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Sample records for radiotherapie conformationnelle du

  1. Chemotherapy and intensity modulated conformational radiotherapy for locally advanced pancreas cancers; Chimiotherapie et radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite pour les cancers du pancreas localement evolues

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    Huguet, F. [Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Wu, A.; Zhang, Z.; Winston, C.; Reidy, D.; Ho, A.; Allen, P.; Karyn, G. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study of the tolerance and survival of 48 patients who have been treated by a chemotherapy followed by a chemotherapy concomitant with an intensity-modulated radiotherapy for a locally advanced pancreas cancer. Results are discussed in terms of toxicity, cancer response, operability, survival rate. Tolerance is good. Local control rates, global survival rates and secondary resection rates are promising. Short communication

  2. Nasopharynx carcinoma treatment: from the conventional radiotherapy to the conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation; Traitement du carcinome du nasopharynx: de la radiotherapie conventionnelle a la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

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    Mokaouim, K.; Grehange, G.; Truc, G.; Peingnaux, K.; Martin, E.; Zanetta, S.; Bruchon, Y.; Bonnetain, F.; Maingon, P. [Centre Georges-Francois Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the impact of factors linked to the radiotherapy realisation on the local and locoregional control, the global survival, the survival without disease of patients suffering of naso-pharynx carcinoma. Conclusion: the patients suffering of a nasopharynx carcinoma treated by irradiation associated to chemotherapy have an improved global survival and an improved survival without disease. The conformal radiotherapy with or without modulated intensity reduce the risk of serous otitis, trismus and xerostomia at long term. It seems necessary to realize multi centric studies with a longer period of follow up before asserting the advantages of the I.M.R.T. in comparison to the classical and conformal technique in the treatment of naso-pharynx carcinomas. (N.C.)

  3. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancers with bilateral irradiation of the neck: preliminary results; Radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures avec irradiation bilaterale du cou: resultats preliminaires

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    Lapeyre, M.; Mege, A.; Mege, P.; Racadot, S.; Marchal, C. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de radiotherapie, avenue de Bourgogne, Unite de radiotherapie externe, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marchesi, V.; Aletti, P.; Noel, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de radiotherapie, avenue de Bourgogne, Unite de radiophysique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A.; Marchal, C. [Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Universite Henri-Poincare, Centre de Recherche en Automatique de Nancy, UMR CNRS 7039 Nancy-I, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2004-06-01

    Purpose. - To report preliminary results of a prospective study of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNC) with bilateral irradiation of the neck. Patients and methods. - At the Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, 23 patients have been treated with IMRT for HNC since January 2002-August 2003. The first 10 patients with a minimum follow-up of 3 months were analyzed. All tumors were oropharyngeal. There were four females and six males, with a mean age of 50 years (range 39-66). Stages were I-II in eight and III-IV in two. CTV1 was microscopic disease and N0 neck (prescribed dose: 50 Gy) and CTV2 was macroscopic disease and the volume at risk (prescribed dose: 66-70 Gy). PTV were CTV + 5 mm. Patient's immobilization consisted of a five-point head neck shoulder thermoplastic mask. Set-up verifications were done by semi-automatically matching portal images and digitized reconstructed radiographs. IMRT used dynamic multi-leaf collimation. Five patients (group A) received 50 Gy IMRT (two post-operative and three with a brachytherapy boost with a mean dose: 27.5 Gy), and five patients (group B) received 66-70 Gy IMRT (four post-operative). Acute and late normal tissue effects were graded according to the RTOG-EORTC radiation morbidity scoring criteria. Results. - With a median follow-up of 7.4 months (range 3-18.5), no patient died or had loco-regional relapse. The displacements were <4 mm in 98% cases. CTV1 and 2 received 95% of the prescribed dose in 100% of the volume. On average the mean dose to the contralateral parotid was 25.5 Gy for group A vs. 31 Gy for group B (P = 0.09). Mean doses <26 Gy were obtained in three of five patients in group A vs. zero of five patients in group B (P = 0.04). Acute skin toxicities were grade 1 in five patients, grade 2 in four and grade 3 in one. Acute mucositis cases were grade 1 in three patients, grade 2 in five and localized grade 3 in two. At 3 months, 50% of the patients had a grade

  4. Conformal radiotherapy by intensity modulation of pediatrics tumors; Radiotherapie conformationnelle par modulation d'intensite des tumeurs pediatriques

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    Leseur, J.; Le Prise, E. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Rennes (France); Carrie, C. [Centre Leon Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Bernier, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Beneyton, V. [Centre Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Mahe, M.A.; Supiot, S. [Centre Rene-Gauducheau, 44 - Nantes (France)

    2009-10-15

    The objective of this study is to take stock on the validated and potential indications of the conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation ( intensity modulated radiotherapy I.M.R.T.) in pediatrics and to propose recommendations for its use as well as the adapted dose constraints. About 40 to 50% of children treated for a cancer are irradiated. The I.M.R.T., by linear accelerator or helical tomo-therapy has for aim to give a homogenous dose to the target volume and to save organs at risk. Its use in pediatrics seems particularly interesting because of the complexity of target volumes and the closeness of organs at risk. In compensation for these positive elements, the importance of low doses irradiation given in big volumes makes fear event consequences on growth and an increased incidence of secondary cancers in children suffering from tumors with high cure rates and long life expectancy. (N.C.)

  5. Conformal radiotherapy of locally advanced bile duct carcinoma; Radiotherapie conformationnelle des cholangiocarcinomes de la voie biliaire principale localement evolues

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    Bouras, N.; Caudry, M.; Bonnel, C.; Trouette, R.; Demeaux, H.; Maire, J.P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Saric, J.; Rullier, E. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital Saint-Andre, Service de Chirurgie Viscerale et de Transplantation Hepatique, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2002-02-01

    Purpose. - Retrospective study of 23 patients treated with conformal radiotherapy for a locally advanced bile duct carcinoma. Patients and methods. - Eight cases were irradiated after a radical resection (RO), because they were N+; seven after microscopically incomplete resection (R1) ; seven were not resected (R2). A dose of 45 of 50 Gy was delivered, followed by a boost up to 60 Gy in R1 and R2 groups. Concomitant chemotherapy was given in 15 cases. Results.-Late toxicity included a stenosis of the duodenum, and one of the biliary anastomosis. Two patients died from cholangitis, the mechanism of which remains unclear. Five patients are in complete remission, six had a local relapse, four developed a peritoneal carcinosis, and six distant metastases. Actuarial survival rate is 75%, 28% and 7% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively (median: 16.5 months). Seven patients are still alive with a 4 to 70 months follow-up. Survival is similar in the 3 small subgroups. The poor local control among RON+ cases might be related to the absence of a boost to the 'tumor bed'. In R1 patients, relapses were mainly distant metastases, where'as local and peritoneal recurrences predominated in R2. Conclusion. - Conformal radio-chemotherapy delivering 60 Gy represents a valuable palliative approach in locally advanced biliary carcinoma. (authors)

  6. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal carcinoma; Radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers de l'anus

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    Peiffert, D.; Moreau-Claeys, M.V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Alexis-Vautrin, 6, avenue de Bourgogne, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    Anal canal carcinoma are highly curable by irradiation, combined with chemotherapy in locally advanced disease, with preservation of sphincter function. The clinical target volume for the nodes is extended, often including the inguinal nodes, which is not usual for other pelvic tumours. Acute and late effects are correlated with the volume and dose delivered to organs at risk, i. e. small bowel, bladder and increased by concomitant chemotherapy. Intensity modulated irradiation (IMRT) makes it possible to optimize the dose distribution in this 'complex U shaped' volume, while maintaining the dose distribution for the target volumes. The conversion from conformal irradiation to IMRT necessitates good knowledge of the definition and skills to delineate target volumes and organs at risk, including new volumes needed to optimize the dose distribution. Dosimetric and clinical benefits of IMRT are described, based on early descriptions and evidence-based publication. The growing development of IMRT in anal canal radiotherapy must be encouraged, and long-term benefits should be soon published. Radiation oncologists should precisely learn IMRT recommendations before starting the technique, and evaluate its early and late results for adverse effects, but also for long-term tumour control. (authors)

  7. Target volume delineation for head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Delineation des volumes cibles des cancers des voies aerodigestives superieures en radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

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    Lapeyre, M.; Toledano, I.; Bourry, N. [Departement de radiotherapie, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France); Bailly, C. [Unite de radiodiagnostic, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France); Cachin, F. [Unite de medecine nucleaire, centre Jean-Perrin, 58, rue Montalembert, BP 5026, 63011 Clermont-Ferrand cedex 1 (France)

    2011-10-15

    This article describes the determination and the delineation of the target volumes for head-and-neck cancers treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The delineation of the clinical target volumes (CTV) on the computerized tomography scanner (CT scan) requires a rigorous methodology due to the complexity of head-and-neck anatomy. The clinical examination with a sketch of pretreatment tumour extension, the surgical and pathological reports and the adequate images (CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) are necessary for the delineation. The target volumes depend on the overall strategy: sequential IMRT or simultaneous integrated boost-IMRT (SIB-IMRT). The concept of selectivity of the potential subclinical disease near the primary tumor and the selection of neck nodal targets are described according to the recommendations and the literature. The planing target volume (PTV), mainly reflecting setup errors (random and systematic), results from a uniform 4-5 mm expansion around the CTV. We propose the successive delineation of: (1) the gross volume tumour (GTV); (2) the 'high risk' CTV1 around the GTV or including the postoperative tumour bed in case of positive margins or nodal extra-capsular spread (65-70 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (3) the CTV2 'intermediate risk' around the CTV1 for SIB-IMRT (59-63 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (4) the 'low-risk' CTV3 (54-56 Gy in 30-35 fractions); (5) the PTVs. (authors)

  8. Statistical process control applied to intensity modulated radiotherapy pretreatment controls with portal dosimetry;Maitrise statistique des processus appliquee aux controles avant traitement par dosimetrie portale en radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

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    Villani, N.; Noel, A. [Laboratoire de recherche en radiophysique, CRAN UMR 7039, Nancy universite-CNRS, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Villani, N.; Gerard, K.; Marchesi, V.; Huger, S.; Noel, A. [Departement de radiophysique, centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Francois, P. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose The first purpose of this study was to illustrate the contribution of statistical process control for a better security in intensity modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) treatments. This improvement is possible by controlling the dose delivery process, characterized by pretreatment quality control results. So, it is necessary to put under control portal dosimetry measurements (currently, the ionisation chamber measurements were already monitored by statistical process control thanks to statistical process control tools). The second objective was to state whether it is possible to substitute ionisation chamber with portal dosimetry in order to optimize time devoted to pretreatment quality control. Patients and methods At Alexis-Vautrin center, pretreatment quality controls in I.M.R.T. for prostate and head and neck treatments were performed for each beam of each patient. These controls were made with an ionisation chamber, which is the reference detector for the absolute dose measurement, and with portal dosimetry for the verification of dose distribution. Statistical process control is a statistical analysis method, coming from industry, used to control and improve the studied process quality. It uses graphic tools as control maps to follow-up process, warning the operator in case of failure, and quantitative tools to evaluate the process toward its ability to respect guidelines: this is the capability study. The study was performed on 450 head and neck beams and on 100 prostate beams. Results Control charts, showing drifts, both slow and weak, and also both strong and fast, of mean and standard deviation have been established and have shown special cause introduced (manual shift of the leaf gap of the multi-leaf collimator). Correlation between dose measured at one point, given with the E.P.I.D. and the ionisation chamber has been evaluated at more than 97% and disagreement cases between the two measurements were identified. Conclusion The study allowed to

  9. Three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3d-crt) in prostate carcinoma: for whom and how?; La radiotherapie conformationnelle dans le cancer de la prostate: pour qui et comment?

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    Bey, P.; Beckendorf, V.; Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2002-05-01

    External radiotherapy is one of the modalities use o cure localized prostate carcinoma. Most of localized prostate carcinomas, specially those of the intermediate prognostic group, may benefit from escalated dose above 70 Gy at least as regard biochemical and clinical relapse free survival. 3D-CRT allows a reduction of the dose received by organs at risk and an increase of prostate dose over 70 Gy. It is on the way to become a standard. Intensity modulated radiation therapy increases dose homogeneity and reduces rectal dose. These methods necessitate rigorous procedures in reproducibility, delineation of volumes, dosimetry, daily treatment. They need also technological and human means. It is clear that localized prostate cancer is a good example for evaluation of these new radiotherapy modalities. (author)

  10. Mixing of multi-modal images for conformational radiotherapy: application to patient re positioning; Fusion d`images multi-modales pour la radiotherapie conformationnelle: application au repositionnement du patient

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    Vassal, P

    1998-06-29

    This study shows a procedure of patient re positioning by comparative evaluation between the position of the patient and the theoretical expected position of the patient; the stagger between the two information gives the error of installation in translation and rotation. A correction is calculated and applied to the treatment environment (position and orientation of the patient, position and orientation of the irradiation source). The control system allows to determine the precise position of the tumor volume. The echography allows to determine the position of an organ.The surface captor is used to localize the tumors of the face or of the brain, with the respect to the face, the acquisition and the treatment of information take only few minutes. The X rays imager is applied for the localization of bones structures. (N.C.)

  11. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and pacemaker; Radiotherapie pour un cancer du sein et stimulateur cardiaque

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    Menard, J.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.A.; Dendale, R.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Marchand, V.; Mazal, A.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.M. [Oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Kirov, K.M.; Esteve, M. [Departement d' anesthesie-reanimation-douleur, institut Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose. - Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic Irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. We studied the breast cancer patients who needed breast and/or chest wall and lymph node irradiation to assess the feasibility and tolerance in this population of patients. Patients and methods. - From November 2008 to December 2009, more than 900 patients received radiotherapy for their breast cancer in our department using megavoltage linear accelerator (X 4-6 MV and electrons). Among them, seven patients were with permanent pacemaker. All patients have been treated to the breast and chest wall and/or lymph nodes. Total dose to breast and/or chest wall was 50 Gy/25 fractions and 46 Gy/23 fractions to lymph nodes. Patients who underwent conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation were boosted when indicated to tumour bed with 16 Gy/8 fractions. All patients were monitored everyday in presence of radiation oncologist to follow the function of their pacemaker. All pacemakers were controlled before and after radiotherapy by the patients' cardiologist. Results. - Seven patients were referred in our department for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy. Among them, only one patient was declined for radiotherapy and underwent mastectomy without radiotherapy. In four cases the pacemaker was repositioned before the beginning of radiotherapy. Six patients, aged between 48 and 84 years underwent irradiation for their breast cancer. Four patients were treated with conserving surgery followed by breast radiotherapy and two with mastectomy followed by chest wall and internal mammary chain, supra- and infra-clavicular lymph node irradiation. The dose to the pacemaker generator was kept below 2 Gy. There was no pacemaker dysfunction observed during the radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The multidisciplinary work with position change of the pacemaker

  12. Prostate cancer radiotherapy in elderly person; Radiotherapie du cancer de la prostate chez la personne agee

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    Serre, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Nancy (France)

    2011-10-15

    The author discusses the issue of prostate cancer radiotherapy in the case of elderly persons. The choice of the therapeutic strategy (local, hormonotherapy, simple monitoring) is complex. Different aspects must be considered: the carcinologic situation assessment, the patient health condition, the patient life expectancy, and the possible side effects of treatment. Radiotherapy appears to be a major therapeutic asset, but dose levels, toxicity effects must then be considered. Short communication

  13. Radiotherapy for cutaneous cancers with xeroderma pigmentosum; Radiotherapie des cancers cutanes au cours du xeroderma pigmentosum

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    Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Turki, H.; Abdelmoula, M.; Frikha, M.; Daoud, J. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, route Majida-Bouleila, 3029 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose. - To analyze the therapeutic results of cutaneous cancers on xeroderma pigmentosum through a series of 15 patients treated by radiotherapy. Patients and methods. - Between 1993 and 2006, 15 patients with xeroderma pigmentosum and having cutaneous cancers were treated in the Radiotherapy Department of university hospital Habib-Bourguiba of Sfax in Tunisia. Seventy-three percent of the cases occurred in male patients and the mean age of appearance of the first tumour was 18.2 years. Tumour histology was squamous cell carcinoma in 74% of the cases. The total number of cutaneous tumours was 84. Ten patients had a surgical resection. Four patients did not respond to chemotherapy. The modality of irradiation was decided according to the size, thickness and localization of the tumour. The dose of radiotherapy was 60 Gy or equivalent with classic irradiation. Results. - The total number of lesions treated with radiotherapy was 64. Forty-three lesions were treated with contact-therapy, ten with brachytherapy and 11 with cobalt-therapy. The following acute complications were observed: cutaneous infection (53.3% of patients), radio-epithelitis (80% of patients) and necroses (33.3% of patients). Evaluation after treatment showed a clinical complete remission in 73% of the cases. Late effects were noted in seven cases: telangiectasia and cutaneous atrophy. A recurrence in the irradiated zone was observed in one case. A nodal metastasis was observed in two cases. Another patient presented lung metastases. After a median follow up of 37.2 months, four patients died, seven are alive with cutaneous cancer and four are alive with complete remission. Conclusion. - Radiotherapy is a possible and effective therapeutic alternative. Dose and methods are not defined for xeroderma pigmentosum. (authors)

  14. Intensity modulated radiation therapy: Analysis of patient specific quality control results, experience of Rene-Gauducheau Centre; Radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite: analyse des resultats des controles precliniques, experience du centre Rene-Gauducheau

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    Chiavassa, S.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire, S.; Munos-Llagostera, C.; Delpon, G.; Lisbona, A. [Service de physique medicale, centre Rene-Gauducheau, CLCC Nantes Atlantique, site hospitalier Nord, boulevard Jacques-Monod, 44805 Nantes Saint-Herblain cedex (France)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose. - Systematic verifications of patient's specific intensity-modulated radiation treatments are usually performed with absolute and relative measurements. The results constitute a database which allows the identification of potential systematic errors. Material and methods. - We analyzed 1270 beams distributed in 232 treatment plans. Step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation treatments were performed with a Clinac (6 and 23 MV) and sliding window intensity-modulated radiation treatments with a Novalis (6 MV). Results. - The distributions obtained do not show systematic error and all the control meet specified tolerances. Conclusion. - These results allow us to reduce controls specific patients for treatments performed under identical conditions (location, optimization and segmentation parameters of treatment planning system, etc.). (authors)

