WorldWideScience

Sample records for radon grab sampling

  1. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the radon grab-sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center to provide standardization, calibration, comparability, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for the measurement requirements of DOE remedial action programs. One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration. One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the radon grab-sampling method. This manual describes procedures for radon grab sampling, with the application specifically directed to the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in highly ventilated structures. This particular application of the measurement method is for cases where RDC estimates derived from long-term integrated measurements under occupied conditions are below the standard and where the structure being evaluated is considered to be highly ventilated. The radon grab-sampling method requires that sampling be conducted under standard maximized conditions. Briefly, the procedure for radon grab sampling involves the following steps: selection of sampling and counting equipment; sample acquisition and processing, including data reduction; calibration of equipment, including provisions to correct for pressure effects when sampling at various elevations; and incorporation of quality-control and assurance measures. This manual describes each of the above steps in detail and presents an example of a step-by-step radon grab-sampling procedure using a scintillation cell

  3. Comparison of a continuous working level monitor for radon daughters with conventional grab-sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-08-01

    An evaluation of a radon daughter monitor was carried out under laboratory controlled conditions. The monitor operates on continuous sampling and time integrating principles and was tested in conjunction with a newly designed, large radon/thoron room calibration facility. The monitor was tested under constant and rapidly fluctuating radiation conditions. Experimental data obtained with the monitor were compared with data obtained by conventional grab-sampling and with an automated radon daughter/thoron daughter 'grab-sampler'. The Working Level used in the tests ranged from less than 0.01 WL to approximately 10 WL. The measurements were carried out under low aerosol concentration (1 x 10 3 - 2 x 10 3 cm -3 , approximately) to study plate-out effects in the sampling head. Good agreement (within about 10 %) was found between the monitor, conventional grab-sampling and the automated grab-sampler. The monitor should prove quite flexible, useful and reliable for monitoring underground and surface environments in the uranium mining industry

  4. An intercomparison between gross α counting and gross β counting for grab-sampling determination of airborne radon progeny and thoron progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Z.

    2006-01-01

    The instantaneous values of the airborne activity concentrations of radon progeny and thoron progeny have been determined 34 times in a closed and windowless room in a cellar using two independent grab-sampling methods in order to compare the performance of the methods. The activity concentration of radon ( 222 Rn) was also measured and it varied between 200 and 650 Bq m -3 . Two samples of radon and thoron progeny were collected simultaneously from roughly the same air volume by filtering. For the first method, the isotopes were collected on membrane filter and gross α counting was applied over several successive time intervals. This method was a slightly improved version of the methods that are applied generally for this reason for decades. For the second method, the isotopes were collected on glass-fibre filter and gross β counts were registered over several time intervals. This other method was developed a few years ago and the above series of measurements was the first opportunity to make an intercomparison between it and another similar method based on α counting. Individual radon progeny and thoron progeny activity concentrations (for the isotopes 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 212 Pb) were evaluated by both methods. The detailed investigation of the results showed that the systematic deviation of the methods is small but significant and isotope-dependent. The weighted averages of the β/α activity concentration ratios for 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, EEDC 222 (Equilibrium-Equivalent Decay-product Concentration of radon progeny) and 212 Pb were 0.99±0.03, 0.90±0.02, 1.03±0.02, 0.96±0.02 and 0.80±0.03, respectively. The source of the systematic deviation is probably the inaccurate knowledge of the counting efficiencies mainly in the case of the α-counting method. A significant random-type difference between the results obtained with the two methods has also been revealed. For example, the β/α ratio for EEDC 222 varied between 0.81±0.01 and 1.22±0

  5. ISCO Grab Sample Ion Chromatography Analytical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ISCO grab samples were collected from river, wastewater treatment plant discharge, and public drinking water intakes. Samples were analyzed for major ions (ppb)...

  6. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAURICELLA, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility

  7. Sampling strategies for indoor radon investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    Recent investigations prompted by concern about the environmental effects of residential energy conservation have produced many accounts of indoor radon concentrations far above background levels. In many instances time-normalized annual exposures exceeded the 4 WLM per year standard currently used for uranium mining. Further investigations of indoor radon exposures are necessary to judge the extent of the problem and to estimate the practicality of health effects studies. A number of trends can be discerned as more indoor surveys are reported. It is becoming increasingly clear that local geological factors play a major, if not dominant role in determining the distribution of indoor radon concentrations in a given area. Within a giving locale, indoor radon concentrations tend to be log-normally distributed, and sample means differ markedly from one region to another. The appreciation of geological factors and the general log-normality of radon distributions will improve the accuracy of population dose estimates and facilitate the design of preliminary health effects studies. The relative merits of grab samples, short and long term integrated samples, and more complicated dose assessment strategies are discussed in the context of several types of epidemiological investigations. A new passive radon sampler with a 24 hour integration time is described and evaluated as a tool for pilot investigations

  8. Solid Phase Characterization of Tank 241-C-105 Grab Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, T. M.; LaMothe, M. E.; Lachut, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The solid phase characterization (SPC) of three grab samples from single-shell Tank 241-C-105 (C-105) that were received at the laboratory the week of October 26, 2015, has been completed. The three samples were received and broken down in the 11A hot cells.

  9. Experimental procedure for the determination of counting efficiency and sampling flow rate of a grab-sampling working level meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Bigu, J.

    1982-07-01

    The calibration procedures used for a working level meter (WLM) of the grab-sampling type are presented in detail. The WLM tested is a Pylon WL-1000C working level meter and it was calibrated for radon/thoron daughter counting efficiency (E), for sampling pump flow rate (Q) and other variables of interest. For the instrument calibrated at the Elliot Lake Laboratory, E was 0.22 +- 0.01 while Q was 4.50 +- 0.01 L/min

  10. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG ampersand G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ''on mask'' due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer

  11. Tank 241-AP-104 Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AP-104. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AP-104 required to provide sample material to the Waste Treatment Contractor. Grab samples will be obtained from riser 001 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives and ICD-23. The 222-S Laboratory will receive samples; composite the samples; perform chemical analyses on composite samples; and provide samples to the Waste Treatment Contractor and the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory at the 222-S Laboratory Complex will perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AP-104 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. The Waste Treatment Contractor will perform process verification and waste form qualification tests. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the L and H DQO process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan (Person 2000) and are not within the scope of this SAP. This report provides the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from grab samples retrieved from tank 241-AP-104

  12. Compatibility grab sampling and analysis plan for fiscal year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. Analytical requirements are taken from two revisions of the Compatibility data quality objectives (DQOs). Revision 1 of the DQO (Fowler 1995) listed analyses to be performed to meet both safety and operational data needs for the Compatibility program. Revision 2A of the DQO (Mulkey and Miller 1998) addresses only the safety-related requirements; the operational requirements of Fowler (1995) have not been superseded by Mulkey and Miller (1998). Therefore, safety-related data needs are taken from Mulkey and Miller (1998) and operational-related data needs are taken from Fowler (1995). Ammonia and total alpha analyses are also performed in accordance with Fowler (1998a, 1998b)

  13. Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for FY 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for grab samples obtained to address waste compatibility. It is written in accordance with requirements identified in Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (Mulkey et al. 1999) and Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program (Fowler 1999). In addition to analyses to support Compatibility, the Waste Feed Delivery program has requested that tank samples obtained for Compatibility also be analyzed to confirm the high-level waste and/or low-activity waste envelope(s) for the tank waste (Baldwin 1999). The analytical requirements to confirm waste envelopes are identified in Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999a) and Data Quality Objectives for RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for High-Level Waste Feed Batch X (Nguyen 1999b)

  14. Tank 241-SY-102, January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results

  15. Diurnal measurement of equilibrium equivalent radon/thoron concentration using time integrated flow mode grab sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, P.; Kandari, T.; Ramola, R.C.; Semwal, C.P.; Prasad, M.

    2018-01-01

    The basic processes which influenced the concentration of radon and thoron decay products are- attachment, recoil and deposition and by the room specific parameters of radon exhalation and ventilation. The freshly formed decay products have a high diffusivities (especially in air) and ability to stick to surfaces. According to UNSCEAR 1977, radon daughters may be combined as the so called equilibrium equivalent concentration which is related to the potential alpha energy distribution concentration. In the present study an effort has been made to see the diurnal variation of radon and thoron progeny concentration using time integrated flow mode sampler

  16. 60-Day waste compatibility safety issues and final results for AY-102 grab samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-01-31

    Four grab samples (2AY-96-15, 2AY-96-16, 2AY-96-17, and 2AY-96-18) were taken from Riser 15D of Tank 241-AY-102 on October 8, 1996, and received by 222-S Laboratory on October 8, 1996. These samples were analyzed in accordance with Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) in support of the Waste Compatibility Program. No notifications were required based on sample results.

  17. Tank 214-AW-105, grab samples, analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AW-105 grab samples. Twenty grabs samples were collected from risers 10A and 15A on August 20 and 21, 1996, of which eight were designated for the K Basin sludge compatibility and mixing studies. This document presents the analytical results for the remaining twelve samples. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DO). The results for the previous sampling of this tank were reported in WHC-SD-WM-DP-149, Rev. 0, 60-Day Waste Compatibility Safety Issue and Final Results for Tank 241-A W-105, Grab Samples 5A W-95-1, 5A W-95-2 and 5A W-95-3. Three supernate samples exceeded the TOC notification limit (30,000 microg C/g dry weight). Appropriate notifications were made. No immediate notifications were required for any other analyte. The TSAP requested analyses for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) for all liquids and centrifuged solid subsamples. The PCB analysis of the liquid samples has been delayed and will be presented in a revision to this document

  18. Tank 241-AP-103 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples, Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELL, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-AP-103 (AP-103) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank AP-103 samples were performed as directed in ''Compatibility Grub Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999'' (Sasaki 1999a). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. No notification limits were exceeded

  19. Tank 241-SY-102 January 2000 Compatibility Grab Samples Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BELL, K.E.

    2000-05-11

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples taken in January 2000 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank SY-102 samples were performed as directed in Comparability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 2000 (Sasaki 1999). No notification limits were exceeded. Preliminary data on samples 2SY-99-5, -6, and -7 were reported in ''Format II Report on Tank 241-SY-102 Waste Compatibility Grab Samples Taken in January 2000'' (Lockrem 2000). The data presented here represent the final results.

  20. Using SPMDs for monitoring hydrophobic organic compounds in urban river water in Korea compared with using conventional water grab samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Un-Jung; Kim, Hee Young; Alvarez, David A.; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to verify the effectiveness of semi-permeablemembrane devices (SPMDs) formonitoring hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), that are not easy to detect using conventional grab samples (because of their low concentrations), in water.We used SPMDs and grab samples to monitor PCBs and PBDEs upstream and downstream of a sewage treatment plant (STP) in the Suyeong River in Busan, Korea. Concentrations in three different phases (freely dissolved, apparently dissolved, and particulate) were measured, to investigate the aquatic fate of PCBs and PBDEs. The freely dissolved (SPMD) concentrations were 2–3 times higher than the apparently dissolved and particulate phase (grab sample) concentrations. No meaningful relationships were found between the total PCB and PBDE concentrations of the grab sample and SPMD sample because of the different partitioning behaviors and detection frequencies of the individual chemicals. However, the summed concentrations of specific PCB and PBDE congeners (that were abundant in all samples) in the grab and SPMD samples correlated well (r2 = 0.7451 for PCBs 28 + 52 + 153, r2 = 0.9987 for PBDEs 28 + 47 + 99). The PBDE concentrations measured using SPMDs decreased with increasing distance from the STP, but no apparent dilution effect was found in the grab samples. Our results show that SPMDs could be used to support grab sampling for specific chemicals, or to trace chemical sources (such as STPs) to the aquatic environment.

  1. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  2. Double-contained receiver tank 244-TX, grab samples, 244TX-97-1 through 244TX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for the double-contained receiver tank (DCRT) 244-TX grab samples. Three grabs samples were collected from riser 8 on May 29, 1997. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in a table

  3. Estimating the biological value of soft-bottom sediments with sediment profile imaging and grab sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoey, Gert; Birchenough, Silvana N. R.; Hostens, Kris

    2014-02-01

    Biological value estimation is based on a set of assessment questions and several thresholds to delineate areas of ecological importance (e.g. biodiversity). An existing framework, that was specifically designed to assess the ecosystem biodiversity, was expanded by adding new questions on the productivity, functionality and biogeochemical status of benthic habitats. The additional ecological and sedimentological information was collected by using sediment profile imagery (SPI) and grab sampling. Additionally, information on the performance and comparability of both techniques is provided in this study. The research idea was tested at a site near the harbor of Zeebrugge, an area under consideration as a new disposal site for dredged material from the harbor entrance. The sedimentology of the area can be adequately described based on the information from both SPI and Van Veen grab samples, but only the SPI revealed structural information on the physical habitat (layering, a-RPD). The latter information represented the current status of the benthic habitat, which was confirmed by the Van Veen grab samples. All information was summarized through the biological valuation framework, and provided clear evidence of the differences in biological value for the different sediment types within the area. We concluded that the installation of a new dredged material disposal site in this area was not in conflict with the benthic ecology. This area has a low biological value and the benthic system is adapted to changing conditions, which was signaled by the dominance of mobile, short living and opportunistic species. This study showed that suitable sedimentological and ecological information can be gathered by these traditional and complementary techniques, to estimate the biological value of an area in the light of marine spatial planning and environmental impact assessments.

  4. Measurement Techniques for Radon in Mines, Dwellings and the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1983-06-01

    Definitions and units appropriate for radon and radon daughters are given. The principle methods of detection are ionization chamber, scintillation technique, nuclear track detector, thermoluminescent discs and alpha spectrometry. The activity concentration is determined by grab sampling and subsequent measurement, frequent or continuous grab sampling and measurement and continuous sampling and long time integrated measurement. Sampling and measurement strategies for mines, dwellings and the environment are discussed. (author)

  5. TMI-2 core debris grab samples: Examination and analysis: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Carlson, E.R.; Cook, B.A.; Ploger, S.A.; Carlson, J.O.

    1986-09-01

    Six samples of particulate debris were removed from the TMI-2 core rubble bed during September and October 1983, and five more samples were obtained in March 1984. The samples (up to 174 g each) were obtained at two locations in the core: H8 (center) and E9 (mid-radius). Ten of the eleven samples were examined at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data on the physical and chemical nature of the debris and the postaccident condition of the core. Portions of the samples also were subjected to differential thermal analysis at Rockwell Hanford Operations and metallurgical and chemical examinations at Argonne National Laboratories. This report presents results of the examination of the core debris grab samples, including physical, metallurgical, chemical, and radiochemical analyses. The results indicate that temperatures in the core reached at least 3100 K during the TMI-2 accident, fuel melting and significant mixing of core structural material occurred, and large fractions of some radionuclides (e.g., 90 Sr and 144 Ce) were retained in the core

  6. Radon and radon daughter measurements at and near the former Middlesex Sampling Plant, Middlesex, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, F.F.; Perdue, P.T.; Christian, D.J.; Leggett, R.W.; Dickson, H.W.; Myrick, T.E.

    1980-03-01

    The results of the radon and radon daughter measurements made to date (1978) at the Middlesex Sampling Plant in Middlesex, New Jersey, are presented in this report. These measurements were one portion of a more comprehensive radiological survey conducted at this site and the surrounding area from 1976 to 1978. The surveyed property served as a uranium ore sampling plant during the 1940's and early 1950's and as a result contains elevated levels of surface an subsurface contamination. On-site indoor radon daughter and radon concentrations exceeded both the US Surgeon General Guidelines and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's maximum permissible concentration limits for radon (10 CFR Part 20) in all structures surveyed. Off-site structures showed concentrations of radon and radon daughters at or only slightly above background levels, except for one site where the radon levels were found to be above the 10 CFR Part 20 guidelines. Outdoor radon ad radon daughter concentrations, measured both on and off the site, were well below the guidelines, and the data give no indication of significant radon transport from the site

  7. RECOMMENDED OPERATING PROCEDURE NO. 56: COLLECTION OF GASEOUS GRAB SAMPLES FROM COMBUSTION SOURCES FOR NITROUS OXIDE MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is a recommended operating procedure, prepare or use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent a...

  8. Recommended operating procedure number 56: Collection of gaseous grab samples from combustion sources for nitrous oxide measurement. Final report, Jan-Dec 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.V.; Karns, S.A.

    1992-07-01

    The document is a recommended operating procedure (ROP), prepared for use in research activities conducted by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL). The procedure applies to the collection of gaseous grab samples from fossil fuel combustion sources for subsequent analysis of nitrous oxide. The procedure details only the grab sampling methodology and associated equipment

  9. A newly developed grab sampling system for collecting stratospheric air over Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Honda

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to measure the concentrations of various minor constituents and their isotopic ratios in the stratosphere over Antarctica, a simple grab sampling system was newly developed. The sampling system was designed to be launched by a small number of personnel using a rubber balloon under severe experimental conditions. Special attention was paid to minimize the contamination of sample air, as well as to allow easy handling of the system. The sampler consisted mainly of a 15l sample container with electromagnetic and manual valves, control electronics for executing the air sampling procedures and sending the position and status information of the sampler to the ground station, batteries and a transmitter. All these parts were assembled in an aluminum frame gondola with a shock absorbing system for landing. The sampler was equipped with a turn-over mechanism of the gondola to minimize contamination from the gondola, as well as with a GPS receiver and a rawinsonde for its tracking. Total weight of the sampler was about 11kg. To receive, display and store the position and status data of the sampling system at the ground station, a simple data acquisition system with a portable receiver and a microcomputer was also developed. A new gas handling system was prepared to simplify the injection of He gas into the balloon. For air sampling experiments, three sampling systems were launched at Syowa Station (69°00′S, 39°35′E, Antarctica and then recovered on sea ice near the station on January 22 and 25,1996.

  10. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  11. Seasonal and temporal variation in release of antibiotics in hospital wastewater: estimation using continuous and grab sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwan, Vishal; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2013-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on resistance development has raised concerns globally. Hospitals are a major source of antibiotics released into the environment. To reduce these residues, research to improve knowledge of the dynamics of antibiotic release from hospitals is essential. Therefore, we undertook a study to estimate seasonal and temporal variation in antibiotic release from two hospitals in India over a period of two years. For this, 6 sampling sessions of 24 hours each were conducted in the three prominent seasons of India, at all wastewater outlets of the two hospitals, using continuous and grab sampling methods. An in-house wastewater sampler was designed for continuous sampling. Eight antibiotics from four major antibiotic groups were selected for the study. To understand the temporal pattern of antibiotic release, each of the 24-hour sessions were divided in three sub-sampling sessions of 8 hours each. Solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the antibiotic residues. Six of the eight antibiotics studied were detected in the wastewater samples. Both continuous and grab sampling methods indicated that the highest quantities of fluoroquinolones were released in winter followed by the rainy season and the summer. No temporal pattern in antibiotic release was detected. In general, in a common timeframe, continuous sampling showed less concentration of antibiotics in wastewater as compared to grab sampling. It is suggested that continuous sampling should be the method of choice as grab sampling gives erroneous results, it being indicative of the quantities of antibiotics present in wastewater only at the time of sampling. Based on our studies, calculations indicate that from hospitals in India, an estimated 89, 1 and 25 ng/L/day of fluroquinolones, metronidazole and sulfamethoxazole respectively, might be getting released into the

  12. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kil Yong; Burnett, William C

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 °C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods.

  13. Determination of air-loop volume and radon partition coefficient for measuring radon in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil Yong Lee; Burnett, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for the direct determination of the air-loop volume in a RAD7 system as well as the radon partition coefficient was developed allowing for an accurate measurement of the radon activity in any type of water. The air-loop volume may be measured directly using an external radon source and an empty bottle with a precisely measured volume. The partition coefficient and activity of radon in the water sample may then be determined via the RAD7 using the determined air-loop volume. Activity ratios instead of absolute activities were used to measure the air-loop volume and the radon partition coefficient. In order to verify this approach, we measured the radon partition coefficient in deionized water in the temperature range of 10-30 deg C and compared the values to those calculated from the well-known Weigel equation. The results were within 5 % variance throughout the temperature range. We also applied the approach for measurement of the radon partition coefficient in synthetic saline water (0-75 ppt salinity) as well as tap water. The radon activity of the tap water sample was determined by this method as well as the standard RAD-H 2 O and BigBottle RAD-H 2 O. The results have shown good agreement between this method and the standard methods. (author)

  14. Tank 241-U-103, grab samples 3U-99-1, 3u-99-2 and 3U-99-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-103 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on March 12, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on March 15, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP

  15. Tank 241-U-103, grab samples 3U-99-1, 3u-99-2 and 3U-99-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-08-25

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-103 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on March 12, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on March 15, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999 (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP.

  16. Radon in Finnish dwellings. Sample survey 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Kinnunen, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Valmari, T.; Arvela, H.

    2009-12-01

    Indoor radon concentration was measured in 2882 dwellings randomly selected by the Population Register Centre of Finland. Radon measurements were made in two half-year periods, the first one lasting from April to November 2006 and the second one from November 2006 to April 2007. Measurements were made using STUK's alpha track detectors. According to the decree 944 / 92 by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed the 400 Bq /m 3 , whereas new buildings should be built so that 200 Bq /m 3 is not exceeded. In addition, the part D2 of the National Building Code of Finland (Indoor climate and ventilation of buildings) sets 200 Bq /m 3 as a reference value for planning of new buildings. Since 2004, according to the regulation B3 (Foundations), radon should be taken into account in new building in the whole country. A radon technical plan should be included into the building licence application. This plan can be exceptionally ignored only when building in areas where exceeding of 200 Bq / m 3 seldom occurs. In this study the nationwide means weighted by number of inhabitants in provinces in houses and flats were 121 Bq /m 3 and 49 Bq /m 3 , and 96 Bq /m 3 for all dwellings. The percentages of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 for houses and flats were 15.1% and 1.5%, and 10.4% for all dwellings. The respective values for the reference value 400 Bq/m 3 were 3.8%, 0.7%, and 2.7%. The numbers of dwellings exceeding 200 Bq /m 3 were 204 000 for houses and 16 000 for flats, respectively. The respective numbers of dwellings exceeding 400 Bq /m 3 were 51 000 and 8.000. The highest radon concentrations were measured in the areas of Tavastia and South-Eastern Finland, in the provinces Eastern Uusimaa, Kymenlaakso, Paeijaenne Tavastia, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa and South Karelia. In these provinces 29 - 51 per cent of small houses exceed 200 Bq /m 3 . The lowest radon concentrations were achieved with a crawl space foundation. Radon

  17. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Type 4 In Situ Vapor Samplers and Supernate and Sludge and Soft Saltcake Grab Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    The DOE has identified a need to sample vapor space, exhaust ducts, supernate, sludge, and soft saltcake in waste tanks that store radioactive waste. This document provides the Design Compliance Matrix (DCM) for the Type 4 In-Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system and the Grab Sampling System that are used for completing this type of sampling function. The DCM identifies the design requirements and the source of the requirements for the Type 4 ISVS system and the Grab Sampling system. The DCM is a single-source compilation design requirements for sampling and sampling support equipment and supports the configuration management of these systems

  18. Tank 241-S-111 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples, and Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and SEC 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-S-111 (S-111) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank S-111 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (Sasaki 1999a,b). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. The notification limit for 137 Cs was exceeded on two samples. Results are discussed in Section 5.3.2. No other notification limits were exceeded

  19. Tank 241-S-111 08/1999 Compatibility Grab Samples and Analytical Results for the Final Report [SEC 1 and SEC 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-12-01

    This document is the format IV, final report for the tank 241-S-111 (S-111) grab samples taken in August 1999 to address waste compatibility concerns. Chemical, radiochemical, and physical analyses on the tank S-111 samples were performed as directed in Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (Sasaki 1999a,b). Any deviations from the instructions provided in the tank sampling and analysis plan (TSAP) were discussed in this narrative. The notification limit for {sup 137}Cs was exceeded on two samples. Results are discussed in Section 5.3.2. No other notification limits were exceeded.

  20. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document

  1. Tank 241-U-102, Grab Samples 2U-99-1, 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-U-102 grab samples. Five grab samples were collected from riser 13 on May 26, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on May 26 and May 27, 1999. Samples 2U-99-3 and 2U-99-4 were submitted to the Process Chemistry Laboratory for special studies. Samples 2U-99-1, 2U-99-2 and 2U-99-5 were submitted to the laboratory for analyses. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP

  2. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  3. Randomization of grab-sampling strategies for estimating the annual exposure of U miners to Rn daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, T B

    1986-04-01

    Periodic grab sampling in combination with time-of-occupancy surveys has been the accepted procedure for estimating the annual exposure of underground U miners to Rn daughters. Temporal variations in the concentration of potential alpha energy in the mine generate uncertainties in this process. A system to randomize the selection of locations for measurement is described which can reduce uncertainties and eliminate systematic biases in the data. In general, a sample frequency of 50 measurements per year is sufficient to satisfy the criteria that the annual exposure be determined in working level months to within +/- 50% of the true value with a 95% level of confidence. Suggestions for implementing this randomization scheme are presented.

  4. Concentration comparison of selected constituents between groundwater samples collected within the Missouri River alluvial aquifer using purge and pump and grab-sampling methods, near the city of Independence, Missouri, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krempa, Heather M.

    2015-10-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Independence, Missouri, Water Department, has historically collected water-quality samples using the purge and pump method (hereafter referred to as pump method) to identify potential contamination in groundwater supply wells within the Independence well field. If grab sample results are comparable to the pump method, grab samplers may reduce time, labor, and overall cost. This study was designed to compare constituent concentrations between samples collected within the Independence well field using the pump method and the grab method.

  5. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1 -1 h -1 . Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  6. γ-Ray spectrometry of radon in water and the role of radon to representatively sample aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talha, S.A.; Lindsay, R.; Newman, R.T.; Meijer, R.J. de; Maleka, P.P.; Hlatshwayo, I.N.; Mlwilo, N.A.; Mohanty, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of radon in water by γ-ray spectrometry using a HPGe detector has been investigated to determine aquifer characteristics. The radon activity concentration is determined by taking the weighted average of the concentrations derived from γ-ray lines associated with 214 Pb and 214 Bi decay. The role of accurate radon data to representatively sample aquifers was also investigated by studying a semi-cased borehole. A simplified physical model describing the change of radon concentration with the pumping time, reproduces the data and predicts the time for representative sampling of the aquifer

  7. Assessment of radon and thoron exhalation from Indian cement samples using smart radon and thoron monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K; Agarwal, T.K.; Babu, D.A.R.

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that primarily, there exist two important sources that contribute to indoor radon/thoron namely, the exhalation from ground and building materials. The contribution from ground, although significant, is treated as a case of existing exposure. Then, the only source that can be controlled during the construction is the choice of building materials. Cement is an important building material used in the construction of houses and buildings in India. The housing sector is the largest cement consumer with 53% of the total Indian cement demand followed by the infrastructure sector. India with a production capacity of 165 million tones (MT) (in 2007), was the second largest cement producer in the world after China. The industry produces various types of cement like ordinary portland cement (OPC), Portland pozzolana cement (PPC), portland slag cement (PSC), rapid hardening portland cement (RHPC), sulphate resistant cement (SRC) and white cement (WC). Several studies have been undertaken on cement in various countries because it is commonly used in bulk quantities in the construction of houses and other civil structures. However, detailed information regarding the radon and thoron exhalation into indoor air from various types of cements produced in India is scarce. In the present work, an attempt has been made to systematically determine the radon and thoron exhalation from 50 cement samples (17 OPC, 15 PPC, 04 PSC, 06 RHPC, 04 WC and 04 SRC). The data thus obtained is used to calculate the indoor radon and thoron source term and the contributed inhalation dose based on a model room structure. The measured values of radon and thoron exhalation from cement samples were comparable with the reported values in other countries. This study showed that the cement samples used in civil constructions do not pose any radiological hazard to the Indian population. (author)

  8. Revised final report for tank 241-AN-101, grab samples 1AN-95-1 through 1AN-95-7. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Six supernate grab samples and one field blank were taken from tank 241-AN-101. This report documents analyses performed in support of the Safety Screening program: differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), density by specific gravity (Sp.G.), and total alpha activity (AT)

  9. Airborne radon-222 measurement by active sampling with charcoal adsorption and gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Wen, Xiao-qiong; Fukami, Kenji; Iwatani, Kazuo; Hamanaka, Shun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    A simple method for measuring radon concentration in air is presented. Airborne radon is adsorbed in a charcoal bed by an active air sampling. In time, the adsorbed radon comes to attain radioactive equilibrium with its short-lived progeny 214 Pb. Utilizing this fact, radon concentration is derived from γ-ray measurement of 214 Pb. This method is estimated to be capable of detecting radon concentration in air down to 0.79 Bq·m -3 . The adsorption coefficient obtained with the method is compared with what is obtainable with passive sampling. Applications of this method to indoor and outdoor radon measurements are described. (author)

  10. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  11. Tank 241-AP-107, grab samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, F.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-107 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 1 on September 11, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 7AP-97-1, 7AP-97-2 and 7AP-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Nuier, 1997). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). A notification was made to East Tank Farms Operations concerning low hydroxide in the tank and a hydroxide (caustic) demand analysis was requested. The request for sample analysis (RSA) (Attachment 2) received for AP-107 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. Therefore, prior to performing the requested analyses, aliquots were made to perform PCB analysis in accordance with the 222-S Laboratory administrative procedure, LAP-101-100. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at 50 ppm and analysis proceeded as non-PCB samples. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis will be included in a revision to this document. The sample breakdown diagrams (Attachment 1) are provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed

  12. 40 CFR 91.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD)) for the measurement of...) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be converted to nitric...

  13. 40 CFR 90.423 - Exhaust gas analytical system; CVS grab sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, and a chemiluminescence detector (CLD) (or heated CLD (HCLD... following requirements: (1) The CLD (or HCLD) requires that the nitrogen dioxide present in the sample be...

  14. Final Report For The Initial Solid Phase Characterization Of The 2011 Grab Samples And Composite For The C-109 Hard Heel Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, J.S.; Cooke, G.A.; Pestovich, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    On May 3, 2011, solid phase characterization subsamples were taken from six of the eight grab samples that had been collected from tank 241-C-109 in April, 2011 and delivered to the 222-S Laboratory. These subsamples were characterized in order to guide the creation of the composite for the C-109 hard heel study. Visual observation showed that there was a large variability in the physical characteristics of the eight individual grab samples. Several of the grab samples consisted of 'stone-like' cobbles (several > 25 mm in diameter) while the other grab samples were of a finer granular composition referred to as 'bulk material'. Half of the six subsamples taken for this initial SPC were of crushed cobbles and half were of the bulk material. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on all six subsamples, and X-ray diffraction was performed on all three of the 'bulk material' samples and one of the crushed cobble samples. The crushed cobbles were found to be composed primarily of gibbsite (Al(OHh) 3 ). Analysis by X-ray diffraction indicated gibbsite to be the only crystalline phase detected, and scanning electron microscopy showed the crushed cobbles to consist primarily of aggregates of euhedral to subhedral gibbsite crystals that were 20 to 100 μm in size. The aggregates, having a moderate amount of pore space, were cemented primarily by recrystallized gibbsite making them resistant to crushing. The bulk material consisted of coarse to fine-grained pebble-sized (2 to 20 mm) particles. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed them to be a mixture of natrophosphate (Na 7 (PO 4 ) 2 F·19(H 2 O)) and gibbsite crystals in varying amounts in each of the three subsamples (i.e., some grab samples were primarily natrophosphate while others were mixed with gibbsite). The scanning electron microscopy analysis of the bulk material showed the crystals to be euhedral to anhedral (rounded) in shape. Trace phases, too minor to be detected by XRD, were observed in the SEM analysis

  15. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  16. 45-Day safety screening report for grab samples from Tank 241-AP-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Three samples; 107-AP-1C, 107-AP-2c and 107-AP-3C; were received at 222-S Laboratory for analysis of DSC, TGA and visual appearance. Four additional samples; 107-AP-1D, 107-AP-2D, 107-AP-3D and 107-AP-6; were received for visual appearance only. No results exceeded the safety screen notification criteria. This report compiles the analytical results. Tank 241-AP-107 is a double-shell tank which is not on any of the four Watch Lists

  17. Final report for tank 241-AP-108, grab samples 8AP-96-1, 8AP-96-2 and 8AP-96-FB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This document is the final report deliverable for the tank 241-AP-108 grab samples. The samples were subsampled and analyzed in accordance with the TSAP. Included in this report are the results for the Waste Compatibility analyses, with the exception of DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results which were presented in the 45 Day report (Part 2 of this document). The raw data for all analyses, with the exception of DSC and TGA, are also included in this report

  18. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Knutson, E.O.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.

    1995-12-01

    The results from the May 1995 Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurement conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility are presented. Represented were 13 participants that measure radon with open faced and diffusion barrier activated carbon collectors, 10 with nuclear alpha track detectors, 9 with short-term and long-term electret/ionization chambers, and 13 with active and passive commercial electronic continuous monitors. For radon progeny, there were four participants that came in person to take part in the grab sampling methodology for measuring individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). There were 11 participants with continuous and integrating commercial electronic instruments that are used for measuring the PAEC. The results indicate that all the tested instruments that measure radon fulfill their intended purpose. All instruments and methods used for grab sampling for radon progeny did very well. However, most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC or working level appear to underestimate the potential risk from radon progeny when the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny are attached is -3

  19. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  20. Radon in an underground excavation site in Helsinki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venelampi, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper reports on radon measurements and actions taken in a large underground excavation site in Helsinki, where a coal store was excavated underneath an existing power plant. The measurements were carried out by taking grab samples using Lucas type scintillation cells. Large variations in radon concentrations were observed during the three-year study. The reasons for variations are discussed and recommendations are given for radon monitoring procedures in underground excavation sites. The importance of ventilation to reduce the radon level is stressed. (P.A.)

