The Origin of the Ionic-Radius Ratio Rules
Jensen, William B.
2010-01-01
In response to a reader query, this article traces the origins of the ionic-radius ratio rules and their incorrect attribution to Linus Pauling in the chemical literature and to Victor Goldschmidt in the geochemical literature. In actual fact, the ionic-radius ratio rules were first proposed within the context of the coordination chemistry…
Is the proton radius puzzle evidence of extra dimensions?
Dahia, F.; Lemos, A.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Department of Physics, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2016-08-15
The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between the 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitational energy depends on the higher-dimensional Planck mass and indirectly on the brane thickness. Studying the behavior of the gravitational energy with respect to the brane thickness in a realistic range, we find constraints for the fundamental Planck mass that solve the proton radius puzzle and are consistent with previous experimental bounds. (orig.)
Is the proton radius puzzle an evidence of extra dimensions?
Dahia, F
2015-01-01
The proton charge radius inferred from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is not compatible with the previous value given by CODATA-2010, which, on its turn, essentially relies on measurements of the electron-proton interaction. The proton's new size was extracted from the 2S-2P Lamb shift in the muonic hydrogen, which showed an energy excess of 0.3 meV in comparison to the theoretical prediction, evaluated with the CODATA radius. Higher-dimensional gravity is a candidate to explain this discrepancy, since the muon-proton gravitational interaction is stronger than the electron-proton interaction and, in the context of braneworld models, the gravitational potential can be hugely amplified in short distances when compared to the Newtonian potential. Motivated by these ideas, we study a muonic hydrogen confined in a thick brane. We show that the muon-proton gravitational interaction modified by extra dimensions can provide the additional separation of 0.3 meV between 2S and 2P states. In this scenario, the gravitation...
Optimal Taylor-Couette flow: Radius ratio dependence
Monico, Rodolfo Ostilla; Jannink, Tim J G; van Gils, Dennis P M; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef
2013-01-01
Taylor-Couette flow with independently rotating inner (i) and outer (o) cylinders is explored numerically and experimentally to determine the effects of the radius ratio {\\eta} on the system response. Numerical simulations reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=9.5 x 10^3 and Re_o=5x10^3, corresponding to Taylor numbers of up to Ta=10^8 for four different radius ratios {\\eta}=r_i/r_o between 0.5 and 0.909. The experiments, performed in the Twente Turbulent Taylor-Couette (T^3C) setup, reach Reynolds numbers of up to Re_i=2x10^6$ and Re_o=1.5x10^6, corresponding to Ta=5x10^{12} for {\\eta}=0.714-0.909. Effective scaling laws for the torque J^{\\omega}(Ta) are found, which for sufficiently large driving Ta are independent of the radius ratio {\\eta}. As previously reported for {\\eta}=0.714, optimum transport at a non-zero Rossby number Ro=r_i|{\\omega}_i-{\\omega}_o|/[2(r_o-r_i){\\omega}_o] is found in both experiments and numerics. Ro_opt is found to depend on the radius ratio and the driving of the system. At a drivi...
Radius ratio effects on natural heat transfer in concentric annulus
Alipour, M.; Hosseini, R.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania
2013-01-01
This paper studies natural convection heat transfer in vertical and electrically heated annulus. The metallic cylinders mounted concentrically in a parallel tube. Measurements are carried out for four input electric powers and three radius ratios with an apparatus immersed in stagnant air...
Abramowicz, H; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M; Bellagamba, L; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chiochia, V; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cloth, P; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Cormack, C; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cottrell, A; D'Agostini, Giulio; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; Dannheim, D; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Deshpande, A A; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Filges, D; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fricke, U; Fusayasu, T; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gliga, S; Goers, S; Golubkov, Yu A; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Heusch, C A; Hilger, E; Hillert, S; Hirose, T; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Inuzuka, M; Irrgang, P; Jakob, P; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, M; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kim, Y K; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, H; Kowalski, T; Krakauer, D A; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Labes, H; Lainesse, J; Lammers, S; Lee, J H; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Lim, I T; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; McCubbin, N A; Mellado, B; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Mus, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Pac, M Y; Padhi, S; Paganis, S; Palmonari, F; Parenti, A; Park, I H; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, N; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Posocco, M; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Riveline, U; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Rurua, L; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tandler, J; Tapper, A D; Targett-Adams, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Velthuis, J J; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Weber, A; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, K; Wichmann, R; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wolf, G; Yamada, S; Yamashita, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zambrana, M; Zawiejski, L; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, S A; De Wolf, E
2004-01-01
A search for physics beyond the Standard Model has been performed with high-Q^2 neutral current deep inelastic scattering events recorded with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Two data sets, e^+ p \\to e^+ X and e^- p \\to e^- X, with respective integrated luminosities of 112 pb^-1 and 16 pb^-1, were analyzed. The data reach Q^2 values as high as 40000 GeV^2. No significant deviations from Standard Model predictions were observed. Limits were derived on the effective mass scale in eeqq contact interactions, the ratio of leptoquark mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models and the effective Planck mass scale in models with large extra dimensions. The limit on the quark charge radius, in the classical form factor approximation, is 0.85 10^-16 cm.
[The thickness/radius ratio (h/r) of the left ventricle in pure mitral insufficiency].
Guadalajara, J F; Alexánderson, E; Monobe, F; Nieto, S; Huerta, D
1992-01-01
We studied 11 patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR). With 2-D echocardiogram we could obtain the septal and posterior wall thickness, left ventricular internal dimensions and ventricular function. With parasternal short axis view we calculate the h/r ratio (left ventricular thickness/radius). The results were compared with normal values: we found important left atrial and ventricle dilatation with significative difference from the normal values (P < 0.001), the diastolic and systolic h/r ratio was significative lower than the normal values (P < 0.005): the systolic wall stress was significative higher in relation to normal values (P < 0.001). We conclude that patients with severe (MR) initially have an important ventricular dilatation but no hypertrophy despite volume overload. The possible explanation is that in early stages of the disease, the afterload of the left ventricle is low and does not trigger the development of hypertrophy. The hypertrophy appears only when the systolic stress is high secondary to myocardial failure. The excessive dilatation of the left ventricle probably damages the myocardial fibers by excessive stretch. This mechanism probably explains the poor late surgical evolution of patients with mitral prosthesis. This we propose that the optimal surgical timing for such patients is when the systolic wall stress elevates over the normal limits, because this is an early sign of myocardial failure.
Taylor–Couette turbulence at radius ratio η=0.5: scaling, flow structures and plumes
Veen, van der R.C.A.; Huisman, S.G.; Merbold, S.; Harlander, U.; Egbers, C.; Lohse, D.; Sun, C.
2016-01-01
Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry, we measure velocity profiles, the wind Reynolds number and characteristics of turbulent plumes in Taylor–Couette flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and Taylor number of up to 6:2 109. The extracted angular velocity profiles follow a log law more closely
Predictions of Crystal Structure Based on Radius Ratio: How Reliable Are They?
Nathan, Lawrence C.
1985-01-01
Discussion of crystalline solids in undergraduate curricula often includes the use of radius ratio rules as a method for predicting which type of crystal structure is likely to be adopted by a given ionic compound. Examines this topic, establishing more definitive guidelines for the use and reliability of the rules. (JN)
[The thickness/radius ratio (t/r) in patients with dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy].
Guadalajara, J F; Valenzuela, F; Martínez Sánchez, C; Huerta, D
1990-01-01
We studied 17 patients with cardiomyopathy (10 hypertrophic and 7 dilated). With two-dimensional echocardiography, we obtained a short axis view at the level of papillary muscle. We calculated the ratio between thickness (h), of ventricular wall and cavity's radius (r) in diastole and systole (h/r ratio). Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has a high h/r ratio in diastole (inappropriate hypertrophy), hypercontractility and low and systolic wall stress. Dilated cardiomyopathy has a low diastolic h/r ratio (inadequate hypertrophy) with low contractility and elevated end-systolic, wall stress. We discuss the mechanisms and consequences of different patterns of hypertrophy on the ventricular performance.
Chen, Zhuoying; O'Brien, Stephen
2008-06-01
We report a nanoparticle radius ratio dependent study of the formation of binary nanoparticle superlattices (BNSLs) of CdTe and CdSe quantum dots. While keeping all other parameters identical in the system, the effective nanoparticle radius ratio, gamma(eff), was tuned to allow the formation of five different BNSL structures, AlB(2), cub-NaZn(13), ico-NaZn(13), CaCu(5), and MgZn(2). For each structure, gamma(eff) is located close to a local maximum of its space-filling factor, based on a model for space filling principles. We demonstrate the ability to select specific BNSLs based solely on gamma(eff), highlighting the role of entropic forces as a driver for self-assembly.
Free-jet acoustic investigation of high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles
Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Bhutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.
1984-01-01
The experimental and analytical results of a scale model simulated flight acoustic exploratory investigation of high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Six coannular plug nozzle configurations and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. It was found that in simulate flight, the high radius ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass struts will not significantly affect the acousticn noise reduction features of a General Electric type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insights into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further benificial research efforts.
Estimation of Radius Ratio in a Fin Using Inverse CFD Model
Ranjan Das
2011-03-01
Full Text Available
This article deals with the retrieval of parameters such as the radius-ratio in a rectangular fin using an inverse CFD model involving a mixed boundary condition. At first, the temperature field is obtained from a forward problem using the finite difference method (FDM in which the inner and outer radii or the radius-ratio is assumed to be known. Next, by an inverse approach using the FDM in conjunction with the genetic algorithm (GA, the inner and outer radii or the radius-ratio is retrieved. To accomplish the task, an objective function represented by the sum of square of the error between the guessed and the exact/measured temperature fields is minimized. Apart from demonstrating the suitability of the FDM
ProdipKumarDas; ShohelMahmud
2000-01-01
The problem of laminar natural convective heat transfer inside an eccentric semicircular enclosure of different radius ratio and eccentricity is investigated numerically,At the same time,combined effect of the radius ratio and eccentricity on fluid flow is also observed with isothermal upper and lower surface.Here laminar,steady nuatural convection heat transfer are predicted for radius ratio R*=1.75,2.0,2.25,2.5.Simulation was carried out for a range of eccentricity,ε=0.0 to 0.6.Governing equations are solved using finite volume method with a body fitted grid with collocated variable arrangement for a range of Grashof numer 101-107 based on R0.Results are presented in the form of constant stream function,isothermal lines,local Nusselt number and average Nusselt number at different angular position.Eccentricity has little dominance on heat transfer rate.But significant effect of eccentricity is observed on flow field.Radius ratio has significant effect on natural convection heat transfer as well as on flow field.At higher eccentricity,bi-cellular flow is observed with one crescent-shape vortex at narrower coross section.This crescent shaped vortex is broken down into two cells with the increase of radius ratio that means transition Grashof number for bi-cellular flow to tri-cellular flow is decreased with the increase of radius ratio.Eccentricity also has the same effect of flow field.Eccentricity has little effect on heat transfer but with the increase of radius ratio.average heat trasfer rate increases.
Free-jet investigation of mechanically suppressed, high radius ratio coannular plug model nozzles
Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.; Knott, P. R.
1985-01-01
The experimental and analytical acoustic results of a scale-model investigation or unsuppressed and mechanically suppressed high-radius ratio coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity and temperature profiles are summarized. Nine coannular nozzle configurations along with a reference conical nozzle were evaluated in the Anechoic Free-Jet Facility for a total of 212 acoustic test points. Most of the tests were conducted at variable cycle engine conditions applicable to advanced high speed aircraft. The tested nozzles included coannular plug nozzles with both convergent and convergent-divergent (C-D) terminations in order to evaluate C-D effectiveness in the reduction of shock-cell noise and 20 and 40 shallow-chute mechanical suppressors in the outer stream in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the reduction of jet noise. In addition to the acoustic tests, mean and turbulent velocity measurements were made on selected plumes of the 20 shallow-chute configuration using a laser velocimeter. At a mixed jet velocity of 700 m/sec, the 20 shallow-chute suppressor configuration yielded peak aft quadrant suppression of 11.5 and 9 PNdB and forward quadrant suppression of 7 and 6 PNdB relative to a baseline conical nozzles during static and simulated flight, respectively. The C-D terminations were observed to reduce shock-cell noise. An engineering spectral prediction method was formulated for mechanically suppressed coannular plug nozzles.
PITR: a small-aspect-ratio, small-major-radius ignition test reactor
Jassby, D.L.; Bolton, R.A.; Brown, D.I.
1978-05-01
The principal objectives of the PITR are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in D-T, and to develop optimal start-up methods for tokamak power reactors. The design approach is based on minimizing dependence on a central transformer core, which thereby results in a machine of small aspect ratio (A approximately 2 to 2.5) and smaller major radius (R/sub 0/ approximately 2.8 m). Current induction is achieved by a combination of ''leaky OH'' coils, equilibrium-field flux swing, a small central solenoid, and compression. Impurity control is effected by a bundle divertor during the beam-heating phase, and by a cold plasma blanket during the burn. The vacuum vessel is constructed of thin-gauge, double-wall titanium alloy. Sixteen normal-copper TF coils of the compound constant-tension type enable low-stress operation at B/sub max/ = 12.5 T.
Toutam, Vijaykumar, E-mail: toutamvk@nplindia.org [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Rina [Quantum Phenomena and Applications Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Bathula, Sivaiah; Dhar, Ajay [Material Physics and Engineering Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)
2015-09-15
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Binary hard sphere silica nanoparticle system based PDMS composite. • Enhanced hydrophilization and retainability of the composite. • Restriction of uncured PDMS from diffusion. • Increased Debye length of electrostatic double layer, measured by F-D Spectroscopy. - Abstract: Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and Silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticle composite blocks of three different batches (CB1–CB3) made by varying the size of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NP), are studied for the degree of hydrophilization and retainability after oxidation by contact angle measurements (CA) and force distance spectroscopy (FDS) using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). While CA measurements have shown high hydrophilization and retainability for CB3, F-D spectroscopy has reiterated the observation and has shown long range interactive forces and high Debye length of the electrostatic double layer formed. These results are in agreement with the radius ratio rule of binary sphere system for high density packing in the composite and thereby for strong hydrophilization and retainability due to reinforcement and restricted diffusion of uncured polymer.
Taylor-Couette turbulence at radius ratio $\\eta=0.5$: scaling, flow structures and plumes
van der Veen, Roeland C A; Merbold, Sebastian; Harlander, Uwe; Egbers, Christoph; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao
2015-01-01
Using high-resolution particle image velocimetry we measure velocity profiles, the wind Reynolds number and characteristics of turbulent plumes in Taylor-Couette flow for a radius ratio of 0.5 and Taylor number of up to $6.2\\cdot10^9$. The extracted angular velocity profiles follow a log-law more closely than the azimuthal velocity profiles due to the strong curvature of this $\\eta=0.5$ setup. The scaling of the wind Reynolds number with the Taylor number agrees with the theoretically predicted 3/7-scaling for the classical turbulent regime, which is much more pronounced than for the well-explored $\\eta=0.71$ case, for which the ultimate regime sets in at much lower Ta. By measuring at varying axial positions, roll structures are found for counter-rotation while no clear coherent structures are seen for pure inner cylinder rotation. In addition, turbulent plumes coming from the inner and outer cylinder are investigated. For pure inner cylinder rotation, the plumes in the radial velocity move away from the inn...
The convexity radius of a Riemannian manifold
Dibble, James
2014-01-01
The ratio of convexity radius over injectivity radius may be made arbitrarily small within the class of compact Riemannian manifolds of any fixed dimension at least two. This is proved using Gulliver's method of constructing manifolds with focal points but no conjugate points. The approach is suggested by a characterization of the convexity radius that resembles a classical result of Klingenberg about the injectivity radius.
Knott, P. R.; Janardan, B. A.; Majjigi, R. K.; Shutiani, P. K.; Vogt, P. G.
1981-01-01
Six coannular plug nozzle configurations having inverted velocity and temperature profiles, and a baseline convergent conical nozzle were tested for simulated flight acoustic evaluation in General Electric's Anechoic Free-Jet Acoustic Facility. The nozzles were tested over a range of test conditions that are typical of a Variable Cycle Engine for application to advanced high speed aircraft. The outer stream radius ratio for most of the configurations was 0.853, and the inner-stream-outer-stream area ratio was tested in the range of 0.54. Other variables investigated were the influence of bypass struts, a simple noncontoured convergent-divergent outer stream nozzle for forward quadrant shock noise control, and the effects of varying outer stream radius and inner-stream-to-outer-stream velocity ratios on the flight noise signatures of the nozzles. It was found that in simulated flight, the high-radius-ratio coannular plug nozzles maintain their jet noise and shock noise reduction features previously observed in static testing. The presence of nozzle bypass structs will not significantly effect the acoustic noise reduction features of a General Electric-type nozzle design. A unique coannular plug nozzle flight acoustic spectral prediction method was identified and found to predict the measured results quite well. Special laser velocimeter and acoustic measurements were performed which have given new insight into the jet and shock noise reduction mechanisms of coannular plug nozzles with regard to identifying further beneficial research efforts.
King, Gregory P.; Rudman, Murray; Coughlin, Katie; Rowlands, George
2005-11-01
The mixing characteristics of wavy Taylor vortex flow have been studied. In a previous work [Rudman, AIChE J., 44, 1998) we demonstrated that inter-vortex mixing could be modelled as a one-dimensional diffusion process along the length (z) of the cylinders and determined, through particle tracking experiments in numerical fields, that the (non-dimensional) effective axial diffusion coefficient (Dz) is a non-monotonic function of the Reynolds number. In a subsequent work (Phys. Fluids, 13 2001) we showed that Dz correlated with the product of space-averaged Eulerian symmetry measures -- quantities that measure the deviation from two-dimensional flow. Those results were for one radius ratio (η= 0.875) and one particular wavy vortex flow state (six waves, axial wavelength = 2.33 gap widths). To determine if this result was `coincidental', we have carried out an extensive investigation of the dependence of Dz on Reynolds number, radius ratio and flow state. We find that the excellent correlation of the original study deteriorates only modestly when the radius ratio is decreased from 0.875 to 0.700. On the other hand, Dz shows a more interesting dependence on flow state.
Lan, Ke; Lai, Dongxian; Zheng, Wudi; He, Xian-Tu
2013-01-01
In the present Letter, we advocate a spherical hohlraums with octahedral six laser entrance holes (LEHs) for inertial fusion, which has advantages over the conventional hohlraums of cylindrical geometry since it contains only one cone at each LEH and the problems caused by the beam overlap and crossed-beam energy transfer can be eliminated and the energy coupling efficiency will be enhanced. In particular, our analytical theory predicts that at a specific hohlraum-to-capsule radius ratio, i.e., the golden ratio, the flux asymmetry on the shell of capsule can be significantly reduced. This analytic prediction has been certified by numerical calculations with view factor model. The proposed octahedral hohlraum is also flexible and can be applicable to diverse inertial fusion drive approaches such as indirect and hybrid indirect-direct drives. As an application, we design an ignition octahedral hohlraum for the hybrid drive by using the expended plasma-filling model and view factor model.
The effective attraction radius (EAR) of an attractive pheromone-baited trap was defined as the radius of a passive “sticky” sphere that would intercept the same number of flying insects as the attractant. The EAR for a particular attractant and insect species in nature is easily determined by a cat...
Dimension-Independent Positive-Partial-Transpose Probability Ratios
Slater, P B
2005-01-01
We conduct quasi-Monte Carlo numerical integrations in two very high (80 and 79)-dimensional domains -- the parameter spaces of rank-9 and rank-8 qutrit-qutrit (9 x 9) density matrices. We, then, estimate the ratio of the probability -- in terms of the Hilbert-Schmidt metric -- that a generic rank-9 density matrix has a positive partial transpose (PPT) to the probability that a generic rank-8 density matrix has a PPT (a precondition to separability/nonentanglement). Close examination of the numerical results generated -- despite certain large fluctuations -- indicates that the true ratio may, in fact, be 2. Our earlier investigation (eprint quant-ph/0410238) also yielded estimates close to 2 of the comparable ratios for qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit pairs (the only two cases where the PPT condition fully implies separability). Therefore, it merits conjecturing (as Zyczkowski was the first to do) that such Hilbert-Schmidt (rank-NM/rank-(NM-1)) PPT probability ratios are 2 for all NM-dimensional quantum systems.
Ruoff, A L; Christensen, N E
2002-01-01
By calculating the single-crystal elastic constants of W and Mo by first-principles methods the pressure strengthening of the yield stress was obtained. This was used to calculate the behaviour of the hydrogen sample hole size in a tungsten gasket. It was found that drastic changes occur depending on r sub s sup 0 /r sub t where r sub s sup 0 is the initial sample radius and r sub t is the diamond tip radius. It is seen why, with r sub s sup 0 /r sub t =0.9, the Carnegie group cannot and have not exceeded pressures of 230 GPa and why, with r sub s sup 0 /r sub t =0.5, the Cornell group has been able to reach 342 GPa.
Novel Rotating Hairy Black Hole in (2+1)-Dimensions and Shear Viscosity to Entropy Ratio
Naji, J.; Heshmatian, S.
2014-08-01
The novel rotating hairy black hole metric in (2 + 1) dimensions, which is an exact solution to the field equations of the Einstein-scalar AdS theory with a non-minimal coupling, considered in this paper and some hydrodynamics quantities such as diffusion constant and shear viscosity investigated. By using thermodynamics quantities such as temperature and entropy we can use diffusion constant to obtain shear viscosity and then calculate shear viscosity to entropy ratio.
Antes, Sebastian; Welsch, Melanie; Kiefer, Michael; Gläser, Mareike; Körner, Heiko; Eymann, Regina
2013-01-01
Magnetic resonance imaging and cranial -ultrasound are the most frequently implemented imaging methods for investigating the infantile hydrocephalic brain. A general and reliable measurement index that can be equally applied in both imaging methods to assess dimension of ventricular dilatation is currently not available. For this purpose, a new parameter called the frontal and temporal horn ratio - determinable in coronal slices of the brain - was developed and evaluated in a comparative volumetric retrospective study: Statistical analyses of 118 MRIs of 46 different shunt-treated pediatric patients revealed a good linear correlation between the new index and the actual ventricular volume.
Tyler, Germund
2004-08-15
The root/organic soil concentration ratio; R/S) of 50 cationic mineral elements was related to their ionic properties, including ionic radius (r), ionic charge (z), and ionic potential (z/r or z2/r). The materials studied were ectomycorrhizal beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) roots and their almost purely organic soil substrate, the O-horizon (mor; raw humus) of a Podzol in South Sweden, developed in a site which has been untouched by forestry or other mechanical disturbance since at least 50 years and located in an area with no local sources of pollution. Elements determined by ICP-AES were aluminium, barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium and strontium. Determined by ICP-MS were silver, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, caesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, gallium, gadolinium, hafnium, mercury, holmium, indium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, niobium, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, scandium, samarium, tin, terbium, thorium, titanium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. The R/S ratios were most clearly related to the ionic potential of the cationic elements studied, which accounted for approximately 60% of the variability in R/S among elements. The ionic charge of an element was more important than the ionic radius. Elements with high ionic charge had low R/S ratios and vice versa. No clear differences in R/S between essential and non-essential plant nutrients were observed, especially when ions of similar charge were compared.
Guadalajara, J F; Martínez, C; Gutiérrez, E; Zamora, C; Huerta, D
1989-01-01
We studied 72 healthy subjects; 31 of them were adults and 41 children. By means of two-dimensional echocardiography we obtained a short axis view at the papillary muscle level of the ratio of the thickness (h) of the ventricular wall and the radius (r) of the cavity. We analysed ventricular performance determinants (pre-load, after-load and contractility). This non-invasive method gives information similar to pressure-volume curves. Thus, we propose it for the study of left ventricular overloads.
The Development of High Frequency Welded Pipe with Large Radius-thickness Ratio%大径厚比高频焊管的开发
李烨; 陈浮; 冷洪刚; 张毅; 孙广东
2015-01-01
根据大径厚比圆管的特点 ,选用高效、低成本的高频焊接生产方式 ,采用线性排辊成型工艺 ,并通过对大径厚比高频焊管的铣边、成型、焊接、定径等工艺的研究 ,成功地开发出径厚比≥100的高频焊接圆管 Φ508 × 5 ,该焊管成功地应用于太阳能光伏发电装置.%Based on the characteristics of high frequency welded pipes with large radius-thickness ratio , a highly efficient welding production mode with low cost was applied in this project .Adopting linear cage roll forming process ,and through research of milling ,molding ,welding ,sizing process of making the large diameter-thick ratio of high frequency welded pipe ,the researchers successfully developed the high frequency welded pipe 508 x 5 with a diameter thickness ratio of 100 or more 5 ,the welded tube was suc-cessfully applied to solar energy photovoltaic devices.
Schellart, W. P.
2009-10-01
Three-dimensional laboratory subduction models are presented investigating the influence of the slab/upper mantle viscosity ratio (η SP/η UM) on the slab bending radius ( RB), with η SP/η UM = 66-1375. Here, RB is non-dimensionalized by dividing it by the upper mantle thickness ( TUM). The results show that RB/ TUM varies with time, reaching a maximum when the subduction velocity is maximum. Furthermore, RB/ TUM increases approximately linearly with increasing η SP/η UM for the investigated viscosity range. The model results show that the slab bending force ( FBe) and the energy dissipation during bending (Ф Be) are small compared to the negative buoyancy force of the slab ( FBu) and the potential energy release during sinking (Ф Bu). Maxima in Ф Be/Ф Bu (≈ FBe/ FBu) are reached in the early stage of subduction when RB/ TUM is minimum and the slab tip is at 220-440 km depth. Maximum Ф Be/Ф Bu increases with increasing η SP/η UM, with Ф Be/Ф Bu(max) = 0.06, 0.11, 0.18 and 0.22 for η SP/η UM = 66, 217, 709 and 1375, respectively. For subduction depths > 220-440 km, Ф Be/Ф Bu = 0.02-0.11 for all viscosity ratios. Assuming that in nature η SP/η UM glucose syrup and silicone oil as modelling materials, highlight the importance of accurate control on temperature during an experiment. New material investigations show that the viscosity of these two materials decreases exponentially with temperature in the range 3-33 °C, their density decreases approximately linearly with temperature, and their coefficient of thermal volumetric expansion is 3.8-4.2 × 10 - 4 C - 1 (glucose syrup) and 9.2 × 10 - 4 C - 1 (silicone oil).
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition and the insulin: Glucagon ratio: Unexplored dimensions
Sanjay Kalra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of glucose-lowering drugs which act by inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the kidneys. Their effect on insulin and glucagon levels has recently been studied but is not fully explained. This communication proposes various hypotheses: A direct effect of SGLT-2 inhibition on the alpha cell receptors, a paracrine or intra-islet mediated effect on alpha cell sensitivity to glucose, and a calorie restriction mimetic action, to explain the impact of these drugs on the insulin glucagon ratio.
Glibert, P. M.
2016-02-01
Building on the classic depiction of the progression from a diatom to a dinoflagellate bloom as a function of nutrients and turbulence, known as the "Margalef mandala", a new conceptual model or mandala is presented here. The new mandala maps twelve traits or environmental characteristics related to different phytoplankton functional types: (1) relative preference for chemically reduced vs chemically oxidized forms of nitrogen; (2) relative availability of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus; (3) adaptation to high vs low light and the tendency to be autotrophic vs mixotrophic; (4) cell motility; (5) environmental turbulence; (6) pigmentation quality; (7) temperature; (8) cell size; (9) relative growth rate; (10) relative production of bioactive compounds such as toxins or reactive oxygen species (ROS); (11) r vs K strategy; and (12) fate of the production in terms of grazing. The new mandala serves to highlight the differences and trade-offs between traits and/or environmental conditions, and illustrates some traits tend to track each other, a concept that may be helpful in trait-based modeling approaches. It is hoped that this new mandala captures some of our recent insight into phytoplankton physiology and functional traits, and has contemporary relevance in light of anthropogenic changes in nutrient form and ratio.
Rohlik, Harold E; Wintucky, William T; Scibbe, Herbert W
1957-01-01
Detailed design information including overall performance parameters, velocity diagrams, and blade surface velocities is presented. Experimental performance includes maps based on rating as well as total-pressure ratios showing the effect of exit whirl. Also included are results of surveys at the stator exit and downstream of the rotor at design speed and specific work. This information will be used as a standard for comparison with subsequent secondary-flow work.
The ideal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of finite length
Bjørk, Rasmus
2011-01-01
but with a possible shorter length is considered. The external radius and the length of the Halbach cylinder with the smallest possible dimensions are found as a function of a desired internal radius, length of the sample volume and mean flux density. It is shown that the optimal ratio between the outer and inner...... radius of the Halbach cylinder does not depend on the length of the sample volume. Finally, the efficiency of a finite length Halbach cylinder is considered and compared with the case of a cylinder of infinite length. The most efficient dimensions for a Halbach cylinder are found and it is shown...
Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Dordevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H
2014-10-16
Measurements of the inclusive jet cross section with the anti-$k_t$ clustering algorithm are presented for two radius parameters, R=0.5 and 0.7. They are based on data from LHC proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse-femtobarns collected with the CMS detector in 2011. The ratio of these two measurements is obtained as a function of the rapidity and transverse momentum of the jets. Significant discrepancies are found comparing the data to leading-order simulations and to fixed-order calculations at next-to-leading order, corrected for nonperturbative effects, whereas simulations with next-to-leading-order matrix elements matched to parton showers describe the data best.
Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); et al.,
2014-10-01
Measurements of the inclusive jet cross section with the anti-kt clustering algorithm are presented for two radius parameters, R=0.5 and 0.7. They are based on data from LHC proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns collected with the CMS detector in 2011. The ratio of these two measurements is obtained as a function of the rapidity and transverse momentum of the jets. Significant discrepancies are found comparing the data to leading-order simulations and to fixed-order calculations at next-to-leading order, corrected for nonperturbative effects, whereas simulations with next-to-leading-order matrix elements matched to parton showers describe the data best.
Comparision of Effects of Different Radius Ratio on Composite Flywheel Rotor%不同半径比对复合材料飞轮转子的影响比较
贾红雨; 胡继斌; 陈军营
2012-01-01
The structural design of composite flywheel rotor has a greater impact on reservoir energy,and the control of speed is very limited and affected by multiple factors. By quantitative calculation of energy and energy density of the flywheel system storage,to draw an important factor for flywheel energy storage density,and the creation of the mechanical model of the flywheel rotor system,and provides a theoretical basis for further analysis; select a different inner and outer radius ratio the stress of the flywheel rotor,and ultimately determine the flywheel rotor radius than the inside and outside the selection criteria,and have practical significance.%复合材料飞轮转子的结构设计对储能量有较大影响,其速度的控制有局限性,受多种因素的影响.通过对飞轮系统储能量及储能密度的量化计算,得出影响飞轮储能密度的重要因素,同时对飞轮转子系统进行力学模型的创建,为进一步分析提供了理论基础；选取不同的内外半径比值研究飞轮转子的应力变化,最终确定飞轮转子内外半径比的选用准则,具有实际意义.
Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist)
.org Distal Radius Fracture (Broken Wrist) Page ( 1 ) The radius is the larger of the two bones of the forearm. The ... the distal end. A fracture of the distal radius occurs when the area of the radius near ...
Downie E. J.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The proton radius puzzle is the difference between the proton radius as measured with electron scattering and in the excitation spectrum of atomic hydrogen, and that measured with muonic hydrogen spectroscopy. Since the inception of the proton radius puzzle in 2010 by the measurement of Pohl et al.[1], many possible resolutions to the puzzle have been postulated, but, to date, none has been generally accepted. New data are therefore necessary to resolve the issue. We briefly review the puzzle, the proposed solutions, and the new electron scattering and spectroscopy experiments planned and underway. We then introduce the MUSE experiment, which seeks to resolve the puzzle by simultaneously measuring elastic electron and muon scattering on the proton, in both charge states, thereby providing new information to the puzzle. MUSE addresses issues of two-photon effects, lepton universality and, possibly, new physics, while providing simultaneous form factor, and therefore radius, measurements with both muons and electrons.
Effective Cleaning Radius Studies
Churnetski, B.V.
2001-10-15
This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.
The ideal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of finite length
Bjørk, R
2014-01-01
In this paper the smallest or optimal dimensions of a Halbach cylinder of a finite length for a given sample volume and desired flux density are determined using numerical modeling and parameter variation. A sample volume that is centered in and shaped as the Halbach cylinder bore but with a possible shorter length is considered. The external radius and the length of the Halbach cylinder with the smallest possible dimensions are found as a function of a desired internal radius, length of the sample volume and mean flux density. It is shown that the optimal ratio between the outer and inner radius of the Halbach cylinder does not depend on the length of the sample volume. Finally, the efficiency of a finite length Halbach cylinder is considered and compared with the case of a cylinder of infinite length. The most efficient dimensions for a Halbach cylinder are found and it is shown that the efficiency increases slowly with the length of the cylinder.
Micciché, Maurizio; Arzt, Eduard; Kroner, Elmar
2014-05-28
The goal of our study is to better understand the design parameters of bioinspired dry adhesives inspired by geckos. For this, we fabricated single macroscopic pillars of 400 μm diameter with different aspect ratios and different tip shapes (i.e., flat tips, spherical tips with different radii, and mushroom tips with different diameters). Tilt-angle-dependent adhesion measurements showed that although the tip shape of the pillars strongly influences the pull-off force, the pull-off strength is similar for flat and mushroom-shaped tips. We found no tilt-angle dependency of adhesion for spherical tip structures and, except for high tilt angle and low preload experiments, no tilt-angle effect for mushroom-tip pillars. For flat-tip pillars, we found a strong influence of tilt angle on adhesion, which decreased linearly with increasing aspect ratio. The experiments show that for the tested aspect ratios between 1 and 5, a linear decrease of tilt-angle dependency is found. The results of our studies will help to design bioinspired adhesives for application on smooth and rough surfaces.
Stevanovic, Dragan
2015-01-01
Spectral Radius of Graphs provides a thorough overview of important results on the spectral radius of adjacency matrix of graphs that have appeared in the literature in the preceding ten years, most of them with proofs, and including some previously unpublished results of the author. The primer begins with a brief classical review, in order to provide the reader with a foundation for the subsequent chapters. Topics covered include spectral decomposition, the Perron-Frobenius theorem, the Rayleigh quotient, the Weyl inequalities, and the Interlacing theorem. From this introduction, the
Fatemi, Fredrik K; Solano, Pablo; Fenton, Eliot F; Beadie, Guy; Rolston, Steven L; Orozco, Luis A
2016-01-01
Optical nanofibers (ONF) of subwavelength dimensions confine light in modes with a strong evanescent field that can trap, probe, and manipulate nearby quantum systems. To measure the evanescent field and propagating modes, and to optimize ONF performance, a surface probe is desirable during fabrication. We demonstrate a nondestructive measurement of light propagation in ONFs by sampling the local evanescent field with a microfiber. This approach reveals the behavior of all propagating modes, and because the modal beat lengths in cylindrical waveguides depend strongly on radius, simultaneously provides exquisite sensitivity to the ONF radius. We show that our measured spatial frequencies provide a map of the average ONF radius (over a 600 micrometer window) along the 10 mm ONF waist with 40 picometer resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. The measurements agree with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to within SEM instrument resolution. This fast method is immune to polarization, intrinsic birefringence, m...
A Link Between Black Holes and the Golden Ratio
Nieto, J A
2011-01-01
We consider a variational formalism to describe black holes solution in higher dimensions. Our procedure clarifies the arbitrariness of the radius parameter and, in particular, the meaning of the event horizon of a black hole. Moreover, our formalism enables us to find a surprising link between black holes and the golden ratio.
Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites
Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.
1979-01-01
Using published laboratory data for H2O ice, a modeling technique was developed by which the bulk density, density and temperature profile, rotational moment of inertia, central pressure, and location of the rock-ice interface can all be obtained as a function of the radius, the heliocentric distance, and the silicate composition. Models of the interiors of Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Rhea, and Titan are given, consistent with present mass and radius data. The radius and mass of spheres of ice under self-gravitation for two different temperature classes are given (103 and 77 deg K). Measurements of mass, radius and I/MR2 by spacecraft can be interpreted by this model to yield substantial information about the internal structure and the ice/rock ratio of the icy satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.
Crivelli, P.; Cooke, D.; Heiss, M. W.
2016-09-01
The upcoming operation of the extra low energy antiprotons ring at CERN, the upgrade of the antiproton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of 1 08 e+ /s will open the possibility for new experiments with antihydrogen (H ¯). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of H ¯. For four months of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of C P T and the first determination of the antiproton charge radius at the level of 10%.
A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.
Alibert, Yann
2015-09-01
We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.
I. Ortega
2014-11-01
Full Text Available We present an innovative instrument telescope, and describe a retrieval method to probe 3-D distributions of atmospheric trace gases that are relevant to air pollution and tropospheric chemistry. The University of Colorado (CU two dimensional (2-D Multi-AXis-Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CU 2D-MAX-DOAS instrument measures nitrogen dioxide (NO2, formaldehyde (HCHO, glyoxal (CHOCHO, oxygen dimer (O2-O2, or O4 and water vapor (H2O; also nitrous acid (HONO, bromine monoxide (BrO, iodine monoxide (IO among other gases can in principle be measured. Information about aerosols is derived through coupling with a radiative transfer model (RTM. The 2-D telescope has 3 modes of operation: (mode 1 measures solar scattered photons from any pair of elevation angle (−20° 2 is evaluated at different wavelengths (350, 450, and 560 nm, exploiting the fact that the effective path length varies systematically with wavelength. The area probed is constrained by O4 observations at nearby wavelengths, and has an effective radius of 7.5 to 20 km around the instrument location; i.e., up to 1250 km2 can be sampled near-instantaneously, and with high time resolution. The instrument was deployed as part of the Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT in Mainz, Germany from 7 June to 6 July 2013. We present first measurements (modes 1 and 2 only and describe a four-step retrieval to derive (a boundary layer vertical profiles of NO2 and PBL; (b near-surface horizontal distributions of NO2; (c range resolved NO2 horizontal distribution measurements using an "onion peeling" approach; and (d the ratios HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN, CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN, and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF at 14 pre-set azimuth angles distributed over a 360° view. 2D-MAX-DOAS provides an innovative, regional perspective about trace gases, their spatial and temporal concentration gradients, and maximizes information to compare near-surface observations with atmospheric
Turnaround radius in modified gravity
Faraoni, Valerio
2015-01-01
In an accelerating universe in General Relativity there is a maximum radius above which a shell of test particles cannot collapse, but is dispersed by the cosmic expansion. This radius could be used in conjunction with observations of large structures to constrain the equation of state of the universe. We extend the concept of turnaround radius to modified theories of gravity for which the gravitational slip is non-vanishing.
MEAN-SQUARE RADIUS OF GYRATION AND DIPOLE MOMENT OF POLY(METHYLPHENYLSILOXANE) CHAINS
Hai-zhu Ma; Ting-ting Sun; Gao-xiang Ye
2008-01-01
The mean-square radius of gyration,the mean-square dipole moment,the mean-square end-to-end distance and their temperature coefficients of unsymmetrical disubstituted poly(methylphenylsiloxane)(PMPS) chains,as a function of stereochemical structure,confomational energies and length of polymers,were studied by using an improved configurational-confomational statistical method based on the rotational-isomeric-state theory.It is found that the increase in isotacticity of PMPS chains causes a significant decrease in the unperturbed dimensions and increase in their temperature coefficients.This correlation of the properties of PMPS and its stereochemical structure is different from that of vinyl monosubstituted polystyrene and disubstituted poly(α-methylstyrene) chains.Dependence of the characteristic ratio ofon conformational energy Ew,of C6H5...C6H5 four-bond interactions increases markedly with the degree of isotacticity increasing,the dependence on the conformational energy E8 and dE6 decreases with increasing the degree of isotacticity.It is also found that the characteristic ratios of and its temperature coefficients are in agreement with corresponding experimental results in the degree of isotacticity of about 0-40%.Moreover,the C6H5...C6H5 four-bond interactions play a dominant role in regard to the dimensions of high syndiotactic chains.In addition,the effect of large side groups on unperturbed dimensions is investigated further by the improved expressions of .
Thermoconvective vortices in a cylindrical annulus with varying inner radius.
Castaño, D; Navarro, M C; Herrero, H
2014-12-01
This paper shows the influence of the inner radius on the stability and intensity of vertical vortices, qualitatively similar to dust devils and cyclones, generated in a cylindrical annulus non-homogeneously heated from below. Little relation is found between the intensity of the vortex and the magnitude of the inner radius. Strong stable vortices can be found for both small and large values of the inner radius. The Rankine combined vortex structure, that characterizes the tangential velocity in dust devils, is clearly observed when small values of the inner radius and large values of the ratio between the horizontal and vertical temperature differences are considered. A contraction on the radius of maximum azimuthal velocity is observed when the vortex is intensified by thermal mechanisms. This radius becomes then nearly stationary when frictional force balances the radial inflow generated by the pressure drop in the center, despite the vortex keeps intensifying. These results connect with the behavior of the radius of the maximum tangential wind associated with a hurricane.
Hartl, M; Mikhailov, R.; Passi, I. B. S.
2008-01-01
We present two approaches, one homological and the other simplicial, for the investigation of dimension quotients of groups. The theory is illustrated, in particular, with a conceptual discussion of the fourth and fifth dimension quotients.
Magnetic Radius of the Deuteron
Afanasiev, A V; Trubnikov, S V; Afanasev, Andrei V; Trubnikov, S V
1998-01-01
The root-mean square radius of the deuteron magnetic moment distribution, $ r_{Md}$, is calculated for several realistic models of the $NN$--interaction. For the Paris potential the result is $r_{Md} = 2.312 \\pm 0.010 $ fm. The dependence of $r_{Md} $ on the choice of $NN$ model, relativistic effects and meson exchange currents is investigated. The experimental value of $r_{Md}$ is also considered. The necessity of new precise measurements of the deuteron magnetic form factor at low values of $Q^2$ is stressed.
Fractal analysis of bone architecture at distal radius.