  15. Recommendations for a head and neck IMRT quality assurance protocol; Recommandations pour un protocole d'assurance de qualite de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite des cancers de la tete et du cou

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    Zefkili, S. [Institut Curie, Service de Physique Medicale, 75 - Paris (France); Tomsej, M. [Cliniques Univ. Saint Luc, Service de Radiotherapie, Bruxelles (Belgium); Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bidault, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Unite de Radiophysique, 21 - Dijon (France); Bridier, A. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France). Service de Radio-Physique; Marcie, S. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Unite de Radiophysique, 06 - Nice (France)

    2004-12-01

    Head and neck tumors represent very interesting targets for IMRT techniques because of the complex shape of the structures and the organs at risk close by. The use of this kind of techniques requires a quality assurance protocol. The physicists of the GORTEC group shared their experience to define some recommendations in order to draw up a QA protocol. The dosimetric verification of the treatment plans (in terms of absolute and relative dose), the control of the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the use of a record and verify system to control the different parameters form the main parts of these recommendations. Each chapter comprises a description of the different methods, recommendations concerning the equipment, the adopted tolerances, the frequency of controls. At the end of each chapter, a table summarizes the main actions to carry out. These recommendations will allow to harmonize our practices whatever the softwares and the accelerator that are being used. They will simplify the task of the teams that wish to implement IMRT for head and neck tumors. (author)

  16. Repopulation of FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma during fractionated radiotherapy correlates with reoxygenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, Cordula; Zips, Daniel; Krause, Mechthild; Schoene, Kerstin; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Hoinkis, Cordelia; Thames, Howard D.; Baumann, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: FaDu human squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu-hSCC) showed a clear-cut time factor during fractionated radiotherapy (RT) under ambient blood flow. It remained unclear whether this is caused solely by proliferation or if radioresistance resulting from increasing hypoxia contributed to this phenomenon. To address this question, repopulation of clonogenic FaDu cells during fractionated RT under clamp hypoxia was determined by local tumor control assays, and compared to the results after irradiation with the same regimen under ambient blood flow. Methods and Materials: FaDu-hSCC was transplanted into the right hind leg of NMRI nu/nu mice. In the first set of experiments, irradiation was performed under clamp hypoxia. After increasing numbers of 3 Gy fractions (time intervals 24 h or 48 h), graded top-up doses were given to determine the TCD 50 (dose required to control 50% of the tumors). In the second set of experiments, all 3 Gy fractions were applied under ambient conditions, but as in the previous experiments the graded top-up doses were given under clamp hypoxia. A total of 26 TCD 50 assays were performed and analyzed using maximum likelihood techniques. Results: With increasing numbers of daily fractions, the top-up TCD 50 under clamp hypoxia decreased from 39.4 Gy [95% CI 36, 42] after single dose to 19.8 Gy [15, 24] after 18 fractions in 18 days and to 37.8 Gy [31, 44] after 18 fractions in 36 days. The results were consistent with biphasic repopulation, with a switch to rapid repopulation after about 22 days [13, 30]. The clonogen doubling time (T clon ) decreased from 9.8 days [0, 21] in the beginning of RT to 3.4 days after 22 days. Under ambient blood flow the top-up TCD 50 decreased from 37.6 Gy [34, 40] after single dose irradiation to 0 Gy [0, 1] after 18 fractions in 18 days and 22.4 Gy [18, 27] after 18 fractions in 36 days. Similar to results from irradiations under clamp hypoxia, the ambient data were consistent with a biphasic course of clonogen

  17. [Clinical study of bi yan qing du ke li and nasal care in treatment of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hua

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effect of bi yan qing du ke li combined with Nasal Care on the titers of EB virus VCA/IgA and nasopharyngeal symptoms in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma(NPC) after radiotherapy. Sixty NPC patients underwent-radiotherapy were randomly divided into study group (bi yan qing du ke li combined with nasal care, n=30) and control group (bi yan qing du ke li group, n=30). After treatment, the geometric mean titer of VCA/IgA was 20.5 in study group and 55.6 in control group, respectively (P qing du ke li combined with Nasal Care can significantly decrease the titers of VCA/IgA in NPC patients after-radiotherapy and improve the nasopharyngeal symptoms, which might be helpful to decrease the recurrence rate of NPC.

  18. The recovery of the salivary function in the course of time among patients damaged by a cancer of the O.R.L. sphere treated by conformal irradiation with intensity modulation; La recuperation de la fonction salivaire au cours du temps chez les patients atteints de cancer de la sphere ORL traite par irradiation conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.; Valinta, D.; Banal, P.; Roch, P.; Bensaoula, O.; Labib, A. [Centre Rene-Huguenin, 92 - Saint-Cloud (France); Halimi, P.; Hans, S. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-11-15

    The conformal radiotherapy with intensity modulation (R.C.M.I.) has allowed for 8 patients a partial preservation of the salivary production. The salivary production was insufficient to allow a correct quality of life for patients because the decrease of salivary production had a limited clinical translation. (N.C.)

  19. Debate about breast cancer: 'Cons: Intraoperative radiotherapy'; Debats autour du cancer du sein: 'contre' la radiotherapie peroperatoire

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    Bourgier, C.; Heymann, S.; Verstraet, R.; Biron, B.; Marsiglia, H. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94800 Villejuif (France)

    2011-10-15

    Early breast cancer incidence increases owing to mammography screening. Hypo-fractionated radiotherapy is more and more proposed in women with low local relapse risk breast cancer, especially accelerated partial breast irradiation. Various irradiation modalities have been reported: brachytherapy, intraoperative irradiation, 3D-conformal accelerated partial breast irradiation. We describe limitations of intraoperative irradiation and the advantages of alternative techniques. (authors)

  20. Breast cancer in elderly person: which role for radiotherapy; Cancer du sein chez la personne agee: place de la radiotherapie?

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    Horn, S. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, Lille (France); Cutuli, B. [ICC Reims, Reims (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors briefly discuss the issue and practices of treatment of elderly women suffering from breast cancer. Even if radiotherapy is sometimes forgotten in such cases, disease characteristics and the tolerance capacity of the patient must be considered before implementing treatment protocols. Short communication

  1. Hypo-fractionated radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer in elderly patients; Radiotherapie hypofractionnee dans le traitement du cancer du sein de la personne agee

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    Merikhi, T.; Meziane, A.; Laarit, I.; Bali, M.S.; Bendjazia-Djemaa, A. [CHU de Constantine, Constantine (Algeria)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report an assessment on the long term of the efficiency and toxicity of a hypo-fractionated radiotherapy scheme: 5 Gy on d1 and d3, 6,5 Gy on d15 and d17, and 5 Gy on d29 and d31. The study is based on 144 patients treated between 1990 and 2007. Results are presented in terms of average follow-up, of survival rate without relapse by 5 and 8 years. This treatment could be a good solution to reduce therapeutic delays and a good response to expectations of elderly patients suffering from breast cancer. Short communication

  2. The patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy: specificity and methods; La radioprotection du patient en radiotherapie externe: specificites et methodes

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    Beauvais March, H. [Hopital Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The daily use of high level radiation doses to fight against carcinomas has often led to consider radiation protection as a marginal problem, in this area. But the therapeutic advances, by increasing the life time and life quality have made the side effects unacceptable and revealed the appearance of radioinduced carcinomas. So, it is necessary to practice a patient radiation protection. The general principles of radiation protection are applicable to radiotherapy. (justification, optimization and dose limit, planning of the treatment, quality control of installations). (N.C.)

  3. Rectal cancer: The radiation basis of radiotherapy, target volume; Cancers du rectum: volumes cible de la radiotherapie, bases rationnelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosset, J.F.; Servagi-Vernat, S. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, CHU Jean-Minjoz, 3, boulevard Fleming, 25030 Besancon (France); Crehange, G. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 1, rue du Pr-Marion, 21079 Dijon cedex (France); Azria, D. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Val-d' Aurelle, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Gerard, J.P. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue Valombrose, 06189 Nice (France); Hennequin, C. [Service oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    Since the implementation of preoperative chemo-radiotherapy and meso-rectal excision, the 5-year rates of locoregional failures in T3-T4 N0-N1M0 rectal cancer fell from 25-30% thirty years ago to 5-8% nowadays. A critical analysis of the locoregional failures sites and mechanisms, as well as the identification of nodal extension, helps the radiation oncologist to optimize the radiotherapy target definition. The upper limit of the clinical target volume is usually set at the top of the third sacral vertebra. The lateral pelvic nodes should be included when the tumor is located in the distal part of the rectum. The anal sphincter and the levator muscles should be spared when a conservative surgery is planned. In case of abdomino-perineal excision, the ischio-rectal fossa and the sphincters should be included in the clinical target volume. A confrontation with radiologist and surgeon is mandatory to improve the definition of the target volumes to be treated. (authors)

  4. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Weissberg, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This review highlights developments over the past decade in radiotherapy and attempts to summarize the state of the art in the management of the major diseases in which radiotherapy has a meaningful role. The equipment, radiobiology of radiotherapy and carcinoma of the lung, breast and intestines are highlighted

  5. Irradiation of low rectal cancers; Radiotherapie des carcinomes du bas rectum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardiet, J.M.; Coquard, R.; Romestaing, P.; Fric, D.; Baron, M.H.; Rocher, F.P.; Sentenac, I.; Gerard, J.P. [Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 -Pierre-Benite (France)

    1994-12-31

    The low rectal cancers are treated by anorectal amputation and pose the problem of the sphincter conservation. Some authors extend the clinical definition to developed injuries until 12 cm from the anal margin. The rectal cancer is a frequent tumour which remains serious. When the tumour is low, the treatment consists in an anorectal amputation with a permanent colostomy. The radical non preserving surgery is the usual treatment of these injuries. Until 1960 the rectal adenocarcinoma was considered as a radioresistant tumour because of the impossibility to deliver an enough dose to the tumour by external radiotherapy. But other studies showed that those lesions were radiosensitive and often radiocurable. The medical treatments haven`t yet demonstrated their efficiency in the treatment of the rectal cancer. We`ll study the radiotherapy in the treatment of the low rectal cancer, solely radiotherapy, radiosurgical associations. 32 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Jyothirmayi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Conservative treatment in the form of limited surgery and post-operative radiotherapy is controversial in hand and foot sarcomas, both due to poor radiation tolerance of the palm and sole, and due to technical difficulties in achieving adequate margins.This paper describes the local control and survival of 41 patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the hand or foot treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. The acute and late toxicity of megavoltage radiotherapy to the hand and foot are described. The technical issues and details of treatment delivery are discussed. The factors influencing local control after radiotherapy are analysed.

  7. Implementation of intensity-modulated conformational radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of cervical cancers at the Alexis-Vautrin Centre; Implementation de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI) pour le traitement des cancers du col uterin au centre Alexis-Vautrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renard-Oldrini, S.; Brunaud, C.; Marchesi, V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors discuss the comparison of the treatment plans of eleven patients treated either by conformational irradiation for seven of them, or by intensity-modulated conformational irradiation (IMRT) for four of them. The IMRT results in a good target volume coverage, can better protect the intestine than the conventional irradiation, and therefore is very promising, notably in terms of digestive toxicity. Short communication

  8. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kulikov, V.A.; Mardynskij, Yu.S.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for roentgenotopometric and medicamentous preparation of patients for radiotherapy has been reported in detail. The features of planning and performing of remote, intracavitary and combined therapy in urinary bladder cancer are considered. The more effective methods of radiotherapy have been proposed taking into account own experience as well as literature data. The comparative evaluation of treatment results and prognosis are given. Radiation pathomorphism of tumors and tissues of urinary bladder is considered in detail. The problems of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of complications following radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy in patients with urinary bladder cancer are illustrated widely

  9. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannenmacher, M.; Debus, J.; Wenz, F.

    2006-01-01

    The book is focussed on the actual knowledge on the clinical radiotherapy and radio-oncology. Besides fundamental and general contributions specific organ systems are treated in detail. The book contains the following contributions: Basic principles, radiobiological fundamentals, physical background, radiation pathology, basics and technique of brachytherapy, methodology and technique of the stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-body irradiation, operative radiotherapy, hadron therapy, hpyerthermia, combined radio-chemo-therapy, biometric clinical studies, intensity modulated radiotherapy, side effects, oncological diagnostics; central nervous system and sense organs, head-neck carcinomas, breast cancer, thorax organs, esophagus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, pancreas carcinoma, heptabiliary cancer and liver metastases, rectal carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract, prostate carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, female pelvis, lymphatic system carcinomas, soft tissue carcinoma, skin cancer, bone metastases, pediatric tumors, nonmalignant diseases, emergency in radio-oncology, supporting therapy, palliative therapy

  10. Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sonja; Debus, Jürgen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Solitary plasmocytoma occurring in bone (solitary plasmocytoma of the bone, SBP) or in soft tissue (extramedullary plasmocytoma, EP) can be treated effectively and with little toxicity by local radiotherapy. Ten-year local control rates of up to 90% can be achieved. Patients with multiple myeloma often suffer from symptoms such as pain or neurological impairments that are amenable to palliative radiotherapy. In a palliative setting, short treatment schedules and lower radiation doses are used to reduce toxicity and duration of hospitalization. In future, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) may play a role in a potentially curative regimen with nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

  11. Stage report of the national radiotherapy survey committee May 2009; Rapport d'etape du Comite National de suivi de la radiotherapie mai 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report proposes an assessment of the impact of the national radiotherapy measures present in the road map (November 2007 - March 2009) and describes the creation of a national support unit to manage the operating difficulties of 27 radiotherapy centres. It comments how a transition period between 2009 and 2011 must accompany radiotherapy before the implementation of opposable agreement criteria in 2011, notably through an improvement of recruitment, a support to cooperation between radiotherapy centres, the implementation of a radio-vigilance unit. Finally, it briefly discusses how to prepare the 2011-2013 period.

  12. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistenma, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The need for radiotherapy research is exemplified by the 100,000 cancer patients who will fail treatment locally and/or regionally annually for the next several years but who would benefit from better local treatment modalities. Theoretically, all of the areas of investigation discussed in this projection paper have the potential to significantly improve local-regional treatment of cancer by radiotherapy alone or in combination with other modalities. In many of the areas of investigation discussed in this paper encouraging results have been obtained in cellular and animal tumor studies and in limited studies in humans as well. In the not too distant future the number of patients who would benefit from better local control may increase by tens of thousands if developments in chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy provide a means to eradicate disseminated microscopic foci of cancer. Thus the efforts to improve local-regional control take on even greater significance

  13. Inoperable metastatic giant basal cell trunk carcinoma: radiotherapy can be useful; Carcinome basocellulaire geant du tronc metastatique inoperable: la radiotherapie peut etre utile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mania, A.; Durando, X.; Lapeyre, M. [Centre Jean-Perrin, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Barthelemy, I. [CHU Estaing, Clermont-Ferrand (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors evoke some characteristics of the basal cell carcinoma (slow evolution, local morbidity) and report and discuss the case of a giant basal cell trunk carcinoma, associated with several symptoms (pain, bleeding, anaemia), already metastatic at the moment of diagnosis, and locally treated by irradiation. Due to its size and expansion, this carcinoma was considered as inoperable. An external radiotherapy has been performed and resulted in a significant clinical tumour reduction. But the metastatic risk is high in such cases. Radiotherapy is then a therapeutic option for a local treatment with a durable efficiency. Short communication

  14. Fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy in the treatment of the retinoblastoma: preliminary results; Radiotherapie stereotaxique fractionnee dans le traitement du retinoblastome: resultats preliminaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pica, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service de Radiotherapie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Moeckli, R.; Do, H. [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Lausanne (Switzerland); Balmer, A.; Munier, F. [Hopital ophtalmique Jules-Gonin, Lausanne (Switzerland); Chollet Rivier, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Service d' Anesthesie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-11-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact in term of morbidity at short and long term and the response to the fractionated stereotaxic radiotherapy with a micro multi slides collimator in the treatment of the retinoblastoma. (N.C.)