  1. Tank 241-AP-106, Grab samples, 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 Analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FULLER, R.K.

    1999-02-23

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AP-106 grab samples. Three grab samples 6AP-98-1, 6AP-98-2 and 6AP-98-3 were taken from riser 1 of tank 241-AP-106 on May 28, 1998 and received by the 222-S Laboratory on May 28, 1998. Analyses were performed in accordance with the ''Compatability Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan'' (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1998) and the ''Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatability Program (DQO). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report. No notification limits were exceeded. The request for sample analysis received for AP-106 indicated that the samples were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) suspects. The results of this analysis indicated that no PCBs were present at the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) regulated limit of 50 ppm. The results and raw data for the PCB analysis are included in this document.

  2. Tank 241-AX-101, grab samples, 1AX-97-1 through 1AX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AX-101 grab samples. Four grab samples were collected from riser 5B on July 29, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystals that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. Less than 25 % settled solids were present in the first three samples, therefore only the supernate was sampled and analyzed. Sample 1AX-97-4 contained approximately 25.3 % settled solids. Compatibility analyses were not performed on this sample. Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystal that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. The settled solids in samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 were less than 25% by volume. Therefore, for these three samples, two 15-mL subsamples were pipetted to the surface of the liquid and submitted to the laboratory for analysis. In addition, a portion of the liquid was taken from each of the these three samples to perform an acidified ammonia analysis. No analysis was performed on the settled solid portion of the samples. Sample 1AX-97-4 was reserved for the Process Chemistry group to perform boil down and dissolution testing in accordance with Letter of Instruction for Non-Routine Analysis of Single-Shell Tank 241-AX-101 Grab Samples (Field, 1997) (Correspondence 1). However, prior to the analysis, the sample was inadvertently

  3. Tank 241-AX-101 grab samples 1AX-97-1 through 1AX-97-3 analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1997-11-13

    This document is the final report for tank 241-AX-101 grab samples. Four grab samples were collected from riser 5B on July 29, 1997. Analyses were performed on samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystals that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. Less than 25 % settled solids were present in the first three samples, therefore only the supernate was sampled and analyzed. Sample 1AX-97-4 contained approximately 25.3 % settled solids. Compatibility analyses were not performed on this sample. Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information. All four samples contained settled solids that appeared to be large salt crystal that precipitated upon cooling to ambient temperature. The settled solids in samples 1AX-97-1, 1AX-97-2 and 1AX-97-3 were less than 25% by volume. Therefore, for these three samples, two 15-mL subsamples were pipetted to the surface of the liquid and submitted to the laboratory for analysis. In addition, a portion of the liquid was taken from each of the these three samples to perform an acidified ammonia analysis. No analysis was performed on the settled solid portion of the samples. Sample 1AX-97-4 was reserved for the Process Chemistry group to perform boil down and dissolution testing in accordance with Letter of Instruction for Non-Routine Analysis of Single-Shell Tank 241-AX-101 Grab Samples (Field, 1997) (Correspondence 1). However, prior to the analysis, the sample was inadvertently

  4. Pumping time required to obtain tube well water samples with aquifer characteristic radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricardo, Carla Pereira; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de

    2011-01-01

    Radon is an inert noble gas, which comes from the natural radioactive decay of uranium and thorium in soil, rock and water. Radon isotopes emanated from radium-bearing grains of a rock or soil are released into the pore space. Radon that reaches the pore space is partitioned between the gaseous and aqueous phases. Thus, the groundwater presents a radon signature from the rock that is characteristic of the aquifer. The characteristic radon concentration of an aquifer, which is mainly related to the emanation, is also influenced by the degree of subsurface degassing, especially in the vicinity of a tube well, where the radon concentration is strongly reduced. Looking for the required pumping time to take a tube well water sample that presents the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, an experiment was conducted in an 80 m deep tube well. In this experiment, after twenty-four hours without extraction, water samples were collected periodically, about ten minutes intervals, during two hours of pumping time. The radon concentrations of the samples were determined by using the RAD7 Electronic Radon Detector from Durridge Company, a solid state alpha spectrometric detector. It was realized that the necessary time to reach the maximum radon concentration, that means the characteristic radon concentration of the aquifer, is about sixty minutes. (author)

  5. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  6. The determination of a continuous radon daughter equilibrium factor in an operating uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radon daughter exposures to workers at the Olympic Dam Operations copper and uranium mine are calculated from a series of grab samples obtained from various work locations around the mine. Currently under consideration is the introduction of personal passive radon dosimeters to determine the workers' radon daughter exposures. The study reported in this paper involved the determination of long-term equilibrium factors using real-time monitoring of radon and radon daughters. Consequently, variation in equilibrium factor for different tasks can be identified. In practice, the equilibrium factor varies with location and task; however, a conservative over-estimate of 0.28 can be confidently applied to all tasks. The error due to over-estimation remains minimal for all workers. This real-time monitoring method will reduce potential errors in dose assessment compared with the grab sampling technique. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. An active radon sampling device for high humidity places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R., E-mail: raquel.idoeta@ehu.e [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N.; Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda Urquijo s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    An active radon measurement device has been developed to be used in workplaces with a relative humidity of 100% for spot measurements of radon concentration. A mathematical model based on the convective-diffusive transport equation is used in the design of this system, which has been used to measure the radon concentration in the Pozalagua cave (Biscay, at Northern of Spain). From the obtained radon values the public and workers doses have been obtained.

  8. Sample preparation of tank 241-C-106 grab samples and testing For compatibility with tank 241-AY-102 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    This test plan describes a sample separation method which will be used to obtain physical measurements and separated 241-C-106 solids and supernate fractions. In addition compatibility of tank 241-C-106 sludge with tank 241-AY-102 supernate will be determined

  9. Portable monitors for measuring radon and its progenies air by intergrated sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huaiqin; Su Jingling; Yao Wanyuan; Liu Jinhua

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of portable monitors have been developed, which can be used to measure the concentration of radon or potential energy concentration of radon or potential energy concentration of radon progenies in air. The thermoluminescent material CaSO 4 (Tm) is used as a detecting element for both of them. The lowest detectable limit of the passive radon monitor is about 1.5 Bq/m 3 for radon in air, as the exposure time being one week. Its main advantages are high reliability and convenient manipulation. The working level monitor for radon progenies in air consists of a mini membrane pump and an integrating probe. The lowest detectable limit is about 6.2 x 10 -9 J/m 3 , as the sampling time being 6 hours. It weights only about 0.35 kg

  10. Radon prevention in new construction. Sample survey 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.

    2010-05-01

    The building code for radon prevention and the associated practical guidelines were revised in Finland in 2003 to 2004. Thereafter, preventive measures have become more common and prevention practices more effective. Consequently, indoor radon concentrations in new construction have been markedly reduced. In this study, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 1 500 new lowrise residential houses. The houses were randomly selected and represented 7 % of houses that received building permission in 2006. The average radon concentration of all houses measured, which were completed in 2006 to 2008, was 95 Bq/m 3 , the median being 58 Bq/m 3 . The average was 30 % lower than in houses completed in 2000 to 2005. The decrease was 50 % in provinces with the highest indoor radon concentration and 20 % elsewhere in the country. In houses with a slab-on-ground foundation that had both passive radon piping and sealing measures carried out using a strip of bitumen felt in the joint between the foundation wall and floor slab, the radon concentration was on average reduced by 55 % compared to houses with no preventive measures. Preventive measures were taken in 50 % of single family houses, and in provinces with the highest radon concentration in 90 % of houses. Active prevention in areas with high indoor radon concentrations has reduced the regional differences in the radon concentration. Slab on ground is the prevailing type of foundation and necessitates careful radon prevention measures throughout the country. The most serious defects were observed in prevention practices in houses with walls made of lightweight concrete blocks that were in contact with soil. The foundation types with the lowest radon concentrations were those with a crawl space and a monolithic slab. (orig.)

  11. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  12. Radon exhalation rates from soil and sand samples collected from the vicinity of Yamuna river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.K.; Sushil Kumar; Chauhan, Pooja; Chauhan, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    Soil, sand and stones are the most popular building materials for Indian dwellings. Radon is released into ambient air from these materials due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in sand and soils is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which they are formed. These materials contain varying amount of uranium. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from soil and sand samples from different locations in the vicinity of Yamuna river has been estimated. The samples have been collected from different locations near the Yamuna river. The samples collecting sites are from Yamunanagar in Haryana to Delhi. The radon concentration in different samples has been calculated, based upon the data, the mass and the surface exhalation rates of radon emanated from them have also been calculated

  13. Radon exhalation from samples of Danish soils, subsoils and sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsbech, U.

    1985-01-01

    For some years it has been known that the ground below a house could be the major source of radon and radon daughters in the indoor air. Th amount of radon penetrating into buildings from the ground depends on several factors e.g. the amount of radon produced in the ground, the amount of cracks and holes in the foundation of buildings, and the pressure difference between the air in the ground (sol air) and the indoor air. As a first step in determining the influence of the ground below Danish buildings 60 samples of soils, subsoils, and sedimentary rocks have been measured for their exhalation rates of radon i.e. the amount of radon escaping the sample per mass unit and per second (Bq.kg -1 .s -1 or radon atoms per kg and per sec.). The results of the measurements of the radon exhalation are presented and commented, and a conclusion concerning the methods for finding geological deposits with a high radon halation rate is presented. (author)

  14. Sampling and analysis for radon-222 dissolved in ground water and surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Gesell, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 is a naturally occurring radioactive gas in the uranium-238 decay series that has traditionally been called, simply, radon. The lung cancer risks associated with the inhalation of radon decay products have been well documented by epidemiological studies on populations of uranium miners. The realization that radon is a public health hazard has raised the need for sampling and analytical guidelines for field personnel. Several sampling and analytical methods are being used to document radon concentrations in ground water and surface water worldwide but no convenient, single set of guidelines is available. Three different sampling and analytical methods - bubbler, liquid scintillation, and field screening - are discussed in this paper. The bubbler and liquid scintillation methods have high accuracy and precision, and small analytical method detection limits of 0.2 and 10 pCi/l (picocuries per liter), respectively. The field screening method generally is used as a qualitative reconnaissance tool.

  15. Measurement of radon and thoron progenies in Coimbatore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Mahendraprasad, M.; Meenakshisundaram, V.; Santhanam, R.; Raghunath, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radon and thoron daughter concentrations have been measured in different dwellings of Coimbatore city by grab sampling method and two count. It has been found that the radon daughter concentration varies from 0.5 to 10.5 mWL with mean value of 2.9 mWL and that of thoron progeny is from 0.7 to 16.3 mWL with mean value of 3.8 mWL. The average annual effective dose equivalent due to radon daughters is found to be 1.3 mSv and that of thoron progeny is 3.8 mSv. (author)

  16. Study of temporal variation of radon concentrations in public drinking water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for radon-222 in public drinking water supplies of 300 pCi/L. Proposed monitoring requirements include collecting quarterly grab samples for the first year, then annual samples for the remainder of the compliance cycle provided first year quarterly samples average below the MCL. The focus of this research was to study the temporal variation of groundwater radon concentrations to investigate how reliably one can predict an annual average radon concentration based on the results of grab samples. Using a open-quotes slow-flowclose quotes collection method and liquid scintillation analysis, biweekly water samples were taken from ten public water supply wells in North Carolina (6 month - 11 month sampling periods). Based on study results, temporal variations exist in groundwater radon concentrations. Statistical analysis performed on the data indicates that grab samples taken from each of the ten wells during the study period would exhibit groundwater radon concentrations within 30% of their average radon concentration

  17. Radium and radon exhalation rate in soil samples of Hassan district of South Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesha, B.G.; Narayana, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The radon exhalation rate was measured in 32 soil samples collected from Hassan district of South Karnataka. Radon exhalation rate of soil samples was measured using can technique. The results show variation of radon exhalation rate with radium content of the soil samples. A strong correlation was observed between effective radium content and radon exhalation rate. In the present work, an attempt was made to assess the levels of radon in the environment of Hassan. Radon activities were found to vary from 2.25±0.55 to 270.85±19.16 Bq m"-"3 and effective radium contents vary from 12.06±2.98 to 1449.56±102.58 mBq kg"-"1. Surface exhalation rates of radon vary from 1.55±0.47 to 186.43±18.57 mBq m"-"2 h"-"1, and mass exhalation rates of radon vary from 0.312±0.07 to 37.46±2.65 mBq kg"-"1 h"-"1. (authors)

  18. Radon exhalation rates from slate stone samples in Aravali Range in Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, S.B.; Kant, K.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    The slate stone tiles are very popular in covering the walls of the rooms. Radon is released into ambient air from slate stones due to ubiquitous uranium and radium in them, thus increasing the airborne radon concentration. The radioactivity in slates stones is related to radioactivity in the rocks from which the slate stone tiles are formed. In the present investigation, the radon emanated from slate stone samples collected from different slate mines in Aravali range of hills in the Haryana state of Northern India has been estimated. For the measurement of radon concentration emanated from these samples, alpha-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors have been used. The alpha particles emitted from the radon form tracks in these detectors. After chemical etching the track density of registered tracks is used to calculate radon concentration and exhalation rates of radon using required formulae. The measurements indicate normal to some higher levels of radon concentration emanated from the slat stone samples collected from Aravali range of hills in north India. The results will be discussed in full paper. (author)

  19. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  20. Radon concentration and exhalation rates in building material samples from crushing zone in Shivalik Foot Hills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pundir, Anil; Kamboj, Sunil; Bansal, Vakul; Chauhan, R.P.; Rana, Rajinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) is an inert radioactive gas in the decay chain of uranium ( 238 U). It continuously emanates from soil to the atmosphere. Radon and its progeny are the major natural radioactive sources for the ambient radioactivity on Earth. A number of studies on radon were performed in recent decades focusing on its transport and movement in the atmosphere under different meteorological conditions. Building materials are the main source of radon inside buildings. Some construction materials are naturally more radioactive and removal of such material from the earth's crust and their subsequent use in construction of buildings further enhances the radioactivity level. The knowledge of radioactivity level in the building materials makes us aware about the management, guidelines and standards in construction of buildings. The main objective of the present investigations is to measure radon Concentration and exhalation rates in the samples collected from the Crushing zone of Shivalik foot hills. Different types of materials are being used in Northern part of India for construction of dwellings. For the measurement of radon concentration and its exhalation rates in building materials, LR-115 detectors were exposed in closed plastic canisters for three months. At the end of the exposure time, the detectors were subjected to a chemical etching process in 2.5N NaOH solution. The tracks produced by the alpha particles were observed and counted under an optical Olympus microscope at 600X. The measured track density was converted into radon concentration using a calibration factor. The surface and mass exhalation rates of radon have also been calculated using present data. The results indicate that the radon concentration varies appreciably from sample to sample and they were found to satisfy the safety criteria. There are samples in which radon concentration is higher and may enhance the indoor radiation levels when used as building construction materials. (author)

  1. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  2. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Sudhir; Asha Rani; Mehra, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The water samples are taken from hand pumps and tube wells having depths ranging from 50 to 600 feet. All the soil gas measurements have been carried out at 100 cm depth. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l -1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l -1 . Only in one water sample radon concentration is found to be higher than the safe limit of 11 Bq l -1 recommended US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 1991). The measured value of radon concentration in all ground water samples is within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l -1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008). The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60 μSV y -1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y -1 . The total annual effective dose from all locations of our studied area is found to be well within the safe limit 0.1 mSv y -1 recommended by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004) and European Council (ED, 1998). Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10050 Bq m -3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m -3 , The radon concentration observed from the soil samples from our study area lies within the range reported by other investigators. Moreover a positive correlation of radon concentration in water with soil samples has been observed. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard. (author)

  3. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F. [Cento de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Cruz G, S. De la [Facultad de Enfermeria y Nutriologia, Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Av. Politecnico Nacional 2714, Chihuahua, (Mexico); Lopez M, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  4. Calibration of diffusion barrier charcoal detectors and application to radon sampling in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero C, M.E.; Colmenero S, L.; Villalba, L.; Saenz P, J.; Cano J, A.; Moreno B, A.; Renteria V, M.; Herrera P, E.F.; Cruz G, S. De la; Lopez M, A.

    2003-01-01

    Some calibration conditions of diffusion barrier charcoal canister (DBCC) detectors for measuring radon concentration in air were studied. A series of functional expressions and graphs were developed to describe relationship between radon concentration in air and the activity adsorbed in DBCC, when placed in small chambers. A semi-empirical expression for the DBCC calibration was obtained, based on the detector integration time and the adsorption coefficient of radon on activated charcoal. Both, the integration time for 10 % of DBCC of the same batch, and the adsorption coefficient of radon for the activated charcoal used in these detectors, were experimentally determined. Using these values as the calibration parameters, a semi-empirical calibration function was used for the interpretation of the radon activities in the detectors used for sampling more than 200 dwellings in the major cities of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. (Author)

  5. Study of Behavior and detection of radon in environmental samples by scintillation method. Application for radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZAFIMANJATO, J.L.R.

    2007-01-01

    Radon is considered as the major source of radiological exposure of natural radiations to the population. On an international scale, it represents about the half of exposures of natural radiation sources (UNSCEAR, 1993) Radon gets into human body with inhaled air and sometimes with drinking water. Then, the objective of this work is to know the radon concentrations in water and in indoor atmosphere, and the risk in order to set up a method of monitoring and to identify high radon level areas. A specific method of detection using liquid scintillation with special emphasis on α/β discrimination, the use of solvent extractive and enrichment of radionuclides have been developed for the determination of both 222 Rn and 226 Ra in water. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. In a pilot project for a monitoring of drinking water in Madagascar, it was shown that the proposed method was suitable for a large scale monitoring and routine analysis. Considerable concentrations of radon were found in water and air samples from Vinaninkarena. Radon concentrations obtained by in situ and in laboratory measurements have been compared to the results of an international intercomparison campaigns organised by the German Society for Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry in 2011. A theoretical study of the behavior of radon is porous material containing radium is detailed in order to describe its exhalation phenomena. An assessment model of the dose due to ingestion and liberation of radon from water is presented and compared with other models especially to the Crawford Brown's model. [fr

  6. Tank 241-S-109 Grab Samples 9S-99-1 and 9S-99-2 and 9S-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 2414-109 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on July 28, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on July 28, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Sasaki, 1999)

  7. Tank 241S109 Grab Samples 9S-99-1 and 9S-99-2 and 9S-99-3 Analytical Results for the Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEEN, F.H.

    1999-11-23

    This document is the final report for tank 2414-109 grab samples. Three grab samples were collected from riser 13 on July 28, 1999 and received by the 222-S laboratory on July 28, 1999. Analyses were performed in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan for Fiscal Year 1999 (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1999) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Fowler 1995, Mulkey and Miller 1998). The analytical results are presented in the data summary report (Table 1). None of the subsamples submitted for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), total organic carbon (TOC) and plutonium 239 (Pu239) analyses exceeded the notification limits as stated in TSAP (Sasaki, 1999).

  8. Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples at South Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poojitha, C.G.; Pranesha, T.S.; Ganesh, K.E.; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.

    2017-01-01

    Radon mass exhalation rate in soil samples collected from different locations of South Bengaluru city were measured using scintillation based Smart radon thoron monitor (RnDuo). It has been observed that the mass exhalation rate estimated due to presence of radon concentration in soil samples ranges from 39.18 - 265.58 mBq/kg/h with an average value of 115.64 mBq/kg/h. Finally we compare our results with similar investigation from different parts of India. (author)

  9. Orphan radon daughters at Denver Radium site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holub, R.F.; Droullard, R.F.; Davis, T.H.

    1992-01-01

    During 18 mo of sampling airborne radioactively at a National Priority List (open-quotes Superfundclose quotes) site in metroPOlitan Denver, Bureau of mines personnel discovered radon daughters that are not supported by the parent radon gas. We refer to them as open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters because the parent, radon, is not present in sufficient concentration to support the measured daughter products. Measurements of the open-quotes orphanclose quotes daughters were made continuously, using the Bureau-developed radon and working-level (radon-daughter) monitors. The data showed high equilibrium ratios, ranging from 0.7 to 3.5, for long periods of time. Repeated, high-volume, 15-min grab samples were made, using the modified Tsivoglou method, to measure radon daughters, to which thoron daughters contributed 26 ± 12%. On average 28 ± 6% of the particulate activity was contributed by thoron daughters. Most samples were mixtures in which the 218 Po concentration was lower than that of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, in agreement with the high-equilibrium factors obtained from the continuous sampling data. In view of the short half-life of radon progeny, we conclude that the source of the orphan daughters is not far from the Superfund sites. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood at this time, but we will discuss its possible significance in evaluating population doses

  10. Determination of radon and radium concentrations in drinking water samples around the city of Kutahya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, L.; Cetinkaya, H.; Murat Sac, M.; Ichedef, M.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radium and radon has been determined in drinking water samples collected from various locations of Kutahya city, Turkey. The water samples are taken from public water sources and tap water, with the collector chamber method used to measure the radon and radium concentration. The radon concentration ranges between 0.1 and 48.6±1.7 Bq l -1 , while the radium concentration varies from a minimum detectable activity of -1 in Kutahya city. In addition to the radon and radium levels, parameters such as pH, conductivity and temperature of the water, humidity, pressure, elevation and the coordinates of the sampling points have also been measured and recorded. The annual effective dose from radon and radium due to typical water usage has been calculated. The resulting contribution to the annual effective dose due to radon ingestion varies between 0.3 and 124.2 μSv y -1 ; the contribution to the annual effective dose due to radium ingestion varies between 0 and 143.3 μSv y -1 ; the dose contribution to the stomach due to radon ingestion varies between 0.03 and 14.9 μSv y -1 . The dose contribution due to radon inhalation ranges between 0.3 and 122.5 μSv y -1 , assuming a typical transfer of radon in water to the air. For the overwhelming majority of the Kutahya population, it is determined that the average radiation exposure from drinking water is less than 73.6μmSv y -1 . (authors)

  11. The feasible research with measuring radon for taking the soils sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Bing, Ge Liangquan; Liu Hefan; Li Yeqiang; Zhang Jinzhao; Song Xiao'an

    2010-01-01

    It explains the mechanism of the separation of soil's radon. Through the designed experiment, it confirms the feasibility of measuring radon for taking the soil's sample. It determines the content of the radon and its sub field with indoor and outside through ways of the activated charcoal adsorption, the initiative suction and the diameter mark etching, also the 226 Ra. The paper indicates: it is feasible with measuring radon for taking the soil's sample, and the stability of data is that indoor data are better than outside's. The temperature, the humidity, the rainfall amount, the intensity and so on are the serious influence of the data. If you want to take a soil's sample, you must avoid the rain as far as possible, and avoid the fault zone, the belt of folded strata and complex geologic structure region, and so on. (authors)

  12. Mortality and indoor radon daughter concentrations in 13 Canadian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Wigle, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine if lung cancer and general mortality rates in 13 Canadian cities were significantly correlated with average indoor radon daughter concentrations. The radon daughter measurements were obtained from a study of 10,000 homes chosen in a statistically valid grab sample basis. Cancer deaths by year of death, sex, age, and cause were retrieved for each of the cities for the period 1957-1976. Age specific and age standardized mortality rates were calculated. The results showed no evidence of any substantial association between general or lung cancer mortality rates and indoor radon daughter concentrations. The limitations of this study and the feasibility of a common international program of epidemiology of radon daughter exposure are discussed. A proposal is made for the use of case control studies of lung cancer to assess the relative importance of smoking, occupational and domestic exposure to radon daughters

  13. Radon exhalation and its dependence on moisture content from samples of soil and building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, Munazza; Matiullah

    2008-01-01

    Indoor radon has long been recognized as a potential health hazard for mankind. Building materials are considered as one of the major sources of radon in the indoor environment. To study radon exhalation rate and its dependence on moisture content, samples of soil and some common types of building materials (sand, cement, bricks and marble) were collected from Gujranwala, Gujrat, Hafizabad, Sialkot, Mandibahauddin and Narowal districts of the Punjab province (Pakistan). After processing, samples of 200 g each were placed in plastic vessels. CR-39 based NRPB detector were placed at the top of these vessels and were then hermetically sealed. After exposing to radon for 30 days within the closed vessels, the CR-39 detectors were processed. Radon exhalation rate was found to vary from 122±19 to 681±10mBqm -2 h -1 with an average of 376±147mBqm -2 h -1 in the soil samples whereas an average of 212±34, 195±25, 231±30 and 292±35mBqm -2 h -1 was observed in bricks, sand, cement and marble samples, respectively. Dependence of exhalation on moisture content has also been studied. Radon exhalation rate was found to increase with an increase in moisture, reached its maximum value and then decreased with further increase in the water content

  14. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Crespo, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  15. The use of mechanical ventilation with heat recovery for controlling radon and radon-daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.; Roseme, G.D.

    1980-01-01

    An energy research house in Maryland was found to have radon concentrations far in excess of recommended guidelines. A mechanical ventilation system with heat recovery was installed in this house to test its effectiveness as an energy-efficient control technique for indoor radon. Radon concentration was monitored continuously for two weeks under varying ventilation conditions (0.07 to 0.8 air changes per hour (ach)) and radon daughter concentrations were measured by grab-sample techniques about nine times daily during this period. At ventilation rates of 0.6 ach and higher radon and radon daughter levels dropped below guidelines for indoor concentrations. Comparison with other studies indicates that indoor radon buildup may be a problem in a considerable portion of houses characterized by their low infiltration rates. The use of mechanical ventilation systems with air-to-air heat exchangers may offer a practical, cost-effective, and energy-efficient means of alleviating not only the radon problem specifically but also the general deterioration of indoor air quality in houses designed or retrofitted to achieve low infiltration

  16. Studies on radon concentration in underground water samples in and around Kabini river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashaswini, T.; Ningappa, C.; Niranjan, R.S.; Sannappa, J.

    2017-01-01

    Radon is a radioactive inert gas, a decay product of radium, causes environmental health problems like lung cancer. Radium present in the earth crest continuously releases radon into underground water. From the point view of health, the study of radon concentration level in underground water base line data is important. In the present study, radon concentration in underground water have been measured in 40 underground water samples collected in and around Kabini River of Karnataka State by using Emanometry technique. The radon concentration in the study area varies from 21.2 to 168.2Bq.l -1 with a geometrical mean value of 73.3 Bq.l -1 . The physicochemical parameters of water such as chloride, Fluoride, nitrite, sulphate, TDS are measured in the same samples in order to know about the impact of these parameters on radon concentration and their health risks to the general public. The experimental techniques and results obtained are discussed in the presentation. (author)

  17. Uranium, radium and radon exhalation study in some soil samples using track etch technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmanjit, Singh; Joga, Singh; Surinder, Singh; Bajwa, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Uranium, radium concentration and radon exhalation rates have been determined in the soil samples collected from some areas of Punjab using the L.R.-115 nuclear track detectors. Radium concentration in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.80 to 5.34 Bq Kg-1. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to be varying from 0.99 to 6.60 mBq Kg -1 h -1 (32.82 to 218.49 mBqm -2 h -1 ). A good correlation has been observed between radon exhalation rate and radium concentration observed in the soil samples. The uranium concentration in all these samples is being carried out and the other correlations will also be established. (authors)

  18. Final report for tank 241-AN-102, grab samples 2AN-95-1 through 2AN-95-6 and 102-AN-1 through 102-AN-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ten grab samples (2AN-95-1, 2, 3, 4A, 5A; 102-AN-1, 2, 3(A), 3(B), and 4) and one field blank (2AN-95-6) were taken from tank 241-AN-102. In support of the safety screening program, total organic carbon and cyanide were performed as secondary analyses because the differential scanning calorimetry results exceeded the notification limit. These were compared to safety screening limits at a confidence level of 95%. Waste compatibility analyses were performed on the 3 supernate samples and the field blank from the latest sampling event. Results presented in the 45 day and in this report show that the waste in Tank 241-AN-1D2 has energetics greater than 480 J/g (dry) and total organic carbon > 3 wt%; however, with a moisture content > 17 wt%, the tank may be considered ''conditionally'' safe in accordance with the Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Complexant Safety Issue

  19. Determination of ring correction factors for leaded gloves used in grab sampling activities at Hanford tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RATHBONE, B.A.

    1999-06-24

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of lead lined gloves in reducing extremity dose from two sources specific to tank waste sampling activities: (1) sludge inside glass sample jars and (2) sludge as thin layer contamination on the exterior surface of sample jars. The response of past and present Hanford Extremity Dosimeters (ring) designs under these conditions is also evaluated.

  20. Determination of ring correction factors for leaded gloves used in grab sampling activities at Hanford tank farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RATHBONE, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of lead lined gloves in reducing extremity dose from two sources specific to tank waste sampling activities: (1) sludge inside glass sample jars and (2) sludge as thin layer contamination on the exterior surface of sample jars. The response of past and present Hanford Extremity Dosimeters (ring) designs under these conditions is also evaluated

  1. Radon induced radiological impact of coal, fly ash and cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, K.; Chauhan, R.P.; Sharma, G.S.; Chakravarti, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Coal and its by-product fly ash are technologically important materials being used for power generation and in the manufacture of bricks, sheets, cement, land-filling, etc., respectively. Increased interest in measuring radon concentration in coal, fly ash and cement is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution. As the presence of radon in the environment (indoor and outdoor), soil, ground water, oil and gas deposits contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations, tracking its concentration is thus of paramount importance for radiological protection. Samples of coal and fly ash were collected from different thermal power stations in northern India and cement samples from National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabgarh (Haryana), India and were analysed for radon concentration. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Based upon the available data, the annual effective dose and the lifetime fatality risk factors have been calculated. The radon concentration from coal samples varied from 433 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 2086 ± 28 Bqm -3 . The radon concentration from fly ash samples varied from 748 ± 28 Bqm -3 to 1417 ± 111 Bqm -3 and from 158 Bqm -3 to 1810 Bqm -3 in cement samples, with an average of 624 ± 169 Bqm -3 . (author)

  2. Stratified random sampling plans designed to assist in the determination of radon and radon daughter concentrations in underground uranium mine atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sampling strategies for the monitoring of deleterious agents present in uranium mine air in underground and surface mining areas are described. These methods are designed to prevent overexposure of the lining of the respiratory system of uranium miners to ionizing radiation from radon and radon daughters, and whole body overexposure to external gamma radiation. A detailed description is provided of stratified random sampling monitoring methodology for obtaining baseline data to be used as a reference for subsequent compliance assessment

  3. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Robert

    2009-01-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level

  4. GRAbB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brankovics, Balázs; Zhang, Hao; Diepeningen, van Anne D.; Lee, van der Theo A.J.; Waalwijk, Cees; Hoog, de G.S.

    2016-01-01

    GRAbB (Genomic Region Assembly by Baiting) is a new program that is dedicated to assemble specific genomic regions from NGS data. This approach is especially useful when dealing with multi copy regions, such as mitochondrial genome and the rDNA repeat region, parts of the genome that are often

  5. Radon daughter exposure estimation and its relation to the exposure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1981-10-01

    Under current Atomic Energy Control Regulations, the annual limit for individual exposure to radon daughters is 4 WLM. The Regulations do not specify how the exposure is to be determined nor to what accuracy the measurements should be made. This paper discusses the historical and conventional grab-sampling and time-weighting methods for assigning exposures to radon daughters in uranium mines in Canada. As a further step in the evolution of exposure assignments, the system of personal radon daughter dosimetry is introduced as the more accurate means of assigning individual exposures and of adhering to the intent of the exposure limit

  6. Intercomparison and intercalibration of passive/active radon and active radon progeny instruments and methods in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng W.

    1993-06-01

    An intercomparison and intercalibration exercise for radon and radon progeny measurements made with active and passive instruments was held at EML from October 22--30,1992. Twenty-five participants submitted 96 passive integrating devices, eight active devices for radon, and seven integrating devices for potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC). In addition, 40 grab samples for radon progeny analysis were taken by five groups that participated in person during the intercomparison. The results reported to EML indicate that the majority of the participants (70%) obtained mean results within 10% of the EML reference value. Although the instruments used in this exercise are based on different principles of collection and detection, they all appear reliable. However, in some instances there seemed to be some minor problems with quality control and calibration bias. Also, the large counting errors for the PAEC experienced by some of the participants can be minimized by using higher sampling air flow rates without sacrificing instrument portability

  7. Measurement of radon activity, exhalation rate and radiation dose in fly ash and coal samples from NTPC, Badarpur, Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Prasad, R.; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study radon activities and exhalation rates from fly ash and coal samples from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) situated at Badarpur, Delhi, India, have been measured. 'Sealed Can Technique' using LR-115 type II track detectors was employed. In fly ash samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 400.0 ± 34.7 to 483.9 ± 38.1Bqm -3 with an average value of 447.1 ± 36.6 Bqm -3 and in coal samples, radon activity has been found to vary from 504.0 ± 39.0 to 932.1 ± 52.9 Bqm -3 with an average value of 687.2 ± 45.2 Bqm -3 . Radon exhalation rate from coal is found to be higher than radon exhalation rate from its ash products, whereas the opposite is expected. Indoor inhalation exposure (radon) effective dose has also been estimated. (author)

  8. Green grabbing debate and Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Razafy, Fara Lala; Wurtzebach, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    and capitalise natural assets. First, to provide some context on the green grabbing debate, we discuss the trade-offs between conservation and development objectives. In addition, we refer briefly to the broader land grabbing debate of which green grabbing is a sub-component. Second, we question the theoretical...