Tomomitsu, Tatsushi; Mimura, Hiroaki; Murase, Kenya; Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao
2005-12-20
Bone strength depends on bone quality (architecture, turnover, damage accumulation, and mineralization) as well as bone mass. In this study, human bone architecture was analyzed using fractal image analysis, and the clinical relevance of this method was evaluated. The subjects were 12 healthy female controls and 16 female patients suspected of having osteoporosis (age range, 22-70 years; mean age, 49.1 years). High-resolution CT images of the distal radius were acquired and analyzed using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) system. On the same day, bone mineral densities of the lumbar spine (L-BMD), proximal femur (F-BMD), and distal radius (R-BMD) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We examined the correlation between the fractal dimension and six bone mass indices. Subjects diagnosed with osteopenia or osteoporosis were divided into two groups (with and without vertebral fracture), and we compared measured values between these two groups. The fractal dimension correlated most closely with L-BMD (r=0.744). The coefficient of correlation between the fractal dimension and L-BMD was very similar to the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and F-BMD (r=0.783) and the coefficient of correlation between L-BMD and R-BMD (r=0.742). The fractal dimension was the only measured value that differed significantly between both the osteopenic and the osteoporotic subjects with and without vertebral fracture. The present results suggest that the fractal dimension of the distal radius can be reliably used as a bone strength index that reflects bone architecture as well as bone mass.
Stepanova, D. L.; Nikulin, P. A.
2017-01-01
Nowadays, there are many types of reducers based on work of gear trains, which transfer torque. The most popular reducers are with such type of gearing as an involute gear, a worm drive and an eccentrically cycloid gear. A new type of the reducer will be represented in this work. It is a wave reducer with the modified profile of the tooth close to the profile of the tooth of Novikov gearing. So such reducers can be widely used in drives of difficult technical mechanisms, for example, in mechatronics, robotics and in drives of exact positioning. In addition, the distribution of loading in gearing of teeth of a reducer was analyzed in this paper. It proves that the modified profile of the tooth allows distributing loading to several teeth in gearing. As a result, an admissible loading ability of a reducer becomes higher. The aim of the research is to define a possibility to reduce overall dimensions of a reducer without changing the gear ratio or to increase the gear ratio without changing overall dimensions. So, the result of this work will be used in further research.
Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J
2015-01-01
We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a $D$-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of a dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamenta...
Sharp Upper and Lower Bounds for the Laplacian Spectral Radius and the Spectral Radius of Graphs
Ji-ming Guo
2008-01-01
In this paper, sharp upper bounds for the Laplacian spectral radius and the spectral radius of graphs are given, respectively. We show that some known bounds can be obtained from our bounds. For a bipartite graph G, we also present sharp lower bounds for the Laplacian spectral radius and the spectral radius,respectively.
Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction
Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter
2016-01-01
Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3
A Precise Estimate of the Radius of HD 149026b
Nutzman, Philip; Winn, Joshua N; Knutson, Heather A; Fortney, Jonathan J; Holman, Matthew J; Agol, Eric
2008-01-01
We present Spitzer 8 micron transit observations of the extrasolar planet system HD 149026. At this wavelength, transit light curves are weakly affected by stellar limb-darkening, allowing for a simpler and more accurate determination of planetary parameters. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of R_p/R_s = 0.05158 +/- 0.00077, and in combination with ground-based data and independent constraints on the stellar mass and radius, we derive an orbital inclination of i = 85.4 +0.9/-0.8 deg. and a planet radius of 0.755 +/- 0.040 Jupiter radii. These measurements further support models in which the planet is greatly enriched in heavy elements.
Responsiveness of EQ-5D in Patients With a Distal Radius Fracture.
Rundgren, Johanna; Enocson, Anders; Mellstrand Navarro, Cecilia; Bergström, Gunnar
2017-08-01
The EuroQol Group 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire is frequently used as an outcome measure of general patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the internal and external responsiveness of EQ-5D (specifically EQ-5Dindex score) in patients with a surgically treated distal radius fracture. Within the context of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 132 patients with a surgically treated distal radius fracture filled out EQ-5D and Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE-Swe) at baseline (preinjury state), and at 3 and 12 months. Internal responsiveness was evaluated by calculating mean change score and standardized response mean (SRM) of the EQ-5Dindex scores. External responsiveness was evaluated with PRWE-Swe as the external criterion. PRWE-Swe was used to define 4 subgroups of patients with different clinical outcomes. The ability of EQ-5Dindex change score to discriminate between these subgroups was analyzed with logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and area under the ROC curves (AUROCs). Correlation analysis was made with Spearman's ρ test. The mean change in EQ-5Dindex score from baseline to the 3-month follow-up was -16.1 and from the 3- to the 12-month follow-up was 7.6. The corresponding SRMs were large (0.93) and small to moderate (0.47). Analysis of external responsiveness displayed odds ratios >1 and AUROCs between 0.70 and 0.76 in all 4 subgroups. The proportion of patients correctly classified into the 4 subgroups by the EQ-5Dindex change scores was 78% to 94%. Spearman's ρ was 0.35. EQ-5D displayed an overall acceptable to good responsiveness in patients with a distal radius fracture. It may thus be used as a measure of HRQoL in this patient group.
Evidence for a large radius of the 11Be projectile
So, W. Y.; Choi, K. S.; Cheoun, Myung-Ki; Kim, K. S.
2016-05-01
We investigate ratios of the elastic scattering cross section to Rutherford cross section, PE, and angular distributions of breakup cross section by using an optical model which exploits various long-range dynamic polarization potentials as well as short-range nuclear bare potentials for the 11Be projectile. From these simultaneous analyses, we extract a large radius of a halo projectile from the experimental data for PE and the angular distribution of the breakup cross section of the 11Be + 64Zn and 11 + 120Sn systems. It results from the fact that a large radius for the long-range nuclear potential is more reasonable for properly explaining these data simultaneously. The extracted reduced interaction radius turns out to be r0=3.18 ˜3.61 fm for 11Be nucleus, which is larger than the conventional value of r0=1.1 ˜1.5 fm used in the standard radius form R =r0A1 /3 . Furthermore, the larger radius as well as the normalization constant N is shown to be important for understanding Coulomb dipole strength distribution.
Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature
Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.
2010-06-22
A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.
Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle
Mihovilovič Miha
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.
Puzzling out the proton radius puzzle
Mihovilovič, M.; Merkel, H.; Weber, A. [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany)
2016-01-22
The discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurement and the best present value obtained from the elastic scattering experiments, remains unexplained and represents a burning problem of today’s nuclear physics: after more than 50 years of research the radius of a basic constituent of matter is still not understood. This paper presents a summary of the best existing proton radius measurements, followed by an overview of the possible explanations for the observed inconsistency between the hydrogen and the muonic-hydrogen data. In the last part the upcoming experiments, dedicated to remeasuring the proton radius, are described.
Research on the expanding deformation of ring radius in cold profiled ring rolling process
无
2010-01-01
Cold profiled ring rolling is an advanced local plastic deformation technology widely used to precisely manufacture various complex seamless ring parts.It plays an important role in many industrial fields such as aeronautics,astronautics,automobile,bearings,etc.In the cold ring rolling process,the ring radius expands gradually with the increase of the feeding amount(i.e.rolling reduction),and the expanding deformation of the ring radius is closely related to the rolling reduction.It is very important to investigate the expanding deformation of ring radius for the precise control of ring dimensions and the design of feeding movement.In this paper,the relation between the expanding deformation of the ring radius and the rolling reduction in the stepped ring rolling process,a typical profiled ring rolling process,is analyzed by using analytical method.The results show that the growth amount of the filling depth of groove can’t exceed the rolling reduction,that in the inner stepped ring rolling process,the curves of the outer radius and big inner radius with the rolling reduction are monotonous,ascending and concave,i.e.,the outer radius and big inner radius expand faster and faster with the increase of the rolling reduction,and that in the outer stepped ring rolling process,the curves of the inner radius and small outer radius with the rolling reduction are also monotonous,ascending and concave,i.e.,the inner radius and small outer radius expand faster and faster with the increase of the roll reduction.
On Galaxy Mass-Radius Relationship
Bindoni, D.; Secco, L.; Contini, E.; Caimmi, R.
In the Clausius' virial maximum theory (TCV) [Secco and Bindoni, NewA 14, 567 (2009)] to explain the galaxy Fundamental Plane (FP) a natural explanation follows about the observed relationship between stellar mass and effective radius, M ∗ - r e , for early type galaxies (ETGs). The key of this correlation lies in the deep link which has to exist between cosmology and the existence of the FP. The general strategy consists in using the two-component tensor virial theorem to describe the virial configuration of the baryonic component of mass M B ≃ M ∗ embedded in a dark matter (DM) halo of mass M D at the end of relaxation phase. In a ΛCDM flat cosmology, starting from variance at equivalence epoch, we derive some preliminary theoretical relationships, M ∗ - r e , which are functions of mass ratio m = M D / M B . They appear to be in agreement with the trends extracted from the data of galaxy sample used by [Tortora et al., MNRAS 396, 1132 (2009)].
Fragmentation of a Jet with Small Radius
Dai, Lin; Leibovich, Adam K
2016-01-01
In this paper we consider the fragmentation of a parton into a jet with small jet radius $R$. Perturbatively, logarithms of $R$ can appear, which for narrow jets can lead to large corrections. Using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), we introduce the jet fragmentation function (JFF), which describes the fragmentation of a parton into a jet. We discuss how these objects are related to the standard jet functions. Calculating the JFF to next-to-leading order, we show that these objects satisfy the standard DGLAP evolution equations, with a natural scale that depends upon $R$. By using standard renormalization group evolution, we can therefore resum logarithms of $R$. We further use SCET to prove a factorization theorem where the JFFs naturally appear, for the fragmentation of a hadron within a jet with small $R$. Finally, we also show how this formalism can be used to resum the ratio of jet radii for a subjet to be emitted from within a fat jet.
Christensen, Lars Winther
2000-01-01
This book is intended as a reference for mathematicians working with homological dimensions in commutative algebra and as an introduction to Gorenstein dimensions for graduate students with an interest in the same. Any admirer of classics like the Auslander-Buchsbaum-Serre characterization of regular rings, and the Bass and Auslander-Buchsbaum formulas for injective and projective dimension of f.g. modules will be intrigued by this book's content. Readers should be well-versed in commutative algebra and standard applications of homological methods. The framework is that of complexes, but all major results are restated for modules in traditional notation, and an appendix makes the proofs accessible for even the casual user of hyperhomological methods.
On the radius constants for classes of analytic functions
Ali, Rosihan M.; Jain, Naveen; Ravichandran, V.
2012-01-01
Radius constants for several classes of analytic functions on the unit disk are obtained. These include the radius of starlikeness of a positive order, radius of parabolic starlikeness, radius of Bernoulli lemniscate starlikeness, and radius of uniform convexity. In the main, the radius constants obtained are sharp. Conjectures on the non-sharp constants are given.
Burikham, Piyabut [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Cheamsawat, Krai [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Imperial College, Theoretical Physics Group, Blackett Laboratory, London (United Kingdom); Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)
2016-03-15
We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)
Finite Larmor Radius Effects to Arbitrary Order
Knorr, G.; Hansen, F.R.; Lynov, Jens-Peter
1988-01-01
A representation of a finite Larmor radius plasma is proposed, which permits the transition rL → ∞ without becoming mathematically ill-posed. It is being used in a two-dimensional guiding center plasma spectral code and may have useful analytical applications. The ions are represented as guiding...... centers and the Larmor radius is averaged analytically for every Fourier-mode. Finite Larmor radius densities and velocities are thus obtained from guiding center quantities by application of a filter in wave vector space....
Inside the Bondi radius of M87
Russell, H R; McNamara, B R; Broderick, A E
2015-01-01
Chandra X-ray observations of the nearby brightest cluster galaxy M87 resolve the hot gas structure across the Bondi accretion radius of the central supermassive black hole, a measurement possible in only a handful of systems but complicated by the bright nucleus and jet emission. By stacking only short frame-time observations to limit pileup, and after subtracting the nuclear PSF, we analysed the X-ray gas properties within the Bondi radius at 0.12-0.22 kpc (1.5-2.8 arcsec), depending on the black hole mass. Within 2 kpc radius, we detect two significant temperature components, which are consistent with constant values of 2 keV and 0.9 keV down to 0.15 kpc radius. No evidence was found for the expected temperature increase within ~0.25 kpc due to the influence of the SMBH. Within the Bondi radius, the density profile is consistent with $\\rho\\propto r^{-1}$. The lack of a temperature increase inside the Bondi radius suggests that the hot gas structure is not dictated by the SMBH's potential and, together with...
Solar Radius at Sub-Terahertz Frequencies
Menezes, Fabian; Valio, Adriana
2017-10-01
The visible surface of the Sun, or photosphere, is defined as the solar radius in the optical spectrum range located at 696,000 km (Cox et al. (Ed. 2015)). However, as the altitude increases, the dominant electromagnetic radiation is emitted at other frequencies. Our aim is to measure the solar radius at frequencies of 212 GHz and 405 GHz through out a solar cycle and, therefore, the altitude where these emissions are generated and that variation along the years. Also we tried to verify the the radius dependence on the solar activity cycle, which can be a good indicator of the changes that occur in the atmosphere structure. For this, we used data obtained by the Submillimetric Solar Telescope (SST) created from daily scans made by SST from 1990 to 2015. From these scans a 2D map of the solar disk was constructed. The solar radius is then determined by adjusting a circumference to the points where the brightness is half of the quiet Sun level, which is set as the most common temperature value in the solar map, i.e., the mode of the temperature distribution. Thus, we determined the solar radius at 212 and 405 GHz and the altitude of the emissions respectively. For 212 GHz, we obtained a radius of 976.5''+/-8'' (707+/-4 Mm), whereas for 405 GHz, we obtained 975.0''+/-8'' (707+/-5 Mm). optical spectrum range
Measuring Neutron Star Mass and Radius with Three Mass-Radius Relations
Zhang, C M; Kojima, Y; Chang, H K; Xu, R X; Li, X D; Zhang, B; Kiziltan, B
2006-01-01
We propose to determine the mass and the radius of a neutron star (NS) using three measurable mass-radius relationships, namely the ``apparent'' radius inferred from neutron star thermal emission, the gravitational redshift inferred from the absorption lines, as well as the averaged stellar mass density inferred from the orbital Keplerian frequency derived from the kilohertz quasi periodic oscillation (kHz QPO) data. We apply the method to constrain the NS mass and the radius of the X-ray sources, 1E 1207.4-5209, Aql X-1 and EXO 0748-676.
Nuclear charge radius of $^8$He
Müller, P; Villari, A C C; Alcantara-Nunez, J A; Alves-Conde, R; Bailey, K; Drake, G W F; Dubois, M; Eleon, C; Gaubert, G; Holt, R J; Janssens, R V F; Lecesne, N; Lu, Z -T; O'Connor, T P; Saint-Laurent, M -G; Thomas, J -C; Wang, L -B
2008-01-01
The root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radius of ^8He, the most neutron-rich of all particle-stable nuclei, has been determined for the first time to be 1.93(3) fm. In addition, the rms charge radius of ^6He was measured to be 2.068(11) fm, in excellent agreement with a previous result. The significant reduction in charge radius from ^6He to ^8He is an indication of the change in the correlations of the excess neutrons and is consistent with the ^8He neutron halo structure. The experiment was based on laser spectroscopy of individual helium atoms cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap. Charge radii were extracted from the measured isotope shifts with the help of precision atomic theory calculations.
Critical bubble radius in solvent sublation
无
2007-01-01
The complex compound of dithizone-Co(Ⅱ) was separated and concentrated from the aqueous phase to n-octanol by solvent sublation. From the analysis of the coalescence behavior of bubbles on water-organic interface, the conception of critical bubble radius was proposed, and the value of the critical bubble radius in the water-octanol system was obtained: 1.196 × 10-3 m. The simulation of the mathematical model using CBR and experimental data is completed with perfect results, and the simulation of the mathematical model using CBR is very different with the classic one. The analytical results proved that the critical bubble radius should be adequately considered in mathematical model of solvent sublation.
Relationship Between Thermal Tides and Radius Excess
Socrates, Aristotle
2013-01-01
Close-in extrasolar gas giants -- the hot Jupiters -- display departures in radius above the zero-temperature solution, the radius excess, that are anomalously high. The radius excess of hot Jupiters follows a relatively close relation with thermal tidal tidal torques and holds for ~ 4-5 orders of magnitude in a characteristic thermal tidal power in such a way that is consistent with basic theoretical expectations. The relation suggests that thermal tidal torques determine the global thermodynamic and spin state of the hot Jupiters. On empirical grounds, it is shown that theories of hot Jupiter inflation that invoke a constant fraction of the stellar flux to be deposited at great depth are, essentially, falsified.
Management of Malunions of the Distal Radius
Yaniel Truffin Rodriguez; Osmany Pérez Martínez; Rafael Esmandy Gómez Arregoitía; Indira L. Gómez Gil
2015-01-01
Fractures of the distal radius often present with a group of major complications. Of these, malunion is one of the most disabling. Its management through salvage procedures is essential for its correction. The case of a 60-year-old healthy woman of urban origin treated at the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital in Cienfuegos because of a malunion of the distal end of the left radius as a result of a previous Colles' fracture is presented. The patient complained of severe p...
Contact radius of stamps in reversible adhesion
无
2011-01-01
A mechanics model is developed for the contact radius of stamps with pyramid tips in transfer printing.This is important to the realization of reversible control of adhesion,which has many important applications,such as climbing robots,medical tapes,and transfer printing of electronics.The contact radius is shown to scale linearly with the work of adhesion between the stamp and the contacting surface,and inversely with the plane-strain modulus of the stamp. It also depends on the cone angle and tip radiu...
Study Application of RADIUS Protocol on Ethernet
GUO Fang; YANG Huan-yu; LI Hong
2004-01-01
This paper presents how to apply the RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)protocol ,which is generally applied to dial-up network, to the authentication & charge of Broad Band accessing control system on Ethernet. It is provided that the Broad Band accessing control system included a self-designed communication protocol is used in communicating between an terminal user and Network Access Server .The interface module on the servers side and the Radius system is also given in this article.
BOREL RADIUS AND T-RADIUS OF THE ALGEBROIDAL FUNCTION IN THE UNIT DISC
Kong Yinying
2012-01-01
Using Ahlfors' theory of covering surface and a type-function,we confirm the existence theorem of a Borel radius and a T-radius for the algebroidal function dealing with multiple values in the unit disc,which briefly extend some results for the algebroidal functions in the complex plane.
Zhang, H; Chen, S; Wang, Z; Guo, Y; Liu, B; Tong, D
2016-07-01
During osteoarticular reconstruction of the distal radius with the proximal fibula, congruity between the two articular surfaces is an important factor in determining the quality of the outcome. In this study, a three-dimensional model and a coordinate transformation algorithm were developed on computed tomography scanning. Articular surface matching was performed and parameters for the optimal position were determined quantitatively. The mean radii of best-fit spheres of the articular surfaces of the distal radius and proximal fibula were compared quantitatively. The radial inclination and volar tilt following reconstruction by an ipsilateral fibula graft, rather than the contralateral, best resembles the values of the native distal radius. Additionally, the ipsilateral fibula graft reconstructed a larger proportion of the distal radius articular surface than did the contralateral. The ipsilateral proximal fibula graft provides a better match for the reconstruction of the distal radius articular surface than the contralateral, and the optimal position for graft placement is quantitatively determined.
Mass and Radius of Neutron Stars Constrained by Photospheric Radius Expansion X-ray Bursts
Kwak, Kyujin; Kim, Myungkuk; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Chang-Hwan
Simultaneous measurement of mass and radius of a neutron star is important because it provides strong constraint on the equation of state for nuclear matter inside a neutron star. Type I X-ray Bursts (XRBs) that have been observed in low-mass X-ray binaries sometimes show photospheric radius expansion (PRE). By combining observed fluxes, X-ray spectra, and distances of PRE XRBs and using a statistical analysis, it is possible to simultaneously constrain the mass and radius of a neutron star. However, the mass and radius of a neutron star estimated in this method depends on the opacity of accreted material. We investigate the effect of the opacity on the mass and radius estimation by taking into account the cases that the hydrogen mass fraction of accreted material has narrowly-distributed values. We present preliminary results that are investigated with three different values of hydrogen mass fraction and compare our results with previous studies.
Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions
Lee HanJu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of is dense in .
Denseness of Numerical Radius Attaining Holomorphic Functions
Han Ju Lee
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study the density of numerical radius attaining holomorphic functions on certain Banach spaces using the Lindenstrauss method. In particular, it is shown that if a complex Banach space X is locally uniformly convex, then the set of all numerical attaining elements of A(BX:X is dense in A(BX:X.
Improved KAM estimates for the Siegel radius
Liverani, C.; Turchetti, G.
1986-12-01
For the Siegel center problem the authors explore the possibility of improving the KAM estimates, with a view to possible extensions to Hamiltonian systems. The use of a suitable norm and explicit perturbative computations allow estimates to within a factor 2 of the Siegel radius for the quadratic map.
Mass-radius relationships for exoplanets
Swift, Damian; Hicks, Damien; Hamel, Sebastien; Caspersen, Kyle; Schwegler, Eric; Collins, Gilbert; Ackland, Graeme
2010-01-01
For planets other than Earth, and in particular for exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on a comparison of the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation for different layers within the planet, which is based heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We summarize current techniques for predicting and measuring equations of state, and calculate mass-radius relations for key materials for which the equation of state is reasonably well established, and for Fe-rock combinations. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. CoRoT-7b probably has a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core. The core is likely to be proportionately smaller than the Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H_2Oand CH_...
Proton radius from electron scattering data
Higinbotham, Douglas W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Kabir, Al Amin; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad
2016-05-01
Background: The proton charge radius extracted from recent muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements is significantly smaller than that extracted from atomic hydrogen and electron scattering measurements. The discrepancy has become known as the proton radius puzzle. Purpose: In an attempt to understand the discrepancy, we review high-precision electron scattering results from Mainz, Jefferson Lab, Saskatoon, and Stanford. Methods: We make use of stepwise regression techniques using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion to systematically determine the predictive variables to use for a given set and range of electron scattering data as well as to provide multivariate error estimates. Results: Starting with the precision, low four-momentum transfer (Q2) data from Mainz (1980) and Saskatoon (1974), we find that a stepwise regression of the Maclaurin series using the F test as well as the Akaike information criterion justify using a linear extrapolation which yields a value for the proton radius that is consistent with the result obtained from muonic hydrogen measurements. Applying the same Maclaurin series and statistical criteria to the 2014 Rosenbluth results on GE from Mainz, we again find that the stepwise regression tends to favor a radius consistent with the muonic hydrogen radius but produces results that are extremely sensitive to the range of data included in the fit. Making use of the high-Q2 data on GE to select functions which extrapolate to high Q2, we find that a Padé (N=M=1) statistical model works remarkably well, as does a dipole function with a 0.84 fm radius, GE(Q2)=(1+Q2/0.66GeV2)−2. Conclusions: Rigorous applications of stepwise regression techniques and multivariate error estimates result in the extraction of a proton charge radius that is consistent with the muonic hydrogen result of 0.84 fm; either from linear extrapolation of the extremely-low-Q2 data or by use of the Padé approximant for extrapolation using a larger range of
2013-01-01
A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time. TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...
Scaling properties of the radius of gyration and surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins
Pitulice, L. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania); Isvoran, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)], E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.ro; Craescu, C.T. [INSERM U759/Institute Curie-Recherche, Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud, Batiment 112, 91405 Orsay (France); Chiriac, A. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Chemistry, Pestalozzi 16, 300115 Timisoara (Romania)
2009-04-30
In this paper, we analyze the scaling properties of both the radius of gyration and the surface area for EF-hand calcium binding proteins. These properties are different for two conformational subfamilies: proteins with extended and compact structures, respectively. The radius of gyration is a measure of the shape of protein, whereas its surface fractal dimension is a measure of its interatomic packing. Different scaling properties for the radius of gyration underline that these two subfamilies present different shapes whilst different scaling properties for the surface area reveal different strengths of their intermolecular forces. All these data suggest different mechanisms responsible for the global folding of proteins belonging to these two subfamilies.
In vitro dimensions and curvatures of human lenses.
Rosen, Alexandre M; Denham, David B; Fernandez, Viviana; Borja, David; Ho, Arthur; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie; Augusteyn, Robert C
2006-03-01
The purpose of this study was to determine dimensions and curvatures of excised human lenses using the technique of shadowphotogrammetry. A modified optical comparator and digital camera were used to photograph magnified sagittal and coronal lens profiles. Equatorial diameter, anterior and posterior sagittal thickness, anterior and posterior curvatures, and shape factors were obtained from these images. The data were used to calculate lens volumes, which were compared with the lens weights. Measurements were made on 37 human lenses ranging in age from 20 to 99 years. These showed that lens dimensions and the anterior radius of curvature increase linearly throughout adult life while posterior curvature remains constant. The relative shape (or aspect ratio) of the posterior lens is unchanged through adult life since both equatorial diameter and posterior thickness increase at the same rate. The ratio of anterior thickness to posterior thickness is constant at 0.70. It is suggested that in vivo forces alter the apparent location of the lens equator, that the in vitro lens shape corresponds to the maximally accommodated shape in vivo and that the shapes of the accommodated and unaccommodated lens progressively converge toward each other due to lens growth with age, with a convergence point located near the age of total loss of accommodation (55-60 years). Together, these observations provide additional support for the Helmholtz theory of accommodation.
MASS-RADIUS RELATIONSHIPS FOR EXOPLANETS
Swift, D. C.; Eggert, J. H.; Hicks, D. G.; Hamel, S.; Caspersen, K.; Schwegler, E.; Collins, G. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California, CA 94550 (United States); Nettelmann, N. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Ackland, G. J. [Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)
2012-01-01
For planets other than Earth, particularly exoplanets, interpretation of the composition and structure depends largely on comparing the mass and radius with the composition expected given their distance from the parent star. The composition implies a mass-radius relation which relies heavily on equations of state calculated from electronic structure theory and measured experimentally on Earth. We lay out a method for deriving and testing equations of state, and deduce mass-radius and mass-pressure relations for key, relevant materials whose equation of state (EOS) is reasonably well established, and for differentiated Fe/rock. We find that variations in the EOS, such as may arise when extrapolating from low-pressure data, can have significant effects on predicted mass-radius relations and on planetary pressure profiles. The relations are compared with the observed masses and radii of planets and exoplanets, broadly supporting recent inferences about exoplanet structures. Kepler-10b is apparently 'Earth-like', likely with a proportionately larger core than Earth's, nominally 2/3 of the mass of the planet. CoRoT-7b is consistent with a rocky mantle over an Fe-based core which is likely to be proportionately smaller than Earth's. GJ 1214b lies between the mass-radius curves for H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4}, suggesting an 'icy' composition with a relatively large core or a relatively large proportion of H{sub 2}O. CoRoT-2b is less dense than the hydrogen relation, which could be explained by an anomalously high degree of heating or by higher than assumed atmospheric opacity. HAT-P-2b is slightly denser than the mass-radius relation for hydrogen, suggesting the presence of a significant amount of matter of higher atomic number. CoRoT-3b lies close to the hydrogen relation. The pressure at the center of Kepler-10b is 1.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} TPa. The central pressure in CoRoT-7b is probably close to 0.8 TPa, though may be up to 2 TPa. These
Surface Tension of Methanol as a Function of cut-off Radius and Temperature Controllers
Obeidat, Abdalla; Jaradat, Adnan; Hamdan, Bushra
Molecular dynamics is used to calculate the surface tension of van Leeuwen methanol. The van Leeuwen model of methanol is chosen over other models of methanol, since this model is widely used to study nucleation at low temperature. Usually, scientists use the cut-off radius to be three order of magnitude of segment diameter. In this study, we varied the cut-off radius to estimate the best cut-off at which the surface tension reaches its plateau. After deciding the best cut-off radius for van der Waals and Coulomb interactions (CUT-OFF and PME were used for Coulomb interaction), we varied the temperature controller (van-Housen, Berendsen, and v-rescale) to decide the best temperature controller to be used to study methanol. In all simulations, Gromacs is used at T =200-300K with periodic boundary conditions in all dimensions. JUST.
The Proton Radius from Electron Scattering Data
Higinbotham, Douglas W; Lin, Vincent; Meekins, David; Norum, Blaine; Sawatzky, Brad
2015-01-01
In an attempt to understand the discrepancy between the proton radius determined the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and elastic electron-proton scattering measurements, we carefully review two classic, high precision electron scattering charge form factor, ${G_E}$, results. Upon examination, it was noted that the covariance matrices of common three parameter fits show large parameter correlations. Thus, we reanalyzed the classic data guided by statistical constraints and found low $q^2$, two-parameter fits were actually consistent with muonic hydrogen results. By subsequently including the highest measured values of ${G_E}(q^2)$ in the fits, we found that a dipole function, $G_E(q^2) = ( 1 + q^2/0.66[\\rm{GeV}^2])^{-2}$, with the muonic hydrogen radius, 0.84087(39) fm, not only describes the low $q^2$ electron scattering data, but also describes the highest measured $q^2$ $G_E$ values.
苏佳灿; 张春才; 禹宝庆; 许硕贵; 王家林; 纪方; 张雪松; 吴建国; 王保华; 薛召军; 丁祖泉
2003-01-01
Objective: To study the memory biomechanical character of anatomic distal radius Nitinol memory connector (DRMC) in treating distal radius fracture. Methods: Establishing three dimensional model and finite element analysis, we calculated the stress in and around the fracture faces when distal radius fracture was fixated with DRMC. Results: Axial holding stress produced by holding part of DRMC on distal radius was 14.66 MPa. The maximum stress of holding part was 40-70 MPa, the minimum stress was 3-7 MPa,and the stress of compression part was 20-40 MPa. Conclusion: The distribution of stress produced by DRMC around the fracture line is reasonable, and axial holding stress can help stabilize fracture during earlier period. The existence of longitudal compression and memory effect can transfer fixated disused section into developed section and enhance fracture healing.
Cost Effective RADIUS Authentication for Wireless Clients
Alexandru ENACEANU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Network administrators need to keep administrative user information for each network device, but network devices usually support only limited functions for user management. WLAN security is a modern problem that needs to be solved and it requires a lot of overhead especially when applied to corporate wireless networks. Administrators can set up a RADIUS server that uses an external database server to handle authentication, authorization, and accounting for network security issues.
Phacoemulsification efficiency with a radiused phaco tip.
Gupta, Isha; Zaugg, Brian; Stagg, Brian C; Barlow, William R; Pettey, Jeff H; Jensen, Jason D; Kirk, Kevin R; Olson, Randall J
2014-05-01
To evaluate radiused and nonradiused phacoemulsification tips to determine which tip is more efficient in removal of lens fragments using 3 ultrasound (US) modalities. John A. Moran Eye Center Laboratories, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Experimental study. Porcine lens nuclei were formalin-soaked for 2 hours or 3 hours and then divided into 2.0 mm cubes. Thirty-degree, 0.9 mm beveled radiused tips and nonradiused tips were used with torsional, transverse, and micropulsed US modalities. Bent tips were used with torsional and transversal US, and straight tips were used with micropulsed US. Efficiency (time to lens removal) and chatter (number of lens fragment repulsions from the tip) were determined. The mean phacoemulsification efficiency was statistically significantly decreased (increased time for removal) with the radiused tip compared with the nonradiused tip for torsional US only (2-hour soaked lenses: 2.14 seconds ± 1.94 [SD] versus 1.18 ± 0.69 seconds [P tip showed decreased efficiency with torsional US only. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the radius of habitable planets
Alibert, Yann
2013-01-01
The conditions that a planet must fulfill to be habitable are not precisely known. However, it is comparatively easier to define conditions under which a planet is very likely not habitable. Finding such conditions is important as it can help select, in an ensemble of potentially observable planets, which ones should be observed in greater detail for characterization studies. Assuming, as in the Earth, that the presence of a C-cycle is a necessary condition for long-term habitability, we derive, as a function of the planetary mass, a radius above which a planet is likely not habitable. We compute the maximum radius a planet can have to fulfill two constraints: surface conditions compatible with the existence of liquid water, and no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met. We compute internal structure models of planets, using a five-layer model (core, inner mantle, outer mantle, ocean, and atmosphere), for different mas...
Generalized Uncertainty Principle in the Presence of Extra Dimensions
MU Ben-Bong; WU Hou-Wen; YANG Hai-Tang
2011-01-01
@@ We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle(GUP)model,the parameter β0 whose square root,minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories,we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension,compactified with radius p.We obtain an inspiring quantum mechanics scale.We also estimate the application range of the GUP model.It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactification radius of the extra dimension.%We argue that in the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) model, the parameter 0o whose square root, multiplied by Planck length tv, approximates the minimum measurable distance, varies with energy scales. Since the minimal measurable length and extra dimensions are both suggested by quantum gravity theories, we investigate the models based on the GUP and one extra dimension, compactified with radius p. We obtain an inspiring relation βolp/p ~ 0(1). This relation is also consistent with the predictions at Planck scale and the usual quantum mechanics scale. We also estimate the application range of the GUP model. It turns out that the minimum measurable length is exactly the compactiScation radius of the extra dimension.
Influence of punch radius on elastic modulus of three-point bending tests
Pengliang Hou
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Three-point bending is one of the most common methods of studying the mechanical performance of materials. The influence of punch radius in the measurements is not considered in the previous studies. This article focuses on the influence of the punch radius on the elastic modulus. The experiment is set up to measure the elastic modulus of 6061 aluminum alloy (6061 Al and copper as the specimens, in which several different radii of punches are used. The maximum bending deflection of the middle point is 1.0 mm. Moreover, a finite element simulation is constructed to simulate the bending process of specimen, which is consistent with the experimental results. According to the results, the punch radius has affected the measurement of elastic modulus, and the elastic modulus, the contact length, and the peak load increase with the increase in the punch radius. Combining the experiment result (E1 and the standard result (E3 of Changchun research institute for testing machines, it is found that the appropriate punch radius is in the range from 2.5 to 3.0 mm for this experiment, when the specimen’s dimension is 30.0 mm × 6.0 mm × 1.0 mm.
Crivelli, P; Heiss, M W
2016-01-01
The upcoming operation of the Extra Low ENergy Antiprotons (ELENA) ring at CERN, the upgrade of the anti-proton decelerator (AD), and the installation in the AD hall of an intense slow positron beam with an expected flux of $10^{8}$ e$^+$/s will open the possibility for new experiments with anti-hydrogen ($\\bar{\\text{H}}$). Here we propose a scheme to measure the Lamb shift of $\\bar{\\text{H}}$. For a month of data taking, we anticipate an uncertainty of 100 ppm. This will provide a test of CPT and the first determination of the anti-proton charge radius at the level of 10%.
Small-radius jets to all orders
Cacciari, Matteo; Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin; Dasgupta, Mrinal
2015-01-01
With hadron colliders continuing to push the boundaries of precision, it is becoming increas ingly important to have a detailed understanding of the subtleties appearing at smaller values of the jet radius R. We present a method to resum all leading logarithmic terms, a'.; Inn R, using a generating functional approach, as was recently discussed in Ref. 1. We study a variety of observables, such as the inclusive jet spectrum and jet vetoes for Higgs physics, and show that small-R effects can be sizeable. Finally, we compare our calculations to existing ALICE data, and show good agreement.
Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius
Parikh, Taniya
2017-06-01
There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.
Are classifications of proximal radius fractures reproducible?
dos Santos João BG
2009-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the proximal radius need to be classified in an appropriate and reproducible manner. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the three most widely used classification systems. Methods Elbow radiographs images of patients with proximal radius fractures were classified according to Mason, Morrey, and Arbeitsgemeinschaft für osteosynthesefragen/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classifications by four observers with different experience with this subject to assess their intra- and inter-observer agreement. Each observer analyzed the images on three different occasions on a computer with numerical sequence randomly altered. Results We found that intra-observer agreement of Mason and Morrey classifications were satisfactory (κ = 0.582 and 0.554, respectively, while the AO/ASIF classification had poor intra-observer agreement (κ = 0.483. Inter-observer agreement was higher in the Mason (κ = 0.429-0.560 and Morrey (κ = 0.319-0.487 classifications than in the AO/ASIF classification (κ = 0.250-0.478, which showed poor reliability. Conclusion Inter- and intra-observer agreement of the Mason and Morey classifications showed overall satisfactory reliability when compared to the AO/ASIF system. The Mason classification is the most reliable system.
Genetics Home Reference: thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome
... Genetics Home Health Conditions TAR syndrome thrombocytopenia-absent radius syndrome Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Thrombocytopenia-absent radius (TAR) syndrome is characterized by the absence of ...
Mass-radius relations of white dwarfs at finite temperatures
Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Zhami, Bakytzhan; Kalymova, Zhanerke; Balgimbekov, Galymdin
2016-01-01
We construct mass-radius relations of white dwarfs taking into account the effects of rotation and finite temperatures. We compare and contrast the theoretical mass-radius relations with observational data.
Spectral Radius of Hamiltonian Planar Graphs and Outerplanar Graphs
周建; 林翠琴; 胡冠章
2001-01-01
The spectral radius is an important parameter of a graph related to networks. A method forestimating the spectral radius of each spanning subgraph is used to prove that the spectral radius of aHamiltonian planar graph of order n ≥ 4 is less than or equal toand the spectral radius of theouterplanar graph of order n ≥ 6 is less than or equal to, which are improvements overprevious results. A direction for further study is then suggested.``
Effects of non-minimal Universal Extra Dimension on $B\\rightarrow X_s\\gamma$
Datta, Anindya
2016-01-01
We estimate contributions from Kaluza-Klein excitations of third generation quarks and gauge bosons to the branching ratio of $B\\rightarrow X_s\\gamma$ decay process in 5-Dimensional Universal Extra Dimensional scenario with non-vanishing boundary localised terms. This model is conventionally known as non-minimal Universal Extra Dimensional model. We have derived the lower limit on the size of the extra dimension by comparing our theoretical estimation of the branching ratio which includes next-to-next-to leading order QCD corrections with its experimentally measured value. Coefficients of the boundary localised terms have also been constrained. 95 \\% C.L. lower limit on inverse of radius of compactification ($R^{-1}$) can be as large as 670 GeV for some choice of the value of coefficients of boundary localised terms.
21 CFR 886.1450 - Corneal radius measuring device.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corneal radius measuring device. 886.1450 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1450 Corneal radius measuring device. (a) Identification. A corneal radius measuring device is an AC-powered device intended to...
Understanding the mass-radius relation for sub-Neptunes: radius as a proxy for composition
Lopez, Eric D.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2014-09-01
Transiting planet surveys like Kepler have provided a wealth of information on the distribution of planetary radii, particularly for the new populations of super-Earth- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. In order to aid in the physical interpretation of these radii, we compute model radii for low-mass rocky planets with hydrogen-helium envelopes. We provide model radii for planets 1-20 M {sub ⊕}, with envelope fractions 0.01%-20%, levels of irradiation 0.1-1000 times Earth's, and ages from 100 Myr to 10 Gyr. In addition we provide simple analytic fits that summarize how radius depends on each of these parameters. Most importantly, we show that at fixed H/He envelope fraction, radii show little dependence on mass for planets with more than ∼1% of their mass in their envelope. Consequently, planetary radius is to a first order a proxy for planetary composition, i.e., H/He envelope fraction, for Neptune- and sub-Neptune-sized planets. We recast the observed mass-radius relationship as a mass-composition relationship and discuss it in light of traditional core accretion theory. We discuss the transition from rocky super-Earths to sub-Neptune planets with large volatile envelopes. We suggest ∼1.75 R {sub ⊕} as a physically motivated dividing line between these two populations of planets. Finally, we discuss these results in light of the observed radius occurrence distribution found by Kepler.
Mass-radius relationships of rocky exoplanets
Sohl, F; Rauer, H
2012-01-01
Mass and radius of planets transiting their host stars are provided by radial velocity and photometric observations. Structural models of solid exoplanet interiors are then constructed by using equations of state for the radial density distribution, which are compliant with the thermodynamics of the high-pressure limit. However, to some extent those structural models suffer from inherent degeneracy or non-uniqueness problems owing to a principal lack of knowledge of the internal differentiation state and/or the possible presence of an optically thick atmosphere. We here discuss the role of corresponding measurement errors, which adversely affect determinations of a planet's mean density and bulk chemical composition. Precise measurements of planet radii will become increasingly important as key observational constraints for radial density models of individual solid low-mass exoplanets or super-Earths.
Physeal arrest of the distal radius.
Abzug, Joshua M; Little, Kevin; Kozin, Scott H
2014-06-01
Fractures of the distal radius are among the most common pediatric fractures. Although most of these fractures heal without complication, some result in partial or complete physeal arrest. The risk of physeal arrest can be reduced by avoiding known risk factors during fracture management, including multiple attempts at fracture reduction. Athletes may place substantial compressive and shear forces across the distal radial physes, making them prone to growth arrest. Timely recognition of physeal arrest can allow for more predictable procedures to be performed, such as distal ulnar epiphysiodesis. In cases of partial arrest, physeal bar excision with interposition grafting can be performed. Once ulnar abutment is present, more invasive procedures may be required, including ulnar shortening osteotomy or radial lengthening.
An Indentation Method for Nanoprecision Measurement of Diamond Tool Edge Radius
X; P; Li; M; Rahman; K; Liu; K; S; Neo; C; C; Chan
2002-01-01
In ductile mode cutting of brittle materials using di amond tools, such as ductile cutting of silicon and quartz for wafer fabrication , one of the key conditions for achieving ductile chip formation is to get the r ight ratio of tool cutting edge radius to the undeformed chip thickness. It has been shown that the undeformed chip thickness has to be in the order of nanomete rs and that the tool cutting edge radius has to be smaller than the undeformed c hip thickness. Therefore, nanoprecision measurement ...
Experimental study of finite Larmor radius effects
Struve, K.W.
1980-08-01
Linear Z-pinches in Ar, Kr, Xe, N/sub 2/, and He are experimentally studied in regimes where strong finite Larmor radius effects could provide a significant stabilizing effect. Scaling arguments show that for deuterium such a pinch has an electron line density of order 2 x 10/sup 15//cm. For higher Z plasmas a higher line density is allowed, the exact value of which depends on the average ion charge. The pinch is formed by puffing gas axially through the cathode towards the anode of an evacuated pinch chamber. When the gas reaches the anode, the pinch bank is fired. The pinch current rises in 2 to 3 ..mu..sec to a maximum of 100 to 200 kA. The pinch bank capacitance is 900 ..mu..F, and the external inductance is 100 nH. Additionally, the bank is fused to increase dI/dt. The primary diagnostics are a framing camera, a spatially resolved Mach-Zehnder interferometer, and X-ray absorption.