  15. Radiotherapy for breast cancer: respiratory and set-up uncertainties; Irradiation du cancer du sein: incertitudes liees aux mouvements respiratoires et au repositionnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliou, M.G.; Giraud, P.; Simon, L.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Fourquet, A.; Dendale, R.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Cosset, J.M. [Institut Curie, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-11-15

    Adjuvant Radiotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce locoregional recurrence but this advantage is associated with increased cardiovascular and pulmonary morbidities. All uncertainties inherent to conformal radiation therapy must be identified in order to increase the precision of treatment; misestimation of these uncertainties increases the potential risk of geometrical misses with, as a consequence, under-dosage of the tumor and/or overdosage of healthy tissues. Geometric uncertainties due to respiratory movements or set-up errors are well known. Two strategies have been proposed to limit their effect: quantification of these uncertainties, which are then taken into account in the final calculation of safety margins and/or reduction of respiratory and set-up uncertainties by an efficient immobilization or gating systems. Measured on portal films with two tangential fields. CLD (central lung distance), defined as the distance between the deep field edge and the interior chest wall at the central axis, seems to be the best predictor of set-up uncertainties. Using CLD, estimated mean set-up errors from the literature are 3.8 and 3.2 mm for the systematic and random errors respectively. These depend partly on the type of immobilization device and could be reduced by the use of portal imaging systems. Furthermore, breast is mobile during respiration with motion amplitude as high as 0.8 to 10 mm in the anteroposterior direction. Respiratory gating techniques, currently on evaluation, have the potential to reduce effect of these movements. Each radiotherapy department should perform its own assessments and determine the geometric uncertainties with respect of the equipment used and its particular treatment practices. This paper is a review of the main geometric uncertainties in breast treatment, due to respiration and set-up, and solutions proposed to limit their impact. (author)

  16. Experience of the Casablanca radiotherapy-oncology centre on radiotherapy in the treatment of the adult Hodgkin lymphoma; Experience du centre de radiotherapie-oncologie de Casablanca sur la radiotherapie dans le traitement du lymphome de Hodgkin de l'adulte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchbika, Z.; Benchakroun, N.; Sellai, N.; Jouhadi, H.; Tawfiq, N.; Sahraoui, S.; Benider, A. [Service radiotherapie-oncologie, CHU Ibn-Rochd, Casablanca (Morocco)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local control, global survival and survival without recurrence, and also late complications, based on retrospective study over 8 years of 169 cases Hodgkin lymphoma in patients older than 18 (average age of 34) and who had been submitted to radiotherapy. Survival has been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The authors notice that the recurrence rate is slightly higher than in the literature. During the considered period, radiotherapy was two-dimensional with higher doses than those corresponding to current standards. The improvement of radiotherapy techniques and the decrease of doses within the standards should improve the therapeutic results. Short communication

  17. The future of breast cancer radiotherapy: From one size fits all to taylor-made treatment; L'avenir de la radiotherapie du cancer du sein: de la taille unique au sur-mesure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennequin, C. [Service de cancerologie-radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Louis, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris (France); Azria, D. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Universite de Montpellier I, 5, boulevard Henri-IV, CS 19044, 34967 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Inserm U896, institut de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Various subgroups of breast tumours have been identified during the last 10 years according to the risk of local relapse. Prognostic factors for local relapse are age, surgical margins, tumour size, Her2 expression and hormonal receptors status. For tumours with a high risk of local relapse, an increased in boost dose or the addition of new drugs (trastuzumab, anti-angiogenics, PARP inhibitors) could be considered. For low risk tumours, hypo-fractionated, accelerated partial breast and intraoperative radiotherapy are being evaluated. The classical schedule (45-50 Gy to the whole gland followed by a boost dose of 16 Gy) is no longer the universal rule. Treatment individualization, according to clinical and biological characteristics of the tumour and - possibly - to the radiobiological profile of the patient, is likely to be the future of breast cancer radiotherapy. (authors)

  18. Development of DosiMap: dosimetry device for radiotherapy quality assurance; Developpement du DosiMap: instrument de dosimetrie pour le controle qualite en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelin, A M

    2006-10-15

    This thesis deals with the development of a new dosimetry device for the control of radiotherapy beams. This device is composed of a plane plastic scintillator which is set within a polystyrene phantom. When the 'DosiMap' is irradiated, light is produced. This light is composed of scintillation and Cerenkov radiation, and is accurately measured by a C.C.D. camera. The analysis of the light distribution enables us to deduce the dose distribution in the scintillator plan. This device has many advantages such as tissue equivalence, a good spatial resolution, and a linear response with regard to energy. It also provides immediate measurements, and as a consequence, it is a very adapted tool for clinical use. After the introduction about the basic notions of radiotherapy, the different steps of the 'DosiMap' development are exposed in this thesis. In a first time, plastic scintillators have been tested to determine the best one for this application. Then, the deconvolution of scintillation and Cerenkov radiation have been studied, because we only use scintillation to calculate the dose distribution. The camera being in the irradiation room, a lead shield has also been developed to protect the C.C.D. detector from scattered radiations. Finally, the dose calibration and the dose response of 'DosiMap' are exposed. All this work made feasible the measurement of dose distributions with a precision which turns out to be better than 2% for homogeneous photon beams. Excellent results were also obtained when modulated intensity beams are used. (author)

  19. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for the locally advanced rectum cancer; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante dans le cancer du rectum localement evolue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haoui, M.; Aksil, N.; Boualga, K.; Moussaoui, D.; Ladj, O. [Service de radiotherapie-oncologie, centre anti-cancer, Blida (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a retrospective study which aimed at assessing the use of a concomitant chemo-radiotherapy, its tolerance and its feasibility in the case of a locally advanced rectum cancer. Based on data obtained among 62 patients presenting a rectum cancer, they analyse the results in terms of tolerance (cases of leukopenia, anemia, diarrhea, radiodermatitis), of relapses, and survival. Toxicity is acceptable and the concomitant treatment renders the tumour operable in many cases. Short communication

  20. Cervix carcinomas: place of intensity-modulated radiotherapy; Les cancers du col uterin: place de la radiotherapie avec modulation d'intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillot, I. [Centre Regional Universitaire de Cancerologie H.S.-Kaplan, Hopital Bretonneau, CHU de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Universite Francois-Rabelais, 37 - Tours (France)

    2009-10-15

    While indications of modulated intensity radiation therapy (I.M.R.T.) are perfectly defined in head and neck and prostate cancer patients, this technique remains under evaluation for gynecologic tumours. The implementation of conformal three dimensional radiotherapy in the late 1990 has been the first important step for optimisation of treatment of cervix carcinomas, as it permitted a better target coverage with a significant reduction of the bladder dose. However, this technique often leads to an irradiation of a larger volume of rectum in locally advanced stages and could only spare a limited amount of intestine. I.R.M.T. is one of the optimisation methods potentially efficient for a better sparing of digestive tract during irradiation of cervix carcinomas. The aim of this literature review is to provide the arguments supporting this hypothesis, and to define the place of this technique for dose escalation. (authors)

  1. Development of DosiMap: dosimetry device for radiotherapy quality assurance; Developpement du DosiMap: instrument de dosimetrie pour le controle qualite en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frelin, A.M

    2006-10-15

    This thesis deals with the development of a new dosimetry device for the control of radiotherapy beams. This device is composed of a plane plastic scintillator which is set within a polystyrene phantom. When the 'DosiMap' is irradiated, light is produced. This light is composed of scintillation and Cerenkov radiation, and is accurately measured by a C.C.D. camera. The analysis of the light distribution enables us to deduce the dose distribution in the scintillator plan. This device has many advantages such as tissue equivalence, a good spatial resolution, and a linear response with regard to energy. It also provides immediate measurements, and as a consequence, it is a very adapted tool for clinical use. After the introduction about the basic notions of radiotherapy, the different steps of the 'DosiMap' development are exposed in this thesis. In a first time, plastic scintillators have been tested to determine the best one for this application. Then, the deconvolution of scintillation and Cerenkov radiation have been studied, because we only use scintillation to calculate the dose distribution. The camera being in the irradiation room, a lead shield has also been developed to protect the C.C.D. detector from scattered radiations. Finally, the dose calibration and the dose response of 'DosiMap' are exposed. All this work made feasible the measurement of dose distributions with a precision which turns out to be better than 2% for homogeneous photon beams. Excellent results were also obtained when modulated intensity beams are used. (author)

  2. Assessment of safety culture within the radiotherapy department of the Bordeaux University Hospital Centre; Evaluation de la culture de securite au sein du service de radiotherapie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bordeaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leysalle, A.; Vendrely, V.; Sarrade, C.; Boutolleau, J.B.; Vitry, E.; Trouette, R.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-10-15

    The assessment of the safety culture within a radiotherapy department has been performed by using a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). It assesses the safety environment, the team cooperation quality, the satisfaction related to professional activity, the approval of management actions, the perception of the work environment quality and of logistic support, and the acknowledgment of the influence of stress on performance. The survey has been performed before and after the support intervention of a hospital audit and expertise mission in relationship with the National cancer Institute (Inca). The comparison of results before and after this support intervention shows a general score improvement for the SAQ. Short communication

  3. Cartography and risk management in radiotherapy: a collaborative work of the department of radiotherapy and the department of quality and risk management Institute Jean-Godinot; Cartographie et gestion des risques en radiotherapie: un travail commun du departement de radiotherapie et du departement de la qualite et de la gestion des risques de l'institut Jean-Godinot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Loiseau, M. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Dept. de radiotherapie, 51 - Reims (France); Devie, I.; Heusghem, M. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Dept. de la qualite et de la gestion des risques, 51 - Reims (France); Gaillot-Petit, N. [Institut Jean-Godinot, Unite de radiophysique medicale, 51 - Reims (France)

    2010-01-15

    Purpose To deploy an inductive process for radiotherapy risk management in a regional cancer centre and to infer the actions required to solve the situations of criticality. Methods Close collaboration between the department of radiation oncology-biophysics and the department of quality and risk management in the same institution allowed to create a multi professional and multidisciplinary task force and to make the experience feedback easier. A preliminary risk analysis method was used to identify the generic dangers, the mapping of risks and the specification of the scales of criticality. This method helped to evaluate and to rate each apprehended event. Four scales have been defined: seriousness scale in five levels, likelihood scale in five classes, endeavour scale in four levels and criticality scale in three categories: acceptable (criticality 1) tolerable under control (criticality 2) and unacceptable (criticality 3). Results Fifty-seven level 1 dangerous situations linked to 78 scenarios of criticality acceptable, tolerable and unacceptable in 24, 44 and 10 cases respectively have been identified in the department of radiotherapy leading to carry out 28 risk reduction actions. Conclusions The performed risk analysis offered an original frame for a collective thinking among the care providers and contributed to modify their mode of conceiving both security and radioprotection. The study allowed us to give a relevant answer to the High Authority of Health and the Authority of Nuclear Security demands either in terms of efficient management of the risks in radiotherapy or regarding the daily concerns of the care-givers. (authors)

  4. Evaluating radiotherapy patients' need for information: a study using a patient information booklet; Evaluation des besoins en information des patients suivis en radiotherapi: etude effectuee sur la base du livret de la radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, V.; Romestaing, P.; Gerard, J.P.; Mornex, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon-Sud, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France); Couvreur, C. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 94 - Villejuif (France); Demachy, P. [Centre Hospitalier V. Dupouy, Centre de Radiologie et de Traitement des Tumeurs, 95 - Argenteuil (France); Kimmel, F. [Centre de Radiologie et de Traitement des Tumeurs, 92 - Meudon-la-Foret (France); Milan, H. [Centre Georges-Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Noel, D. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Pace, M. [Hopital d' Annecy, Dept. d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 74 - Annecy (France); Raison, C. [Centre Catherine-de-Sienne, 44 - Nantes (France); Compagnon, C. [Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, 75 -Paris (France); Pigeon, P. [Isis Research, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2000-08-01

    The French Radiotherapy-Oncology Society (SFRO) and the National Trade of Radiotherapists-Oncologists (SNRO) elaborated and published a patient information booklet on radiotherapy, in 1999. This present study appraises the pertinence of the form and substance of this booklet one year after its release. Eight radiotherapy centers participated in this research which evaluated 162 patients at treatment initiation. The conclusions of this study demonstrated the importance of clearly informing patients of their disease, treatment, and the secondary effects of treatment. It is essential to emphasize that 97% of the patients declared that an information booklet is a real necessity, and that the one provided by the SFRO responds to the majority of their concerns. Obtaining technical and practical knowledge resulted in a reassurance about their treatment. The most revealing result is that 87% requested direct communication about their illness, and that cancer be named by this word and not other, evasive terms. Seventy-two percent of the patients requested more information about their cancer, different treatment options, and quality of life issues in an attempt to psychologically prepare themselves to face an illness for which they have little control. Patients refuse to be passive, and claim the right to become 'partners' of the medical teams, concerning their treatment and recovery. (authors)

  5. Hypo-fractionated radiotherapy of breast cancer: long term results of a set of 80 cases treated in the radiotherapy department of the Oran university hospital; Radiotherapie hypofractionnee dans le cancer du sein: resultats a long terme d'une serie de 80 cas traites dans le service de radiotherapie du centre hospitalier universitaire d'Oran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukerche, A.; Yahia, A.; Madouri, R.; Belmiloud, H.; Dali-Youcef, A.F. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU d' Oran, Oran (Algeria)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of the local and locoregional control and of the acute and late toxicity of adjuvant hypo-fractionated radiotherapy in breast cancer treatment. During 1998, 80 women have been treated by conservative or radical surgery and hypo-fractionated tele-cobalto-therapy (36 Gy in five fractions of 3 Gy a week, and a boost of 15 Gy in five fractions in case of conservative surgery). Results are discussed in terms of local and locoregional recurrence, tolerance, late toxicity, global survival, and tumour classification. The irradiation scheme seems perfectly achievable but a greater number of patients and a longer follow-up are required to better assess the efficiency and aesthetic results. Short communication

  6. Prospective assessment of the salivary function by parotid scintigraphy after radiotherapy of 27 nasopharyngeal cancers; evaluation prospective de la fonction salivaire par scintigraphie parotidienne apres radiotherapie de 27 cancers du nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mnejja, W.; Ghorbal, L.; Daoud, J. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia); Kallel, F.; Guermazi, F. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [Service de carcinologie medicale, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-10-15

    As xerostomia is the main complication after radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and affects life quality, this study aims at objectively assess the salivary function after radiotherapy of a nasopharyngeal cancer by parotid scintigraphy. 27 seven patients have been treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Results are analyzed in terms of salivary toxicity, change of secretion function. No correlation was found between the xerostomia severity and scintigraphy results. Short communication

  7. Automatic optimisation of beam orientations using the simplex algorithm and optimisation of quality control using statistical process control (S.P.C.) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (I.M.R.T.); Optimisation automatique des incidences des faisceaux par l'algorithme du simplexe et optimisation des controles qualite par la Maitrise Statistique des Processus (MSP) en Radiotherapie Conformationnelle par Modulation d'Intensite (RCMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, K

    2008-11-15

    Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (I.M.R.T.) is currently considered as a technique of choice to increase the local control of the tumour while reducing the dose to surrounding organs at risk. However, its routine clinical implementation is partially held back by the excessive amount of work required to prepare the patient treatment. In order to increase the efficiency of the treatment preparation, two axes of work have been defined. The first axis concerned the automatic optimisation of beam orientations. We integrated the simplex algorithm in the treatment planning system. Starting from the dosimetric objectives set by the user, it can automatically determine the optimal beam orientations that best cover the target volume while sparing organs at risk. In addition to time sparing, the simplex results of three patients with a cancer of the oropharynx, showed that the quality of the plan is also increased compared to a manual beam selection. Indeed, for an equivalent or even a better target coverage, it reduces the dose received by the organs at risk. The second axis of work concerned the optimisation of pre-treatment quality control. We used an industrial method: Statistical Process Control (S.P.C.) to retrospectively analyse the absolute dose quality control results performed using an ionisation chamber at Centre Alexis Vautrin (C.A.V.). This study showed that S.P.C. is an efficient method to reinforce treatment security using control charts. It also showed that our dose delivery process was stable and statistically capable for prostate treatments, which implies that a reduction of the number of controls can be considered for this type of treatment at the C.A.V.. (author)

  8. Concurrent radiotherapy and fotemustine for brain metastases of non small cell cancer of the lung. Association concomitante de radiotherapie et de fotemustine dans le traitement des metastases cerebrales des cancers du poumon non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignon, T.; Ruggieri, S.; Orabona, P.; Muracciole, X.; Juin, P. (Hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)); Astoul, P.; Vialette, J.P.; Boutin, C. (Hopital de la Conception, 13 - Marseille (France))

    1994-01-01

    The radiotherapy is the most employed in the treatment of cerebral metastases, even if results are deceptive. The tests with chemotherapy are not better and the nitrosoureas remain the most employed drugs. The fotemustin is a new one which can give good results for bearing cerebral metastases patients's response. The associations radiotherapy and chemotherapy are developing to potentiate radiotherapy action but are still a little studied in the cases of cerebral metastases; that is why we choose to treat in an open study the patients bearers of cerebral metastases in lungs cancers with no little cells. 18 refs.

  9. Post-radiation mucocele in two patients treated for nasopharyngeal cancer; Mucocele apres radiotherapie chez deux patients traites pour cancer du nasopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mnejja, M.; Hammami, B.; Achour, I.; Chakroun, A.; Charfeddine, I.; Ghorbel, A. [Service ORL et chirurgie cervico-faciale, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, 3029 Sfax (Tunisia); Frikha, M. [Service de carcinologie, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, 3029 Sfax (Tunisia); Daoud, J. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Habib-Bourguiba, 3029 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2011-06-15

    A 30-year-old woman, with a history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which was treated by radiotherapy nine years previously, presented with occasional diplopia and recent headaches. A nasopharyngeal biopsy showed no recurrence. The imaging revealed a sphenoidal sinus mucocele. Endoscopic marsupialization of the mucocele allowed clinical improvement. A 56-year-old woman presented, five years after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, with a fronto-orbital mass. CT-scan revealed a fronto-ethmoidal mucocele. Nasopharyngeal biopsy showed tumour recurrence. Marsupialization of mucocele was performed. Recurrence of the carcinoma was treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Sphenoidal sinus mucocele developing after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma has rarely been reported. CT scan and MRI are useful tools in making the diagnosis. Biopsy is required to diagnose recurrence or associated radio-induced tumor. Endoscopic approach gives good results. (authors)

  10. Internal mammary chain irradiation in breast cancer: State of the art; Radiotherapie de la chaine mammaire interne dans les cancers du sein: etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Hau Desbat, N.H.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N. [Unite de curietherapie, departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Zioueche, A. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU Dupuytren, 2, avenue Martin-Luther-King, 87000 Limoges (France); Melis, A. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Kirova, Y.M. [Service de radiotherapie oncologique, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-04-15

    Radiation therapy has a major role in the management of infiltrative breast cancers. However, there is no consensus for the prophylactic treatment of the internal mammary chain (IMC), with strategies that show strong differences according to centers and physicians. Indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy are debated, since this treatment significantly increases the dose delivered to the heart and leads to potential technical difficulties. Important prospective data recently suggested that internal mammary chain radiotherapy would not be necessary, even in cases of internal or central tumor locations, or in patients with positive axillary lymph nodes. Although these data warrant confirmation by two other prospective trials, there is evidence that the indications for internal mammary chain radiotherapy should be careful and that high quality techniques should be used for decreasing the dose delivered to the heart. This review of literature presents the state of art on the radiotherapy of internal mammary chain, with special focus on the indications, techniques, and potential toxicity. (authors)

  11. Postoperative radiotherapy after laser surgery with or without chemotherapy in head and neck evolved cancers; Radiotherapie postoperatoire apres chirurgie laser avec ou sans chimiotherapie dans les cancers evolues de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryll, L.; Pradier, O. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Morvan, Dept. de Cancerologie, Brest (France); Nitsche, M.; Christiansen, H.; Hess, C. [Universitatsklinikum, Dept. de Cancerologie, Goettingen (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    We compared concurrent combination chemoradiotherapy and adjuvant radiotherapy after laser surgery in patients with stage 3/4 non metastatic squamous cell head and neck cancer. Combination chemotherapy and concurrent irradiation after laser surgery was not superior to surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for resectable advanced squamous cell head and neck cancer. However, the collective is small, and the follow-up to short to conclude. (authors)

  12. Remedial chemo-radiotherapy for mediastinum and pleuro-pulmonary metastases of an anal canal cancer; Chimio-radiotherapie de rattrapage pour metastases mediastinales et pleuropulmonaires d'un cancer du canal anal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, M.V.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Peiffert, D. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Service de Radiotherapie, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2006-11-15

    A fifty seven years woman received ten years ago, a radiotherapy with iodine for a Basedow hyperthyroidism. In 2001 she was damaged bu an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Radiotherapy, then chemotherapy, then brachytherapy. During three years noting special to declare. In 2004, respiratory insufficiency leads her to consult. A PET scanography shows an inter-aortic-pulmonary hyper-metabolism. Cortico-therapy and radiotherapy by X rays are delivered. In front of the positive response a new chemoradiotherapy and three cycles of chemotherapy are made. After twenty five months the patient is in complete remission of her metastases after this remedial treatment. This observation illustrates the radiosensitivity of the anal canal cancers of including metastases situation, the interest of the PET scanography and utility of a remedial treatment with curative goal. (N.C.)