  9. Radon Concentration And Dose Assessment In Well Water Samples From Karbala Governorate Of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Alawy, I. T.; Hasan, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    There are numerous studies around the world about radon concentrations and their risks to the health of human beings. One of the most important social characteristics is the use of water wells for irrigation, which is a major source of water pollution with radon gas. In the present study, six well water samples have been collected from different locations in Karbala governorate to investigate radon concentration level using CR-39 technique. The maximum value 4.112±2.0Bq/L was in Al-Hurr (Al-Qarih Al-Easariah) region, and the lowest concentration of radon was in Hay Ramadan region which is 2.156±1.4Bq/L, with an average value 2.84±1.65Bq/L. The highest result of annual effective dose (AED) was in Al-Hurr (Al-Qarih Al-Easariah) region which is equal to 15.00±3.9μSv/y, while the minimum was recorded in Hay Ramadan 7.86±2.8μSv/y, with an average value 10.35±3.1μSv/y. The current results have shown that the radon concentrations in well water samples are lower than the recommended limit 11.1Bq/L and the annual effective dose in these samples are lower than the permissible international limit 1mSv/y.

  10. Estimation of radon concentration in soil and groundwater samples of Northern Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Mittal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, analysis of radon concentration in 20 water and soil samples collected from different locations of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts of Rajasthan, India has been carried out by using RAD7 an electronic Radon detector. The measured radon concentration in water samples lies in the range from 0.50 to 22 Bq l−1 with the mean value of 4.42 Bq l−1, which lies within the safe limit from 4 to 40 Bq l−1 recommended by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR, 2008. The total annual effective dose estimated due to radon concentration in water ranges from 1.37 to 60.06 μSV y−1 with the mean value of 12.08 μSV y−1, which is lower than the safe limit 0.1 mSv y−1 as set by World Health Organization (WHO, 2004 and European Council (EU, 1998. Radon measurement in soil samples varies from 941 to 10,050 Bq m−3 with the mean value of 4561 Bq m−3, which lies within the range reported by other investigators. It was observed that the soil and water of Bikaner and Jhunjhunu districts are suitable for drinking and construction purpose without posing any health hazard.

  11. Review of selected state-of-the-art applications of diagnostic measurements for radon-mitigation planning. Report for April 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.M.; Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.; Sanchez, D.C.; Turk, B.H.

    1987-09-01

    Since late-1984, EPA's AEERL has supported a program to develop and demonstrate radon-mitigation techniques for single-family detached dwellings. As part of the program, projects have been started, directed at developing and demonstrating the use of diagnostic measurements in all phases of the radon-mitigation process. Diagnostic measurements are used to assess: (1) the radon sources strengths, variability, and locations; and, (2) radon transport to the house and its entry and distribution in the house as influenced by environmental, house characteristics, and occupancy factors. The diagnostic measurements reported include: (1) soil-gas grab sampling; (2) communication (air flow or pressure-field extension) tests; (3) whole house infiltration; (4) differential pressure, (5) gamma radiation; and, (6) radon flux. The paper concludes that the above selected diagnostic measurements were especially useful in characterizing houses with indoor radon problems attributable to soil-gas-borne radon that may be amenable to mitigation through the use of subslab ventilation

  12. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples, 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ''A'' and ''B'' portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information

  13. Tank 241-TX-302C grab samples 302C-TX-97-1A through 302C-TX-97-3B analytical results for the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, R.A.

    1998-03-12

    This document is the final report for tank 241-TX-302C grab samples. Six grabs samples (302C-TX-97-1A, 302C-TX-97-1B, 302C-TX-97-2A, 302C-TX-97-2B, 302C-TX-97-3A, and 302C-TX-97-3B) were collected from the catch tank level gauge riser on December 19, 1997. The ``A`` and ``B`` portions from each sample location were composited and analyses were performed on the composites in accordance with the Compatibility Grab Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Sasaki, 1997) and the Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program (DQO) (Rev. 1: Fowler, 1995; Rev. 2: Mulkey and Miller, 1997). The analytical results are presented in Table 1. No notification limits were exceeded. Appearance and Sample Handling Attachment 1 is provided as a cross-reference for relating the tank farm customer identification numbers with the 222-S Laboratory sample numbers and the portion of sample analyzed. Table 2 provides the appearance information.

  14. A simple bubbling system for measuring radon (222Rn) gas concentrations in water samples based on the high solubility of radon in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, D; Snopek, B; Sayed, A M; Domanski, T

    2004-01-01

    Based on the different levels of solubility of radon gas in organic solvents and water, a bubbling system has been developed to transfer radon gas, dissolving naturally in water samples, to an organic solvent, i.e. olive oil, which is known to be a good solvent of radon gas. The system features the application of a fixed volume of bubbling air by introducing a fixed volume of water into a flask mounted above the system, to displace an identical volume of air from an air cylinder. Thus a gravitational flow of water is provided without the need for pumping. Then, the flushing air (radon-enriched air) is directed through a vial containing olive oil, to achieve deposition of the radon gas by another bubbling process. Following this, the vial (containing olive oil) is measured by direct use of gamma ray spectrometry, without the need of any chemical or physical processing of the samples. Using a standard solution of 226Ra/222Rn, a lowest measurable concentration (LMC) of radon in water samples of 9.4 Bq L(-1) has been achieved (below the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq L(-1)).

  15. Validation of the abbreviated Radon Progeny Integrating Sampling Unit (RPISU) method for Mesa County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center at the DOE Grand Junction, Colorado, Projects Office to standardize, calibrate, and compare measurements made in support of DOE remedial action programs. Indoor radon-daughter concentration measurements are made to determine whether a structure is in need of remedial action. The Technical Measurements Center conducted this study to validate an abbreviated Radon Progeny Integrated Sampling Unit (RPISU) method of making indoor radon-daughter measurements to determine whether a structure has a radon-daughter concentration (RDC) below the levels specified in various program standards. The Technical Measurements Center established a criterion against which RDC measurements made using the RPISU sampling method are evaluated to determine if sampling can be terminated or whether further measurements are required. This abbreviated RPISU criterion was tested against 317 actual sets of RPISU data from measurements made over an eight-year period in Mesa County, Colorado. The data from each location were tested against a standard that was assumed to be the same as the actual annual average RDC from that location. At only two locations was the criterion found to fail. Using the abbreviated RPISU method, only 0.6% of locations sampled can be expected to be falsely indicated as having annual average RDC levels below a given standard

  16. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng-Wu; Knutson, E.O.

    1995-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- and beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within ±10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement

  17. Calibration of track detectors and measurement of radon exhalation rate from solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Jojo, P.J.; Prasad, Rajendra; Khan, A.J.; Ramachandran, T.V.

    1997-01-01

    CR-39 and LR-115 type II track detectors to be used for radon exhalation measurements have been calibrated. The configurations fitted with detectors in Can technique in the open cup mode are cylindrical plastic cup (PC) and conical plastic cup (CPC). The experiment was performed in radon exposure chamber having monodisperse aerosols of 0.2 μm size, to find the relationship between track density and the radon concentration. The calibration factors for PC and CPC type dosimeters with LR-115 type II detector were found to be 0.056 and 0.083 tracks cm -2 d -1 (Bqm -3 ) -1 respectively, while with CR-39 detector the values were 0.149 and 0.150 tracks cm -2 d -1 (Bq m -3 ) -1 . Employing the Can technique, measurements of exhalation rates from solid samples used as construction materials, are undertaken. Radon exhalation rate is found to be minimum in cement samples while in fly ash it is not enhanced as compared to coal samples. (author)

  18. Measurement of radon exhalation rate in various building materials and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Pankaj; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Indoor radon is considered as one of the potential dangerous radioactive elements. Common building materials and soil are the major source of this radon gas in the indoor environment. In the present study, the measurement of radon exhalation rate in the soil and building material samples of Una and Hamirpur districts of Himachal Pradesh has been done with solid state alpha track detectors, LR-115 type-II plastic track detectors. The radon exhalation rate for the soil samples varies from 39.1 to 91.2 mBq kg-1 h-1 with a mean value 59.7 mBq kg-1 h-1. Also the radium concentration of the studied area is found and it varies from 30.6 to 51.9 Bq kg-1 with a mean value 41.6 Bq kg-1. The exhalation rate for the building material samples varies from 40.72 (sandstone) to 81.40 mBq kg-1 h-1 (granite) with a mean value of 59.94 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  19. Study of radon exhalation and emanation rates from fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Jain, Ravinder; Kant, Krishan; Gupta, Nitin; Garg, Maneesha; Yadav, Mani Kant

    2013-01-01

    Fly ash, a by-product of burnt coal is technologically important material being used for manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. The increased interest in measuring radon exhalation and emanation rates in fly ash samples is due to its health hazards and environmental pollution and the same have been measured to assess the radiological impact of radon emanated from fly ash disposal sites. Samples of fly ash from different thermal power stations in northern India and National Council for Cement and Building Materials (NCB) were collected and analysed for the measurements. For the measurement, alpha sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors were used. Gamma spectrometry and can technique was used for the measurements. The experimental data show that fly ash samples emanate radon in significant amount and this consequently, may result in increased radon levels in dwellings built by using fly ash bricks and excessive radiation exposure to workers residing in the surroundings of fly ash dumping sites. (author)

  20. Grab 'n' go astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    English, Neil

    2014-01-01

      Like everyone else, most amateur astronomers live busy lives. After a long day, the last thing you want as an observer is to have to lug out a large telescope and spend an hour getting it ready before it can be used. Maybe you are going somewhere sure to have dark skies, but you don’t necessarily want astronomy to dominate the trip. Or you are not quite committed to owning a large telescope, but curious enough to see what a smaller, portable setup can accomplish. These are times when a small “grab ’n’ go” telescope, or even a pair of binoculars, is the ideal in­strument. And this book can guide you in choosing and best utilizing that equipment.   What makes a telescope fall into the “grab ’n’ go” category? That’s easy – speed of setting up, ease of use, and above all, portability. This ambitious text is dedicated to those who love to or – because of their limited time – must observe the sky at a moment’s notice. Whether observing from the comfort of a backyard or while on busi...

  1. A model to predict radon exhalation from walls to indoor air based on the exhalation from building material samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.; Gaware, J.J.; Kanse, S.D.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that building materials are an important source of indoor radon, second only to soil, surface radon exhalation fluxes have been extensively measured from the samples of these materials. Based on this flux data, several researchers have attempted to predict the inhalation dose attributable to radon emitted from walls and ceilings made up of these materials. However, an important aspect not considered in this methodology is the enhancement of the radon flux from the wall or the ceiling constructed using the same building material. This enhancement occurs mainly because of the change in the radon diffusion process from the former to the latter configuration. To predict the true radon flux from the wall based on the flux data of building material samples, we now propose a semi-empirical model involving radon diffusion length and the physical dimensions of the samples as well as wall thickness as other input parameters. This model has been established by statistically fitting the ratio of the solution to radon diffusion equations for the cases of three-dimensional cuboidal shaped building materials (such as brick, concrete block) and one dimensional wall system to a simple mathematical function. The model predictions have been validated against the measurements made at a new construction site. This model provides an alternative tool (substitute to conventional 1-D model) to estimate radon flux from a wall without relying on 226 Ra content, radon emanation factor and bulk density of the samples. Moreover, it may be very useful in the context of developing building codes for radon regulation in new buildings. - Research highlights: → A model is proposed to predict radon flux from wall using flux of building material. → It is established based on the diffusion mechanism in building material and wall. → Study showed a large difference in radon flux from building material and wall. → Model has been validated against the measurements made at

  2. Measurement of Radon Exhalation Rate in Sand Samples from Gopalpur and Rushikulya Beach Orissa, Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahur, Ajay Kumar; Sharma, Anil; Sonkawade, R. G.; Sengupta, D.; Sharma, A. C.; Prasad, Rajendra

    Natural radioactivity is wide spread in the earth's environment and exists in various geological formations like soils, rocks, water and sand etc. The measurement of activities of naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K is important for the estimation of radiation risk and has been the subject of interest of research scientists all over the world. Building construction materials and soil beneath the house are the main sources of radon inside the dwellings. Radon exhalation rate from building materials like, cement, sand and concrete etc. is a major source of radiation to the habitants. In the present studies radon exhalation rates in sand samples collected from Gopalpur and Rushikulya beach placer deposit in Orissa are measured by using "Sealed Can technique" with LR-115 type II nuclear track detectors. In Samples from Rushikulya beach show radon activities varying from 389 ± 24 to 997 ± 38 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ±28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 140 ± 9 to 359 ± 14 mBq m-2 h-1with an average value of 197 ±10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 14 ± 0.5 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1. Samples from Gopalpur radon activities are found to vary from 371 ± 23 to 800 ± 34 Bq m-3 with an average value of 549 ± 28 Bq m-3. Surface exhalation rates in these samples are found to vary from 133 ± 8 to 288 ± 12 mBq m-2h-1 with an average value of 197 ± 10 mBq m-2 h-1, whereas, mass exhalation rates vary from 5 ± 0.3 to 11 ± 1 mBq kg-1 h-1 with an average value of 8 ± 0.4 mBq kg-1 h-1.

  3. Radon concentrations in contaminated and uncontaminated premises in two Ontario towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, J.H.; Baker, E.G.; Chatterjee, R.M.; Kusiak, R.; Tai-Pow, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-222 concentrations in air were measured by grab sampling in a large number of private homes and other buildings in the town of Port Hope, Ontario. The purpose of the measurements is to identify places where a health hazard might exist due to improper disposal of radium-contaminated materials. Contaminated fill, rubble, lumber, and other building materials have been found in a number of premises in the town. Radon concentrations up to 750 pCi/l have been found in some homes. The thrust of the program is to identify quickly places where concentrations might be high enough to justify some prompt interim remedial action such as installation of special ventilation systems, pending final remedial work by removal of the contamination. The methods and instrumentation immediately available are those formerly used for radon-in-breath analysis in radium workers. Grab sampling for radon and gamma surveying in every building in town are used together in a screening program. Experience showed that both radon sampling and gamma surveying are required to identify contaminated locations

  4. Wylfa grabs the headlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, J.

    1995-01-01

    During normal refuelling operations on load at the Wylfa Magnox reactor in the United Kingdom on 31st July 1993, it was observed by an operator that part of the refuelling machine mechanism, the parasol grab weight, had become detached and had fallen into the reactor. The reactor conditions remained stable and no immediate operating changes were deemed necessary while immediate action was taken to locate the weight and evaluate the situation. However, after nearly nine hours fruitless search a controlled shut down of the reactor was undertaken in order to carry out inspection and recovery operations. The weight was finally recovered using specially constructed robotic equipment on 5th September 1993 and the reactor returned to power on 12th October. A welding failure was found to account for the detachment of the weight. During the depressurisation of the reactor pressure vessel to effect the recovery, the station's authorised weekly discharge of S35 was exceeded. This report examines the case brought by the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate against Nuclear Electric, the utility responsible for the reactor, and claims that the use of emotive language and misrepresentation of facts by the prosecuting counsel exaggerated the safety implications of the incident. Nuclear Electric, however, pleaded guilty to the basic case against the utility over an incident rated at level 2 on the International Nuclear Event Scale and was fined 1 250,000 with costs. (UK)

  5. Indoor radon concentrations in kindergartens from different regions of Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.; Krizman, M.; Sutej, T.

    1992-01-01

    In the winter period of 1990-1991 instantaneous radon concentrations in air were measured in around 450 kindergartens from different regions from Yugoslavia. Alpha scintillation counting was used as a screening method, and the measurements were carried out in rooms where the children spent the majority of their time. All of the air grab samples were taken under the same conditions which excluded ventilation of the interior 12 h prior to sampling. In addition to indoor radon concentrations, gamma dose rate was measured using portable equipment. The indoor radon concentrations were generally low, in the range from 10 to 180 Bq.m -3 of air, with an overall average of about 100 Bq.m -3 . There were a few exceptions where indoor radon levels exceeded 150 Bq.m -3 ; mainly in old buildings containing higher contents of natural radionuclides in the building materials, and in the cellars or basements of the buildings. In all rooms with a level exceeding 150 Bq of 222 Rn per m 3 , solid-state nuclear track detectors were applied for long-term measurements. In order to investigate the equilibrium between radon and its short-lived daughters, mainly with respect to their contribution to the effective dose, alpha spectrometry is also being introduced in selected kindergartens with elevated radon concentrations. (author)

  6. A review of instrumentation for determination of radon and its daughters concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Ryuhei

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the review is to provide the aid for selection and understanding of the radon and its daughters measurement techniques which have been developed for radiation protection activities in various environments such as working of living environment. The practical purpose of the measurement for surveillance in environmental situation is the dose estimation for the public due to the inhalation of natural occurring radioactive materials. The techniques for the determination of radon and thoron concentratin by the active methods with the grab and continuous sampling, and also structures of radon monitors of various passive type are described. Explanation was made on the typical instruments for the determination of the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) of radon daughters by the various detecting systems such as solid state detector, and for the estimation of integrated PAEC in the various environments by the PAEC monitors using the cellulose nitrate film or TLD elements (author)

  7. Radon measurements: the sources of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Onischenko, Alexandra; Bastrikov, Vladislav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radon measurements are quite complicated process and the correct estimation of uncertainties is very important. The sources of uncertainties for grab sampling, short term measurements (charcoal canisters), long term measurements (track detectors) and retrospective measurements (surface traps) are analyzed. The main sources of uncertainties for grab sampling measurements are: systematic bias of reference equipment; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during calibration; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during measurements. These sources are also common both for short term measurements (charcoal canisters) and long term measurements (track detectors). Usually during the calibration the high radon concentrations are used (1-5 kBq/m 3 ) and the Poisson random error rarely exceed some percents. Nevertheless the dispersion of measured values even during the calibration usually exceeds the Poisson dispersion expected on the basis of counting statistic. The origins of such non-Poisson random errors during calibration are different for different kinds of instrumental measurements. At present not all sources of non-Poisson random errors are trustworthy identified. The initial calibration accuracy of working devices rarely exceeds the value 20%. The real radon concentrations usually are in the range from some tens to some hundreds Becquerel per cubic meter and for low radon levels Poisson random error can reach up to 20%. The random non-Poisson errors and residual systematic biases are depends on the kind of measurement technique and the environmental conditions during radon measurements. For charcoal canisters there are additional sources of the measurement errors due to influence of air humidity and the variations of radon concentration during the canister exposure. The accuracy of long term measurements by track detectors will depend on the quality of chemical etching after exposure and the influence of season radon variations. The main sources of

  8. Benthic grab data from October 1994 in the Lower Bay of New York/New Jersey Harbor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic grab samples were collected using a Shipek grab at pre-determined locations in the harbor. Taxonomic enumerations and biological community parameters were...

  9. Temperature dependence of the calibration factor of radon and radium determination in water samples by SSNTD

    CERN Document Server

    Hunyadi, I; Hakl, J; Baradacs, E; Dezso, Z

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity of a sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra determination method of water samples by SSNTD was measured as a function of storage temperature during exposure. The method is based on an etched track type radon monitor, which is closed into a gas permeable foil and is immersed in the water sample. The sample is sealed in a glass vessel and stored for an exposure time of 10-30 days. The sensitivity increased more than a factor of two when the storage temperature was raised from 2 deg. C to 30 deg. C. Temperature dependence of the partition coefficient of radon between water and air provides explanation for this dependence. For practical radio- analytical application the temperature dependence of the calibration factor is given by fitting the sensitivity data obtained by measuring sup 2 sup 2 sup 6 Ra standard solutions (in the activity concentration range of 0.1-48.5 kBq m sup - sup 3) at different storage temperatures.

  10. Correlation between radon exhalation and radium content in granite samples used as construction material in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Musazay, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Aksoy, A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2005-11-15

    Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 205 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were carried out using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. It was found that granite samples were the main source of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 13.1Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} with an average of 1.5 +/-1.9(1{sigma})Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1}. The radium contents of 27 granite samples were measured using an HPGe-based {gamma} spectroscopy setup. The {sup 226}Ra content of the granites varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 297Bqkg{sup -1}, with an average of 83+/-73(1{sigma})Bqkg{sup -1}. The linear correlation coefficient between exhaled radon and radium content was found to be 0.90.

  11. Calibration of environmental monitors operating on time integrating principles for radon/thoron decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Grenier, M.

    1982-03-01

    An environmental radiation monitor for radon decay products has been tested under laboratory controlled conditions. The instrument is of a quasi-time-integrating type and was tested in conjunction with a radon 'box' calibration facility. It has been found that the instrument appreciably underestimates the radon daughter Working Level (WL). This is attributed to plate-out of decay products in the monitor sampling head. The difference between monitor reading and the WL by grab-sampling was higher for low aerosol concentrations. Plate-out on the instrument detector and sampling head, and contamination effects have been observed for the thoron case. There is partial agreement between experimental results and theoretical expectation. The monitor is slow to react to sudden changes in radiation level. The instrument should prove quite useful in the routine monitoring of surface and underground environments provided some suggested changes in the instrument are introduced

  12. MEASUREMENT OF RADON EXHALATION RATE, RADIUM ACTIVITY AND ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE FROM BRICKS AND CEMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DERA ISMAIL KHAN

    OpenAIRE

    Nisar Ahmad; Mohamad Suhaimi Jaafar; Sohail Aziz Khan; Tabassum Nasir; Sajjad Ahmad; Muhammad Rahim

    2014-01-01

    Radon concentration, exhalation rate, radium activity and annual effective dose have been measured from baked and unbaked bricks and cement samples commonly used as construction material in the dwellings of Dera Ismail Khan City, Pakistan. CR-39 based NRPB radon dosimeters and RAD7 have been used as passive and active devises. The values of radon concentration for baked, unbaked bricks and cements obtained from passive and active techniques were found in good agreement. Average values of rado...

  13. Optimized measurement of radium-226 concentration in liquid samples with radon-222 emanation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, Frédéric; Aupiais, Jean; Girault, Frédéric; Przylibski, Tadeusz A.; Bouquerel, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Measuring radium-226 concentration in liquid samples using radon-222 emanation remains competitive with techniques such as liquid scintillation, alpha or mass spectrometry. Indeed, we show that high-precision can be obtained without air circulation, using an optimal air to liquid volume ratio and moderate heating. Cost-effective and efficient measurement of radon concentration is achieved by scintillation flasks and sufficiently long counting times for signal and background. More than 400 such measurements were performed, including 39 dilution experiments, a successful blind measurement of six reference test solutions, and more than 110 repeated measurements. Under optimal conditions, uncertainties reach 5% for an activity concentration of 100 mBq L"−"1 and 10% for 10 mBq L"−"1. While the theoretical detection limit predicted by Monte Carlo simulation is around 3 mBq L"−"1, a conservative experimental estimate is rather 5 mBq L"−"1, corresponding to 0.14 fg g"−"1. The method was applied to 47 natural waters, 51 commercial waters, and 17 wine samples, illustrating that it could be an option for liquids that cannot be easily measured by other methods. Counting of scintillation flasks can be done in remote locations in absence of electricity supply, using a solar panel. Thus, this portable method, which has demonstrated sufficient accuracy for numerous natural liquids, could be useful in geological and environmental problems, with the additional benefit that it can be applied in isolated locations and in circumstances when samples cannot be transported. - Highlights: • Radium-226 concentration measured with optimized accumulation in a container. • Radon-222 in air measured precisely with scintillation flasks and long countings. • Method tested by repetition tests, dilution experiments, and successful blind tests. • Estimated conservative detection limit without pre-concentration is 5 mBq L"−"1. • Method is portable, cost

  14. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property; Radon som sporgas for jordluftindtraengning til hus ved forurenet renserigrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.E

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m{sup 3} corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m{sup 3}. It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m{sup 3}/h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m{sup 3} of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  15. The Global Politics of Water Grabbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, J.; Mehta, L.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The contestation and appropriation of water is not new, but it has been highlighted by recent global debates on land grabbing. Water grabbing takes place in a field that is locally and globally plural-legal. Formal law has been fostering both land and water grabs but formal water and land management

  16. The global politics of water grabbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, Jennifer; Mehta, Lyla; Veldwisch, Gert Jan

    2016-01-01

    The contestation and appropriation of water is not new, but it has been highlighted by recent global debates on land grabbing. Water grabbing takes place in a field that is locally and globally plural-legal. Formal law has been fostering both land and water grabs but formal water and land

  17. Methodology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.G.

    1984-02-01

    Methods are described for monitoring radon and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Errors in different measurement methods are compared. Calibration aspects of measurement techniques are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and a table of regulations and recommendations for monitoring radiation in countries of the OECD is provided. Radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus of opinion exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are developed

  18. Evaluation of radon related parameters in environmental samples from Jazan city, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abo-Elmagd

    2018-01-01

    The overall weighted mean of areal exhalation rate (EA and effective Radium content (Raeff for soil samples collected from different 10 districts in Jazan city is 17.02 ± 2.06 Bq m−2d−1, 3.01 ± 0.37 Bq kg−1 respectively. For 20 Building materials samples, EA = 1.989 ± 1.056 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.351 ± 0.186 Bq kg−1. Finally, for decorative materials (23 samples, EA = 1.225 ± 0.136 Bq m−2d−1 and Raeff = 0.427 ± 0.031 Bq kg−1. The maximum values of the measured parameters are found in the soil of scheme 5 and 6 district, red sand (building material and gypsum (decorative material. As the mass of the sample increase, more and more radon diffused back into the sample and the measured effective radium content is reduced. After correcting the results for back diffusion effect, all masses approximately get the same value of effective radium content and then reduced the uncertainty in the weighted mean.

  19. Radon prevention in new construction in Finland: A nationwide sample survey in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Holmgren, O.; Reisbacka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The building code for radon prevention and the associated practical guidelines were revised in Finland in 2003-2004. Thereafter, preventive measures have become more common and effective and indoor radon concentrations have been markedly reduced. In this study, the indoor radon concentration was measured in 1500 new low-rise residential houses. The houses were randomly selected and represented 7 % of the houses that received building permission in 2006. The average radon concentration of all the houses measured, which were completed in 2006-2008, was 95 Bq m -3 , the median being 58 Bq m -3 . The average was 33 % lower than in houses completed in 2000-2005. The decrease was 47 % in provinces with the highest indoor radon concentration and 26 % elsewhere in the country. In houses with a slab-on-ground foundation that had both passive radon piping and sealing measures carried out using a strip of bitumen felt in the joint between the foundation wall and floor slab, the radon concentration was on average reduced by 57 % compared with houses with no preventive measures. Preventive measures were taken nationwide in 54 % of detached houses and in provinces with the highest radon concentration in 92 % of houses. (authors)

  20. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  1. Measurements of radon concentrations in a sample representative of housing in Franche-Comte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aury, K.; Clinard, F.; Tillier, C.; Catelinois, O.; Pirard, P.; Aury, K.; Nourry, L.; Hochart, A.

    2008-01-01

    Three departments on four ones in Franche-Comte are classified at risk for radon: measurements are so compulsory in establishments receiving public. For the residential sector, no obligation of measurement are compulsory when french people spend 70% of their time in it. The data concerning homes are fragmentary and deserve to be completed. This campaign of measurements has confirmed the existence of radon in relatively high concentrations in Franche-Comte, including the sedimentary areas, justifying the necessity to realize a precise evaluation of the sanitary impact. The model will allow to study different strategies to reduce radon in houses. (N.C.)

  2. Metrology and monitoring of radon, thoron and their daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The principles of measurement and monitoring are described as applied to radon- and thoron gases and their daughter products in occupational and non-occupational environments. Various methods of measurement, such as grab-sampling, continuous monitoring, integrated measurements and personal dosimetry are discussed. Uncertainties in different measurement methods are compared. An account of unattached fraction and plateout of radon daughters is included. General principles and guidelines for monitoring are presented for the purposes of practical radiation protection as well as research applications. Calibration aspects of measurement instruments are described and procedures for interlaboratory calibration are suggested. Sampling strategies for occupational and non-occupational environments are discussed and radiation protection training requirements are identified. Where sufficient information and consensus exist, guidelines on apparatus, methods and procedures for monitoring are provided. A summary of regulations in force or being developed and recommendations for monitoring radiation exposure to radon and its decay products in countries of the OECD is provided, together with cost estimates for national indoor radon surveys

  3. Radon and thoron progeny levels in air samples at Udagamandalam region of Nilgiris in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manikandan, N.M.; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Sivakumar, R.; Raghunath, V.M.; Sundaram, V.M.; Santhanam, S.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of concentration of radon and thoron daughter products in various indoor environment covering four seasons of a year in Udagamandalam Taluk of Nilgiris biosphere has been carried out using a high volume air sampler to assess the inhalation dose to the population which delivers higher dose than the radon and thoron gas alone. The potential alpha-energy concentrations of the radon and thoron progeny ranged from 0.97 to 12.72 mWL and from 1.63 to 15.83 mWL with a geometric mean of 6.02 and 7.89 mWL, respectively, taking all seasons into account. These measurements have yielded a wealth of data on the variation among the indoor radon and thoron progeny in various places during different seasons. The radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in winter seasons and are less in summer season with autumn and spring data lie in between winter and summer. Using the dose conversion factor for indoor exposures given in UNSCEAR 93 report the internal equivalent dose to the inhalation of radon progeny is evaluated to be 1357 μSv x y -1 and the corresponding annual effective dose equivalent value has been found to be 2.13 mSv x y -1 . It can be observed that the mean value of radon is higher than the Indian average. Also it is found the radon and thoron progeny levels are higher in the case of houses built with rock and granite and in tiled type houses of nearly 100 years old. The levels are less in the case of houses built with brick and cement. The observed results for different types of houses and seasons are discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Trends Between Modeled DeFacto Reuse and Analyzed Grab Samples for Contaminants of Emerging Concern at Water Treatment Plants in The USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset compared the de facto reuse percentage modeled for the 22 surface water sites sampled in Phase II of the drinking water project and the organic chemical...

  5. Radon as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a contaminated dry-cleaning property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.

    2001-07-01

    This study applies the naturally occurring radioactive gas radon-222 as a tracer for soil-gas entry into a house located next to a dry-cleaners shop. This is possible because the concentration of radon in the soil below the house is about 1000 times higher than the concentration in outdoor air. The study is based on continuous indoor measurement of radon, differential pressures, barometric pressure and temperatures and grab samples of radon below the slab and in the soil in the vicinity of the house. During the investigation, vacuum extraction were used to remove chlorinated solvents (perchloroethylene, PCE) from the unsaturated zone. The study shows that the vacuum extraction influences the radon concentration in and below the house. When the vacuum pump is on, the indoor radon concentration is only 10 Bq/m 3 corresponding to the contribution from radon in outdoor air and exhalation from building materials. When the vacuum pump is set off, the average indoor radon concentration increases to 30 Bq/m 3 . It is believed that the increase is caused by radon entry from the soil. Regression analysis demonstrates that changes in the indoor radon concentration can be explained by changes in indoor-outdoor pressure differences and changes in the atmospheric pressure. This suggests that advection is the primary mode of entry. Under some highly simplifying assumptions the soil-gas entry is found to be around 1 m 3 /h. This, however, is most likely an overestimate. Based on the measured radon concentration in the exhaust air from the vacuum system and a typical radon emanation rate for Danish soil, it is estimated that the soil vapor extraction system ventilates about 10000 m 3 of soil. The investigation is supported by numerical model calculations with the finite-volume model Rnmod3d. (au)

  6. The Italian national survey on radon indoors run by several different regional laboratories: Sampling strategy, realization and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Risica, S.; Piermattei, S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the criteria and organization adopted by the Italian National Institutions in carrying out a representative national survey to evaluate the distribution of radon concentration and the exposure of the Italian population to natural radiation indoors. The main items of the survey - i.e. sampling design, choice of the sample size (5000 dwellings), organization, analysis of the actual sample structure, questionnaire to collect data about families and their dwellings, experimental set up and communication with the public - are discussed. Some results, concerning a first fraction of the total sample, are also presented. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Radiation dose due to radon and heavy metal analysis in drinking water samples of Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Kaur, M.; Sharma, S.; Mehra, R.; Sharma, D.K.; Mishra, R.