Nadia Anam
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This work is an extension to the evaluation and analysis of a two-dimensional cylindrical cloak in the Terahertz or visible range spectrum using Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD method. It was concluded that it is possible to expand the frequency range of a cylindrical cloaking model by careful scaling of the inner and outer radius of the simulation geometry with respect to cell size and/or number of time steps in the simulation grid while maintaining appropriate stability conditions. Analysis in this study is based on a change in the radii ratio, that is, outer radius to inner radius, of the cloaking structure for an array of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Corresponding outputs show inconsistency in the cloaking pattern with respect to frequency. The inconsistency is further increased as the radii ratio is decreased. The results also help to establish a linear relationship between the transmission coefficient and the real component of refractive index with respect to different radii ratios which may simplify the selection of the material for practical design purposes. Additional performance analysis is carried out such that the dimensions of the cloak are held constant at an average value and the frequency varied to determine how a cloaked object may be perceived by the human eye which considers different wavelengths to be superimposed on each other simultaneously.
On Universal Quantum Dimensions
Mkrtchyan, R L
2016-01-01
We derive universal expressions for quantum dimensions (universal characters) of some series of irreps of simple Lie algebras. This allows us to check Deligne's hypothesis on universal quantum dimensions for symmetric cube of adjoint representation.
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
2014-01-01
Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...
Sudhakar, Goparaju Purna
2013-01-01
Popularity of teams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting their work done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that the collective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances. Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensions and qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as team performance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, team efficiency, team decision making and tea...
Strongly Gorenstein Flat Dimensions
Chun Xia ZHANG; Li Min WANG
2011-01-01
This article is concerned with the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of modules and rings.We show this dimension has nice properties when the ring is coherent,and extend the well-known Hilbert's syzygy theorem to the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of rings.Also,we investigate the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of direct products of rings and (almost)excellent extensions of rings.
On the p-norm joint spectral radius
周佳立
2003-01-01
The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang's relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.
On the p-norm joint spectral radius
周佳立
2003-01-01
The p-norm joint spectral radius is defined by a bounded collection of square matrices with complex entries and of the same size. In the present paper the author investigates the p-norm joint spectral radius for integers. The method introduced in this paper yields some basic formulas for these spectral radii. The approach used in this paper provides a simple proof of Berger-Wang' s relation concerning the ∞-norm joint spectral radius.
Quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimension
Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2016-02-01
In this paper we will examine the consequence of a canonical theory of quantum dust collapse in 2 +1 dimensions. The solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation describing the collapse indicates that collapsing shells outside the apparent horizon are accompanied by outgoing shells within the apparent horizon during their collapse phase and stop collapsing once they reach the apparent horizon. Taking this picture of quantum collapse seriously, we determine a static solution with energy density corresponding to a dust ball whose collapse has terminated at the apparent horizon. We show that the boundary radius of the ball is larger than the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli radius confirming that no event horizon is formed. The ball is sustained by radial pressure which we determine and which we attribute to the Unruh radiation within it.
Dimensions of Creative Evaluation
Christensen, Bo; Ball, Linden J.
2016-01-01
We examined evaluative reasoning taking place during expert ‘design critiques’. We focused on key dimensions of creative evaluation (originality, functionality and aesthetics) and ways in which these dimensions impact reasoning strategies and suggestions offered by experts for how the student could...... continue. Each dimension was associated with a specific underpinning ‘logic’ determining how these dimensions were evaluated in practice. Our analysis clarified how these dimensions triggered reasoning strategies such as running mental simulations or making design suggestions, ranging from ‘go...
Guadalajara, J F; Martínez, C; Huerta, D
1990-01-01
Using two-D echocardiography and cardiac catheterization we studied the performance of left ventricle in severe aortic stenosis with normal ventricular function (10 patients), and with heart failure (11 patients). With appropriate hypertrophy increased ventricular function, is found resulting in systolic wall stress normalization. When hypertrophic mechanism is unable to normalize the systolic wall stress; afterload increases with ensuing heart failure (inadequate hypertrophy). Surgical treatment in those cases reduces the afterload and increases de ventricular function. Normalization of systolic wall stress in patients with severe aortic stenosis and heart failure means irreversible myocardial damage.
Mass-radius relations for helium white dwarfs
Civelek, R
1998-01-01
In recent years, white dwarf stars are receiving increasing attension. The recent studies on the relation of M-R for the WDs are those of Wood (1990), Vennes et al. (1995) and Althaus and Benvenuto (1997, 1998). Vennes et al. (1995) computed static M-R relation for masses between 0.4 $M_\\odot$ and 0.7 $M_\\odot$ assuming non zero temperature effects. They assumed the luminosity is proportional to the mass which works for cool WDs but their results are in the range of high effective temperatures. As Althaus and Benvenuto (1997) mentioned, luminosity is not proportional to a constant for hot WD interiors because of neutrino emission. The purpose of this study is to present the effect of neutrino emission at finite temperatures. We considered fully degenerate configuration for WDs with pure helium composition to obtain static mass-radius relation for masses greater than 0.4 $M_\\odot$ with luminosity mass ratio due to neutrino energy loss.
Applying Occam's Razor To The Proton Radius Puzzle
Higinbotham, Douglas
2016-09-01
Over the past five decades, ever more complex mathematical functions have been used to extract the radius of the proton from electron scattering data. For example, in 1963 the proton radius was extracted with linear and quadratic fits of low Q2 data (Lamb shift measurements.
Decreasing the spectral radius of a graph by link removals
Van Mieghem, P.; Stevanović, D.; Kuipers, F.; Li, C.; Van de Bovenkamp, R.; Liu, D.; Wang, H.
2011-01-01
The decrease of the spectral radius, an important characterizer of network dynamics, by removing links is investigated. The minimization of the spectral radius by removing m links is shown to be an NP-complete problem, which suggests considering heuristic strategies. Several greedy strategies are co
The minimal spectral radius of graphs with a given diameter
Dam, E.R. van; Kooij, R.E.
2007-01-01
The spectral radius of a graph (i.e., the largest eigenvalue of its corresponding adjacency matrix) plays an important role in modeling virus propagation in networks. In fact, the smaller the spectral radius, the larger the robustness of a network against the spread of viruses. Among all connected g
Numerical Radius Inequalities for Finite Sums of Operators
Mirmostafaee Alireza Kamel
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain some sharp inequalities for numerical radius of finite sums of operators. Moreover, we give some applications of our result in estimation of spectral radius. We also compare our results with some known results.
Distal radius fractures: what determines the outcome after surgery?
Teunis, T.
2016-01-01
This thesis addresses current issues in the outcome of operatively treated distal radius fractures. The general aim was to determine factors associated with adverse events, loss of motion, functional limitations, and opioid use after surgery. Injury In 3D complete articular distal radius fracture mo
Return Radius and volume of recrystallized material in Ostwald Ripening
Hausser, Frank
2012-01-01
Within the framework of the LSW theory of Ostwald ripening the amount of volume of the second (solid) phase that is newly formed by recrystallization is investigated. It is shown, that in the late stage, the portion of the newly generated volume formed within an interval from time $t_0$ to $t$ is a certain function of $t/t_0$ and an explicit expression of this volume is given. To achieve this, we introduce the notion of the {\\it return radius} $r(t,t_0)$, which is the unique radius of a particle at time $t_0$ such that this particle has -- after growing and shrinking -- the same radius at time $t$. We derive a formula for the return radius which later on is used to obtain the newly formed volume. Moreover, formulas for the growth rate of the return radius and the recrystallized material at time $t_0$ are derived.
Influence of stellar variability on the determination of the radius during a transit of an exoplanet
Désert J.-M.; Lecavelier des Etangs A.; Parmentier V.; Sing D.
2011-01-01
Stellar variability can affect the estimate of an exoplanet radius measured during a transit. We developed a transit light curve model which includes stellar spots. It appears that, if spectro-photometric technique is used, spots and faculae have to be considered to conclude on atmospheric detection and characterization. When using a model including spots, characterization of Hot-Jupiter atmosphere around active stars is possible with this technique, provided a signal to noise ratio up to 105...
Equivalent Relation between Normalized Spatial Entropy and Fractal Dimension
Chen, Yanguang
2016-01-01
Fractal dimension is defined on the base of entropy, including macro state entropy and information entropy. The generalized dimension of multifractals is based on Renyi entropy. However, the mathematical transform from entropy to fractal dimension is not yet clear in both theory and practice. This paper is devoted to revealing the equivalence relation between spatial entropy and fractal dimension using box-counting method. Based on varied regular fractals, the numerical relationship between spatial entropy and fractal dimension is examined. The results show that the ratio of actual entropy (Mq) to the maximum entropy (Mmax) equals the ratio of actual dimension (Dq) to the maximum dimension (Dmax), that is, Mq/Mmax=Dq/Dmax. For real systems, the spatial entropy and fractal dimension of complex spatial systems such as cities can be converted into one another by means of functional box-counting method. The theoretical inference is verified by observational data of urban form. A conclusion is that normalized spat...
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2016-01-01
The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from...... the observation that experiences apparently have become especially valuable phenomena in Western societies. The 10 dimensions are tried out in a field study at the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Germany with the purpose to study their applicability in the evaluation of interactive sound archives. 29 walk......-alongs were carried out with 58 museums visitors. Our analysis showed that it was possible to identify the 10 experience dimensions in the study material. Some dimensions were expressed more frequently than others. The distribution of expressed dimensions and the content of the user comments provided a clear...
无
2005-01-01
In this paper, we are interested in the following general question: Given a module Mwhich has finite hollow dimension and which has a finite collection of submodules Ki (1≤i≤n) such that M=K1+... +Kn, can we find an expression for the hollow dimension of Min terms of hollow dimensions of modules built up in some way from K1 Kn? We prove the following theorem:Let Mbe an amply supplemented module having finite hollow dimension and let Ki (1≤i≤n) be a finite collection of submodules of Msuch that M=K1+...+Kn. Then the hollow dimension h(M) of Mis the sum of the hollow dimensions of Ki (1≤i≤n) ifand only if Ki is a supplement of K1+...+Ki-1+Ki+1+...+Kn in Mfor each 1≤i≤n.
Effects of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate and sound quality of centrifugal blower
Son, Pham Ngoc; Kim, Jae Won; Byun, S. M. [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, E. Y. [Hanbat National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-05-15
The effect of inlet radius and bell mouth radius on flow rate of centrifugal blower were numerically simulated using a commercial CFD program, FLUENT. In this research, a total of eight numerical models were prepared by combining different values of bell mouth radii and inlet radii (the cross section of bell mouth was chosen as a circular arc in this research). The frozen rotor method combined with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall function was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow inside the centrifugal blowers. The inlet radius was then revealed to have significant impact on flow rate with the maximum difference between analyzed models was about 4.5% while the bell mouth radius had about 3% impact on flow rate. Parallel experiments were carried out to confirm the results of CFD analysis. The CFD results were thereafter validated owning to the good agreement between CFD results and the parallel experiment results. In addition to performance analysis, noise experiments were carried out to analyze the dependence of sound quality on inlet radius and bell mouth radius with different flow rate. The noise experiment results showed that the loudness and sharpness value of different models were quite similar, which mean the inlet radius and the bell mouth radius didn't have a clear impact on sound quality of centrifugal blower.
Radius of clusters at the percolation threshold: A position space renormalization group study
Family, Fereydoon; Reynolds, Peter J.
1981-06-01
Using a direct position-space renormalization-group approach we study percolation clusters in the limit s → ∞, where s is the number of occupied elements in a cluster. We do this by assigning a fugacity K per cluster element; as K approaches a critical value K c , the conjugate variable s → ∞. All exponents along the path ( K-K c ) → 0 are then related to a corresponding exponent along the path s → ∞. We calculate the exponent ρ, which describes how the radius of an s-site cluster grows with s at the percolation threshold, in dimensions d=2, 3. In d=2 our numerical estimate of ρ=0.52±0.02, obtained from extrapolation and from cell-to-cell transformation procedures, is in agreement with the best known estimates. We combine this result with previous PSRG calculations for the connectedness-length exponent ν, to make an indirect test of cluster-radius scaling by calculating the scaling function exponent σ using the relation σ=ρ/ν. Our result for σ is in agreement with direct Monte-Carlo calculations of σ, and thus supports the cluster-radius scaling assumption. We also calculate ρ in d=3 for both site and bond percolation, using a cell of linear size b=2 on the simple-cubic lattice. Although the result of such small-cell calculations are at best only approximate, they nevertheless are consistent with the most recent numerical estimates.
Høskuldsson, Agnar
1996-01-01
Determination of the proper dimension of a given linear model is one of the most important tasks in the applied modeling work. We consider here eight criteria that can be used to determine the dimension of the model, or equivalently, the number of components to use in the model. Four...... the basic problems in determining the dimension of linear models. Then each of the eight measures are treated. The results are illustrated by examples....
Multiple dimensions of performance
Torenvlied, René
2013-01-01
This presentation considers the multiple dimensions of performance in performance studies, and potentially contradicting effects of different management strategies on separate indicators of performance
Quznetsov G.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Each vector of state has its own corresponing element of the CayleyDickson algebra. Properties of a state vector require that this algebra was a normalized division algebra. By the Hurwitz and Frobenius theorems maximal dimension of s uch algebra is 8. Con- sequently, a dimension of corresponding complex state vectors is 4, and a dimension of the Clifford set elements is 4 × 4. Such set contains 5 matrices — among them — 3-diagonal. Hence, a dimension of the dot events space is equal to 3 + 1.
Compactification of 5th dimension with usual and phantom scalar fields
Dzhunushaliev, V
2008-01-01
A new compactification mechanism of the 5th dimension in a gravitating system with two scalar fields (one of which is phantom) is proposed. It was shown that such a model has solutions oscillating over an extra coordinate and giving a finite radius of compactification of the 5th dimension. Also a possibility of using the model for a greater number of extra dimensions is pointed out.
THE DISTRIBUTIONAL DIMENSION OF FRACTALS
无
2007-01-01
In the book [1] H.Triebel introduces the distributional dimension of fractals in and distributional dimension, respectively. Thus we might say that the distributional dimension is an analytical definition for Hausdorff dimension. Therefore we can study Hausdorff dimension through the distributional dimension analytically.By discussing the distributional dimension, this paper intends to set up a criterion for estimating the upper and lower bounds of Hausdorff dimension analytically. Examples illustrating the criterion are included in the end.
An Asian perspective on the management of distal radius fractures.
Sebastin, Sandeep J; Chung, Kevin C
2012-05-01
There is limited data regarding the epidemiology, pathology, and management of distal radius fractures from centers in Asia. The advanced economies in Asia include Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, whereas the prominent emerging economies are China, India, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand. This article examines the available epidemiological data from Asia, compares the management of distal radius fractures in the advanced and emerging Asian economies and how they compare with the current management in the west. It concludes by offering solutions for improving outcomes of distal radius fractures in Asia.
Relationship between elastic moduli and pore radius in clay aggregates
Fabricius, Ida Lykke
2011-01-01
Available experimental data on elastic velocities of clay-air mixtures and clay-brine mixtures as a function of porosity are re-interpreted. Pore radius as calculated from porosity and specific surface measured by BET seems to be the factor controlling stiffness of these un-cemented sediments....... For each of the two pore fluids: air or brine smectitic clay and kaolinitic clay seem to have similar power law relationships between a given elastic modulus and pore radius. These results indicate that pore radius and thus permeability of shale in the depth interval of mechanical compaction may...
Fracture of the distal radius: epidemiology and premanagement radiographic characterization.
Porrino, Jack A; Maloney, Ezekiel; Scherer, Kurt; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Ha, Alice S; Allan, Christopher
2014-09-01
Fractures of the distal radius are common and frequently encountered by the radiologist. We review the epidemiology, classification, as well as the concept of instability. Salient qualitative and quantitative features of the distal radius fracture identifiable on the routine radiography series are highlighted. We conclude with a synopsis of descriptors that are of greatest utility to the clinician for treatment planning and that should be addressed in the radiology report. A detailed understanding of the intricacies of the distal radius fracture is necessary for the radiologist to provide a clinically relevant description.
Radius of 9C from the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient
LI Zhi-Hong; GUO Bing; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang; LIAN Gang; SU Jun; YAN Sheng-Quan; WANG Bao-Xiang; ZENG Sheng
2005-01-01
@@ The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of9 C = 8 B+p deduced from 8 Li(d, p)9 Li reaction is used to obtainthe root-mean-square (rms) radius of the loosely bound proton in the 9C ground state. We obtain 1/2 = 3.61 fmfor the valence proton, which is significantly larger than the matter radius of 9 C. The probability of the valence proton outside the matter radius of 9 C is greater than 60%. The present work supports the conclusion that 9 Chas a proton halo structure.
Cosmology with dynamical extra dimensions
Erickson, Joel K.
Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non-minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some quintessence models from a cosmological constant. In certain dark energy models the speed of sound is much less than the speed of light. We calculate how this affects the cosmic microwave background and show that the speed of sound may be measurable, provided dark energy is sufficiently dense at decoupling. This is another possible signature of quintessence. Dynamical extra dimensions may have consequences for the early universe. In the cyclic model, the universe is described in terms of a series of contractions and expansions of an extra dimension. The big bang is preceded by a big crunch and quantum fluctuations of the scalar field produce structure in universe. We consider how the fluctuations evolve and build over many cycles and show that there are no observable instabilities or adverse effects. In the cyclic model extra dimensions act as both dark energy and as an agent to cause contraction and a big crunch. Previous theorems suggested that contraction
Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian
2016-01-01
The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the obser...
Gorenstein homological dimensions
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
In basic homological algebra, the projective, injective and 2at dimensions of modules play an important and fundamental role. In this paper, the closely related Gorenstein projective, Gorenstein injective and Gorenstein 2at dimensions are studied. There is a variety of nice results about Gorenstein...
Gorenstein homological dimensions
Holm, Henrik Granau
2004-01-01
In basic homological algebra, the projective, injective and 2at dimensions of modules play an important and fundamental role. In this paper, the closely related Gorenstein projective, Gorenstein injective and Gorenstein 2at dimensions are studied. There is a variety of nice results about Gorenstein...
Flavor Models In Extra Dimensions
Valadez, J
2005-01-01
This thesis consists of implementing flavor symmetries in the context of extra dimensions. To the particle content of the Standard Model we add an additional scalar (flavon) field and we assume that all the fields propagate in the extra-dimensional space-time. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value the flavor symmetry is effectively broken thus generating the Yukawa textures associated with the particles. An specific model in 5D that reproduces all fermion masses, mixing angles and ratios is presented.
and minimum plastic zone radius (MPZR) for four point bend ...
user
LEFM) approach. ... where the radius of plastic zone takes either a local or global minimum depending on the ..... facilities provided by the Research Centre, B V B College of Engineering & ... American institute of physics conference proceedings.
Split radius-form blocks for tube benders
Lange, D. R.; Seiple, C. W.
1970-01-01
Two-piece, radius-form block permits accurate forming and removing of parts with more than a 180 degree bend. Tube bender can shape flexible metal tubing in applications dealing with plumbing, heating, and pressure transmission lines.
The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets
Lineweaver, Charles H
2010-01-01
Gravitational and electronic forces produce a correlation between the mass and shape of objects in the universe. For example, at an average radius of ~ 200 km - 300 km, the icy moons and rocky asteroids of our Solar System transition from a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive a constraint on the yield strength of these bodies during their formative years when their shapes were determined. Our proposed ~ 200 km potato radius for icy moons would substantially increase the number of trans-Neptunian objects classified as dwarf planets.
Experiments towards resolving the proton charge radius puzzle
Antognini, A; Amaro, F D; Amaro, P; Abdou-Ahmed, M; Biraben, F; Chen, T -L; Covita, D S; Dax, A J; Diepold, M; Fernandes, L M P; Franke, B; Galtier, S; Gouvea, A L; Götzfried, J; Graf, T; Hänsch, T W; Hildebrandt, M; Indelicato, P; Julien, L; Kirch, K; Knecht, A; Kottmann, F; Krauth, J J; Liu, Y -W; Machado, J; Monteiro, C M B; Mulhauser, F; Nez, F; Santos, J P; Santos, J M F dos; Szabo, C I; Taqqu, D; Veloso, J F C A; Voss, A; Weichelt, B; Pohl, R
2015-01-01
We review the status of the proton charge radius puzzle. Emphasis is given to the various experiments initiated to resolve the conflict between the muonic hydrogen results and the results from scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy.
Experiments towards resolving the proton charge radius puzzle
Antognini A.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review the status of the proton charge radius puzzle. Emphasis is given to the various experiments initiated to resolve the conflict between the muonic hydrogen results and the results from scattering and regular hydrogen spectroscopy.
Suzaku Observations of the Hydra A Cluster out to the Virial Radius
Sato, Takuya; Sasaki, Toru; Matsushita, Kyoko; Sakuma, Eri; Sato, Kosuke; Fujita, Yutaka; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ichikawa, Kazuya; Kawaharada, Madoka; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Takaya; Ota, Naomi; Takizawa, Motokazu; Tamura, Takayuki
2012-10-01
We report on Suzaku observations of the northern half of the Hydra A cluster out to ˜ 1.4 Mpc, reaching the virial radius. There are the first Suzaku observations of a medium-size (kT ˜ 3 keV) cluster out to the virial radius. Two observations were conducted, north-west and north-east offsets, which continue in a filament direction and a void direction of the large-scale structure of the Universe, respectively. The X-ray emission and distribution of galaxies elongate in the filament direction. The temperature profiles in the two directions are mostly consistent with each other within the error bars, and drop to 1.5 keV at 1.5 r500 . As observed by Suzaku in hot clusters, the entropy profile becomes flatter beyond r500 , in disagreement with the r1.1 relationship, which is expected from accretion shock heating models. When scaled with the average intracluster medium (ICM) temperature, the entropy profiles of clusters observed with Suzaku are universal, and do not depend on the system mass. The hydrostatic mass values in the void and filament directions are in good agreement, and the Navarro, Frenk, and White universal mass profile represents the hydrostatic mass distribution up to ˜ 2r500 . Beyond r500 , the ratio of the gas mass to the hydrostatic mass exceeds the result of the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe, and at r100 , these ratios in the filament and void directions reach 0.4 and 0.3, respectively. We discuss possible deviations from the hydrostatic equilibrium at cluster outskirts. We derived radial profiles of the gas-mass-to-light ratio and the iron-mass-to-light ratio out to the virial radius. Within r500 , the iron-mass-to-light ratio of the Hydra A cluster was compared with those in other clusters observed with Suzaku.
Deuteron charge radius from spectroscopy data in atomic deuterium
Pohl, Randolf; Udem, Thomas; Antognini, Aldo; Beyer, Axel; Fleurbaey, Hélène; Grinin, Alexey; Hänsch, Theodor W; Julien, Lucile; Kottmann, Franz; Krauth, Julian J; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Matveev, Arthur; Biraben, François
2016-01-01
We give a pedagogical description of the method to extract the charge radii and Rydberg constant from laser spectroscopy in regular hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms, that is part of the CODATA least-squares adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. We give a deuteron charge radius from D spectroscopy alone of 2.1415(45) fm. This value is independent of the proton charge radius, and five times more accurate than the value found in the CODATA Adjustment 10.
A Sharp upper bound for the spectral radius of a nonnegative matrix and applications
You, Lihua; Shu, Yujie; Zhang, Xiao-Dong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we obtain a sharp upper bound for the spectral radius of a nonnegative matrix. This result is used to present upper bounds for the adjacency spectral radius, the Laplacian spectral radius, the signless Laplacian spectral radius, the distance spectral radius, the distance Laplacian spectral radius, the distance signless Laplacian spectral radius of a graph or a digraph. These results are new or generalize some known results.
Cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and number density measurements using a Raman lidar
Whiteman, David N. [Laser Remote Sensing Branch, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland (United States); Melfi, S. Harvey [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore (United States)
1999-12-27
A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius, and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid microspheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.
Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar
Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey
1999-01-01
A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.
Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus
2015-01-01
as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...... for openness. With examples from a university case, the paper discusses how alternative pedagogical formats and educational technologies can support the three dimensions of openness....
Rucker, Rudy
2014-01-01
""This is an invigorating book, a short but spirited slalom for the mind."" - Timothy Ferris, The New York Times Book Review ""Highly readable. One is reminded of the breadth and depth of Hofstadter's Gödel, Escher, Bach."" - Science""Anyone with even a minimal interest in mathematics and fantasy will find The Fourth Dimension informative and mind-dazzling... [Rucker] plunges into spaces above three with a zest and energy that is breathtaking."" - Martin Gardner ""Those who think the fourth dimension is nothing but time should be encouraged to read The Fourth Dimension, along with anyone else
Goparaju Purna SUDHAKAR
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Popularity ofteams is growing in 21st Century. Organizations are getting theirwork done through different types of teams. Teams have proved that thecollective performance is more than the sum of the individual performances.Thus, the teams have got different dimensions such as quantitative dimensionsand qualitative dimensions. The Quantitative dimensions of teams such as teamperformance, team productivity, team innovation, team effectiveness, teamefficiency, team decision making and team conflicts and Qualitative dimensionsof teams such as team communication, team coordination, team cooperation, teamcohesion, team climate, team creativity, team leadership and team conflictshave been discussed in this article.
Dimension control of Superradiance
Hill, Tyler; Hui Deng Collaboration; Barry C. Sanders Collaboration
2016-05-01
We develop a theory for quantum dipole-dipole coupling when the electromagnetic fields are confined to an open line, open plane, or open space, commensurate with experimental capability for collective atomic effects subject to dimensional confinement. Our mathematical model naturally interpolates for all real dimension between one dimension for the line to three dimensions for open space. We show how superradiant emission can be controlled by dimensional confinement, including near-field and dipole-orientation effects, and we propose a two-dimensional confinement experiment to test our theory's efficacy. University of Michigan.
Due, Jesper Jørgen; Madsen, Jørgen Steen; Jensen, Carsten Strøby
En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem.......En analyse af EU's institutioner og udviklingen af den sociale dimension i forbindelse med etbaleringen af det indre marked med særlig henblik på effekterne på det danske aftalesystem....
Predicting the failure load of the distal radius.
Muller, Monique E; Webber, Colin E; Bouxsein, Mary L
2003-06-01
The distal radius is an important site for the early detection of patients at risk for fracture. Since measuring bone strength in vivo is not possible, we evaluated which bone assessment method of the forearm would best predict failure load of the distal radius and computed a factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist). Thirty-eight cadaveric forearm specimens were measured by five different techniques to assess bone density, bone mineral content, geometry and trabecular structure at the distal forearm. The bone assessment techniques included dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the radius, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) of the 4% and 20% distal sites of the radius, DXA of the phalanges, digital X-ray radiogrammetry of the forearm (DXR-BMD), and quantitative ultrasound of the radius. The failure load of each excised radius was determined by simulating a fall on an outstretched hand. The pQCT measurements of polar stress-strain index and cortical content explained the greatest portion of variance in failure load (r2=0.82-0.85). Bone mineral content measures were generally better predictors of failure load (r2=0.53-0.85) than the corresponding volumetric or areal bone mineral density values (r2=0.22-0.69) measured by either pQCT or DXA. Multiple regression analysis showed that the addition of a bone geometry measure improved the ability of a bone density measure alone to predict failure load. There was high variability in the ability of different techniques and different variables within a given technique to predict failure load. Estimates of the factor of risk for wrist fracture (Phi wrist) revealed that the women in this study would have been likely to fracture their distal radius upon falling from a standing height (Phi wrist= 1.04), whereas the men would have likely withstood the impact without fracturing their wrist (Phi wrist= 0.79).
Hirshberg, Ilan; Szabó, Gábor; Winter, Wilhelm; Wu, Jianchao
2017-07-01
We introduce a notion of Rokhlin dimension for one parameter automorphism groups of {C^*}-algebras. This generalizes Kishimoto's Rokhlin property for flows, and is analogous to the notion of Rokhlin dimension for actions of the integers and other discrete groups introduced by the authors and Zacharias in previous papers. We show that finite nuclear dimension and absorption of a strongly self-absorbing {C^*}-algebra are preserved under forming crossed products by flows with finite Rokhlin dimension, and that these crossed products are stable. Furthermore, we show that a flow on a commutative {C^*}-algebra arising from a free topological flow has finite Rokhlin dimension, whenever the spectrum is a locally compact metrizable space with finite covering dimension. For flows that are both free and minimal, this has strong consequences for the associated crossed product {C^{*}}-algebras: Those containing a non-zero projection are classified by the Elliott invariant (for compact manifolds this consists of topological {K}-theory together with the space of invariant probability measures and a natural pairing given by the Ruelle-Sullivan map).
A variational principle for the Hausdorff dimension of fractal sets
Olsen, Lars; Cutler, Colleen D.
1994-01-01
Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)......Matematik, fraktal (fractal), Hausdorff dimension, Renyi dimension, pakke dimension (packing dimension)...
Optimal network modification for spectral radius dependent phase transitions
Rosen, Yonatan; Kirsch, Lior; Louzoun, Yoram
2016-09-01
The dynamics of contact processes on networks is often determined by the spectral radius of the networks adjacency matrices. A decrease of the spectral radius can prevent the outbreak of an epidemic, or impact the synchronization among systems of coupled oscillators. The spectral radius is thus tightly linked to network dynamics and function. As such, finding the minimal change in network structure necessary to reach the intended spectral radius is important theoretically and practically. Given contemporary big data resources such as large scale communication or social networks, this problem should be solved with a low runtime complexity. We introduce a novel method for the minimal decrease in weights of edges required to reach a given spectral radius. The problem is formulated as a convex optimization problem, where a global optimum is guaranteed. The method can be easily adjusted to an efficient discrete removal of edges. We introduce a variant of the method which finds optimal decrease with a focus on weights of vertices. The proposed algorithm is exceptionally scalable, solving the problem for real networks of tens of millions of edges in a short time.
Accuracy of distal radius positioning using an anatomical plate.
Vroemen, Joy C; Dobbe, Johannes G G; Sierevelt, Inger N; Strackee, Simon D; Streekstra, Geert J
2013-04-01
Over the past decade, several anatomical plates have been introduced to improve the result of open reduction and internal fixation of the distal radius. Using 3-dimensional imaging techniques, the authors studied the accuracy and reproducibility of distal radius positioning using anatomical plates.Distal radius fractures and the correction of these fractures were simulated with plastic bone models of radii. The authors simulated a defect by removing an arbitrary wedge shape from the artificial radii. Two surgeons corrected these fractures by placing 2 anatomical plate types according to the plate manufacturers' instructions. The residual positioning errors of the distal segment in relation to the unaffected radii were determined using 3-dimensional imaging and were compared with naturally occurring bilateral radius differences in healthy individuals. In many cases, positioning does not agree with differences based on bilateral asymmetry in healthy patients.This study indicated the accuracy of anatomical plates. Positioning an anatomical plate may lead to considerable residual errors in individual patients. Volar distal radius plate shapes differ among plate manufacturers. Therefore, one plate may perform better than another in an individual.
The radius distribution of planets around cool stars
Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Swift, Jonathan, E-mail: tdm@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2014-08-10
We calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the period-marginalized radius distribution of planets with periods less than 150 days using the small yet well-characterized sample of cool (T{sub eff} < 4000 K) dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. In particular, we present and validate a new procedure, based on weighted kernel density estimation, to reconstruct the shape of the planet radius function down to radii smaller than the completeness limit of the survey at the longest periods. Under the assumption that the period distribution of planets does not change dramatically with planet radius, we show that the occurrence of planets around these stars continues to increase to below 1 R{sub ⊕}, and that there is no strong evidence for a turnover in the planet radius function. In fact, we demonstrate using many iterations of simulated data that a spurious turnover may be inferred from data even when the true distribution continues to rise toward smaller radii. Finally, the sharp rise in the radius distribution below ∼3 R{sub ⊕} implies that a large number of planets await discovery around cool dwarfs as the sensitivities of ground-based transit surveys increase.
Radius variation of optical fibers with angstrom accuracy.
Sumetsky, M; Dulashko, Y
2010-12-01
We have developed a robust method for the unprecedentedly accurate angstrom-scale detection of local variations of the fiber radius based on the idea suggested by Birks et al. [IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 182 (2000)]. The method uses an optical microfiber (MF) translated at a small distance along the tested fiber and periodically touching it at measurement points. At these points, the MF transmission spectrum exhibits whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonances shifting with the tested fiber radius. A simple and comprehensive optimization scheme, which determines the radius variation without visual recognition of resonances and treats their shifts simultaneously, is developed. The optics of WGM propagation is discussed, and the condition for the validity of the developed method is established.
Effect of sample radius on stability of electromagnetic levitation melting
马伟增; 郑红星; 季诚昌; 李建国
2004-01-01
Based on the power dissipating model of spherical sample in free convection gas medium and the expression of input power, the model of temperature calculation for electromagnetic levitation melting sample was established. Considering the limitation of levitation force and levitation sample temperature,the principle of stability levitation zone computation was determined. A spherical sample (ThDy)Fe2 under the protection of argon gas was examined, and the effect of radius of levitation sample and perturbation on the stable levitation zone was investigated.The results show that longitudinal perturbation and transverse perturbation can shorten the length of stable levitation zone and the range of levitation sample radius. By increasing the sample radius and weakening the perturbation the electromagnetic levitation melting stability of sample can be improved.
Extraction of the proton charge radius from experiments
Kelkar, N G; Nowakowski, M
2016-01-01
Static properties of hadrons such as their radii and other moments of the electric and magnetic distributions can only be extracted using theoretical methods and not directly measured from experiments. As a result, discrepancies between the extracted values from different precision measurements can exist. The proton charge radius, $r_p$, which is either extracted from electron proton elastic scattering data or from hydrogen atom spectroscopy seems to be no exception. The value $r_p = 0.84087(39)$ fm extracted from muonic hydrogen spectroscopy is about 4% smaller than that obtained from electron proton scattering or standard hydrogen spectroscopy. The resolution of this so called proton radius puzzle has been attempted in many different ways over the past six years. The present article reviews these attempts with a focus on the methods of extracting the radius.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
Interior phase transformations and mass-radius relationships of silicon-carbon planets
Wilson, Hugh F. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Parkville, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Militzer, Burkhard, E-mail: hughfw@gmail.com [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2014-09-20
Planets such as 55 Cancri e orbiting stars with a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio may consist primarily of silicon and carbon, with successive layers of carbon, silicon carbide, and iron. The behavior of silicon-carbon materials at the extreme pressures prevalent in planetary interiors, however, has not yet been sufficiently understood. In this work, we use simulations based on density functional theory to determine high-pressure phase transitions in the silicon-carbon system, including the prediction of new stable compounds with Si{sub 2}C and SiC{sub 2} stoichiometry at high pressures. We compute equations of state for these silicon-carbon compounds as a function of pressure, and hence derive interior structural models and mass-radius relationships for planets composed of silicon and carbon. Notably, we predict a substantially smaller radius for SiC planets than in previous models, and find that mass radius relationships for SiC planets are indistinguishable from those of silicate planets. We also compute a new equation of state for iron. We rederive interior models for 55 Cancri e and are able to place more stringent restrictions on its composition.
HZ Her: Stellar Radius from X-ray Eclipse Observations, Evolutionary State and a New Distance
Leahy, D A
2014-01-01
Observations of HZ Her/ Her X-1 by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) covering high state eclipses of the neutron star are analyzed here. Models of the eclipse are used to measure the radius and atmospheric scale height of HZ Her, the stellar companion to the neutron star. The radius is 2.61 to 3.03 $\\times10^{11}$ cm, depending on system inclination and mass ratio(q), with accuracy of $\\sim$1 part in 1000 for given inclination and q. We fit Kurucz model stellar atmosphere models to archival optical observations. The resulting effective temperature ($T_{eff}$) of the unheated face of HZ Her is determined to be in the 2$\\sigma$ range 7440K to 7620K, and metallicity ($log(Z/Z_{\\odot})$) in the range -0.14 to +.08. The model atmosphere surface flux and new radius yield a new distance to HZ Her/ Her X-1, depending on system inclination and q. We calculate stellar evolution models for the range of allowed masses (from orbital parameters), and allowed metallicities (from optical spectrum fits). The stellar mode...
Implications of a matter-radius measurement for the structure of Carbon-22
Acharya, B., E-mail: acharyab@phy.ohiou.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Ji, C., E-mail: jichen@triumf.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, D.R., E-mail: phillips@phy.ohiou.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States)
2013-06-10
We study Borromean 2n-halo nuclei using effective field theory. We compute the universal scaling function that relates the mean-square matter radius of the 2n halo to dimensionless ratios of two- and three-body energies. We use the experimental value of the rms matter radius of {sup 22}C measured by Tanaka et al. (2010) [3] to put constraints on its 2n separation energy and the {sup 20}C–n virtual energy. We also explore the consequences of these constraints for the existence of excited Efimov states in this nucleus. We find that, for {sup 22}C to have an rms matter radius within 1–σ of the experimental value, the two-neutron separation energy of {sup 22}C needs to be below 100 keV. Consequently, this three-body halo system can have an excited Efimov state only if the {sup 20}C–n system has a resonance within 1 keV of the scattering threshold.
Walczyk, Wiktoria; Schönherr, Holger
2013-01-15
To date, TM AFM (tapping mode or intermittent contact mode atomic force microscopy) is the most frequently applied direct imaging technique to visualize surface nanobubbles at the solid-aqueous interface. On one hand, AFM is the only profilometric technique that provides estimates of the bubbles' nanoscopic dimensions. On the other hand, the nanoscopic contact angles of surface nanobubbles estimated from their apparent dimensions that are deduced from AFM "height" images of nanobubbles differ markedly from the macrocopic water contact angles on the identical substrates. Here we show in detail how the apparent bubble height and width of surface nanobubbles on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) depend on the free amplitude of the cantilever oscillations and the amplitude setpoint ratio. (The role of these two AFM imaging parameters and their interdependence has not been studied so far for nanobubbles in a systematic way.) In all experiments, even with optimal scanning parameters, nanobubbles at the HOPG-water interface appeared to be smaller in the AFM images than their true size, which was estimated using a method presented herein. It was also observed that the severity of the underestimate increased with increasing bubble height and radius of curvature. The nanoscopic contact angle of >130° for nanobubbles on HOPG extrapolated to zero interaction force was only slightly overestimated and hence significantly higher than the macroscopic contact angle of water on HOPG (63 ± 2°). Thus, the widely reported contact angle discrepancy cannot be solely attributed to inappropriate AFM imaging conditions.
The PRad experiment and the proton radius puzzle
Gasparian Ashot
2014-06-01
Full Text Available New results from the recent muonic hydrogen experiments seriously questioned our knowledge of the proton charge radius, rp. The new value, with its unprecedented less than sub-percent precision, is currently up to eight standard deviation smaller than the average value from all previous experiments, triggering the well-known “proton charge radius puzzle” in nuclear and atomic physics. The PRad collaboration is currently preparing a novel, magnetic-spectrometer-free ep scattering experiment in Hall B at JLab for a new independent rp measurement to address this growing “puzzle” in physics.
Thoughts on the so-called radius-capitellum axis
Schild, H.; Mueller, H.A.; Wagner, H.; Baetz, W.
1982-02-01
We have studied 438 patients radiologically in order to observe the so-called 'radius-capitellum axis'. In about a quarter of people with normal elbows the axis passes lateral to the middle portion of the capitellum, so that even when there is marked deviation, there is no certainty that the humero-radial joint is abnormal. Deviation of the axis can be caused by changes in the shape of the capitellum or of the radius, or by distension of the capsule of the elbow joint, or by various changes in muscular pull.
Dome-shaped osteotomy for distal radius fracture malunions.
Brunelli, Giorgio A
2003-06-01
After having hinted to the various component of the malformity caused by malunions of the distal radius fracture, the various possibilities of correcting this deformity are described. The difficulty to correct all the components of the deformity are considered. Then a Dome-shaped osteotomy of the distal radius is described that allows to correct all the deformities in all the directions as the gliding plane of the osteotomy is spherical. The ulnar plus and the DRUJ alterations are corrected by means of an added Sauvé-Kapandji procedure that guarantees against any painful movement of the DRUJ preserving effective prono-supination.
Influence of stellar variability on the determination of the radius during a transit of an exoplanet
Désert J.-M.
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Stellar variability can affect the estimate of an exoplanet radius measured during a transit. We developed a transit light curve model which includes stellar spots. It appears that, if spectro-photometric technique is used, spots and faculae have to be considered to conclude on atmospheric detection and characterization. When using a model including spots, characterization of Hot-Jupiter atmosphere around active stars is possible with this technique, provided a signal to noise ratio up to 105. For Earth-size planets a long-term parallel photometric follow up monitoring the stellar activity is required to compensate the error due to the stellar variability.
Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions
Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi
2013-01-01
In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…
Cultural dimensions and innovation
Anna Strychalska-Rudzewicz
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of culture’s dimensions on national innovation index. The results of Pearson correlation coefficient between culture dimensions and the Global Innovation Index (GII are very similar to the results obtained in the case of Summary Innovation Index (SII in European countries. The strong negative correlation was observed in the case of power distance and uncertainty avoidance whereas individualism has a positive effect on innovation index. The results suggest that low power distance and uncertainty-accepting countries may be more innovative than high power distance and uncertainty-avoiding societies.
Influences of nuclear containment radius on the aircraft impact force based on the Riera function
Zhang, T.; Wu, H., E-mail: abrahamhao@126.com; Fang, Q.; Gong, Z.M.
2015-11-15
Highlights: • A fine aircraft model of A320 was built and verified by available limited prototype impacting tests. • The influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed. • The influences of NPP containment radius on the impact force were numerically studied. • The Riera function was modified by considering the radius effect of NPP containment. - Abstract: The aircraft impact force directly influences the local failure and global response of the nuclear power plant (NPP) containment, while the existing theoretical models and the field tests were almost based on the flat target. In order to analyze the radius effect of the circular sectional containment on the impact force, a fine FE model of the commercial aircraft A320 was established and validated by the available limited full-scale F-4 Phantom impact experiment. In order to determine the force to crush the A320 FE model, the influences of aircraft longitudinal crushing strength on the impact process were analyzed based on the Riera function. Considering the containment decaying effect to aircraft impact velocity, the impact impulse was theoretically calculated, while the influences of the losses of mass and energy were not included. The numerical simulations of A320 aircrafts impacting on simplified NPP containments with different radii were conducted, which could well reproduce the airframe crushing and debris scattering. By comparison of the simulated impact impulses and the calculation values by the Riera function, the coefficients corresponding to different containment radii are derived and a fitting formula is obtained. Finally, an improved Riera function dependent on the dimensionless ratio of nuclear containment radius and aircraft wingspan is proposed.