  13. Assessment of low-dose radiotherapy (two 2 Gy sessions) for the cure of MALT lymphoma of the lung; evaluation de la radiotherapie faible (deux seances de 2 Gy) a visee curative dans le lymphome du Malt pulmonaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paumier, A.; Ghalibafian, M.; Gilmore, J.; Girinsky, T. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Hanna, C.; Raphael, J.; Ferme, C.; Ribrag, V. [Departement d' hematologie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of low-dose radiotherapy (two sessions of 2 Gy in two days) for the curative treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the lung. The treatment of this lymphoma is discussed in terms of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or even simple monitoring. The authors analyse the results obtained on nine patients who have been treated this way since 2002, straight away for some of them, after surgery or chemotherapy for others. Survival rate, recurrence, evolutions and responses are discussed. Short communication

  14. Role of radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas in children; Role de la radiotherapie dans le traitement des rhabdomyosarcomes de la tete et du cou chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouni, K.; Kebdani, T.; Hassouni, K.; Benjaafer, N.; Elgueddari, B. [Institut national d' oncologie, Rabat (Morocco)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report the assessment of clinic results obtained for the radiotherapy of head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas in children. The study is based on a sample of 22 children. The authors report epidemiologic, clinic, and above all therapeutic and evolutional aspects: age, symptoms, radiological examination (scanography, MRI), tumour location, histological characterization, chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic treatment, local relapses, pulmonary and hepatic metastases, survival. Short communication

  15. Primary and secondary prevention of acute complications of radiotherapy of head and neck cancers; Prevention primaire et secondaire des complications aigues de la radiotherapie des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrexhe, M.; Frederick, B.; Burie, D.; Cavuto, C.; Rob, L.; Rasquin, I.; Coiffier, N.; Untereiner, M. [Centre national de Radiotherapie, Centre Francois-Baclesse (CFB), Esch-sur-Alzette (Luxembourg)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: the standard treatment of head and neck cancers associates a 70 Gy irradiation and weekly concomitant chemotherapy by 5-fluoro-uracils and cisplatin or targeted therapy by Erbitux. A retrospective study realised at the Francois Baclesse center in 2004-2005 for 84 patients suffering of ear-nose-throat cancers whom treatment was a concomitant chemoradiotherapy, showed the noxious effects of the treatment on the patients nutritional situation: weight loss for 90% of patients; temporary interruption or definitive stop of radiotherapy for 28% of patients. based on this observation, a preventive approach of the nutritional risk was implemented. The objective was to reduce the malnutrition risk linked to radiotherapy associated to chemotherapy or to the targeted therapy. (N.C.)

  16. Pacemaker, implanted cardiac defibrillator and irradiation: Management proposal in 2010 depending on the type of cardiac stimulator and prognosis and location of cancer; Pacemaker, defibrillateur et radiotherapie: propositions de conduite a tenir en 2010 en fonction du type de stimulateur cardiaque, du pronostic et du site du cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, P. [Service d' anesthesie reanimation, hopital Nord, centre hospitalier universitaire de Saint-etienne, 42055 Saint-etienne cedex 2 (France); Da Costa, A. [Service de cardiologie, hopital Nord, centre hospitalier universitaire de Saint-etienne, 42055 Saint-etienne cedex 2 (France); Marcy, P.Y. [Departement de radiologie, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Kreps, S. [Service de radiotherapie Corad, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau-2, CHU de Tours, boulevard Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France); Angellier, G.; Marcie, S.; Bondiau, P.Y. [Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Departement de radiotherapie oncologie, centre CyberKnife, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Briand-Amoros, C. [Service de radiotherapie, hopital europeen Georges-Pompidou, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris (France); Thariat, J. [Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); Departement de radiotherapie oncologie, centre CyberKnife, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France); IBDC CNRS UMR 6543, centre Antoine-Lacassagne, universite Sophia-Antipolis, 33, avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice cedex 2 (France)

    2011-06-15

    Ionizing radiation may interfere with electric components of pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The type, severity and extent of radiation damage to pacemakers, have previously been shown to depend on the total dose and dose rate. Over 300,000 new cancer cases are treated yearly in France, among which 60% are irradiated in the course of their disease. One among 400 of these patients has an implanted pacemaker or defibrillator. The incidence of pacemaker and implanted cardioverter defibrillator increases in an ageing population. The oncologic prognosis must be weighted against the cardiologic prognosis in a multidisciplinary and transversal setting. Innovative irradiation techniques and technological sophistications of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (with the introduction of more radiosensitive complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors since 1970) have potentially changed the tolerance profiles. This review of the literature studied the geometric, dosimetric and radiobiological characteristics of the radiation beams for high energy photons, stereotactic irradiation, proton-therapy. Standardized protocols and radiotherapy optimization (particle, treatment fields, energy) are advisable in order to improve patient management during radiotherapy and prolonged monitoring is necessary following radiation therapy. The dose received at the pacemaker/heart should be calculated. The threshold for the cumulated dose to the pacemaker/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (2 to 5 Gy depending on the brand), the necessity to remove/displace the device based on the dose-volume histogram on dosimetry, as well as the use of lead shielding and magnet are discussed. (authors)

  17. The cost of respiration-gated radiotherapy in the framework of a clinical research programme -STIC-; Evaluation du cout de la radiotherapie asservie a la respiration dans le cadre d'un projet Stic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remonnay, R.; Morelle, M.; Carrere, M.O. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France); CNRS, UMR 5824, GATE, 69 - Ecully (France); ENS LSH, 69 - Lyon (France); Centre Leon-Berard, GATE (UMR 5824 CNRS) - Axe economie de la sante, 69 - Lyon (France); Giraud, P. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Service d' Oncologie-Radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Paris-5 Univ., Faculte Rene-Descartes, 75 (France)

    2009-07-15

    Purpose. Our study aims to evaluate the impact of the implementation of respiratory gating (R.G.) on the production cost of radiotherapy, as compared to conformational radiotherapy without R.G. (comparator) in patients with lung or breast cancers. Issues surrounding reimbursement were also explored. Materials and methods: A prospective, multicenter, non-randomized study was conducted in the framework of a project entitled 'Support Program for Costly Diagnostic and Therapeutic Innovations'. Of the 20 hospitals involved in the clinical study, eight reference centers participated to the medico-economic study evaluating the costs of staff and equipment, as well as the costs of maintenance and consumables. Results: Three hundred and sixty-five patients were enrolled over two years in the economic study, corresponding to 197 radiotherapy treatments without R.G. and 168 with R.G.. Patients treated during the learning phase (n = 27) were excluded from the comparison with the control group. The use of R.G. in routine practice induced a cost increase of respectively 1256 and 996 Euros per treatment for lung and breast cancer patients treated with breath-hold techniques, versus 1807 and 1510 Euros for lung and breast cancer patients treated with synchronized gating techniques. Over costs were mainly due to extra working time of medical staff and medical technicians and to extra use of equipment during treatment sessions. Conclusion: The results of the full cost estimation suggested that medical reimbursements largely underestimate the costs related to innovation. (authors)

  18. Dosimetric comparison of standard bi-dimensional radiotherapy, mono-isocentric three-dimensional and arc-therapy for a bilateral breast cancer case with ganglionary attack; Comparaison dosimetrique pour un cas de cancer du sein bilateral avec atteinte ganglionnaire de la radiotherapie bidimensionnelle standard, la radiotherapie tridimensionnelle mono-isocentrique et l'arctherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaud, A. [Centre Leon-Berard, Lyon (France); Bodez, V.; Alric, K.; Chastel, D.; Mege, A. [Institut Sainte-Catherine, Avignon (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at determining the optimal radiotherapy technique for a patient operated from a bilateral breast cancer with ganglionary attack and peculiar thoracic conformation. A dosimetric study has been performed. Target volumes and lung and heart coverages have been compared for three techniques: bi-dimensional and three-dimensional radiotherapy, and arc-therapy. It appears that arc-therapy would allow a dosimetric and therapeutic duration gain without improving the target volume coverage while increasing doses delivered to organs at risk. Short communication

  19. Radiotherapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Lyman, J.T.; Pitluck, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Physics Group works on the physical and biophysical aspects of charged particle radiotherapy. Our activities include the development of isosurvival beams (beams of uniform biological effect), computerized treatment planning development for charged particle radiotherapy, design of compensation to shape dose distributions, and development of dosimetry techniques to verify planned irradiations in both phantoms and patients

  20. Exclusive radiotherapy and concurrent endocrine therapy for the management of elderly breast cancer patients: Case study and review of hypo-fractionated schemes; Hormonoradiotherapie exclusive dans la prise en charge du cancer du sein de la personne agee: cas clinique et revue de la litterature des schemas hypofractionnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auberdiac, P.; Cartier, L.; Malkoun, N.; Chauleur, C.; De Laroche, G.; Magne, N. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France); Chargari, C. [Service d' oncologie radiotherapie, hopital d' instruction des armees du Val-de-Grace, 74, boulevard de Port-Royal, 75230 Paris cedex 5 (France); Melis, A.; Jacquin, J.P. [Departement d' oncologie medicale, institut de cancerologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, BP 60008, 42271 Saint-Priest-en-Jarez cedex (France)

    2011-12-15

    Normo-fractionated radiotherapy is standard for adjuvant management of patients treated with breast conservative surgery for breast cancer. However, many elderly patients are not eligible to such strategy, either because of concurrent diseases, or because the tumor is inoperable. Several protocols of exclusive radiotherapy have been reported in the literature, frequently using hypo-fractionated radiotherapy and endocrine therapy. We report a case of a patient treated with exclusive endocrine and radiotherapy and address the state of the art on hypo-fractionated schemes for the management of elderly breast cancer patients. While hypo-fractionated radiotherapy does not compromise the oncologic or cosmetic outcome, there is no prospective data that assesses the place of radiotherapy for the exclusive treatment of elderly patients. This strategy should be further assessed in clinical randomized trial. (authors)

  1. Prospective and comparative assessment of toxicity of adjuvant concomitant chemo-radiotherapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer; evaluation prospective et comparative de la toxicite de la chimioradiotherapie concomitante adjuvante apres chimiotherapie neoadjuvante dans le cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchand, V.; Angelergues, A.; Gobaux, V.; Kirova, Y.M.; Campana, F.; Dendale, R.; Reyal, F.; Pierga, J.Y.; Fourquet, A.; Bollet, M.A. [Institut Curie, Paris (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a prospective assessment of toxicity a treatment comprising an adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and a comparison with a treatment comprising only radiotherapy. Two sets of patients have been treated for a breast cancer between 1997 and 2002 by association of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Late toxicity has been assessed prospectively according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Acute toxicity has been noticed in medical files. The analysis of 142 treatments reveals that the concomitant administration of chemotherapy to radiotherapy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery is associated with an increase of acute toxicity without increase of long term toxicity. Short communication

  2. Whither radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W M

    1987-03-01

    The 1986 Glyn Evans Memorial Lecture, given at the Joint Provincial Meeting of the Royal College of Radiologists, Sheffield, September 1986, sketches an outline of the history of radiotherapy and discusses the future development of the art. Topics included are siting of centres, training needs, the relationship of radiotherapy to other medical specialities, and the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy practitioners forming a separate medical College. (U.K.)

  3. Basal cell carcinoma of the scalp after radiation therapy for tinea capitis: 33 patients; Carcinomes basocellulaires du cuir chevelu secondaires a une radiotherapie pour teigne: une serie de 33 malades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, M.; Bouassida, S.; Marrekchi, S.; Khemakhem, M.; Gargouri, N.; Turki, H.; Zahaf, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2004-08-01

    Occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) following radiotherapy for tinea capitis is well known. The aim of this study was to specify the clinical and histological features of these BCC seen in 33 patients (1995 000). Twenty seven men and six women were diagnosed with BCC. The age of onset varied between 32 an 62 years. Radiotherapy was received between 5 and 17 years of age. The interval between irradiation and the onset of carcinoma varied between 21 and 51 years. Total number of lesions was 55. Forty percent of BCC occurred on the occipital area, the number varied from 1 to 5 and the size from 2 to 45 mm. Clinically, the nodular type was found in 51% of cases. Pigment was present in 64% of cases. Histological study showed a nodular aspect in 76% and pigmentation in 63% of cases. Nodular and pigmented type were the predominant BCC occurring after radiotherapy for tinea capitis in our series. In the literature, BCC are the most frequent carcinomas occurring after radiotherapy (70-100%). Pigmentation was not described in other series. The nodular histological form was the most frequent. (author)

  4. Cost evaluation of the enslaved to breathing radiotherapy as part of support program to innovative and expensive therapies; Evaluation du cout de la radiotherapie asservie a la respiration dans le cadre d'un programme de soutien aux therapeutiques innovantes et couteuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remonnay, R.; Morelle, M.; Carrere, M.O. [Lyon Univ., 69 (France); GATE, CNRS, UMR 5824, 69 - Ecully (France); ENS LSH, 69 - Lyon (France); Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Giraud, P. [Hopital Europeen Georges-Pompidou, Faculte Rene-Descartes, Service d' Oncologie Radiotherapie, Paris V, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    This study had for objective to evaluate the consequences of the implementation of the enslaved breathing on the cost of production of radiotherapy, relatively to the conformal radiotherapy without enslaved breathing (witness group) in the bronchopulmonary cancers and the breast cancers. The tariff aspect was studied. The estimation of the complete cost of the treatment enlighten the inadequacy of the pricing for innovation. (N.C.)

  5. Quality control of the treatment planning systems dose calculations in external radiation therapy using the Penelope Monte Carlo code; Controle qualite des systemes de planification dosimetrique des traitements en radiotherapie externe au moyen du code Monte-Carlo Penelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazy-Aubignac, L

    2007-09-15

    The treatment planning systems (T.P.S.) occupy a key position in the radiotherapy service: they realize the projected calculation of the dose distribution and the treatment duration. Traditionally, the quality control of the calculated distribution doses relies on their comparisons with dose distributions measured under the device of treatment. This thesis proposes to substitute these dosimetry measures to the profile of reference dosimetry calculations got by the Penelope Monte-Carlo code. The Monte-Carlo simulations give a broad choice of test configurations and allow to envisage a quality control of dosimetry aspects of T.P.S. without monopolizing the treatment devices. This quality control, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations has been tested on a clinical T.P.S. and has allowed to simplify the quality procedures of the T.P.S.. This quality control, in depth, more precise and simpler to implement could be generalized to every center of radiotherapy. (N.C.)

  6. Radiotherapy; Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannenmacher, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Debus, J. [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Wenz, F. (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    2006-07-01

    The book is focussed on the actual knowledge on the clinical radiotherapy and radio-oncology. Besides fundamental and general contributions specific organ systems are treated in detail. The book contains the following contributions: Basic principles, radiobiological fundamentals, physical background, radiation pathology, basics and technique of brachytherapy, methodology and technique of the stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-body irradiation, operative radiotherapy, hadron therapy, hpyerthermia, combined radio-chemo-therapy, biometric clinical studies, intensity modulated radiotherapy, side effects, oncological diagnostics; central nervous system and sense organs, head-neck carcinomas, breast cancer, thorax organs, esophagus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, pancreas carcinoma, heptabiliary cancer and liver metastases, rectal carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract, prostate carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, female pelvis, lymphatic system carcinomas, soft tissue carcinoma, skin cancer, bone metastases, pediatric tumors, nonmalignant diseases, emergency in radio-oncology, supporting therapy, palliative therapy.