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 μSv y -1 . The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 μSv y -1 ) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. (authors)

  8. Measurement of radon exhalation rates in some soil samples collected near the international monument Taj Mahal, Agra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Rupesh; Indolia, R.S.; Swarup, R.; Mahur, A.K.; Singh, Hargyan; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Human beings are exposed to ionizing radiation from natural sources due to the occurrence of natural radioactive elements in solids, rocks, sand, soil etc. used as building construction materials and to the internal exposure from radioactive elements through good, water and air. Radon exhalation rate is of prime importance for the estimation of radiation risk from various materials. In the present study soil samples collected near the Tajmahal Agra. Sealed Can Technique was adopted for radon exhalation measurements. All the soil samples collected were grinded, dried and sieved through a 100 mesh sieve. Equal amount of each sieved (100μm grain size) sample (100 gm) was placed at the base of the Cans of 7.5 cm height and 7.0 cm diameter similar to those used in the calibration experiment (Singh et al., 1997). LR-115 type II plastic track detector (2 cm x 2 cm) was fixed on the top inside of the cylindrical Can. Radon exhalation rate varies from 529 mBqm -2 h -1 to 1254 mBqm -2 h -1 . The results will be presented. (author)

  9. Some Insights into Analytical Bias Involved in the Application of Grab Sampling for Volatile Organic Compounds: A Case Study against Used Tedlar Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samik; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sohn, Jong Ryeul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the patterns of VOCs released from used Tedlar bags that were once used for the collection under strong source activities. In this way, we attempted to account for the possible bias associated with the repetitive use of Tedlar bags. To this end, we selected the bags that were never heated. All of these target bags were used in ambient temperature (typically at or below 30°C). These bags were also dealt carefully to avoid any mechanical abrasion. This study will provide the essential information regarding the interaction between VOCs and Tedlar bag materials as a potential source of bias in bag sampling approaches. PMID:22235175

  10. Radon and radon progeny in 70 houses in the Tennessee Valley area: study design and measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudney, C.S.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Monar, K.P.; Quillen, J.L.; Clark, C. Jr.; Doane, R.W.; Wallace, R.G.; Reed, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of radon and its short-lived airborne progeny are being measured in a year-long study of 70 houses in four states in the Tennessee Valley. Various methods were used to solicit volunteers with differing degrees of success. Criteria for selection of houses in the study included presence of a lower level with cement floor and one or more block walls in contact with the soil, absence of obvious indications of technologically enhanced sources of radium, and proximity to one of four cities, (Knoxville, Chattanooga, Birmingham, or Florence). By design, most houses in the study are in the same neighborhood as at least one other house in the study. Houses range in age from newly constructed to about 40 years old. Most of the houses have more than 2000 square feet of finished floor space. The lower level encompasses a garage in most cases. More complete information pertaining to house characteristics will be gathered in the course of the study. Measurements are being made to obtain information on both location- and season-dependent variation of radon and radon progeny. Simultaneous measurements are made quarterly on both upper and lower levels of each house. Grab samples of air are collected and analyzed for radon using a modified Lucas cell technique. Short-term (10-minute) samples of airborne particulate material are collected and analyzed for radon progeny. One-week integrated measurements of working levels are made once each quarter using modified thermoluminescent dosimeters. Both three- and twelve-month integrated measurements of radon using track-etch monitors are being made. 19 references, 1 figures

  11. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  12. Radiation dose due to radon and heavy metal analysis in drinking water samples of Jammu district, J. and K., India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajay Kumar; Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Sumit; Mehra, Rohit; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the contaminant drinking water and its impact on human health. The most contaminants of ground water are heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium, mercury, copper, zinc and etc. These heavy metals particularly cause strong toxicity even at low concentration. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. Heavy metal toxicity can result in damaged or reduced mental and central nervous function, lower energy levels and damage to blood composition, lungs, kidneys, liver and other vital organs. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity and dissolved oxygen were analyzed. For revealing the ground water quality and soil quality in area of Jammu, a total of 40 samples have been collected and analyzed for different kind of heavy metal concentration. These heavy metal concentrations in water samples were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results were compared with WHO, ED, ICMR and Indian. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples. Along with the heavy metal concentration in water samples and soil samples, the radon concentration also measured by using RAD7. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. (author)

  13. Machine learning methods as a tool to analyse incomplete or irregularly sampled radon time series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, M; Bossew, P; Kurihara, O

    2018-07-15

    Machine learning is a class of statistical techniques which has proven to be a powerful tool for modelling the behaviour of complex systems, in which response quantities depend on assumed controls or predictors in a complicated way. In this paper, as our first purpose, we propose the application of machine learning to reconstruct incomplete or irregularly sampled data of time series indoor radon ( 222 Rn). The physical assumption underlying the modelling is that Rn concentration in the air is controlled by environmental variables such as air temperature and pressure. The algorithms "learn" from complete sections of multivariate series, derive a dependence model and apply it to sections where the controls are available, but not the response (Rn), and in this way complete the Rn series. Three machine learning techniques are applied in this study, namely random forest, its extension called the gradient boosting machine and deep learning. For a comparison, we apply the classical multiple regression in a generalized linear model version. Performance of the models is evaluated through different metrics. The performance of the gradient boosting machine is found to be superior to that of the other techniques. By applying learning machines, we show, as our second purpose, that missing data or periods of Rn series data can be reconstructed and resampled on a regular grid reasonably, if data of appropriate physical controls are available. The techniques also identify to which degree the assumed controls contribute to imputing missing Rn values. Our third purpose, though no less important from the viewpoint of physics, is identifying to which degree physical, in this case environmental variables, are relevant as Rn predictors, or in other words, which predictors explain most of the temporal variability of Rn. We show that variables which contribute most to the Rn series reconstruction, are temperature, relative humidity and day of the year. The first two are physical

  14. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  15. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  16. Spatial distribution of natural and fallout level of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K and 137Cs in grab sediments of Mumbai Harbour Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Rout, Sabyasachi; Joshi, V.M.; Karpe, Rupali; Ravi, P.M.; Singhal, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radionuclides introduced from fall-out and nuclear installations into the marine surface water subjected to movement and mixing with tides and current, undergo horizontal dispersion, dilution and get bound to suspended particles by various physical, chemical, and biological processes. For this study, about 250 g of meshed grab sediments of eight sampling locations were transferred to a suitable cylindrical acrylic container, sealed and kept for 30 days to allow for in-growth of radon gas in order to achieve secular equilibrium between 226 Ra, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the 238 U decay chain and between 212 Pb, 208 TI and 228 Ac in the 232 Th decay chain. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using Gamma spectrometry system

  17. Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Yecheng; Huang Zhanyun; She Chengye

    1992-01-01

    Application of single-chip microcomputer to portable radon and radon daughters monitor is introduced in this paper. With the single-chip microcomputer automation comes into effect in the process from sampling to measuring of radon and radon daughters. The concentrations of radon and radon daughters can be easily shown when the conversion coefficients are pre-settled before the measurement. Moreover, the principle and design are briefly discussed according to the characteristics of the monitor

  18. Variation of indoor radon progeny concentration and its role in dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manmohan; Singh, Kulwant; Singh, Surinder; Papp, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Instantaneous measurements of equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EEC Rn ) were taken over a period of 1 year in 2004 in a typical house at Amritsar city, located in the northwest part of India. A method based on absolute beta counting subsequent to grab aerosol sampling was used. During that year, EEC Rn varied between 1.56 Bq m -3 and 22.77 Bq m -3 with average value of 8.76 Bq m -3 . EEC Rn decreased with the transition from winter to summer and vice versa, having a negative correlation with outdoor temperature. The use of mechanical ventilation, under normal living conditions during summer, caused an extra decrease in the concentrations. The variations with temperature and mechanical ventilation are discussed. Some major issues related to the uncertainties in dose calculations caused by the lack of knowledge of equilibrium factor and ignoring the effect of life style on the radon and its progeny concentrations are discussed

  19. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  20. Radon exhalations of rock samples from the Muellenbach uranium test mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, G.; Dudler, R.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation exposure of workers in underground mines with high U/Ra concentration is mostly due to inhalation of the short-lived radioactive decay products of the noble gas radon. Knowledge of the Rn-222 exhalation rates of walls and rocks as well as the contributing influencing parameters is therefore of interest for radiation protection purposes. Measurements showed that in the hours following shortfiring operations, the fresh dirt and the new walls had several times the exhalation rates of older dirt and walls. Measurements of exhalation rates on drill cores can help to assess exhalation for an adequate layout of the mine ventilation system. (orig./PW) [de

  1. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  2. Estimation of radon exhalation rate, natural radioactivity and radiation doses in fly ash samples from NTPC Dadri, (UP) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Verma, K.D.; Mahur, A.K.; Rajendra Prasad; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash produced by coal-burning in thermal power station has become a subject of world wide interest in recent years, because of its diverse uses in building materials such as bricks, sheets, cement and land filling etc. The knowledge of radio nuclides in fly ash plays an important role in health physics. Natural radioactivity and radon exhalation rate in fly ash samples collected from NTPC (National Thermal Power Corporation) Dadri, (UP.) India, have been studied. A high resolution gamma ray spectroscopic system has been used for the measurement of natural radioactivity. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K) were measured and radiological parameters were calculated. Radium concentration was found to vary from (81.01 ± 3.25) to (177.33 ±10.00) Bq kg -1 . Activity concentration of thorium was found to vary from (111.57 ± 3.21) to (178.50 ± 3.96) Bq kg -1 . Potassium activity was not significant in some samples, whereas, some other samples have shown potassium activity vary from (365.98 ± 4.85) to (495.95 ± 6.23) Bq kg -1 . Radon exhalation rates in these samples were also calculated by 'Sealed Can technique' using LR-115 type II detectors and found to vary from (80 ± 9) to (243 ± 16) mBqm -2 h -1 with an average value (155 ± 13) mBqm -2 h -1 . This study also presents the results of estimation of effective dose equivalent from exhalation rate, radium equivalent, absorbed gamma dose rates, external annual effective dose rate and values of external hazard index for the fly ash samples. (author)

  3. Survey of radon in dwellings in area strongly affected by mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.; Mielnikow, A.; Skowronek, J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the Decree of the President of Polish Atomic Energy Agency [21], the permissible level of radon concentration in new houses is 200 Bq/m 3 , while in existing houses -400 Bq/m 3 . This Decree is valid since January 1, 1998. Till now, radon investigations in Poland were done on a small scale. Therefore Central Mining Institute started at first screening campaign and later long term measurements of radon concentrations were done in area of Upper Silesia. Usually measurements of radon concentration in dwellings are performed at two stages. On the first stage, a screening is made by means of short term methods of radon measurement, like activated charcoal canisters or grab sampling to find places with elevated radon risk. On the second stage a long term measurements have been done in dwellings chosen during screening campaign.The method of the radon measurement by means of charcoal canisters was developed in our Laboratory in early 90's. We designed our own detectors with the activated charcoal, after the exposure radon from the charcoal is washed out with toluene-based liquid scintillator and measured in the liquid scintillation counter. The reliability of the results was proved in many intercomparison runs. For long term radon measurements the method of track etched detectors was applied. As a detector the LR-115 strippable foil was chosen and as a reader the spark counter was applied. As predicted, the highest values in dwellings were found at the ground floor level in several towns in northern part of Upper Silesia. All these sites are situated in area without an overburden of impermeable Miocene clays. Moreover, these towns are located within a specific geological structure, known as Bytom Syncline. In the underlying strata, the dominant rocks are Triassic, strongly weathered formations, in form of carbonates. We supposed, that the influence of geology would be intensified by coal mining. The presence of abandoned workings, excavations and cavities on

  4. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  5. Radon measurements-discussion of error estimates for selected methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Onischenko, Alexandra; Bastrikov, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The main sources of uncertainties for grab sampling, short-term (charcoal canisters) and long term (track detectors) measurements are: systematic bias of reference equipment; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during calibration; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during measurements. The origins of non-Poisson random errors during calibration are different for different kinds of instrumental measurements. The main sources of uncertainties for retrospective measurements conducted by surface traps techniques can be divided in two groups: errors of surface 210 Pb ( 210 Po) activity measurements and uncertainties of transfer from 210 Pb surface activity in glass objects to average radon concentration during this object exposure. It's shown that total measurement error of surface trap retrospective technique can be decreased to 35%.

  6. From land grabs to inclusive development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.; Schoneveld, G.C.; Zoomers, E.B.

    This themed issue proposes to outline the state-of-the art of research on the large-scale investment phenomenon described as the global land grab, focusing on different types of investment flows (in food and biofuel crops, wildlife, mining and city development in various countries) in close relation

  7. The fluid nature of water grabbing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bont, de Chris; Veldwisch, Gert Jan; Komakech, Hans Charles; Vos, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the contemporary debate on land and water grabbing through a detailed, qualitative case study of horticultural agribusinesses which have settled in Tanzania, disrupting patterns of land and water use. In this paper we analyse how capitalist settler farms and their

  8. The determination of airborne concentrations of radon and thoron progeny by repetitive alpha counting of filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Clayton S. Jr.; Skrable, Kenneth W.; Chabot, George E.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical equations have been used to determine the airborne concentrations of the particulate daughters of radon and thoron from five net alpha counts obtained at preset time intervals post sampling. The same expressions were used to propagate the associated standard deviations. These propagated errors were minimized by the selection of optimum sampling and counting intervals. An extensive error analysis examined sources of interference and their influence on the calculated concentrations. This system offers sufficient precision for research applications, yet is simple and inexpensive enough for application in field studies. The radon and thoron daughters measured with this technique are 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 212 Pb, and 212 Bi. Because of the decay kinetics involved, the calculated concentrations of 218 Po and 212 Bi involve the greatest uncertainty. The proper choice of sampling and counting intervals optimizes the system for any one of the above radionuclides or for all five collectively. A sampling time of 15 minutes is best for the simultaneous estimation of all five concentrations. Millipore filter samples were obtained from a large, unventilated sub-basement of the University of Lowell research reactor facility and were counted later in direct contact with the window of a gas flow proportional detector having alpha particle counting efficiencies near 0.4 ca -1 and an alpha background of about 1 c min -1 . A typical 15 minute sample obtained at a flow rate of 2 x 10 4 cm 3 min -1 yielded estimates of the airborne concentrations and relative standard deviations: 218 Po, 4.75 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 18.9%; 214 Pb, 5.15 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 2.5%; 214 Bi, 4.86 x 10 -9 μCi cm -3 ± 2.4%; 212 Pb, 1.41 x 10 -10 μCi cm -3 ± 2.0%; and 212 Bi, 2.15 x 10 -10 μCi cm -3 ± 27.0%. (author)

  9. Comparative Study of Radon Concentration with Two Techniques and Elemental Analysis in Drinking Water Samples of the Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajay; Kaur, Manpreet; Mehra, Rohit; Sharma, Dinesh Kumar; Mishra, Rosaline

    2017-10-01

    The level of radon concentration has been assessed using the Advanced SMART RnDuo technique in 30 drinking water samples from Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The water samples were collected from wells, hand pumps, submersible pumps, and stored waters. The randomly obtained 14 values of radon concentration in water sources using the SMART RnDuo technique have been compared and cross checked by a RAD7 device. A good positive correlation (R = 0.88) has been observed between the two techniques. The overall value of radon concentration in various water sources has ranged from 2.45 to 18.43 Bq L, with a mean value of 8.24 ± 4.04 Bq L, and it agreed well with the recommended limit suggested by the European Commission and UNSCEAR. However, the higher activity of mean radon concentration was found in groundwater drawn from well, hand and submersible pumps as compared to stored water. The total annual effective dose due to radon inhalation and ingestion ranged from 6.69 to 50.31 μSv y with a mean value of 22.48 ± 11.03 μSv y. The total annual effective dose was found to lie within the safe limit (100 μSv y) suggested by WHO. Heavy metal analysis was also carried out in various water sources by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and the highest value of heavy metals was found mostly in groundwater samples. The obtained results were compared with Indian and International organizations like WHO and the EU Council. Among all the samples, the elemental analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit.

  10. Land grabbing and formalization in Africa : a critical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.; Cunningham, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two developments in Africa have generated an extensive literature. The first focuses on investment and land grabbing and the second on the formalization of rural property rights. Less has been written on the impact of formalization on land grabbing and of land grabbing on formalization. Recently,

  11. Water grabbing in the Cauca basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velez Torres, Irene

    2012-01-01

    This article examines water grabbing in the Alto Cauca in Colombia as a form of accumulation through ethnicised and racialised environmental dispossession in the capitalist system. Characterised by privatisation and historical trends of exclusion, this violent accumulation model has shaped...... Cauca – the article concludes that many actors are responsible for the negative effects of the regional development model. These include the state, national and foreign private companies, and powerful international economic stakeholders....

  12. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo, B.L.; Palfalvi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m 3 . (R.P.)

  13. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  14. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, radon and radium activity concentrations in aqueous samples using liquid scintillation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Ahmad Saat; Masitah Alias; Siti Afiqah Abdul Rahman; Mohamed Kasim; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Malaysia has taken a positive step toward providing a better water quality by introducing more water quality parameters into its Water Quality Standard. With regard to the natural radionuclides that may present in the water, 3 parameters were introduced that is gross alpha, gross beta and radium which need to be measured and cannot exceed 0.1, 1.0 and 1.0 Bq/ L respectively. This study was conducted to develop a more practical method in measuring these parameters in aqueous environmental samples. Besides having a lot of former tin mining areas, some part of Malaysia is located on the granitic rock which also contributes to a certain extent the amount of natural radionuclides such as uranium and thorium. For all we know these two radionuclides are the origin of other radionuclides being produced from their decay series. The State of Kelantan was chosen as the study area, where the water samples were collected from various part of the Kelantan River. 25 liters of samples were collected, acidify to pH 2 and filtered before the analysis. Measurement of these parameters was done using liquid scintillation counter (LSC). The LSC was set up to the optimum discriminator level and counting was done using alpha-beta mode. The results show that gross alpha and beta can be measured using scintillation cocktail and radium and radon using extraction method. The results for gross alpha, gross beta, 222 Ra and 226 Ra are 0.39-6.42, 0.66-16.18, 0.40-4.65 and 0.05-0.56 Bq/ L. MDA for gross alpha, gross beta and radium is 0.03, 0.08 and 0.00035 Bq/ L respectively. (Author)

  15. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  16. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    -state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, (2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, (3) time-dependent radon exhalation from abuilding-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  17. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  18. Active and passive measurements of radon/thoron exhalation from coal and flyash samples collected from various thermal power plants of Delhi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Lalit Mohan; Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, B.K.; Sapra, B.K.; Rajendra Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radon ( 222 Rn) exhalation from coal, flyash and soil samples was carried out using active (Scintillation based Smart Radon Monitor) as well as passive technique (SSNTD based Can technique). In addition, thoron ( 220 Rn) exhalation measurements were also made for the above samples using Scintillation based Smart Thoron Monitor. To the best of our knowledge, thoron exhalation measurement is first of its kind in India. In this study, a total of 26 samples collected from Badarpur Thermal Power Station, Badarpur and Rajghat Power Station, Rajghat, Delhi were analysed. Thoron surface exhalation rate measured by Scintillation based Thoron Monitor for Badarpur Thermal Power Station varied from 327.8 Bq/m 2 /h to 874.2 Bq/m 2 /h and for Rajghat Thermal Power Station it varied from 176.0 Bq/m 2 /h to 781.1 Bq/m 2 /h. Similarly, the radon mass exhalation rate measured by active technique varied from 12.13 mBq/Kg/h to 118.08 mBq/Kg/h for the samples collected from Badarpur Thermal Power Station; while it varied from 15.00 Bq/Kg/h to 168.07 mBq/Kg/h for the samples collected from Rajghat Thermal Power station. On the other hand, result of measurements made by the conventional Can technique were significantly lower varying from 0.44 mBq/Kg/h to 2.34 mBq/Kg/h for Rajghat Thermal Power Station and from 0.78 mBq/Kg/h to 2.88 mBq/Kg/h for Badarpur Thermal Power Station. This vast variation in the results obtained by active and passive techniques is due to the fact that the active technique accounts for the effect of back-diffusion and possible leakage from the chamber in the process of least square fitting of exponential model while it is not so in the case of SSNTD based Can technique. In view of this, results of active technique are more reliable as compared to the passive technique. More importantly, there was no thoron interference in the radon measurement by the active technique. Further experiments are being carried out using controlled radon and thoron

  19. Inverse method for determining radon diffusion coefficient and free radon production rate of fragmented uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Yong-jun; Wang, Li-heng; Ding, De-xin; Zhao, Ya-li; Fan, Nan-bin

    2014-01-01

    The radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate are important parameters for describing radon migration in the fragmented uranium ore. In order to determine the two parameters, the pure diffusion migration equation for radon was firstly established and its analytic solution with the two parameters to be determined was derived. Then, a self manufactured experimental column was used to simulate the pure diffusion of the radon, the improved scintillation cell method was used to measure the pore radon concentrations at different depths of the column loaded with the fragmented uranium ore, and the nonlinear least square algorithm was used to inversely determine the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate. Finally, the solution with the two inversely determined parameters was used to predict the pore radon concentrations at some depths of the column, and the predicted results were compared with the measured results. The results show that the predicted results are in good agreement with the measured results and the numerical inverse method is applicable to the determination of the radon diffusion coefficient and the free radon production rate for the fragmented uranium ore. - Highlights: • Inverse method for determining two transport parameters of radon is proposed. • A self-made experimental apparatus is used to simulate radon diffusion process. • Sampling volume and position for measuring radon concentration are optimized. • The inverse results of an experimental sample are verified

  20. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2004-01-01

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm -3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm -3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  1. Measurement of radon concentration in water using the portable radon survey meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S; Mori, N; Shimo, M; Fukushi, M; Ohnuma, S

    2011-07-01

    A measurement method for measuring radon in water using the portable radon survey meter (RnSM) was developed. The container with propeller was used to stir the water samples and release radon from the water into the air in a sample box of the RnSM. In this method, the measurement of error would be water was >20 Bq l(-1).

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of air sampling methods for the measurement of radon decay products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Octavian; Luca, Aurelian; Sahagia, Maria

    2017-08-01

    A stochastic model of the processes involved in the measurement of the activity of the 222 Rn decay products was developed. The distributions of the relevant factors, including air sampling and radionuclide collection, are propagated using Monte Carlo simulation to the final distribution of the measurement results. The uncertainties of the 222 Rn decay products concentrations in the air are realistically evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radon and Lung Cancer Case-Control Study in Middle Ural

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirdin, I.A.; Lezhnin, V.L.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Ekidin, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The pilot phase of radon and lung cancer case-control study has been performed in Karpinsk and Pervouralsk towns of Middle Ural region of Russia. The case group consists of 341 persons with lung cancer and living in that towns at least five previous years. The lung cancer diagnoses were carefully verified by instrumental techniques and 70% of its were morphologically validated. The persons for the control group (448) were chosen from the population living in that towns at least five years taking into account the age and sex. The special epidemiological questionnaire was developed which includes the items by the groups of factors as follow: clinical data, social factors, chronic lung diseases, life habit, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diet preference etc. The epidemiological questionnaires were fulfilled for each member of case and control groups. Radon gas concentration and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration measurements had been performed using nuclear track detectors and grab sampling accordingly in the dwellings of case and control groups members. By preliminary estimation the odds ratios are 1, 0.91, 1.2, 1.1 in the ranges of radon and thoron equilibrium equivalent concentration 0-6, 3-13, 13-36 and 36-370 Bq/m 3 respectively. The deeper and more rigorous analysis as well as different independent approaches will be discussed in the paper.(author)

  4. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  5. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  6. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  7. Radiation dose-dependent risk on individuals due to ingestion of uranium and radon concentration in drinking water samples of four districts of Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panghal, Amanjeet; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Suneel; Singh, Joga; Sharma, Sumit; Singh, Parminder; Mehra, Rohit; Bajwa, B. S.

    2017-06-01

    Uranium gets into drinking water when the minerals containing uranium are dissolved in groundwater. Uranium and radon concentrations have been measured in drinking water samples from different water sources such as hand pumps, tube wells and bore wells at different depths from various locations of four districts (Jind, Rohtak, Panipat and Sonipat) of Haryana, India, using the LED flourimetry technique and RAD7, electronic silicon solid state detector. The uranium (238U) and radon (222Rn) concentrations in water samples have been found to vary from 1.07 to 40.25 µg L-1 with an average of 17.91 µg L-1 and 16.06 ± 0.97 to 57.35 ± 1.28 Bq L-1 with an average of 32.98 ± 2.45 Bq L-1, respectively. The observed value of radon concentration in 43 samples exceeded the recommended limits of 11 Bq L-1 (USEPA) and all the values are within the European Commission recommended limit of 100 Bq L-1. The average value of uranium concentration is observed to be within the safe limit recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The annual effective dose has also been measured in all the water samples and is found to be below the prescribed dose limit of 100 µSv y-1 recommended by WHO. Risk assessment of uranium in water is also calculated using life time cancer risk, life time average daily dose and hazard quotient. The high uranium concentration observed in certain areas is due to interaction of ground water with the soil formation of this region and the local subsurface geology of the region.

  8. The Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at PSI; Das Referenzlabor fuer Radongas-Konzentrationsmessungen am PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, Christoph

    1998-09-01

    Active or passive radon gas measuring instruments are exposed during intercomparison exercises in the radon chamber of the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut: The traceability of radon gas measurements to nationally and internationally acknowledged standards is inspected in the reference atmosphere of the chamber with calibrated {sup 222}Rn activity concentration. The use of secondary standards guarantees the traceability of the radon chamber reference atmosphere. Besides the principal secondary standard, a radon gas standard (secondary standard I), a {sup 226}Ra standard solution (secondary standard II) and a {sup 222}Rn emanation standard (secondary standard III) are used. The {sup 222}Rn activity delivered by one of these standards is quantitatively transferred into a reference volume and hence converted to an activity concentration serving for the calibration of a measuring instrument transfer standard consisting of scintillation cell and counter. By this way, the transfer standard calibration is related and traceable to the internationally acknowledged primary standard laboratories National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland (U.S.A.) or National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex (UK). The calibrated transfer standard is then used to calibrate the radon gas activity concentration in the radon chamber. For a single grab sampling determination of the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in the radon chamber with the transfer standard, the estimation of Type A and Type B uncertainties yields a relative expanded uncertainty (95% confidence level) of minimum 3% for high concentration levels (10 kBqm{sup -3}) and maximum 30% for low concentration levels (0.2 kBqm{sup -3}). Extended evaluations of the reproducibility of calibration factor measurements obtained by calibration of the transfer standard with the secondary standards I, II and III show a very good reproducibility quality

  9. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  10. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  11. Radon concentrations inside public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B L; Kulwicki, D R; Warner, Jr, K R; Grassi, C L

    1984-09-01

    Radon concentrations in ambient air from numerous schools, stores and other public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh, PA, area were measured by grab sampling. This is more appropriate than using long-term integrating monitors because of the correlation between times of occupancy and Rn levels. Results indicate that Rn concentrations in these buildings are nearly an order of magnitude less than in homes, and not much higher than outdoors. Variations among sites is also much less than for homes, probably because there is less variability in ventilation and building maintenance practices. Colleges and universities have somewhat higher Rn levels and a larger degree of variability than commercial buildings or hospitals. There was no indication of higher Rn levels in cold weather than in warm weather, or of correlations with the age of the building.

  12. Methods and measurements of indoor levels of radon and its daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Ramu, M.C.; Muraleedharan, T.S.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    General population is exposed, some times, to enhanced levels of radon (Rn) and its progeny concontrations in the indoor environment of dwellings, depending on various parameters like type of construction, location and ventilation features of the dwelling as well as on the occupancy factor. The risk involved in the indoor Rn exposure is briefly discussed in this report. Several methods are available for the measurement of Rn and its daughters in dwellings. This report describes in detail some of the suitable and convenient methods for the measurements. Methods for evluating ventilation rate in dwellings is also given. Grab sampling and time integrated measurements are described. The report also gives the results of some preliminary measurements carried out in some rooms and lecture halls of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. The results are discussed and conclusions drawn with particular reference to a country-wide survey of Rn exposure. (author)

  13. Radon concentrations inside public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B L; Kulwicki, D R; Warner, K R; Grassi, C L

    1984-09-01

    Radon concentrations in ambient air from numerous schools, stores and other public and commercial buildings in the Pittsburgh, PA, area were measured by grab sampling. This is more appropriate than using long-term integrating monitors because of the correlation between times of occupancy and Rn levels. Results indicate that Rn concentrations in these buildings are nearly an order of magnitude less than in homes, and not much higher than outdoors. Variations among sites is also much less than for homes, probably because there is less variability in ventilation and building maintenance practices. Colleges and universities have somewhat higher Rn levels and a larger degree of variability than commercial buildings or hospitals. There was no indication of higher Rn levels in cold weather than in warm weather, or of correlations with the age of the building.

  14. Instrumentation for collecting and measuring radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, M.A.; Hengde, W.; Markun, F.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Miranda, J.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling can is described for collecting an air sample for determination of its radon content. Instruments which are employed for the continuous monitoring of radon or its daughters in houses are described and their performances discussed

  15. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  16. Evaluation of repeated measurements of radon-222 concentrations in well water sampled from bedrock aquifers of the Piedmont near Richmond, Virginia, USA: Effects of lithology and well characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Shelley A.; Billmeyer, Ernest R.; Robinson, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in 26 ground water wells of two distinct lithologies in the Piedmont of Virginia were measured to assess variation in ground water radon concentrations (GWRC), to evaluate differences in concentrations related to well characteristics, lithology, and spatial distributions, and to assess the feasibility of predicting GWRC. Wells were sampled in accordance with American Public Health Association Method 7500 Rn-B, with modifications to include a well shaft profile analysis that determined the minimum purge time sufficient to remove the equivalent of one column of water from each well. Statistically significant differences in GWRC were found in the Trssu (1482±1711 pCi/L) and Mpg (7750±5188 pCi/L) lithologies, however, no significant differences were found among GWRC at each well over time. Using multiple regression, 86% of the variability (R 2 ) in the GWRC was explained by the lithology, latitudinal class, and water table elevation of the wells. The GWRC in a majority of the wells studied exceed US Environmental Protection Agency designated maximum contaminant level and AMCL. Results support modifications to sampling procedures and indicate that, in previous studies, variations in GWRC concentrations over time may have been due in part to differences in sampling procedures and not in source water

  17. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  18. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  19. Radon monitoring technique with electret collecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Zhiheng; Zuo Fuqi; Xiao Detao; Zhao Xkiuliang

    1991-12-01

    The integrating radon monitoring technique with electret collecting is a method which collects the 218 Po + positive ions by electrostatic field produced by electret. It has greatly improved the sensitivity of radon measurement. The response factor of this method reaches to 4.7 cm -2 Bq -1 m 3 h -1 , 1000 times larger than that of common passive sampling method. The monitoring device and its principle are introduced. The measuring results of radon concentration and radon flux rate and quality assurance system by using this method in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, Human Environmental Monitoring Central Station and some uranium mines are also presented. The analytical results show that the radon concentration in the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is affected by wind direction. When wind directs toward sea, the radon concentration is high. If the wind is to the contrary, it is low. The radon concentration ratio of both is about 2

  20. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  1. The Department of Energy's radon testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy recently completed an initial survey of indoor radon in its buildings in response to Public Law 100--551, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988. Other federal agencies have also conducted radon surveys. This paper presents an overview of the results from radon testing of several thousand buildings ranging from 100 m 2 to over 10,000 M 2 in size. In addition, we have examined results from groups of buildings, classified according to ventilation and usage characteristics. So far, there is no apparent difference among building classes. The paper also discusses our proposal for phased radon surveys. We suggest that first-phase results can be used to identify facilities with radon problems. In the second phase, we suggest measurements be made at a much higher sampling density at facilities with radon problems. The results of the second phase are expected to identify all buildings in need of mitigation

  2. Modified GrabCut for human face segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khattab

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available GrabCut is a segmentation technique for 2D still color images, which is mainly based on an iterative energy minimization. The energy function of the GrabCut optimization algorithm is based mainly on a probabilistic model for pixel color distribution. Therefore, GrabCut may introduce unacceptable results in the cases of low contrast between foreground and background colors. In this manner, this paper presents a modified GrabCut technique for the segmentation of human faces from images of full humans. The modified technique introduces a new face location model for the energy minimization function of the GrabCut, in addition to the existing color one. This location model considers the distance distribution of the pixels from the silhouette boundary of a fitted head, of a 3D morphable model, to the image. The experimental results of the modified GrabCut have demonstrated better segmentation robustness and accuracy compared to the original GrabCut for human face segmentation.

  3. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracin, D.; Csige, I.; Graaf, E.R. van der; Jiranek, M.; Rehs, B.; Svoboda, Z.; Toro, L.

    1999-04-01

    Numerical models based on finite-difference or finite-element methods are used by various research groups in studies of radon-222 transport through soil and building materials. Applications range from design of radon remediation systems to more fundamental studies of radon transport. To ascertain that results obtained with these models are of good quality, it is necessary that such models are tested. This document reports on a benchmark test organized by the EU project ERRICCA: European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action. The test comprises the following cases: 1) Steady-state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, 2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, 3) time-dependent radon exhalation from a building-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive transport of radon, flux calculations, and partitioning of radon between air and water in soil pores. Seven groups participated in the intercomparison. All groups submitted results without knowing the results of others. For these results, relatively large group-to-group discrepancies were observed. Because of this, all groups scrutinized their computations (once more) and engaged in follow-up discussions with others. During this debugging process, problems were indeed identified (and eliminated). The accordingly revised results were in better agreement than those reported initially. Some discrepancies, however, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommended that additional exercises are carried out. (au)

  4. Uncertainty of block estimates introduced by mis-allocation of point samples: on the example of spatial indoor Radon data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossew, P. [European Commission (Ecuador), Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), TP441, Via Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: peter.bossew@jrc.it

    2009-03-15

    The European indoor Radon map which is currently under production is based on gridded data supplied by the contributing countries. Each grid node represents the arithmetic mean (among other statistics) of the individual measurements within 10 x 10 km{sup 2}, called cells, pixels or blocks, which are aligned to a common metric coordinate system. During work the question emerged, if uncertainty in the geo-referencing of individual data might affect the aggregated 'block' statistics to an extent that the statistics have an unpredictably high additional uncertainty, which makes them unusable. In this note we try to quantify the effect, based on simulations. The overall result is that the relevant statistics should not be affected too badly in most cases, in particular if the rate of mis-allocations, and the mean uncertainty of coordinates are not too high, so that also cell statistics which are to some degree distorted by mis-allocated data, can still be used for the purpose of the European Radon map.

  5. Parallel data grabbing card based on PCI bus RS422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenghui; Shen Ji; Wei Dongshan; Chen Ziyu

    2005-01-01

    This article briefly introduces the developments of the parallel data grabbing card based on RS422 and PCI bus. It could be applied for grabbing the 14 bits parallel data in high speed, coming from the devices with RS422 interface. The methods of data acquisition which bases on the PCI protocol, the functions and their usages of the chips employed, the ideas and principles of the hardware and software designing are presented. (authors)

  6. Modeling and validating the grabbing forces of hydraulic log grapples used in forest operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Lihai Wang

    2003-01-01

    The grabbing forces of log grapples were modeled and analyzed mathematically under operating conditions when grabbing logs from compact log piles and from bunch-like log piles. The grabbing forces are closely related to the structural parameters of the grapple, the weight of the grapple, and the weight of the log grabbed. An operational model grapple was designed and...