Held, M.; Wiesenberger, M.; Madsen, J.; Kendl, A.
2016-12-01
Thermal effects on the perpendicular convection of seeded pressure blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetised fusion plasmas are investigated. Our numerical study is based on a four field full-F gyrofluid model, which entails the consistent description of high fluctuation amplitudes and dynamic finite Larmor radius effects. We find that the maximal radial blob velocity increases with the square root of the initial pressure perturbation and that a finite Larmor radius contributes to highly compact blob structures that propagate in the poloidal direction. An extensive parameter study reveals that a smooth transition to this compact blob regime occurs when the finite Larmor radius effect strength, defined by the ratio of the magnetic field aligned component of the ion diamagnetic to the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} vorticity, exceeds unity. The maximal radial blob velocities agree excellently with the inertial velocity scaling law over more than an order of magnitude. We show that the finite Larmor radius effect strength affects the poloidal and total particle transport and present an empirical scaling law for the poloidal and total blob velocities. Distinctions to the blob behaviour in the isothermal limit with constant finite Larmor radius effects are highlighted.
Social Support Contributes to Outcomes following Distal Radius Fractures
Caitlin J. Symonette
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Background. Distal radius fractures are the most common fracture of the upper extremity and cause variable disability. This study examined the role of social support in patient-reported pain and disability at one year following distal radius fracture. Methods. The Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was administered to a prospective cohort of 291 subjects with distal radius fractures at their baseline visit. Pearson correlations and stepwise linear regression models (F-to-remove 0.10 were used to identify whether social support contributes to wrist fracture outcomes. The primary outcome of pain and disability at one year was measured using the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation. Results. Most injuries were low energy (67.5% and were treated nonoperatively (71.9%. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that higher reported social support correlated with improved Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores at 1 year, r(n=181=-0.22, P<0.05. Of the subscales within the Social Support Survey, emotional/informational support explained a significant proportion of the variance in 1-year Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation scores, R2=4.7%, F (1, 181 = 9.98, P<0.05. Conclusion. Lower emotional/informational social support at the time of distal radius fracture contributes a small but significant percentage to patient-reported pain and disability outcomes.
Radius-mass scaling laws for celestial bodies
Muradian, R.; S. Carneiro; Marques, R.
1999-01-01
In this letter we establish a connection between two-exponent radius-mass power laws for cosmic objects and previously proposed two-exponent Regge-like spin-mass relations. A new, simplest method for establishing the coordinates of Chandrasekhar and Eddington points is proposed.
3D imaging in corrective osteotomy of the distal radius
Vroemen, Joy
2013-01-01
The research described in this thesis is on the development, design, implementation and testing of new techniques for corrective osteotomy of the distal radius. The goal of this thesis is threefold. At first, possible pitfalls of conventional corrective osteotomy surgery were determined and quantifi
Surgical versus conservative treatment of distal radius fractures in elderly.
Trevisan, C; Klumpp, R; Nava, V; Riccardi, D; Recalcati, W
2013-10-01
The distal radius fractures (DRFs) are the second most common fracture in the elderly population. Despite their frequency, the optimal treatment of these fractures remains controversial. Several dogmatic myths on DRFs management may adversely affect their outcome and despite a strong trend versus surgical options, systematic reviews suggest that conservative treatment remains the safest option for DRFs in most cases.
Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius
Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António
2008-01-01
We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...... of consanguinity's deleterious effects affecting an entire human population is provided...
Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube
Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)
2014-04-21
Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.
Individualist-Collectivist Culture and Trust Radius : A Multilevel Approach
van Hoorn, André
2015-01-01
We apply a multilevel approach to examine empirically the nexus between individualist and collectivist culture on the one hand and people’s radius of trust on the other. People’s trust level (i.e., the intensity with which people trust other people) has been extensively studied. Increasingly, howeve
Injectivity Radius and Cartan Polyhedron for Simply Connected Symmetric Spaces
Ling YANG
2007-01-01
The author explores the relationship between the cut locus of. an arbitrary simply connected and compact Riemannian symmetric space and the Cartan polyhedron of corresponding restricted root system, and computes the injectivity radius and diameter for every type of irreducible ones.
On the mass–radius relation of hot stellar systems
Gieles, M.; BAumgardt, H.; Heggie, D.C.; Lamers, J.T.W.H.
2010-01-01
Most globular clusters have half-mass radii of a few pc with no apparent correlation with their masses. This is different from elliptical galaxies, for which the Faber–Jackson relation suggests a strong positive correlation between mass and radius. Objects that are somewhat in between globular clust
The charge radius and anapole moment of a free fermion
Gongora-T, A.; Stuart, R.G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.)
1992-07-01
We derive an expression for the charge radius and anapole moment of a free fermion induced at one loop in the standard Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model of electroweak interactions. The result, despite earlier claims to the contrary, is demonstrably gauge-invariant and observable in principle. (orig.).
Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube
Liu, Ning; Wang, Yong-Gang; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao
2014-04-01
Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
. The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...
Frederiksen, Morten
2012-01-01
in scope and mode influenced by the intersecting dimensions of relations, objects and situations. Furthermore, trust exists between an outer threshold of expected deceit and an inner threshold of confident reliance. The findings from the qualitative study contribute new knowledge on the diversity of trust...
VOL AR PLATING OF DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURE : A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS
Victor
2015-06-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of distal radius has undergone remarkable changes since the time of Abraham colles. Conservative treatment with cast application has given way to operative techniques for better o utcome in high demand young individuals. Volar plating fo r distal end radius fractures is an effective technique which allows early mobilisation with re storation of r adial inclination , radial length , articular congruity and palmar tilt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T his study was performed in chettinad hospital and research institute between January 2013 and M arch 2014. 24 patients with closed isolated distal end radius fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws by volar approach were followed up retrospectively for a minimum period of one year . There were 17 men and 7 women. Mean age was 44 years (Range, 22 - 75 years. The fractures were classified based on the AO system. There were 4 A2, 12 B3, 5 C1, 3 C2 fracture types. RESULTS : All the patients were evaluated with standard anteroposterior and lateral radiographs and CT scans in c ase of intraarticular fractures . In all patie nts plating of distal end radius done by volar approach. Patients were followed postoperatively for one y ear radiologically and clinically by modified clinical scoring system by Green and O Brien. Five patients had excellent results, thirteen patients had good results with twenty five percent restriction of wrist function . Five patients had fair results. One patient had postop wound infection which required implant removal and external fixator application . CONCLUSION: With proper patient selection a nd accurate surgical techniques , volar plating continues to be a useful method of treatment for distal end radius fractures with minimal complications and allowing early return of patients to normal activities.
Unstable Distal Radius Fractures Treated by Volar Locking Anatomical Plates
Jose, Anto; Deniese, Pascal Noel; Babu, Abey Thomas; Rengasamy, Kanagasabai; Najimudeen, Syed
2017-01-01
Introduction Fracture of the distal end of radius represents the most common fracture of the upper extremity accounting for 16-20% of all fractures. Plating is now emerging as the gold standard for management of distal radius fractures due to increased rate of complications such as malunion, subluxation/dislocation of distal radio-ulnar joint or late collapse of fracture. Procedures such as closed reduction and cast immobilization, ligamentotaxis with external fixator and percutaneous pin fixation are no longer acceptable. Aim The purpose of the study was to evaluate the functional and radiological outcome of unstable distal radius fractures treated with the volar locking plate. Materials and Methods We reviewed 53 patients from January 2011 to December 2015, treated for unstable distal radius fractures using a volar locking compression plate. Standard radiographic and clinical assessment after 12 months (range 12-16 months) were measured and final functional and radiological outcome were assessed using the Modified Mayo wrist scoring system and Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria respectively. Results There were 42 males and 11 females with an average age of 39.12±31.78 years (18-71 years). At the end of 12 months, 36 patients had an excellent radiological outcome and 10 patients had good radiological outcome as per Sarmiento’s modification of Lindstorm criteria. Eleven patients had an excellent functional outcome and 26 patients had a good functional outcome as per modified Mayo wrist scoring system. There was one case of superficial wound infection which subsided with intravenous antibiotics. Conclusion The volar locking plate fixation helps in early mobilization of the wrist, restores anatomy, allows early return to function, prevents secondary loss of reduction and hence is an effective treatment for unstable fractures of the distal radius. PMID:28274009
Variable radius cartography - History and perspectives of a new discipline
Scalera, Giancarlo
2014-05-01
The map that Toscanelli sent to Columbus was an unconscious application of cartography at a smaller radius than the real. The first really conscious attempts to represent the geography of Earth on globes of radius less than the current one occurred after the formulation of the concept of expanding Earth through geological time. The American chemist and geologist Richard Owen (1810-1890) in his book Key to the geology of the globe (1857) described the principles of what he himself called Anatomical Geology, with the Earth growing as a biological organism. The book contained a global paleogeographic map of the Earth that would have had a radius of about 4000 kilometers. In 1928 J.A.H. Kerkhoff (under the pseudonym Aero-dilettant) published a series of paleogeographic globes on which the modern oceans disappeared. With the same artisan methods of transfer continental outlines from a sphere to a smaller one, in 1933 O.C. Hilgenberg represented three different geological epochs, and, later, for the first time mapped paleopoles with their site-pole segments of meridian. Even today the traditional method of Hilgenberg is followed by senior researchers (Klaus Vogel, 2003) and younger geologists (James Maxlow). In England Hugh Owen applied the methods of traditional cartography to the variable radius one. His Atlas of Continental Displacement was in the 70s and 80s, for this discipline, a real milestone. While in the field of constant radius paleogeography the adherents to plate tectonics created many computer codes of automatic mapping (Bullard et al., 1965; Smith & Hallam, 1970; Scotese et al., 1979; and many others), in the variable radius field few tried to reach the same task. In 1972 in United States a first very simple attempt (but was not further developed) came from a private, R.B. Perry, followed by the still not-computerized Atlas of Owen, and both them constituted inspiration for the construction of a FORTRAN variable radius mapping code at INGV, with which it
Probing large extra dimensions with IceCube
Esmaili, Arman [Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies and School of Liberal Arts, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 139-743 (Korea, Republic of); Peres, O.L.G.; Tabrizi, Zahra, E-mail: arman@ipm.ir, E-mail: orlando@ifi.unicamp.br, E-mail: tabrizi.physics@ipm.ir [Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin - UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, SP (Brazil)
2014-12-01
In models with Large Extra Dimensions the smallness of neutrino masses can be naturally explained by introducing gauge singlet fermions which propagate in the bulk. The Kaluza-Klein modes of these fermions appear as towers of sterile neutrino states on the brane. We study the phenomenological consequences of this picture for the high energy atmospheric neutrinos. For this purpose we construct a detailed equivalence between a model with large extra dimensions and a (3+n) scenario consisting of three active and n extra sterile neutrino states, which provides a clear intuitive understanding of Kaluza-Klein modes. Finally, we analyze the collected data of high energy atmospheric neutrinos by IceCube experiment and obtain bounds on the radius of extra dimensions.
21 CFR 886.1430 - Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device... lens radius measuring device. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic contact lens radius measuring device is an AC-powered device that is a microscope and dial gauge intended to measure the radius of a...
Cosmology With Extra Dimensions
Martín, J
2005-01-01
We review several properties of models that include extra dimensions, focusing on aspects related to cosmology and particle physics phenomenology. The properties of effective four dimensional inflationary geometry are studied in two distinct frameworks: (i) in Kaluza- Klein (KK) compactifications and (ii) in braneworld scenarios. From numerical simulations we find that inflationary braneworlds are unstable if the scale of inflation is too large in comparison with the stabilization scale of the interbrane distance. The analysis of perturbations confirms the existence of a tachyon associated with the volume modulus of the extra dimensions both in braneworlds and KK compactifications. With the numerical program BRANECODE non- perturbative properties of braneworlds are studied. We fully understand the non-perturbative consequences of this instability. Generic attractors are (i) an increase of the interbrane distance and the formation of a naked singularity, (ii) the brane colli...
Cultural dimensions of learning
Eyford, Glen A.
1990-06-01
How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.
Edge effect causes apparent fractal correlation dimension of uniform spatial raindrop distribution
R. Uijlenhoet
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Lovejoy and Schertzer (1990a presented a statistical analysis of blotting paper observations of the (two-dimensional spatial distribution of raindrop stains. They found empirical evidence for the fractal scaling behavior of raindrops in space, with potentially far-reaching implications for rainfall microphysics and radar meteorology. In particular, the fractal correlation dimensions determined from their blotting paper observations led them to conclude that "drops are (hierarchically clustered" and that "inhomogeneity in rain is likely to extend down to millimeter scales". Confirming previously reported Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate analytically that the claims based on this analysis need to be reconsidered, as fractal correlation dimensions similar to the ones reported (i.e. smaller than the value of two expected for uniformly distributed raindrops can result from instrumental artifacts (edge effects in otherwise homogeneous Poissonian rainfall. Hence, the results of the blotting paper experiment are not statistically significant enough to reject the Poisson homogeneity hypothesis in favor of a fractal description of the discrete nature of rainfall. Our analysis is based on an analytical expression for the expected overlap area between a circle and a square, when the circle center is randomly (uniformly distributed inside the square. The derived expression (πr^{2}−8r^{3}/3+r^{4}/2, where r denotes the ratio between the circle radius and the side of the square can be used as a reference curve against which to test the statistical significance of fractal correlation dimensions determined from spatial point patterns, such as those of raindrops and rainfall cells.
Introduction to Extra Dimensions
Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC
2010-04-29
Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.
Eskjær, Mikkel Fugl
2013-01-01
is largely dependent on regional media systems, yet the role this regional dimension plays has been largely overlooked. This article presents a comparative study of climate-change coverage in three geo-cultural regions, The Middle East, Scandinavia, and North America, and explores the link between global...... climate-change communication and regional media systems. It finds that regional variations in climate-change communication carry important communicative implications concerning perceptions of climate change's relevance and urgency...
Vertical profiles of droplet effective radius in shallow convective clouds
S. Zhang
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Conventional satellite retrievals can only provide information on cloud-top droplet effective radius (r_{e}. Given the fact that cloud ensembles in a satellite snapshot have different cloud-top heights, Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 used the cloud-top height and the corresponding cloud-top r_{e} from the cloud ensembles in the snapshot to construct a profile of r_{e} representative of that in the individual clouds. This study investigates the robustness of this approach in shallow convective clouds based on results from large-eddy simulations (LES for clean (aerosol mixing ratio N_{a} = 25 mg^{−1}, intermediate (N_{a} = 100 mg^{−1}, and polluted (N_{a} = 2000 mg^{−1} conditions. The cloud-top height and the cloud-top r_{e} from the modeled cloud ensembles are used to form a constructed r_{e} profile, which is then compared to the in-cloud r_{e} profiles. For the polluted and intermediate cases where precipitation is negligible, the constructed r_{e} profiles represent the in-cloud r_{e} profiles fairly well with a low bias (about 10 %. The method used in Rosenfeld and Lensky (1998 is therefore validated for nonprecipitating shallow cumulus clouds. For the clean, drizzling case, the in-cloud r_{e} can be very large and highly variable, and quantitative profiling based on cloud-top r_{e} is less useful. The differences in r_{e} profiles between clean and polluted conditions derived in this manner are however, distinct. This study also investigates the subadiabatic characteristics of the simulated cumulus clouds to reveal the effect of mixing on r_{e} and its evolution. Results indicate that as polluted and moderately polluted clouds develop into their decaying stage, the subadiabatic fraction
Transfer matrices of dipoles with bending radius variation
无
2011-01-01
With the increasing demand of high brightness in light source, the uniform dipole can not meet the needs of low emittance, and thus the dipole with bending radius variation is introduced in this paper. The transfer matrix of a non-uniform dipole whose bending radius is linearly changed is chosen as an example and a very simple calculation formula of non-uniform dipole transfer matrices is given. The transfer matrices of some common profile non-uniform dipoles are also listed. The comparison of these transfer matrices and the matrices calculated with slices method verifies the numerical accuracy of this formula. This method can make the non-uniform beam dynamic problem simpler, very helpful for emittance research and lattice design with non-uniform dipoles.
Error analysis for a laser differential confocal radius measurement system.
Wang, Xu; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Weiqian; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Zhongyu
2015-02-10
In order to further improve the measurement accuracy of the laser differential confocal radius measurement system (DCRMS) developed previously, a DCRMS error compensation model is established for the error sources, including laser source offset, test sphere position adjustment offset, test sphere figure, and motion error, based on analyzing the influences of these errors on the measurement accuracy of radius of curvature. Theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that the expanded uncertainty of the DCRMS is reduced to U=0.13 μm+0.9 ppm·R (k=2) through the error compensation model. The error analysis and compensation model established in this study can provide the theoretical foundation for improving the measurement accuracy of the DCRMS.
Predicting jet radius in electrospinning by superpositioning exponential functions
Widartiningsih, P. M.; Iskandar, F.; Munir, M. M.; Viridi, S.
2016-08-01
This paper presents an analytical study of the correlation between viscosity and fiber diameter in electrospinning. Control over fiber diameter in electrospinning process was important since it will determine the performance of resulting nanofiber. Theoretically, fiber diameter was determined by surface tension, solution concentration, flow rate, and electric current. But experimentally it had been proven that significantly viscosity had an influence to fiber diameter. Jet radius equation in electrospinning process was divided into three areas: near the nozzle, far from the nozzle, and at jet terminal. There was no correlation between these equations. Superposition of exponential series model provides the equations combined into one, thus the entire of working parameters on electrospinning take a contribution to fiber diameter. This method yields the value of solution viscosity has a linear relation to jet radius. However, this method works only for low viscosity.
Network partition via a bound of the spectral radius
Mondragon, R J
2015-01-01
Based on the density of connections between the nodes of high degree, we introduce two bounds of the spectral radius. We use these bounds to split a network into two sets, one of these sets contains the high degree nodes, we refer to this set as the spectral--core. The degree of the nodes of the subnetwork formed by the spectral--core gives an approximation to the top entries of the leading eigenvector of the whole network. We also present some numerical examples showing the dependancy of the spectral--core with the assortativity coefficient, its evaluation in several real networks and how the properties of the spectral--core can be used to reduce the spectral radius.
Core Deuterium Fusion and Radius Inflation in Hot Jupiters
Jaikumar, Prashanth; Rachid Ouyed
2016-06-01
Several laboratory-based studies have shown that the Deuterium fusion cross-section is enhanced in a solid deuterated target as compared to a gas target, attributable to enhanced mobility of deuterons in a metal lattice. As an application, we propose that, for core temperatures and compositions characterizing hot Jupiters, screened Deuterium fusion can occur deep in the interior, and show that the amount of radius inflation from this effect can be important if there is sufficient rock-ice in the core. The mechanism of screened Deuterium fusion, operating in the above temperature range, is generally consistent with the trend in radius anomaly with planetary equilibrium temperature. We also explore the trend with planetary mass using a simple analytic model.
External Fixation of Unstable Distal Radius Fracture. A Case Report
Yaniel Truffin Rodríguez
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Unstable fracture of the distal radius is a common injury. If not properly treated, it can cause major disturbance in the radiocarpal joint and impaired hand function. A case of a 42-year-old patient of rural origin without a history of previous conditions treated at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. He suffered a fall on the outstretched hand, which led to an unstable fracture of the left distal radius. Emergency surgery consisting of manual fracture reduction under general anesthesia and fixation with RALCA minifixator plus a percutaneously placed Kirschner wire was performed. Since this fracture is often inadequately treated, the presentation of this case can be helpful to many orthopedic surgeons.
Fractal dimension and mechanism of aggregation of apple juice particles.
Benítez, E I; Lozano, J E; Genovese, D B
2010-04-01
Turbidity of freshly squeezed apple juice is produced by a polydisperse suspension of particles coming from the cellular tissue. After precipitation of coarse particles by gravity, only fine-colloidal particles remain in suspension. Aggregation of colloidal particles leads to the formation of fractal structures. The fractal dimension is a measure of the internal density of these aggregates and depends on their mechanism of aggregation. Digitized images of primary particles and aggregates of depectinized, diafiltered cloudy apple juice were obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Average radius of the primary particles was found to be a = 40 ± 11 nm. Maximum radius of the aggregates, R(L), ranged between 250 and 7750 nm. Fractal dimension of the aggregates was determined by analyzing SEM images with the variogram method, obtaining an average value of D(f) = 2.3 ± 0.1. This value is typical of aggregates formed by rapid flocculation or diffusion limited aggregation. Diafiltration process was found to reduce the average size and polydispersity of the aggregates, determined by photon correlation spectroscopy. Average gyration radius of the aggregates before juice diafiltration was found to be R(g) = 629 ± 87 nm. Average number of primary particles per aggregate was calculated to be N = 1174.
Radius fracture from an electrical injury involving an electric guitar.
Pappano, Dante
2010-03-01
Electrical injury ranges widely from simple shock and mild burns to more extensive superficial injury, internal injury, and mortality. Bony fracture from electrically-induced tetanic muscle contraction is a rare but recognized injury. We report the case of a 14-year-old boy who suffered a minor burn and radius fracture related to an electrical injury involving his electric guitar. An interesting pattern is emerging from available case reports of similar injuries.
Biomechanical Stability of Four Fixation Constructs for Distal Radius Fractures
Capo, John T.; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin
2009-01-01
Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial–ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads wer...
Formation scenarios and mass-radius relation for neutron stars
Zdunik, J L
2011-01-01
Neutron star crust, formed via accretion of matter from a companion in a low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB), has an equation of state (EOS) stiffer than that of catalyzed matter. At a given neutron star mass, M, the radius of a star with an accreted crust is therefore larger, by DR(M), than for usually considered star built of catalyzed matter. Using a compressible liquid drop model of nuclei, we calculate, within the one-component plasma approximation, the EOSs corresponding to different nuclear compositions of ashes of X-ray bursts in LMXB. These EOSs are then applied for studying the effect of different formation scenarios on the neutron-star mass-radius relation. Assuming the SLy EOS for neutron star's liquid core, derived by Douchin & Haensel (2001), we find that at M=1.4 M_sun the star with accreted crust has a radius more than 100 m larger that for the crust of catalyzed matter. Using smallness of the crust mass compared to M, we derive a formula that relates DR(M) to the difference in the crust EOS. Thi...
Habitability of Exomoons at the Hill or Tidal Locking Radius
Hinkel, Natalie R
2013-01-01
Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets mu Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at it's furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves it's largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar ...
Simulation for Proton Charge Radius (PRad) Experiment at Jefferson Lab
Ye, Li; PRad Collaboration Collaboration
2016-09-01
The ``Proton Charge Radius Puzzle'' refers to 7 σ discrepancy between the proton charge radius extracted from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift measurements and that from the atomic hydrogen Lamb shift and e-p elastic scattering measurements. In order to get a better understanding of this puzzle, the PRad experiment (E12-11-106) was proposed and recently performed with 1.1 and 2.2 GeV unpolarized electron beam in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The experiment aims to extract the electric form factor and the charge radius of proton by simultaneously measuring the e - p elastic scattering cross section and the Møller cross section at very low Q2(2 × 10-4 10-1(GeV / c) 2) region, with sub-percent precision. A windowless hydrogen gas flow target was used to better control the background. A high-efficiency and high-resolution calorimeter (HyCal) and a pair of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) chambers were used in the experiment. This talk will focus on comparing the detailed simulation of PRad experiment and its background with preliminary spectra from the data. This work is supported in part by NSF MRI Award PHY-1229153, the U.S. Department of Energy under Contacts No. DE-FG02-07ER41528, Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, Mississippi State University and PRad collaboration.
Characterizing SL2S galaxy groups using the Einstein radius
Verdugo, T.; Motta, V.; Foex, G.
2014-01-01
Aims. We aim to study the reliability of RA (the distance from the arcs to the center of the lens) as a measure of the Einstein radius in galaxy groups. In addition, we want to analyze the possibility of using RA as a proxy to characterize some properties of galaxy groups, such as luminosity (L......) and richness (N). Methods. We analyzed the Einstein radius, θE, in our sample of Strong Lensing Legacy Survey (SL2S) galaxy groups, and compared it with RA, using three different approaches: 1) the velocity dispersion obtained from weak lensing assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile (θE,I); 2) a strong.......7 ± 0.2)RA, θE,II = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (1.1 ± 0.4)RA, and θE,III = (0.4 ± 1.5) + (0.9 ± 0.3)RA for each method respectively. We found weak evidence of anti-correlation between RA and z, with Log RA = (0.58 ± 0.06) − (0.04 ± 0.1)z, suggesting a possible evolution of the Einstein radius with z, as reported...
The Radius Distribution of Small Planets Around Cool Stars
Morton, Timothy D
2013-01-01
We calculate an empirical, non-parametric estimate of the shape of the radius distribution of small planets with periods less than 90 days using the small yet well-characterized sample of cool T_eff <4000 K dwarf stars in the Kepler catalog. Using a new technique we call a modified kernel density estimator (MKDE) and carefully correcting for incompleteness, we show that planets with radii ~1.25 R_earth are the most common planets around these stars. An apparent overabundance of planets with radii 2-2.5 R_earth may be evidence for a population of planets with H/He atmospheres. Lastly, the sharp rise in the radius distribution from ~4 R_earth to 2 R_earth implies that a large number of planets await discovery around cool dwarfs as the sensitivities of ground-based surveys increase. The radius distribution will continue to be tested with future Kepler results, but the features reported herein are robust features of the current dataset and thus invite theoretical explanation in the context of planetary system ...
Conversion of radius of curvature to power (and vice versa)
Wickenhagen, Sven; Endo, Kazumasa; Fuchs, Ulrike; Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.
2015-09-01
Manufacturing optical components relies on good measurements and specifications. One of the most precise measurements routinely required is the form accuracy. In practice, form deviation from the ideal surface is effectively low frequency errors, where the form error most often accounts for no more than a few undulations across a surface. These types of errors are measured in a variety of ways including interferometry and tactile methods like profilometry, with the latter often being employed for aspheres and general surface shapes such as freeforms. This paper provides a basis for a correct description of power and radius of curvature tolerances, including best practices and calculating the power value with respect to the radius deviation (and vice versa) of the surface form. A consistent definition of the sagitta is presented, along with different cases in manufacturing that are of interest to fabricators and designers. The results make clear how the definitions and results should be documented, for all measurement setups. Relationships between power and radius of curvature are shown that allow specifying the preferred metric based on final accuracy and measurement method. Results shown include all necessary equations for conversion to give optical designers and manufacturers a consistent and robust basis for decision-making. The paper also gives guidance on preferred methods for different scenarios for surface types, accuracy required, and metrology methods employed.
Methane Planets and their Mass-Radius Relation
Helled, Ravit; Vos, Eran
2015-01-01
Knowledge of both the mass and radius of an exoplanet allows us to estimate its mean density, and therefore, its composition. Exoplanets seem to fill a very large parameter space in terms of mass and composition, and unlike the solar-system's planets, exoplanets also have intermediate masses (~5-50 M_Earth) with various densities. In this letter, we investigate the behavior of the Mass-Radius relation for methane (CH_4) planets and show that when methane planets are massive enough (M_planet > ~15 M_Earth) the methane can dissociate and lead to a differentiated planet with a carbon core, a methane envelope, and a hydrogen atmosphere. The contribution of a rocky core to the behavior of CH_4 planet is considered as well. We also develop interior models for several detected intermediate-mass planets that could, in principle, be methane/methane-rich planets. The example of methane planets emphasizes the complexity of the Mass-Radius relation and the challenge in inferring the planetary composition uniquely.
Roth, Eric J; Gilbert, Benjamin; Mays, David C
2015-10-20
Experiments reveal a wide discrepancy between the permeability of porous media containing colloid deposits and the available predictive equations. Evidence suggests that this discrepancy results, in part, from the predictive equations failing to account for colloid deposit morphology. This article reports a series of experiments using static light scattering (SLS) to characterize colloid deposit morphology within refractive index matched (RIM) porous media during flow through a column. Real time measurements of permeability, specific deposit, deposit fractal dimension, and deposit radius of gyration, at different vertical positions, were conducted with initially clean porous media at various ionic strengths and fluid velocities. Decreased permeability (i.e., increased clogging) corresponded with higher specific deposit, lower fractal dimension, and smaller radius of gyration. During deposition, fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability decreased with increasing specific deposit. During flushing with colloid-free fluid, these trends reversed, with increased fractal dimension, radius of gyration, and permeability. These observations suggest a deposition scenario in which large and uniform aggregates become deposits, which reduce porosity, lead to higher fluid shear forces, which then decompose the deposits, filling the pore space with small and dendritic fragments of aggregate.
Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette
2012-01-01
Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....
Quantum dust collapse in 2+1 dimensions
Sarkar, Souvik; Wijewardhana, L C R
2016-01-01
In this paper we will examine the consequence of a canonical theory of quantum dust collapse in 2+1 dimensions. The solution of the WDW equation describing the collapse indicates that collapsing shells outside the apparent horizon are accompanied by outgoing shells within the apparent horizon during their collapse phase and stop collapsing once they reach the apparent horizon. Taking this picture of quantum collapse seriously, we determine a static solution with energy density corresponding to a dust ball whose collapse has terminated at the apparent horizon. We show that the boundary radius of the ball is larger than the BTZ radius confirming that no event horizon is formed. The ball is sustained by radial pressure which we determine and which we attribute to the Unruh radiation within it.
Adjoint Functors and Representation Dimensions
Chang Chang XI
2006-01-01
We study the global dimensions of the coherent functors over two categories that are linked by a pair of adjoint functors. This idea is then exploited to compare the representation dimensions of two algebras. In particular, we show that if an Artin algebra is switched from the other, then they have the same representation dimension.
Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Corner Radius on Forced Oscillating Square Cylinder
Sajjad Miran
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to numerically visualize the flow past forced oscillating square cylinder and investigate the effect of corner radius on flow induced forces. The finite volume code was applied to simulate the two dimensional flow past forced oscillating square cylinder with different radius to diameter ratios, (R/D = 0 referring to a square cylinder with sharp edges and R/D = 0.5 as a circular cylinder. The near wake of a square section cylinder with an increment of R/D = 0.1 was studied as the body undergoes a complete oscillatory cycle at lock-in condition, F = fe / fs = 1 (where fe is the excitation frequency and fs is the vortex shedding frequency for the stationary cylinder. The computational model was validated for flow past oscillating cylinder with R/D = 0.5 at frequency ratios F = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.50, using as the lock-in and lock-out limits and the results shown good agreement. It was observed that computed value of Strouhal Number is nearly same for both stationary and oscillation case and a similar trend was observed, as R/D ratio increases. However, the results obtained from oscillation cylinder cases show the significant increase in root mean square value of lift coefficient (CL,RMS and mean drag coefficient (CD as compared to the stationary cylinder. Finally, It was found that the percentage increase of CL,RMS is higher than CD in force oscillating condition for R/D = 0, whereas both values decreases with the increase of R/D.
Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.
Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed
2015-12-01
The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.
HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS
Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2013-09-01
Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.
Superhumps in Cataclysmic Binaries. XXV. q_crit, epsilon(q), and Mass-Radius
Patterson, J; Harvey, D; Fried, R; Rea, R; Monard, B; Cook, L; Skillman, D R; Vanmunster, T; Bolt, G; Armstrong, E; McCormick, J; Krajci, T; Jensen, L; Gunn, J; Butterworth, N D; Foote, J; Bos, M; Masi, G; Warhurst, P; Patterson, Joseph; Kemp, Jonathan; Harvey, David; Fried, Robert; Rea, Robert; Monard, Berto; Cook, Lewis; Skillman, David; Vanmunster, Tonny; Bolt, Greg; Armstrong, Eve; Cormick, Jennie Mc; Krajci, Thomas; Jensen, Lasse; Gunn, Jerry; Butterworth, Neil; Foote, Jerry; Bos, Marc; Masi, Gianluca; Warhurst, Paul
2005-01-01
We report on successes and failures in searching for positive superhumps in cataclysmic variables, and show the superhumping fraction as a function of orbital period. Basically, all short-period systems do, all long-period systems don't, and a 50% success rate is found at P_orb=3.1+-0.2 hr. We can use this to measure the critical mass ratio for the creation of superhumps. With a mass-radius relation appropriate for cataclysmic variables, and an assumed mean white-dwarf mass of 0.75 M_sol, we find a mass ratio q_crit=0.35+-0.02. We also report superhump studies of several stars of independently known mass ratio: OU Virginis, XZ Eridani, UU Aquarii, and KV UMa (= XTE J1118+480). The latter two are of special interest, because they represent the most extreme mass ratios for which accurate superhump measurements have been made. We use these to improve the epsilon(q) calibration, by which we can infer the elusive q from the easy-to-measure epsilon (the fractional period excess of P_superhump over P_orb). This rela...
A generalized spectral radius formula and Olsen's question
Loring, Terry; Shulman, Tatiana
2012-01-01
Let A be a C⁎C⁎-algebra and I be a closed ideal in A. For x∈Ax∈A, its image in A/IA/I is denoted by x˙, and its spectral radius is denoted by r(x)r(x). We prove that max{r(x),‖x˙‖}=inf‖(1+i)−1x(1+i)‖ (where the infimum is taken over all i∈Ii∈I such that 1+i1+i is invertible), which generalizes th...
Charge Radius Measurement of the Halo Nucleus $^{11}$Li
Kluge, H-J; Kuehl, T; Simon, H; Wang, Haiming; Zimmermann, C; Onishi, T; Tanihata, I; Wakasugi, M
2002-01-01
%IS385 %title\\\\ \\\\The root-mean-square charge radius of $^{11}$Li will be determined by measuring the isotope shift of a suitable atomic transition in a laser spectroscopic experiment. Comparing the charge radii of the lithium isotopes obtained by this nuclear-model-independent method with the relevant mass radii obtained before will help to answer the question whether the proton distribution in halo nuclei at the neutron drip-line is decoupled to the first order from their neutron distribution. The necessary experimental sensitivity requires the maximum possible rate of $^{11}$Li nuclei in a beam of low emittance which can only be provided by ISOLDE.
Guidelines for measuring solar radius with Baily beads analysis
SIGISMONDI Costantino
2009-01-01
By inspection of central eclipses videorecords, data of Baily beads timings are retrievable. Knowing the lunar limb profile at the moment of the eclipse we evaluate the excess or defect of solar limb when the Sun is assumed at its standard radius. Two procedures of data analysis are here presented: one based on limb heights and the other on times. While these methods are based upon Occult 4 software, they can be used with other ephemerides and new lunar profiles. The example of 2006 total eclipse data, with its remarkably negative value of ΔR=-0.41"±0.04", is presented.
Guidelines for measuring solar radius with Baily beads analysis
SIGISMONDI; Costantino
2009-01-01
By inspection of central eclipses videorecords, data of Baily beads timings are retrievable. Knowing the lunar limb profile at the moment of the eclipse we evaluate the excess or defect of solar limb when the Sun is assumed at its standard radius. Two procedures of data analysis are here presented: one based on limb heights and the other on times. While these methods are based upon Occult 4 software, they can be used with other ephemerides and new lunar profiles. The example of 2006 total eclipse data, with its remarkably negative value of ΔR= - 0.41"± 0.04", is presented.
Modelling Acoustic Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Varying-Radius Waveguides
Bæk, David; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
A computationally fast and accurate model (a set of coupled ordinary differential equations) for fluid sound-wave propagation in infinite axisymmetric waveguides of varying radius is proposed. The model accounts for fluid heat conduction and fluid irrotational viscosity. The model problem is solved...... by expanding solutions in terms of cross-sectional eigenfunctions following Stevenson’s method. A transfer matrix can be easily constructed from simple model responses of a given waveguide and later used in computing the response to any complex wave input. Energy losses due to heat conduction and viscous...
Finite Larmor radius influence on MHD solitary waves
E. Mjølhus
2009-04-01
Full Text Available MHD solitons are studied in a model where the usual Hall-MHD model is extended to include the finite Larmor radius (FLR corrections to the pressure tensor. The resulting 4-dimensional set of differential equations is treated numerically. In this extended model, the point at infinity can be of several types. Necessary for the existence of localized solutions is that it is either a saddle-saddle, a saddle-center, or, possibly, a focus-focus. In cases of saddle-center, numerical solutions for localized travelling structures have been obtained, and compared with corresponding results from the Hall-MHD model.
Experimental Method for Microbubbles Dynamics Monitoring and Radius Sizing
Fouan, Damien; Achaoui, Younes; Payan, Cedric; Mensah, Serge
Rationale and aim: Within the context of divers' decompression illness prevention, ultrasonic detection and sizing of circulating microbubbles in blood is of great interest. In order to be representative of the divers gas tension level (supersaturation) and thus, to optimize decompression stages, the measurements (made in the right ventricle region) should be performed during a short period of time (ventricle filling <20 ms), efficient to detect a broad range of bubbles' radii population (radius from 20 to 200 _m) and harmless (Mechanical Index MI<0.3).
Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects of the distal radius
Roach, Richard T.; Summers, Bruce N. [Department of Orthopaedics, Princess Royal Hospital, Telford (United Kingdom); Cassar-Pullicino, Victor [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom)
2002-05-01
Paediatric post-traumatic cortical defects, although rare, are predominately seen affecting the distal radius following a greenstick or torus fracture. We review the literature and present a further two cases supported by CT and MRI. Images from an acute greenstick fracture are also presented to help understand the pathogenesis. Defects are typically solitary on plain radiographs and are usually noticed late, proximal to the site of compression. They are non-expansile in an otherwise healthy child. CT and MRI may reveal smaller multiple subperiosteal defects. Typical defects require no further management other than reassurance and advice that they may occasionally cause discomfort but resolve with time. (orig.)
Trajectory Calculator for Finite-Radius Cutter on a Lathe
Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan
2009-01-01
A computer program calculates the two-dimensional trajectory (radial vs. axial position) of a finite-radius-of-curvature cutting tool on a lathe so as to cut a workpiece to a piecewise-continuous, analytically defined surface of revolution. (In the original intended application, the tool is a diamond cutter, and the workpiece is made of a crystalline material and is to be formed into an optical resonator disk.) The program also calculates an optimum cutting speed as F/L, where F is a material-dependent empirical factor and L is the effective instantaneous length of the cutting edge.
Comments on “Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms”
P. Jafari Shalkouhi
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The goal of this letter is to comment on the article "Reverberation Radius in Real Rooms" by Mijić and Mašović (2010. Mijić and Mašović measured critical distance and reverberation time in four different size rooms from 125 Hz to 4 kHz octave bands. They proposed a method for measurement of critical distance. This paper confirms that the measurements of critical distance made by Mijić and Mašović were not accurate at some frequencies.
Post-traumatic cystic lesion following fracture of the radius
Papadimitriou, Nikolaos G.; Christophorides, John; Beslikas, Theodoros A.; Papadimitriou, Ageliki G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2. Orthopaedic University Clinic, Thessaloniki (Greece); Doulianaki, Eleni G. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 1. Pediatric University Clinic, Thessaloniki (Greece)
2005-07-01
Post-traumatic cystic lesions are an uncommon complication of fractures in children. They are benign, asymptomatic, non-expansive and tend to resolve spontaneously. Their cause seems to be the invasion of bone-marrow fat by subperiosteal hematoma, which may be visible on radiographs during fracture consolidation of the newly formed subperiosteal bone. The case we present is of cyst formation following a fracture of the distal radius and we evaluate the role of yellow bone marrow in the pathogenesis of the cyst. Its typical features clear differentiation from other lesions, preventing unnecessary and, possibly, invasive examinations. (orig.)
The Lick AGN Monitoring Project: Alternate Routes to a Broad-line Region Radius
Greene, Jenny E; Barth, Aaron J; Bennert, Vardha N; Bentz, Misty C; Filippenko, Alexei V; Gates, Elinor; Malkan, Matthew A; Treu, Tommaso; Walsh, Jonelle L; Woo, Jong-Hak
2010-01-01
It is now possible to estimate black hole masses across cosmic time, using broad emission lines in active galaxies. This technique informs our views of how galaxies and their central black holes coevolve. Unfortunately, there are many outstanding uncertainties associated with these "virial" mass estimates. One of these comes from using the accretion luminosity to infer a size for the broad-line region. Incorporating the new sample of low-luminosity active galaxies from our recent monitoring campaign at Lick Observatory, we recalibrate the radius-luminosity relation with tracers of the accretion luminosity other than the optical continuum. We find that the radius of the broad-line region scales as the square root of the X-ray and Hbeta luminosities, in agreement with recent optical studies. On the other hand, the scaling appears to be marginally steeper with narrow-line luminosities. This is consistent with a previously observed decrease in the ratio of narrow-line to X-ray luminosity with increasing total lum...
Detection of the Splashback Radius and Halo Assembly bias of Massive Galaxy Clusters
More, Surhud; Takada, Masahiro; Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V; Dalal, Neal K; More, Anupreeta; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S; Oguri, Masamune; Spergel, David N
2016-01-01
We show that the projected number density profiles of SDSS photometric galaxies around galaxy clusters displays strong evidence for the splashback radius, a sharp halo edge corresponding to the location of the first orbital apocenter of satellite galaxies after their infall. We split the clusters into two subsamples with different mean projected radial distances of their members, $\\langle R_{\\rm mem}\\rangle$, at fixed richness and redshift, and show that the sample with smaller $\\langle R_{\\rm mem}\\rangle$ has a smaller ratio of the splashback radius to the traditional halo boundary $R_{\\rm 200m}$, than the subsample with larger $\\langle R_{\\rm mem}\\rangle$, indicative of different mass accretion rates for the two subsamples. The same cluster samples were recently used by Miyatake et al. to show that their large-scale clustering differs despite their similar weak lensing masses, demonstrating strong evidence for halo assembly bias. We expand on this result by presenting a 6.6-$\\sigma$ detection of halo assemb...