  7. Radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.M.; Webb, H.P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus for applying intracavitary radiotherapy. In previously-known systems radioactive material is conveyed to a desired location within a patient by transporting a chain of balls pneumatically to and from an appropriately inserted applicator. According to this invention a ball chain for such a purpose comprises several radioactive balls separated by non-radioactive tracer balls of radiographically transparent material of lower density and surface hardness than the radioactive balls. The invention also extends to radiotherapy treatment apparatus comprising a storage, sorting and assembly system

  8. Long term results of hypo-fractionated mammary radiotherapy as exclusive treatment of elderly patients suffering from a beast cancer; Resultats a long terme de la radiotherapie mammaire hypofractionnee comme traitement exclusif des patientes agees souffrant d'un cancer du sein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chargari, C.; Kirova, Y.; Laki, F.; Savignoni, A.; Dorval, D.; Dendale, R.; Bollet, M.; Fourquet, A.; Campana, F. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-10-15

    The author discuss the results obtained on 29 elderly patients exclusively treated between 1995 and 1999 by mammary irradiation (32.5 Gy) in 5 fractions over 5 weeks, and then with a lower additional irradiation (13 Gy) in two fractions. They discuss the efficiency of this hypo-fractionated radiotherapy without breast conserving surgery. Short communication

  9. Concomitant bid radiotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil in unresectable carcinoma of the pharynx: 10 year's experience at the Centre Antoine Lacassagne; Radiotherapie bifractionnee et chimiotherapie par cisplatine et 5-fluoro-uracile concomitantes dans les carcinomes epidermoides localement evolues non resecables du pharynx: dix ans d'experience au centre Antoine Lacassagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magne, N.; Pivot, X.; Marcy, P.Y.; Chauvel, P.; Courdi, A.; Dassonville, O.; Possonnet, G.; Vallicioni, J.; Ettore, F.; Falewee, M.N.; Milano, G.; Santini, J.; Lagrange, J.L.; Schneider, M.; Demard, F.; Bensadoun, R.J. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France)

    2001-08-01

    Patients suffering from locally advanced unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx and hypopharynx treated with radiotherapy alone have a poor prognosis. More than 70% of patients die within 5 years mainly due to local recurrences. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center's experience in a treatment by concomitant bid radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Evaluation was based on analysis of the toxicity, the response rates, the survival, and the clinical prognostic factors. From 1992 to 2000, 92 consecutive patients were treated in our single institution. All of them had stage IV, unresectable squamous cell carcinoma of the pharynx and they received continuous bid radiotherapy (two daily fractions of 1.2 Gy, 5 days a week, with a 6-h minimal internal between fractions). Total radiotherapy dose was 80.4 Gy on the oropharynx and 75.6 Gy on the hypopharynx. Two or three chemotherapy courses of cisplatin (CP)-5-fluorouracil (5FU) were given during radiotherapy at 21 -day intervals (third not delivered after the end of the radiotherapy). CP dose was 100 mg/m{sup 2} (day 1) and 5-FU was given as 6-day continuous infusion (750 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 1. course; 430 mg/m{sup 2}/day at 2. and 3. courses). Special attention was paid to supportive care, particularly in terms of enteral nutrition and mucositis prevention by low-level laser energy. Acute toxicity was marked and included WHO grade III/IV mucositis (89%, 16% of them being grade IV), WHO grade III dermatitis (72%) and grade III/IV neutropenia (61%). This toxicity was significant but manageable with optimised supportive care, and never led to interruption of treatment for more than 1 week, although there were two toxic deaths. Complete global response rate at 6 months was 74%. Overall global survival at 1 and 3 years was 72% and 50% respectively, with a median follow-up of 17 months. Prognostic factors for overall were the Karnofsky index (71% survival at 3

  10. Concomitant chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced bronchial cancer: impact of radiotherapy quality on global survival: results of a trial by the Thoracic Cancerology French-speaking Inter-group (IFCT) and Pneumo-Cancerology French Group (GFPC) 02.01; Chimioradiotherapie concomitante pour cancer bronchique localement evolue: impact de la qualite de la radiotherapie sur la survie globale: resultats de l'essai de l'Intergroupe francophone de cancerologie thoracique (IFCT) et du Groupe francais de pneumo-cancerologie (GFPC) 02.01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel-Lafay, I.; Montella, A.; Pommier, P. [Centre Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France); Clavere, P. [CHU de Limoges, 87 - Limoges (France); Labat, J.P. [CHU de Brest, 29 - (France); Benchalal, M. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, 35 - Renne (France); Teissier, E. [Centre azureen de radiotherapie, 06 - Mougins (France); Talabard, J.N.; Fournel, P. [CHU de Saint- Etienne, 42 - Saint- Etienne (France); D' Hombres, A. [Centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2010-10-15

    The author report the assessment of the influence of radiotherapy quality and of its consequences on the future of 113 patients during a phase-II randomized trial of concomitant chemo-radiotherapy of bronchial cancers without stage-II non-resectable small cells. The patients have been submitted to a conformational radiotherapy and a concomitant induction of consolidation chemotherapy. Ten items are analysed: immobilisation, dose per fraction, total dose, ganglion radiotherapy, number of beams, images before and after radiotherapy, radiotherapy duration, duration without radiotherapy, dose-lung volume histogram. The study notably shows the deleterious effects of an interruption of the concomitant chemotherapy on the global survival. Short communication

  11. Radiation therapy of epidemic kaposi sarcoma: the Henri-Mondor hospital experience (643 patients); Radiotherapie du sarcome de kaposi epidemique: l`experience de l`hopital Henri-Mondor (643 patients)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belembaogo, E; Kirova, Y; Frikha, H; Yu, S; Piedbois, P; Le Bourgeois, J P [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France). Dept. de cancerologie

    1998-01-01

    From June 1986 to December 1996, 643 patients presenting with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related epidemic Kaposi`s sarcoma were treated with irradiation at the Oncology Department of Henri Mondor University Hospital. Three-hundred eighty-seven patients (60 %) had previously received a treatment with interferon (259 patients, 40.2 %), vinblastine (225 patients, 34.5 %), doxorubicin (22 patients, 3.4 %), bleomycin (19 patients, 2.9 %), and/or antiviral treatment (216, 33.5 %). The radiotherapy was delivered by 4 MeV OR 8 MeV electron beam for extended cutaneous fields and 45-100 kV x-ray for localized fields. The delivered dose was 20 Gy in 2 weeks (2.5 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week) followed by 2 weeks rest and second series of 10 Gy in 1 week. For oral cavity lesions, we used a series of 15.2 Gy was delivered (1.9 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week), followed for three patients by a 3 week rest and by a similar second series of 15.2 Gy.Six-hundred and twenty-one patients were evaluable and the objective response rate was 92 %, with e complete regression of clinical and functional symptoms for all patients. The skin tolerance was good, with 7.3 % grade I reactions, 69.3 % of grade II reactions, and 23.4 % grade III reactions. There was a correlation between recurrence rate and the occurrence of opportunistic infections. This analysis shows the efficacy of dose radiotherapy for treatment of epidemic Kaposi sarcoma. (author)

  12. Fiche technique du spermogramme et du spermocytogramme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En Afrique la stérilité du couple constitue un drame social. Selon l'OMS, environ 8 à 12 % des couples africains sont touchés par une infertilité. La responsabilité masculine dans la stérilité est comprise entre 30 à 40%. Les causes de l'infertilité masculine peuvent être l'impuissance et/ ou l'altération du sperme. L'étude de ...

  13. Is it always possible to respect dose constraints for target volumes and organs at risk within the frame of breast radiotherapy after conservative treatment?; Le respect des contraintes de dose aux volumes cibles et aux organes a risque est-il toujours possible dans le cadre d'une radiotherapie du sein apres traitement conservateur?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renoult, F.; Faivre, J.C.; Charra Brunaud, C.; Tournier-Rangeard, L.; Lostette, J.; Huger, S.; Marchesi, V.; Peiffert, D.; Marchal, C. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Xemard, S. [Centre hospitalier Jean-Monnet, 88 - Epinal (France)

    2010-10-15

    The use of three-dimensional breast radiotherapy after a conservative treatment allowed cardiotoxicity as well as the dose delivered to lungs to be significantly reduced. However several bibliographic references give different dose constraints. Based on the constraints given by the Oncological radiotherapy French Society (SFRO), the authors analysed whether these recommendations could be actually respected within a daily practice. Based on a sample of 91 patients, the authors collected the following data: mammary gland volumes receiving respectively 95 and 107% of the dose before the boost calculation, heart and pulmonary volumes receiving different dose levels. Coverage constraints are indicated. It appears that the present technique does not allow the constraints to be respected in a majority of cases. Short communication

  14. Comparison of target volumes in radiotherapy defined on scanner and on PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the frame of head and neck cancers; Comparaison des volumes cibles en radiotherapie definis sur scanner et sur TEP-TDM au 18F FDG dans le cadre des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques De Figueiredo, B.; Barret, O.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France); Demeaux, H.; Maire, J.P.; Lagarde, P. [service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, Bordeaux, (France); Kantor, G.; Richau, P. [departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, Bordeaux, (France); De Mones Del Pujol, E. [service d' ORL, hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to study in a prospective way, in the frame of head and neck cancers, the impact of the positron computed tomography with {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-F.D.G.) on the limitation of target volumes in radiotherapy. In conclusions, the gross tumor volume (G.T.V.) defined on PET is smaller than this one defined on scanner, that could be interesting in radiotherapy, in the perspective of a dose escalation. In addition, areas of discordance exist between the clinical target volumes (C.T.V.70 and C.T.V.50) defined on PET and on scanner. These discordances, synonyms of under or over estimation of target volumes, could have important clinical consequences in term of local control and toxicity. (N.C.)

  15. Prevalence and causes of the professional fatigue syndrome (burnout) in the house physicians of radiotherapy oncology in France: a national transversal inquiry of the S.F.J.R.O; Prevalence et causes du syndrome d'epuisement professionnel (burnout) chez les internes d'oncologie radiotherapie en France: une enquete nationale transversale de la SFJRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P. [Institut Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Truchot, D. [Universite de Franche Comte, Lab. de Psychologie, 25 - Besancon (France); Dewas, S. [Centre Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France); Pointreau, Y. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Tours, 37 - Tours (France); Dewas-Vautravers, C. [Institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Marchand, V. [Centre Georges Francois-Leclerc, 21 - Dijon (France); Rivera, S. [Hopital Saint Louis, 75 - Paris (France); Giraud, P. [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, 75 - Paris (France); Kantor, G. [Insitut Bergonie, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2009-10-15

    The syndrome of burnout is frequent among the house physicians in oncology radiotherapy. Numerous factors can be responsible of it: youth, lack experience, extra work, repeated management of patients seriously ill or in end of life. Interventions must be realised to improve these situations, such implementation of groups call, a system of tutelage by senior physicians, or theoretical and practical training to announcement of bad news or to the stress management. (N.C.)

  16. Development and status of the time spent in curing accompaniment during radiotherapy at the level of a French region in 2010; Developpement et etat des lieux du temps d'accompagnement soignant en radiotherapie au niveau d'une region francaise en 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blampey, C.; Ronflette, E. [Ifmem, echirolles (France); Lamarre, V.; Court, J.; Guillem, P.; Dompnier, F.; Gabelle-Flandin, I. [CHU de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Balosso, J. [Universite joseph-Fourier, Grenoble (France)

    2011-10-15

    Based on questionnaires sent to health department managers and to electro-radiology operators in a whole French region, this study aimed at identifying which personnel is in charge of accompaniment during a radiotherapy, when this accompaniment time occurs with respect to medical consultation, whether a specific space exists, and if all patients are accompanied. It appears that a large majority of treatment centres are active in terms of accompaniment, but in very heterogeneous ways. Short communication

  17. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    politique de bas prix exercée par la Russie et le Qatar vient confirmer ce constat ; s'ajoute à cela l'entrée éventuelle du gaz non conven- tionnel, dont son prix actuel de 3/4 $US, offre aux USA l'opportunité d'être exportateur de ..... les compagnies à produire en matière du gaz naturel, tels le prix du gaz naturel, le prix des ...

  18. Bulletin du CRDI #124

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les femmes jouent un rôle important dans les exploitations minières artisanales et à petite échelle en Afrique subsaharienne. De concert ... Couverture du livre: Une vie saine pour les femmes et les enfants vulnérables · Couverture du livre: Entre el activismo y la intervención · Couverture du livre: Revitalizing Health for All.

  19. Bulletin du CRDI #125

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'IOSRS remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique · GrowInclusive : la plateforme tant attendue est en construction · Toutes les nouvelles. Activités à venir. Semaine du développement international 2018. Le CRDI célébrera la Semaine du développement international du 4 au 10 février 2018. Suivez-nous sur Twitter et ...

  20. Interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardino, P.T.; Bretas, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors now have 20 years of experience with modern techniques of brachytherapy. The large number of patients treated in medical centers around the world and the widespread use of this type of radiotherapy have provided us with substantial information about the indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and complications, as well as the results of these techniques. Although the focus of this review is the experience at Baylor using the combined technique of gold seed implantation plus external beam irradiation, the alternative forms of brachytherapy will be described and compared. The authors' intention is to provide the busy clinician with a succinct and informative review indicating the status of modern interstitial radiotherapy and describing day-to-day approach and results

  1. Palliative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.

    2003-01-01

    Palliative care does not attempt to prolong survival but to the achieve the highest quality of life both for the patient and their family covering their physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. Radiotherapy (RT), one of the most important therapeutic modalities, has a great significance in palliative medicine for cancer since it attempts to reduce as much as possible the acute reaction associated with the treatment for the patient. (Author)

  2. Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1999-01-01

    In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)

  3. Comparison of two radiotherapy schemes, conventional and fractionated, in elderly patients suffering from a locally advanced rectum cancer; Comparaison de deux schemas de radiotherapie, classique et hypofractionne, chez les patients ages atteints d'un cancer du rectum localement evolue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerme, F.; Clavier, J.B.; Guihard, S.; Schumacher, C.; Nehme-Schuster, H.; Ben Abdelghani, M.; Noel, G. [Centre Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg (France); Kurtz, J.E.; Brigand, C. [Hopitaux universitaires, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-10-15

    Based on results obtained on 177 patients older than 65 and suffering from T3-4 rectum cancer, and treated either according to a conventional scheme (45 to 50,4 Gy by 1,8 to 2 Gy fractions) or according to a fractionated scheme (39 Gy by 3 Gy fractions), the authors report the comparison of these both methods in terms of toxicity, delay between end of radiotherapy and surgery), histological response, global survival. The hypo-fractionated treatment allows the treatment duration to be reduced, is therefore less constraining and seems more suitable for elderly people. Short communication

  4. "Cirque du Freak."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivett, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Considers the marketing strategies that underpin the success of the "Cirque du Freak" series. Describes how "Cirque du Freak" is an account of events in the life of schoolboy Darren Shan. Notes that it is another reworking of the vampire narrative, a sub-genre of horror writing that has proved highly popular with both adult and…

  5. Postmastectomy radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikama, Naoto; Koguchi, Masahiko; Sasaki, Shigeru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Shinoda, Atsunori; Nishikawa, Atsushi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Since there have been few reports on postmastectomy radiotherapy having a high evidence level in Japan, the significance of postoperative radiotherapy and the irradiation techniques were reviewed based on reports from Western countries. Authors focused on the indications for postoperative irradiation, irradiation methods (irradiation sites, irradiation techniques; prosthetics, methods of irradiating the chest wall and lymph nodes, timing of irradiation), and complications, and discuss them. The factors thought to be adaptable to postmastectomy radiotherapy have been listed. Axillary lymph node metastasis and the size of the primary focus are thought to be important factors in locoregional recurrence. The chest wall and the supraclavicular lymph nodes are the usual sites of irradiation after mastectomy. The irradiation method consists of tangential irradiation of the chest wall and single-field irradiation of the supraclavicular lymph nodes, with 46-50 Gy in fractional doses of 1.8-2 Gy x 5/w is administered for 4.5-5.5 weeks. The timing of irradiation in the West is generally after chemotherapy. Adverse radiation effects include ischemic heart disease, pneumonitis, arm edema, rib fractures, and brachial plexus paralysis. The frequency of these complications is increased by the combined use of chemotherapy or surgery. The breast cancer cure rate in Japan is generally better than in the West. It remains to be determined whether the clinical data from Europe and America are applicable to the treatment of breast cancer in Japan. To address this issue, a clinical investigation should be performed in Japan with close cooperation between surgeons, physicians, pathologists, and radiotherapists. (K.H.)

  6. Summary of the report A.S.N. n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P on the Epinal radiotherapy accident; Resume du rapport ASN n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P sur l'accident de radiotherapie d'Epinal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Authority (A.S.N.) and the General Inspection of Social Affairs (I.G.A.S.) have been in charge by the Ministry of an inquiry on the accident that has lead to the overdose of 23 patients irradiated for a prostate cancer at the Hospital of Epinal. This event constitutes the most important accident implying the ionizing radiations occurring in France. In may 2004, the protocol of conformal radiotherapy applied to the prostate cancers has been modified, it uses dynamics corners in place of static corners. This change supposes to modify the parameters definition that gives the calculation of irradiation intensity, that will not not be made for some of patients. This mistake could be changed if the in vivo dosimetry that allows to check the real dose received by the patients had been kept. but this line of safety has been removed, the use of dynamic corners making it ineffective. The period of over irradiation has been from the 6. may 2004 to the 1. august 2005. During the summer 2005, the radiotherapist and radio physicist find the overdose error by examining the patients files again. On the 15. september 2005, the two doctors of the service warn the director of the C.H.J.M. (hospital center of Jean Monnet) of the accident that informs D.D.A.S.S. (departmental direction of sanitary and social affairs) and A.R.H. (regional agencies of hospitalization). But the national authorities (A.F.S.S.A.P.S., A.S.N., I.R.S.N.) have not been warned, and so nobody can recognize the unsuitable character of the decided measures. Only seven patients are informed of the overdose of radiations they received during the last trimester 2005. The assistance to the victims is not organised the first year. All the patients have received usual treatments when they should receive a treatment by graft of mesenchymatous stem cells. Between september 2005 and september 2006 four patients died and ten present serious complications. propositions have been made to help the victims and

  7. Ecologie du phytoplancton du lac Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento, H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation within the African Coffee Pathogen. Cet article analyse s'il est avantageux d'utiliser le compost au lieu de l'engrais minéral pour produire la laitue dans la zone urbaine et péri-urbaine de Yaoundé. Les résultats de terrain montrent l'obtention de rendements et profits plus élevés lorsqu'on utilise le compost. Les résultats de la fonction de production Cobb-Douglas prouvent que l'utilisation du compost est statistiquement significative pour expliquer la variation de rendement de la laitue et que le compost est l'intrant le plus productif. D'autres résultats montrent que le compost fournit la matière organique utile au sol et que les besoins d'irrigation en eau de la culture sont réduits grâce à l'utilisation du compost. Par conséquent, malgré le fait que l'application du compost demande une main-d'oeuvre beaucoup plus élevée, son utilisation est généralement bénéfique pour les agriculteurs vivant aux alentours de Yaoundé. Les programmes de vulgarisation de cet intrant pour encourager son adoption devraient donc figurer parmi les points prioritaires dans la politique agricole du gouvernement camerounais.

