samples. (author)

  4. Production, performance, slaughter characteristics, and meat quality of Ziwuling wild crossbred pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoshun; Sui, Yanan

    2018-02-01

    Wild boars, because of their large size and ability to survive adverse conditions, are usually used to cross with domestic breeds to improve the quality of domesticated pigs. This study aimed to investigate the growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of Ziwuling crossbred pigs. Crossbred pigs in four groups (n = 8 per group, 4 boars and 4 sows, all aged 100 days), F 1 [wild × B (Bamei)], F 1  × B, F 1  × Y (Yorkshire), and F 1  × F 1 , were selected at a commercial pig farm. Growth performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality of these crossbred pigs were determined. Characteristics of fatty acids, amino acids, and longissimus muscle fiber in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were also investigated. Pigs in F 1 and F 1  × F 1 groups had lower average daily weight gain, water and storage loss rates, larger meat color score, higher muscle amino acid levels, larger muscle fiber diameter, and higher ratio of flavor amino acids to unsaturated fatty acids compared to other groups. Crossbred pigs with higher rate of wild boar's consanguinity could improve production performance, slaughter performance, and meat quality. Thus, crossbreeding wild pig with domestic breeds might be an effective method to improve meat quality and flavor.

  5. Control of the dehydration process in production of intermediate-moisture meat products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S F; Huang, T C; Pearson, A M

    1996-01-01

    IM meat products are produced by lowering the aw to 0.90 to 0.60. Such products are stable at ambient temperature and humidity and are produced in nearly every country in the world, especially in developing areas where refrigeration is limited or unavailable. Traditionally IM meats use low cost sources of energy for drying, such as sun drying, addition of salt, or fermentation. Products produced by different processes are of interest since they do not require refrigeration during distribution and storage. Many different IM meat products can be produced by utilizing modern processing equipment and methods. Production can be achieved in a relatively short period of time and their advantages during marketing and distribution can be utilized. Nevertheless, a better understanding of the principles involved in heat transfer and efficiency of production are still needed to increase efficiency of processing. A basic understanding of the influence of water vapor pressure and sorption phenomena on water activity can materially improve the efficiency of drying of IM meats. Predrying treatments, such as fermentation and humidity control, can also be taken advantage of during the dehydration process. Such information can lead to process optimization and reduction of energy costs during production of IM meats. The development of sound science-based methods to assure the production of high-quality and nutritious IM meats is needed. Finally, such products also must be free of pathogenic microorganisms to assure their success in production and marketing.

  6. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  7. Nutrient composition and technological quality of meat from alpacas reared in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvá, Bettit K; Zumalacárregui, José M; Figueira, Ana C; Osorio, María T; Mateo, Javier

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge on alpaca meat quality characteristics. Twenty Huacaya breed alpacas, reared under a traditional unspecialized production system at the Andean region of Peru, were slaughtered at ages between 18 and 24months. Analyses were carried out on Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle (LTLM), unless otherwise specified. These included composition parameters: moisture, fat, protein, ash, minerals, amino acids, fatty acid profile (of both LTLM and perirenal fat), retinol and tocopherol concentrations and myoglobin and collagen contents. Other meat quality parameters were evaluated: pH, colour, water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear-force. Alpaca LTLM was characterized by a low intramuscular fat content and mineral and amino acid compositions, polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio and conjugated linoleic acid content comparable to those found for beef and sheep meat. However, specifically, alpaca meat showed a relatively high n-6 to n-3 (3.7) ratio and low vitamin E concentration. Values of alpaca meat technological quality parameters were in the ranges reported for more conventional red meats, the exception being a lower b(∗) value.

  8. The Sensory Quality of Meat, Game, Poultry, Seafood and Meat Products as Affected by Intense Light Pulses: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasevic, Igor; Rajkovic, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of 16 different varieties of meat, meat products, game, poultry and seafood are reviewed. Changes induced by ILP are animal species, type of meat product and fluences applied dependent. ILP significantly deteriorates sensory quality of cooked meat products. It causes less change in the sensory properties of dry cured than cooked meat products while fermented sausage is least affected. The higher fluence applied significantly changes ...

  9. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

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    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  11. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

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    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  12. Factors for Choosing a Point of Purchase of Meat Products

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    Martin Souček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on factors influencing consumers when choosing an outlet when shopping for meat products. This issue is very relevant in the Czech Republic as there were a number of problems and affairs in the food industry in the past period. Consumers begin to change their buying habits gradually and focus more on product quality. In the Czech Republic producers specializing in their production of meat products on quality have begun to improve their situation. The research results come from a questionnaire survey conducted in the Czech Republic (n = 1137. The data were processed with Statistica v. 11. Frequency tables, contingency tables and cluster analysis were used for the data analysis. Results show that in the Czech population a strong influence of price as a factor influencing a choice of point of purchase still prevails. Analyses focused on assessment of three hypotheses that were validated through decomposition into sub-hypotheses and application of contingency analysis. Measures of associations were examined in particular in relation to age category of respondents, household income, and level of attained education. In all cases, associations were identified for all three characteristics, the strongest associations were found particularly in the context of respondent’s age. The presented results show that managers of stores selling meat products should pay attention to a demographic structure of their customers and adjust their services and offer to their preferences.