Urban Screen and Spatial Dimension
Litta Primasari
2013-11-01
Full Text Available This paper is discussing about the urban screen phenomena and its influence to spatial dimension in urban space. The visual characteristics which are forming a spatial dimension will be an emphasis to be presented. Urban screen as a visual intervention has an impact to spatial configuration in urban space. The space dimension was not dominated with materiality limitation, but also images. We have to consider that people senses can measure a spatial dimension, knowing as a perception. That is a human visual and mind relation. The spatial dimension has no longer tangible boundary, but also has intangible ones. Spatial dimension in urban screens phenomena is not merely mathematics, nor spatial dimension in physics which are based on a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. Movement can be expressed in other terms, by how far we can move depends on our eyes to catch that space limitation, and how fast we can move is depends on our mind to perceive some visual phenomenon, that is a spatial dimension. So, the dimension will depend on a visual quality that we perceived. The movement of the body and people’s thought will be an important term to generate the space dimension in urban screen phenomenon. The activity of body’s movement and thought will influence the depth of space dimension.
Correlation dimension of financial market
Nie, Chun-Xiao
2017-05-01
In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.
Jackson, David J
2016-01-01
A physical theory of the world is presented under the unifying principle that all of nature is laid out before us and experienced through the passage of time. The one-dimensional progression in time is opened out into a multi-dimensional mathematically consistent flow, with the simplicity of the former giving rise to symmetries of the latter. The act of perception identifies an extended spacetime arena of intermediate dimension, incorporating the symmetry of geometric spatial rotations, against which physical objects are formed and observed. The spacetime symmetry is contained as a subgroup of, and provides a natural breaking mechanism for, the higher general symmetry of time. It will be described how the world of gravitation and cosmology, as well as quantum theory and particle physics, arises from these considerations.
Wölfel, Christiane; Merritt, T.
2013-01-01
. The card-based tools are explained in terms of five design dimensions including the intended purpose and scope of use, duration of use, methodology, customization, and formal/material qualities. Our analysis suggests three design patterns or archetypes for existing card-based design method tools...... and highlights unexplored areas in the design space. The paper concludes with recommendations for the future development of card-based methods for the field of interaction design.......There are many examples of cards used to assist or provide structure to the design process, yet there has not been a thorough articulation of the strengths and weaknesses of the various examples. We review eighteen card-based design tools in order to understand how they might benefit designers...
Schweitzer, Eugen
2009-01-01
In different passages of his dialogues, Plato showed deep mathematically-based physical insights. Regrettably most readers overlooked the respective statements, or they utterly did not understand those hints since they were full of philological fallacious terms. Respectable translators misinterpreted such statements and therefore Plato's respective remarks were not recognized as substantial knowledge. Furthermore, Plato often supplemented such basic remarks by diffusely veiled and varied allusions that were often ironically hidden somewhere in his dialogues by inconspicuous double meanings. However, this mode of intentionally coded discrete communication was generally not understood because such irony is not to everyone's taste. However, the attempts to reconstruct Plato's system on the basis of admittedly individually interpreted double meanings lead to a conclusive mathematical-physical cyclical system of dimensions. Additionally it was possible to assign Plato's system of philosophical ideas analogously to...
Phenomenology of Extra Dimensions
Hewett, J.L.; /SLAC
2006-11-07
If the structure of spacetime is different than that readily observed, gravitational physics, particle physics and cosmology are all immediately affected. The physics of extra dimensions offers new insights and solutions to fundamental questions arising in these fields. Novel ideas and frameworks are continuously born and evolved. They make use of string theoretical features and tools and they may reveal if and how the 11-dimensional string theory is relevant to our four-dimensional world. We have outlined some of the experimental observations in particle and gravitational physics as well as astrophysical and cosmological considerations that can constrain or confirm these scenarios. These developing ideas and the wide interdisciplinary experimental program that is charted out to investigate them mark a renewed effort to describe the dynamics behind spacetime. We look forward to the discovery of a higher dimensional spacetime.
Lévay, Péter
2011-01-01
We link the recently discovered black hole-qubit correspondence to the structure of extra dimensions. In particular we show that for toroidal compactifications of type IIB string theory simple qubit systems arise naturally from the geometrical data of the tori parametrized by the moduli. We also generalize the recently suggested idea of the attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure of GHZ-like entangled states on the event horizon, to moduli stabilization for flux attractors in F-theory compactifications on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau four-folds. Finally using a simple example we show that the natural arena for qubits to show up is an embedded one within the realm of fermionic entanglement of quantum systems with indistinguishable constituents.
Dudas, E; Rubakov, V A
2006-01-01
We analyze the properties of a model with four-dimensional brane-localized Higgs type potential of a six dimensional scalar field satisfying the Dirichlet boundary condition on the boundary of a transverse two-dimensional compact space. The regularization of the localized couplings generates classical renormalization group running. A tachyonic mass parameter grows in the infrared, in analogy with the QCD gauge coupling in four dimensions. We find a phase transition at a critical value of the bare mass parameter such that the running mass parameter becomes large in the infrared precisely at the compactification scale. Below the critical coupling, the theory is in symmetric phase, whereas above it spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs. Close to the phase transition point there is a very light mode in the spectrum. The massive Kaluza-Klein spectrum at the critical coupling becomes independent of the UV cutoff.
Dependence of fractal dimension of DLCA clusters on size of primary particles.
Wu, Hua; Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo
2013-07-01
It is well known that clusters generated from colloidal aggregation driven by Brownian motion are typical fractal objects with the fractal dimension in the range of 1.75-1.85 under the diffusion-limited cluster aggregation (DLCA) conditions. In this work, we review and analyze the values of the fractal dimension for DLCA clusters experimentally determined in the literature. It is found that the value of the fractal dimension decreases significantly as the primary particle radius increases. Then, we have properly designed the DLCA experiments, using different radii of the primary particles, and determined the fractal dimensions of the generated clusters. Our results have well confirmed that the fractal dimension indeed decreases as the particle radius increases. To explore the mechanism leading to such dependence, we have performed intense computations through the full T-Matrix theory, and we conclude that this is not related to the effect of the intra-cluster multiple scattering on the slope of the scattering structure factor. The large fractal dimensions of the clusters generated by very small nanoparticles could be explained by thermal restructuring due to their low bonding energies, but no clear explanation can be given for the small fractal dimensions of the clusters made of large particles.
General relativity from three-forms in seven dimensions
Krasnov, Kirill
2017-09-01
We consider a certain theory of 3-forms in 7 dimensions, and study its dimensional reduction to 4D, compactifying the 7-dimensional manifold on the 3-sphere of a fixed radius. We show that the resulting 4D theory is (Riemannian) General Relativity (GR) in Plebanski formulation, modulo corrections that are negligible for curvatures smaller than Planckian. Possibly the most interesting point of this construction is that the dimensionally reduced theory is GR with a non-zero cosmological constant, and the value of the cosmological constant is directly related to the size of S3. Realistic values of Λ correspond to S3 of Planck size.
General Relativity from Three-Forms in Seven Dimensions
Krasnov, Kirill
2016-01-01
We consider a certain theory of 3-forms in 7 dimensions, and study its dimensional reduction to 4D, compactifying the 7-dimensional manifold on the 3-sphere of a fixed radius. We show that the resulting 4D theory is General Relativity (GR) in Plebanski formulation, modulo corrections that are negligible for curvatures smaller than Planckian. Possibly the most interesting point of this construction is that the dimensionally reduced theory is GR with a non-zero cosmological constant, and the value of the cosmological constant is directly related to the size of S^3. Realistic values of Lambda correspond to S^3 of Planck size.
Two empirical regimes of the planetary mass-radius relation
Bashi, Dolev; Helled, Ravit; Zucker, Shay; Mordasini, Christoph
2017-08-01
Today, with the large number of detected exoplanets and improved measurements, we can reach the next step of planetary characterization. Classifying different populations of planets is not only important for our understanding of the demographics of various planetary types in the galaxy, but also for our understanding of planet formation. We explore the nature of two regimes in the planetary mass-radius (M-R) relation. We suggest that the transition between the two regimes of "small" and "large" planets occurs at a mass of 124 ± 7M⊕ and a radius of 12.1 ± 0.5R⊕. Furthermore, the M-R relation is R ∝ M0.55 ± 0.02 and R ∝ M0.01 ± 0.02 for small and large planets, respectively. We suggest that the location of the breakpoint is linked to the onset of electron degeneracy in hydrogen, and therefore to the planetary bulk composition. Specifically, it is the characteristic minimal mass of a planet that consists of mostly hydrogen and helium, and therefore its M-R relation is determined by the equation of state of these materials. We compare the M-R relation from observational data with the relation derived by population synthesis calculations and show that there is a good qualitative agreement between the two samples.
What is the largest Einstein radius in the universe?
Oguri, Masamune
2008-01-01
The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterises the strength of gravitational lensing. The distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of all-sky Monte-Carlo realisations. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to the cosmological model: for a source redshift z=1, they are 42^{+9}_{-7}, 35^{+8}_{-6}, and 54^{+12}_{-7} arcseconds, assuming best-fit parameters of the WMAP5, WMAP3 and WMAP1 data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky 35 (WMAP5), 15 (WMAP3), and 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 20''. Whilst the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the primordial non-Gauss...
Some issues concerning the proton charge radius puzzle
Walcher, Thomas
2012-01-01
An explanation of the difference of the charge radius of the proton as determined from the Lamb shift in electronic hydrogen and from elastic electron scattering off the proton on the one side and the recent high precision determination with muonic hydrogen on the other side is presented. It is shown that the modification of the $2S_{1/2}$ and $2P_{3/2}$ wave functions by the "Uehling potential" yields a correction to the theoretical Lamb shift of $\\delta (\\Delta E_{\\textrm{Lamb}}) = 0.302$ meV which has to be compared to $\\delta (\\Delta E_{\\textrm{Lamb}}) = 0.322(46)$ meV equivalent to the stated radius difference. The explanation is based on the realization that the bound state wave functions modified by the external "Uehling potential" have to be propagated by the vacuum polarization propagator in order to give the correct leading order Lamb shift. It is argued that a conflicting relativistic calculation neglects this propagation aspect. The explanation demonstrates that the Lamb shift is dynamically induc...
Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius
Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.
2008-03-01
The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).
Measurement of the $\\Sigma^{-}$ Charge Radius at SELEX
Eschrich, I
1998-01-01
The charge radii of Sigma^- and pi^- have been determined by direct elastic scttering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the SELEX (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab which employs a 600 GeV/c high-intensity Sigma^-/pi^- beam and a 3-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 <= x_F <= 1.0. Scattering angles and momenta of both hadron and electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors, thus allowing for a segmented solid target. Two TRDs provided full particle identification. A preliminary result for the Sigma^- charge radius for a four-momentum transfer squared of 0.03 GeV^2/c^2 <= Q^2 <= 0.16 GeV^2/c^2 will be reported. In a parallel analysis the pi^- charge radius has been determined for 0.03 GeV^2/c^2 <= Q^2 <= 0.2 GeV^2/c^2, and is found to be consistent with previous experiments.
Biomechanical stability of four fixation constructs for distal radius fractures.
Capo, John T; Kinchelow, Tosca; Brooks, Kenneth; Tan, Virak; Manigrasso, Michaele; Francisco, Kristin
2009-09-01
Implants available for distal radius fracture fixation include dorsal nonlocked plating (DNLP), volar locked plating (VLP), radial-ulnar dual-column locked plating (DCPs), and locked intramedullary fixation (IMN). This study examines the biomechanical properties of these four different fixation constructs. In 28 fresh-frozen radii, a wedge osteotomy was performed, creating an unstable fracture model and the four fixation constructs employed (DNLP, VLP, DCPs, and IMN). Dorsal bending loads were applied and bending stiffness, load to yield 5 mm displacement, and ultimate failure were measured. Bending stiffness for VLP (16.7 N/mm) was significantly higher than for DNLP (6.8 N/mm), while IMN (12.6 N/mm) and DCPs (11.8 N/mm) were similar. Ultimate load to failure occurred at 278.2 N for the VLP, 245.7 N for the IMN, and 52.0 N for the DNLP. The VLP was significantly stronger than the DNLP and DCPs, and the IMN and DCPs were stronger than the DNLP. The VLP has higher average bending stiffness, ultimate bending strength, and resistance to 5 mm displacement than the other constructs and significantly higher ultimate bending strength than the DCPs and DNLP. There was no statistically significant difference between the VLP and IMN. VLP and IMN fixation of distal radius fractures can achieve comparable stability.
Takagi, Hiroshi; Wu, Wenjie
2016-03-01
Even though the maximum wind radius (Rmax) is an important parameter in determining the intensity and size of tropical cyclones, it has been overlooked in previous storm surge studies. This study reviews the existing estimation methods for Rmax based on central pressure or maximum wind speed. These over- or underestimate Rmax because of substantial variations in the data, although an average radius can be estimated with moderate accuracy. As an alternative, we propose an Rmax estimation method based on the radius of the 50 kt wind (R50). Data obtained by a meteorological station network in the Japanese archipelago during the passage of strong typhoons, together with the JMA typhoon best track data for 1990-2013, enabled us to derive the following simple equation, Rmax = 0.23 R50. Application to a recent strong typhoon, the 2015 Typhoon Goni, confirms that the equation provides a good estimation of Rmax, particularly when the central pressure became considerably low. Although this new method substantially improves the estimation of Rmax compared to the existing models, estimation errors are unavoidable because of fundamental uncertainties regarding the typhoon's structure or insufficient number of available typhoon data. In fact, a numerical simulation for the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan as well as 2015 Typhoon Goni demonstrates a substantial difference in the storm surge height for different Rmax. Therefore, the variability of Rmax should be taken into account in storm surge simulations (e.g., Rmax = 0.15 R50-0.35 R50), independently of the model used, to minimize the risk of over- or underestimating storm surges. The proposed method is expected to increase the predictability of major storm surges and to contribute to disaster risk management, particularly in the western North Pacific, including countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Interactive Dimensioning of Parametric Models
Kelly, T.
2015-05-01
We propose a solution for the dimensioning of parametric and procedural models. Dimensioning has long been a staple of technical drawings, and we present the first solution for interactive dimensioning: A dimension line positioning system that adapts to the view direction, given behavioral properties. After proposing a set of design principles for interactive dimensioning, we describe our solution consisting of the following major components. First, we describe how an author can specify the desired interactive behavior of a dimension line. Second, we propose a novel algorithm to place dimension lines at interactive speeds. Third, we introduce multiple extensions, including chained dimension lines, controls for different parameter types (e.g. discrete choices, angles), and the use of dimension lines for interactive editing. Our results show the use of dimension lines in an interactive parametric modeling environment for architectural, botanical, and mechanical models. © 2015 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2015 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mass-radius relationships and constraints on the composition of Pluto
Lupo, M. J.; Lewis, J. S.
1980-01-01
With the new upper limit of Pluto's mass, an upper limit for Pluto's density of 1.74 g/cu cm has been found. Assuming Pluto to be 100% methane, available methane density data can be used to set a lower limit of 0.53 g/cu cm on Pluto's density, thus placing an absolute upper limit of 1909 km on the radius and a lower limit of 0.32 on the albedo. The results of 280 computer models covering a wide range of composition ratios of rock, water ice, and methane ice are reported. Limits are placed on Pluto's silicate content, and a simple spacecraft method for determining Pluto's water content from its density and moment of inertia is given. The low thermal conductivity and strength of solid methane suggest rapid solid-state convection in Pluto's methane layer.
Evaluate the Word Error Rate of Binary Block Codes with Square Radius Probability Density Function
Chen, Xiaogang; Gu, Jian; Yang, Hongkui
2007-01-01
The word error rate (WER) of soft-decision-decoded binary block codes rarely has closed-form. Bounding techniques are widely used to evaluate the performance of maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm. But the existing bounds are not tight enough especially for low signal-to-noise ratios and become looser when a suboptimum decoding algorithm is used. This paper proposes a new concept named square radius probability density function (SR-PDF) of decision region to evaluate the WER. Based on the SR-PDF, The WER of binary block codes can be calculated precisely for ML and suboptimum decoders. Furthermore, for a long binary block code, SR-PDF can be approximated by Gamma distribution with only two parameters that can be measured easily. Using this property, two closed-form approximative expressions are proposed which are very close to the simulation results of the WER of interesting.
Nucleation and initial radius of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires
Dubrovskii, V. G.; Borie, S.; Dagnet, T.; Reynes, L.; André, Y.; Gil, E.
2017-02-01
We treat theoretically the initial nucleation step of self-catalyzed III-V nanowires under simultaneously deposited group III and V vapor fluxes and with surface diffusion of a group III element. Our model is capable of describing the droplet size at which the very first nanowire monolayer nucleates depending on the element fluxes and surface temperature. This size determines the initial nanowire radius in growth techniques without pre-deposition of gallium. We show that useful self-catalyzed III-V nanowires can form only under the appropriately balanced V/III flux ratios and temperatures. Such balance is required to obtain nucleation from reasonably sized droplets that are neither too small under excessive arsenic flux nor too large in the arsenic-poor conditions.
REVERBERATION AND PHOTOIONIZATION ESTIMATES OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION RADIUS IN LOW-z QUASARS
Negrete, C. Alenka [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (Mexico); Dultzin, Deborah [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Marziani, Paola [INAF, Astronomical Observatory of Padova, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sulentic, Jack W., E-mail: cnegrete@inaoep.mx, E-mail: deborah@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: paola.marziani@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: sulentic@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, E-18008 Granada (Spain)
2013-07-01
Black hole mass estimation in quasars, especially at high redshift, involves the use of single-epoch spectra with signal-to-noise ratio and resolution that permit accurate measurement of the width of a broad line assumed to be a reliable virial estimator. Coupled with an estimate of the radius of the broad-line region (BLR) this yields the black hole mass M{sub BH}. The radius of the BLR may be inferred from an extrapolation of the correlation between source luminosity and reverberation-derived r{sub BLR} measures (the so-called Kaspi relation involving about 60 low-z sources). We are exploring a different method for estimating r{sub BLR} directly from inferred physical conditions in the BLR of each source. We report here on a comparison of r{sub BLR} estimates that come from our method and from reverberation mapping. Our ''photoionization'' method employs diagnostic line intensity ratios in the rest-frame range 1400-2000 A (Al III {lambda}1860/Si III] {lambda}1892, C IV {lambda}1549/Al III {lambda}1860) that enable derivation of the product of density and ionization parameter with the BLR distance derived from the definition of the ionization parameter. We find good agreement between our estimates of the density, ionization parameter, and r{sub BLR} and those from reverberation mapping. We suggest empirical corrections to improve the agreement between individual photoionization-derived r{sub BLR} values and those obtained from reverberation mapping. The results in this paper can be exploited to estimate M{sub BH} for large samples of high-z quasars using an appropriate virial broadening estimator. We show that the width of the UV intermediate emission lines are consistent with the width of H{beta}, thereby providing a reliable virial broadening estimator that can be measured in large samples of high-z quasars.
Nayak, Michael; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan; Robinson, Tyler; Lewis, Nikole
2016-01-01
Future space-based telescopes, such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), will observe the reflected-light spectra of directly imaged extrasolar planets. Interpretation of such data presents a number of novel challenges, including accounting for unknown planet radius and uncertain stellar illumination phase angle. Here we report on our continued development of Markov Chain Monte Carlo retrieval methods for addressing these issues in the interpretation of such data. Specifically we explore how the unknown planet radius and potentially poorly known observer-planet-star phase angle impacts retrievals of parameters of interest such as atmospheric methane abundance, cloud properties and surface gravity. As expected, the uncertainty in retrieved values is a strong function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the observed spectra, particularly for low metallicity atmospheres, which lack deep absorption signatures. Meaningful results may only be possible above certain SNR thresholds; for cases across a ...
Thermal dimension of quantum spacetime
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Santos, Grasiele
2016-01-01
Recent results suggest that a crucial crossroad for quantum gravity is the characterization of the effective dimension of spacetime at short distances, where quantum properties of spacetime become significant. This is relevant in particular for various scenarios of "dynamical dimensional reduction" which have been discussed in the literature. We are here concerned with the fact that the related research effort has been based exclusively on analyses of the "spectral dimension", which involves an unphysical Euclideanization of spacetime and is highly sensitive to the off-shell properties of a theory. As here shown, different formulations of the same physical theory can have wildly different spectral dimension. We propose that dynamical dimensional reduction should be described in terms of the "thermal dimension" which we here introduce, a notion that only depends on the physical content of the theory. We analyze a few models with dynamical reduction both of the spectral dimension and of our thermal dimension, f...
On the inner radius of univalency by pre-Schwarzian derivative
2007-01-01
In this paper,the inner radius of univalency of hyperbolic domains by pre-Schwarzian derivative is studied,and some general formulas for the lower bound of the inner radius are established. As their applications,the lower bounds of inner radiuses for angular domains and strongly starlike domains are obtained.
STABILITY RADIUS OF NON-SMOOTH PRITCHARD-SALAMON SYSTEMS AND THE ALGEBRAIC RICCATI EQUATION
Weisheng JIANG; Falun HUANG; Tingyu ZHU
2009-01-01
The authors discuss the stability radius of the non-smooth Pritchard-Salamon systems under structured perturbations. A formula for the stability radius in terms of the norm of a certain input-output operator is obtained. Furthermore, the relationship between stability radius and the solvability of some type of algebraic Riccati equations is given.
On the inner radius of univalency by pre-Schwarzian derivative
Tao CHENG; Ji-xiu CHEN
2007-01-01
In this paper, the inner radius of univalency of hyperbolic domains by pre-Schwarzian derivative is studied, and some general formulas for the lower bound of the inner radius are established.As their applications, the lower bounds of inner radiuses for angular domains and strongly starlike domains are obtained.
Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the lunate after fracture of the distal radius.
Nakanishi, Akito; Yajima, Hiroshi; Kisanuki, Osamu
2014-12-01
We present a case of post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the lunate after fracture of the distal radius. Post-traumatic osteonecrosis of the carpal lunate after a fracture of the distal radius has, to our knowledge, not been reported previously. We treated the patient with vascularised bone graft from the distal radius, with a satisfactory result.
Symplectic embeddings of ellipsoids in dimension greater than four
Buse, Olguta; 10.2140/gt.2011.15.2091
2011-01-01
We study symplectic embeddings of ellipsoids into balls. In the main construction, we show that a given embedding of 2m-dimensional ellipsoids can be suspended to embeddings of ellipsoids in any higher dimension. In dimension 6,s if the ratio of the areas of any two axes is sufficiently large then the ellipsoid is flexible in the sense that it fully fills a ball. We also show that the same property holds in all dimensions for sufficiently thin ellipsoids E(1,..., a). A consequence of our study is that in arbitrary dimension a ball can be fully filled by any sufficiently large number of identical smaller balls, thus generalizing a result of Biran valid in dimension 4.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...... the $\\delta$-expansion, for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm....
Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions
Pica, Claudio
2010-01-01
We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalous dimension of the fermion masses at the infrared fixed point, and the resulting values compare well with the lattice determinations.
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small for a wide range of number of flavours. We also find that this is always smaller than the anomalous dimension of the fermion mass operator. These findings challenge the partial compositeness paradigm.
Prakash, Manu
2011-01-01
Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...
van Houselt, A.; Schäfer, J.; Zandvliet, H. J. W.; Claessen, R.
2013-01-01
With modern microelectronics moving towards smaller and smaller length scales on the (sub-) nm scale, quantum effects (apart from band structure and band gaps) have begun to play an increasingly important role. This especially concerns dimensional confinement to 2D (high electron mobility transistors and integer/fractional quantum Hall effect physics, graphene and topological insulators) and 1D (with electrical connections eventually reaching the quantum limit). Recent developments in the above-mentioned areas have revealed that the properties of electron systems become increasingly exotic as one progresses from the 3D case into lower dimensions. As compared to 2D electron systems, much less experimental progress has been achieved in the field of 1D electron systems. The main reason for the lack of experimental results in this field is related to the difficulty of realizing 1D electron systems. Atom chains created in quantum mechanical break junction set-ups are too short to exhibit the typically 1D signatures. As an alternative, atomic chains can be produced on crystal surfaces, either via assembling them one-by-one using a scanning tunnelling microscope or via self-assembly. The drawback of the latter systems is that the atomic chains are not truly 1D since they are coupled to the underlying crystal and sometimes even to the neighbouring chains. In retrospect, this coupling turns out to be an absolute necessity in the experiment since true 1D systems are disordered at any non-zero temperature [1]. The coupling to the crystal and/or neighbouring chains shifts the phase transition, for example, a Peierls instability, to a non-zero temperature and thus allows experiments to be performed in the ordered state. Here, we want to emphasize that the electronic properties of the 1D electron system are fundamentally different from its 2D and 3D counterparts. The Fermi liquid theory, which is applicable to 2D and 3D electron systems, breaks down spectacularly in the 1D case
DIMENSION STONE DEPOSITS IN CROATIA
Branko Crnković
1993-12-01
Full Text Available The geology, petrographycal composition and properties of dimension stone deposits in Croatia are described. Dimension stone deposits in the conception of mobilistic view of the genesis and structure of Dinarides, as well as after stratigraphic units, are considered. Valuation of the dimension stones of the active quarries is exposed. The marketable categories of dimension stone in Croatia are different varietes of limestones and calcareous clastites, primarly of Cretaceous age, and to lesser degree of Jurassic and Paleogene. The greatest part of deposits is concentrated in the Adriatic carbonate platform or Adriaticum.
Exterior dimension of fat fractals
Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.
1985-01-01
Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.
Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury
Saurabh Jain
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a “signature pattern injury” caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.
Severely comminuted radius fracture presenting as a signature patterned injury.
Jain, Saurabh; Rajan, Sunil; Srivastava, Abhishek
2016-01-01
Dilemma still prevails, regarding the exact management of mangled extremity injuries between limb salvage versus amputation, each having there own set of complications. We here present a case of severely comminuted fractures of radius (bag of bones) along with the multiple criss-cross shaped lacerated wounds on the forearm and wrist presenting as a "signature pattern injury" caused by entrapment of the limb in the concrete mixer. MESS score of patient was 8, a score valid for amputation, but contrary, we successfully salvaged the patient's limb with use of radio-carpal distracter. Management of mangled injuries should be individualized, with due consideration to the mechanism and force of injury, associated injuries, and the patient profile.
How to extract physics from HBT radius parameters
Heinz, Ulrich W
1996-01-01
I review recent progress in the understanding of the connection between the space-time structure of the particle emitting source and the form of the two-particle correlation function in momentum space. Based on a new scheme for calculating the HBT radius parameters from the emission function, strategies are suggested to separate for rapidly expanding sources the information on the spatial and temporal structure of the source. To this end a new fitting function for the two-particle correlation function is proposed. Its usefulness is demonstrated for a typical expanding model source, and it is shown how the dependence of the resulting fit parameters on the momentum of the particle pair can be used to measure the longitudinal and transverse expansion of the source.
Inductive voltage adder (IVA) for submillimeter radius electron beam
Mazarakis, M.G.; Poukey, J.W.; Maenchen, J.E. [and others
1996-12-31
The authors have already demonstrated the utility of inductive voltage adder accelerators for production of small-size electron beams. In this approach, the inductive voltage adder drives a magnetically immersed foilless diode to produce high-energy (10--20 MeV), high-brightness pencil electron beams. This concept was first demonstrated with the successful experiments which converted the linear induction accelerator RADLAC II into an IVA fitted with a small 1-cm radius cathode magnetically immersed foilless diode (RADLAC II/SMILE). They present here first validations of extending this idea to mm-scale electron beams using the SABRE and HERMES-III inductive voltage adders as test beds. The SABRE experiments are already completed and have produced 30-kA, 9-MeV electron beams with envelope diameter of 1.5-mm FWHM. The HERMES-III experiments are currently underway.
The neutrino charge radius is a physical observable
Bernabeu, J; Vidal, J
2004-01-01
We present a method which allows, at least in principle, the direct extraction of the gauge-invariant and process-independent neutrino charge radius (NCR) from experiments. Under special kinematic conditions, the judicious combination of neutrino and anti-neutrino forward differential cross-sections allows the exclusion of all target-dependent contributions, such as gauge-independent box-graphs, not related to the NCR. We show that the remaining contributions contain universal, renormalization group invariant combinations, such as the electroweak effective charge and the running mixing angle, which must be also separated out. By considering the appropriate number of independent experiments we show that one may systematically eliminate these universal terms, and finally express the NCR entirely in terms of physical cross-sections. Even though the kinematic conditions and the required precision may render the proposed experiments unfeasible, at the conceptual level the analysis presented here allows for the pro...
The muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and the proton radius
Peset, Clara
2014-01-01
We obtain a model independent expression for the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift up to $\\mathcal O (m_\\mu \\alpha^6, m_\\mu \\alpha^5 \\frac{m_\\mu^2}{m_\\rho^2})$. The hadronic effects are controlled by the chiral theory, which allows for their model independent determination. We give their complete expression including the pion and Delta particles. Out of this analysis and the experimental measurement of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift we determine the electromagnetic proton radius: $r_p$=0.8412(15) fm. This number is at 6.8$\\sigma$ variance with respect to the CODATA value. The parametric control of the uncertainties allows us to obtain a model independent determination of the error, which is dominated by hadronic effects.
Constraints on the distribution of supernova remnants with Galactocentric radius
Green, D A
2015-01-01
Supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Galaxy are an important source of energy injection into the interstellar medium, and also of cosmic rays. Currently there are 294 known SNRs in the Galaxy, and their distribution with Galactocentric radius is of interest for various studies. Here I discuss some of the statistics of Galactic SNRs, including the observational selection effects that apply, and difficulties in obtaining distances for individual remnants from the `Sigma-D' relation. Comparison of the observed Galactic longitude distribution of a sample of bright Galactic SNRs -- which are not strongly affected by selection effects -- with those expected from models is used to constrain the Galactic distribution of SNRs. The best-fitting power-law/exponential model is more concentrated towards the Galactic centre than the widely used distribution obtained by Case & Bhattacharya (1998).
Decreasing "circumference" for increasing "radius" in axially symmetric gravitating systems
Lubo, M
2001-01-01
Apart from the flat space with an angular deficit, Einstein general relativity possesses another cylindrically symmetric solution. Because this configuration displays circles whose "circumferences" tend to zero when their "radius" go to infinity, it has not received much attention in the past. We propose a geometric interpretation of this feature and find that it implies field boundary conditions different from the ones found in the literature if one considers a source consisting of the scalar and the vector fields of a U(1) system . To obtain a non increasing energy density the gauge symmetry must be unbroken . For the Higgs potential this is achieved only with a vanishing vacuum expectation value but then the solution has a null scalar field. A non trivial scalar behaviour is exhibited for a potential of sixth order. The trajectories of test particles in this geometry are studied, its causal structure discussed. We find that this bosonic background can support a normalizable fermionic condensate but not suc...
Large-radius bipolaron and the polaron-polaron interaction
Kashirina, N I [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine); Lakhno, Viktor D [Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)
2010-08-09
Research on the polaron-polaron interaction and the theory of large-radius bipolarons are reviewed. The difference between the two-center and one-center continuum bipolaron models in isotropic and anisotropic crystals is discussed. It is shown that the inclusion of electron-electron correlations can significantly reduce the bipolaron and D{sup -}-center energies as well as the energies of exchange-bound pairs of shallow hydrogen-like centers. The two-center bipolaron configuration corresponds to a shallow secondary minimum and is unstable. The phonon-mediated exchange interaction between Pekar polarons has an antiferromagnetic nature and exceeds the ferromagnetic interaction due to the Coulomb interaction of electrons localized in polaron potential wells. The possibility that the superfluidity of bipolarons can give rise to high-temperature superconductivity is discussed and problems related to the Wigner crystallization of a polaron gas are examined. (reviews of topical problems)
Sensor Activation and Radius Adaptation (SARA) in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
Bartolini, Novella; la Porta, Thomas; Petrioli, Chiara; Silvestri, Simone
2010-01-01
In this paper we address the problem of prolonging the lifetime of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) deployed to monitor an area of interest. In this scenario, a helpful approach is to reduce coverage redundancy and therefore the energy expenditure due to coverage. We introduce the first algorithm which reduces coverage redundancy by means of Sensor Activation and sensing Radius Adaptation (SARA)in a general applicative scenario with two classes of devices: sensors that can adapt their sensing range (adjustable sensors) and sensors that cannot (fixed sensors). In particular, SARA activates only a subset of all the available sensors and reduces the sensing range of the adjustable sensors that have been activated. In doing so, SARA also takes possible heterogeneous coverage capabilities of sensors belonging to the same class into account. It specifically addresses device heterogeneity by modeling the coverage problem in the Laguerre geometry through Voronoi-Laguerre diagrams. SARA executes quickly and is guarante...
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes
Siria, Alessandro; Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-11-01
Nanofluidics is the frontier where the continuum picture of fluid mechanics confronts the atomic nature of matter. Recent reports indicate that carbon nanotubes exhibit exceptional water transport properties due to nearly frictionless interfaces and this has stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for desalination, nano-filtration, and energy harvesting. However, the fundamental mechanisms of water transport inside nanotubes and at water-carbon interfaces remain controversial, as existing theories fail to provide a satisfying explanation for the limited experimental results. We report a study of water jets emerging from single nanotubes made of carbon and boron-nitride materials. Our experiments reveal extensive and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes (CNT). In stark contrast, boron-nitride nanotubes (BNNT), which are crystallographically similar to CNTs but electronically different, exhibit no slippage. This shows that slippage originates in subtle atomic-scale details of the solid-liquid interface. ERC StG - NanoSOFT.
Heliocentric radius of the cosmic ray modulation boundary
Randall, B. A.; Van Allen, J. A.
1986-01-01
A semiempirical analysis is made of an extensive body of observed cosmic ray intensity data from Pioneers 10 and 11, and related spectral information from other authors, in order to infer the radius R of the modulation region surrounding the sun. During the period 1972-1985, the inferred values of R vary with time systematically and in a manner generally similar to that of sunspot numbers. The range of values of R is from 42 AU at the time of minimum solar activity (circa 1976) to 88 AU about 1.5 yr following the time of maximum solar activity (circa 1980). A specific, testable prediction is that Pioneer 10 will reach the modulation boundary in 1988, and will remain in its vicinity for several years thereafter.
Proton Radius, Darwin-Foldy Term and Radiative Corrections
Jentschura, U D
2010-01-01
We discuss the role of the so-called Darwin-Foldy term in the evaluation of the proton and deuteron charge radii from atomic hydrogen spectroscopy and nuclear scattering data. The question of whether this term should be included or excluded from the nuclear radius has been controversially discussed in the literature. We attempt to clarify which literature values correspond to which conventions. A detailed discussion of the conventions appears useful because a recent experiment [R. Pohl et al., Nature vol. 466, p. 213 (2010)] has indicated that there is a discrepancy between the proton charge radii inferred from ordinary ("electronic") atomic hydrogen and muonic hydrogen. We also investigate the role of quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in the determination of nuclear radii from scattering data, and propose a definition of the nuclear self energy which is compatible with the subtraction of the radiative corrections in scattering experiments.
Measurement of the Σ- Charge Radius in the Selex Experiment
Simon, J.
2000-01-01
The charge radius of the Σ- has been determined by direct elastic scattering on shell electrons. The measurement was performed in the framework of the Selex (E781) charm hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab. Selex employs 600 GeV/c high-intensity Σ-/π- and p/π+ beams and a three-stage magnetic spectrometer covering 0.1 <= xF <= 1.0. The scattering angles and momenta of the hadron and the electron were measured with high precision using silicon microstrip detectors. Particle identification was provided by two TRDs. For control of systematic effects the charge radii of the proton and the π- were measured with the same apparatus and are found to be consistent with previous experiments.
Galaxy Mass, Metallicity, Radius and Star Formation Rates
Brisbin, Drew
2011-01-01
Working with 108,786 Sloan Digital Sky Survey low redshift galaxies, we have examined the relation between galaxy mass, metallicity, radius, and star formation rates. We subdivided the redshift range covered in our sample 0.072.8E10 Msun and exhibit high metallicities at high star formation rates, suggesting that for these galaxies star formation independent of mass infall plays a significant role. A toy model for the physics of infall accounts for the SFR Mi^(3/2) relation and permits us to estimate the mean densities and velocities of clumps of baryonic matter traversing the dark matter halos in which the SDSS galaxies may be embedded. The model also reproduces the gross features of the galaxy main sequence.
Relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius
Liu, Shan-Liang
2016-01-01
The relations between photoionization cross sections and photon radius are obtained on basis of quantum mechanics and the particle-like properties of a photon. The photoionization cross sections of H atom and H-like ions, He atom and He like ions, alkali metal atoms, and Rydberg atoms are calculated using the relations. The calculation results are found to be good agreement with the known experimental data. The results show that the photoionization cross section is always smaller than the cross section of the photon to ionize the atom or ion and can be expressed as the product of the cross section of the photon and the probability that electron meets with the photon. These provide the intuitive understanding for the photoionization phenomena and open a new avenue of research on interaction between a photon and an atom or ion.
Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes
2002-01-01
We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.
[Manifestation of Dupuytren nodules following fracture of the distal radius].
Wichelhaus, Alice; Wendt, M; Mielsch, N; Gradl, G; Mittlmeier, T
2015-02-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of post-traumatic development of Dupuytren nodules in distal radius fractures treated operatively. In 2 prospective randomised studies for operative treatment of distal radius fractures, the formation of Dupuytren nodules was registered. One of the exclusion criteria was a pre-existing Dupuytren's disease at the date of trauma. In addition to the notification of the development of Dupuytren nodules, signs of a complex regional pain syndrome were registered as well as the wrist function, level of pain and grip strength. The Castaing and the Gartland and Werley scores were assessed. The clinical outcomes of patients with and without Dupuytren nodules were compared. 239 of 275 (87%) of the patients could be examined 1 year after the operation, consisting of 32 men and 207 women with a median age of 64.2 years. The patients with Dupuytren nodules were re-evaluated after 16-60 months (median 41.8) for progression of the disease. 21 patients (8.7%) developed changes of the palmar aponeurosis. In 20 patients nodules were stated, one patient showed a cord at the fourth ray of the injured hand. 19 out of 21 patients were female (90.5%). At re-evaluation after 41.8 months (16-60) progression could not be noted nor could similar changes be seen on the contralateral side. Patients with Dupuytren nodules were not handicapped in their hand function. 3 patients (14.3%) revealed a positive family history for Dupuytren's disease. Abuse of alcohol or diabetes was not present in any of the patients with Dupuytren nodules, 7 (33%) were smokers. The occurrence of Dupyutren nodules can be triggered by a trauma or operation. It may be speculated that these nodules are an entity of their own as no progression of the contracture could be seen during the follow-up period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Warped Geometry in Higher Dimensions with an Orbifold Extra Dimension
Ito, M
2001-01-01
We solve the Einstein equations in higher dimensions with warped geometry where an extra dimension is assumed to have orbifold symmetry, $S^{1}/Z_{2}$. The setup we consider here is an extension to (5+D)-dimensions of the 5-dimensional Randall-Sundrum model, and two hidden brane and observable brane are fixed on orbifold. Anisotropic cosmological constant on each brane with (4+D)-dimensional spacetime is assumed, and the warped metric of 4-dimensions is generally different from one of extra D-dimensions. It is pointed out that the form of metric depends on both the sign of bulk cosmological constant and initial condition of brane world. Furthermore, anisotropic cosmological constant on each brane can be realized due to the presence of brane.
Fan, Y. Z.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Sha, Y. J.
2012-11-01
Primary formulation derivation indicates that the dimension of one existing centrifugal boiler circulation pump casing is too large. As great manufacture cost can be saved by dimension decrease, a numerical simulation research is developed in this paper on dimension decrease for annular casing of this pump with a specific speed equaling to 189, which aims at finding an appropriately smaller dimension of the casing while hydraulic performance and strength performance will hardly be changed according to the requirements of the cooperative company. The research object is one existing centrifugal pump with a diffuser and a semi-spherical annular casing, working as the boiler circulation pump for (ultra) supercritical units in power plants. Dimension decrease, the modification method, is achieved by decreasing the existing casing's internal radius (marked as "Ri0") while keeping the wall thickness. The research analysis is based on primary formulation derivation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation and FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. Primary formulation derivation estimates that a design casing's internal radius should be less than 0.75 Ri0. CFD analysis indicates that smaller casing with 0.75 Ri0 has a worse hydraulic performance when working at large flow rates and a better hydraulic performance when working at small flow rates. In consideration of hydraulic performance and dimension decrease, an appropriate casing's internal radius is determined, which equals to 0.875 Ri0. FEM analysis then confirms that modified pump casing has nearly the same strength performance as the existing pump casing. It is concluded that dimension decrease can be an economical method as well as a practical method for large pumps in engineering fields.
Herzog, J.
1974-01-01
A method of calculating stage parameters and flow distribution of axial turbines is described. The governing equations apply to space between the blade rows and are based on the assumption of rotationally symmetrical, compressible, adiabatic flow conditions. Results are presented for stage design and flow analysis calculations. Theoretical results from the calculation system are compared with experimental data from low pressure steam turbine tests.
Thuysbaert, Gilles; Ringburg, Akkie; Petronilia, Steven; Vanden Berghe, Alex; Hollevoet, Nadine
2015-06-01
Ulnar variance and radial inclination are radiological parameters frequently used to evaluate displacement of distal radius fractures. In most studies measurements are based on the long central axis of the distal radius, although the axis of the distal ulna can also be used. The purpose of this study was to determine which axis is more reliable. Four observers performed measurements on standard anteroposterior digital wrist X-rays of 20 patients taken 1 and 2 months after sustaining an extra-articular distal radius fracture. Intraobserver reliability was similar with both methods. No difference was found in interobserver reliability between both methods for ulnar variance, but for radial inclination it was better with the axis through the radius. Measurements on two X-rays of the same wrist taken at a different moment were similar with both methods. It can be concluded that the central axis of the distal radius can remain the basis to determine ulnar variance and radial inclination.
Teaching the Basics: Development and Validation of a Distal Radius Reduction and Casting Model.