  7. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  8. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  9. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello; Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  10. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  11. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  12. Radon-222 and radium-226 in southeastern Bering Sea shelf waters and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, D.M.; Reeburgh, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Radon-222 and 226 Ra activities were measured in the waters and sediment of the southeastern Bering Sea shelf to evaluate the use of radon as a tracer of gas exchange, water column mixing and sediment-water exchange. Cross-shelf distributions of 222 Rn and 226 Ra are presented. Gas transfer coefficients were estimated using near-surface 222 Rn deficiency measurements. A statistically significant linear relationship between averaged wind speed and transfer coefficient was found. Vertical eddy diffusivities were evaluated by applying a one-dimensional model to near-bottom excess 222 Rn distributions; these diffusivities were compared to independently determined values. The one-dimensional model applied to the near-bottom 222 Rn data was found to be inadequate and a two-dimensional model was applied to improve the fit between model and data. Exchange across the sediment-water interface was computed from the deficiency of 222 Rn measured in sediment cores, standing crop estimates of excess 222 Rn in the water column and 222 Rn production rates of sediment surface grab samples. Biological irrigation of the sediments appeared to be the primary exchange mechanism between the sediment and water columns. Distributions in the water column showed finestructure reported previously and suggested biological removal of 226 Ra. (author)

  13. Energy-Pile installation in Grabs, Switzerland; EPF-Anlage - Erweiterung Dividella AG, Grabs. Energiepfahlanlage - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morath, M.

    2005-07-01

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that measured the performance of the energy-pile installation in Grabs, Switzerland. The piles used to support a factory and office building are used as heat exchangers to provide heating and cooling for the manufacturing facility. The report presents measurements collected over a two year period that show that the concept chosen works well. The performance of the system is commented on and figures are quoted for coefficients of performance of the system and the amounts of energy transferred to and from the ground below the facility. The economic performance of the system is also commented on. Schematics of the installation are included and data is presented in graphical form.

  14. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  15. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe, E-mail: jean-philippe.drolet@ete.inrs.ca [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Martel, Richard [Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Eau Terre Environnement Research Centre (ETE-INRS), 490 de la Couronne, G1K 9A9 Quebec (Canada); Poulin, Patrick [Institut national de santé publique du Québec (INSPQ), 945 avenue Wolfe, G1V 5B3 Quebec (Canada); Dessau, Jean-Claude [Agence de la santé et des services sociaux des Laurentides, 1000 rue Labelle, J7Z 5 N6 Saint-Jérome (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m{sup 3} in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for

  16. Methodology developed to make the Quebec indoor radon potential map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drolet, Jean-Philippe; Martel, Richard; Poulin, Patrick; Dessau, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a relevant approach to predict the indoor radon potential based on the combination of the radiogeochemical data and the indoor radon measurements in the Quebec province territory (Canada). The Quebec ministry of health asked for such a map to identify the radon-prone areas to manage the risk for the population related to indoor radon exposure. Three radiogeochemical criteria including (1) equivalent uranium (eU) concentration from airborne surface gamma-ray surveys, (2) uranium concentration measurements in sediments, (3) bedrock and surficial geology were combined with 3082 basement radon concentration measurements to identify the radon-prone areas. It was shown that it is possible to determine thresholds for the three criteria that implied statistically significant different levels of radon potential using Kruskal–Wallis one way analyses of variance by ranks. The three discretized radiogeochemical datasets were combined into a total predicted radon potential that sampled 98% of the studied area. The combination process was also based on Kruskal–Wallis one way ANOVA. Four statistically significant different predicted radon potential levels were created: low, medium, high and very high. Respectively 10 and 13% of the dwellings exceed the Canadian radon guideline of 200 Bq/m 3 in low and medium predicted radon potentials. These proportions rise up to 22 and 45% respectively for high and very high predicted radon potentials. This predictive map of indoor radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was validated using a map of confirmed radon exposure in homes based on the basement radon measurements. It was shown that the map of predicted radon potential based on the radiogeochemical data was reliable to identify radon-prone areas even in zones where no indoor radon measurement exists. - Highlights: • 5 radiogeochemical datasets were used to map the geogenic indoor radon potential. • An indoor radon potential was determined for each

  17. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  18. Radon gas measurement in Corum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzbey, S.; Celebi, N.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of the natural radioactive sources in earth's crust which has long half-life and the degradation products of these in the environmental medium such as earth, rocks, foods, water, air, forms the basis of radiation which people are exposed to. Radon is the unique radioactive gas in the nature and it is made up of radium which is the result of uranium degradation. It is necessary to determine the radon concentration because of the difference in the concentration of uranium existence in different places. TAEK (Turkish Atomic Energy Authority) allows 400 Bq/m 3 of radon concentration at houses, 1000 Bq/m 3 at offices per year. In this attempt, government buildings, houses and offices were determined as the sampling places in Corum city center and towns to represent Corum. While disposing the radon measuring detectors, places which are close to the ground level were preferred. 74 radon detectors were left in those places for 60 days and in the end the detectors were collected while discontinuing the connection of environment and they were assessed. According to the results, the average radon gas concentration in 14 government buildings is 71,71 Bq/m 3 , in 15 offices 32,26 Bq/m 3 and at houses 42,34 Bq/m 3 .

  19. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano; Mediciones de radon y elementos quimicos: Volcan Popocatepetl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M. [IGFUNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. [UMR 5569 CNRS Hydrosciences, Montpellier (France)

    2002-07-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  20. Radon Exhalation from some Finishing Materials Frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2011-01-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content was studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses was also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and 35 μSv from radon and gamma respectively. (author)

  1. Radon exhalation from some Finishing Materials frequently used in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Raja, G.

    2009-02-01

    Building materials are one of the main radon sources in dwellings. Therefore, the determination of radon exhalation from these materials will help in prediction the existence of dwelling with potential radon risk. Ceramic tiles and marble samples were collected from Syrian local market. The correlation between radon exhalation from these materials and radium-226 content were studied. Results showed that there is no clear relation between radium content and radon exhalation rate, and the exhalation of radon did not exceed the permissible limits of American Environment Protection Agency (EPA). In addition, the additional annual dose from radon and gamma of the natural radioactivity in ceramic and marble when used as finishing materials in houses were also estimated and found to be not exceeding 20 μSv and μ35 Sv from radon and gamma respectively. (author)

  2. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  3. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  4. Uranium and radon surveys in western Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The water samples from mountain springs, streams and river systems in the western Himalaya were collected and analysed in the laboratory for uranium and radon contents. It is observed that the Himalayan river system is conspicuous by its high dissolved uranium and radium concentration. The water samples contain from 0.89 ppb to 63.4 ppb of uranium and from 34 Bq/I to 364 Bq/I of radon. The radon emanation in soil is measured by the track-etch method, emanometry and alpha-logger technique. The daily and long-term variation of radon was monitored in some mineralized zones of Himachal Pradesh (HP) state with high uranium content in the soil. The maximum values of radon are recorded in Chhinjra, Rameda, Samurkala and Kasol areas of HP. (author)

  5. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  6. Evaluation of experiences in long-term radon and radon-daughter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing side-by-side measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations using several instruments and techniques, and is comparing these measurements with side-by-side measurements made by other investigators at other locations. The standard deviation of the differences between the (natural) logarithms of the Terradex Track Etch radon concentrations and the logarithms of the Radon Progency Integrating Sampling Units (RPISU) radon daughter concentrations (S.D.-ln) measured in 50 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, was 0.37. Using this S.D.-ln, it can be calculated that if the Track Etch radon daughter concentration is 0.010 WL there should be only a 14% probability that the RPISU average would be greater than 0.015 WL, and only a 3% probability tht the RPISU average would be greater than 0.020 WL. If buildings had been cleared from remedial action when the Track Etch averages were less than 0.10 WL, then about 61% of the buildings would have been cleared from remedial action, and only a few percent of these buildings would have actually had average RPISU concentrations greater than 0.015 WL. The S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements made by ALARA at Grand Junction, the PERM radon measurements and the MOD-225 radon daughter measurements made by Mound Facility at Canonsburg and Middlesex, and the PERM and Track Etch radon measurements made by Mound Facility at Salt Lake City were similar to the S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements at Edgemont

  7. Radon as a groundwater tracer in Forsmark and Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolander, Sara

    2009-10-01

    classified as recharge wells and all wells with radon concentrations above the steady stat e radon concentration were classified as discharge wells. The wells with radon concentrations within the range of steady state concentrations were classified as wells with groundwater that had been stagnant for at least 30 days. Most of the classified wells were classified as stagnant wells with concentrations within the range of steady state radon concentration. Only one well had low radon concentration and was classified as recharging well. This means that radon probably is a poor tracer for recharging groundwater in the Forsmark area since recharge is only identified at one site. Four wells had radon concentration significantly higher than the steady state radon concentration. This indicates discharge of deep groundwater with high radon concentration from conductive fracture zones in the bedrock at these sites. Three of these four wells are found in the catchment of Gaellsbotraesket where signs of discharging deep groundwater have been found in previous investigations. This shows that the results from this study can be used to support the conclusions from previous studies. In general this study showed that there were no systematic differences in radon concentrations of groundwater between recharge areas and discharge areas. Even if discharging groundwater was detected in the catchment of Gaellsbotraesket the usefulness of radon as a tracer was proven to be limited in this study since no general conclusions of the groundwater flow in Laxemar or Forsmark could be drawn from the radon measurements. This may be due to the short half-life of radon that makes the signals of recharge and discharge waters decay away before the water reaches the sampling wells. It can also be caused by the fact that signals from deep groundwater with high radon concentrations are diluted by the much larger volume of near surface groundwater

  8. Mapping of groundwater radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aekerblom, G.; Lindgren, J.

    1997-01-01

    The domestic use of water with elevated radon concentration may represent a public health hazard, partly due to the release of radon to the indoor air. While only a limited number of countries have implemented regulations with respect to radon in water, many more are considering doing so. The compulsory limits proposed by Swedish authorities are 100 Bq/1 for public water, while water from private wells is not to exceed 1000 Bq/1. Furthermore, it is recommended that water with a radon content above 500 Bq/1 should not be given to children under five years of age. In Sweden, the estimated number of wells with radon levels above 1000 Bq/1 exceeds 10,000, with a considerable amount in excess of 10,000 Bq/1. The highest radon concentration in a well supplying drinking water encountered so far is 57,000 Bq/1. Radon levels exceeding 500 Bq/1 are almost exclusively found in wells drilled into bedrock and in springs with intramontaneous water. Elevated ground water radon levels require that the water has passed through bedrock with elevated concentration of uranium, or through fractures with coatings of minerals containing enhanced concentrations of radium-226. Intramontaneous water from areas with uranium-bearing rock types (e.g. uranium-rich granites, pegmatites and vulcanites) often manifests elevated radon levels. Routines for the establishment of risk maps focusing on water are currently under development. The backbone of the process is the access to high spatial resolution radiometric information together with bedrock and soil information on a detailed scale (1:50,000). This information is available from the Geological Survey of Sweden, which is routinely carrying out airborne measurements at an altitude of 30 m and a line spacing of 200 m. While some 60% of Sweden is covered up to now, 75 % is expected to be covered within the next ten years. Other available databases utilized in the risk mapping process include radon measurements in wells, geochemical data from

  9. Unattached radon daughter atoms and radon daughter equilibrium ratios in uranium mines. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1972-01-01

    Uranium mines in Colorado and New Mexico were surveyed for airborne concentrations of radon (10043922) and radon daughters. A procedure for measuring individual daughters and the fraction of each existing as free atoms was developed and used for field monitoring. Samples were taken in working areas and particle counts were made. The data was analyzed to determine the ratio of radon to radon daughters as well as the ratios among the radon daughters. The author concludes that since the radon to working level ratios have not changed much in 20 years, using the ratio as the basis for estimating relative biological hazard is just as uncertain now as then. The large number of daughters present as free atoms indicate that the lung radiation doses calculated using any of the lung models need reexamination

  10. The reduction of radon hazard in smoke-free working environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, K.N.; Young, E.C.M.; Guan, Z.J.; Liu, X.W.

    1996-01-01

    The variations in a number of properties related to radon as a result of the presence of cigarette smoke have been investigated in an unventilated room. These properties include the radon concentration, the total potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters, the equilibrium factor and the fraction of unattached radon daughters. From the data collected, a sample calculation of the reduction of the radon dose in smoke-free working environments has been carried out. (Author)

  11. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  12. Study of radon transport through concrete modified with silica fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kumar, Amit

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of radon in soil usually varies between a few kBq/m 3 and tens or hundreds of kBq/m 3 depending upon the geographical region. This causes the transport of radon from the soil to indoor environments by diffusion and advection through the pore space of concrete. To reduce indoor radon levels, the use of concrete with low porosity and a low radon diffusion coefficient is recommended. A method of reducing the radon diffusion coefficient through concrete and hence the indoor radon concentration by using silica fume to replace an optimum level of cement was studied. The diffusion coefficient of the concrete was reduced from (1.63 ± 0.3) × 10 −7 to (0.65 ± 0.01) × 10 −8 m 2 /s using 30% substitution of cement with silica fume. The compressive strength of the concrete increased as the silica-fume content increased, while radon exhalation rate and porosity of the concrete decreased. This study suggests a cost-effective method of reducing indoor radon levels. -- Highlights: • Radon diffusion study through silica fume modified concrete was carried out. • Radon diffusion coefficient of concrete decreased with increase of silica fume contents. • Compressive strength increased with increase of silica fume. • Radon exhalation rates and porosity of samples decreased with addition of silica fume. • Radon diffusion coefficient decreased to 2.6% by 30% silica fume substitution

  13. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  14. Radon anomalies along faults in North of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Tamimi, M.H.; Abumurad, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    Radon emanation was sampled in five locations in a limestone quarry area using SSNTDs CR-39. Radon levels in the soil air at four different well-known traceable fault planes were measured along a traverse line perpendicular to each of these faults. Radon levels at the fault were higher by a factor of 3-10 than away from the faults. However, some sites have broader shoulders than the others. The method was applied along a fifth inferred fault zone. The results show anomalous radon level in the sampled station near the fault zone, which gave a radon value higher by three times than background. This study draws its importance from the fact that in Jordan many cities and villages have been established over an intensive faulted land. Also, our study has considerable implications for the future radon mapping. Moreover, radon gas is proved to be a good tool for fault zones detection

  15. National survey of indoor radon levels in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Katic, M.; Faj, Z.; Lukacevic, I.; Planinic, J.; Suveljak, B.; Faj, D.; Lukic, M.

    2006-01-01

    National survey of indoor radon was performed by a random sampling of thousand (782 realized) dwellings in Croatia. Radon concentrations were measured for one year with LR-115 SSNT detectors and arithmetic and geometric means of 68 and 50 Bq/m 3 were obtained, respectively. The arithmetic means of radon concentrations on 20 counties were from 33 to 198 Bq/m 3 . The percentage of dwellings with radon concentrations above 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 was 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average annual effective dose of the indoor radon was estimated as 2.2 mSv. (author)

  16. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S.

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations

  17. Land Grabbing and Human Rights: the Involvement of European Corporate and Financial Entities in Land Grabbing outside the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Borras jr. (Saturnino); P. Seufert (Philip); S. Backes (Stephan); D. Fyfe (Daniel); R. Herre (Roman); L. Michele (Laura); E.N. Mills (Elyse)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn early research on land grabbing, the initial focus was on foreign companies investing abroad, with a particular focus on those based in countries such as China, Gulf States, South Korea, and India. In recent years, it has become evident that the range of countries land investors

  18. Volume traps - a new retrospective radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-11-01

    A new method to trace back average radon concentrations in dwellings over several decades in time has been developed. This retrospective radon monitor is based on the measurement of the alpha activity of 210 Po deposited in volume traps, for example spongy materials used for mattresses and cushions. Polyester samples with different densities have been exposed to radon-laden air. The exposures correspond to characteristic radon concentrations between 390 Bq/m 3 and 3.9 Bq/m 3 over a 20 years period. The precision in converting the 210 Po signal to the radon exposure has been improved by more than one order of magnitude compared to other common techniques. It is shown that this very sensitive method may be applied to almost all types of volume traps used in households

  19. Characterization of radon levels in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose is to describe the different types of monitoring and sampling techniques that can determine the radiation burden of the general public from radon and its decay products. This is accomplished by measuring the range and distribution of radon and radon decay products through broad surveys using simple and convenient integrating monitoring instruments. For in-depth studies of the behavior of radon decay products and calculation of the radiation dose to the lung, fewer and more intensive and complex measurements of the particle size distribution and respiratory deposition of the radon decay products are required. For diagnostic purposes, the paper describes measurement techniques of the sources and exhalation rate of radon and the air exchange inside buildings. Measurement results form several studies conducted in ordinary buildings in different geographical areas of the United States, using the described monitoring techniques, indicate that the occupants of these buildings are exposed to radon and radon decay product concentrations, varying by as much as a factor of 20

  20. Wind direction correlated measurements of radon and radon progeny in atmosphere: a method for radon source identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, R.A.; Pfitzner, J.; Johnston, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the basic principles and methodology of a wind direction correlated measurement technique which is used to distinguish the mine-related and background components of radon and radon progeny concentrations in the vicinity of the ERA Ranger Uranium Mine. Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric radon and radon progeny concentrations and wind speed and direction were conducted using automatic sampling stations. The data were recorded as a time series of half hourly averages and grouped into sixteen 22.5 degrees wind sectors. The sampling interval and the wind sector width were chosen considering wind direction variability (σ θ ) over the sampling time interval. The data were then analysed for radon and radon progeny concentrations in each wind sector. Information about the wind frequency wind speed seasonal and diurnal variations in wind direction and radon concentrations was required for proper data analysis and interpretation of results. A comparison with model-based estimates for an identical time period shows agreement within about a factor of two between the two methods. 15 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  1. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  2. Assessment of radiation exposure to miners due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.

    1979-01-01

    An overview is given of the basic considerations regarding the establishment of lung limits for miners exposed to radon and radon daughters. Problems associated with the practical conduct of radiation protection monitoring are also dealt with, for example, the implications of temporal and local variations in activity levels to the mode of sampling and the interpretation of results. (author)

  3. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  4. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  5. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  6. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  7. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  8. The radon monitoring system in Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.C.; Kwan, K.K.; Kwok, M.W.; Kwok, T.; Leung, J.K.C.; Leung, K.Y.; Lin, Y.C.; Luk, K.B.; Pun, C.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a highly sensitive, reliable and portable automatic system (H 3 ) to monitor the radon concentration of the underground experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment. H 3 is able to measure radon concentration with a statistical error less than 10% in a 1-h measurement of dehumidified air (R.H. 5% at 25 °C) with radon concentration as low as 50 Bq/m 3 . This is achieved by using a large radon progeny collection chamber, semiconductor α-particle detector with high energy resolution, improved electronics and software. The integrated radon monitoring system is highly customizable to operate in different run modes at scheduled times and can be controlled remotely to sample radon in ambient air or in water from the water pools where the antineutrino detectors are being housed. The radon monitoring system has been running in the three experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment since November 2013.

  9. Variability in the exhalation rate of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Sha, J.Y.; Cameron, P.

    1976-01-01

    In a day-long study, twenty-eight 10-min samples of breath were collected from a former radium dial painter and were analyzed for radon. The radon exhalation rate showed good short-term reproducibility, but there was a dramatic short-lived increase in the first samples collected after lunch and a slow but steady increase during the course of the day

  10. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  11. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  12. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  13. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  14. Radon exhalation rate on the Sivrice (Elazig ) fault zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, S.; Kuluoeztuerk, M. F.; Dogru, M.

    2009-01-01

    Four radon monitoring stations were built on the Sivrice Fault Zone which is a part of the East Anatolian Fault System that one of the very important two fault systems which tends to produce earthquake in Turkey. Radon exhalation rate were analyzed in the soil and water samples which collected around the stations. Radon exhalation rate in the soil and water samples were determined by using CR-39 that it is plastic detector.

  15. Control of radon daughters in underground mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swent, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses technical developments that may enable uranium mine operators to improve engineering controls of radon daughter concentrations in mines, and developments in regulatory controls. The origin of radon daughters in underground mines is explained. The procedure for sampling and determining the concentration of alpha radiation in sampled air is reviewed. The principal technical development in the last few years has been the perfection and use of a class of meters which determine radon daughter concentrations in an air sample in a matter of two or three minutes without any aging period. A number of underground uranium mine operators are now using ''instant'' type meters and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) has approved their use in a number of mines. The difficulty experienced by uranium mine operators in complying with a MSHA regulation which requires that no person be exposed to radon daughter concentrations exceeding 1 Working Level (WL) in any active working place is discussed

  16. Radon in large buildings: The development of a protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed

  17. Method for determination of radon-222 in water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomela, J.

    1993-06-01

    The procedure for the determination of radon-222 by liquid scintillation counting is quite specific for this radionuclide. Radon-222 is extracted readily from the water sample by an organic scintillant. The decay products of radon-222 will remain in the water phase whilst radon-222 will be extracted into the organic phase. Before measurement the sample is stored for three hours until equilibrium is reached between radon-222 and its alpha emitting decay products. The alpha activity from radon-222 and its decay products is measured in a liquid scintillation counter

  18. Measurements of radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    .03 L/min and the measurements were performed during 90 min approximately. Collected average levels of 222 Rn concentration were processed taking into account the internal volume of Soil Probe and connection vessels. Radon sampling was performed at a depth of 50 - 70 cm. Obtained experimental data of radon concentration present rather big variation but correlates perfectly with previously obtained results for 222 Rn activity in drinking water. Further measurements are planned to be performed at other regions of Parana State and will involve the mineral analysis of soil samples. (author)

  19. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  20. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi [Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  1. Variation of radon exhalation on building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Wang Chunhong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui; Ji Dong

    2009-01-01

    The 19 samples from different building material factories were collected for four kinds of building materials. The activity concentration and radon exhalation of building materials were measured. The radon exhalations of building materials are not obviously different if the component is same and the processes of building materials are similar. However, the radon exhalations of same kind of building material are greatly different if the components are different and the processes of building material are varied even if the activity concentrations of building material are similar. (authors)

  2. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary indoor radon measurements in a high-radon area of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunic, Z.S.; Yarmoshenko, I.V.; Kelleher, K.; Paridaens, J.; Mc Laughlin, J.P.; Celikovic, I.; Ujic, P.; Onischenko, A.D.; Jovanovic, S.; Demajo, A.; Birovljev, A.; Bochicchio, F.

    2007-01-01

    In Niska Banja, Serbia, which is a high-radon area, a comparison was made between two retrospective radon measuring methods and contemporary radon measurements. The two retrospective methods derive the radon concentrations that occurred in dwellings over longer periods in the past, based on the amount of trapped 210 Po on the surface of glass objects (surface traps, ST) or in the bulk of porous materials (volume traps, VT). Both surface implanted 210 Po in glass objects and contemporary radon in air were measured in 46 rooms, distributed in 32 houses of this radon spa-town, using a dual alpha track detector configuration (CR-39 and LR115) and CR-39 track etched detectors, respectively. In addition to the use of surface trap measurements, in 18 rooms (distributed in 15 houses) VT samples of suitable material were also collected, allowing to compare ST and VT retrospective radon concentration estimates. For each room, contemporary annual radon concentrations (CONT) were measured or estimated using seasonal correction factors. The distribution of the radon concentration in all data sets was found to be close to lognormal (Chi-square test > 0.05). Geometric means (GM) are similar, ranging from 1040 to 1380 Bq m -3 , whereas geometric standard deviations (GSD) for both the retrospective methods are greater than for the CONT method, showing reasonable agreement between VT, ST and CONT measurements. A regression analysis, with respect to the lognormal distribution of each data set, shows that for VT-ST the correlation coefficient r is 0.85, for VT-CONT r is 0.82 and for ST-CONT r is 0.73. Comparison of retrospective and contemporary radon concentrations with regard to supposed long-term indoor radon changes further supports the principal agreement between the retrospective and conventional methods

  3. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  4. Design of real-time monitoring and control system of 222Rn/220Rn sampling for radon chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Rongyan; Zhao Xiuliang; Zhang Meiqin; Yu Hong

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design of 222 Rn/ 220 Rn sampling monitoring and control system based on single-chip microcomputer of series Intel51. The hardware design involves the choosing and usage of sensors-chips, A/D conversion-chip, USB interface-chip, keyboard-chip, digital display-chip, photoelectric coupling isolation-chips and drive circuit-chips of the direct current pump. Software design is composed by software of Personal Computer (PC) and software of Single Chip Microcomputer (SCM). The data acquisition and conversion and the flux control of direct current pump are realized by using soft of Visual Basic and assemble language. The program flow charts are given. Furthermore, we improved the stability of the direct current pump by means of PID Control Algorithms. (authors)

  5. Mapping the geogenic radon potential of the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, Jesús G.; Alonso, Hector; Arnedo, Miguel. A.; Tejera, Alicia; Martel, Pablo; Gil, Juan M.; Rodriguez, Rafael; González, Jonay

    2014-05-01

    The main contribution of indoor radon comes from soils and thus, the knowledge of the concentration of this gas in soils is important for estimating the risk of finding high radon indoor concentrations. To characterize the behavior of radon in soils, it is common to use the a quantity named Radon Potential which results of a combination of properties of the soil itself and from the underlying rock, such as concentration and distribution of radium, porosity, permeability, the moisture content and meteorological parameters, among others. In this work, the results three year of campaigns of measurement radon gas as well as the permeability in soils of the Eastern Canary Islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) are presented. By combining these two parameters and through the use of geostatistic interpolation techniques, the radon potential of soils is estimated and it is used to carry on a classification of the territory into hazard zones according to their potential for radon emanation. To measure the radon soil gas a probe equipped with a "lost" sharp tip is inserted to the desired sampling depth. One of the characteristics of the Canary Islands is the absence of developed soils and so the bedrock is found typically at very shallow depth. This fact has led us to adopt a sampling depth of 50 cm at most. The probe is connected to the continuous radon monitor Durridge RAD7 equipped with a solid-state alpha spectrometer to determine concentration radon using the activity its short-lived progeny. Dried soil air is delivered to the RAD7 radon monitor by pumping. A half hour counting time for all sampling points has been taken. In parallel to the radon measurement campaign, the permeability of soils has also been determined at each point using the permeameter RADON-JOK. The principle of operation of this equipment consists of air withdrawal by means of negative pressure. The gas permeability is then calculated using the known flow of air flowing through the probe

  6. The radon transform. Theory and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, P.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is the mathematical Radon transform, which is well suited for curve detection in digital images, and for reconstruction of tomography images. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the Radon- and the Hough-transform and especially their discrete approximations with respect to curve parameter detection in digital images. The sampling relationships of the Radon transform is reviewed from a digital signal processing point of view. The discrete Radon transform is investigated for detection of curves, and aspects regarding the performance of the Radon transform assuming various types of noise is covered. Furthermore, a new fast scheme for estimating curve parameters is presented. Part II of the thesis describes the inverse Radon transform in 2D and 3D with focus on reconstruction of tomography images. Some of the direct reconstruction schemes are analyzed, including their discrete implementation. Furthermore, several iterative reconstruction schemes based on linear algebra are reviewed and applied for reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. A new and very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction methods is devised. In a more practical oriented chapter, the noise in PET images is modelled from a very large number of measurements. Several packagers for Radon- and Hough-transform based curve detection and direct/iterative 2D and 3D reconstruction have been developed and provided for free. (au) 140 refs

  7. Radon emanometric technique for 226Ra estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandakini Maharana; Sengupta, D.; Eappen, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on natural background radiation show that the major contribution of radiation dose received by population is through inhalation pathway vis-a-vis contribution from radon ( 222 Rn) gas. The immediate parent of radon being radium ( 226 Ra), it is imperative that radium content is measured in the various matrices that are present in the environment. Among the various methods available for the measurement of radium, gamma spectrometry and radiochemical method are the two extensively used measurement methods. In comparison with these two methods, the radon emanometric technique, described here, is a simple and convenient method. The paper gives details of sample processing, radon bubbler, Lucas cell and the methodology used in the emanometric method. Comparison of emanometric method with gamma spectrometry has also undertaken and the results for a few soil samples are given. The results show a fairly good agreement among the two methods. (author)

  8. Discussion on the source of radon in uranium exploration method using radon-released thermal effect in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shoutian.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the source of radon in uranium exploration method using radon-released thermal effect. In minerals by means of scintillation emanometry, we have carried out the measurement on radon content in minerals at various temperature in barren and ore-bearing granites of the granite-type uranium deposit No. 752, and inclusion decrepitation method has also been used to determine the temperature of decrepitation and its relative frequency. It was found from experiments that heated samples may release most of radon prior to inclusion decrepitation, radon released from thermal effect was, on the contrary, very little at temperature intervals of inclusion decrepitation on a large scale basis. When inclusions were ground after radon releasing, it would still release from inclusions after reheating. The radon content calculated from uranium content in inclusions is lower than the sensitivity of the determination method, so it is too difficult to be determined, indicating that the radon content released is not related to inclusions. Samples were determined by uranium chemical analysis and radium radiochemical analysis and it is obvious to note that the radon content released from thermal effect in minerals is positively correlated to the uranium and radium content. Various kinds of experiments suggest that radon is not derived from inclusions but from the whole mineral

  9. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Malinovsky, G.; Vasilyev, A.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400 000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m"3. The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m"3. - Highlights: • Reconstruction of indoor radon concentration distribution in Russia was carried out. • Data of official annual 4-DOZ reports were used. • All-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. • The 95-th percentile is 160 Bq/m"3.

  10. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  11. Measurements of radon and chemical elements: Popocatepetl volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Segovia, N.; Lopez, B.; Reyes, A.V.; Armienta, M.A.; Valdes, C.; Mena, M.; Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Popocatepetl volcano is a higher risk volcano located at 60 Km from Mexico City. Radon measurements on soil in two fixed seasons located in the north slope of volcano were carried out. Moreover the radon content, major chemical elements and tracks in water samples of three springs was studied. The radon of soil was determined with solid detectors of nuclear tracks (DSTN). The radon in subterranean water was evaluated through the liquid scintillation method and it was corroborated with an Alpha Guard equipment. The major chemical elements were determined with conventional chemical methods and the track elements were measured using an Icp-Ms equipment. The radon on soil levels were lower, indicating a moderate diffusion of the gas across the slope of the volcano. The radon in subterranean water shown few changes in relation with the active scene of the volcano. The major chemical elements and tracks showed a stable behavior during the sampling period. (Author)

  12. Thoron and radon progeny concentration measurements using direct progeny sensors in HLNRAs of Kerala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, R.; Prajith, R.; Gole, A.C.; Kanse, S.D.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Sapra, B.K.; Mayya, Y.S.; Jayalekshmi, P.; Nair, Raghu Ram K.

    2010-01-01

    Passive Progeny Dosimeters (PPDs) were deployed in 500 houses in 3 villages namely Allapad, Chavara and Neendakara villages of Karunagapally Taluk of Kollam district of Kerala. Each PPD unit is a combination of a DTPS and a DRPS placed side-by-side for time integrated thoron and radon progeny concentration estimation respectively. The PPDs were suspended vertically in the rooms, such that the nearest distance from any wall or surface was at least 30 cm. These are, as of now, being exposed for a period of 3 months, after which they will be retrieved and analysed by chemical etching and track counting. Simultaneously, external gamma radiation measurements have also been made using a survey meter; these showed a variation from 13 to 118 μR/h in indoors and 21 to 213 μR/h in the outdoor environments. Spot measurements of thoron progeny concentrations were also made in 7 selected houses using the conventional grab filter-paper sampling technique at a flow-rate of 21 min -1 for 30 minutes, followed by alpha counting. The average thoron progeny concentration was found to be 2.0 ± 0.7 Bq m -3 . In the outdoor environment, filter-paper sampling was carried out for 2 hours at 21 min -1 and the thoron progeny concentration was measured as 2.96 Bq m -3 . To corroborate these measurements, a flow mode integrated sampler which uses the DTPS and DRPS elements was used

  13. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  14. Monitoring of radon isotopes and affiliated disintegration products (ADP) in soil air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O. M.; Bogacheva, E. S.; Bouchawach, Fauzi Hadji; Chudakov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of research is a physic and mathematical model of the process of radon determining in soil air and water by the way of its sampling for absorbent, preparation of a sample to measurement taking, ADP radiometry: Pb- 214, Bi-214 in a sample, calculation of radon activity concentration in an initial medium. The target of research is experimental determining of assignment parameters of devices, used for radon sampling and measurement of its ADP activity in relation to the methods being developed with estimation of their expected metrological performance, analysis of radon and ADP content for ecological research in relation to objectives of radon and ADP monitoring in environmental objects. (author)

  15. The impact of coastal grabbing on community conservation – a global reconnaissance

    OpenAIRE

    Bavinck, Jan Maarten; Berkes, Fikret; Charles, Anthony; Dias, Ana Carolina Esteves; Doubleday, Nancy; Nayak, Prateep; Sowman, Merle

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1186/s40152-017-0062-8 . "Coastal grab" refers to the contested appropriation of coastal (shore and inshore) space and resources by outside interests. This paper explores the phenomenon of coastal grabbing and the effects of such appropriation on community-based conservation of local resources and environment. The approach combines social-ecological systems analysis with socio-legal property rights studies. Evidence of coastal grab is provided from four countr...

  16. Grab for gripping open moulds and those closed with a lid with radioactive contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The grap consists of a through shaft at the top end of which the crane suspension is fastened. The lower shaft end carries a star-shaped sleeve, whose six arms have radial slots. Grab arms with grab claws alternatively directed inwards and outwards are assigned to the six arms of the sleeve. The grab arms can be actuated or held in the guides or switching curves in three different positions. (DG) [de

  17. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  18. Indoor Air '93. Particles, microbes, radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, P.; Jantunen, M.; Seppaenen, O.