  13. Impact of red meat consumption on the metabolome of rats.

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    Jakobsen, Louise M A; Yde, Christian C; Van Hecke, Thomas; Jessen, Randi; Young, Jette F; De Smet, Stefaan; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2017-03-01

    The scope of the present study was to investigate the effects of red versus white meat intake on the metabolome of rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to 15 days of ad libitum feeding of one of four experimental diets: (i) lean chicken, (ii) chicken with lard, (iii) lean beef, and (iv) beef with lard. Urine, feces, plasma, and colon tissue samples were analyzed using 1 H NMR-based metabolomics and real-time PCR was performed on colon tissue to examine the expression of specific genes. Urinary excretion of acetate and anserine was higher after chicken intake, while carnosine, fumarate, and trimethylamine N-oxide excretion were higher after beef intake. In colon tissue, higher choline levels and lower lipid levels were found after intake of chicken compared to beef. Expression of the apc gene was higher in response to the lean chicken and beef with lard diets. Correlation analysis revealed that intestinal apc gene expression was correlated with fecal lactate content (R 2 = 0.65). This study is the first to identify specific differences in the metabolome related to the intake of red and white meat. These differences may reflect perturbations in endogenous metabolism that can be linked to the proposed harmful effects associated with intake of red meat. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Comparison and Correlation Analysis of Different Swine Breeds Meat Quality

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    Y. X. Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the influence of pig breed and gender on the ultimate pH and physicochemical properties of pork. The correlations between pH and pork quality traits directly related to carcass grade, and consumer’s preference were also evaluated. The pH and meat grading scores for cold carcasses of 215 purebred pigs (Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire from four different farms were obtained. Meat quality parameters of the pork loin were analyzed. Duroc and female animals were more affected compared to other breeds and male pigs. Duroc animals had the highest ultimate pH, carcass back fat thickness, marbling scores, yellowness, and fat content (p<0.05. Landrace pigs had the highest color lightness and cooking loss values (p<0.05. Among all trait parameters, marbling scores showed the highest significant differences when evaluating the impact of breed and gender on meat quality characteristics (p<0.001. Ultimate pH was positively correlated with carcass weight (0.20, back fat thickness (0.19, marbling score (0.17, and color score (0.16 while negatively correlated with cooking loss (−0.24 and shear force (−0.20. Therefore, pork samples with lower ultimate pH had lower cooking loss, higher lightness, and higher shear force values irrespective of breed.

  15. Effect of high pressure on physicochemical properties of meat.

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    Buckow, Roman; Sikes, Anita; Tume, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The application of high pressure offers some interesting opportunities in the processing of muscle-based food products. It is well known that high-pressure processing can prolong the shelf life of meat products in addition to chilling but the pressure-labile nature of protein systems limits the commercial range of applications. High pressure can affect the texture and gel-forming properties of myofibrillar proteins and, hence, has been suggested as a physical and additive-free alternative to tenderize and soften or restructure meat and fish products. However, the rate and magnitude at which pressure and temperature effects take place in muscles are variable and depend on a number of circumstances and conditions that are still not precisely known. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the effects of high pressure on muscle tissue over a range of temperatures as it relates to meat texture, microstructure, color, enzymes, lipid oxidation, and pressure-induced gelation of myofibrillar proteins.

  16. Marine fish as source of protein supplement in meat.

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    Rasekh, J G

    1987-01-01

    For the past 2 decades, a great deal of research has been done in fish technology, particularly in the area of mechanically deboned minced fish. Minced fish is the edible muscle flesh of fish that has been mechanically separated from the bones and skin. Ideally, the product is prepared from a high quality fish and resembles hamburger meat. In its final form, minced fish is used either as an ingredient or as an extender in seafood or in food products that require further processing. On the basis of technological advancements, the National Marine Fisheries Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Fisheries Institute jointly petitioned the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1980 to add minced fish at a level of 15% in the meat formulation of frankfurters. This paper explores certain aspects of processing, production, acceptance, and hazard assessment of minced fish ingredients as possible protein supplements in meat and poultry food products relative to this request.