Seeley, Mark A; Fabricant, Peter D; Lawrence, J Todd R
2017-09-01
Approximately one-third of reduced pediatric distal radius fractures redisplace, resulting in further treatment. Two major modifiable risk factors for loss of reduction are reduction adequacy and cast quality. Closed reduction and immobilization of distal radius fractures is an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education residency milestone. Teaching and assessing competency could be improved with a life-like simulation training tool. Our goal was to develop and validate a realistic distal radius fracture reduction and casting simulator as determined by (1) a questionnaire regarding the "realism" of the model and (2) the quantitative assessments of reduction time, residual angulation, and displacement. A distal radius fracture model was created with radiopaque bony segments and articulating elbows and shoulders. Simulated periosteum and internal deforming forces required proper reduction and casting techniques to achieve and maintain reduction. The forces required were estimated through an iterative process through feedback from experienced clinicians. Embedded monofilaments allowed for quantitative assessment of residual displacement and angulation through the use of fluoroscopy. Subjects were asked to perform closed reduction and apply a long arm fiberglass cast. Primary performance variables assessed included reduction time, residual angulation, and displacement. Secondary performance variables consisted of number of fluoroscopic images, casting time, and cast index (defined as the ratio of the internal width of the forearm cast in the sagittal plane to the internal width in the coronal plane at the fracture site). Subject grading was performed by two blinded reviewers. Interrater reliability was nearly perfect across all measurements (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.94-0.99), thus disagreements in measurements were handled by averaging the assessed values. After completion the participants answered a Likert-based questionnaire regarding the
Saliency of social comparison dimensions
Kuyper, H.
2007-01-01
The present article discusses a theory of the saliency of social comparison dimensions and presents the results of an experiment about the effects of two different experimental situations on the saliency of exterior, task-related and socio-emotional dimensions. Saliency was operationalized with a
Dimensioning, Tolerancing, and Machine Finishes.
Adams, George C.
Intended for use with the vocational education student interested in technical drawing, this guide provides answers to questions relating to dimensioning and tolerancing machine drawings. It also gives examples of standard dimensioning practices, tolerancing applications, and finish applications. The problems and examples presented are based on…
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within...
Mathematics Teachers' Criteria of Dimension
Ural, Alattin
2014-01-01
The aim of the study is to determine mathematics teachers' decisions about dimensions of the geometric figures, criteria of dimension and consistency of decision-criteria. The research is a qualitative research and the model applied in the study is descriptive method on the basis of general scanning model. 15 mathematics teachers attended the…
The Hausdorff Dimension of Sections
Min NIU; Lifeng XI
2007-01-01
The notion of finite-type open set condition is defined to calculate the Hausdorff dimensions of the sections of some self-similar sets, such as the dimension of intersection of the Koch curve and the line x = a with a ∈(Q).
Anomalous Dimensions of Conformal Baryons
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We determine the anomalous dimensions of baryon operators for the three color theory as function of the number of massless flavours within the conformal window to the maximum known order in perturbation theory. We show that the anomalous dimension of the baryon is controllably small, within the $...
Beta Function and Anomalous Dimensions
Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco
2011-01-01
We demonstrate that it is possible to determine the coefficients of an all-order beta function linear in the anomalous dimensions using as data the two-loop coefficients together with the first one of the anomalous dimensions which are universal. The beta function allows to determine the anomalou...
Generalized Efimov Effect in One Dimension
Moroz, Sergej; D'Incao, José P.; Petrov, Dmitry S.
2015-10-01
We study a one-dimensional quantum problem of two particles interacting with a third one via a scale-invariant subcritically attractive inverse square potential, which can be realized, for example, in a mixture of dipoles and charges confined to one dimension. We find that above a critical mass ratio, this version of the Calogero problem exhibits the generalized Efimov effect, the emergence of discrete scale invariance manifested by a geometric series of three-body bound states with an accumulation point at zero energy.
Radius of lunar core estimated by GRAIL results
Matsumoto, K.; Yamada, R.; Kikuchi, F.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Sasaki, S.
2013-12-01
Internal structure and composition of the Moon provide important clue and constraints on theories for how the Moon formed and evolved. The Apollo seismic network has contributed to the internal structure modeling. Efforts have been made to detect the lunar core from the noisy Apollo data (e.g., [1], [2]), but there is scant information about the structure below the deepest moonquakes at about 1000 km depth. On the other hand, there have been geodetic studies to infer the deep structure of the Moon. For example, LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) data analyses detected a displacement of the lunar pole of rotation, indicating that dissipation is acting on the rotation arising from a fluid core [3]. Bayesian inversion using geodetic data (such as mass, moments of inertia, tidal Love numbers k2 and h2, and quality factor Q) also suggests a fluid core and partial melt in the lower mantle region [4]. Recent analyses of GRAIL data have achieved the improved k2 accuracy; JPL solution is 0.02405 × 0.00018 [5], and GSFC solution is 0.02427 × 0.00026 [6]. The two solutions are consistent with each other within their error bounds, and the accuracy of k2 is now about 1 %. Such an accurately-determined Love number will contribute to constrain the structure of the lunar deep interior, such as the radius of the possible liquid core. We used geodetic data of the mass, the mean moment of inertia, the Love numbers h2 and k2 to infer the size of liquid core. It is difficult to tightly constrain the internal structure from the geodetic data only because there are trade-offs among the structures of crust, mantle, and core. In our preliminary analysis we used a 5-layer model and the mantle structure was constrained by VPREMOON [2] with 5 % error for density and 10 % error for shear and bulk moduli being assumed. An inversion using Markov chain Monte Carlo method indicates that the core radius is 480 × 50 km, but the density values were sampled around the assumed lower limit of 3600 kg/m3. When
What Is the Largest Einstein Radius in the Universe?
Oguri, Masamune; Blandford, Roger D.
2008-08-05
The Einstein radius plays a central role in lens studies as it characterizes the strength of gravitational lensing. In particular, the distribution of Einstein radii near the upper cutoff should probe the probability distribution of the largest mass concentrations in the universe. Adopting a triaxial halo model, we compute expected distributions of large Einstein radii. To assess the cosmic variance, we generate a number of Monte-Carlo realizations of all-sky catalogues of massive clusters. We find that the expected largest Einstein radius in the universe is sensitive to parameters characterizing the cosmological model, especially {sigma}{sub s}: for a source redshift of unity, they are 42{sub -7}{sup +9}, 35{sub -6}{sup +8}, and 54{sub -7}{sup +12} arcseconds (errors denote 1{sigma} cosmic variance), assuming best-fit cosmological parameters of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe five-year (WMAP5), three-year (WMAP3) and one-year (WMAP1) data, respectively. These values are broadly consistent with current observations given their incompleteness. The mass of the largest lens cluster can be as small as {approx} 10{sup 15} M{sub {circle_dot}}. For the same source redshift, we expect in all-sky {approx} 35 (WMAP5), {approx} 15 (WMAP3), and {approx} 150 (WMAP1) clusters that have Einstein radii larger than 2000. For a larger source redshift of 7, the largest Einstein radii grow approximately twice as large. While the values of the largest Einstein radii are almost unaffected by the level of the primordial non-Gaussianity currently of interest, the measurement of the abundance of moderately large lens clusters should probe non-Gaussianity competitively with cosmic microwave background experiments, but only if other cosmological parameters are well-measured. These semi-analytic predictions are based on a rather simple representation of clusters, and hence calibrating them with N-body simulations will help to improve the accuracy. We also find that these &apos
Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups
Zatti Giovanni
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Materials and Methods Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics® in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. Results At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8–12 years, 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%. The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50,15 to a postoperative value of 92,69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1,25 mm (min. 0,08, max. 3,9 mm, with a mean annual wear of 0,17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1,6 mm and 1,8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases. The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint at the time was 88,9%. Conclusion Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the
[Py-Desmanet pinning in distal radius fractures].
Alexa, O; Popia, I
2009-01-01
Internal fixation by pinning is one of the most used methods of surgical treatment in fractures of the distal extremity of the radius. As in stable fractures a styloid pinning is satisfactory, in unstable fractures however we must resort to different patterns of pin insertion, in order to effectively prevent the secondary displacement of the fractured fragments. The elastic pinning described by Py and Desmanet is one of the possibilities of inserting the pins. The principle of this method is to use the bending-induced tension in the pins to counteract the postero-lateral displacing forces. The authors have treated by this technique five patients with distal radius fractures (3 women and 2 men) about 56 years of average age, all with good-quality bone, all with Colles' fracture pattern (2-4 cm above the radio-carpal articulation, no articular involvement, posterior displacement of the distal fragment). The reduction of the fractures was achieved by closed manipulation and controlled intraoperatively with the C-arm. We preferred to reduce the fractures before inserting the pins, although this is not compulsory, according to the authors of the technique. The approach was minimally-invasive, through two 1-cm long incisions. The pins, previously blunted and curved along the last centimeters, were introduced using a "T"-shaped handle. The potential complications, consisting of injuries of the many elements which cross the region, were avoided by sufficiently long incisions and identification and retraction of these elements (tendons, nervous branches) in order not to penetrate them with the pins. The aftertreatment consisted of immediate mobilization of the wrist in one patient, 21-day splinting in other two and 30-day splinting in the last two, depending on the intraoperative assessment of the stability of the fixation. The pins were removed at 45 days postoperatively in all cases. There were no complications such as loss of reduction or pin migration. In all cases
Failure of dual radius hydroxyapatite-coated acetabular cups.
D'Angelo, Fabio; Molina, Mauro; Riva, Giacomo; Zatti, Giovanni; Cherubino, Paolo
2008-08-07
Many kind of hydroxyapatite-coated cups were used, with favorable results in short term studies; it was supposed that its use could improve osteointegration of the cup, enhancing thus stability and survivorship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the long term behavior of the hemispheric HA coated, Dual Radius Osteonics cup and to discuss the way of failure through the exam of the revised components and of both periacetabular and osteolysis tissue. Between 1994 and 1997, at the Department of Orthopedic Sciences of the Insubria University, using the posterolateral approach, were implanted 276 Dual Radius Osteonics in 256 patients, with mean age of 63 years. At a mean follow-up of 10 years (range 8-12 years), 183 cups in 165 patients, were available for clinical and radiographical evaluation. 22 Cups among the 183 were revised (11%). The cause of revision was aseptic loosening in 17 cases, septic loosening in one case, periprosthetic fracture in another case, osteolysis and polyethylene wear in two cases and, finally, recurrent dislocations in the last one. In the remaining patients, mean HHS increased from a preoperative value of 50.15 to a postoperative value of 92.69. The mean polyethylene wear was 1.25 mm (min. 0.08, max 3.9 mm), with a mean annual wear of 0.17 mm. The mean acetabular migration on the two axis was 1.6 mm and 1.8 mm. Peri-acetabular osteolysis were recorded in 89% of the implants (163 cases). The cumulative survivorship (revision as endpoint) at the time was 88,9%. Our study confirms the bad behavior of this type of cup probably related to the design, to the method of HA fixation. The observations carried out on the revised cup confirm these hypotheses but did not clarify if the third body wear could be a further problem. Another interesting aspect is the high incidence of osteolysis, which are often asymptomatic becoming a problem for the surgeon as the patient refuses the possibility of a revision.
Implications of an r-mode in XTE J1751-305: Mass, radius and spin evolution
Andersson, N; Ho, W C G
2014-01-01
Recently Strohmayer and Mahmoodifar presented evidence for a coherent oscillation in the X-ray light curve of the accreting millisecond pulsar XTE J1751-305, using data taken by RXTE during the 2002 outburst of this source. They noted that a possible explanation includes the excitation of a non-radial oscillation mode of the neutron star, either in the form of a g-mode or an r-mode. The r-mode interpretation has connections with proposed spin-evolution scenarios for systems such as XTE J1751-305. Here we examine in detail this interesting possible interpretation. Using the ratio of the observed oscillation frequency to the star's spin frequency, we derive an approximate neutron star mass-radius relation which yields reasonable values for the mass over the range of expected stellar radius (as constrained by observations of radius-expansion burst sources). However, we argue that the large mode amplitude suggested by the Strohmayer and Mahmoodifar analysis would inevitably lead to a large spin-down of the star, ...
Acharya, B; Phillips, D R
2013-01-01
We study Borromean 2n-halo nuclei using effective field theory. We compute the universal scaling function that relates the mean-square matter radius of the 2n halo to dimensionless ratios of two- and three-body energies. We use the experimental value of the rms matter radius of 22C measured by Tanaka et al. to put constraints on its 2n separation energy and the 20C-n virtual energy. We also explore the consequences of these constraints for the existence of excited Efimov states in this nucleus. We find that, for 22C to have an rms matter radius within 1-sigma of the experimental value, the two-neutron separation energy of 22C needs to be below 100 keV. Consequently, this three-body halo system can have an excited Efimov state only if the 20C-n system has a resonance within 1 keV of the scattering threshold.
Detection of the Splashback Radius and Halo Assembly Bias of Massive Galaxy Clusters
More, Surhud; Miyatake, Hironao; Takada, Masahiro; Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal K.; More, Anupreeta; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli S.; Oguri, Masamune; Spergel, David N.
2016-07-01
We show that the projected number density profiles of Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometric galaxies around galaxy clusters display strong evidence for the splashback radius, a sharp halo edge corresponding to the location of the first orbital apocenter of satellite galaxies after their infall. We split the clusters into two subsamples with different mean projected radial distances of their members, , at fixed richness and redshift. The sample with smaller has a smaller ratio of the splashback radius to the traditional halo boundary {R}{{200m}} than the subsample with larger , indicative of different mass accretion rates for these subsamples. The same subsamples were recently used by Miyatake et al. to show that their large-scale clustering differs despite their similar weak lensing masses, demonstrating strong evidence for halo assembly bias. We expand on this result by presenting a 6.6σ difference in the clustering amplitudes of these samples using cluster-photometric galaxy cross-correlations. This measurement is a clear indication that halo clustering depends on parameters other than halo mass. If is related to the mass assembly history of halos, the measurement is a manifestation of the halo assembly bias. However, our measured splashback radii are smaller, while the strength of the assembly bias signal is stronger, than the predictions of collisionless Λ cold dark matter simulations. We show that dynamical friction, cluster mis-centering, or projection effects are not likely to be the sole source of these discrepancies. However, further investigations regarding unknown catastrophic weak lensing or cluster identification systematics are warranted.
Effect of Bend Radius on Magnitude and Location of Erosion in S-Bend
Quamrul H. Mazumder
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s–45.72 m/s and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s–10 m/s with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement.
The filling factor - radius relation for 58 HII regions across the disk of NGC6946
Cedrés, B; Bongiovanni, A; Cepa, J; Ramos, A Asensio; Giammanco, C; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Alfaro, E
2013-01-01
Using the OSIRIS tunable narrow band imager on the 10.4m GTC (La Palma) we have mapped the SAB(rs)cd galaxy NGC 6946 over a 7.3x7.5 square arcminutes field in the emission lines of the [SII]\\lambda\\lambda, 6717, 6731 doublet, and in H\\alpha. From these maps we have produced catalogs of the H\\alpha luminosities and effective radii of 557 HII regions across the disk, and derived the [SII] emission line ratios of 370 of these. The H\\alpha observations were used to derive the mean luminosity-weighted electron densities for the regions of the sample, while the [SII] line ratios allowed us to derive values of the in situ electron densities in the denser zones from which the major fraction of the radiation in these lines is emitted, for 58 of the regions. This is by far the largest data set of its kind for a single galaxy. A classical two phase model is used to derive the filling factors of the regions. We find that although the mean electron density decreases with the square root of the radius of the regions, the i...
Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E; Xu, Haixuan
2015-08-26
The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in irradiated materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1.0a0 to 3.3a0 have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a0 by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster.
Possible Solutions to the Radius Anomalies of Transiting Giant Planets
Burrows, A; Budai, J D; Hubbard, W B
2006-01-01
We calculate the theoretical evolution of the radii of all fourteen of the known transiting extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) for a variety of atmospheric metallicities, dense inner core masses, and possible internal power sources. We incorporate the effects of stellar irradiation and customize such effects for each EGP and star. Looking collectively at the family as a whole, we find that there are in fact two radius anomalies to be explained. Not only are the radii of a subset of the known transiting EGPs larger than expected from previous theory, but many of the other objects are smaller than the default theory would allow. We suggest that the larger EGPs can be explained by invoking super-solar metallicity atmospheres and opacities that naturally retain internal heat and straightforwardly comport with the observed correlation between the statistics of EGPs and parent metallicity. This explanation might obviate the necessity for an extra internal power source. We explain the smaller radii by the presence in p...
Placing molecules with Bohr radius resolution using DNA origami
Funke, Jonas J.; Dietz, Hendrik
2016-01-01
Molecular self-assembly with nucleic acids can be used to fabricate discrete objects with defined sizes and arbitrary shapes. It relies on building blocks that are commensurate to those of biological macromolecular machines and should therefore be capable of delivering the atomic-scale placement accuracy known today only from natural and designed proteins. However, research in the field has predominantly focused on producing increasingly large and complex, but more coarsely defined, objects and placing them in an orderly manner on solid substrates. So far, few objects afford a design accuracy better than 5 nm, and the subnanometre scale has been reached only within the unit cells of designed DNA crystals. Here, we report a molecular positioning device made from a hinged DNA origami object in which the angle between the two structural units can be controlled with adjuster helices. To test the positioning capabilities of the device, we used photophysical and crosslinking assays that report the coordinate of interest directly with atomic resolution. Using this combination of placement and analysis, we rationally adjusted the average distance between fluorescent molecules and reactive groups from 1.5 to 9 nm in 123 discrete displacement steps. The smallest displacement step possible was 0.04 nm, which is slightly less than the Bohr radius. The fluctuation amplitudes in the distance coordinate were also small (±0.5 nm), and within a factor of two to three of the amplitudes found in protein structures.
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes.
Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-09-08
Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.
Mass-Radius Relation of Strongly Magnetized White Dwarfs
Bera, P.; Bhattacharya, D.
2017-03-01
We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of the white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M⊙ may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 1010 T. On the other hand if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of the Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of the equation of state due to Landau quantization, ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, iii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iv) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.
Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets based on PREM
Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein
2015-01-01
Several small dense exoplanets are now known, inviting comparisons to Earth and Venus. Such comparisons require translating their masses and sizes to composition models of evolved multi-layer-interior planets. Such theoretical models rely on our understanding of the Earth's interior, as well as independently derived equations of state (EOS), but have so far not involved direct extrapolations from Earth's seismic model -PREM. In order to facilitate more detailed compositional comparisons between small exoplanets and the Earth, we derive here a semi-empirical mass-radius relation for two-layer rocky planets based on PREM: ${\\frac{R}{R_\\oplus}} = (1.07-0.21\\cdot \\text{CMF})\\cdot (\\frac{M}{M_\\oplus})^{1/3.7}$, where CMF stands for Core Mass Fraction. It is applicable to 1$\\sim$8 M$_{\\oplus}$ and CMF of 0.0$\\sim$0.4. Applying this formula to Earth and Venus and several known small exoplanets with radii and masses measured to better than $\\sim$30\\% precision gives a CMF fit of $0.26\\pm0.07$.
Variation of Inner Radius of Dust Torus in NGC4151
Koshida, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Minezaki, Takeo; Sakata, Yu; Sugawara, Shota; Enya, Keigo; Suganuma, Masahiro; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tsutomu; Peterson, Bruce A
2009-01-01
The long-term optical and near infrared monitoring observations for a type 1 act ive galactic nucleus NGC 4151 were carried out for six years from 2001 to 2006 b y using the MAGNUM telescope, and delayed response of flux variations in the $K(2.2\\mu m)$ band to those in the $V(0.55\\mu m)$ band was clearly detected. Based on cross correlation analysis, we precisely measured a lag time $\\Delta t$ for eight separate periods, and we found that $\\Delta t$ is not constant changing be tween 30 and 70 days during the monitoring period. Since $\\Delta t$ is the ligh t travel time from the central energy source out to the surrounding dust torus, this is the first convincing evidence that the inner radius of dust torus did ch ange in an individual AGN. In order to relate such a change of $\\Delta t$ with a change of AGN luminosity $L$, we presented a method of taking an average of th e observed $V$-band fluxes that corresponds to the measured value of $\\Delta t$, and we found that the time-changing track of NGC 4151 in the...
Mass-Radius Relation for Rocky Planets Based on PREM
Zeng, Li; Sasselov, Dimitar D.; Jacobsen, Stein B.
2016-03-01
Several small dense exoplanets are now known, inviting comparisons to Earth and Venus. Such comparisons require translating their masses and sizes to composition models of evolved multi-layer interior planets. Such theoretical models rely on our understanding of the Earth’s interior, as well as independently derived equations of state, but so far have not involved direct extrapolations from Earth’s seismic model: the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM). To facilitate more detailed compositional comparisons between small exoplanets and the Earth, we derive here a semi-empirical mass-radius relation for two-layer rocky planets based on PREM, \\frac{R}{{R}\\oplus }=(1.07-0.21\\cdot {CMF})\\cdot {≤ft(\\frac{M}{{M}\\oplus }\\right)}1/3.7, where CMF stands for core mass fraction. It is applicable to 1 ˜ 8 M⊕ and a CMF of 0.0 ˜ 0.4. Applying this formula to Earth and Venus and several known small exoplanets with radii and masses measured to better than ˜30% precision gives a CMF fit of 0.26 ± 0.07.
Massive radius-dependent flow slippage in carbon nanotubes
Secchi, Eleonora; Marbach, Sophie; Niguès, Antoine; Stein, Derek; Siria, Alessandro; Bocquet, Lydéric
2016-09-01
Measurements and simulations have found that water moves through carbon nanotubes at exceptionally high rates owing to nearly frictionless interfaces. These observations have stimulated interest in nanotube-based membranes for applications including desalination, nano-filtration and energy harvesting, yet the exact mechanisms of water transport inside the nanotubes and at the water-carbon interface continue to be debated because existing theories do not provide a satisfactory explanation for the limited number of experimental results available so far. This lack of experimental results arises because, even though controlled and systematic studies have explored transport through individual nanotubes, none has met the considerable technical challenge of unambiguously measuring the permeability of a single nanotube. Here we show that the pressure-driven flow rate through individual nanotubes can be determined with unprecedented sensitivity and without dyes from the hydrodynamics of water jets as they emerge from single nanotubes into a surrounding fluid. Our measurements reveal unexpectedly large and radius-dependent surface slippage in carbon nanotubes, and no slippage in boron nitride nanotubes that are crystallographically similar to carbon nanotubes, but electronically different. This pronounced contrast between the two systems must originate from subtle differences in the atomic-scale details of their solid-liquid interfaces, illustrating that nanofluidics is the frontier at which the continuum picture of fluid mechanics meets the atomic nature of matter.
Mass-radius relation of strongly magnetized white dwarfs
Bera, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Dipankar
2016-07-01
We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M_{⊙} may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 10^{10} T. On the other hand, if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M_⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of equation of state due to Landau quantization ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, ii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iii) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.
Photospheric radius expansion in superburst precursors from neutron stars
Keek, L
2012-01-01
Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data was of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the PCA instrument on RXTE, we perform the first detailed time resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the lacking energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our techniq...
System Estimates Radius of Curvature of a Segmented Mirror
Rakoczy, John
2008-01-01
A system that estimates the global radius of curvature (GRoC) of a segmented telescope mirror has been developed for use as one of the subsystems of a larger system that exerts precise control over the displacements of the mirror segments. This GRoC-estimating system, when integrated into the overall control system along with a mirror-segment- actuation subsystem and edge sensors (sensors that measure displacements at selected points on the edges of the segments), makes it possible to control the GROC mirror-deformation mode, to which mode contemporary edge sensors are insufficiently sensitive. This system thus makes it possible to control the GRoC of the mirror with sufficient precision to obtain the best possible image quality and/or to impose a required wavefront correction on incoming or outgoing light. In its mathematical aspect, the system utilizes all the information available from the edge-sensor subsystem in a unique manner that yields estimates of all the states of the segmented mirror. The system does this by exploiting a special set of mirror boundary conditions and mirror influence functions in such a way as to sense displacements in degrees of freedom that would otherwise be unobservable by means of an edge-sensor subsystem, all without need to augment the edge-sensor system with additional metrological hardware. Moreover, the accuracy of the estimates increases with the number of mirror segments.
Closing capacity of segmental radius defects in rabbits.
Bodde, Esther W H; Spauwen, Paul H M; Mikos, Antonios G; Jansen, John A
2008-04-01
In the research of synthetic bone graft substitutes, the relevance for bone regeneration can be confirmed in a critical-sized model. In this study the rabbit radial defect was investigated as an ingenious model of critical size, due to its defect immobilizing intact ulna. In addition, the influence of poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) on bone regeneration was determined. Sixteen, 4-month-old rabbits received bilateral segmental radial defects of 15 or 20 mm. The osteotomy ends were marked with small titanium pins. Half of the group received injected PLGA microparticle/carboxymethylcellulose implants. Implantation time was 12 weeks. Evaluation consisted of radiographs after surgery and sacrifice, microcomputed tomography and histology. The radiographs revealed that the created defects were significantly smaller after sacrifice. Further a number of radii showed fibrocartilaginous interposition. Both findings indicated instability of the created defect. All evaluation techniques revealed that 15 and 20 mm were not of critical size, as most defects were more or less regenerated. PLGA microparticles did not influence bone regeneration significantly. In conclusion, 15- and 20-mm radius defects in 4-month-old rabbits were not a suitable model for bone regeneration as these defects were neither critical size nor stable. PLGA-microparticle degradation did not influence bone regeneration.
Photogrammetric analysis of the articular surface of the distal radius.
Ege, A; Seker, D Z; Tuncay, I; Duran, Z
2004-01-01
Three-dimensional measurements made using photogrammetry have recently gained popularity with the development of real-time detection facilities and up-to-date equipment. The modelling of human bones presents a particular challenge as the measurements required are difficult to obtain, especially from uneven surfaces. In this study, the articular surfaces of 12 radius bones were evaluated using photogrammetry to obtain three-dimensional coordinates of certain points. Morphometric characteristics of the digital topography of the articular surface were analysed using three-dimensional data from more than 200 points for each specimen. The coronal plane curve, from the tip of the styloid process to the centre of the distal radioulnar articular notch, was found to be similar to the fourth degree polynomial function. A mathematical expression representing the sagittal curve passing through scapholunate border could not be found. Close-range photogrammetry is a safe and precise technique that can provide reliable, reproducible and accurate data for evaluating complex morphological surfaces.
Volar morphology of the distal radius in axial planes: a quantitative analysis.
Oura, Keiichiro; Oka, Kunihiro; Kawanishi, Yohei; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Murase, Tsuyoshi
2015-04-01
To investigate the cause of rupture of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL) after volar plate fixation of distal radius fractures, previous studies have examined the shape of the distal radius in the sagittal plane or in the lateral view. However, there are no reports on the anatomical shape of the volar surface concavity of the distal radius in the axial plane. We hypothesized that this concavity might contribute to the mismatch between the plate and the surface of the radius. To test this hypothesis, we constructed three-dimensional models of the radius and FPL based on computed tomography scans of 70 normal forearms. We analyzed axial cross-sectional views with 2 mm intervals. In all cases, the volar surface of the distal radius was concave in the axial plane. The concavity depth was maximum at 6 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa and progressively decreased toward the proximal radius. FPL was closest to the radius at 2 mm proximal to the palmar edge of the lunate fossa. The volar surface of the distal radius was externally rotated from proximal to distal. These results may help to develop new implants which fit better to the radius and decrease tendon irritation.
Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems
Lei LIU; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao
2014-01-01
We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...
Denton, J. D.
1994-05-01
This lecture advocates the direct use of three-dimensional flow calculations for turbomachinery design. The limitations of the usual quasi-three dimensional approach are discussed and it is shown that fully 3D calculations overcome the modelling limitations inherent in them. Fully 3D calculations also avoid the need to iterate between throughflow and blade to blade calculations. This leads to fewer routine operations (e.g. data transfers) being needed during the design process and hence more efficient use of the designer's time. With a flexible geometrical package, able to generate blade sections and transfer their geometry directly to a 3D data set, changes of stage geometry can be made in minutes. An outline of such a package is given. Modern 3D calculation methods, Ref(11), enable complete stage solutions. with adequate accuracy for design purposes, to be obtained in the order of l hour on a workstation. Hence several design iterations per day can be easily be performed for a single stage of a machine. An example used to design a very high pressure ratio (3:1) axial fan is given and discussed.
Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions
Fabio Zwirner
2004-02-01
This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems.
The Ethical Dimension of Innovation
Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando
2014-01-01
The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...... depend on systematic consideration of these dimensions in the innovation process....
Critical dimension for chaotic cosmology
Hosoya, Akio; Jensen, L.G.; Stein-Schabes, J.A.
1987-03-16
Using the ADM formalism for general relativity the approach to a space-time singularity of a general inhomogeneous universe, in an arbitrary number of dimensions, is studied. The question of whether chaotic behaviour is a generic feature of Einstein's equations, in an arbitrary number of dimensions, is explored. We find that models that contain ten or more spatial dimensions are non-chaotic and their approach toward the initial singularity is monotonic, whereas for those with dimensionality between four and nine their approach is chaotic. A clear geometrical picture is constructed whereby this result can be understood.
Signatures of Large Extra Dimensions
Hossenfelder, S; Stöcker, H
2004-01-01
String theory suggests modifications of our spacetime such as extra dimensions and the existence of a mininal length scale. In models with addidional dimensions, the Planck scale can be lowered to values accessible by future colliders. Effective theories which extend beyond the standart-model by including extra dimensions and a minimal length allow computation of observables and can be used to make testable predictions. Expected effects that arise within these models are the production of gravitons and black holes. Furthermore, the Planck-length is a lower bound to the possible resolution of spacetime which might be reached soon.
Nayak, Michael; Lupu, Roxana; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Robinson, Tyler; Lewis, Nikole
2017-03-01
Future space-based telescopes, such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), will observe the reflected light spectra of directly imaged extrasolar planets. Interpretation of such data presents a number of novel challenges, including accounting for unknown planet radius and uncertain stellar illumination phase angle. Here, we report on our continued development of Markov Chain Monte Carlo retrieval methods for addressing these issues in the interpretation of such data. Specifically, we explore how the unknown planet radius and potentially poorly known observer-planet-star phase angle impacts retrievals of parameters of interest such as atmospheric methane abundance, cloud properties, and surface gravity. As expected, the uncertainty in retrieved values is a strong function of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectra, particularly for low metallicity atmospheres, which lack deep absorption signatures. Meaningful results may only be possible above certain S/N thresholds; for cases across a metallicity range of 1–50 times solar, we find that only an S/N of 20 systematically reproduces a value close to the correct methane abundance at all phase angles. However, even in cases where the phase angle is poorly known we find that the planet radius can be constrained to within a factor of two. We find that uncertainty in planet radius decreases at phase angles past quadrature, as the highly forward-scattering nature of the atmosphere at these geometries limits the possible volume of phase space that relevant parameters can occupy. Finally, we present an estimation of possible improvement that can result from combining retrievals against observations at multiple phase angles.
Radiation reaction in various dimensions
Galtsov, D V
2002-01-01
We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass-renormalization (the Dirac-Lorentz equation). In odd dimensions the Huygens principle does not hold; as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences can not be removed by a renormalization.
Dimensions of Intercultural Communication Competence
郭飞燕
2016-01-01
Intercultural communication competence can help us adapt better to the host culture and deal with culture shock suc-cessfully. This paper mainly discusses the dimensions of intercultural communication competence.
Radiation reaction in various dimensions
Gal'Tsov, Dmitri V.
2002-07-01
We discuss the radiation reaction problem for an electric charge moving in flat space-time of arbitrary dimensions. It is shown that four is the unique dimension where a local differential equation exists accounting for the radiation reaction and admitting a consistent mass renormalization (the Lorentz-Dirac equation). In odd dimensions Huygens's principle does not hold, and, as a result, the radiation reaction force depends on the whole past history of a charge (radiative tail). We show that the divergence in the tail integral can be removed by the mass renormalization only in the 2+1 theory. In even dimensions higher than four, divergences cannot be removed by the mass renormalization.
The social dimension of entrepreneurship
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...
Inflation from periodic extra dimensions
Higaki, Tetsutaro
2016-01-01
We discuss a realization of a small field inflation based on string inspired supergravities. In theories accompanying extra dimensions, compactification of them with small radii is required for realistic situations. Since the extra dimension can have a periodicity, there will appear (quasi-)periodic functions under transformations of moduli of the extra dimensions in low energy scales. Such a periodic property can lead to a UV completion of so-called multi-natural inflation model where inflaton potential consists of a sum of multiple sinusoidal functions with a decay constant smaller than the Planck scale. As an illustration, we construct a SUSY breaking model, and then show that such an inflaton potential can be generated by a sum of world sheet instantons in intersecting brane models on extra dimensions containing $T^2/{\\mathbb Z}_2$ orbifold. We show also predictions of cosmic observables by numerical analyzes.
Hydrogen atom in space with a compactified extra dimension and potential defined by Gauss' law
Bureš, Martin
2014-01-01
We investigate the consequences of one extra spatial dimension for the stability and energy spectrum of the non-relativistic hydrogen atom with a potential defined by Gauss' law, i.e. proportional to $1/|x|^2$. The additional spatial dimension is considered to be either infinite or curled-up in a circle of radius $R$. In both cases, the energy spectrum is bounded from below for charges smaller than the same critical value and unbounded from below otherwise. As a consequence of compactification, negative energy eigenstates appear: if $R$ is smaller than a quarter of the Bohr radius, the corresponding Hamiltonian possesses an infinite number of bound states with minimal energy extending at least to the ground state of the hydrogen atom.
Hydrogen atom in space with a compactified extra dimension and potential defined by Gauss' law
Bureš, Martin; Siegl, Petr
2015-03-01
We investigate the consequences of one extra spatial dimension for the stability and energy spectrum of the non-relativistic hydrogen atom with a potential defined by Gauss' law, i.e. proportional to 1 /| x | 2. The additional spatial dimension is considered to be either infinite or curled-up in a circle of radius R. In both cases, the energy spectrum is bounded from below for charges smaller than the same critical value and unbounded from below otherwise. As a consequence of compactification, negative energy eigenstates appear: if R is smaller than a quarter of the Bohr radius, the corresponding Hamiltonian possesses an infinite number of bound states with minimal energy extending at least to the ground state of the hydrogen atom.
Radius model of convex vertical curve of freeway based on attachment coefficient
LI Song-ling; PEI Yu-long
2008-01-01
A longitudinal slope brake model was established for the radius calculation of vertical curve of free-way through analyzing the dynamics of brake-running of vehicles running on the longitudinal slope road section. To satisfy the requirement of sight distance, a relation model was established for the attachment coefficient and the convex vertical curve radius. Using MATLAB simulation technique, the convex vertical curve radius at different attachment conditions was calculated accurately and a three-dimensional figure was drawn to describe the relation between the adhesive coefficient, the driving velocity and the radius of vertical curve. The correlation between the convex vertical curve radius and the adhesive coefficient was further analyzed and compared with National Technical Standards. The suggested radius of vertical curve was then put forward to provide a theoretical platform for the security design of the convex vertical curve.
Keynote speech: Dimensions of Change
Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg
2004-01-01
The presentation seeks to construct a framework for understanding knowledge and knowledge work. I argue that knowledge may be understood as a social construction of reality. I argue that people construct their reality by integrating four dimensions of reality: Facts, logic, values and communication...... introduce a basic framework for understanding knowledge. This is done by means of Wittgenstein's concept of language games. Second, I introduce the four dimensions of reality. Third I relate the model to the disciplines organizational learning and knowledge management...
Phenomenology of universal extra dimensions
Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; /Florida U.
2006-10-01
In this proceeding, the phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions (UED), in which all the Standard Model fields propagate, is explored. We focus on models with one universal extra dimension, compactified on an S{sub 1}/Z{sub 2} orbifold. We revisit calculations of Kaluza-Klein (KK) dark matter without an assumption of the KK mass degeneracy including all possible coannihilations. We then contrast the experimental signatures of low energy supersymmetry and UED.
Timbre Dimensions for Musical Control
Giese, Gregory Roy
This dissertation addresses the folowing question: Given the technologies to develop and implement any kind of sound generating and controlling device, what will the instrument designer, the composer, and the performer need to know in order to more fully utilize the dimensions of timbre in music and musical performance? This question is approached from the standpoint of music theory. Definitions of timbre and a few examples of related physical and perceptual research are reviewed. Included is a discussion of the essential elements of musical control and of intelligent organization of sound in music. This discussion raises more questions than can be answered simply. It is an attempt to unravel the nature of sound clues and sound qualities as they convey sound identities and musical gesture. A theoretical simplification of sound dimensions for musical use is proposed. Sounds which can be sustained indefinitely consist of steady-state acoustical dimensions. These dimensions rely upon the perceptual phenomenon of simultaneous fusion (synance). Sounds which can not be sustained indefinitely consist of transitions. Transitions may cause successive fusion (sonance). The discussion of steady-state and transition dimensions includes a review of a few informal experiments. This work reveals problems that will influence the musical use of timbre dimensions. It also leads to a theory for the organization and control of timbre dimensions in music. Among the timbre dimensions discussed are: spectral envelope, harmonic content, brightness, phase, inharmonicity, aperiodicity, and temporal transitions. Questions are raised regarding the perception of harmonic content. The effect of register on perception of tones consisting of from two to nine partials is explored and discussed. The size of interval between partials determines a unique quality. This is most apparent with tones consisting of only two or three partials (dions or trions).
Penetrative internally heated convection in two and three dimensions
Goluskin, David
2015-01-01
Convection of an internally heated fluid, confined between top and bottom plates of equal temperature, is studied by direct numerical simulation in two and three dimensions. The unstably stratified upper region drives convection that penetrates into the stably stratified lower region. The fraction of produced heat escaping across the bottom plate, which is one half without convection, initially decreases as convection strengthens. Entering the turbulent regime, this decrease reverses in two dimensions but continues monotonically in three dimensions. The mean fluid temperature, which grows proportionally to the heating rate ($H$) without convection, grows like $H^{4/5}$ when convection is strong in both two and three dimensions. The ratio of the heating rate to the fluid temperature is likened to the Nusselt number of Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Simulations are reported for Prandtl numbers between 0.1 and 10 and for Rayleigh numbers (defined in terms of the heating rate) up to $5\\times10^{10}$.
Classification of surface EMG signal with fractal dimension
HU Xiao; WANG Zhi-zhong; REN Xiao-mei
2005-01-01
Surface EMG (electromyography) signal is a complex nonlinear signal with low signal to noise ratio (SNR). This paper is aimed at identifying different patterns of surface EMG signals according to fractal dimension. Two patterns of surface EMG signals are respectively acquired from the right forearm flexor of 30 healthy volunteers during right forearm supination (FS)or forearm pronation (FP). After the high frequency noise is filtered from surface EMG signal by a low-pass filter, fractal dimension is calculated from the filtered surface EMG signal. The results showed that the fractal dimensions of filtered FS surface EMG signals and those of filtered FP surface EMG signals distribute in two different regions, so the fractal dimensions can represent different patterns of surface EMG signals.
Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for distal radius fractures
Xu-ming Wei
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Fractures of distal radius are common injury in all age groups. Cast treatment with or without close reduction is a viable option. However, the results are often unsatisfactory with restricted function. The open reduction and internal fixation often results in extensive soft tissue dissection and associated high rates of infection and delayed/nonunion. The distractor/external fixator have reported good functional and anatomical results but the incidence of pin traction infection nerve injury and cosmedic deformity are high. We introduced a modified operative technique for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO for distal radial fracture and evaluated the functional outcomes and complications. Materials and Methods: 22 distal radial fractures (10 left, 12 right were treated using the MIPO technique and two small incisions with a palmar locking plate from August 2009 to August 2010. The wrist function was assessed according to Dienst wrist rating system, and postoperative complications were recorded. Results: According to Dienst wrist rating system, 13 patients showed excellent results, 6 cases showed good results and 3 patients had moderate results. No patient had poor results. Thus, the excellent and good rate was 86.4%. One patient had anesthesia in the thenar eminence and this symptom disappeared after 3 months. One patient had delayed healing in the proximal wrist crease. Two patients had mild pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and two patients had limited wrist joint function. Conclusion: The MIPO technique by using two small palmar incisions is safe and effective for treatment of distal radial fractures.
The strength of polyaxial locking interfaces of distal radius plates.
Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas
2009-10-01
Currently available polyaxial locking plates represent the consequent enhancement of fixed-angle, first-generation locking plates. In contrast to fixed-angle locking plates which are sufficiently investigated, the strength of the new polyaxial locking options has not yet been evaluated biomechanically. This study investigates the mechanical strength of single polyaxial interfaces of different volar radius plates. Single screw-plate interfaces of the implants Palmar 2.7 (Königsee Implantate und Instrumente zur Osteosynthese GmbH, Allendorf, Germany), VariAx (Stryker Leibinger GmbH & Co. KG, Freiburg, Germany) und Viper (Integra LifeSciences Corporation, Plainsboro, NJ, USA) were tested by cantilever bending. The strength of 0 degrees, 10 degrees and 20 degrees screw locking angle was obtained during static and dynamic loading. The Palmar 2.7 interfaces showed greater ultimate strength and fatigue strength than the interfaces of the other implants. The strength of the VariAx interfaces was about 60% of Palmar 2.7 in both, static and dynamic loading. No dynamic testing was applied to the Viper plate because of its low ultimate strength. By static loading, an increase in screw locking angle caused a reduction of strength for the Palmar 2.7 and Viper locking interfaces. No influence was observed for the VariAx locking interfaces. During dynamic loading; angulation had no influence on the locking strength of Palmar 2.7. However, reduction of locking strength with increasing screw angulation was observed for VariAx. The strength of the polyaxial locking interfaces differs remarkably between the examined implants. Depending on the implant an increase of the screw locking angle causes a reduction of ultimate or fatigue strength, but not in all cases a significant impact was observed.
Levy dusts, Mittag-Leffler statistics, mass fractal lacunarity, and perceived dimension
Blumenfeld, R. [Theoretical Division and CNLS, Mail Stop B262, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Mandelbrot, B.B. [Mathematics Department, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8283 (United States)
1997-07-01
We study the Levy dusts on the line on two accounts: the fluctuations around the average power law that characterizes the mass-radius relation for self-similar fractals, and the statistics of the intervals between strides along the logarithmic axis (their tail distribution is related to the dust`s fractal dimension). The Levy dusts are suggested as a yardstick of neutral lacunarity, against which non-neutral lacunarity can be measured objectively. A notion of perceived dimension is introduced. We conclude with an application of the Mittag-Leffler statistics to a nonlinear electrical network. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
2015-01-01
Bilateral distal radius fracture is a rare entity. There is no literature reporting a bilateral distal radius fracture in pregnancy. Fracture healing is influenced by hormones. Hormonal changes of pregnancy will affect the healing of a fracture. A 28-year-old female at 34 wk of pregnancy sustained a bilateral distal radius fracture after a self fall. One side was managed conservatively and open reduction was done for the other side. Both fractures united at four weeks. This case is unique in ...