  8. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  9. Du Pont de Nemours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros JPM; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Dit rapport over Du Pont de Nemours (produktie van o.a. chemische stoffen) is gepubliceerd binnen het Samenwerkingsproject Procesbeschrijvingen Industrie Nederland (SPIN). In het kader van dit project is informatie verzameld over industriele bedrijven of industriele processen ter ondersteuning

  10. Active and passive vectorization of technetium{sup 99m} and {sup 188}rhenium radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging and radiotherapy; Vectorisations active et passive de radiopharmaceutiques du technetium-99m et du rhenium-188 pour l'imagerie medicale et la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepareur, N

    2003-11-15

    Research for new molecules for nuclear medicine is a field in constant development. Over the past few years, development of new radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy has renewed interest for rhenium chemistry. Indeed, its two isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, owing to their ideal properties and their similitude with {sup 99m}Tc, which is widely used as a radiotracer for diagnostic imaging, seem very promising for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In the first part of this manuscript, the synthesis of rhenium and technetium-99 complexes, [M(RPhCS3)2(RPhCS2)] (M = Re, Tc), is described. The preparation of technetium{sup 99m} based radiopharmaceuticals, analogues to the pondered complexes, is also described. The stability/reactivity of these complexes has been studied by exchange reactions with potential ligands, specially dithiocarbamates, and also by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The reactivity of the complexes towards dithiocarbamates leads to the possibility to bind biomolecules to the metallic core, via the dithiocarbamate moiety. This method represents a potential alternative to current ones using the so-called bifunctional approach. In the second part of this manuscript, a new kit formulation for the {sup 188}Re labeling of lipiodol is described, using a complex analogous to those described in the previous part. The labeled oil is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma. The in vitro and in vivo stability of this {sup 188}Re-SSS lipiodol and of its analogue {sup 99m}Tc-SSS lipiodol has been studied, and also their in vivo behavior in healthy pigs. This study has shown the quasi-exclusive hepatic fixation of the radiopharmaceutical, and has proven its good stability. Its selectivity for tumors remains to be shown before trying it on humans. (author)

  11. Active and passive vectorization of technetium{sup 99m} and {sup 188}rhenium radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging and radiotherapy; Vectorisations active et passive de radiopharmaceutiques du technetium-99m et du rhenium-188 pour l'imagerie medicale et la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepareur, N

    2003-11-15

    Research for new molecules for nuclear medicine is a field in constant development. Over the past few years, development of new radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy has renewed interest for rhenium chemistry. Indeed, its two isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, owing to their ideal properties and their similitude with {sup 99m}Tc, which is widely used as a radiotracer for diagnostic imaging, seem very promising for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In the first part of this manuscript, the synthesis of rhenium and technetium-99 complexes, [M(RPhCS3)2(RPhCS2)] (M = Re, Tc), is described. The preparation of technetium{sup 99m} based radiopharmaceuticals, analogues to the pondered complexes, is also described. The stability/reactivity of these complexes has been studied by exchange reactions with potential ligands, specially dithiocarbamates, and also by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The reactivity of the complexes towards dithiocarbamates leads to the possibility to bind biomolecules to the metallic core, via the dithiocarbamate moiety. This method represents a potential alternative to current ones using the so-called bifunctional approach. In the second part of this manuscript, a new kit formulation for the {sup 188}Re labeling of lipiodol is described, using a complex analogous to those described in the previous part. The labeled oil is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma. The in vitro and in vivo stability of this {sup 188}Re-SSS lipiodol and of its analogue {sup 99m}Tc-SSS lipiodol has been studied, and also their in vivo behavior in healthy pigs. This study has shown the quasi-exclusive hepatic fixation of the radiopharmaceutical, and has proven its good stability. Its selectivity for tumors remains to be shown before trying it on humans. (author)

  12. Les Cahiers du CREAD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    6 juil. 2007 ... La problématique du développement du secteur de l'artisanat en. Algérie a été très peu abordée par les chercheurs, qu'ils soient universitaires ou .... La loi a institué une taxe d'apprentissage dont le taux a été fixé à. 1% de la ...

  13. Les outils du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    C'est le plus grand centre mondial de recherche en physique des particules. Les outils du Laboratoire, accélérateurs et détecteurs de particules, figurent parmi les instruments scientifiques les plus complexes au monde. Des prix Nobels ont d'ailleurs été attribués aux physiciens du CERN pour leurs développements.

  14. Bulletin du CRDI #127

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La mise à l'échelle de la recherche et de l'innovation en vue de créer un impact social constitue une priorité pour la communauté du développement. Toutefois ... Nous avons renouvelé notre soutien à la recherche auprès du gouvernement de l'Inde ... Des femmes étudient à l'École supérieure d'infotronique d'Haïti.

  15. Radiotherapy of bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotherapy of branchogenic carcinoma comprises; palliative treatment, postoperative or pre-operative radiotherapy, radiotherapy as part of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy of small cell carcinoma and curative radiotherapy of non-operable non-small cell carcinoma. Atelectasis and obstruction are indications for palliative radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy is given only in cases of incomplete resection or mediastinal metastases. In the treatment of small cell carcinoma by combined irradiation and chemotherapy the mediastinum and primary tumour are irradiated, generally after chemotherapy, and the C.N.S. receives prophylactic radiotherapy. Curative radiotherapy is indicated in cases of non-operable small cell carcinoma. Irradiation with doses of 60-70 Gy produced 5-years-survival rates of 10-14% in cases classified as T 1 -T 2 N 0 M 0 . (orig.) [de

  16. Treatment of patients with unresectable squamous head and neck cancer with induction chemotherapy followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy; Traitement de patients atteints d'un cancer irresecable de la tete et du cou avec une chimiotherapie d'induction suivie d'une radiotherapie hyperfractionnee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesia, R.; Majem, M.; Barretina Ginesta, M.P.; Montes, A.; Cardenal, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Medical Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Galiana, R.; Guedea, F. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Manos, M. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of ENT, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Monner, A. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Dept. of Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain); Perez, J. [Institut Catala d' Oncologia-Duran i Reynals, Clinical Investigation Unit, L' Hospitalet de LLobregat-Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: the contribution of induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by hyperfractionated radiotherapy (h.f.R.T.) in unresectable squamous head and neck cancer has been evaluated in a single institution as an assistancial protocol. Patients and methods: from March 1994 to June 2000 all consecutive patients with unresectable disease were treated with four courses of platin plus fluorouracil based CT followed by h.f.R.T.. Tumor resectability and response was assessed by a multidisciplinary committee. Results: ninety-nine patients (pts) were treated. All of them had stage IV-M0 disease: 67 T4, 88 N2-N3. Tumor location: 62 oropharynx, 22 hypopharynx, eight oral cavity and seven larynx. Tumor response at the end of treatment: 61 patients complete response, 17 partial response, two stable disease, 10 progressive disease and nine unevaluated. With a median follow-up of 70 months the 5-year loco-regional control and overall survival was 30.3% (95% CI: 21.9-38.6) and 21.6% (95% CI: 13.4-29.8), respectively. Loco-regional control and overall survival is significantly influenced by prior response to induction CT. Main grade 3-4 toxicity related to CT was stomatitis, but there were five patients with an ischemic event. Grade 3-4 acute toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: 47 stomatitis, 20 epithelitis. Chronic toxicity related to h.f.R.T.: six emergency tracheotomies due to laryngeal edema, five pneumonia and one mucous/soft-tissue necrosis. There were eight toxic related deaths. Conclusion: induction CT followed by h.f.R.T. might increase the overall survival rate in unresectable disease. H.f.R.T. resulted in a high rate of acute toxicity and its use would not be warranted in those patients with no response to induction CT who had a low probability of long-term control. (authors)

  17. Effet du Pediococcus acidilactici sur le bilan lipidique sanguin du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les résultats relatifs aux performances zootechniques ont montré que l'addition du probiotique a amélioré significativement le gain de poids pendant la phase de croissance se traduisant par un indice de consommation meilleur. Les dosages du cholestérol total, des triglycérides, du HDL et du LDL ont été déterminés à la ...

  18. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  19. Radiotherapy of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses current views on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant lymphomas. Principles of radiotherapy employed in the Institute of Oncology in Cracow in case of patients with malignant lymphomas are also presented.

  20. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitspatrick, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy have for long been used to assist in the control of tumours, either as separate entities, or, in a combined treatment scheme. This paper outlines why hyperthermia works, thermal dose and the considerations required in the timing when hyperthermia is combined with radiotherapy. Previously reported results for hyperthermia and radiotherapy used together are also presented. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  1. Les mots du jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Roueff, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    L’ouvrage d’André Schaeffner constitue la première analyse savante du jazz (1926). Il a marqué une étape importante dans le processus de réinvention du jazz en France en contribuant notamment, par sa réception et les polémiques qu’il a suscitées, à transformer l’identification du jazz d’une musique « américaine » à une musique « noire-américaine » (c’est-à-dire aux « racines » africaines). Les analyses proposées dans cet ouvrage, alors qu’elles désignaient des musiques que la critique de jazz...

  2. fibrosarcome du larynx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pie du lit tumoral est employée comme complément thé- rapeutique [9] alors que la chimiothérapie est générale- ment indiquée dans les formes métastatiques. Le pronos- tic dépend essentiellement du degré de différentiation his- tologique. En fait, le fibrosarcome bien différencié est caractérisé par la fréquence de récidive ...

  3. du Chott Marouane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plancton de 90 µm de vide de maille. Ils ont été conservés dans du formol à 5%. L'identification de l'espèce est basée sur des critères morphologiques [20]: la forme des furcas, les lobes frontaux des antennes des mâles, de l'organe copulateur (pénis) et du sac ovigère. Le comptage des soies furcales a été réalisé. L'étude ...

  4. les cahiers du cread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our Journal “les cahiers du cread” is a quarterly economic review publishing original findings of empirical research and theoretical debates on fields pertaining to our mission coverage (Macro Economics, Industrial Economics and Firms, Human Development & Social Economics, Agriculture & Environment). Other websites ...

  5. Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparaison du filtre adaptatif RIF et du filtre a base de reseau de neurones pour le filtrage du courant de reference pour la commande du filtre actif parallele. C Benachaiba, A Bassou, B Mazari ...

  6. The metabolic radiotherapy. La radiotherapie metabolique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 86 - Poitiers (France))

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy.

  7. Le ministre du Commerce international du Canada rencontre des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 juil. 2017 ... La promotion de l'entrepreneuriat, la façon dont le commerce peut profiter aux femmes et à leur famille, et la création d'emplois pour les plus vulnérables étaient au coeur de la discussion en table ronde du ministre du Commerce international du Canada, l'honorable François-Philippe Champagne, et des ...

  8. Portage vaginal du streptocoque du groupe B chez la femme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: le streptocoque du groupe B est le principal agent impliqué dans les infections materno-fœtales, les septicémies et les méningites du nouveau-né à terme. L'objectif est de déterminer le taux de portage maternel du streptocoque du groupe B (SGB) à terme. Méthodes: un prélèvement vaginal a été réalisé de ...

  9. Aux origines du monde

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "C'est l'histoire d'une aventure humaine, scientifique, international qui a vu le jour il y a cinquante ans, aux confins de la Suisse et du département de l'Ain. Le plus grand laboratoire de physique des particules du monde, le Cern, a été fondé en 1954. Les festivités organisées à l occasion de cet anniversaire connaîtront leur point d'orgue le 16 octobre prochain, avec portes-ouvertes, accueil de personallités et inauguration d'un monumnet spécifique, le Globe de l'innovation" (2 pages)

  10. CHOEUR DU CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CHOEUR DU CERN

    2010-01-01

    Les répétitions du chœur du CERN reprendront le mercredi 15 septembre à 20.00 heures à l’amphithéâtre principal – bâtiment 500. Au programme la préparation de notre concert de Noël avec la Missa Brevis, KV115, de Léopold Mozart et de la musique de Noël d’Europe. Les personnes qui aiment chanter, notamment des sopranes et des ténors, sont les bienvenues. Pour tout contact s’adresser à : Baudouin Bleus - (tél.CERN 767 82 44) -(baudouin.bleus@cern.ch) ou Martin Gatehouse ( martin.gatehouse@wanadoo.fr) ou Jean-Paul Diss (jean-pauldiss@wanadoo.fr).  

  11. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Hepatiques du Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovet-Ast, S.

    1957-01-01

    Il n’existe pas, actuellement, de catalogue des Hépatiques du Surinam. Les Hépatiques de ce pays restent très peu connues. Cependant, certaines ont attiré l’attention des Bryologues et ont été citées dans quelques ouvrages anciens ou récents. Je ne ferai pas ici une révision complète de ces

  13. (l.) Medik du Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Résumé. Dipcadi serotinum (L.) Medik, est une plante de la famille des Hyacinthaceae, elle est largement utilisée comme réchauffant et aussi pour combattre la jaunisse. Cette plante trouve une large utilisation par la population de la région côtière du Maroc. À notre connaissance l'huile essentielle de cette espèce n'a ...

  14. La mesure du danger

    CERN Document Server

    Manceron, Vanessa; Revet, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    La mesure du danger permet d’explorer des dangers de nature aussi diverse que la délinquance, la pollution, l’écueil maritime, la maladie ou l’attaque sorcellaire, l’extinction d’espèces animales ou végétales, voire de la Planète tout entière. Au croisement de la sociologie, de l’anthropologie et de l’histoire, les différents articles analysent les pratiques concrètes de mesure pour tenter de comprendre ce qui se produit au cours de l’opération d’évaluation du danger sans préjuger de la nature de celui-ci. L’anthropologie a contribué à la réflexion sur l’infortune en s’intéressant aux temporalités de l’après : maladies, catastrophes, pandémies, etc. et en cherchant à rendre compte de l’expérience des victimes, de leur vie ordinaire bouleversée, de la recomposition du quotidien. Elle s’intéresse aussi aux autres types de mesures, les savoirs incorporés, qui reposent sur l’odorat, la vue ou le toucher et ceux qui ressortent d’une épistémologie « non ...

  15. Contribution of the deep-inspiration breath-hold technique in patients treated for a left breast cancer by mono-isocentric conformational irradiation; Apport du blocage inspiratoire profond chez des patientes traitees pour un cancer du sein gauche par irradiation conformationnelle mono-isocentrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zioueche, A.; Mege, A.; Bodez, V.; Rauglaudre, G. de [Institut Sainte-Catherine, Avignon (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at assessing the benefit of a deep-inspiration-breath-hold on heart sparing in 31 women treated in the left breast or wall and locoregional ganglionary areas by three-dimensional conformational irradiation with field-in-field optimization. All heart and lung parameters (delivered doses) have been significantly improved by a deep-inspiration-breath-hold. Short communication

  16. Secure of the bi-site radiotherapy activity as part of the resumption of treatments in the Hospital of Epinal by the team of Alexis Vautrin Nancy Cancer Center;Securisation de l'activite de radiotherapie bi-site dans le cadre de la reprise des traitements au centre hospitalier d'Epinal par l'equipe du centre Alexis-Vautrin de Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, V.; Aigle, D.; Peiffert, D.; Noel, A. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Noel, A. [Institut national Polytechnique de Lorraine, CNRS UMR7039, laboratoire CRAN, 54 - Nancy (France); Simon, J.M. [Groupe hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-12-15

    In February 2007, the radiation therapy department of the Jean Monnet Hospital in Epinal (France) has stopped the radiotherapy treatments after the discovery of a radiotherapy accident and bad practices leading to overexposure of patients between 1987 and 2006. The Regional Cancer Center 'Centre Alexis Vautrin' in Nancy (France) was given the task of the new start of treatment activity. From February 2007 to January 2008, actions of training, updates of equipment and practices have been performed in the Epinal Hospital, guided by the quality approach, allowing the treatment of new patients in February 2008, with the radiation oncologists and the medical physicists of the Centre Alexis Vautrin, with the highest conditions of security and confidence

  17. PLANNING NATIONAL RADIOTHERAPY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eRosenblatt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Countries, states and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centres are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment.This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centres, equipment, staff, education pr

  18. To understand radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the use of radiotherapy for adults, this guide indicates when a radiotherapy is suggested, how it acts, how the treatment is chosen, which are the professionals involved. It describes how an external radiotherapy takes place and its various techniques, the different types of side effects (general, specific to the treated zone, late effects). It indicates which organs can be treated by curie-therapy, the different curie-therapy treatment modalities, how a curie-therapy takes place and which are its side effects. It outlines how to better cope with radiotherapy (how to be supported, the important role of relatives, everyday life questions, rights). It indicates and comments the different measures adopted for the safety and quality of radiotherapy

  19. Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, acides gras insaturés Un exemple : l’acide linoléique et les récepteurs du LDL-cholestérol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendy François

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Fonctionnalité, résilience, maintenance, et acides gras poly-insaturés. Il deviendra impossible dans le futur de poser le problème des apports nutritionnels conseillés sans se poser la question : Conseillés dans quel but ? Comptable, humanitaire, épanouissement individuel ? Obtenir une croissance, une reproduction, un gain de masse musculaire dans le plus court temps sont des objectifs de nutritionnistes zoo-techniciens. Dans ce système, l’objectif final est la mort programmée dans un abattoir dans le délai le plus court et le plus rentable possible. En nutrition humaine, l’objectif est d’obtenir la meilleure adaptabilité possible dans n’importe quelle situation et le plus longtemps possible. L’objectif n’est plus comme à la fin du xviiie et xixe siècle, d’obtenir une main-d’oeuvre pouvant se développer et se reproduire le plus rapidement possible, assurer un travail physique efficace au moindre coût. Peut-être est-il la transmission des connaissances anciennes, l’acquisition et la transmission de connaissances nouvelles, durant le plus lontemps possible. Pour l’homme, la définition des apports nutritionnels conseillés devrait être la définition des marges de sécurités entre les apports minimaux acceptables et les apports maximaux tolérables. Ces marges de sécurité devraient permettre d’obtenir une fonctionnalité réelle, soit la meilleure conformation récepteurs-enzymes, malgré des status génétiques variés (mutations, polymorphisme, etc., un environnement aléatoire, d’obtenir la résislience, l’adaptabilité individuelle, maximale, durant le plus longtemps possible (maintenance. Il n’existe pas d’autres possibilités de prévention des maladies conformationnelles nouvellement décrites. À titre d’exemple, les conditions d’obtention du niveau de régulation optimale du récepteur LDL, la dégradation sécrétoire de l’ApoB par le récepteur LDL sur le chemin de la s

  20. Archives: les cahiers du cread

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 24 of 24 ... Archives: les cahiers du cread. Journal Home > Archives: les cahiers du cread. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 24 of 24 Items. 2016 ...