    1993-01-01

    The conference was held in Helsinki, Finland, July 4-8, 1993. The proceedings of the conference were published in 6 volumes. The main topics of the volume 5 are: (1) particles, fibers and dust - their concentrations and sources in buildings, (2) Health effects of particles, (3) Need of asbestos replacement and encapsulation, (4) Seasonal and temporal variation of fungal and bacterial concentration, (5) The evaluation of microbial contamination of buildings, (6) New methods and comparison of different methods for microbial sampling and evaluation, (7) Microbes in building materials and HVAC-systems, (8) Prevention of microbial contamination in buildings, (9) Dealing with house dust mites, (10) Radon measurements and surveys in different countries, (11) The identification of homes with high radon levels, (12) The measurement methods and prediction of radon levels in buildings, and (13) Prevention of radon penetration from the soil

  19. Factors affecting passive monitoring of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Tomohiro; Kahn, B.

    1989-09-01

    In recent years, increasing cancer has been expressed as a possible health hazards associated with long-term exposures to a large population at a low level of radon in the environment. Because radon is ubiquitous nuclide, nation-wide monitoring is necessary to determine lung cancer risk. For such purpose, passive sampling methods with track etch detector or charcoal adsorption collector may have the advantage in lower cost and convenience. The charcoal adsorption collector is considered in this study. Various factors may significantly affect the charcoal adsorption mechanism on its practical application. Moisture effects are discussed here as having major impact on radon collection by charcoal. Set of equations are presented in this report to describe adsorption of radon including moisture effects. (author) 61 refs

  20. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  1. Express method and radon gas measurement detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the activated charcoal adsorption method. The detector consisted of an electronic unit (200 mm x 180 mm x 80 mm) and a scintillation cell (a tube 200 mm long, 60 mm diam.). The electronic unit contained a power supply, amplifier, discriminator, timer, counter and indicator. The scintillation cell contained a zinc sulfide scintillator, photomultiplier, preamplifier, high voltage power supply and a 200 ml chamber above the scintillator. This chamber was intended to situate activated carbon fibrous absorber and air compressor. In this method, air is drawn through a filter to remove radon decay products and then through the activated carbon cloth by using a compressor. Sampling takes between 5 and 15 minutes. After the sampling, the cloth is heated for 5-10 sec up to 200-250 deg C by electric current passing through the fiber. Radon gas evaporates from the cloth and the device detects scintillation pulses. Owing to a high radon preconcentration factor (by adsorption of radon on the activated carbon cloth from 50-150 L of air of and evaporation into the small volume of the chamber), the detection limit of the method is 2-4 Bq/m 3 . Since the distance between the filter, cloth and scintillator is over 80 mm, the detector only measures radiation from radon without interference from the radon decay products, remaining in the filter and cloth

  2. Experimental study of radon and thoron diffusion through barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durcik, M; Havlik, F [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, 83301 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The measurement results of diffusion parameters for radon (radon-222) and thoron (radon-220) through barriers, experimental equipment and theoretical background of diffusion are presented in this paper. The diffusion barriers are used for measuring radon and thoron by passive detectors in order to test the reduction techniques in houses. Six samples (filter paper, rubber, polyethylene, glass laminate, polypropylene) were studied for radon diffusion. The thickness barriers were from 0.012 mm to 2 mm, the diffusion area was 16 cm{sup 2} and the volume V{sub 2} was 30 dm{sup 3}. The diffusion constants D were obtained using given expressions and the data from measurements. The procedures used in experiments are useful for study of diffusion ability of radon and thoron in barriers and determination diffusion parameters from short term measurements. (J.K.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs.

  3. Experimental study of radon and thoron diffusion through barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durcik, M.; Havlik, F.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement results of diffusion parameters for radon (radon-222) and thoron (radon-220) through barriers, experimental equipment and theoretical background of diffusion are presented in this paper. The diffusion barriers are used for measuring radon and thoron by passive detectors in order to test the reduction techniques in houses. Six samples (filter paper, rubber, polyethylene, glass laminate, polypropylene) were studied for radon diffusion. The thickness barriers were from 0.012 mm to 2 mm, the diffusion area was 16 cm 2 and the volume V 2 was 30 dm 3 . The diffusion constants D were obtained using given expressions and the data from measurements. The procedures used in experiments are useful for study of diffusion ability of radon and thoron in barriers and determination diffusion parameters from short term measurements. (J.K.). 2 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  4. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  5. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  6. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  7. Radon/radium detection increases uranium drilling effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, R.H.; Cook, L.M.

    1979-01-01

    The use of portable radon detectors has become routine in reconnaissance uranium surveys where water and sediment samples are analyzed in field labs for radon and radium, and in detailed work where drill hole locations are pinpointed by field determinations of radon in soil gas from shallow holes. During the drilling program itself, however, very few operators are taking advantage of radon and radium analyses to decide whether a barren drill hole was a near miss or whether the immediate area can be written off. The technique, which is outlined here, is effective both above and below the water table

  8. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  9. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  10. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, B.E.; Boman, C.A.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  11. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  12. Study on the influence factors about the soil radon measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zixiang; Liu Yanbin; Jia Yuxin; Mai Weiji; Liu Xiaolian; Yang Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore relevant factors about the soil radon measurement and provide gist of formulating correct measure method by studying the way of the soil radon measurement. Methods: Deflation-ionization room standard is adopted. Results: The concentration of soil radon becomes higher with the sample's volume added, it also augmented with the measure depth increased in certain degree; The concentration of soil radon changes little when sample's depth is above 60 cm; The time of deflation has no obvious influence on the concentration of soil radon, but microwave show serious effect on it; The results will be lowered when the desiccant is humidified, raining has the same affection on it; Plant has some impact on it. Conclusion: The measured results will be affected by microwave, oscillate and plant. Sample's volume and depth, soil's humidity can influence it too. The result's veracity can be guaranteed by choosing appropriate sample and measure condition. (authors)

  13. Study of a Greek area with enhanced indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louizi, A.; Nikolopoulos, D.; Koukouliou, V.; Kehagia, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the focus is on Arnea Chalkidikis, an area in Greece with granitic geological background and indications of possible elevated radon concentration indoors. Data are reported of indoor radon measurements with etched track detectors and those used for dosimetric estimations. Moreover, data are reported on soil gas and soil radon concentrations in Arnea, as well as radon and uranium concentrations in water samples. From the measured radon concentrations in water samples the contribution to the overall dose has been calculated. For a period of 1 month, indoor radon and progeny activity has also been monitored in the dwelling that has the maximum indoor radon concentration in Greece. This dwelling is in Arnea and the dose delivered to the inhabitants has been calculated. Mean annual effective dose due to indoor radon was 4.5 mSv and about 11% of this was due to the use of water. Mean soil gas concentration and soil radon concentration were (90 ± 30) kBq m -3 (P -3 (P -1 (P<0.05). (author)

  14. Monitoring employee exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Lokan, K.H.

    1979-06-01

    Practical methods for measuring the concentration in air of radon and radon daughter are reviewed, and straightforward procedures are described for reliable field measurements. Typical field data, and sample calculations are provided, together with suitable procedures for calculating and reporting cumulative radon daughter exposures

  15. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  16. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  17. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  18. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  19. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  20. Radon levels in drinking water of Fatehabad district of Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, Vikas; Sharma, Samriti; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in 59 groundwater samples collected from Fatehabad district of Haryana, India. The measurements were performed by RAD7 an electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company Inc. The measured radon concentration ranged from 1.4 to 22.6 Bq l −1 . 14% of the groundwater samples were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended value for radon in water. The annual effective dose for ingestion and inhalation was also evaluated in this research. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation of radon in drinking water varied from 14.1 to 221.8 µSv y −1 . - Highlights: • We report the radon concentration in 59 groundwater samples from Haryana. • The water samples were characterized by RAD7 radon detector. • A 14% of the groundwater samples were above the USEPA recommended value. • Total annual effective dose from 12 locations was above EU Council recommendations.

  1. Results of atmospheric radon survey from the tenth Antarctica expedition, 1990-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Subba Ramu, M.C.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of the measurement of atmospheric radon (Rn) levels carried out en route to and from Antarctica and indoor Rn daughter levels at Antarctica are presented in this paper. Grab sampling and integrated methods were used for the measurements. The atmospheric Rn levels are found to decrease steadily from 2400 mBq.m -3 at Goa to 40 mBq.m -3 at the equator. It is found to decrease further to 13 mBq.m -3 towards 70degS. At Maitree station (70degS, 11degE), it varied from 20 to 30 mBq.m -3 . Measured indoor Rn daughter levels (equilibrium equivalent concentration, EEC Rn ) at Maitree station varied from 1.7 Bq.m -3 to 21.3Bq.m -3 in various residential places of the Indian Station. Using ICRP dose conversion factor, the estimated effective dose equivalents range from 0.14 mSv/y to 1.8 mSv/y. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  2. New devices for radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevostyanov, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    This work includes the description of two new devices for radon surveys developed by the authors and produced in Kazakhstan. The first appliance is 'Ramon-Radon-01' used to measure 222 Rn radon in various mediums such as air, water, soil, and radon exhalation. The major advantage of the appliance lies in the absence of radioactive pollution in it after measurements. The appliances widely used in the CIS such as 'RAA-01', 'Alpharad' (produced by 'MTM Zaschita', Russia) and 'Alphaguard' (Germany) take samples directly to the measuring camera. For instance, the activity concentration of samples after they are taken by 'RAA-01' and 'Alpharad' is measured by means of electrostatic precipitation of RaA ( 218 Po) atoms to the square of semiconductor detector with subsequent registration of RaA alpha decay. The obvious disadvantage is that the subsequent measurement of relatively small 222 Rn activity concentration values after great values of 222 Rn activity concentration have been obtained requires a considerable exposure of the appliance sometimes exceeding 10 hours. Therefore, appliances register a relatively low value of the top measurement range of 20 KBq/m 3 . 'Alphaguard' has similar limitation resulting from precipitation of radon daughter decay products on the walls of ionizing chamber where radon activity concentration is measured. The radioactive lag of 'RAA-01', 'Alpharad' and 'Alphaguard' makes them of little use as well for automatic monitoring in the conditions of abruptly time negative derivatives on change of radon activity concentration. The second advantage is that 'Ramon-Radon-01', as opposed to above described appliances, registers almost zero radioactive lag, thanks to its constructive peculiarities which enable an abrupt increase of top range of measured value up to 5x10 5 Bq/m 3 , only limited by velocity of electron units of the appliance. The third advantage is that measurement discontinuity is determined only by time of full measurement cycle

  3. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  4. Radon measurement in the spa of Bizovac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.; Planinic, J.

    1996-01-01

    The spa of Bizovac is located 20 km on the west of Osijek in east Croatia. Radon concentrations in the air and water of the Bizovac spa were measured by the Radhome silicon detector and the average values were obtained as 70 Bq/m 3 in the indoor pool, 40 Bq/m 3 in the hotel room and 135 Bq/m 3 in the closed therapeutic bathroom. A special experiment was performed in a closed therapeutic bathroom by three bathtubes filled up with geothermal water as well as normal (potable) one from water-supply. Using measured radon concentrations in air by Radhome detector under the mentioned conditions in the closed bathroom, radon concentrations were assessed for the geothermal water as 25.3 Bq/m 3 and 2.7 Bq/m 3 for potable water. Radon in potable water, measured by the sampling glass ampoule and scintillation cell, had the concentration of 3.5 Bq/m 3 . The radon transfer factor from water to air in the indoor pool and therapeutic bathroom was 10 and 40 times higher than for normal dwelling factor (10 -4 ), respectively. The effective dose equivalent of inhaled radon for permanent personnel under the worst conditions in the spa (closed therapeutic bathroom) was 5.4 mSv/y, but visitors spending two weeks in the Bizovac spa could receive the dose of 77 μSv. (author)

  5. GrabBlur--a framework to facilitate the secure exchange of whole-exome and -genome SNV data using VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stade, Björn; Seelow, Dominik; Thomsen, Ingo; Krawczak, Michael; Franke, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of whole exomes or genomes is increasingly being used in human genetic research and diagnostics. Sharing NGS data with third parties can help physicians and researchers to identify causative or predisposing mutations for a specific sample of interest more efficiently. In many cases, however, the exchange of such data may collide with data privacy regulations. GrabBlur is a newly developed tool to aggregate and share NGS-derived single nucleotide variant (SNV) data in a public database, keeping individual samples unidentifiable. In contrast to other currently existing SNV databases, GrabBlur includes phenotypic information and contact details of the submitter of a given database entry. By means of GrabBlur human geneticists can securely and easily share SNV data from resequencing projects. GrabBlur can ease the interpretation of SNV data by offering basic annotations, genotype frequencies and in particular phenotypic information - given that this information was shared - for the SNV of interest. GrabBlur facilitates the combination of phenotypic and NGS data (VCF files) via a local interface or command line operations. Data submissions may include HPO (Human Phenotype Ontology) terms, other trait descriptions, NGS technology information and the identity of the submitter. Most of this information is optional and its provision at the discretion of the submitter. Upon initial intake, GrabBlur merges and aggregates all sample-specific data. If a certain SNV is rare, the sample-specific information is replaced with the submitter identity. Generally, all data in GrabBlur are highly aggregated so that they can be shared with others while ensuring maximum privacy. Thus, it is impossible to reconstruct complete exomes or genomes from the database or to re-identify single individuals. After the individual information has been sufficiently "blurred", the data can be uploaded into a publicly accessible domain where aggregated genotypes are

  6. Radon in streams and ground waters of Pennsylvania as a guide to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korner, L.A.; Rose, A.W.

    1977-06-01

    Radon-222, a daughter in the radioactive decay of uranium, has potential as a geochemical guide to uranium ores because of its chemical inertness and its relatively easy determination. The radon contents of 59 stream and 149 ground waters have been determined with a newly designed portable radon detector in order to test the method in uranium exploration. Radon contents of stream waters do not appear useful for reconnaissance uranium exploration of areas like Pennsylvania because of relatively rapid degassing of radon from turbulent waters, and because most radon is derived from nearby influx of ground waters into the streams. Radon in streams near uranium occurrences in Carbon and Lycoming counties is lower than many background streams. Radon in ground water is recommended as a reconnaissance method of uranium exploration because most samples from near mineralized areas are anomalous in radon. In contrast, uranium in ground waters is not anomalous near mineralized areas in Carbon County. Equations are derived to show the relation of radon in ground waters to uranium contents of enclosing rocks, emanation of radon from the solids to water, and porosity or fracture width. Limonites are found to be highly enriched in radium, the parent of radon. A model for detection of a nearby uranium ore body by radon measurement on a pumping well has been developed

  7. Development of a radon chamber and measurement of the radon solubility in tissues; Entwicklung einer Radonkammer und Messung der Radonloeslichkeit in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas

    2015-04-22

    Every year thousands of patients with inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system undergo radon therapy, but the molecular mechanism and the risk of this therapy are not understood. To study the effects of radon exposure in vitro and in vivo we constructed a radon exposure chamber in the framework of the GREWIS project. With this device we are able to expose samples under controlled and reproducible conditions including the radon galleries in Austria and Germany. Adjustable parameters are radon activity-concentration, temperature, humidity and exposure time. These parameters are permanently monitored and controlled. During experiments with cell cultures it is also possible to adjust the CO{sub 2}-concentration. In addition, experiments with mice can be performed with this setup. To measure the radon kinetics in different types of tissue we exposed tissue samples like fat or muscle and mice in the radonchamber. Afterwards we measured the -spectra of the short living radon decay products lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the exposed samples with a HPGe-Detector. We recorded the spectra at different time points after exposure and calculated the initial amount of radon at the end of the exposure period in the sample and investigated the diffusion of the radon out of it. We compared the results from different types of tissue but also activated coal. In an activated coal sample the radon is bound to it via Van-der-Waals-force and the decay spectra are governed by the life time of the bound radon (3,8 days). In contrast in the biological samples the primary radon diffuses out of the samples in less than 20 minutes and the spectra follow the kinetics of the decay of the daughter products. These measurements where performed for the first time under therapy conditions like in radon galleries and also with higher radon concentration. In our experiments we could see an enhanced accumulation of radon and its decay products in fatty tissue compared to muscle tissue. Also in

  8. The role of house surveys in geological radon potential mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, K.

    1997-01-01

    Because radon levels vary widely between apparently identical buildings on the same geological unit, no map can predict the radon level in an individual building. Maps can, however, give the probability that a building in a particular locality is above a threshold of radon concentration such as a reference or action level. The probability may be calculated for a particular building type or for a mixture of building types. In the latter case the probability is in effect an estimate of the proportion of buildings above the threshold level. Alternatively maps can provide estimates of the mean radon levels in buildings by area. Maps showing the geographical variation in probability that new or existing building will exceed a radon reference level are used to prevent excessive exposures to radon. The information may be used in various ways, such as to target information campaigns encouraging measurement of radon levels in homes or to modify regulations for new buildings. The data which are used to provide the estimates of the proportion of buildings above a threshold may be radon measurements results from a sample of buildings, or may be indirect indicators such as ground radium concentrations, emanation coefficients and permeability measurements. Consistency in radon measurement protocols and detailed positional information are prerequisites for mapping radon prone areas based upon house data. Grouping building radon measurements by geological formation and superficial cover can produce radon potential maps which are more spatially accurate than grid square maps and more accurate in estimating numbers of homes affected than mapping based only on measuring geological and pedagogical properties

  9. Review of Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing (Liberti, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Ignacio Ochoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stefano Liberti. 2015. Los nuevos amos de la tierra. Land Grabbing. Bogotá: Penguin Random House Grupo Editorial. 250 pp. ISBN: 9788430616886. [Título original en italiano: Land Grabbing. Come il mercato delle terre crea il nuovo colonialismo].

  10. Globalisation and the foreignisation of space: The seven processes driving the current global land grab.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoomers, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current global land grab is causing radical changes in the use and ownership of land. The main process driving the land grab, or ‘foreignisation of space’, as highlighted in the media and the emerging literature is the production of food and biofuel for export in the aftermath of recent food

  11. Development of a small-sized radon data logger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Shigeki; Sasaki, Yoshimi

    1996-01-01

    A small-sized radon data logger and a electrostatic collecting radon monitor were developed for the continuous monitoring of environmental radon and radon daughters. A PIN photodiode (PD), an alpha particle defector, installed inside a container attracts radon daughters when charged electrostatically. Alpha particles are completely separated from each other according to the energy level. New logger has made it possible 10 analysts and save the radon data. Alpha particle count data from radon daughters are automatically integrated over preset time intervals and the energy regions. The desiccant P 2 O 5 was placed in the bottom of the monitor, since the collection efficiency of 218 Po atoms depends on the humidity of the air. We can get the 30 days continuous data logging at 30 min sampling frequency at any place with the car battery. We observed the radon concentration of the air inside the Super-Kamiokande dome from Jan-30 to Feb-8-1996. The average of radon concentration was found to be (46±13) Bq/m 3 . (author)

  12. Radon exhalation from building materials for decorative use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Jing, E-mail: jing.chen@hc-sc.gc.c [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada); Rahman, Naureen M.; Atiya, Ibrahim Abu [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, 775 Brookfield Road, Ottawa K1A 1C1 (Canada)

    2010-04-15

    Long-term exposure to radon increases the risk of developing lung cancer. There is considerable public concern about radon exhalation from building materials and the contribution to indoor radon levels. To address this concern, radon exhalation rates were determined for 53 different samples of drywall, tile and granite available on the Canadian market for interior home decoration. The radon exhalation rates ranged from non-detectable to 312 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Slate tiles and granite slabs had relatively higher radon exhalation rates than other decorative materials, such as ceramic or porcelain tiles. The average radon exhalation rates were 30 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for slate tiles and 42 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for granite slabs of various types and origins. Analysis showed that even if an entire floor was covered with a material having a radon exhalation rate of 300 Bq m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, it would contribute only 18 Bq m{sup -3} to a tightly sealed house with an air exchange rate of 0.3 per hour. Generally speaking, building materials used in home decoration make no significant contribution to indoor radon for a house with adequate air exchange.

  13. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Radon (222Rn) is a radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238U series. It is considered very important from radiological point of view, since it is the most significant natural source of human radiation exposure (approximately 50% from all natural sources). Radon is present in soil, rocks, building materials and waters. Through diffusion and convection, radon migrates and emanates to the atmosphere. Outdoors, radon concentrates at low levels (in the order of 10 Bq/m3). However indoors, radon accumulates significantly. It is trivial to observe indoor environments with high radon levels (in the order of 400 Bq/m3 or higher). Radon accumulation indoors, depends on the composition of the underlying soil and rock formation, on building materials, meteorological parameters, ventilation, heating and water use. Although soil and building materials are the most significant radon sources, there have been reported elevated radon concentrations in building structures due to entering water. It is the radon concentrations in the entering water, the volume and the way of water usage, separated or in combination, that result in large amounts of radon in indoor air. Moreover, radon is a factor of stomach radiation burden due to water consumption. This burden is estimated by measurements of radon concentrations in waters. Due to the health impact of radon exposure, the reporting team continuously measures radon. This work focused on the radon concentrations exposure due to water consumption and use in Greece and Cyprus. Various locations in Greece and Cyprus were accessed taking into consideration existing natural radioactivity data (mainly radon in water), however under the restriction of the capability of movement. Radon in water was measured by Alpha Guard (Genitron Ltd) via a special unit (Aqua Kit). This unit consists of a vessel used for forced degassing of radon diluted in water samples, a security vessel used for water drop deposition. Vessels and

  14. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  15. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  16. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  17. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  18. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems ... is presently working on emission of ... Radon isotope 222 has a half-life of 3.8 days, long enough to ..... 222Rn concentration of one WL for 170 working hours in one month.

  19. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  20. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  1. Numerical and analytical assessment of radon diffusion in various media and potential of charcoal as radon detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalkin, Andrey

    Numerical assessments of radon diffusion together with analytical estimates for short-time and long-time exposure were the first objective of this thesis with the goal to demonstrate how radon propagates in various media. Theoretical predictions were compared to numerical simulations, and obtained values of total radon activities inside each material match quite well with the analytical estimates. These estimates, for activated and nonactivated charcoal, were then used to evaluate the possibility of designing a charcoal system to be used as a radon detector. Another objective was to use nonactivated charcoal samples and measure the level of radon accumulation, and use these data to estimate radon diffusion and adsorption coefficients. The analytical approach was developed to estimate these values. Radon adsorption coefficient in nonactivated charcoal was found to be from 0.2 to 0.4 m3/kg. Radon diffusion coefficient for nonactivated charcoal is in the range of 1.2×10-11 to 5.1×10-10 m2/s in comparison to activated charcoal with adsorption coefficient of 4 m3/kg and diffusion coefficient of 1.43×10-9 m2/s. The third objective was to use GEANT4 numerical code to simulate decay of 238U series and 222Rn in an arbitrary soil sample. Based on that model, the goal was to provide a guideline for merging GEANT4 radioactive decay modeling with the diffusion of radon in a soil sample. It is known that radon can be used as an earthquake predictor by measuring its concentration in groundwater, or if possible, along the faults. Numerical simulations of radon migration by diffusion only were made to estimate how fast and how far radon can move along the fault strands. Among the known cases of successful correlations between radon concentration anomalies and earthquake are the 1966 Tashkent and 1976 Songpan-Pingwu earthquakes. Thus, an idea of radon monitoring along the Wasatch Fault, using system of activated/nonactivated charcoals together with solid state radon detectors is

  2. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  3. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  4. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  5. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  6. Lessons from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M.

    1993-01-01

    At EPA there is a public outreach program that the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has developed for radon. To meet the difficult challenge radon presented, OAR's Radon Division developed working relationships with national nonprofit groups who share a mission. These groups have well-established communication networks with their memberships for advancing their goals. Such diverse groups as the American Lung Association, the Advertising Council, the National Association of Counties (NACo), the Consumer Federation of America, the National Association of Homebuilders, and the National Safety Council have joined with EPA to reduce radon health risks. Through this alliance, EPA has been able to take advantage of communication channels that it could never replicate on tis own. Every group working with EPA disseminates the radon message through its own established channels to reach its constituency. These partners wield authority in their fields and are ideal for addressing the concerns of their audiences

  7. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  8. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  10. Radon emanation coefficients in sandy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Baranova, A.; Sykora, I.; Hola, O.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution the results of the study of an influence of the water content on the emanation coefficient for two sandy soil samples are reported. These samples were chosen on the because of the long-term continual monitoring of the 222 Rn concentration just in such types of soils and this radon concentration showed the significant variations during a year. These variations are chiefly given in connection with the soil moisture. Therefore, the determination of the dependence of the emanation coefficient of radon on the water content can help to evaluate the influence of the soil moisture variations of radon concentrations in the soil air. The presented results show that the emanation coefficient reaches the constant value in the wide interval of the water content for both sandy soil samples. Therefore, in the common range of the soil moisture (5 - 20 %) it is impossible to expect the variations of the radon concentration in the soil air due to the change of the emanation coefficient. The expressive changes of the radon concentration in the soil air can be observed in case of the significant decrease of the emanation coefficient during the soil drying when the water content decreases under 5 % or during the complete filling of the soil pores by the water. (authors)

  11. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  12. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  13. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  14. Removing efficiency of radon from water by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.; Gulasova, Z.; Polaskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution problem of radon removing from water samples by different methods was tested. Lowest efficiency of deemanation was achieved at tossing of water from one vessel into the other. For increasing of efficiency deemanation of radon use of needle-bath principle was also used. Low efficiency deemanation was found at trapping of radon from sample of water by toluene (83 ± 5) %, too. Reversal highest efficiency deemanation of radon from water was reached at aerating by argon (95 ± 6)%. It is shown, that reduction of volume activity of radon in water under 0.1 Bq/dm l - 3 is big problem. Suppression of this limit will claim use of more completion and sophistic approaches. (author)

  15. Estimation of radon emanation coefficient for soil and flyash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Swarnkar, M.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Since terrestrial materials include radium ( 226 Ra) originating from the decay of uranium ( 238 U), all such materials release radon ( 222 Rn) to varying degrees. When a radium atom decays to radon, the energy generated is strong enough to send the radon atom a distance of about 40 nanometers-this is known as alpha recoil. For a radon atom to escape the radium atom must be within the recoil distance from the grain surface of flyash or soil and the direction of recoil must send the radon atom toward the outside of the grain. Therefore, all of the radon atoms generated by the radium contained in flyash or soil grain are actually not released into pore spaces and mobilized. The fraction of radon atoms generated from radium decay that are released from into flyash or soil pore space is defined as the radon emanation coefficient or emanating power, of the material. Grain size and shape are two of the important factors that control the radon emanation coefficient because they determine in part how much uranium and radium is near enough to the surface of the grain to allow the newly-formed radon to escape into a pore space. In a porous medium, where the radon is in radioactive equilibrium with its parent radium, the emanation coefficient is given by the expression: where C 0 is the undiluted radon activity concentration in the pores of the medium, and C Ra is the radium activity concentration of the sample. The 226 Ra activity concentration of the flyash and soil sample were determined by using the g-spectrometry. C 0 was determined by the can experiment using LR-115 for flyash and soil samples. The C 0 values for flyash and soil samples were found to be 245.7 Bq/m 3 and 714.3 Bq/m 3 respectively. The radon emanation coefficient for flyash was found to be 0.0024 while that for soil was 0.0092. Therefore the soil sample was found to be four times higher radon emanation coefficient than flyash which is in line with the results reported in the literatures. This may suggest

  16. Radon soil gas measurements in a geological versatile region as basis to improve the prediction of areas with a high radon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabrt, Franz; Rechberger, Fabian; Schuff, Michael; Seidel, Claudia; Baumgartner, Andreas; Friedmann, Harry; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2014-01-01

    With the aim to predict the radon potential by geological data, radon soil gas measurements were made in a selected region in Styria, Austria. This region is characterised by mean indoor radon potentials of 130-280 Bq m -3 and a high geological diversity. The distribution of the individual measuring sites was selected on the basis of geological aspects and the distribution of area settlements. In this work, the radon soil gas activity concentration and the soil permeability were measured at 100 sites, each with three single measurements. Furthermore, the local dose rate was determined and soil samples were taken at each site to determine the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. During two investigation periods, long-term soil gas radon measurements were made to study the time dependency of the radon activity concentration. All the results will be compared and investigated for correlation among each other to improve the prediction of areas with high radon potential. (authors)

  17. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Radon in soil gas in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikaj, Dafina; Jeran, Zvonka; Bahtijari, Meleq; Stegnar, Peter

    2016-11-01

    An assessment of the radiological situation due to exposure to radon and gamma emitting radionuclides was conducted in southern Kosovo. This study deals with sources of radon in soil gas. A long-term study of radon concentrations in the soil gas was carried out using the SSNTDs (CR-39) at 21 different locations in the Sharr-Korabi zone. The detectors were exposed for an extended period of time, including at least three seasonal periods in a year and the sampling locations were chosen with respect to lithology. In order to determine the concentration of the natural radioactive elements 238 U and 226 Ra, as a precursor of 222 Rn, soil samples were collected from each measuring point from a depth of 0.8 m, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The levels (Bq kg -1 ) of naturally occurring radionuclides and levels (kBq m -3 ) of radon in soil gas obtained at a depth 0.8 m of soil were: 21-53 for 226 Ra, 22-160 for 238 U and 0.295-32 for 222 Rn. With respect to lithology, the highest value for 238 U and 226 Ra were found in limestone and the highest value for 222 Rn was found in metamorphic rocks. In addition, the results showed seasonal variations of the measured soil gas radon concentrations with maximum concentration in the spring months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon in soil and homes of Osijek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Stanic, D.

    2002-01-01

    Radon, 2 22R n, is an inert radioactive gas which arises from decay of 2 26R a and ultimately from 2 38U . These parent elements are ubiquitous in the crust of the earth, although with very various concentrations. It has been recognized that Rn gas can accumulate in homes, sometimes to levels that can exceed occupational standards for mines. Enhanced concentrations of indoor radon and its also-emitting progeny 2 14P o and 2 18P o can increase the risk of pulmonary diseases, that was first observed still among underground miners (ICRP, 1987; Lubin et al., 1990; Gilliland et al., 2000). Because of the uncertainty inherent in extrapolating risks from studies of miners to the general population, epidemiological studies have been undertaken to confirm the presumed harm (carcinogenesis) of indoor radon ( Stidley and Samet, 1993; Cohen, 1995). We undertook so called ecologic and case-control studies for inhabitants of the Osijek town (East Croatia, a hundred thousand citizens) to investigate an association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer rate; some results showed a positive linear regression for the mentioned variables, although the correlation coefficient was not statistically significant, or statistical samples were not large enough (Planinic et al., 2002; further investigation is going on). A particular problem was to determine indoor radon concentrations with a satisfied precision (that reduces sample size), as well as to find a cause of their variation

  20. Radon risk in ore miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, M.

    1997-01-01

    Underground workers are exposed to various clastogenic agents. One of these agents, radon, attracts attention of recent research as it causes lung cancer in the population occupationally exposed to its various concentrations especially in mine air of uranium mines or ore mines. This paper is a pilot study in which the numbers of chromosomal aberrations (CA) in lymphocytes of ore mines (Nizna Slana-iron ore, Hnusta-talc ore) located in east central Slovakia were followed and related to the lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. Seventy miners volunteering after an informed consent served as donors of venous blood. Twenty healthy pro-bands, age matched with the miners, which never worked underground (mostly clerks) served as donors of control blood samples. The exposure to radon and smoking has been estimated according to working-records and personal anamnesis. The findings unequivocally showed a small but statistically significant clastogenic effect of the exposure to underground environment of the mines concerned. This study has shown also a small but significant influence of smoking, which in the subgroup of miners working underground less than 1500 shifts may have acted synergically with the underground exposure. It was concluded tat: (1) Significantly higher counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 70 miners than in an age matched control group of 20 white-collar workers were found; (2) The higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; (3) The positive dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations from the exposure to smoking was loose and it was expressed by significantly higher chromosomal aberrations counts in the group of miners working less than 1500 shifts underground; (4) A dependence of chromosomal aberrations counts from the exposure to radon could not be assessed. At relatively low numbers of pro-bands in subgroups it was not ruled out the confounding

  1. Thoron and radon measurements in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, C.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were made to determine what effect thoron daughters have on radon working level measurements in occupied houses at Elliot Lake. The decay of radon daughters is faster than that of thoron daughters. Six hours after sampling radon daughters are no longer present on the filter, and essentially all alpha activity is due to thoron C in transient equilibrium with thoron B. The concentrations can be extrapolated back to the time of the Kuznetz count, and the WL overestimation due to the presence of thoron daughters calculated. It was found using this method that in 70 percent of the samples the thoron contribution was no more than one mWL equivalent, less than the statistical error in the estimation of working levels. Only in buildings with very low ventilation rates and large areas of exposed concrete may corrections for the presence of thoron be necessary

  2. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  3. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  4. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  5. The survey of dwellings with increased radon levels in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.

    1998-01-01

    This national survey of indoor radon measurements in a sample of dwellings in Slovakia was organised by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine in Bratislava. The aim was to find districts and type of dwellings with the highest indoor radon concentrations and to estimate the radiation load of the Slovak population owing the indoor radon exposure. Passive solid state nuclear track detectors were used to measure indoor radon concentrations. The detectors were polyallyldiglycolcarbonate CR-39 which were placed in about 6,000 selected houses (minimum two detectors for every residence). After six months exposed detectors and questionnaires were returned to for analysis. Electrochemical etching combined with a chemical pre-etching process was used for evaluating detectors. Present results are from 3,657 residents (0.2% of total dwellings in Slovakia). It was found that the arithmetic mean of equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) was 86 ± 119 Bq m -3 , the geometric mean was about 41 ± 2.22 Bq m -3 and 11% of dwellings (N = 409) have a greater EEC of radon than the action level (200 Bq m -3 ). The national survey results suggest that Slovakia may be among the countries with high radon risk in Central Europe. The population-weighted arithmetic mean is 48 Bq m -3 , the maximum value found was 1500 Bq m -3 and the average annual effective dose from indoor radon exposure is 2.1 mSv. The district with the highest indoor radon concentrations correlate with known presence of uranium in the soil, therefore the soil is probably the main source of radon in Slovak dwellings. This survey of dwellings with increased radon levels supported this conclusion, because the highest radon levels were found in older family houses without cellars. (author)

  6. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  7. Sign of Radon for locate geothermic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Teran, D.