Posterolateral Elbow Dislocation with Ipsilateral Fractures of Head and Distal End Radius
Vijay C
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Elbow dislocation associated with ipsilateral fracture head and distal end radius is a rare pattern of Injury, although it is common for elbow dislocation and radius fractures to occur separately. We report a case of 35 year-old male who had a posterolateral elbow dislocation with ipsilateral fractures of head and distal end radius that underwent closed reduction and POP application and outcome is excellent with 9 months of follow-up.
Goberna, Miguel A.; Jeyakumar, Vaithilingam; Li, Guoyin; Linh, Nguyen
2016-01-01
The radius of robust feasibility of a convex program with uncertain constraints gives a value for the maximal ‘size’ of an uncertainty set under which robust feasibility can be guaranteed. This paper provides an upper bound for the radius for convex programs with uncertain convex polynomial constraints and exact formulas for convex programs with SOS-convex polynomial constraints (or convex quadratic constraints) under affine data uncertainty. These exact formulas allow the radius to be comput...
Brodie's abscess of the distal radius: an unusual complication after percutaneous pinning.
Johnson, Jeff W; Bindra, Randip R
2008-12-01
We report a case of Brodie's abscess of the distal radius that presented 4 years after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for a closed distal radius fracture. This condition has not been previously reported in the adult distal radius and we detail the clinical features and imaging findings. We also present a new way of management of Brodie's abscess using injectable bone substitute along with adjunctive parenteral antibiotic therapy.
Brodie’s Abscess of the Distal Radius: An Unusual Complication after Percutaneous Pinning
Bindra, Randip R.
2008-01-01
We report a case of Brodie’s abscess of the distal radius that presented 4 years after closed reduction and percutaneous pinning for a closed distal radius fracture. This condition has not been previously reported in the adult distal radius and we detail the clinical features and imaging findings. We also present a new way of management of Brodie’s abscess using injectable bone substitute along with adjunctive parenteral antibiotic therapy. PMID:18780011
Fractures of the bilateral distal radius and scaphoid: a case report
Ozkan Korhan
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral fractures of the distal radius and scaphoid are extremely rare injuries. Case presentation A patient with bilateral comminuted, displaced distal fractures of the radius and bilateral fractures of the scaphoid was treated via internal fixation of the scaphoid fractures with Herbert screws and internal fixation of the distal radius fractures with locked volar plating. Conclusion Rigid internal fixation of distal radius and scaphoid fractures is mandatory to start early active rehabilitation of the wrist without the need for wrist immobilization with a plaster or external skeletal fixation.
Estimation of weapon-radius versus maneuverability trade-off for air-to-air combat
Kelley, H. J.; Lefton, L.
1977-01-01
A chase in a horizontal plane between a pursuer with a large capture radius and a more maneuverable evading vehicle is examined with constant-speed vehicle models. An approximation to the 'sidestepping' maneuver of the Homicidal Chauffeur Game is modified to account for the effect of evader turning rate, and an estimate of capture radius required is so obtained which agrees remarkably well with Cockayne's point-capture result. The maneuver assumes central importance for barrier surfaces appearing in the Game of Two Cars. Results are given for required weapon capture-radius in terms of the maneuverability of the two vehicles. Some calculations of capture radius are presented.
Evaluation of the proton charge radius from e-p scattering
Arrington, John
2015-01-01
In light of the proton radius puzzle, the discrepancy between measurements of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen and those from electronic hydrogen and electron-proton scattering measurements, we reexamine the charge radius extractions from electron scattering measurements. We provide a recommended value for the proton RMS charge radius, $r_E = 0.879 \\pm 0.011$ fm, based on a global examination of elastic e-p scattering data. The uncertainties include contributions to account for tension between different data sets and inconsistencies between radii using different extraction procedures.
On transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension
Radul, Taras
2006-01-01
We prove that a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asind is trivial. We introduce a transfinite extension of asymptotic dimension asdim and give an example of metric proper space which has transfinite infinite dimension.
Extra dimensions in space and time
Bars, Itzhak
2010-01-01
Covers topics such as Einstein and the Fourth Dimension; Waves in a Fifth Dimension; and String Theory and Branes Experimental Tests of Extra Dimensions. This book offers a discussion on Two-Time Physics
On Gorenstein projective, injective and flat dimensions
Christensen, Lars Winther; Frankild, Anders Juel; Holm, Henrik Granau
2006-01-01
Gorenstein homological dimensions are refinements of the classical homological dimensions, and finiteness singles out modules with amenable properties reflecting those of modules over Gorenstein rings. As opposed to their classical counterparts, these dimensions do not immediately come with pract...
On Gorenstein projective, injective and flat dimensions
Christensen, Lars Winther; Frankild, Anders Juel; Holm, Henrik Granau
2006-01-01
Gorenstein homological dimensions are refinements of the classical homological dimensions, and finiteness singles out modules with amenable properties reflecting those of modules over Gorenstein rings. As opposed to their classical counterparts, these dimensions do not immediately come with pract...
On the Estimation of Pointwise Dimension
Hidaka, Shohei
2013-01-01
Our goal in this paper is to develop an effective estimator of fractal dimension. We survey existing ideas in dimension estimation, with a focus on the currently popular method of Grassberger and Procaccia for the estimation of correlation dimension. There are two major difficulties in estimation based on this method. The first is the insensitivity of correlation dimension itself to differences in dimensionality over data, which we term {\\em dimension blindness}. The second comes from the reliance of the method on the inference of limiting behavior from finite data. We propose pointwise dimension as an object for estimation in response to the dimension blindness of correlation dimension. Pointwise dimension is a local quantity, and the distribution of pointwise dimensions over the data contains the information to which correlation dimension is blind. We use a "limit-free" description of pointwise dimension to develop a new estimator. We conclude by discussing potential applications of our estimator as well as...
Dimensions of attractors in pinched skew products
Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.
2011-01-01
We study dimensions of strange non-chaotic attractors and their associated physical measures in so-called pinched skew products, introduced by Grebogi and his coworkers in 1984. Our main results are that the Hausdorff dimension, the pointwise dimension and the information dimension are all equal to one, although the box-counting dimension is known to be two. The assertion concerning the pointwise dimension is deduced from the stronger result that the physical measure is rectifiable. Our findi...
Virial series for fluids of hard hyperspheres in odd dimensions.
Rohrmann, René D; Robles, Miguel; López de Haro, Mariano; Santos, Andrés
2008-07-07
A recently derived method [R. D. Rohrmann and A. Santos, Phys. Rev. E 76, 051202 (2007)] to obtain the exact solution of the Percus-Yevick equation for a fluid of hard spheres in (odd) d dimensions is used to investigate the convergence properties of the resulting virial series. This is done both for the virial and compressibility routes, in which the virial coefficients B(j) are expressed in terms of the solution of a set of (d-1)/2 coupled algebraic equations which become nonlinear for d>/=5. Results have been derived up to d=13. A confirmation of the alternating character of the series for d>/=5, due to the existence of a branch point on the negative real axis, is found and the radius of convergence is explicitly determined for each dimension. The resulting scaled density per dimension 2eta(1/d), where eta is the packing fraction, is wholly consistent with the limiting value of 1 for d-->infinity. Finally, the values for B(j) predicted by the virial and compressibility routes in the Percus-Yevick approximation are compared with the known exact values [N. Clisby and B. M. McCoy, J. Stat. Phys. 122, 15 (2006)].
Dark Matter and Collider Phenomenology of Universal Extra Dimensions
Hooper, D; Hooper, Dan; Profumo, Stefano
2007-01-01
We review the phenomenology of models with flat, compactified extra dimensions where all of the Standard Model fields are allowed to propagate in the bulk, known as Universal Extra Dimensions (UED). UED make for an interesting TeV-scale physics scenario, featuring a tower of Kaluza-Klein (KK) states approximately degenerate in mass at the scale set by the inverse size of the compactification radius. KK parity, the four-dimensional remnant of momentum conservation in the extra dimensions, implies two basic consequences: (1) contributions to Standard Model observables arise only at loop level, and KK states can only be pair-produced at colliders, and (2) the lightest KK particle (LKP) is stable, providing a suitable particle dark matter candidate. After a theoretical overview on extra dimensional models, and on UED in particular, we introduce the model particle spectrum and the constraints from precision electroweak tests and current colliders data. We then give a detailed overview of the LKP dark matter phenom...
Higuchi dimension of digital images.
Helmut Ahammer
Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.
Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.
Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J
1995-02-01
A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.
The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism
Hawkins, Houston T.
The events of September 11 ushered us all into a world in which our security and sense of invulnerability were savagely replaced by vulnerability and irrational fear. To the delight of our adversaries who planned these attacks, we often responded in ways that furthered their agenda by weakening the cultural colossus that we call home. Normally terrorism is viewed as intense but localized violence. Seldom is terrorism viewed in its more expansive dimensions. It is burned into our collective memories as a collapsed building, a shattered bus, an incinerated nightclub, or facilities closed by a few anthrax-laced letters. However, terrorism must be studied in dimensions larger than the view from a news camera. This conclusion forms the intellectual basis for The Geographical Dimension of Terrorism.
Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection
Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea
2011-01-01
We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...
Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions
Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2015-01-31
This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.
The Creative Dimension of Visuality
Michelsen, Anders Ib
2013-01-01
analysis relying on language/linguistics as a model for explaining culture? More specifically, how can the – creative – novelty of visual culture be addressed by a notion of discourse? This essay will argue that the debate on visual culture is lacking with regard to discerning the creative dimension of its...... own appearance. It will indicate an alternative conceptual framework based on Johann P. Arnason’s draft of tripartite culturalization which focuses on a shift from essences to dimensions of culture. This will be further developed by relating Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s idea of ‘chiasm’ of ‘the visible...... and the invisible’ to the notion of collective creativity and ‘the imaginary institution of society’ of Cornelius Castoriadis. In the theoretical relationship between Merleau-Ponty and Castoriadis it is possible to indicate a notion of visuality as a creative dimension....
Collider searches for extra dimensions
Landsberg, Greg; /Brown U.
2004-12-01
Searches for extra spatial dimensions remain among the most popular new directions in our quest for physics beyond the Standard Model. High-energy collider experiments of the current decade should be able to find an ultimate answer to the question of their existence in a variety of models. Until the start of the LHC in a few years, the Tevatron will remain the key player in this quest. In this paper, we review the most recent results from the Tevatron on searches for large, TeV{sup -1}-size, and Randall-Sundrum extra spatial dimensions, which have reached a new level of sensitivity and currently probe the parameter space beyond the existing constraints. While no evidence for the existence of extra dimensions has been found so far, an exciting discovery might be just steps away.
Emerging Trends in a Period-Radius Distribution of Close-in Planets
Beauge, C
2012-01-01
We analyze the distribution of extrasolar planets (both confirmed and Kepler candidates) according to their orbital periods P and planetary radii R. Among confirmed planets, we find compelling evidence for a paucity of bodies with 3 < R < 10 R_\\oplus, where R_\\oplus in the Earth's radius, and P < 2-3 days. We have christened this region a "sub-Jovian Pampas". The same trend is detected in multiplanet Kepler candidates. Although approximately 16 Kepler single-planet candidates inhabit this Pampas, at least 7 are probable false positives (FP). This last number could be significantly higher if the ratio of FP is higher than 10%, as suggested by recent studies. In a second part of the paper we analyze the distribution of planets in the (P,R) plane according to stellar metallicities. We find two interesting trends: (i) a lack of small planets (R < 4 R_\\oplus) with orbital periods P < 5 days in metal-poor stars, and (ii) a paucity of sub-Jovian planets (4 R_\\oplus < R < 8 R_\\oplus) with P < ...
EMERGING TRENDS IN A PERIOD-RADIUS DISTRIBUTION OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS
Beauge, C. [Instituto de Astronomia Teorica y Experimental (IATE), Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR Cordoba (Argentina); Nesvorny, D. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)
2013-01-20
We analyze the distribution of extrasolar planets (both confirmed and Kepler candidates) according to their orbital periods P and planetary radii R. Among confirmed planets, we find compelling evidence for a paucity of bodies with 3 R {sub Circled-Plus} < R < 10 R {sub Circled-Plus }, where R {sub Circled-Plus} is Earth's radius and P < 2-3 days. We have christened this region a sub-Jovian Pampas. The same trend is detected in multiplanet Kepler candidates. Although approximately 16 Kepler single-planet candidates inhabit this Pampas, at least 7 are probable false positives (FPs). This last number could be significantly higher if the ratio of FPs is higher than 10%, as suggested by recent studies. In a second part of the paper we analyze the distribution of planets in the (P, R) plane according to stellar metallicities. We find two interesting trends: (1) a lack of small planets (R < 4 R {sub Circled-Plus }) with orbital periods P < 5 days in metal-poor stars and (2) a paucity of sub-Jovian planets (4 R {sub Circled-Plus} < R < 8 R {sub Circled-Plus }) with P < 100 days, also around metal-poor stars. Although all these trends are preliminary, they appear statistically significant and deserve further scrutiny. If confirmed, they could represent important constraints on theories of planetary formation and dynamical evolution.
Choi, Jaeho; Le, Quyet Van; Hong, Kootak; Moon, Cheon Woo; Han, Ji Su; Kwon, Ki Chang; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Ho Won
2017-09-13
It was demonstrated that organolead halide perovskites (OHPs) show a resistive switching behavior with an ultralow electric field of a few kilovolts per centimeter. However, a slow switching time and relatively short endurance remain major obstacles for the realization of the next-generation memory. Here, we report a performance-enhanced OHP resistive switching device. To fabricate topologically and electronically improved OHP thin films, we added hydroiodic acid solution (for an additive) in the precursor solution of the OHP. With drastically improved morphology such as small grain size, low peak-to-valley depth, and precise thickness, the OHP thin films showed an excellent performance as insulating layers in Ag/CH3NH3PbI3/Pt cells, with an endurance of over 10(3) cycles, a high on/off ratio of 10(6), and an operation speed of 640 μs and without electroforming. We suggest plausible resistive switching and conduction mechanisms with current-voltage characteristics measured at various temperatures and with different top electrodes and device structures. Beyond the extended endurance, highly flexible resistive switching devices with a minimum bending radius of 5 mm create opportunities for use in flexible and wearable electronic devices.
Mid-Infrared Resolution of a 3 AU Radius Debris Disk around ζ Leporis
Moerchen, M. M.; Telesco, C. M.; Packham, C.; Kehoe, T. J. J.
2007-02-01
We present subarcsecond-resolution mid-infrared images of the debris disk surrounding the 230 Myr old A star ζ Lep. Our data obtained with T-ReCS at Gemini South show the source to be unresolved at 10.4 μm but clearly extended at 18.3 μm. Quadratic subtraction of the PSF profile from that of ζ Lep implies a characteristic radius for the dust disk of 3 AU, which is comparable in size to our solar system's asteroid belt. Simple models suggest that the 18 μm flux is well approximated by two contiguous annuli of mid-infrared-emitting dust from 2-4 and 4-8 AU with a 3:1 flux ratio for the annuli, respectively. We consider two scenarios for the collisions that must be resupplying the dust population: (1) continuous ``steady state'' grinding of planetesimals and (2) an isolated cataclysmic collision. We determine that radiation pressure and subsequent collisions are the dominant determinants of the disk morphology in either case and that Poynting-Robertson drag is comparatively insignificant. Observations were obtained at the Gemini Observatory, operated by AURA, Inc., under agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: NSF (US), PPARC (UK), NRC (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), ARC (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).
Effects of Leading-Edge Radius on Aerodynamic Characteristics of 50º Delta Wings
Verhaagen, N.G.
2010-01-01
The study focuses on the effects of the leading-edge radius on the flow over 50º swept delta wing models. Three models were tested, one model having a sharp leading edge and the other two having a semi-circular leading edge of different radius. The vortical flow on and off the surface of the models
The Minimum Spectral Radius of Signless Laplacian of Graphs with a Given Clique Number
Su Li
2014-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we observe that the minimal signless Laplacian spectral radius is obtained uniquely at the kite graph PKn−ω,ω among all connected graphs with n vertices and clique number ω. In addition, we show that the spectral radius μ of PKm,ω (m ≥ 1 satisfies
Osteonecrosis of the trapezium treated with a vascularized distal radius bone graft.
Zafra, Manuel; Carpintero, Pedro; Cansino, Daniel
2004-11-01
A 20-year-old man presented with early stage osteonecrosis of the trapezium, diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. A vascularized distal radius bone graft was performed, with good clinical and radiologic results over a 1-year follow-up period. The authors believe that a vascularized distal radius bone graft is an ideal treatment for early stage carpal bone necrosis.
Rieger, Michael; Gruber, Hannes; Jaschke, Werner R. [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Radiology I, Innsbruck (Austria); Gabl, Markus [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Trauma Surgery, Innsbruck (Austria); Mallouhi, Ammar [Innsbruck University Hospital, Department of Radiology II, Innsbruck (Austria)
2005-04-01
Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of CT virtual preoperative planning in the surgical repositioning of malunited distal radius fracture. Eleven patients with malunited distal radius fracture underwent multislice CT of both wrists. A preoperative workup was performed in a virtual reality environment created from the CT data sets. Virtual planning comprised three main procedures, carrying out the virtual osteotomy of the radius, prediction of the final position of the distal radius after osteotomy and computer-assisted manufacturing of a repositioning device, which was later placed at the surgical osteotomy site to reposition objectively the distal radius fragment before fixation with the osteosynthesis. All patients tolerated the surgical procedure well. During surgery, the orthopedic surgeons were not required in any of the cases to alter the position of the distal radius that was determined by the repositioning device. At postoperative follow-up, the anatomic relationship of the distal radius was restored (radial inclination, 21.4 ; volar tilt, 10.3 ; ulnar variance, 0.5 mm). Clinically, a significant improvement of pronation (P=0.012), supination (P=0.01), flexion (P=0.001) and extension (P=0.006) was achieved. Pain decreased from 54 to 7 points. CT virtual reality is a valuable adjunct for the preoperative workup and surgical reposition of malunited distal radius fractures. (orig.)
A Precise Asteroseismic Age and Radius for the Evolved Sun-like Star KIC 11026764
Metcalfe, Travis S.; Monteiro, Mario J.P.F.G.; Thompson, Michael J.
2010-01-01
that attempt to match the asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints simultaneously. We determine both the radius and the age of KIC 11026764 with a precision near 1%, and an accuracy near 2% for the radius and 15% for the age. Continued observations of this star promise to reveal additional oscillation...
Any lure’s semiochemical release rate that is attractive to flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure’s orientation response strength. The EAR was defined as the radius of a passive sphere that would intercept the same number of insects as a semioch...
Collision free path generation in 3D with turning and pitch radius constraints for aerial vehicles
Schøler, F.; La Cour-Harbo, A.; Bisgaard, M.
2009-01-01
assumes that most of the aircraft structural and dynamic limitations can be formulated as a turn radius constraint, and that any two consecutive waypoints have line-of-sight. The generated trajectories are collision free and also satisfy a constraint on the minimum admissible turning radius, while...
Physics with large extra dimensions
Ignatios Antoniadis
2004-02-01
The recent understanding of string theory opens the possibility that the string scale can be as low as a few TeV. The apparent weakness of gravitational interactions can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the sub-millimeter region. Furthermore, our world must be confined to live on a brane transverse to these large dimensions, with which it interacts only gravitationally. In my lecture, I describe briefly this scenario which gives a new theoretical framework for solving the gauge hierarchy problem and the unification of all interactions. I also discuss a minimal embedding of the standard model, gauge coupling unification and proton stability.
The Ethical Dimension of Innovation
Nogueira, Leticia Antunes; Nogueira, Tadeu Fernando
2014-01-01
The view of innovation as a positive concept has been deeply rooted in business and academic cultures ever since Schumpeter coined the concept of creative destruction. Even though there is a large body of literature on innovation studies, limited attention has been given to its ethical dimension....... In this chapter, the ethical implications of innovations are illustrated with a case study of “destructive creation” in the food industry, and upon which an argumentative analysis is conducted. The main message of this chapter is that innovations have inherent ethical dimensions and that quality innovations...
Chiral gravity in higher dimensions
Ootsuka, T; Ura, K; Ootsuka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Erico; Ura, Kousuke
2003-01-01
We construct a chiral theory of gravity in 7 and 8 dimensions, which are equivalent to Einstein-Cartan theory using less variables. In these dimensions, we can construct such higher dimensional chiral gravity because of the existence of gravitational instanton. The octonionic-valued variables in the theory represent the deviation from the gravitational instanton, and from their non-associativity, prevents the theory to be SO(n) gauge invariant. Still the chiral gravity holds G_2 (7-D), and Spin(7) (8-D) gauge symmetry.
Quantum physics in one dimension
Giamarchi, Thierry
2004-01-01
This book presents in a pedagogical yet complete way correlated systems in one dimension. Recent progress in nanotechnology and material research have made one dimensional systems a crucial part of today's physics. After an introduction to the basic concepts of correlated systems, the book gives a step by step description of the techniques needed to treat one dimension, and discusses the resulting physics. Then specific experimental realizations of one dimensional systems such asspin chains, quantum wires, nanotubes, organic superconductors etc. are examined. Given its progressive and pedagogi
The golden ratio and Fibonacci numbers
Dunlap, Richard A
1997-01-01
In this invaluable book, the basic mathematical properties of the golden ratio and its occurrence in the dimensions of two- and three-dimensional figures with fivefold symmetry are discussed. In addition, the generation of the Fibonacci series and generalized Fibonacci series and their relationship to the golden ratio are presented. These concepts are applied to algorithms for searching and function minimization. The Fibonacci sequence is viewed as a one-dimensional aperiodic, lattice and these ideas are extended to two- and three-dimensional Penrose tilings and the concept of incommensurate p
The Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI and the proton radius puzzle
Kohl Michael
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The unexplained large discrepancy of the proton charge radius measurements with muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and determinations from elastic electron scattering and Lamb shift in regular hydrogen of seven standard deviations is known as the proton radius puzzle. Suggested solutions of the puzzle range from possible errors in the experiments through unexpectedly large hadronic physics effects to new physics beyond the Standard Model. A new approach to verify the radius discrepancy in a systematic manner will be pursued with the Muon Scattering Experiment (MUSE at PSI. The experiment aims to compare elastic cross sections, the proton elastic form factors, and the extracted proton charge radius with scattering of electrons and muons of either charge and under identical conditions. The difference in the observed radius will be probed with a high precision to verify the discrepancy. An overview of the experiment and the current status will be presented.
Bloom, A. M.; Hohlweg, W. C.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.
1976-01-01
The wing surface jet interaction characteristics of an upper surface blown transport configuration were investigated in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. Velocity profiles at the inboard engine center line were measured for several chordwise locations, and chordwise pressure distributions on the flap were obtained. The model represented a four engine arrangement having relatively high aspect ratio rectangular spread, exhaust nozzles and a simple trailing edge radius flap.
Mass-radius relationships in icy satellites after Voyager
Lupo, M. J.
1982-01-01
Using improved data for the masses and radii of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn, models accounting for self-compression effects are presented for the interiors of Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Rhea, and Titan. For the differentiated models, two different possible scenarios for heat transport are treated, as well as two different compositions for the silicate component. Undifferentiated models are also treated. In each case, the models of Ganymede, Callisto, and Titan show noticeable similarities. It is found that estimates of the ice-rock ratio are dependent upon the assumptions made about the heat transport mechanisms, the rock composition, and on the distribution of rock and ice in the satellite's interior.
Yang, Shuquing; Su, Lixin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiyong; Kang, Yue; Lei, Jun
2011-07-01
To give a preliminary experimental evidence and to prove chitosan and allogeneic morselized bone as potential bone substitutions in repairing rabbit radius segmental defect. Chitosan and allogeneic morselized bone were mixed with various ratios (1:5, 1:10, 1:25, 1:50, and 1:100). After preparation, the physical and chemical properties of the composites were preliminary detected; the composites at the ratios of 1:50 and 1:25 had good physical and chemical properties and were used for the animal experiment. The radius segmental defects of 15 mm in length were made in 50 adult New Zealand white rabbits (weighing 2.5-3.0 kg), then the animals were divided into 2 groups. In groups A and B, chitosan/allogeneic morselized bone composites were implanted at the ratio of 1:50 and 1:25, respectively. After 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of operation, the gross, histological, immunohistochemical observations were performed. Before the rabbits were sacrificed, X-ray films were taken; the serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration were measured; and the biomechanical measurement was carried out at 12 weeks. The results of gross observation were essentially consistent with those of the X-ray films. The histological observation showed that the bone formation was earlier in group A than in group B; the amount of new bone formation in group A was more than that in group B; and the bone forming area in group A was bigger than that in group B (P difference in the serum calcium concentration between 2 groups at each time point (P > 0.05). After 4 and 8 weeks, the ALP concentration in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P radius maximum bending loads of groups A and B were (299.75 +/- 27.69) N and (278.54 +/- 17.09) N, respectively, showing significant difference (t=4.045, P=0.002). The composite of chitosan and allogeneic morselized bone has good osteogenic activity and can be used as a bone tissue engineering scaffold, and the optimum ratio of chitosan to
SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF FRACTURES OF DISTAL END RADIUS WITH LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE
Chinta Shyam
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Fractures of distal end of radius continue to pose a therapeutic challenge. Intra articu l ar and extra articular malalignment can lead to various complications like post - traumatic osteoarthrosis, decreased grip strength and endurance, as well as limited motion and carpal instability. Open reduction and internal fixation is indicated to address th e unstable distal radius fractures and those with articular incongruity that cannot be anatomically reduced and maintained through external manipulation and ligamentotaxis, provided sufficient bone stock is present to permit early range of motion. METHODS : Sixty adult patients with distal radial fractures treated at Dept. of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital and Royal Hospital, Vijayawada between May 2010 and April 2015 were included in this study. RESULTS : In this series 9 (15% patients were betwee n 21 - 30 years, 15(25% between 31 - 40 years, 24(40% between 41 - 50 years, 9(15% between 51 - 60 years and 3 (5% patients between 61 - 70 years. The age of the patients ranged from 26 - 62 years with an average of 43.3 years. Out of 60 patients, 48(80% were male s and 12 (20% were females, showing a male preponderance with the ratio being M : F 4 : 1. Right side ( D ominant wrist was involved in 42(70% patients and the left side was involved in 18(30% patients. In our study there were 36 (60% patients with road t raffic accidents and 24(40% patients fell on their outstretched hand. Of the 60 cases, 12(20% of the fractures were of Type I Frykman’s classification, 6(10% of Type II, 21(35% of Type III, 9(15% of Type IV, 3(5% of Type V and 9(15% of Type VIII. Th ere were no cases of Type VI and VII fractures. SUMMARY : Males were predominant with right wrist affection more than left. All fractures were either due to road traffic accidents or fall on the outstretched hand, with road traffic accidents being more comm on of the two. Most of the fractures were of Frykman Type I, III and IV. All (100
Bounds on Large Extra Dimensions from the Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Cavaglia, Marco; Hou, Shaoqi
2016-01-01
The Generalized Uncertainty Principle (GUP) implies the existence of a physical minimum length scale $l_m$. In this scenario, black holes must have a radius larger than $l_m$. They are hotter and evaporate faster than in standard Hawking thermodynamics. We study the effects of the GUP on black hole production and decay at the LHC in models with large extra dimensions. Lower bounds on the fundamental Planck scale and the minimum black hole mass at formation are determined from black hole production cross section limits by the CMS Collaboration. The existence of a minimum length generally decreases the lower bounds on the fundamental Planck scale obtained in the absence of a minimum length.
Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans
Ruttkay, Zsófia; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Anton; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Anton; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex
2007-01-01
Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both hu
Effective dimension in flocking mechanisms
Baglietto, Gabriel; Albano, Ezequiel V.
2011-03-01
Even in its minimal representation (Vicsek Model, VM [T. Vicsek, A. Czirok, E. Ben-Jacob, I. Cohen and O. Shochet. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995).]), the widespread phenomenon of flocking raises intriguing questions to the statistical physicists. While the VM is very close to the better understood XY Model because they share many symmetry properties, a major difference arises by the fact that the former can sustain long-range order in two dimensions, while the latter can not. Aiming to contribute to the understanding of this feature, by means of extensive numerical simulations of the VM, we study the network structure of clusters showing that they can also sustain purely orientational, mean-field-like, long-range order. We identify the reason of this capability with the key concept of "effective dimension." In fact, by analyzing the behavior of the average path length and the mean degree, we show that this dimension is very close to four, which coincides with the upper critical dimension of the XY Model, where orientational order is also of a mean-field nature. We expect that this methodology could be generalized to other types of dynamical systems.
Cosmology With Dynamical Extra Dimensions
Erickson, J K
2005-01-01
Nearly every attempt to unify the fundamental forces incorporates the idea of compact extra dimensions. The notion was introduced by Kaluza and Klein in the 1920s and is an essential part of contemporary string theory and M-theory. In most treatments the extra dimensions are static. We consider the consequences of extra dimensions with time-varying radii. The radii are modeled by light scalar fields. These may have unusual properties which produce observable effects, such as non-canonical kinetic energies, couplings to matter and radiation, and non- minimal coupling to gravity. Extra dimensions may be responsible for dark energy in the late universe. The simplest model of dark energy is characterized by its equation of state. We show that constraints placed on realistic models by the universality of free fall, variation of fundamental constants and metric tests of gravity are often stricter than bounds on the equation of state. Testing the equivalence principle maybe an effective way of distinguishing some qu...
Competitive dimensions of human resources
Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna; Prokopenko Olha Volodymyrіvna; Shcherbachenko Viktoriia Oleksiivna
2015-01-01
This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.
Manual tracking in three dimensions.
Mrotek, L.A.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flanders, M.
2006-01-01
Little is known about the manual tracking of targets that move in three dimensions. In the present study, human subjects followed, with the tip of a hand-held pen, a virtual target moving four times (period 5 s) around a novel, unseen path. Two basic types of target paths were used: a peanut-shaped
Dimensions of problem based learning
Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch
2013-01-01
The article contributes to the literature on problem based learning and problem-oriented project work, building on and reflecting the experiences of the authors through decades of work with problem-oriented project pedagogy. The article explores different dimensions of problem based learning...
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
Competitive dimensions of human resources
Neykova Rumyana Mykolaivna
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This article deals with the essence of human resources competitive dimensions. Their competitive priorities are analyzed in dynamic business environment, with an emphasis on the quality of human resources, their adaptive skills, communication skills and mobility. The attention is paid to the role behavior of personnel and the policies for its management in the context of cutting down management costs.
New dimensions in cell migration
Friedl, P.; Sahai, E.; Weiss, S.; Yamada, K.M.
2012-01-01
Studies of cell migration in three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems and in vivo have revealed several differences when compared with cell migration in two dimensions, including their morphology and mechanical and signalling control. Here, researchers assess the contribution of 3D models to our
Massive Gravity in Three Dimensions
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2009-01-01
A particular higher-derivative extension of the Einstein-Hilbert action in three spacetime dimensions is shown to be equivalent at the linearized level to the (unitary) Pauli-Fierz action for a massive spin-2 field. A more general model, which also includes "topologically-massive" gravity as a speci
Heat conduction in three dimensions
Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.
1980-01-01
Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.
Emotion dimensions and formant position
Goudbeek, M.B.; Goldman, J.P.; Scherer, K.R.; Uther, M.; Moore, R.; Cox, S.
2009-01-01
The influence of emotion on articulatory precision was investigated in a newly established corpus of acted emotional speech. The frequencies of the first and second formant of the vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ was measured and shown to be significantly affected by emotion dimension. High arousal resulted
Manual tracking in three dimensions.
Mrotek, L.A.; Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Flanders, M.
2006-01-01
Little is known about the manual tracking of targets that move in three dimensions. In the present study, human subjects followed, with the tip of a hand-held pen, a virtual target moving four times (period 5 s) around a novel, unseen path. Two basic types of target paths were used: a peanut-shaped
Quantum Gravity in Two Dimensions
Ipsen, Asger Cronberg
The topic of this thesis is quantum gravity in 1 + 1 dimensions. We will focus on two formalisms, namely Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) and Dy- namical Triangulations (DT). Both theories regularize the gravity path integral as a sum over triangulations. The difference lies in the class...
The Visuospatial Dimension of Writing
Olive, Thierry; Passerault, Jean-Michel
2012-01-01
The authors suggest that writing should be conceived of not only as a verbal activity but also as a visuospatial activity, in which writers process and construct visuospatial mental representations. After briefly describing research on visuospatial cognition, they look at how cognitive researchers have investigated the visuospatial dimension of…
Strong metric dimension: A survey
Kratica Jozef
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The strong metric dimension has been a subject of considerable amount of research in recent years. This survey describes the related development by bringing together theoretical results and computational approaches, and places the recent results within their historical and scientific framework. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174010 i br. 174033
Unexploited Dimensions of Virtual Humans
Ruttkay, Z.M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Huang, Thomas; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentlant, Alex
Virtual Humans are on the border of fiction and realism: while it is obvious that they do not exist in reality and function on different principles than real people, they have been endowed with human features such as being emotionally sensitive. In this article we argue that many dimensions, both
The Feeling Dimension in Reading.
Ediger, Marlow
The feeling dimension of students cannot be ignored in teaching and learning situations. Feelings are there and must not be ignored. Reading stresses word recognition, comprehension of subject matter at diverse levels of complexity, and application of what has been learned. A major ingredient so frequently left out is student appreciation of the…
Heat conduction in three dimensions
Danza, T. M.; Fesler, L. W.; Mongan, R. D.
1980-01-01
Multidimensional heat conduction program computes transient temperature history and steady state temperatures of complex body geometries in three dimensions. Emphasis is placed on type of problems associated with Space Shuttle thermal protection system, but program could be used in thermal analysis of most three dimensional systems.
Dimension Changing Phase Transitions in Instanton Crystals
Kaplunovsky, Vadim
2013-01-01
We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3d->4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in [1]) we focus on lower dimensions -- the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V M_2^2x_2^2+M_3^2x_2^2+M_4^2x_4^2 and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D->2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons' orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M_2/M_3/M_4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements ...
Soldering and Mass Generation in Four Dimensions
Banerjee, R; Banerjee, Rabin; Wotzasek, Clovis
2000-01-01
We propose bosonised expressions for the chiral Schwinger models in four dimensions. Then, in complete analogy with the two dimensional case, we show the soldering of two bosonised chiral Schwinger models with opposite chiralities to yield the bosonised Schwinger model in four dimensions. The implications of the Schwinger model or its chiral version, as known for two dimensions, thereby get extended to four dimensions.
Rapid rotators revisited: absolute dimensions of KOI-13
Howarth, Ian D.; Morello, Giuseppe
2017-09-01
We analyse Kepler light-curves of the exoplanet Kepler Object of Interest no. 13b (KOI-13b) transiting its moderately rapidly rotating (gravity-darkened) parent star. A physical model, with minimal ad hoc free parameters, reproduces the time-averaged light-curve at the ∼10 parts per million level. We demonstrate that this Roche-model solution allows the absolute dimensions of the system to be determined from the star's projected equatorial rotation speed, ve sin i*, without any additional assumptions; we find a planetary radius RP = (1.33 ± 0.05) R♃, stellar polar radius Rp★ = (1.55 ± 0.06) R⊙, combined mass M* + MP( ≃ M*) = (1.47 ± 0.17) M⊙ and distance d ≃ (370 ± 25) pc, where the errors are dominated by uncertainties in relative flux contribution of the visual-binary companion KOI-13B. The implied stellar rotation period is within ∼5 per cent of the non-orbital, 25.43-hr signal found in the Kepler photometry. We show that the model accurately reproduces independent tomographic observations, and yields an offset between orbital and stellar-rotation angular-momentum vectors of 60.25° ± 0.05°.
Ageev, O. A., E-mail: ageev@sfedu.ru [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation); Bykov, Al. V. [NT-MDT (Russian Federation); Kolomiitsev, A. S.; Konoplev, B. G.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G. [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The results of an experimental study of the modification of probes for critical-dimension atomicforce microscopy (CD-AFM) by the deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to improve the accuracy with which the surface roughness of vertical walls is determined in submicrometer structures are presented. Methods of the deposition of an individual CNT onto the tip of an AFM probe via mechanical and electrostatic interaction between the probe and an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are studied. It is shown that, when the distance between the AFM tip and a VACNT array is 1 nm and the applied voltage is within the range 20–30 V, an individual carbon nanotube is deposited onto the tip. On the basis of the results obtained in the study, a probe with a carbon nanotube on its tip (CNT probe) with a radius of 7 nm and an aspect ratio of 1:15 is formed. Analysis of the CNT probe demonstrates that its use improves the resolution and accuracy of AFM measurements, compared with the commercial probe, and also makes it possible to determine the roughness of the vertical walls of high-aspect structures by CD-AFM. The results obtained can be used to develop technological processes for the fabrication and reconditioning of special AFM probes, including those for CD-AFM, and procedures for the interoperational express monitoring of technological process parameters in the manufacturing of elements for micro- and nanoelectronics and micro- and nanosystem engineering.
Multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea
HAN Jiang-na; XIONG Chang-ming; YAO Wei; FANG Qiu-hong; ZHU Yuan-jue; CHENG Xian-sheng; Karel P Van de Woestijne
2011-01-01
Background The current theory of dyspnea perception presumes a multidimensional conception of dyspnea.However,its validity in patients with cardiopulmonary dyspnea has not been investigated.Methods A respiratory symptom checklist incorporating spontaneously reported descriptors of sensory experiences of breathing discomfort,affective aspects,and behavioral items was administered to 396 patients with asthma,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),diffuse parenchymal lung disease,pulmonary vascular disease,chronic heart failure,and medically unexplained dyspnea.Symptom factors measuring different qualitative components of dyspnea were derived by a principal component analysis.The separation of patient groups was achieved by a variance analysis on symptom factors.Results Seven factors appeared to measure three dimensions of dyspnea:sensory (difficulty breathing and phase of respiration,depth and frequency of breathing,urge to breathe,wheeze),affective (chest tightness,anxiety),and behavioral (refraining from physical activity) dimensions.Difficulty breathing and phase of respiration occurred more often in COPD,followed by asthma (R2=0.12).Urge to breathe was unique for patients with medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.12).Wheeze occurred most frequently in asthma,followed by COPD and heart failure (R2=0.17).Chest tightness was specifically linked to medically unexplained dyspnea and asthma (R2=0.04).Anxiety characterized medically unexplained dyspnea (R2=0.08).Refraining from physical activity appeared more often in heart failure,pulmonary vascular disease,and COPD (R2=0.15).Conclusions Three dimensions with seven qualitative components of dyspnea appeared in cardiopulmonary disease and the components under each dimension allowed separation of different patient groups.These findings may serve as a validation on the multiple dimensions of cardiopulmonary dyspnea.
Fractally Fourier decimated homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger dimensions
Fathali, Mani; Khoei, Saber
2017-02-01
Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7 ≤d ≤3.0 . The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d . While both turbulent production and dissipation are significantly hampered as d decreases, the evolution of their ratio is almost independent of the Fourier dimension. The mechanism of the energy distribution among different spatial directions is also impeded by decreasing d . Due to this deficient energy distribution, turbulent field shows a higher level of the large-scale anisotropy in lower Fourier dimensions. In addition, the persistence of the vortex stretching mechanism and the forward spectral energy transfer, which are three-dimensional turbulence characteristics, are examined at changing d , from the standard case d =3.0 to the strongly decimated flow field for d =2.7 . As the Fourier dimension decreases, these forward energy transfer mechanisms are strongly suppressed, which in turn reduces both the small-scale intermittency and the deviation from Gaussianity. Besides the energy exchange intensity, the variations of d considerably modify the relative weights of local to nonlocal triadic interactions. It is found that the contribution of the nonlocal triads to the total turbulent kinetic energy exchange increases as the Fourier dimension increases.
Fractally Fourier decimated homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger dimensions.
Fathali, Mani; Khoei, Saber
2017-02-01
Time evolution of the fully resolved incompressible homogeneous turbulent shear flow in noninteger Fourier dimensions is numerically investigated. The Fourier dimension of the flow field is extended from the integer value 3 to the noninteger values by projecting the Navier-Stokes equation on the fractal set of the active Fourier modes with dimensions 2.7≤d≤3.0. The results of this study revealed that the dynamics of both large and small scale structures are nontrivially influenced by changing the Fourier dimension d. While both turbulent production and dissipation are significantly hampered as d decreases, the evolution of their ratio is almost independent of the Fourier dimension. The mechanism of the energy distribution among different spatial directions is also impeded by decreasing d. Due to this deficient energy distribution, turbulent field shows a higher level of the large-scale anisotropy in lower Fourier dimensions. In addition, the persistence of the vortex stretching mechanism and the forward spectral energy transfer, which are three-dimensional turbulence characteristics, are examined at changing d, from the standard case d=3.0 to the strongly decimated flow field for d=2.7. As the Fourier dimension decreases, these forward energy transfer mechanisms are strongly suppressed, which in turn reduces both the small-scale intermittency and the deviation from Gaussianity. Besides the energy exchange intensity, the variations of d considerably modify the relative weights of local to nonlocal triadic interactions. It is found that the contribution of the nonlocal triads to the total turbulent kinetic energy exchange increases as the Fourier dimension increases.
Evolution of the solar radius during the solar cycle 24 rise time
Meftah, Mustapha
2015-08-01
One of the real motivations to observe the solar radius is the suspicion that it might be variable. Possible temporal variations of the solar radius are important as an indicator of internal energy storage and as a mechanism for changes in the total solar irradiance. Measurements of the solar radius are of great interest within the scope of the debate on the role of the Sun in climate change. Solar energy input dominates the surface processes (climate, ocean circulation, wind, etc.) of the Earth. Thus, it appears important to know on what time scales the solar radius and other fundamental solar parameters, like the total solar irradiance, vary in order to better understand and assess the origin and mechanisms of the terrestrial climate changes. The current solar cycle is probably going to be the weakest in 100 years, which is an unprecedented opportunity for studying the variability of the solar radius during this period. This paper presents more than four years of solar radius measurements obtained with a satellite and a ground-based observatory during the solar cycle 24 rise time. Our measurements show the benefit of simultaneous measurements obtained from ground and space observatories. Space observations are a priori most favourable, however, space entails also technical challenges, a harsh environment, and a finite mission lifetime. The evolution of the solar radius during the rising phase of the solar cycle 24 show small variations that are out of phase with solar activity.