  1. Le commerce du Nord

    OpenAIRE

    Pourchasse, Pierrick; Bouëdec, Gérard Le

    2015-01-01

    Au XVIIIe siècle, la France s'approvisionne abondamment dans les pays du Nord : bois, chanvre et goudron de la Baltique, tonnellerie de Poméranie, pêche de rogue de Norvège, graines de lin de Courlande, barres de fer suédois… Sa balance commerciale est pourtant positive grâce aux sels, aux vins et surtout des nouvelles marchandises coloniales. Or, la plupart des transactions passent par l’incontournable intermédiaire hollandais. Les explications sur l’absence des Français dans le Nord sont re...

  2. La voie du Centre

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Après avoir quelque peu louvoyé dans un discours apparemment anarchique où les souvenirs semblent se bousculer sans autre fil conducteur que la référence obsédante au mal satanique, brusquement le narrateur annonce un événement primordial : Foi um fato que se deu, um dia, se abriu. O primeiro. Depois o senhor verá por quê, me devolvendo minha razão (79). Cette introduction situe la rencontre du Menino comme fondatrice d’un destin dont il reviendrait au narrataire de dégager les enchaînements....

  3. Bulletin du CRDI #126

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 févr. 2018 ... Dans ce numéro, découvrez comment la recherche financée par le CRDI permet d'améliorer la santé des mères et des enfants dans les pays du Sud et comment les innovations techniques et sociales de l'initiative SEARCH permettent de surmonter les défis liés à la cybersanté. N'oubliez pas non plus de ...

  4. Choeur du CERN : Concert

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Choir

    2017-01-01

    Une œuvre à découvrir! La grande Missa pro defunctis de François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829) est le chef-d’œuvre tôt venu (à vingt-cinq ans) d’un compositeur qui vivra encore 70 ans après sa création. Elle a connu la gloire, puis s’est fait un peu oublier. Pas du tout le monde cependant : des musicologues ont montré ce que le Requiem de Mozart lui devait ; et il suffit de l’avoir entendue pour comprendre pourquoi Berlioz (qui avait vingt-six ans à la mort de Gossec) en a été impressionné : les nombreux cuivres et bois répartis dans des endroits plus ou moins cachés de la salle de concert pour exprimer les frayeurs du Jugement dernier annoncent son Requiem – et celui de Verdi. Mais « plus encore que par...

  5. Les risques du travail

    CERN Document Server

    Thébaud-Mony, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Depuis les années 1990, les conditions de travail se sont peu à peu imposées dans le débat social. Néanmoins, la situation reste critique. Les risques traditionnels n'ont pas disparu : les manutentions lourdes, l'exposition professionnelle aux cancérogènes, au bruit ou aux vibrations demeurent répandues... De plus, certaines " améliorations " n'ont fait que déplacer et dissimuler les problèmes, telle l'externalisation des risques grâce à la sous-traitance. Dans le même temps, les transformations du travail et des modalités de gestion de la main-d'œuvre ont fragilisé les collectifs et accru l'isolement des salariés, conduisant à une montée visible de la souffrance psychique. Face à ces évolutions, il est plus que jamais nécessaire que tous les acteurs concernés, en particulier les salariés eux-mêmes et leurs représentants, s'approprient les connaissances indispensables pour améliorer la protection de la santé sur les lieux du travail. Tel est le but de ce livre, qui renouvelle int�...

  6. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  7. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  8. Radiotherapy indications - rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This document is addressed to oncologists radiotherapists and to any health professional concerned by rectum cancer treatment. Rectum cancer therapy is based on various technical procedures including surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatments defined for each patient according to his clinical situation. This document precises the specific situations where radiotherapy can be employed. However, the radiotherapy decision must be taken with respect to other therapeutic alternatives. Such a decision must be validated and must be the object of a discussion in the framework of a pluri-disciplinary consultation. (J.S.)

  9. Jouer du piano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fériel Kaddour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available La réflexion s’appuie dans un premier temps sur une opposition entre deux attitudes de pianistes  à l’égard du travail à l’instrument : Gould, qui revendique une séparation d’avec le clavier pour ne privilégier que la lecture; Arrau, dont la technique au contraire vise à « faire corps » avec son piano. L’étude de ces deux démarches d’interprètes conduit à une conclusion croisée : l’abstraction gouldienne n’est rien d’autre qu’un déplacement du jeu vers d’autres instruments (ceux qui servent à la prise de son et au montage de ses enregistrements ; le « faire-corps » hérité de la culture pianistique romantique est plus dialectique que fusionnel, et en cela implique une capacité de mise à distance. A partir de cette double conclusion, on tâche enfin de repenser la place du jeu à l’instrument dans la mise en œuvre d’une interprétation, en interrogeant le dialogue qui s’instaure entre la partition telle qu’elle s’écrit et le geste tel qu’il se joue.Our study leans on an opposition between two pianists' attitudes about their work with the instrument. Gould claims a necessary separation from the keyboard in order to prioritize reading. Arrau, on the contrary, relies on a technique which consists in “being one” with his piano. The analysis of these two interprets’ behaviours leads to a crossed conclusion: the gouldian abstraction is nothing else than a displacement of the playing towards another kind of instruments, the ones he uses in sound recording and cut up; Arrau’s “being one” is more dialectic than at first sight, and it therefore implies a real distancing from the piano. This constatation leads to rethink the place of the piano playing in the setting of an interpretation, and to highlight the real dialogue which develops itself between the score as it has been written and the gesture as it is played.

  10. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  11. The metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy

  12. Clinical practice of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    After describing the recent advances in radiotherapy, this brief article presents in tabular form the changing indications for radiotherapy for tumours of the skin, head and neck, adult CNS, lung, thyroid, thymus, breast, female genital tract, soft tissue sarcoma, genitourinary tract, bone sarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia and paediatric malignancy. For each tumour type, information is provided for the radiosensitivity, the radiocurability, complications and five-year survival. Combined modality treatment is also briefly discussed. (UK)

  13. Nanoparticle-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing for simult...... for simultaneous or integrated external beam radiotherapy and imaging, e.g., using computed tomography (CT)....

  14. Clinical practice of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Junichi; Masaki, Norie; Onoyama, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    This chapter presents in greater detail radiotherapy used in each clinical setting. The descriptions are given under the following sections: the tongue and oral cavity; the maxilla, larynx, and pharynx; brain tumors; the eyes and orbit; pediatric tumors; lung cancer; the esophagus; breast cancer; the abdominal digestive system; the urogenital system; the uterine cervix; the ovaries and vulva; bone and soft tissues; the skin; hematopoietic tumors; lymph node metastases; and radiotherapy as palliative treatment. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Patients and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eardley, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of interviews with thirty discharged patients who had undergone radical radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck are presented. Patients were asked whether their side-effects had got worse or had stayed the same, what effect their side effects had had on eating and drinking and whether they had felt depressed during this period. Measures which could be taken to improve patients' experiences of radiotherapy are discussed. (U.K.)

  16. Radiotherapy and oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, R [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1982-08-01

    A general review article for the non-radiotherapist. The historical, physical and biological background is briefly reviewed. Mention is made of the effects of fraction size, hyperbaric oxygen, neutron beams and radiation sensitizers. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is discussed, as well as the selection of patients for radiotherapy and the treatment of neck nodes. The author suggests a therapeutic approach to the various disease sites and finally reviews some of the literature on radiation caries and jaw necrosis.

  17. La grammaticalisation du monde.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Pingaud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouvrage atypique par le fond comme par la forme, Le devoir et la grâce rend compte du minutieux travail d’élaboration théorique auquel s’attelle Cyril Lemieux depuis plusieurs années. Et le résultat final se veut pour le moins ambitieux : l’auteur propose un système total supposé dépasser d’un même élan le relativisme, le mentalisme, l’universalisme ethnocentrique, l’historicisme, le naturalisme et l’herméneutisme, tout en réconciliant les sciences sociales avec le ...

  18. Le sacre du printemps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Cybergeo aura six ans en avril : dans la réalité du virtuel, dans l'univers récent et fluctuant de la publication en ligne, cela fait de nous, tout à la fois, des pionniers et des vétérans. De façon plus surprenante, il se trouve que nous sommes aussi uniques : parmi toutes les revues électroniques de sciences sociales, aucune ne combine comme Cybergeo ancienneté, publication exclusivement électronique, liberté d'accès au texte intégral, édition et gestion par des chercheurs, et comité de lec...

  19. Le Brahmane du Komintern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Le Brahmane du Komintern, largometraje documental del realizador francés Vladimir León, constituye un ejercicio ejemplar de investigación histórica y  de lograda factura de realización. Y, pese a no haber contado con la ayuda de ninguno organismo público, se trata de un ambicioso proyecto que cubre una amplia extensión geográfica que abarca: Estados Unidos, México, Moscú, Berlín, y la India. Gira en torno a una figura que tuvo en su tiempo su hora de gloria. Un bengalí, hijo de braman, la c...

  20. (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) du Nord du Burkina Faso

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    29 déc. 2014 ... sorghos à grains sucrés ont un cycle court et arrivent donc à maturité avant les autres sorghos et le mil d'où leur exploitation comme aliment de soudure par les paysans. L'organisation de la diversité morphologique des accessions de sorghos à grains sucrés du Nord du. Burkina autour principalement des ...

  1. Preliminary results of the assessment of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostatic and head and neck tumors (STIC 2001); Resultats preliminaires de l'evaluation de la radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI) pour le traitement des cancers prostatiques et ORL (STIC 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, C.; Lapeyre, M.; Beckendorf, V.; Aletti, P.; Marchesi, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Dept. de Radiotherapie, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hasle, E.; Carrere, M.O. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, GRESAC, UMR 5823 du CNRS, 69 - Lyon (France); Dubois, J.B.; Ailleres, N. [Centre Regional de Lutte Contre le Cancer Paul Lamarque, Service de Radiotherapie, 34 - Montpellier (France); Maigon, P.; Naudy, S. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Georges-Francois-Leclerc, Service de Radiotherapie, 21 - Dijon (France); Bensadoun, R.J.; Marcie, S.; Gerard, J.P. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, Service de Radiotherapie, 06 - Nice (France); Le Prise, E.; Manens, J.P. [Centre Eugene-Marquis, Service de Radiotherapie, 35 - Rennes (France); Lartigau, E.; Mazurier, J. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, Service de Radiotherapie, 59 - Lille (France); Carrie, C.; Ginestet, C.; Pommier, P. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Service de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France); Dubray, B.; Chauvin, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Dept. de Sante Publique, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2004-11-01

    Introduction. - Between May 2002 and May 2004, eight French comprehensive cancer centres did a prospective non-randomized study including 200 patients, 100 with cancer of the prostate and 100 with head and neck cancers. Half of each patient group was treated by IMRT and the others by RTC 3D. This clinical study was associated with an economic study and a physics study. We report here the first results. Patients and methods. - For the clinical study, the analysis of the data of the first 88 patients irradiated for a prostatic cancer shows that 39 received RTC and 49 IMRT with a mean dose of 78 Gy at the ICRU point at 2 Gy per fraction. For H and N tumours, the preliminary analysis was done on the 87 first patients with a mean follow-up of 11.5 months (2 to 25 months) and a median of 8.4 months for the IMRT groups and 13,2 months for the RTC group. The economic study was done on the first 157 patients included during the first 18 months: 71 treated by RTC (35 for H and N and 36 for prostate) and 86 treated by IMRT (38 for H and N and 48 for prostate). The assessment of the direct costs was realized y a micro-costing technique. The physical study compared dose distributions for both techniques and has created quality control recommendations. Results. - Clinical studies of the acute reactions do not show any difference between groups, but we want to point out the short follow-up and the relatively high dose delivered to cancers of the prostate. The physics study demonstrates that IMRT is technically feasible in good clinical conditions with high quality assurance, a good reproducibility and precision. Dosimetric data show that IMRT could certainly spare organs at risk more than RTC for H and N tumours. The direct costs of 'routine' treatments for H and N tumours were 4922 euros for IMRT versus 1899 euros for RTC and for the prostatic cancers 4911 euros for IMRT versus 2357 for RTC. (authors)

  2. OPERATION DU FOISONNEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Djelveh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mousses alimentaires sont un sous-ensemble des aliments connus sous le nom de produits fouettés ou des produits aérés. Ils sont des produits formulés avec des qualités telles que la légèreté et la souplesse et sont principalement consommés à l'apéritif ou au dessert. Les produits en mousse obtenue par dispersion d'un gaz dans une matrice alimentaire (la phase continue ont connu un développement croissant au cours des années 80 et 90. Le processus d'aération liés à leurs activités de production est appelée l'expansion ou à fouetter. Le document présente les principaux-paramètres du procédé du point permanent de la formulation, la mise en œuvre processus dans les installations pilotes et à l'échelle industrielle, la caractérisation des produits finis, la base énergétique de l'échelle de processus en place, et le lien entre la formulation, émulsion préparation de l'expansion. Cette vue d'ensemble de l'opération d'expansion continue, nous a permis de mettre en évidence le fait qu'il ya des opérations de l'unité encore mal décrite par le génie des procédés et pour lesquels les méthodes et outils pour l'extrapolation et la prédiction sont encore à leurs balbutiements.

  3. Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alimentation du nouveau-ne et du nourrisson dans la region centrale du togo : pratiques familiales et communautaires avant la mise en oeuvre de la strategie « prise en charge integree des maladies de l'enfant »

  4. [Care of Merkel cell carcinoma and role of the radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehailia-Blanchard, Amel; Pigné, Grégoire; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vallard, Alexis; El Meddeb Hamrouni, Anis; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare neuro-endocrine tumor of skin with a poor prognosis. Data available in literature are scarce. Current treatment for locoregional disease is based on combined treatment by surgery and radiotherapy. However these treatments are controversial. The aim of the present review is to sum up the different available studies and to compare national and international guidelines. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Le plurilinguisme du perroquet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mühlbacher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La figure du perroquet occupe une position ambiguë face à la question de la traduction. Il est capable d’imiter des paroles en toutes les langues, mais il n’est capable d’en comprendre aucune — il ne peut que répéter des sons, c’est-à-dire des signifiants. Le traducteur semble faire le contraire quand il passe d’une langue à une autre en tâchant de transmettre une signification semblable par d’autres signes. L’article vise à discuter le rôle du traducteur et sa relation, éventuellement équivoque, au perroquet, en analysant la traduction allemande de Trois Contes par André Stoll et Cora van Kleffens. Un décalage au niveau sémantique peut éclairer l’interprétation du texte, par exemple en explicitant des allusions sous-jacentes, tandis que le transfert de la syntaxe française en allemand pose souvent des problèmes considérables. Comment le traducteur peut-il reproduire des structures syntaxiques qui n’existent pas en allemand, mais qui ne cessent de revenir dans le texte français ? Que faire si le texte se met à jouer au perroquet et finit par se singer lui-même ? André Stoll et Cora van Kleffens ont su trouver des stratégies pour affronter ces difficultés.The figure of the parrot holds an ambiguous position towards the question of translation. It is able to imitate all languages, but it will never understand any of them – its only skill is to mimic sounds, i.e. mere signifiers. On the contrary, the translator seems to be the antithesis of the parrot when he moves from one language to another. He endeavours to convey a similar meaning, but by different signs. The article aims at discussing the role of the translator and his or her eventually equivocal relation to the parrot by means of analysing the German translation of Trois Contes by André Stoll and Cora van Kleffens. Whereas a semantic divergence can result in a different tendency on the level of interpretation, as in the case of an underlying

  6. Etat Du Magnesium Dans Quelques Sols Sales Du Sud Et Du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    étude a été réalisée sur 86 échantillons de sols provenant du Centre et du Sud de l´Irak. L\\'expérimentation a consisté, d´une part, à calculer les différents sels dominants dans les sols salés par la méthode de combinaison hypothétique et, ...

  7. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Une analyse sédimentologique et minéralogique réalisée sur un cycle hydrologique entre octobre 2004 et août 2005 a permis d\\'évaluer les charges solides en suspension et de caractériser les sédiments du lac du barrage de Taabo. La concentration moyenne en matières en suspension (12 mg.L-1) et la turbidité ...

  8. Caractérisation des sables et morphologie du fond du lac du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    Une analyse sédimentologique et minéralogique réalisée sur un cycle hydrologique entre octobre 2004 et août 2005 a permis d'évaluer les charges solides en suspension et de caractériser les sédiments du lac du barrage de Taabo. La concentration moyenne en matières en suspension (12 mg.L-1) et la turbidité ...

  9. Advice concerning radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Dutch National cancer incidence figures were calculated by using the reliable data on cancer incidence in the Eindhoven area and population forecasts and information obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Several radiotherapy departments suffer from under capacity (a lack of resources and understaffing). Data have also shown that 35% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, instead of 50%. Calculations have been made by the committee on the present and future needs with regard to equipment and staff. In 1983, the number of megavoltage therapy units amounted to 38, but should have been 65. It should be 80 in 1990 and 90 in 2000. Since building and installing such equipment is a lengthy process a considerable effort is needed to make up for the arrears. The committee advocates the extension of the system of regional cooperation in cancer care (comprehensive cancer centres), in which radiotherapy departments play a crucial role. Working parties from the committee provided a comprehensive description of current radiotherapy practice with reference to physical, technical, clinical and management aspects. Another working party assessed the results of cancer treatment with regard to many different tumour sites. Recent and expected developments were analysed or indicated. The Radiotherapy Committee commissioned an external team to conduct a project to achieve a picture of future developments using methods different to those of the committee's. An interim advice has been added on this subject. (Auth.)