    1991-01-01

    Evaluation of a geothermic field is based upon geological, geophysical and geochemical studies that enable the evaluation of the deposit potential, that is to say, the amount of energy per unit mass, the volume of the trapped fluid, vapor fraction and fluid chemistry. This thesis has as its objective the evaluation of radon gas emanation in high potential geothermic zones in order to utilize the results as a low cost and easy to manage complimentary tool in geothermic source prospection. In chapter I the importance and evaluation of a geothermic deposit is discussed. In chapter II the general characteristics of radon are discussed: its radioactivity and behavior upon diffusion over the earth's surface> Chapter III establishes the approach used in the geothermic field of Los Azufres, Michoacan, to carry out samplings of radon and the laboratory techniques that were used to evaluate the concentration of radon in the subsoil. Finally in chapter IV measurements of radon in the field are compared to geological faults in the area under study. The sampling zones were: low geothermic potential zone of the northern and the southern zone having a greater geothermic potential than that in the north. The study was carried out at different sampling times using plastics detectors of from 30 to 46 days from February to July. From the results obtained we concluded that the emission of radon was greater in the zones of greatest geothermic potential than in the low geothermic potential zones it was also affected by the fault structure and the time of year in which sampling was done. (Author)

  8. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  9. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  10. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  11. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  12. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  13. Radon-enriched spring waters in the South of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Hetman, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2001-01-01

    A method for determination of 222 Rn in natural water samples which involves a Wallac 1414 Win Spectral α/β liquid scintillation counter is described. Samples were collected from springs in health resorts in the Sudety Mountains in Poland. Half of the studied water samples were radon enriched with an activity concentration higher then 74 Bq/l. Seasonal variations of 222 Rn in these waters are under investigation. The method introduced is very convenient and elegant for radon activity measurements.

  14. Study on the measurement method of diffusion coefficient for radon in the soil. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao

    2000-03-01

    To investigate radon behavior in the soil at Ningyo Pass, the radon concentrations in the soil and the radon exhalation rate from soil surface were measured by four continuous soil radon monitoring systems, soil gas sampling method, and accumulation method. The radon concentrations in the soil measured with continuous soil radon monitoring systems varied form 5000 Bq·m -3 to 15000 Bq·m -3 at 10 cm to 40 cm depth. On the other hand, the radon concentrations measured by soil gas sampling method was 15000 Bq·m -3 at 15 cm depth. The accumulation method gives the vales of 0. 36∼0.68 Bq·m -2 ·s -1 for radon exhalation rate from soil surface. To simulate the radon transport in soil, the following parameters of the soil are important: radon diffusion coefficients, dry density, wet density, soil particle density, true density, water content and radium concentration. The measured radon diffusion coefficients in the soil were (1.61±0.09)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 , (8.68±0.23)x10 -7 m 2 s -1 ∼ (1.53±0.12)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 and (2.99±0.32)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 ∼ (4.39±0.43)x10 -6 m 2 s -1 for sandy soils of the campus of Nagoya University, Tsuruga peninsula, and Ningyo Pass, respectively. By using these parameters, the radon transport phenomena in the soil of two layers were calculated by analytical and numerical methods. The radon profile calculated by numerical method agrees fairly well with measured values. By covering of 2 m soil, the radon exhalation rate decreases to 1/4 by analytical method, and 3/5 by numerical method. The covering of normal soil is not so effective for reducing the radon exhalation rate. (author)

  15. Radon monitoring for the prediction of mine outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebecka, J.; Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of changes of concentrations of radon in gases occurring in coal seams prone to instantaneous outbursts of coal and gas have been performed. Gas samples have been taken from specially drilled boreholes. In coal seams prone to outbursts strong variations of radon concentration have been found, while in seams where no outbursts occurred radon concentration was much more stable. In all cases outbursts were always preceded by very low concentrations of radon, which raised again afterwards. Similar observations are performed in coal mines where a strong hazard of shocks accompanied by rock bursts occur which is caused by mining activity. Obtained results indicate the possibility of using radon as supporting indicator for prediction of instantaneous outbursts and rock bursts and may be worth-while for prevention of these catastrophes. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  16. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Lucia; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; De Capitani, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  17. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, Lucia [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: lucia.sesana@unimi.it; Polla, Giancarla [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); Facchini, Ugo [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); De Capitani, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Botticelli, 23 - 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground.

  18. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  19. Intercomparison of different instruments that measure radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap technique, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting technique), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integrating radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in indoor air). The results obtained from these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling technique was about 52% of radon concentrations

  20. Lithological and seasonal variations in radon concentrations in Cypriot groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasoula Kiliari; Anastasia Tsiaili; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses radon activity concentrations in Cypriot groundwater systems as a function of the background lithology and seasonal/meteorological conditions using an airborne radon monitoring system (ARM) after separation of radon by out-gassing. Radiometric analysis of groundwater samples obtained from non-contaminated systems showed that radon concentration in groundwaters varies strongly (0.1-10 Bq L -1 ) depending mainly on the hosting geological matrix but also to lesser degree on atmospheric/meteorological conditions. The associated excess annual dose has been estimated to range between 10 -6 and 10 -4 mSv y -1 , which is an insignificant contribution to the radiation exposure of the Cypriot population caused by airborne radon (0.5 ± 0.4 mSv y -1 ). (author)

  1. Radon measurements in well and spring water in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Samer M.; Habib, Rima R.; Nuwayhid, Rida Y.; Chatila, Malek; Katul, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    The variation of dissolved radon ( 222 Rn) levels in water supplies remains of interest because of the radiation-induced public health hazards. A large part of the Lebanese population relies on springs and wells for their drinking water. 222 Rn measurements in spring and well water sources were conducted using the E-PERM method at sites ranging from sea level to 1200m above sea level and across several geologic formations within Lebanon. The dissolved radon concentrations ranged from a low of 0.91BqL -1 in a coastal well source to a high of 49.6BqL -1 for a spring source in a mountainous region. Of the 20 sites sampled, only five had radon levels above 11BqL -1 and these mostly occurred in areas adjacent to well-known geological fault zones. A preliminary national average radon level was determined to be about 11.4BqL -1 . In general, as all determined concentrations were well below the 100 and 146BqL -1 revised reference levels proposed in the European Union and the United States, respectively, it is concluded that there is no reason to believe these water sources pose any radon-related hazard. On the other hand, at locations where water is collected directly from the springhead, it is advisable to have a settling/piping system installed allowing for further radon decay and radon loss into the air to alleviate any possible radon problem

  2. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdalla, A.M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.co [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering Laboratory (AMNEL), Centre for Advanced Materials and Nano-Engineering (CAMNE), Najran University, Najran, P.O. Box. 11001 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-15

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211]method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  3. Measurement of radon permeability through polyethylene membrane using scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashry, A.H.; Abou-Leila, M.; Abdalla, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The permeability of Radon 222 through polyethylene membranes has been studied using activated charcoal technique. The permeability constant of Radon 222 through low-density polyethylene, linear low-density Polyethylene and high density polyethylene samples has been measured. There is a considerable agreement between the values obtained by our method and the method suggested by W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211], and SSNTD technique suggested by A. Hafez and G. Somogyi [1986. Determination of radon and thoron permeability through some plastics by track technique. Int. J. Radiat. Appl. Instrum. Nucl. Track Radiat. Meas. 12 (1-6), 697-700]. In this work Radon permeability through different polyethylene membranes has been measured using three different methods, i.e. solid state nuclear track technique, W. Arafa [2002. Permeability of radon 222 through some materials. Radiat. Meas. 35, 207-211] method and our proposed method. In addition to this, in this study, the diffusion coefficient of radon in charcoal as well as solubility of Radon in polyethylene membrane has been taken into consideration.

  4. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  5. Sorption of radon-222 to natural sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.S.; Chin, Y.P.; Gschwend, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of radon to sediments was investigated, since this may affect the use of porewater radon profiles for estimating bed irrigation rates. Batch experiments showed that radon has an organic-carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficient (K oc , L kg oc -1 ) of 21.1 ± 2.9 for a Boston Harbor sediment, 25.3 ± 2.1 for a Charles River sediment, and 22.4 ± 2.6 for a Buzzards Bay sediment. These values are in close agreement with predictions using radon's octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow ), which was measured to be 32.4 ± 1.5. Temperature and ionic strength effects on K oc were estimated to be small. Given rapid sorption kinetics, the authors suggest that slurry stripping techniques used by many investigators to measure 222 Rn in sediment samples collect both sorbed and dissolved radon. Sorption effects were included in a transport model to obtain revised estimates of irrigation rates from existing literature profiles. Irrigation rates had to be increased over previously reported values in proportion to the sediment organic matter content

  6. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  7. The matter of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; O'Riordan, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    By comparison with the radiation doses from radon, the doses to individual members of the public and to the general community from nuclear activities are quite trivial. Doses from radon in some British homes exceed the statutory dose limit for nuclear workers;the collective dose from radon is two thousand times the value for nuclear discharges. And yet, too little attention - legal or otherwise - is paid to this radioactive pollutant. An attempt is made in this paper to compensate for the neglect. The origins, properties and harmful effects of radon are described. Measurements in homes and places of work are summarised. Voluntary and regulatory controls on exposure are elucidated. Questions of public administration, confidentiality of information and sale of property are discussed. Prospects for progress are assessed. (author)

  8. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  9. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  10. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  11. Measurement of radon concentration in air employing Lucas chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1997-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed to determine the main features of radon concentration gauge in air, employing 0.17 L Lucas chamber, and air sample forced by an air pump are presented. For two hour sampling and measuring cycle time the dynamic error in the worst case (first read out) equals 5 % relative to the step jump of radon concentration. This is due to the increase of activity of the decay products in the chamber. It was observed that the short lived radon decay products (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214) are depositing on the walls of the chamber and they are not removed by flushing the chamber with air. (author)

  12. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  13. Evaluation of radon occurrence in groundwater from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, 1986–2015, with application to potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.

    2017-05-11

    Results from 1,041 groundwater samples collected during 1986‒2015 from 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania, associated with 25 or more groundwater samples with concentrations of radon-222, were evaluated in an effort to identify variations in radon-222 activities or concentrations and to classify potential radon-222 exposure from groundwater and indoor air. Radon-222 is hereafter referred to as “radon.” Radon concentrations in groundwater greater than or equal to the proposed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public-water supply systems of 300 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were present in about 87 percent of the water samples, whereas concentrations greater than or equal to the proposed alternative MCL (AMCL) for public water-supply systems of 4,000 pCi/L were present in 14 percent. The highest radon concentrations were measured in groundwater from the schists, gneisses, and quartzites of the Piedmont Physiographic Province.In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Health and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, groundwater samples were aggregated among 16 geologic units in Pennsylvania to identify units with high median radon concentrations in groundwater. Graphical plots and statistical tests were used to determine variations in radon concentrations in groundwater and indoor air. Median radon concentrations in groundwater samples and median radon concentrations in indoor air samples within the 16 geologic units were classified according to proposed and recommended regulatory limits to explore potential radon exposure from groundwater and indoor air. All of the geologic units, except for the Allegheny (Pa) and Glenshaw (Pcg) Formations in the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province, had median radon concentrations greater than the proposed EPA MCL of 300 pCi/L, and the Peters Creek Schist (Xpc), which is in the Piedmont

  14. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer.

  15. Relationship between indoor radon and lung cancer: a study of feasibility of an epidemiological study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, S.; Neuberg, D.; DuMouchel, W.; Kleitman, D.; Chernoff, H.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes a study to assess the feasibility of an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer. Field measurements of residential radon levels in the State of Maine are described. Using these radon measurements and BEIR, 1980 risk assessments, it is estimated that at most 10% of lung cancers in Maine can be considered attributable to residential radon exposure. Calculations are made of sample sizes necessary for a case-control study of radon and lung cancer, for several levels of radon and smoking health effects. The effects of misclassification of exposure variables on the probability of detecting a radon health effect are discussed. A comparison is made of three different mathematical models which could be used for sample size estimation. Dollar cost estimates are given for conducting an epidemiologic case-control study of the relationship between residential radon exposure and lung cancer

  16. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  17. Radon in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The enclosed material deals with the substantial efforts made until now to control the levels of radon in Sweden dwellings. It is meant as a source material for the several publications which have emerged from the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Stockholm during 1983 and 1984. The first document is a translation of chapter 16, the deliberations of the Swedish Radon Commission, appointed by the government in 1979. Comments on the report of the commission were solicited before 1 October, 1983. (author)

  18. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  19. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  20. Review: Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Nolte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the monograph:Lorenzo Cotula, The Great African Land Grab?: Agricultural Investments and the Global Food System, London, New York: Zed Books, 2013, ISBN 9781780324203, 248 pages

  1. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  2. Determination of the Radon Concentration and Radioactivity Level in Karaca Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kara, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the radon gas concentration in the Karaca cave which is open to tourism has been determined and the negative effects of radon gas on people were discussed. Karaca cave (Gumushane) is visited by many tourists every year. The measurements of radon gas concentration which affects the health of human beings negatively and even causes the lung cancer when it reaches high points have been done for the summer and winter season. LR-115 passive radon detector was used to determine radon concentrations in the cave both winter and summer season. The average radon concentration in the Karaca cave were determined as 823 Bq/m 3 and 1023 Bq/m 3 for the summer and winter season, respectively. Moreover, to find out the natural radioactivity in the cave, the gamma spectroscopic analysis of soil, stone and stalagmite samples were carried out and their relations with the radon gas in the cave atmosphere was analyzed

  3. Experimental determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny from respiratory tract to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Vessl, G.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A.

    2002-01-01

    An exposure methodology was developed for the determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny deposited in the human respiratory tract to blood. Twenty-one volunteers were exposed in a radon chamber during well-controlled aerosol and radon progeny conditions, with predominantly unattached radon daughters. Special efforts were made to restrict the dose to the volunteers to an absolute maximum of 0.08 mSv. Measurements of radon gas and radon progeny in blood samples of these volunteers indicated absorption half times of 20 min to 60 min. Former determinations, mainly performed with much larger aerosol particles of diameters between 100 nm and 1000 nm, implied absorption half times around 10 h. This indicates that the absorption of radon decay products from ciliated airways into blood is dependent upon particle size and particle composition. (author)

  4. Radon gas sampler for indoor and soil measurements and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azimi-Garakani, D.; Flores, B.; Piermattei, S.; Susanna, A.F.; Seidel, J.L.; Tommasino, L.; Torri, G.

    1988-01-01

    A national large scale survey of indoor radon (based on an optimised sampling strategy) is needed in Italy to obtain average population dose for use in epidemiological studies. Since in the great majority of cases, one of the most important radon sources is the soil and rock beneath the houses, it would be interesting to combine this survey with measurements of bed-soil radon. With these objectives in mind, a new radon monitor device has been developed consisting of two etched track detectors enclosed in a heat-sealed polyethylene bag. When compared with existing techniques, this radon gas sampler presents several advantages for both indoor and outdoor measurements. As a pilot project, radon gas measurements have been carried out in hundreds of different sites and for several locations; measurements have been made for different years. Typical houses with relatively high radon concentrations have also been thoroughly investigated. (author)

  5. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Yun Wu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration.

  6. Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Beijing City, China and Contribution to Radiation Dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun-Yun; Ma, Yong-Zhong; Cui, Hong-Xing; Liu, Jian-Xiang; Sun, Ya-Ru; Shang, Bing; Su, Xu

    2014-01-01

    222Rn concentrations in drinking water samples from Beijing City, China, were determined based on a simple method for the continuous monitoring of radon using a radon-in-air monitor coupled to an air-water exchanger. A total of 89 water samples were sampled and analyzed for their 222Rn content. The observed radon levels ranged from detection limit up to 49 Bq/L. The calculated arithmetic and geometric means of radon concentrations in all measured samples were equal to 5.87 and 4.63 Bq/L, respectively. The average annual effective dose from ingestion of radon in drinking water was 2.78 μSv, and that of inhalation of water-borne radon was 28.5 μSv. It is concluded that it is not the ingestion of waterborne radon, but inhalation of the radon escaping from water that is a substantial part of the radiological hazard. Radon in water is a big concern for public health, especially for consumers who directly use well water with very high radon concentration. PMID:25350007

  7. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  8. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Khattab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with RGB, HSV, CMY, XYZ, and YUV color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that RGB color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used.

  9. Response of Radon in a seismic calibration explosion, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrir, H.; Steinitz, G.; Malik, U.; Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2009-01-01

    Radon measurements were performed at shallow levels during an in-land 20-ton seismic calibration explosion experiment, simulating a 2.6-M L earthquake, to investigate the influence of the explosive blast and the transitory seismic wave fields on the Radon transport in the country rock, adjacent to the focus of the explosion. The experiment was conducted in a basalt quarry in the northern margin of the Beit Shean valley (Israel). Five gamma-ray sensors were placed, at a depth of about 2 m, along a line located 17-150 m from the edge of the explosion zone. Measurements commenced 4 days before and continued for 9 days after the explosion with 15 min integrations. A 10-s sampling was used in the interval of several hours before and after the explosion itself. Diurnal variations of Radon, reflecting the typical variation pattern of Radon in the shallow environment, were registered before and after the explosion. No significant change in the overall Radon concentration was observed as a consequence of the main explosion as well as three smaller experimental shots (0.5-2 tons) in the 2 h prior to the calibration blast. The seismological data indicate that the transient excess pressure at the farthest Radon sensor was above 5 bar m -1 during 0.2-0.4 s, and evidently much higher at the nearest sensors, but none of the sensors responded by recording any exceptional change in the Radon concentration. Moreover the hypothesis that additional Radon may emanate from solid grains as a result of the excess local pressure exerted by the blast is also not observed. In contrast to a real earthquake event an explosion experiment has neither eventual preceding nor following geodynamic activity. Therefore the absence of significant Radon anomalies during or after the blast does not contradict assumptions, observations or conclusions as the occurrence of Radon anomalies prior or after an earthquake event due to associated long-term geodynamic processes.

  10. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  11. Radon risk in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1996-01-01

    The author discusses the risk related to the inhalation of radon decay products. This products are the cause of almost the half of the doses absorbed by the people. The concentration of radon in buildings is much higher than in the open areas and its country average in Poland is 50 Bq/m 3 . It is difficult to predict the concentration of radon in the building without measurement. Author concludes that there are technical means to decrease radon concentration in buildings

  12. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radium ({sup 226}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087±19 Bq/m{sup 3}, which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  13. Monitoring of the Syrian rift valley using radon technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hilal, M.; Al-Ali, A.; Jubeli, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Groundwater radon data were recorded once every two months from six monitoring sites of the Syrian rift valley during the year 1996. Radon samples were measured from deep artesian wells and from continuously-flowing springs that are distributed along this most active seismic zone in Syria. The available data were integrated with previously measured groundwater radon data from the same stations in order to estimate the range of normal radon fluctuations in the region. The estimation of such range may enable the separation between usual groundwater radon variations from other outliers which may indicate possible tectonic activities or earthquake hazards in the study area. Periodical radon measurements based on two months intervals and long distance between sampling stations does not enable us to trust with high level of confidence the connection between radon values and any possible earth dynamics. Therefore, shorter measuring time with closer monitoring sites are highly recommended to achieve the optimum advantage of such application. (Author). 8 Figs., 2 Tabs., 10 Refs

  14. Radon concentration in spring and groundwater of Shillong agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walia, D.; Wahlang, P.; Lyngdoh, A.C.; Saxena, A.; Sharma, Y.; Maibam, D.

    2010-01-01

    Water samples in the month of February 2010 to April 2010 are collected from 06 springs (sample code S1-S6) and 18 wells (sample code W1-W18) of the Shillong agglomeration in radon-tight 1L bottles, considering the geological structures, nearness to the steep slopes and accessibility of the water sources. The measurement of radon in water samples is carried out using ionization chamber Alphaguard along with an accessory (fabricated in the laboratory). Initially, background radon of the empty set-up is measured for 30 minutes before every water-sample measurement. The water samples are placed in a closed gas cycle in degassing vessel and then radon is expelled using the pump and magnetic stirrer. The security vessel is connected with the degassing vessel to minimize the inflow of water vapour to the Alphaguard. The measuring cycle is repeated 3 times in order to obtain a better precision. The arithmetic mean of the radon concentrations are used for calculating the annual effective dose for ingestion of water from each bore well and spring. The pH, electrical conductivity and temperature are measured so as to correlate the meteorological parameters with the radon emanation

  15. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  16. Formulation of the fundamental basis for the evaluation of the comparability of different measuring method for the determination of ground air radon concentration. Vol. 2. Report on ground air radon measurements - influence factors, measuring methods, evaluation; Erarbeitung fachlicher Grundlagen zur Beurteilung der Vergleichbarkeit unterschiedlicher Messmethoden zur Bestimmung der Radonbodenluftkonzentration. Bd. 2. Sachstandsbericht ''Radonmessungen in der Bodenluft - Einflussfaktoren, Messverfahren, Bewertung''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemski, J.; Klingel, R.; Siehl, A.; Neznal, M.; Matolin, M.

    2012-03-15

    The report on ground air radon measurements covers the following issues: Introduction; Radon in the geogenic underground: emanation, migration, exhalation; Influencing factors: geochemical parameters, structural situation, geomorphology, exogenic effects; Ground air measurements: site exploration, tectonics, earth quake prognosis, radon in ground air and buildings; Radon measurement: sampling and measuring methods, error consideration, comparative measurements, practical examples; measuring regulations and recommendations; Variability of the radon concentration: temporal variation, sampling depth, spatial variations; Evaluation and conclusions.

  17. Asian/Australasian region intercalibration and intercomparison programme for radon, thoron and daughters. Asian/Australasian region radon intercomparison, September 1987 - September 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggie, J.R.; Gan, Tianghong; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-05-01

    The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for radon, thoron and daughters monitoring equipment, abbreviated IIIP, was a programme organized jointly by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP was to determine if the diverse calibration procedures used in different countries were equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust then with the details of project definition and execution. The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) was selected to co-ordinate IIIP activities between OECD member countries in the Pacific region. As the regional programme precluded the participation of non-OECD member countries in the Western Pacific Region, an intercomparison series for radon was initiated by ARL in 1987 between twenty eight laboratories from nine countries in the Asian/Australasian region. The methodology and protocols for grab sampler, solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and charcoal measurements are described in this report. Generally the results showed reasonable agreement between the majority of laboratories for grab sampler measurements consistent with previous intercomparison. However there were large systematic differences in the results of the passive monitors for some laboratories. For all samplers, it was found that the overall random uncertainty or replication error, which included random uncertainties associated with the counting and calibration, were the main sources of variability between individual measurements of participants and the ARL reference value, with calibration uncertainties predominating. 23 tabs.

  18. Asian/Australasian region intercalibration and intercomparison programme for radon, thoron and daughters. Asian/Australasian region radon intercomparison, September 1987 - September 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggie, J.R.; Gan, Tianghong; Solomon, S.B.

    1993-05-01

    The International Intercalibration and Intercomparison Programme for radon, thoron and daughters monitoring equipment, abbreviated IIIP, was a programme organized jointly by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the Radiation Protection Research Programme of the Commission of European Communities. The broad purpose of the IIIP was to determine if the diverse calibration procedures used in different countries were equivalent. The general approach was to select four regional reference laboratories and entrust then with the details of project definition and execution. The Australian Radiation Laboratory (ARL) was selected to co-ordinate IIIP activities between OECD member countries in the Pacific region. As the regional programme precluded the participation of non-OECD member countries in the Western Pacific Region, an intercomparison series for radon was initiated by ARL in 1987 between twenty eight laboratories from nine countries in the Asian/Australasian region. The methodology and protocols for grab sampler, solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and charcoal measurements are described in this report. Generally the results showed reasonable agreement between the majority of laboratories for grab sampler measurements consistent with previous intercomparison. However there were large systematic differences in the results of the passive monitors for some laboratories. For all samplers, it was found that the overall random uncertainty or replication error, which included random uncertainties associated with the counting and calibration, were the main sources of variability between individual measurements of participants and the ARL reference value, with calibration uncertainties predominating. 23 tabs

  19. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  20. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  1. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  2. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  3. Measurement of the concentration of radon in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, J.B.Th.; Bierhuizen, H.W.J.; Hoek, L.P. van; Ros, D.; Weber, J.

    1975-01-01

    A simple transportable air monitoring apparatus was developed for controlling the radon contamination of air in laboratory rooms. It is not highly accurate but is sufficient to register the order of magnitude of the radon concentration. Air is pumped through a filter for one or two hours and an alpha decay curve of the dust on the filter is determined. Scintillation counting forty minutes after sampling indicates the radon activity. The calibration method of measuring the equilibrium of daughter product concentrations is discussed extensively

  4. Radon concentration in the springs of the alluvial fan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kimiko; Ishii, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2003-01-01

    Rokugo alluvial fan is one of the typical stratified alluvial fans which have grown in the east edge of Yokote basin in Akita Prefecture. Many of Rokugo's springs are gushing out from 45 m to 50 m above the sea level where city town have been developed. Mechanism of gushing out of spring is closely bound up with the landform of this area. There is nearly no radon existing in the surface water, but in groundwater, radon concentrations are stable in every stratums and infiltration of groundwater to surface water. We would like to obtain some hydrological information by measuring radon concentration in water samples of Rokugo alluvial fan. (author)

  5. Determination of radon concentration in drinking water resources of villages nearby Lalehzar fault and evaluation the annual effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Malakootian; Zahra Darabi Fard; Mojtaba Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    The radon concentration has been measured in 44 drinking water resources, in villages nearby Lalehzar fault in winter 2014. Some samples showed a higher concentration of radon surpassing limit set by EPA. Further, a sample was taken from water distribution networks for these sources of water. Soluble radon concentration was measured by RAD7 device. Range radon concentration was 26.88 and 0.74 BqL -1 respectively. The maximum and minimum annual effective dose for adults was estimated at 52.7 and 2.29 µSvY -1 , respectively. Reducing radon from water before use is recommended to improve public health. (author)

  6. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  7. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  8. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  9. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  10. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  11. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  12. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  13. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  14. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  15. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  16. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  17. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  18. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  19. High radon exposure in a Brazilian underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, L H S; Melo, V; Koifman, S; Amaral, E C S

    2004-01-01

    The main source of radiation exposure in most underground mining operations is radon and radon decay products. The situation of radon exposure in underground mining in Brazil is still unknown, since there has been no national regulation regarding this exposure. A preliminary radiological survey in non-uranium mines in Brazil indicated that an underground coal mine in the south of Brazil had high radon concentration and needed to be better evaluated. This paper intends to present an assessment of radon and radon decay product exposure in the underground environment of this coal mining industry and to estimate the annual exposure to the workers. As a product of this assessment, it was found that average radon concentrations at all sampling campaign and excavation sites were above the action level range for workplaces of 500-1500 Bq m -3 recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection-ICRP 65. The average effective dose estimated for the workers was almost 30 times higher than the world average dose for coal miners

  20. Indoor radon levels in schools of South-East Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Leonardi, Federica; Simeoni, Carla; Tonnarini, Sabrina; Veschetti, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate average levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in all educational buildings (506 schools) located in South-East Italy (the Salento peninsula, province of Lecce). In this paper the final findings relating to measurements performed with SSNTD dosemeters in 438 schools (86% of the sample) are reported. The average annual activity concentration of radon in schools located in the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . Radon values actually ranged from 21 Bq/m 3 to 1608 Bq/m 3 . About 7% of schools showed radon concentration values above 500 Bq/m 3 , the Italian action level for workplaces. - Highlights: ► The annual radon concentration in schools of the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . ► Schools radon values (209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 ) are higher than the regional average (52 ± 2 Bq/m 3 ). ► Nursery schools showed higher radon values. ► Nursery schools had the highest percentage of schools (12%) over 500 Bq/m 3 .

  1. Radon distribution in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, K.; Kuo, T.; Han, Y.; Chen, C.; Lin, C.; Lee, C.

    2007-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon-222 gas in groundwater was investigated as a partitioning tracer to detect non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in a gasoline-contaminated aquifer. The radon-222 activity of groundwater decreased significantly from an average of 7.38+/-1.68BqL -1 measured in monitoring wells located upgradient in the uncontaminated zone to an average of 2.30+/-0.60BqL -1 measured in monitoring wells inside the NAPL source zone. Meanwhile, the radium-226 concentrations measured in aquifer matrix were virtually homogeneous at several locations both upgradient of and inside the NAPL source zone. Furthermore, the NAPL concentration obtained from the Radon Deficit Factor agrees reasonably with the results derived from direct sampling and chemical analysis of soil samples taken from the residual NAPL source zone. The field results of this study confirmed the general applicability of groundwater radon to detect residual NAPL source zone

  2. Radon measurements in underground and ground constructions in Tashkent city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, V.A.; Yafasov, A.Y.; Vasidov, A.; En, Z.; Tillaev, T.; Tsipin, V.Z.

    2002-01-01

    More than half of the dose of the natural radioactivity received by population is related to radon and its progeny. Investigations of scientists all over the world have shown that excessive radon and its progeny exposure dose is associated with a risk of lung cancer. Short-lived radon daughters (Po-218 and Po-214) are considered to be of the most dangers. At a relaxation process resulting from an earthquake, the radon gas can release from the accumulators and get indoors, that enhances greatly the radon level there. According to seismologists data, as a result of the strong Tashkent earthquake in 1966, extensive breaks and faults have been formed along the city and its neighborhoods. The aim of our work was evaluation of radon concentration level and its variation in Tashkent subway stations and related underground offices and also in apartments of multi story buildings and detached houses. The measurements were conducted by two different techniques-with ionization chamber radiometer 'Alpha GUARD' and with solid state nuclear track detectors. The Alpha GUARD radiometer operates either in the mode of passive sampling, or by pumping air through the ionization camera being of 0.6 l in volume. The radiometer is capable of measuring a volumetric activity of radon-222 in air (Bq/m3), and it is equipped with the devices that measure some environmental parameters such as temperature, relative humidity and air pressure. The range of V A of 222 Rn in air the device is able to measure is 10 to 2x10 6 Bq/m 3 , sensitivity is 1 pulse/min for 20 Bq/m 3 , and its self-background is less than 1 Bq/m 3 . The radon measurements in Tashkent subway stations and underground offices have shown that daily mean radon values were in the range of 14-65 Bq/m 3 , except for the Pushkin Station, where the daily mean V A was 137 Bq/m3. Such a high radon level is connected with availability near the station of one of the numerous faults and fractures of the terrestrial crust responsible for the

  3. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  4. Geologic influence on indoor radon concentrations and gamma radiation levels in Norwegian dwellings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundal, Aud Venche

    2003-09-01

    dose rates are measured in the areas covered by nearly impermeable silt and clay deposits. Indoor gamma dose rates as high as 620 nGy/h are obtained in the areas of exposed carbonatites, primarily due to enhanced thorium concentrations in these rock types. The observed correlations between geological factors and indoor radon concentrations in Norway indicate that geological information is a useful tool in radon risk analysis. Resources can be concentrated to regions of high geologic radon potential when screening programs are planned, and efficient follow-up surveys can be established based on geological data in combination with radon measurements in a representative sample of the building stock. The observed contrasts in radon risk potential between different types of building grounds also enable the prediction of radon risk in areas which are not currently inhabited. (Author)

  5. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  6. Radon emanation characteristics of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Mauch, M.L.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    Radon emanation from uranium mill tailings was examined with respect to the mechanisms of emanation and the physical properties of the tailings which affect emanation. Radon emanation coefficients were measured at ambient moisture on 135 samples from the 1981 field test site at the Grand Junction tailings pile. These coefficients showed a similar trend with moisture to those observed previously with uranium ores, and averaged 0.10 + or - 0.02 at dryness and 0.38 + or - 0.04 for all samples having greater than five weight-percent moisture. Small differences were noted between the maximum values of the coefficients for the sand and slime fractions of the tailings. Separate measurements on tailings from the Vitro tailings pile exhibited much lower emanation coefficients for moist samples, and similar coefficients for dry samples. Alternative emanation measurement techniques were examined and procedures are recommended for use in future work

  7. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  8. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  9. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  10. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  11. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  12. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  13. Standardised Radon Index (SRI: a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. M. Crockett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the second half of 2002, from late June to mid December, the University of Northampton Radon Research Group operated two continuous hourly-sampling radon detectors 2.25 km apart in the English East Midlands. This period included the Dudley earthquake (ML = 5, 22 September 2002 and also a smaller earthquake in the English Channel (ML = 3, 26 August 2002. Rolling/sliding windowed cross-correlation of the paired radon time-series revealed periods of simultaneous similar radon anomalies which occurred at the time of these earthquakes but at no other times during the overall radon monitoring period. Standardising the radon data in terms of probability of magnitude, analogous to the Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs used in drought modelling, which effectively equalises different non-linear responses, reveals that the dissimilar relative magnitudes of the anomalies are in fact closely equiprobabilistic. Such methods could help in identifying anomalous signals in radon – and other – time-series and in evaluating their statistical significance in terms of earthquake precursory behaviour.

  14. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  15. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  16. Introduction to the Special Issue: Water Grabbing? Focus on the (Reappropriation of Finite Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyla Mehta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural production (including biofuels, popularly known as 'land grabbing', have attracted headline attention. Water as both a target and driver of this phenomenon has been largely ignored despite the interconnectedness of water and land. This special issue aims to fill this gap and to widen and deepen the lens beyond the confines of the literature’s still limited focus on agriculture-driven resource grabbing. The articles in this collection demonstrate that the fluid nature of water and its hydrologic complexity often obscure how water grabbing takes place and what the associated impacts on the environment and diverse social groups are. The fluid properties of water interact with the 'slippery' nature of the grabbing processes: unequal power relations; fuzziness between legality and illegality and formal and informal rights; unclear administrative boundaries and jurisdictions, and fragmented negotiation processes. All these factors combined with the powerful material, discursive and symbolic characteristics of water make 'water grabbing' a site for conflict with potential drastic impacts on the current and future uses and benefits of water, rights as well as changes in tenure relations.