Tănase Alin-Eliodor
2014-08-01
Full Text Available This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.
Collins, Mimi
1997-01-01
Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…
Akkerman, J. W.
1982-01-01
New mechanism alters compression ratio of internal-combustion engine according to load so that engine operates at top fuel efficiency. Ordinary gasoline, diesel and gas engines with their fixed compression ratios are inefficient at partial load and at low-speed full load. Mechanism ensures engines operate as efficiently under these conditions as they do at highload and high speed.
Anatomical variations of the proximal radius and their effects on osteosynthesis.
Giannicola, Giuseppe; Manauzzi, Erica; Sacchetti, Federico M; Greco, Alessandro; Bullitta, Gianluca; Vestri, Annarita; Cinotti, Gianluca
2012-05-01
In fractures of the radial head and neck requiring open reduction and internal fixation, osteosynthesis may be safely applied in a limited zone. We conducted a morphometric study of the proximal radius at the level of the safe zone to identify different morphologic types of this anatomical region. We analyzed 44 dried cadaveric radii. We measured the whole length of the radius, the length of the neck and head, and the minimum and maximum diameter of the radial head. The morphologic aspect of the neck-head curvature of the safe zone was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The proximal radius at the level of the safe zone exhibited different radii of bending. In particular, we identified a morphologic type A, which showed a flat profile (25% of cases), morphologic types B and C, which showed a low concave curvature (64%), and a marked concave curvature (11%), respectively, of the safe zone. The profile of the proximal radius in the safe zone shows substantial morphologic variations that should be taken into account when operating on fractures of the proximal radius, to avoid malunions, pain, and stiffness of the elbow joint. A preoperative radiograph of the contralateral uninjured radius may be helpful in selecting the most appropriate internal fixation device to reconstruct the proximal radius after comminuted fractures. Knowledge of the proper bending radius of the safe zone allows the surgeon to select the most appropriate plate, and to achieve good fracture reduction and anatomical restoration of the proximal radius. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wyer, J C; Salzinger, F H
1983-01-01
Many common management techniques have little use in managing a medical group practice. Ratio analysis, however, can easily be adapted to the group practice setting. Acting as broad-gauge indicators, financial ratios provide an early warning of potential problems and can be very useful in planning for future operations. The author has gathered a collection of financial ratios which were developed by participants at an education seminar presented for the Virginia Medical Group Management Association. Classified according to the human element, system component, and financial factor, the ratios provide a good sampling of measurements relevant to medical group practices and can serve as an example for custom-tailoring a ratio analysis system for your medical group.
张艺君; 廖沐莹; 张翼
2014-01-01
Objective:to construct a three-dimensional finite element model of maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio and labial alveolar bone width.Methods:after thoroughly cleaning and polished, an extracted maxillary central incisor with normal anatomic structure was scanned with micro-CT technique, and its two dimensional images were transferred into a 3-D model by using the software Mimic, reverse engineering software Geomagic, computer aid design program UG6. The 3-D parametric model of a maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio, periodontal membrane and alveolar bone were established in the UG software through its automated modeling.Results:The 3D parametric model with precise anatomical features were successfully established. In the Design Exploration, the clinical crown-root ratio and width of labial alveolar bone were defined as input parameters with the former ranging from 1.1 to 2.5 and the later from 0.1mm to 0.5mm. Conclusion:the 3D parametric model of model of maxillary central incisor with various crown-root ratio and labial alveolar bone width was successfully established by reverse engineering software which had precise anatomical features.%目的：建立不同临床冠根比例和唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的上颌中切牙三维有限元模型。方法：选择一颗解剖形态标准的离体上颌中切牙清理抛光后，在显微CT扫描下获得断层二维图像，结合有限元软件Mimics、Geomagic及UG实现三维模型的实体化。利用UG软件构建出牙周膜、松质骨及皮质骨模块，建立上颌中切牙不同临床冠根比例及唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的自适应模型。结果：构建了不同临床冠根比例和唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的三维有限元模型。将变量冠根比例的变化范围设置为1.1-2.5，变量唇侧牙槽嵴顶厚度的变化范围设置为0.1mm-0.5mm。结论：采用有限元软件建立的不同临床冠根比例和牙槽嵴顶厚度的三维有限元模型，
New supernova limit on large extra dimensions: bounds on Kaluza-Klein graviton production.
Hannestad, S; Raffelt, G G
2001-07-30
If large extra dimensions exist in nature, supernova (SN) cores will emit large fluxes of Kaluza-Klein gravitons, producing a cosmic background of these particles with energies and masses up to about 100 MeV. Radiative decays then give rise to a diffuse cosmic gamma-ray background with E(gamma) approximately less than 100 MeV which is well in excess of the observations if more than 0.5%-1% of the SN energy is emitted into the new channel. For two extra dimensions we derive a conservative bound on their radius of R approximately less than 0.9 x 10(-4) mm; for three extra dimensions it is R approximately less than 1.9 x 10(-7) mm.
Initialization effects via the nuclear radius on transverse in-plane flow and its disappearance
Bansal Rajni
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We study the dependence of collective transverse flow and its disappearance on initialization effects via the nuclear radius within the framework of the Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD model. We calculate the balance energy using different parametrizations of the radius available in the literature for the reaction of 12C+12C to explain its measured balance energy. A mass-dependent analysis of the balance energy through out the periodic table is also carried out by changing the default liquid drop IQMD radius.
Use of High-Speed X ray and Video to Analyze Distal Radius Fracture Pathomechanics.
Gutowski, Christina; Darvish, Kurosh; Liss, Frederic E; Ilyas, Asif M; Jones, Christopher M
2015-10-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the failure sequence of the distal radius during a simulated fall onto an outstretched hand using cadaver forearms and high-speed X ray and video systems. This apparatus records the beginning and propagation of bony failure, ultimately resulting in distal radius or forearm fracture. The effects of 3 different wrist guard designs are investigated using this system. Serving as a proof-of-concept analysis, this study supports this imaging technique to be used in larger studies of orthopedic trauma and protective devices and specifically for distal radius fractures.
Hyperextension trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius
Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff
1998-01-01
Loads applied to the forearm result in hyperextension of the elbow. The pathomechanics of hyperextension trauma with load applied to the distal radius and ulna were studied in 10 macroscopically normal cadaver elbow joint specimens to reveal patterns of injury with radial traction (n = 5) compared...... trauma to the elbow joint induced through the distal ulna or the distal radius produced the same pattern of injury as reported in hyperextension of the elbow with traction to the forearm when free rotation of the radius relative to the ulna was allowed....
The Effect of Osteoporosis on Healing of Distal Radius Fragility Fractures.
Tulipan, Jacob; Jones, Christopher M; Ilyas, Asif M
2015-10-01
Although the decision for operative versus nonoperative treatment of distal radius fractures remains subjective and is performed on a case-by-case basis, evaluation and treatment of patients with concomitant osteoporosis requires understanding of the behavior of this injury as a distinct subset of distal radius fractures. Age, infirmity, and osteoporosis affect every aspect of the fracture. Understanding what makes these fractures unique assists surgeons in more effective and efficient treatment. The authors present the current understanding of osteoporotic fragility fractures of the distal radius, focusing on epidemiology, biomechanics of bone healing, and its implication on strategies for management.
Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases
Varun Sharma Tandra
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Giant cell tumour (GCT is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge.
Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.
2008-07-01
Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)
Lanthaler, S.; Pfefferlé, D.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.
2017-04-01
An improved set of guiding-centre equations, expanded to one order higher in Larmor radius than usually written for guiding-centre codes, are derived for curvilinear flux coordinates and implemented into the orbit following code VENUS-LEVIS. Aside from greatly improving the correspondence between guiding-centre and full particle trajectories, the most important effect of the additional Larmor radius corrections is to modify the definition of the guiding-centre’s parallel velocity via the so-called Baños drift. The correct treatment of the guiding-centre push-forward with the Baños term leads to an anisotropic shift in the phase-space distribution of guiding-centres, consistent with the well-known magnetization term. The consequence of these higher order terms are quantified in three cases where energetic ions are usually followed with standard guiding-centre equations: (1) neutral beam injection in a MAST-like low aspect-ratio spherical equilibrium where the fast ion driven current is significantly larger with respect to previous calculations, (2) fast ion losses due to resonant magnetic perturbations where a lower lost fraction and a better confinement is confirmed, (3) alpha particles in the ripple field of the European DEMO where the effect is found to be marginal.
Lemos, José P S
2015-01-01
Buchdahl, by imposing a few physical assumptions on the matter, i.e., its density is a nonincreasing function of the radius and the fluid is a perfect fluid, and on the configuration, such as the exterior is the Schwarzschild solution, found that the radius $r_0$ to mass $m$ ratio of a star would obey the Buchdahl bound $r_0/m\\geq9/4$. He noted that the bound was saturated by the Schwarzschild interior solution, the solution with $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)= {\\rm constant}$, where $\\rho_{\\rm m}(r)$ is the energy density of the matter at $r$, when the central central pressure blows to infinity. Generalizations of this bound have been studied. One generalization was given by Andr\\'easson by including electrically charged matter and imposing that $p+2p_T \\leq\\rho_{\\rm m}$, where $p$ is the radial pressure and $p_T$ the tangential pressure. His bound is given by $r_0/m\\geq9/\\left(1+\\sqrt{1+3\\,q^2/r_0^2}\\right)^{2}$, the Buchdahl-Andr\\'easson bound, with $q$ being the star's total electric charge. Following Andr\\'easson's pr...
Mulligan, Phillip; Baird, Jason; Hoffman, Joshua
2012-03-01
An explosively formed projectile (EFP) is known for its ability to penetrate vehicle armor effectively. Understanding how an EFP's physical parameters affect its performance is crucial to development of armor capable of defeating such devices. The present study uses two flyer plate radii of curvature to identify the experimental effects of the flyer plate's radius of curvature on the measured projectile velocity, depth of penetration, and projectile shape. The Gurney equation is an algebraic relationship for estimating the velocity imparted to a metal plate in contact with detonating explosives [1]. The authors of this research used a form of the Gurney equation to calculate the theoretical flyer plate velocity. Two EFP designs that have different flyer plate radii of curvature, but the same physical parameters and the same flyer-weight to charge-weight ratio should theoretically have the same velocity. Tests indicated that the flyer plate's radius of curvature does not affect the projectile's velocity and that a flat flyer plate negatively affects projectile penetration and formation.
Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment
Adamson, P.; et al.
2016-12-16
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab’s Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56×10^{20} protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μm at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.
Constraints on large extra dimensions from the MINOS experiment
Adamson, P.; Anghel, I.; Aurisano, A.; Barr, G.; Bishai, M.; Blake, A.; Bock, G. J.; Bogert, D.; Cao, S. V.; Carroll, T. J.; Castromonte, C. M.; Chen, R.; Childress, S.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Corwin, L.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; de Jong, J. K.; de Rijck, S.; Devan, A. V.; Devenish, N. E.; Diwan, M. V.; Escobar, C. O.; Evans, J. J.; Falk, E.; Feldman, G. J.; Flanagan, W.; Frohne, M. V.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gallagher, H. R.; Germani, S.; Gomes, R. A.; Goodman, M. C.; Gouffon, P.; Graf, N.; Gran, R.; Grzelak, K.; Habig, A.; Hahn, S. R.; Hartnell, J.; Hatcher, R.; Holin, A.; Huang, J.; Hylen, J.; Irwin, G. M.; Isvan, Z.; James, C.; Jensen, D.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Koizumi, G.; Kordosky, M.; Kreymer, A.; Lang, K.; Ling, J.; Litchfield, P. J.; Lucas, P.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mayer, N.; McGivern, C.; Medeiros, M. M.; Mehdiyev, R.; Meier, J. R.; Messier, M. D.; Miller, W. H.; Mishra, S. R.; Moed Sher, S.; Moore, C. D.; Mualem, L.; Musser, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Newman, H. B.; Nichol, R. J.; Nowak, J. A.; O'Connor, J.; Orchanian, M.; Pahlka, R. B.; Paley, J.; Patterson, R. B.; Pawloski, G.; Perch, A.; Pfützner, M. M.; Phan, D. D.; Phan-Budd, S.; Plunkett, R. K.; Poonthottathil, N.; Qiu, X.; Radovic, A.; Rebel, B.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sail, P.; Sanchez, M. C.; Schneps, J.; Schreckenberger, A.; Schreiner, P.; Sharma, R.; Sousa, A.; Tagg, N.; Talaga, R. L.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M. A.; Tian, X.; Timmons, A.; Todd, J.; Tognini, S. C.; Toner, R.; Torretta, D.; Tzanakos, G.; Urheim, J.; Vahle, P.; Viren, B.; Weber, A.; Webb, R. C.; White, C.; Whitehead, L.; Whitehead, L. H.; Wojcicki, S. G.; Zwaska, R.; Minos Collaboration
2016-12-01
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's Neutrinos at the Main Injector beam exposure of 10.56 ×1 020 protons on target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than 0.45 μ m at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for nonvanishing masses.
Constraints on Large Extra Dimensions from the MINOS Experiment
Adamson, P; Aurisano, A; Barr, G; Bishai, M; Blake, A; Bock, G J; Bogert, D; Cao, S V; Carroll, T J; Castromonte, C M; Chen, R; Childress, S; Coelho, J A B; Corwin, L; Cronin-Hennessy, D; de Jong, J K; de Rijck, S; Devan, A V; Devenish, N E; Diwan, M V; Escobar, C O; Evans, J J; Falk, E; Feldman, G J; Flanagan, W; Frohne, M V; Gabrielyan, M; Gallagher, H R; Germani, S; Gomes, R A; Goodman, M C; Gouffon, P; Graf, N; Gran, R; Grzelak, K; Habig, A; Hahn, S R; Hartnell, J; Hatcher, R; Holin, A; Huang, J; Hylen, J; Irwin, G M; Isvan, Z; James, C; Jensen, D; Kafka, T; Kasahara, S M S; Koizumi, G; Kordosky, M; Kreymer, A; Lang, K; Ling, J; Litchfield, P J; Lucas, P; Mann, W A; Marshak, M L; Mayer, N; McGivern, C; Medeiros, M M; Mehdiyev, R; Meier, J R; Messier, M D; Miller, W H; Mishra, S R; Sher, S Moed; Moore, C D; Mualem, L; Musser, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Newman, H B; Nichol, R J; Nowak, J A; O'Connor, J; Orchanian, M; Pahlka, R B; Paley, J; Patterson, R B; Pawloski, G; Perch, A; Pfützner, M M; Phan, D D; Phan-Budd, S; Plunkett, R K; Poonthottathil, N; Qiu, X; Radovic, A; Rebel, B; Rosenfeld, C; Rubin, H A; Sail, P; Sanchez, M C; Schneps, J; Schreckenberger, A; Schreiner, P; Sharma, R; Sousa, A; Tagg, N; Talaga, R L; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Tian, X; Timmons, A; Todd, J; Tognini, S C; Toner, R; Torretta, D; Tzanakos, G; Urheim, J; Vahle, P; Viren, B; Weber, A; Webb, R C; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitehead, L H; Wojcicki, S G; Zwaska, R
2016-01-01
We report new constraints on the size of large extra dimensions from data collected by the MINOS experiment between 2005 and 2012. Our analysis employs a model in which sterile neutrinos arise as Kaluza-Klein states in large extra dimensions and thus modify the neutrino oscillation probabilities due to mixing between active and sterile neutrino states. Using Fermilab's NuMI beam exposure of $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target, we combine muon neutrino charged current and neutral current data sets from the Near and Far Detectors and observe no evidence for deviations from standard three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The ratios of reconstructed energy spectra in the two detectors constrain the size of large extra dimensions to be smaller than $0.45\\,\\mu\\text{m}$ at 90% C.L. in the limit of a vanishing lightest active neutrino mass. Stronger limits are obtained for non-vanishing masses.
IMPROVING VOICE ACTIVITY DETECTION VIA WEIGHTING LIKELIHOOD AND DIMENSION REDUCTION
Wang Huanliang; Han Jiqing; Li Haifeng; Zheng Tieran
2008-01-01
The performance of the traditional Voice Activity Detection (VAD) algorithms declines sharply in lower Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) environments. In this paper, a feature weighting likelihood method is proposed for noise-robust VAD. The contribution of dynamic features to likelihood score can be increased via the method, which improves consequently the noise robustness of VAD.Divergence based dimension reduction method is proposed for saving computation, which reduces these feature dimensions with smaller divergence value at the cost of degrading the performance a little.Experimental results on Aurora Ⅱ database show that the detection performance in noise environments can remarkably be improved by the proposed method when the model trained in clean data is used to detect speech endpoints. Using weighting likelihood on the dimension-reduced features obtains comparable, even better, performance compared to original full-dimensional feature.
INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN RELATIONSHIP QUALITY DIMENSIONS
Mario Pepur
2011-02-01
Full Text Available Tourism-dependent economy, unfavourable structure of accommodation and hotel capacity, seasonality of business and liquidity problems indicate importance of the relationships between hotels and banks in Croatia. Since the capital investments in new and modern capacities are necessity, the quality of their relationship would determine the future of Croatian economy as a whole in the long run. Regarding the capital investments, it is crucially important that cooperation between the employees in both business entities is based on the satisfaction, trust and commitment. In this way, every potential uncertainty as a consequence of the entity’s actions could be minimized. In this paper, 356 tourist objects are hierarchically clustered according to the relationship quality dimensions for the purpose of testing the characteristics according to which the clusters significantly differentiate. Consequently, the interdependence between the observed relationship quality dimensions is examined.
Double Semions in Arbitrary Dimension
Freedman, Michael H.; Hastings, Matthew B.
2016-10-01
We present a generalization of the double semion topological quantum field theory to higher dimensions, as a theory of {d-1} dimensional surfaces in a d dimensional ambient space. We construct a local Hamiltonian that is a sum of commuting projectors and analyze the excitations and the ground state degeneracy. Defining a consistent set of local rules requires the sign structure of the ground state wavefunction to depend not just on the number of disconnected surfaces, but also upon their higher Betti numbers through the semicharacteristic. For odd d the theory is related to the toric code by a local unitary transformation, but for even d the dimension of the space of zero energy ground states is in general different from the toric code and for even {d > 2} it is also in general different from that of the twisted {Z_2} Dijkgraaf-Witten model.
Flavor Symmetries in Extra Dimensions
Aranda, A; Aranda, Alfredo
2002-01-01
We present a model of flavor based on a discrete local symmetry that reproduces all fermion masses and mixing angles both in the quark and lepton sectors. The particle content of the model is that of the standard model plus an additional flavon field. All the fields propagate in a fifth universal extra dimension and the flavor scale is associated with the cutoff of the 5D theory which is $\\sim 10$ TeV. The Yukawa matrices as well as the Majorana mass matrix for the neutrinos are generated by higher dimension operators involving the flavon field. When the flavon field acquires a vacuum expectation value it breaks the flavor symmetry and thus generates the Yukawa couplings. The model is consistent with the nearly bimaximal solution to the solar and atmospheric neutrino deficits.
The social dimension of entrepreneurship
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of 'personality characteristics' or in sterile economic terms. The paper addresses by concluding implications for practitioners and for research....
The social dimensions of entrepreneurship
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...
The social dimensions of entrepreneurship
Ulhøi, John Parm
2005-01-01
activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG......This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...
Open strategy: Dimensions, dilemmas, dynamics
Hautz, J; D. Seidl; Whittington, R.
2016-01-01
Responding to increasing practitioner and academic interest in Open Strategy, this article builds on recent theoretical and empirical studies in order to advance research in the following ways. We begin by developing a definition of Open Strategy that emphasizes variation along the two dimensions of transparency and inclusion, as well as the dilemmas and dynamics inherent in its practices. We identify five dilemmas in particular: those of process, commitment, disclosure, empowerment and escal...
Performance appraisal: dimensions and determinants
2012-01-01
The determinants of the dimensions that shape a formal system of performance appraisal are studied in relation to a sample of Spanish manufacturing establishments. In particular, the factors that influence the measures used to evaluate performance, the person who carries out such appraisal and its frequency are analysed. Our results show that the characteristics of the establishment exert a significant influence on the configuration of performance appraisal. Specifically, we find that the use...
Læsningens sproglige dimension
Mulvad, Ruth; Kabel, Kristine
2007-01-01
Flere af projekterne i Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning arbejder for at styrke læsning gennem et kombineret fokus på teksters sproglige dimension og på den pædagogiske kontekst, som teksterne indgår i. To af dem har som mål at designe et kompetenceløft for seminarieundervisere og at udvikle...
Variations of The Fifth Dimension
Jensen, Tine
koncept for læring og leg, kaldet Femte Dimension, eller 5D, som er udviklet af professor Michael Cole og kolleger i mere end 20 år på University of California, San Diego, Laboratory of Comparative Human Cognition. 5D er et forsknings-, og læringsfællesskab, som arbejder med udvikling af lokale ’sites...
Wave equations in higher dimensions
Dong, Shi-Hai
2011-01-01
Higher dimensional theories have attracted much attention because they make it possible to reduce much of physics in a concise, elegant fashion that unifies the two great theories of the 20th century: Quantum Theory and Relativity. This book provides an elementary description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions at an advanced level so as to put all current mathematical and physical concepts and techniques at the reader’s disposal. A comprehensive description of quantum wave equations in higher dimensions and their broad range of applications in quantum mechanics is provided, which complements the traditional coverage found in the existing quantum mechanics textbooks and gives scientists a fresh outlook on quantum systems in all branches of physics. In Parts I and II the basic properties of the SO(n) group are reviewed and basic theories and techniques related to wave equations in higher dimensions are introduced. Parts III and IV cover important quantum systems in the framework of non-relativisti...
Wormholes leading to extra dimensions
Bronnikov, K A
2016-01-01
In 6D general relativity with a scalar field as a source of gravity, a new type of static wormhole solutions is presented: such wormholes connect our universe with a small 2D extra subspace with a universe where this extra subspace is large, and the whole space-time is effectively 6-dimensional. We consider manifolds with the structure M0 x M1 x M2 , where M0 is 2D Lorentzian space-time while each of M1 an M2 can be a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. After selecting possible asymptotic behaviors of the metric functions compatible with the field equations, we give two explicit examples of wormhole solutions with spherical symmetry in our space-time and toroidal extra dimensions. In one example, with a massless scalar field (it is a special case of a well-known more general solution), the extra dimensions have a large constant size at the "far end"; the other example contains a nonzero potential $V(\\phi)$ which provides a 6D anti-de Sitter asymptotic, where all spatial dimensions are infinite.
Quantum irreversibility in arbitrary dimension
Anselmi, Damiano
2000-02-14
Some recent ideas are generalized from four dimensions to the general dimension n. In quantum field theory, two terms of the trace anomaly in external gravity, the Euler density G{sub n} and {open_square}{sup n/2-1}R, are relevant to the problem of quantum irreversibility. By adding the divergence of a gauge-invariant current, G{sub n} can be extended to a new notion of Euler density G-tilde{sub n}, linear in the conformal factor. We call it pondered Euler density. This notion relates the trace-anomaly coefficients a and a{sup '} of G{sub n} and {open_square}{sup n/2-1}R in a universal way (a=a{sup '}) and gives a formula expressing the total RG flow of a as the invariant area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. I illustrate these facts in detail for n=6 and check the prediction to the fourth-loop order in the phi (cursive,open) Greek{sup 3}-theory. The formula of quantum irreversibility for general n even can be extended to n odd by dimensional continuation. Although the trace anomaly in external gravity is zero in odd dimensions, I show that the odd-dimensional formula has a predictive content.
Quantum irreversibility in arbitrary dimension
Anselmi, D
2000-01-01
Some recent ideas are generalized from four dimensions to the general dimension n. Two terms of the trace anomaly in external gravity, the Euler density G_n and Box^{n/2-1}R, are relevant to the problem of quantum irreversibility. By adding the divergence of a gauge-invariant current, G_n can be extended to a new notion of Euler density, linear in the conformal factor. We call it pondered Euler density. This notion relates the trace-anomaly coefficients a and a' of G_n and Box^{n/2-1}R in a universal way (a=a') and gives a formula expressing the total RG flow of a as the invariant area of the graph of the beta function between the fixed points. I illustrate these facts in detail for n=6 and check the prediction to the fourth-loop order in the phi^3-theory. The formula of quantum irreversibility for general n even can be extended to n odd by dimensional continuation. Although the trace anomaly in external gravity is zero in odd dimensions, I show that the odd-dimensional formula has a predictive content.
DIMENSION STABILIZED FIXED PHOTOGRAPHIC TYPE EMULSION AND A METHOD FOR PRODUCING SAME
Gilbert, F.C.
1962-03-13
A process is given for stabilizing the dimensions of fixed gelatin-base photographic type emulsions containing silver halide, and particularly to such emulsions containing large amounts of silver chloride for use as nuclear track emulsions, so that the dimensions of the final product are the same as or in a predetermined fixed ratio to the dimensions of the emulsions prior to exposure. The process comprises contacting an exposed, fixed emulsion with a solution of wood rosin dissolved in ethyl alcohol for times corresponding to the dimensions desired, and thereafter permitting the alcohol to evaporate. (AEC)
郑晖; 张崇宏; 孙博; 杨义涛; 白彬; 宋银; 赖新春
2013-01-01
The phase separation process in a three-dimensional lattice gas model with a low volume ratio c = 0.01 was studied. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the evolution behaviors of sc, fcc, bcc lattices, and 5 relative temperatures T/Tc = 0.45-0.85 were simulated. It was found that the structure factor functions did not satisfy the scaling relationship, and the growth index was 1/6, less than the value of Lifshitz-Slyozov theory.% 采用 Monte Carlo 模拟方法研究了小体积比三维格子气模型中的相分离过程,比较了 sc, fcc, bcc 等3种晶格类型和 T/Tc =0.45-0.85等5个相对温度的系统演化行为,计算了系统的结构因子函数,发现结构因子在相分离早期不满足标度关系,生长指数等于1/6,小于经典 Lifshitz-Slyozov 理论的值.
Dongjie Fu
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Understanding the spatial patterns of urban land use at both the macro and the micro levels is a central issue in global change studies. Due to the nonlinear features associated with land use spatial patterns, it is currently necessary to provide some distinct analysis methods to analyze them across a range of remote sensing imagery resolutions. The objective of our study is to quantify urban land use patterns from various perspectives using multidimensional fractal methods. Three commonly used fractal dimensions, i.e., the boundary dimension, the radius dimension, and the information entropy dimension, are introduced as the typical indices to examine the complexity, centrality and balance of land use spatial patterns, respectively. Moreover, a new lacunarity dimension for describing the degree of self-organization of urban land use at the macro level is presented. A cloud-free Landsat ETM+ image acquired on 17 September 2010 was used to extract land use information in Wuhan, China. The results show that there are significant linear relationships represented by good statistical fitness related to these four indices. The results indicate that rapid urbanization has substantially affected the urban landscape pattern, and different land use types show different spatial patterns in response. This analysis reveals that multiple fractal/nonfractal indices provides a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of urban land use spatial patterns than any single fractal dimension index. These findings can help us to gain deeper insight into the complex spatial patterns of urban land use.
Research of RADIUS in access convergence router%RADIUS协议在ACR中的研究
单康康; 张兴明
2011-01-01
针对大规模接入汇聚路由器(ACR)可运营的要求,根据ACR用户实际业务需求提出了在ACR中利用远程用户拨号认证协议(RADIUS)实现AAA的方案,制定了相应的RADIUS报文数据项,最后给出了RADIUS单元模块的实现.%To fulfil the operational requirements of the Access Convergence Router (ACR) , a method in which RADIUS is incorperated into the ACR to better serve the actual needs of users and facilitate an AAA scheme, is proposed. This paper also presents the related attributes of RADIUS packets. Finally, the realization of RADIUS module is presented.
Asymptotic Normalization Coefficient of 27P→26Si+p and Radius of 27P Halo
GUO Bing; LI Zhi-Hong; LIU Wei-Ping; BAI Xi-Xiang
2006-01-01
The asymptotic normalization coefficient of the virtual decay 27P→26Si+p is extracted to be 1840±240 fm-1 from the peripheral 26Mg(d,p)27Mg reaction using charge symmetry of mirror pair,for the first time.It is then used to derive the rms radius of the valence proton in the ground state of 27P.We obtain the rms radius 1/2=4.57±0.36 fm,significantly larger than the matter radius of 27P.The probability of the valence proton outside the matter radius of 27P is found to be 73%.The present work supports the conclusion that the 27P ground state has a proton halo structure.
Ambipolar Diffusion in Direct-Current Positive Column with Variations in Radius of Discharge Tube
D. AKBAR; S. BILIKMEN
2006-01-01
@@ The ambipolar diffusion and argon ion mobility as functions of the reduced electric field and pressure times the tube radius are investigated in a weakly ionized non-uniform glow discharge plasma system.
Mitigation Effect of Finite Larmor Radius on Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in Z-Pinch Implosions
邱孝明; 黄林; 简广德
2002-01-01
Based on the framework of magnetohydrodynamic theory, a simple model is proposed to study the mitigation effect of finite Larmor radius on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions. In this model, taking account of Ti ≥ Te in Z-pinch implosions we believe that the magnetohydrodynamic plasma responds to a perturbation (～ exp [i (k. x - ωt)]) at frequency (ω + ik2⊥ρ2iΩi) instead of frequency ω, where k2⊥ρ2i is due to the finite Larmor radius effects expressed from the generalkinetic theory of magnetized plasma. Therefore the linearized continuity and momentum equations for the perturbed mass-density and velocity include the finite Larmor radius effects. The calculations indicate that, in the wavenumber region of interest, the finite Larmor radius effects can mitigate the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Z-pinch implosions.
Water Well Locations - MO 2010 Public Water System Wells Half-Mile Radius (SHP)
NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This shapefile represents a one-half mile radius around public water system (PWS) wells. This data set does not include wells classified as plugged, observation,...
Optimization research of sextant fan baffle curvature radius in shell and tube heat exchanger
Jin, M.; Liu, H. J.; Wang, X. Y.
2017-09-01
For a high shell side pressure drop of the conventional segmental baffles in shell and tube heat exchanger, a novel sextant fan baffle was put forward. To research the influence of baffle curvature radius of the sextant fan baffled shell and tube heat exchanger (SFTHX) on the shell side pressure drop, the heat transfer coefficient and the comprehensive heat transfer performance, six different curvature radius baffles were numerically simulated and experimental studied in this paper. Based on the numerically simulation results, under the same inlet flow conditions, a better comprehensive heat transfer performance can be found in SFTHX with the baffle curvature radius of 1 D, which is higher by 0.84-6.85% more than that of the others. Moreover, the experimental investigation data of SFTHX with baffle curvature radius of 1 D indicates that the numerically simulation can well predict the flow and heat transfer characteristics with the experiment.
Dimensions of Attractors in Pinched Skew Products
Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.
2013-05-01
We study dimensions of strange non-chaotic attractors and their associated physical measures in so-called pinched skew products, introduced by Grebogi and his coworkers in 1984. Our main results are that the Hausdorff dimension, the pointwise dimension and the information dimension are all equal to one, although the box-counting dimension is known to be two. The assertion concerning the pointwise dimension is deduced from the stronger result that the physical measure is rectifiable. Our findings confirm a conjecture by Ding, Grebogi and Ott from 1989.
Dimensions of attractors in pinched skew products
Gröger, M
2011-01-01
We study dimensions of strange non-chaotic attractors and their associated physical measures in so-called pinched skew products, introduced by Grebogi and his coworkers in 1984. Our main results are that the Hausdorff dimension, the pointwise dimension and the information dimension are all equal to one, although the box-counting dimension is known to be two. The assertion concerning the pointwise dimension is deduced from the stronger result that the physical measure is rectifiable. Our findings confirm a conjecture by Ding, Grebogi and Ott from 1989.
Scaling and universality in two dimensions
Bellotti, Filipe Furlan; Frederico, T.; Yamashita, M. T.
2011-01-01
The momentum space zero-range model is used to investigate universal properties of three interacting particles confined to two dimensions. The pertinent equations are first formulated for a system of two identical and one distinct particle and the two different two-body subsystems are characterized...... by two-body energies and masses. The three-body energy in units of one of the two-body energies is a universal function of the other two-body energy and the mass ratio. We derive convenient analytical formulae for calculations of the three-body energy as a function of these two independent parameters...... and exhibit the results as universal curves. In particular, we show that the three-body system can have any number of stable bound states. When the mass ratio of the distinct to identical particles is greater than 0.22, we find that at most two stable bound states exist, while for two heavy and one light mass...
Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter
1995-01-01
hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....
Distal radius fracture after Sauvé-Kapandji procedure in a rheumatoid arthritis patient.
Ochi, Kensuke; Horiuchi, Yukio; Matsumura, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsukazu; Takei, Terue; Yabe, Hiroki
2012-04-01
We report a case of distal radius fracture after a Sauvé-Kapandji procedure combined with synovectomy and tendon transfer in a rheumatoid arthritis patient. This case shared several unusual features that were also seen in a previously reported case. Based on these features, we discuss favorable surgical treatment for the rheumatoid wrist with extensor tendon rupture, and also the optimal treatment for distal radius fracture after such procedures.
indications of r-mode oscillations in soho/mdi solar radius measurements
Sturrock, P A; Gough, D O; Scargle, J D
2015-01-01
Analysis of solar radius measurements acquired by the Michelson Doppler Imager on the SOHO spacecraft supports previously reported evidence of solar internal r-mode oscillations in Mt Wilson radius data and in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The frequencies of these oscillations are compatible with oscillations in a putative inner tachocline that separates a slowly rotating core from the radiative envelope.
Bahari, Syah
2007-07-01
Fracture of the distal radius from low energy trauma is a common presentation to orthopaedic trauma services. This fragility type fracture is associated with underlying osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a \\'silent disease\\' where fragility fracture is a common presentation. Orthopaedic surgeons may be the only physician that these patients encounter. We found a high percentage of female patients who sustained a fragility fracture of the distal radius have an underlying osteoporosis. Further management of osteoporosis is important to prevent future fragility fractures.
Effect of the Finite Ion Larmor Radius on the Kelvin‐Helmholtz Instability
Melchior, Henning; Popovich, M.
1968-01-01
The Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability is described with the effects of the finite ion Larmor radius included. The growth rate is computed for several values of the velocity shear and different density profiles. © 1968 American Institute of Physics......The Kelvin‐Helmholtz instability is described with the effects of the finite ion Larmor radius included. The growth rate is computed for several values of the velocity shear and different density profiles. © 1968 American Institute of Physics...
Inequalities on the Inner Radius of Univalency and the Norm of Pre-Schwarzian Derivative
Tao CHENG; Yue Ming KANG; Ji Xiu CHEN
2009-01-01
In this paper, we get a lower bound of inner radius of univalency of Schwarzian derivative by means of the norm of pre-Schwarzian derivative. Furthermore, we apply the theory of Universal Teichmuller Space to explain its geometric meaning which shows the relationship between the inner radius in Universal Teichmuller Space embedded by Schwarzian derivative and the norm defined in Universal Teichmuller Space embedded by pre-Schwarzian derivative.
MD simulation of the effect of contact area and tip radius on nanoindentation
CHEN; Shangda; KE; Fujiu
2004-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation are performed on monocrystal copper. A new "contact atoms" method is presented for calculating the contact area. Compared with conventional methods, this method can provide the contact area more accurately not only for sink-in but also for pile-up situation. The effect of tip radius on indentation is investigated too. The results indicate that the measured hardness of the material will become higher as the tip radius increases.
Carpal tunnel syndrome: A rare manifestation of distal radius osteoid osteoma.
Basran, Sukhvinder Singh; Kumar, Sandeep; Jameel, Javed; Sajid, Imran
2015-09-01
Osteoid Osteoma is a benign bone tumor that normally affects long bones and rarely affects distal radius. Because of its nonspecific presentation in the wrist, it remains a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of Osteoid Osteoma at distal radius having symptoms resembling that of carpal tunnel syndrome. The diagnosis was confirmed preoperatively with X-rays; bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI, later histological examination confirmed the diagnoses. Surgical excision lead to a dramatic improvement in the condition of the patient.
Di Lorenzo, N; Camperchioli, I; Gaspari, A L
2007-12-01
We illustrate our experience with a new class of instruments, the mechanical manipulators (MM), whose main features are an improved mobility, and ergonomy and a modular structure. A specific MM, the Radius Surgical System (RADIUS), has been used both for educational purposes as well as in clinical studies, demonstrating that it can represent an efficient tool to support surgeons performing surgical complex procedures, with a short learning curve for the postural attitude.
Mass-Radius Relations of Z and Higgs-Like Bosons
Lehnert B.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Relations between the rest mass and the effective radius are deduced for the Z boson and the experimentally discovered Higgs-like boson, in terms of a revised quantum electrodynamic (RQED theory. The latter forms an alternative to the Standard Model of elementary particles. This results in an effective radius of the order of 10 E-18 m for a rest mass of 125 GeV.
Astrophysics of extreme mass ratio inspiral sources
Hopman, C
2007-01-01
Compact remnants on orbits with peri-apses close to the Schwarzschild radius of a massive black hole (MBH) lose orbital energy by emitting gravitational waves (GWs) and spiral in. Scattering with other stars allows successful inspiral of such extreme mass ratio inspiral sources (EMRIs) only within small distances, a < few \\times 0.01 pc from the MBH. The event rate of EMRIs is therefore dominated by the stellar dynamics and content in the inner few \\times 0.01 pc. I discuss the relevant dynamical aspects and resulting estimated event rates of EMRIs. Subjects considered include the loss-cone treatment of inspiral sources; mass segregation; resonant relaxation; and alternative routes to EMRI formation such as tidal binary disruptions, stellar formation in disks and tidal capture of massive main sequence stars. The EMRI event rate is estimated to be of order few \\times 10^2/Gyr per MBH, giving excellent prospects for observation by LISA.
D 6ℛ4 amplitudes in various dimensions
Pioline, Boris
2015-04-01
Four-graviton couplings in the low energy effective action of type II string vacua compactified on tori are strongly constrained by supersymmetry and U-duality. While the ℛ4 and D 4ℛ4 couplings are known exactly in terms of Langlands-Eisenstein series of the U-duality group, the D 6ℛ4 couplings are not nearly as well understood. Exploiting the coincidence of the U-duality group in D = 6 with the T-duality group in D = 5, we propose an exact formula for the D 6ℛ4 couplings in type II string theory compactified on T 4, in terms of a genus-two modular integral plus a suitable Eisenstein series. The same modular integral computes the two-loop correction to D 6ℛ4 in 5 dimensions, but here provides the non-perturbative completion of the known perturbative terms in D = 6. This proposal hinges on a systematic re-analysis of the weak coupling and large radius of the D 6ℛ4 in all dimensions D ≥ 3, which fills in some gaps and resolves some inconsistencies in earlier studies.
D$^{6}$ℛ$^{4}$ amplitudes in various dimensions
Pioline, Boris
2015-01-01
Four-graviton couplings in the low energy effective action of type II string vacua compactified on tori are strongly constrained by supersymmetry and U-duality. While the $R^4$ and $D^4 R^4$ couplings are known exactly in terms of Langlands-Eisenstein series of the U-duality group, the $D^6 R^4$ couplings are not nearly as well understood. Exploiting the coincidence of the U-duality group in $D=6$ with the T-duality group in $D=5$, we propose an exact formula for the $D^6 R^4$ couplings in type II string theory compactified on $T^4$, in terms of a genus-two modular integral plus a suitable Eisenstein series. The same modular integral computes the two-loop correction to $D^6 R^4$ in 5 dimensions, but here provides the non-perturbative completion of the known perturbative terms in $D=6$. This proposal hinges on a systematic re-analysis of the weak coupling and large radius of the $D^6 R^4$ in all dimensions $D\\geq 3$, which fills in some gaps and resolves some inconsistencies in earlier studies.
The Compton-Schwarzschild relations in higher dimensions
Lake, Matthew J
2016-01-01
In three spatial dimensions, the Compton wavelength $(R_C \\propto M$) and Schwarzschild radius $(R_S \\propto M^{-1}$) are dual under the transformation $M \\rightarrow M_{P}^2/M$, where $M_{P}$ is the Planck mass. This suggests that there is a fundamental link -- termed the Black Hole Uncertainty Principle or Compton-Schwarzschild correspondence -- between elementary particles in the $M M_{P}$ regime. In the presence of $n$ extra dimensions, compactified on some scale $R_E$, one expects $R_S \\propto M^{1/(1+n)}$ for $R < R_E$, which breaks this duality. However, it may be restored in some circumstances because the effective Compton wavelength depends on the form of the $(3+n)$-dimensional wavefunction. If this is spherically symmetric, then one still has $R_C \\propto M^{-1}$, as in the $3$-dimensional case. The effective Planck length is then increased and the Planck mass reduced, allowing the possibility of TeV quantum gravity and black hole production at the LHC. However, if the wave function is pancaked...
Perez, Amanda G M; Rodrigues, Ana A; Luzo, Angela C M; Lana, José F S D; Belangero, William D; Santana, Maria H A
2014-08-01
Fibrin networks are obtained through activation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for use in tissue regeneration. The importance of fibrin networks relies on mediation of release of growth factors, proliferation of tissue cells and rheological properties of the fibrin gels. Activation of PRP usually involves the decomposition of fibrinogen by agonists, in a wide range of concentrations. Therefore fibrin networks with a large structural diversity are formed, making comparative evaluations difficult. In order to standardize the fibrin networks, we used the statistical techniques central composite rotatable design and response-surface analysis, to correlate the radius of the fibers with the ratios between the agonists (autologous serum/calcium chloride) and agonist/PRP. From an individual and interactive analysis of the variables, architectures characterized by thick, medium and thin fibers were delineated on the response-surface. Furthermore, the architectures were correlated with coagulation time. This approach is valuable for standardizing the PRP preparation for clinical applications.