  17. Water holding capacity of meat from rabbits (Belgian Giant breed

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    Gabriela Tărnăuceanu Frunză

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Meat science has always been most interested in practical applications and macroscopic effects of internal/external factors in relation to water holding capacity (WHC. Research has been motivated by technological and sensory aspects, both finally linked to economic benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of gender and different muscle groups from rabbits on WHC of their meat. Determining WHC was carried out by compression of the meat over filter paper between two plates. The biological material was collected from 56 Belgian Giant breed rabbits (25 males and 31 females. Aged 11-12 months, the rabbits had an average body weight of 11.5 kg. Measurements were performed on the muscles Longissimus dorsi (LD, Psoas major (PM and Semimembranosus (SM 24 hours after slaughter. The percentage of WHC was calculated as ratio (per cent of weight of released water to intact meat. WHC for females, in LD, had an average value of 8%, in PM it had an average value of 9.31%, and in SM it had an average value of 12.91%. For males, WHC in LD was 7.6%, in PM 8.23% and in SM 11.43%. The average value for WHC was higher for females than for males. Regarding the statistical significance of differences by gender, distinct significant differences for SM and very significant differences for PM were recorded. For PM, a higher average value of WHC is probably due to the smaller diameter of muscle fibres and also to water higher percentage of them.

  18. Chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork meat

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    Petronela Cviková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed and evaluated chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork neck and ham. Dried salted meat is one of the main meat products typically produced with a variety of flavors and textures. Neck (14 samples and ham (14 samples was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1week. The nitrite salt mixture for salting process (dry salting was used. This salt mixture contains: salt, dextrose, maltodextrin, flavourings, stabilizer E316, taste enhancer E621, nitrite mixture. The meat samples were dried at 4 °C and relative humudity 85% after 1 week salting. The weight of each sample was approximately 1 kg. After salting were vacuum-packed and analysed after 1 week. The traditional dry-cured meat such as dry-cured ham and neck obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled conditions. The average protein content was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork neck in comparison with dried salted pork ham. The average intramuscular fat was significantly (p <0.001 lower in dried pork ham in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The average moisture was significantly lower (p ≤0.05 in dried salted ham in comparison with dried pork neck. The average pH value was 5.50 in dried salted pork ham and 5.75 in dried salted pork neck. The content of arginine, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine and threonine in dried salted ham was significantly lower (p <0.001 in comparison with dried salted pork neck. The proportion of analysed amino acids from total proteins was 56.31% in pork salted dried ham and 56.50% in pork salted dried neck.  Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Branched-chain amino acid, meat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Thomson, Cynthia A; Tinker, Lesley; Larson, Joseph C; Qi, Qibin; Qi, Lihong; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Phillips, Lawrence S; Prentice, Ross L; Beasley, Jeannette M

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge regarding association of dietary branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the contribution of BCAA from meat to the risk of T2D are scarce. We evaluated associations between dietary BCAA intake, meat intake, interaction between BCAA and meat intake and risk of T2D. Data analyses were performed for 74 155 participants aged 50-79 years at baseline from the Women's Health Initiative for up to 15 years of follow-up. We excluded from analysis participants with treated T2D, and factors potentially associated with T2D or missing covariate data. The BCAA and total meat intake was estimated from FFQ. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the relationship between BCAA intake, meat intake, and T2D, adjusting for confounders. A 20 % increment in total BCAA intake (g/d and %energy) was associated with a 7 % higher risk for T2D (hazard ratio (HR) 1·07; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·09). For total meat intake, a 20 % increment was associated with a 4 % higher risk of T2D (HR 1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·05). The associations between BCAA intake and T2D were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for total meat intake. These relations did not materially differ with or without adjustment for BMI. Our results suggest that dietary BCAA and meat intake are positively associated with T2D among postmenopausal women. The association of BCAA and diabetes risk was attenuated but remained positive after adjustment for meat intake suggesting that BCAA intake in part but not in full is contributing to the association of meat with T2D risk.

  20. Is meat consumption associated with depression? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ye; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Ding, Xiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Shi-Fang

    2017-12-28

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the effect of meat consumption on depression. However, no conclusion has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between meat consumption and depression. The electronic databases of PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to March 2017, for observational studies that examined the relationship between meat consumption and depression. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of depression and the relative risk (RR) for the incidence of depression, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated respectively (the highest versus the lowest category of meat consumption). A total of eight observational studies (three cross-sectional, three cohort and two case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Specifically, six studies were related to the prevalence of depression, and the overall multi-variable adjusted OR suggested no significant association between meat consumption and the prevalence of depression (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.22; P = 0.469). In contrast, for the three studies related to the incidence of depression, the overall multi-variable adjusted RR evidenced an association between meat consumption and a moderately higher incidence of depression (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.24; P = 0.013). Meat consumption may be associated with a moderately higher risk of depression. However, it still warrants further studies to confirm such findings due to the limited number of prospective studies.