  17. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  18. Radon and radon daughters indoors, problems in the determination of the annual average

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swedjemark, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The annual average of the concentration of radon and radon daughters in indoor air is required both in studies such as determining the collective dose to a population and at comparing with limits. Measurements are often carried out during a time period shorter than a year for practical reasons. Methods for estimating the uncertainties due to temporal variations in an annual average calculated from measurements carried out during various lengths of the sampling periods. These methods have been applied to the results from long-term measurements of radon-222 in a few houses. The possibilities to use correction factors in order to get a more adequate annual average have also been studied and some examples have been given. (orig.)

  19. Kosova’da Bazı İlköğretim ve Ortaöğretim Okullarında İç Mekan Radon Konsantrasyonun İzlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    NAFEZI, Gazmend; BAHTIJARI, Meleq; XHAFA, Besim; HODOLLI, Gezim; KADIRI, Sehad; MAKOLLI, Sami; SHALA, Behar; MULAJ, Zenun

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration were carried out at indoor air of 30 elementary and secondary schools in Kosovo. The aim of this study was to know the level of indoor radon concentration in these locations and to enhance the national radon survey. The main method for indoor radon measurement was direct sampling in alpha scintillation cells and continuous monitoring during some days. However, in cases with an increased instantaneous and continuous radon concentration the additional method ...

  20. Radon concentration assessment in water sources of public drinking of Covilhã's county, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inácio

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentration measurements were performed on thirty three samples collected from water wells at different depths and types of aquifers, at Covilhã's County, Portugal with the radon gas analyser DURRIDGE RAD7. Twenty three, of the total of water samples collected, gave, values over 100 Bq/L, being that 1690 Bq/L was the highest measured value.

  1. Radon, water chemistry and pollution check by volatile organic compounds in springs around Popocatepetl volcano, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mena; G. Cisniega; B. Lopez; M. A. Armienta; C. Valdés; P. Peña; N. Segovia

    2005-01-01

    Popocatepetl volcano is a high-risk active volcano in Central Mexico where the highest population density in the country is settled. Radon in the soil and groundwater together with water chemistry from samples of nearby springs were analysed as a function of the 2002-2003 volcanic activity. The measurements of soil radon indicated fluctuations related to both the meteorological and sporadic explosive events. Groundwater radon showed essential differences in concentration d...

  2. Variance of indoor radon concentration: Major influencing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, I., E-mail: ivy@ecko.uran.ru [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A.; Malinovsky, G. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Bossew, P. [German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Berlin (Germany); Žunić, Z.S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinca”, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Onischenko, A.; Zhukovsky, M. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, Sophy Kovalevskoy, 20, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Variance of radon concentration in dwelling atmosphere is analysed with regard to geogenic and anthropogenic influencing factors. Analysis includes review of 81 national and regional indoor radon surveys with varying sampling pattern, sample size and duration of measurements and detailed consideration of two regional surveys (Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia and Niška Banja, Serbia). The analysis of the geometric standard deviation revealed that main factors influencing the dispersion of indoor radon concentration over the territory are as follows: area of territory, sample size, characteristics of measurements technique, the radon geogenic potential, building construction characteristics and living habits. As shown for Sverdlovsk oblast and Niška Banja town the dispersion as quantified by GSD is reduced by restricting to certain levels of control factors. Application of the developed approach to characterization of the world population radon exposure is discussed. - Highlights: • Influence of lithosphere and anthroposphere on variance of indoor radon is found. • Level-by-level analysis reduces GSD by a factor of 1.9. • Worldwide GSD is underestimated.

  3. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L.; Albertazzi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using γ-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the 222 Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The 222 Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  4. Data-acquisition system for radon monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.C.; Zawadzki, R.J.; Meyer, T.O.; Hill, A.L.

    1976-01-01

    A data-acquisition system was designed by the Bureau of Mines to monitor five detectors with radon continuously flowing through each. These detectors could be monitored up to 12 times an hour, but were only monitored according to a preset time, thus allowing radon to be monitored continuously in a uranium mine. The counter can be set to monitor each detector for any period of time up to 16.5 minutes. This allows very low concentrations to be monitored longer to reduce statistical error. There would be no upper limit in radon concentration that could be monitored, but there would be a lower limit of 50 pCi/l. Each detector was calibrated by the Lucas flask method. Multiple samples were taken at two different concentrations, and the correction factor for each detector was determined by a least squares fit of the data. To verify the calibrations, a series of measurements at several concentrations were made against a constant source. The agreement at low radon concentrations (300 pCi/l) with the two-filter method was within 3 percent; thus, the total error would be this difference plus the two-filter error. At high concentrations, the coefficient of variation ranged between 2.1 and 9.8 percent for the five different detector units

  5. Method of reducing radon levels in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Radon concentration can be reduced by using polymeric compositions which fill pores inside building materials and decrease the coefficient of permeation of radon atoms and water molecules in building materials (concrete, gypsum, etc.). Polymeric silico-organic compounds were investigated and selected as the chemicals to prevent radon seeping indoors. Gas (air, Ar, 222 Rn, H 2 O) permeability of concrete and gypsum after treatment with chemicals was examined. The effect of the cement and sand types, preliminary treatment with various chemicals, type of the polymeric silico-organic compounds, time between treatments, moisture of concrete, time between the preparation of chemicals and the treatment of concrete (ageing of chemicals), time between the treatment of concrete and testing (ageing of treated concrete) were examined. Surfaces of the samples were treated by spraying. The experiments gave evidence that the chosen method of treatment of the construction materials allows reducing the coefficient of gas permeability in 200 - 400 times. Treatment of the floor, walls and ceiling of the basement of 5 buildings reduced the radon concentration in the premises of the first floor from 400-600 Bq/m 3 to the background value of 17-20 Bq/m 3

  6. Air radon equilibrium factor measurement in a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.E.; Juste, B.; Ortiz, J.; Martorell, S.; Verdu, G.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze in this paper a Waste Water Pre-Treatment Plant (WWTP) located at the Mediterranean coast with air radon concentration above Spanish action level (600 Bq per cubic meter). This paper presents a method for radon equilibrium determination by gamma spectrometry measuring of the radon progeny concentrations in the air, in order to estimate WWTP workers effective dose more exactly. The method is based on simultaneous sampling of air through a filter paper and alpha spectrometry measurement of radon activity concentration in the air. According to the measured radon activity concentration in the air of 368±45 Bq/m 3 the equilibrium factor between radon and progenies is estimated to be F=0.27, which is in good agreement with expected values. - Highlights: • High levels of Radon in a workplace can increase health risks in the employees. • Using the typical equilibrium factor 0.4 could lead to an error in the estimation of radon doses. • We present a method for radon equilibrium determination. • Equilibrium factor is calculated by gamma spectrometry measuring of radon progeny concentrations in the air.

  7. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    Radon campaigns aim at activating citizens to make indoor radon measurements and remediation as well as increasing the common awareness of indoor radon questions. Indoor radon increases the risk of lung cancer. Through radon campaigns Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) also promotes the attainment of those goals that the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has set for municipal authorities in Finland for prevention of the harmful effects of radon. The Ministry of Social Affairs and Health supports this campaign. Radon campaigns were started in autumn 2003. By autumn 2008 the campaigns have been organised already in 64 regions altogether in 160 municipalities. In some municipalities they have already arranged two campaigns. Altogether 14 100 houses have been measured and in 2 100 of these the action limit of radon remediation 400 Bq / m 3 has been exceeded. When participating in radon campaigns the house owners receive a special offer on radon detectors with a reduced price. In 2008 a new practice was introduced where the campaign advertisements were distributed by mail to low-rise residential houses in a certain region. The advertisement includes an order / deposit slip with postage paid that the house owner can send directly to STUK to easily make an order for radon measurement. In the previous radon campaigns in 2003 - 2007 the municipal authorities collected the orders from house owners and distributed later the radon detectors. The radon concentrations measured in the campaign regions have exceeded the action limit of 400 Bq / m 3 in 0 - 39% of houses, depending on the region. The total of 15% of all measurements made exceeded this limit. The remediation activities have been followed by sending a special questionnaire on remedies performed to the house owners. In 2006 - 2007 a questionnaire was sent to those households where the radon concentration of 400 Bq / m 3 was exceeded during the two first campaign seasons. Among the households that replied

  8. Radon assessment in thermal waters in Imbabura and Pichincha provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragon, Mayra

    2001-01-01

    The radon is a radioactive, odorless and colorless gas, that generated in the terrestrial crust by the radioactive decay of the radio, originating of the chain of disintegration of the Uranium-238, can migrate considerable distances during its short time of life (3.82 days), from the ground to the water and later to the atmosphere. For the accomplishment of the preliminary study of quantification of radon in thermal sources, it was come to the sampling from radon-222 in bath waters different from the provinces of Pichincha and Imbabura. For which a particle accountant was used alpha, that uses the method of flashing, emitted by ionizing particles at the moment at which the radium decays in its descendant radon, and this one in its next descendants. The water samples are analyzed in the Pylon model RM-1003, particle accountant alpha, that uses for the harvesting of the gas, cameras that contain sensible detectors activated zinc sulfide cells with silver. For this sampling it was taken into account qualitative factors like: rain temperature, presence, origin of the source, proximity of some hill or volcano, presence of seismic movements, among others. These parameters could affect to the measurements of concentration of radon. Of the obtained results, we can conclude that of the 13 bath, those of the province of Pichincha, specially three of them (Tesalia, Sillunchi, Cunuyacu), contain greater concentration of radon that those of the province of Imbabura. In addition in general for all the selected bath it was verified that the concentration of radon is greater for the source than for the swimming pool. Finally it is possible to be emphasized values of concentration of radon that are around 1000-15000 Bq/m3 for the source, and the swimming pool of 100-800 Bq/m3. (The author)

  9. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  10. Radon investigation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.

    1992-01-01

    After a short description of the history of radon measurements in mines, the results of bare track detector application in dwellings are commented on. Many related methods and problems are discussed. Most experiences are similar to the published ones, but details are specific for Central Europe (absence of air-conditioning, etc.). (author)

  11. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  12. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  13. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaruzaman Mohd Noor; Haziman Hassan; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  14. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  15. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  16. The effect of sand/cement ratio on radon exhalation from cement specimens containing 226Ra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Shweikani, R.; Ali, A. F.; Rajaa, G.

    2002-09-01

    Portland cement was mixed with different kind of sand (calcite and silica) in different ratio to produce radioactive specimens with radium chloride. The release of radon from these samples was studied. The results showed that radon release from the calcite-cement samples increased with the increases of the sand mixed ratio until fixed value (about 20%) then decreased to less than its release from the beginning, and the release changed with the sand size also. Radon release from silica-cement samples had the same observations of calcite-cement samples. It was found that calcite-cement reduced the radon exhalation quantity rather than the silica-cement samples. The decreases of the radon exhalation from the cement-sand may be due to the creation of free spaces in the samples, which gave the possibility to radon to decay into these free spaces rather than radon exhalation. The daughters of the radon decay 214 Bi and 214 Pb reported by gamma measurements of the cement-sand samples. (author)

  17. Continuous bulk unloader versus grab unloader: a comparison of ship unloading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepling, M

    1985-02-01

    Most of the major bulk cargoes (coal, ores, phosphate, limestone, etc.) have poor flow characteristics and are, generally speaking, difficult to handle and unload. Grab- type cranes (either portal or gantry) have hitherto been the traditional means of unloading these cargoes because of their excellent digging/grabbing performance. However they do possess a number of serious disadvantages, such as low efficiency, which limit their economic viability for some operations. Increasing interest has developed, therefore, in alternative continuous unloading methods. The KONE Corporation, Finland, has developed its own bucket wheel continuous unloader, and installed both a grab unloader and a continuous unloader at the Enstedvaerket coal transshipment centre near Aabenraa in Denmark; both systems are described and the operational benefits of each are compared and contrasted.

  18. Diffusion of radon through varying depths of cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takriti, S.; Shweikani, R.; Ali, A.F.; Hushari, M.; Kheitou, M.

    2001-01-01

    Portland cement was mixed with different concentrations of radium chloride (1200, 2400 and 3600 Bq) to produce radioactive sources. These sources were surrounded with cement of different thickness (1, 2 and 4 cm). The release of radon from these sources (before and after being surrounded) was studied. The results showed that radon release from the sources itself was less then its release from the same source after being surrounded by cement, and the release did not change with the thickness of cement. Samples were covered with a thin layer of polyethylene before being surrounded with cement. It was found that this additional layer reduced the radon exhalation. This thin layer stopped any reaction between the source and the surrounding cement during solidification of the cement layers. These reactions are thought to be the reason for the increase of radon exhalation from the sources surrounded by cement

  19. Radon gas exposure levels in some selected areas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2005-01-01

    During a summer season of 2003, the atmospheric concentrations of radon gas were measured indoor every one-hour for twenty-four hour measurements in some selected areas, using Pylon-AB4. Two hundreds and forty samples were monitored to determine the concentration of radon gas at each location using high-efficiency Lucas type continuous passive cell. The average values of radon gas concentration were taken in three time intervals 6.00:18.00, 18.00:6.00 and whole day. The average values of indoor radon gas of two locations using three time intervals were 4.82±0.63, 9±0.71 and 6.9±0.33 and 9.6±0.23, 11.82±0.42 and 9.37±0.7 Bq/m /h. respectively. The exposure levels were within the ICRP and EPA recommendations

  20. Determination of groundwater flow velocity by radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohn, E.; von Gunten, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources of glacio-fluvial perialpine valleys are recharged significantly by the infiltration from rivers. The groundwater residence times between rivers and wells should be known in groundwater management problems. Short residence times can be estimated using radon. Radon concentrations in rivers are usually very low. Upon filtration and movement of the water in the ground, radon is picked up and its concentration increases by 2-3 orders of magnitude according to radioactive growth laws. Residence times and flow velocities can be estimated from the increasing radon concentrations measured in groundwater sampling tubes at different distances from the river. Results obtained with this method agree with the results from experiments with artificial tracers

  1. Survey of radon concentrations in three Italian towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.; Pessina, V.; Dallara, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radon-222 was measured in 187 dwellings in Parma, Reggio Emilia, and Orvieto. Samples were collected using activated carbon canisters, placed in basements and on the upper floors for at least 48 h in the period starting from January 1989 to July 1990. Gamma spectroscopy was used for the measurement of 222 Rn and its progeny. The data for the three towns show a lognormal distribution. Owing to the high radium concentration in building materials and underlying soil, high radon concentrations were observed in Orvieto's dwellings. Additional measurements carried out in 22 public schools of Parma and Reggio Emilia showed moderate radon concentrations, while significant radon levels were recorded in 37 castles and ancient buildings in Parma and Reggio Emilia provinces

  2. Radon in private water supplies: the unknown risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, D.; Horan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Radon gas, which is the main contributor to human radiation exposure, is easily dissolved in, and dissipated from, water. Problems with radon occur because, in addition to being ingested, it (a) becomes attached to particles which lodge in the lungs and (b) emits alpha radiation. Concentration has been found to increase inversely with the size of a water supply. Although of little problem in mains water, private water supplies in the UK have been found to contain more than ten times the recommended US levels. Despite this, very little monitoring is carried out for radon in private supplies. Local authorities, situated in areas where the geological conditions are such that high levels of radon would be expected, should carry out a suitable sampling and monitoring programme of their private water supplies. (Author)

  3. Radon in homes and other technologically enhanced radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Toohey, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The results are described of recent observations at Argonne National Laboratory, contributing to our knowledge of such factors as the origin of high levels of radon in houses, its variability with time or otherwise, its uniformity throughout the house or otherwise, and the behavior and fate of the short-lived daughter-products. In a sample of 110 houses, mostly in the west suburban area of Chicago, 15% had radon concentrations in excess of 6 pCi litre - 1 and 96% greater than 10 pCi litre - 1 . If this distribution is representative of all houses in the USA, the population being exposed to such high concentrations of radon is far greater than the number of people in Grand Junction being exposed to quite similar concentrations from technologically enhanced radioactivity. There is a great need for far more extensive data on radon in houses

  4. Investigation of radon-222 emissions from underground uranium mines. Progress report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, P.O.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Enderlin, W.I.; Schwendiman, L.C.; Wogman, N.A.; Perkins, R.W.

    1980-02-01

    A reliable estimate of radon emissions to the environment from underground uranium mines was obtained through measurements of radon in ventilation exhaust air at 24 uranium mines and estimates of radon release from ore piles and waste piles at mines and in water pumped from mines. Three additional mines sampled in 1978 but not in 1979 were included in the overall results. Total production of U 3 O 8 from the mines thus far sampled represent about 63% of total 1978 US production from underground mines. Wide variation in radon emission per unit of production was shown from mine to mine; hence, it became necessary to sum all radon from all mines measured and divide by the sum of all U 3 O 8 production in 1978 from these mines to arrive at a valid estimate of Ci per ton of U 3 O 8 . This value was found to be 26.7 per ton or 5400 Ci/RRY (182 metric tons). The radon emitted in mine ventilation air was by far the dominant source, with other than ventilation exhaust sources accounting for less than three percent of radon in ventilation exhaust. Other observations of interest in this study were the diurnal fluctuations of radon with barometric pressure and the statistically significant relationship between radon released per year from a mine and the cumulative ore production at the time of radon measurement. The linear relationship between Ci/yr of radon and cumulative ore accounted for about half the variability.Several sources of random errors and possible biases were evaluated using some simple descriptive statistics insofar as the current data permitted. Errors in air flow rate in the vents sampled, fluctuations in radon emission with time of day, counting instrument calibration and production rate were estimated and combined to give an uncertainty of about +- 24 percent at the 95 percent confidence level

  5. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  6. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  7. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  8. Design and application of a continuous, digital-output, environmental radon measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A radon measuring instrument has been developed which can continuously measure environmental concentrations of radon in the atmosphere without employing any air movers or pumps. The unit is entirely passive in design and relies upon the diffusion of radon for sample collection. Since radon is an inert noble gas it will follow the classical theory of motion and diffuse in a direction dependent upon the concentration gradient existing between the atmosphere and the sensitive portion of the detector. A porous foam filter allows radon, but not its daughters, to enter the detector where an electrostatic field is maintained to facilitate collection of the decay products of radon, i.e., initially the positive ions of RaA (Po-218). Alpha particles from RaA and RaC' (Po-214) within the sensitive volume are detected using a ZnS scintillator and photomultiplier tube with the usual complement of electronics

  9. Suggestions for inclulsion of radon exhalation control target in building materials radioactivity standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liu Senlin; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yonggui

    2010-01-01

    The specific-activity and radon exhalation rate from 26 building material samples from different areas were measured with high pure germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer and activated carbon cartridge. It is shown that the radium content is not completely relevant to radon exhalation rate from some building material. The existing national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials' (GB 6566-2001) only present internal exposure index as control target but not for radon exhalation rate; in fact, the radon exhalation rate from building materials is closely nearly related to indoor radon concentration. So we suggest that the radon exhalation control target should be included in the national standards on 'The Limit of Radionuclides in Building Materials'. (authors)

  10. Improved radon-flux-measurement system for uranium-tailings pile measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.

    1981-10-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is developing cover technology for uranium mill tailings that will inhibit the diffusion of radon to the atmosphere. As part of this cover program, an improved radon flux measurement system has been developed. The radon measurement system is a recirculating, pressure-balanced, flow-through system that uses activated carbon at ambient temperatures to collect the radon. With the system, an area of 0.93 m 2 is sampled for periods ranging from 1 to 12 h. The activated carbon is removed from the radon trap and the collected radon is determined by counting the 214 Bi daughter product. Development of the system included studies to determine the efficiency of activated carbon, relative calibration measurements and field measurements made during 1980 at the inactive tailings pile in Grand Junction, Colorado. Results of these studies are presented

  11. Radon and radon daughters' concentration in spring and wells waters from Presidente Prudente: preliminary results; Concentracao de Rn-222 e filhos em aguas provenientes de pocos e emergencias de agua da regiao de Presidente Prudente: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Ana Maria Araya; Saenz, Carlos Alberto Tello [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCT/UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Quimica e Biologia; Aguiar, Claudinei Rodrigues de [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), PR (Brazil); Pereira, Luiz Augusto Stuani [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents the preliminary results about the concentration of radon and radon daughters in wells and springs water from Presidente Prudente. Six water samples were studied: three from well-water, two from springs water and one from potable water. For the determination of α-activity the samples were placed inside plastic containers where the CR-39 tracks detectors were outside the water. The track density of α-particles were measured by using optical microscopy. The results show that one sample from well-water presented higher concentration of radon and radon daughters than the other samples. (author)

  12. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  13. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  14. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  16. Radon generation and transport. A journey though matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozmuta, I. [Beckman Institute 139-74 Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2001-12-07

    The transport of radon in concrete takes place through the complicated network of interconnected pores that is, at any time, the result of the process of hydration of cement and of moisture distribution and transport. Initially the microstructure of concrete depends on the mix proportions and curing conditions, its time-evolution being conditioned by its surrounding environment. Radon transport will be consequently a function of time, as it is influenced by the changing microstructure (total porosity and its distribution) and by the amount and distribution of the moisture contained in the pore system. A selection of information from the large amount of literature available on concrete is presented in chapter 2. A model that describes the process of hydration, of microstructure development and of moisture transport is presented in chapter 3. The physics of radon diffusion in homogeneous porous materials is outlined in chapter 4. The coupling of the numerical implementation of the hydration and radon transport (chapter 6) offers the possibility to achieve calculated values for porosity and moisture content thus, reducing the number of material parameters in the radon-transport equation that have to be determined experimentally. Chapter 7 covers the experimental methods and techniques. Chapter 5 presents a survey of the information available in literature on radon release from concrete and on radon barriers. This chapter also summarises results of several experimental studies investigating the radon reduction efficiency and also the permeability of various covers. On basis of this information, a selection was made for the covering materials to be assessed in this thesis. Radon-release rates of uncovered and completely covered concrete samples were measured. From these measurements the reduction efficiencies of various sealants (epoxy glue, double-sided aluminised polyethylene foil, soluble glass) were calculated (chapter 12). Also, as a result of the collaboration

  17. Radon generation and transport. A journey though matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozmuta, I.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of radon in concrete takes place through the complicated network of interconnected pores that is, at any time, the result of the process of hydration of cement and of moisture distribution and transport. Initially the microstructure of concrete depends on the mix proportions and curing conditions, its time-evolution being conditioned by its surrounding environment. Radon transport will be consequently a function of time, as it is influenced by the changing microstructure (total porosity and its distribution) and by the amount and distribution of the moisture contained in the pore system. A selection of information from the large amount of literature available on concrete is presented in chapter 2. A model that describes the process of hydration, of microstructure development and of moisture transport is presented in chapter 3. The physics of radon diffusion in homogeneous porous materials is outlined in chapter 4. The coupling of the numerical implementation of the hydration and radon transport (chapter 6) offers the possibility to achieve calculated values for porosity and moisture content thus, reducing the number of material parameters in the radon-transport equation that have to be determined experimentally. Chapter 7 covers the experimental methods and techniques. Chapter 5 presents a survey of the information available in literature on radon release from concrete and on radon barriers. This chapter also summarises results of several experimental studies investigating the radon reduction efficiency and also the permeability of various covers. On basis of this information, a selection was made for the covering materials to be assessed in this thesis. Radon-release rates of uncovered and completely covered concrete samples were measured. From these measurements the reduction efficiencies of various sealants (epoxy glue, double-sided aluminised polyethylene foil, soluble glass) were calculated (chapter 12). Also, as a result of the collaboration

  18. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  19. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  20. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  1. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  2. Radon and thoron progeny measurements using a portable radon sniffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efendi, Z.; Jennings, P.

    1993-01-01

    A flexible version of the two-count method has been developed for use in rapid, inexpensive measurements of radon and thoron progeny working levels in residential and industrial premises in the Perth Metropolitan Area. The Method is adapted for use with a simple radon sniffer based on a low speed pump and an alpha counter. The flexibility of the method derives from the software, where some freedom is permitted in the selection of sampling times and post sampling analysis of the filters. This method has been tested on a variety of radioactive materials and it gives consistent, reliable results over a wide range of working levels. The results of a survey of Rn(222) and Rn(220) progeny levels in dwellings within the Perth Metropolitan Area are reported. This study shows that the mean concentration of indoor Rn(222) progeny was 4.7 mWL (17.4 Bq m -3 EEC) up to 23.3 mWL (86.4 Bq m -3 EEC). The mean thoron progeny concentration was 8.2 mWL (2.25 Bq m -3 EEC) with a range from 1 mWL (0.27 Bq m -3 EEC) to 64.5 mWL (17.74 Bq m -3 EEC). Using conversion factors of 0.061 mSv Bq -1 m -3 for Rn(222) progeny and 0.29 mSv Bq -1 m -3 for Rn(220) progeny respectively (UNSCEAR, 1982), it is estimated the average annual effective dose equivalent is 1.1 mSv for Rn(2220 and 0.6 mSv for Rn(220) respectively. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  3. Nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in the province of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puzović S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on nest occupation and prey grabbing by saker falcon (Falco cherrug on power lines in Vojvodina (Serbia was done in the period from 1986 to 2004. During three specially analyzed periods, saker falcon took the nests of raven (Corvus corax in 91% of a total of 22 cases of nest occupation, and those of hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix in only 9%. Saker falcon regularly grabs prey from different birds that occasionally or constantly spend time around power lines [Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus, hobby (Falco subbuteo, hooded crow (Corvus corone cornix, jack-daw (Corvus monedula, marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus, hen harrier (Circus cyaneus, buzzard (Buteo buteo, and raven (Corvus corax]. One year a studied pair of saker falcons on a power line in Donji Srem, Serbia grabbed prey from five different species of birds. Out of a total of 40 cases of prey grabbing in the period from January to December, as much 70% of the grabbed prey was taken from kestrel (Falco tinnunculus. During the winter and early spring, prey was grabbed predominantly by males; after May, prey was sometimes grabbed by females as well. Most of the grabbed prey was common vole (Microtus arvalis.

  4. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  5. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  6. Radon levels in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Average radon concentrations in the air and geothermal water of spa pools in Croatia were 40.3 Bq/m 3 and 4.5 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Substantial difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water is explained by the mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool and with radon decay. The estimated annual effective dose received by the personnel in the spa of Stubicke toplice, Croatia was 0.7 mSv. At the same location, the calculated transfer factor of radon for the air and thermal water in the pool was 4.9x10 -3 .(author)

  7. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Determination of the radon Concentration in underground water in selected areas in and around Kumasi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owusu, Seth Adjei

    2012-06-01

    Radon (Rn-222) is a radioactive noble gas of natural origin that may be found anywhere in soil, air and different types of water: surface, borehole, well and spring. It is worth to carry out surveys for the radon in water for radiation protection as well as for geological considerations. The research presenters here was carried out in selected towns in and around Kumasi for the determination of radon concentration in groundwater. The major towns from which samples were taken are , Mowire, Kronum, Aburaso, Medoma, Kenyase, Buokrom, Bomfa, Ayeduase, Kotei, Tikrom. All the samples are used for domestic purposes such as cooking, drinking, bathing and washing. Waters from boreholes and wells in the selected towns were sampled and the radon concentration level measured. The Roll’s method was used for the radon concentration analysis on all the 100 samples. The results shows that, the minimum radon concentration in groundwater was 13015.934 Bq/m3 and it was found at Bomfa, and the highest was found to be 964628.480 Bq/m3, recorded at Mowire. It is believed that this variation of levels is mainly due to the difference in rock type, soil type and geology of the area as well as the depth of the water samples. This information can be used to estimate the possible health hazards from radon in the selected towns in the future from environmental point of view. The data would promote public awareness related to risk of radon exposure. (au)

  9. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  11. Determination of radon in the air of housings of the Aguascalientes municipality; Determinacion de radon en el aire en viviendas del municipio de Aguascalientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasso G, M.R.; Lira P, M.G.; Bonilla P, A.; Ruvalcaba S, L.; Gutierrez S, K.M.; Sandoval A, G.E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Lopez Mateos 1801, 20256 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Sanchez H, L. [CNSNS, Dr. Barragan 779, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: jassogonzalezre@yahoo.com.mx

    2006-07-01

    This study reports the results of the first exploratory sampling of the radon concentration in the air in a group of housings of the Aguascalientes City, Mexico. The municipality of Aguascalientes was divided in 4 sampling areas considering a total of 179 housings. In these housings, the radon concentration in the air was monitored during a period of 10 days. The results obtained in this study indicate that the radon concentration in the air of 45% of the sampling housings overcomes the concentration limit of 250 Bq/m{sup 3} suggested by the EPA. (Author)

  12. Spatial radon anomalies on active faults in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.-Y.; King, B.-S.; Evans, W.C.; Wei Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Radon emanation has been observed to be anomalously high along active faults in many parts of the world. We tested this relationship by conducting and repeating soil-air radon surveys with a portable radon meter across several faults in California. The results confirm the existence of fault-associated radon anomalies, which show characteristic features that may be related to fault structures but vary in time due to other environmental changes, such as rainfall. Across two creeping faults in San Juan Bautista and Hollister, the radon anomalies showed prominent double peaks straddling the fault-gouge zone during dry summers, but the peak-to-background ratios diminished after significant rain fall during winter. Across a locked segment of the San Andreas fault near Olema, the anomaly has a single peak located several meters southwest of the slip zone associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Across two fault segments that ruptured during the magnitude 7.5 Landers earthquake in 1992, anomalously high radon concentration was found in the fractures three weeks after the earthquake. We attribute the fault-related anomalies to a slow vertical gas flow in or near the fault zones. Radon generated locally in subsurface soil has a concentration profile that increases three orders of magnitude from the surface to a depth of several meters; thus an upward flow that brings up deeper and radon-richer soil air to the detection level can cause a significantly higher concentration reading. This explanation is consistent with concentrations of carbon dioxide and oxygen, measured in soil-air samples collected during one of the surveys. (Author)

  13. Daily fluctuations in radon concentration in a Cordoba factory complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germanier, A.; Perez, R.; Rubio, M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: This work shows the fluctuations of indoor radon concentration in some rooms placed inside a Cordoba Factory Complex. The measurements were performed by Victoreen Radon Monitor. The system was shaped to sample single radon concentration values after one hour integration. It utilizes a passive diffusion chamber and a silicon diffused junction detector. A portion of decay products will plate-out onto the detector and emit alpha particles into the depletion region of a diffused junction detector. The alpha energy is deposited in the detector in the form of ionization which generates a charge pulse. Only alpha pulses of an energy level similar Po-218 and Po-214 are detected. The study of the meteorological parameters shows that the daily fluctuations of the radon concentration respond to the transport and dispersion processes of radon gas through the air. Air temperature, wind's direction and speed are found to be fundamentals parameters in the observed time behavior. The meteorological data were obtained by a portable station (Davis Weathe Monitor II). The radon concentration present a maximum value (1850 Bq/m 3 ) at the night and a minimum value (150 Bq/m 3 ) at the day. (author) [es

  14. Reducing radon daughter background in alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1991-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors are instruments designed to sample aerosols which may contain alpha-emitting radionuclides and, in near-real time, to monitor the sample for alpha emissions. This process is subject to interference from radon decay products. The usual method for overcoming this interference is by signal processing or data processing in such a manner as to accurately subtract a portion of the background from the transuranic count. An innovative alternative approach has been jointly developed in a collaboration between Los Alamos National Laboratory and Texas A ampersand M University. The concept is to attempt to physically remove a portion of the interfering radon daughters from the incoming sample by a diffusion screen before the sample is collected. The results of laboratory tests indicate that a very high removal efficiency for unattached radon progeny can be obtained without excessive loss of efficiency for collection of the contaminant aerosols of concern. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  16. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  17. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  18. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  19. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR RADON-THORON IN AIR AND EXHALATION FROM SOIL IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF WESTERN HARYANA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nisha; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sushil; Chauhan, R P

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of indoor radon and thoron is important because the inhalation of radon-thoron and their daughters contributes more than 50 % of the total dose from natural sources. One of the important parameters to find out the contribution of soil and building materials towards indoor radon is radon exhalation rates, which can be used for estimation of indoor radon levels. The indoor radon and thoron levels from the air and radon exhalation rates from soil samples collected from two districts (Hisar and Fatehabad) of Western Haryana are measured using pin-hole-based radon-thoron dosimeter and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector by canister technique. The results show that the indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 11 to 112 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 5 to 24 and 59 to 105 Bq m -3 , respectively, in summer season. In winter season, indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 15 to 43 and 32 to 102 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 18 to 31 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , respectively. The indoor radon levels of 95 % locations lie well below the limit recommended by International Commission of Radiation Protection, 2011. The radon mass exhalation rate varied from 6 to 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples were lower than the worldwide average, i.e. 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 There exists a poor correlation between indoor radon and exhalation rates. More investigations of measurement of radionuclide contents from rock and stone of study area can improve the understanding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of grab bar on utilized friction and dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Kato, Tomohisa; Honda, Keita; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2017-08-01

    The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars. Displacement and velocity of the center of mass and utilized friction, which is the required coefficient of friction to avoid slipping, were simultaneously measured by a three-dimensional motion analysis system and two force plates. A post hoc test for two-way ANOVA revealed that velocity of the center of mass in the vertical direction (pbar were significantly slower and smaller than those without the grab bar in young and elderly people. Moreover, the utilized friction at push off of the trailing leg with the vertical bar in elderly people was lower (pbar. The use of each grab bar while performing a lateral step over an obstacle may help maintaining balance in lateral and vertical directions. However, use of the vertical bar while lateral stepping over an object in elderly people may need low utilized friction to prevent slipping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.