  10. Le bal du loup

    CERN Multimedia

    Happy Children's Home

    2013-01-01

    The Bord'eau amateur theatre group will graciously perform a play of their creation Le bal du loup Saturday 19 October 2013 at 20:00 Sunday 20 October at 17:00 in the Théâtre des Grottes Rue Louis Favre 43, 1201 Genève Children from age 12 upwards. Summary: The new-elected mayoress of a small village would like to clean up the town by prohibiting alcohol and getting rid of its prostitutes. Then along comes « Massimo Lupo » the pimp... The performances will be given to support the Happy Children's Home charity, which runs a foster-home in Pokhara for Nepali children:  http://www.happychildrenshome.org/ Admission : minimum charge of 10 CHF per person requested, to cover the cost of technical assistance and theatre rental. Any profit will be used solely for the foster-home. At the end of each performance members of the HCH charity will be happy to answer any questions you may have. The theatre has 86 seats, thank you for reserv...

  11. Chemotherapy disruption of efficient radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nervi, C.; Friedman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the use of chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: indications for the use of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy; improvement of the therapeutic ratio following the use of methotrexate; advantages of preirradiation and postirradiation chemotherapy; side effects following simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy; and effects of chemotherapy on cure rate of radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. (U.S.)

  12. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  13. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  14. Radiotherapy for the medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gose, Kyuhei; Imajo, Yoshinari; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen patients with medulloblastoma, treated between 1972 and 1981, at Kobe University School of Medicine, were retrospectively studied. Of those completing post operative irradiation, 50% have survived for 2 years, 15% for 5 years and mean survival periods was 22.2 months. 13 out of 18 patients developed local recurrence and spinal dissemination. The mean time from the initial radiotherapy to recurrence was 8.5 months. It was suggested that posterior fossa should recieve 5,000 rad, the spine should 2,000 rad and recurrences should be treated by the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (author)

  15. Arterial disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Mathieu, D.; Reizine, D.

    1983-01-01

    Disease of the large arterial vessels is a relatively unknown complication of radiotherapy. However, it should be considered in the same manner as the other complications of irradiation when a tumour recurrence is suspected. The experimental studies of Kirkpatrick and Konings, demonstrating the synergy between irradiation and hypercholesterolemia in the precocity and gravity of vascular complications are recalled. The different localisations reported in the litterature are discussed: coronary, pulmonary, thoracic aorta, supra aortic, renal, digestive and ilio-femoral arteries. Finally, the difficulty of diagnosis of post-radiotherapy without clinical, radiological or anatomopathological confirmation, is underlined [fr

  16. Second cancers following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1983-01-01

    Published reports have shown that there is an increased incidence of second malignancies, particularly sarcomas, following high dose radiotherapy in cancer treatment. However, this increased risk is very small and is relatively negligeable when one considers the beneficial effects of radiotherapy in cancer treatment. This incidence of radiation induced cancer appears to be higher in certain groups of patients, such as children and patients with Hodgkin's disease. In view of scarcity of published data, controlled surveys remain necessary for the quantitative assessment of the cancer risk in various subgroups of irradited patients [fr

  17. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  18. Effets de la microdose sur la production du niébé, du mil et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effets de la microdose sur la production du niébé, du mil et du sorgho en fonction la toposéquence. Fatimata Saba, Sibiri Jean Baptiste Taonda, Idriss Serme, Alimata A. Bandaogo, Augustin P. Sourwema, Adama Kabre ...

  19. Conservative treatment of anal canal carcinoma with external radiotherapy and interstitial brachytherapy, with or without chemotherapy: long-term results; Traitement conservateur des cancers du canal anal par irradiation suivie de curietherapie interstitielle, avec ou sans chimiotherapie: resultats a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, C.; Felix-Faure, C.; Chauvet, B.; Vincent, P.; Alfonsi, M.; Coudurier, P.; Plat, F.; Reboul, F. [Clinique Sainte-Catherine, 84 - Avignon (France)

    1999-12-01

    Purpose: a retrospective analysis of conservative treatment of anal canal cancers with external radiation therapy and interstitial brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Patients and methods: from 1986 to 1996, 69 patients were treated with external radiotherapy (40 Gy/20 fractions) and interstitial brachytherapy (20 Gy) after a mean interval of six weeks for a localized epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Patients who did not complete the whole therapeutic sequence were not included. Forty-five patients received additional 5-fluorouracil- and/or mitomycin C-based chemotherapy regimen. Results: acute toxicity was acceptable. Complete response rate was 81%. Actuarial local control rate was at two and five years, 65% and 59% respectively (median follow-up: eight years). At two, five and ten years, actuarial colostomy rate was 26%, 33% and 33% respectively, and colostomy-free survival rates 61%, 47% and 37%. Overall survival at two, five and ten years was 81%, 65% and 53% respectively. Distant metastases occurred in 11 patients (16%). Prognostic factors for overall survival were performance status (PS) (79% survival at five years for patients with PS 0 versus 50% for patients with PS 1-3, P = 0.04) and tumor stage (80% at five years for T1-T2 versus 53% for T3-T4, P = 0.03). Overall treatment time less than 12 weeks and time interval between external radiotherapy and brachytherapy inferior than six weeks were associated with a better local control (P = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, these prognostic factors were not significant. Conclusion: these results confirm the efficacy of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy in the treatment of small anal canal cancers, and point out the need for improving treatment outcome of larger tumors. (author)

  20. Dynamique des populations du foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 nov. 2014 ... déprédateur dans la région du Haut-Sassandra, la deuxième plus grande région de production de cacao en. Côte d'ivoire. Méthodologie et résultats : L'étude a été réalisée de 2009 à 2013 dans les plantations villageoises de la région du Haut-Sassandra en Côte d'Ivoire. Les variations des taux d'attaques ...

  1. Dynamique des populations du foreur des tiges du cacaoyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Le foreur de tiges du cacaoyer, Eulophonotus myrmeleon Felder cause aujourd'hui d'énormes dégâts dans les cacaoyères ivoiriennes. La présente étude vise à déterminer les périodes de fortes attaques de ce déprédateur dans la région du Haut-Sassandra, la deuxième plus grande région de production de ...

  2. Gestion durable du paysage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Le paysage est de plus en plus perçu comme une ressource. À ce titre, il est nécessaire de trouver des instruments juridiques, politiques ou économiques susceptibles de gérer cette « ressource-paysage » sur le long terme. Le gouvernement suisse a introduit récemment l’instrument des parcs naturels régionaux, organisés selon le modèle français, dans sa législation de protection de la nature et du paysage. Une mise en regard des nouveaux parcs avec des structures de gestion beaucoup plus anciennes, les bourgeoisies et les corporations, permet de mettre en évidence les forces et les faiblesses de chacun de ces instruments dans leur contribution à résoudre les rivalités d’usage entre acteurs utilisant ou influençant la ressource paysage. Cette comparaison permet de formuler des recommandations pratiques concernant la gestion de cette ressource.The landscape is increasingly perceived as a resource. For this reason, it is necessary to find legal, political and economic instruments that will succeed in managing this “resource landscape” in the long term. The Swiss government recently introduced the instrument of regional nature parks into the legislation governing nature and landscape preservation; the proposed parks are organized on the basis of the French model. The examination of the new parks from the perspective of much older management structures, i.e. the civic municipalities (bourgeoisies and corporations, makes it possible to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of each of these instruments in their contribution to the resolution of use rivalries between actors who use or influence the resource landscape. This comparison also enables the formulation of practical recommendations regarding the management of this resource.

  3. Erythropoietin and radiotherapy; Erythropoietine et radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, E.; Albarghach, M.N.; Pradier, O. [CHU de Morvan, Dept. de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2010-01-15

    Erythropoietin (E.P.O.) is a glycoprotein hormone. This hormone is a growth factor for red blood cells precursors in the bone marrow. The decrease of oxygen partial pressure, a reduced number of erythrocytes caused by bleeding or excessive destruction, or increased tissues oxygen requirements lead to increased secretion of E.P.O.. Its action takes place on bone marrow erythroblastic cells through specific receptors. E.P.O. stimulates the proliferation of red cell precursors stem cells in the bone marrow, thus increasing their production in one to two weeks. The effectiveness of E.P.O. at increasing haemoglobin and improving patients quality of life has been demonstrated by several studies. However, its use in radiotherapy remains controversial. While tumour hypoxia caused by anaemia is a factor of radio resistance and thus a source of local failure, tumour expression of E.P.O. receptors presents a significant risk for tumour progression and neo-angiogenesis, which would be increased during the administration of E.P.O.. The purpose of this article is to answer the question: is there a place for E.P.O. in combination with radiotherapy in the management of cancer?

  4. Le Developmental Entrepreneurship Program du Massachusetts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Faire en sorte que les étudiants venant des pays en développement pour étudier au MIT retournent ensuite dans leurs pays respectifs afin d'y concrétiser leurs idées est un souci majeur du MIT, des bailleurs de fonds et du milieu du développement. Ce projet palliera à ce souci en soutenant la formation des fellows du ...

  5. Les dispositifs du Net art

    OpenAIRE

    Fourmentraux, Jean-Paul

    2010-01-01

    La pratique du Net art radicalise la question du potentiel communicationnel d’un média —Internet— qui constitue tout à la fois le support technique, l’outil créatif et le dispositif social de l’œuvre. Les technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC) placent en effet l’œuvre d’art au cœur d’une négociation socialement distribuée entre l’artiste et le public. L’article est focalisé sur cette construction collective du Net art et sur ses mises en scènes. Il montre le travail artist...

  6. Multileaf collimator in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, M.; Robar, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Basic goal of radiotherapy treatment is the irradiation of a target volume while minimizing the amount of radiation absorbed in healthy tissue. Shaping the beam is an important way of minimizing the absorbed dose in healthy tissue and critical structures. Conventional collimator jaws are used for shaping a rectangular treatment field; but, as usually treatment volume is not rectangular, additional shaping is required. On a linear accelerator, lead blocks or individually made Cerroben TM blocks are attached onto the treatment head under standard collimating system. Another option is the use of multileaf collimator (MLC). Conclusions. Multileaf collimator is becoming the main tool for beam shaping on the linear accelerator. It is a simple and useful system in the preparation and performance of radiotherapy treatment. Multileaf collimators are reliable, as their manufacturers developed various mechanisms for their precision, control and reliability, together with reduction of leakage and transmission of radiation between and through the leaves. Multileaf collimator is known today as a very useful clinical system for simple field shaping, but its use is getting even more important in dynamic radiotherapy, with the leaves moving during irradiation. This enables a precise dose delivery on any part of a treated volume. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the therapy of the future, is based on the dynamic use of MLC. (author)

  7. [Radiotherapy of oropharynx carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servagi Vernat, S; Tochet, F; Vieillevigne, L; Pointreau, Y; Maingon, P; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for oropharynx carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  9. Bowel disease after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, P.F.; Holden, D.; Carr, N.D. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK))

    1983-06-01

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest time of presentation was between 3 and 18 months after radiotherapy, when 20 patients needed surgery for bowel disease caused by radiation-induced local ischaemia. Twelve of these patients had chronic perforation, 6 had severe rectal bleeding and 2 had painful anorectal ulceration. Fifteen patients presented between 2 and 24 years after radiotherapy, usually with incomplete intestinal obstruction due to a fibrous stricture, but 2 patients had rectal carcinoma. Wide resection of the involved bowel was the principal method of treatment but any anastomosis was protected by a proximal defunctioning stoma. There was no operative mortality but 10 patients have died subsequently. The danger of dismissing these patients as having incurable malignancy is stressed because, although the condition is infrequent, it is usually amenable to adequate surgery.

  10. Radiotherapy of breast fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibel, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study radiotherapy of breast fibrosis in hormone-treated men with histologically confirmed prostate carcinoma was examined. 10 patients had received hormones even before irradiation, 113 obtained hormone administration only after irradiation. The objective size of the glandular body and the overall size of the breast were measured with a special method developed by the author. 46 patients indicated complaints. With hypertrophic mamma and hypertrophic mamilla in 67 examined patients, 127 different symptoms resulted in total. Four patients of the group who had obtained hormones before irradiation, suffered from subjective symptoms. It resulted that radiotherapy of breast fibrosis carried out during hormone treatment is no gynecomastia prophylaxis, that already existent mamma hypertrophies are irreversible, but that existent sensations were notably reduced within 6 months after irradiation therapy. These results indicate the necessity of a radiotherapy of the mamma fibrosis before the hormone treatment is begun. Particularly in cases of higher operative risks, also the possibility of preferring radiotherapy to mastectomy should be fully utilized, in view of adequate or even better therapeutic results. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  12. Four R's of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiotherapy given as multiple doses can be effective in sterilizing cancers, but the processes whereby the neoplasm is eradicated and the normal tissues are preserved are not fully understood. The differential between normal tissue and tumor response is enhanced by dose fractionation, single doses resulting in severe normal tissue injury when the dose is sufficient to control a proportion of treated tumors. Data are reviewed from radiobiological studies on laboratory animals and cultured cells that have thrown some light on four of the phenomena that influence the outcome of fractionated-dose radiotherapy, one or more of which may account for the relative sparing of normal tissues. These are repair of sublethal injury in normal and neoplastic cells, reoxygenation of the tumor, redistribution through the division cycle, and regeneration of surviving normal and malignant cells between dose fractions. These have been called the four R's of fractionated radiotherapy. Other factors are involved in the outcome of multifraction radiotherapy, including maintenance of the architectural integrity of the normal tissues, the volume of tissue irradi []ted, the tumor bed, and the immunocompetence of the host. (90 references) (CH)

  13. L'administration du travail et la production du droit du travail (1906-1960). : Note de synthèse du rapport de recherche

    OpenAIRE

    Le Crom , Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Synthèse d'un rapport de recherche dont l'objectif est d'appréhender le rôle de l'administration centrale du travail dans la production du droit du travail. Deux dimensions sont explorées : le profil des rédacteurs et l'organisation des structures.

  14. Quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Good radiotherapy results and safety of treatment require the radiation to be optimally applied to a specified target area and the correct dose. According to international recommendations, the average uncertainty in therapeutic dose should not exceed 5%. The need for high precision in therapeutic dose requires quality assurance covering the entire radiotherapy process. Besides the physical and technical characteristics of the therapy equipment, quality assurance must include all radiotherapy equipment and procedures that are significant for the correct magnitude and precision of application of the therapeutic dose. The duties and responsibilities pertaining to various stages of treatment must also be precisely defined. These requirements may be best implemented through a quality system. The general requirements for supervision and quality assurance of medical radiation apparatus are prescribed in section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/1991, amendment 1142/1998) and in sections 18 and 32 of the Decree of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation (423/2000). Guide ST 2.2 imposes requirements on structural radiation shielding of radiotherapy equipment and the premises in which it is used, and on warning and safety arrangements. Guide ST 1.1 sets out the general safety principles for radiation practices and regulatory control procedure for the use of radiation. Guide ST 1.6 provides general requirements for operational measures in the use of radiation. This Guide sets out the duties of responsible parties (the party running a radiation practice) in respect of arranging and maintaining radiotherapy quality assurance. The principles set out in this Guide and Guide ST 6.3 may be applied to radionuclide therapy

  15. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiotherapy and brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This presentation first defines the radiotherapy and brachytherapy techniques, indicates the used ionizing radiations (electromagnetic and particles), describes the mechanisms and processes of action of ionizing radiations: they can be physical by photon-matter interactions (Compton effect and photoelectric effect) or due to electron-matter interactions (excitation, ionization), physical-chemical by direct or indirect action (DNA damage), cellular (mitotic or apoptotic death), tissue (sane and tumorous tissues and differential effect). It discusses the biological efficiency of these treatments which depends on different parameters: intrinsic radio-sensitivity, time (session fractioning and organisation in time), oxygen, radiation quality, cellular cycle, dose rate, temperature. It presents the different types of radiotherapy: external radiotherapy (general sequence, delineation, dosimetry, protection of critical organs, treatment session, quality control, monitoring consultation) and briefly presents some specific techniques (total body irradiation, total cutaneous electron therapy, pre-operation radiotherapy, radio-surgery, hadron-therapy). It proposes an overview of the main indications for this treatment: brain tumours, upper aero digestive tract tumours, bronchial tumours, oesophagus, stomach and pancreas tumours, breast tumours, cervix cancer, rectum tumour, and so on, and indicates the possible associated treatments. The next part addresses brachytherapy. It presents the principles and comments the differences with radiotherapy. It indicates the used radio-elements (Caesium 137, Iridium 192, Iodine 125), describes the implementation techniques (plastic tubes, use of iodine 125, intracavitary and endo-luminal radiation therapy). It proposes an overview of the different treated tumours (skin, breast, prostates, bronchial, oesophagus, ENT) and indicates possible early and late secondary effects for different organs

  17. Réflexion sur l’origine du processus de segmentation du marche du travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia Nicole

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (francuski Ce travail propose une réflexion sur l'origine du processus de segmentation du marché du travail par rapport à l'entreprise. Se situe-t-elle au sein même de l'entreprise ou en amont, c'est à dire entre les entreprises? Cela revient à se demander si on peut avoir une approche microéconomique ou macroéconomique de la segmentation et, à s'interroger sur le rôle réel tenu par les firmes dans le processus. Déterminant pour la théorie, ce rôle est à repenser selon la réponse apportée à notre question.

  18. Un Nouveau Monde du Savoir

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Si les effets de la mondialisation sur l'économie, la politique ou encore les ..... Il souligne l'importance cruciale d'un plan stratégique d'internationalisation, ...... Lors du recrutement de nouveaux professeurs ( lorsque cette situation est ...

  19. rive gauche du fleuve Rimac

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    tégée du fleuve et les terrains vagues d'une zone industrielle. .... Ces deux diagnostics sont d'importants outils qui contri- bueront à une meilleure planification ... conditions et instruments nécessaires pour améliorer la situation financière des ...

  20. Voorwoord Forward | du Plessis | Lexikos

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J.CM.D. du Plessis. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  1. Charte du Conseil des Gouverneurs

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    7. favoriser des communications ouvertes et franches entre le personnel, la direction ..... de dresser le procès-verbal des réunions du Conseil et de ses comités et de veiller à ce ... et des résultats qu'il obtient, et non de sa gestion quotidienne.

  2. Bases biologiques du comportement social

    CERN Document Server

    Laborit, H

    1994-01-01

    Pour bien comprendre le comportement humain dans un environnement social,il est necessaire de comprendre comment fonctionne le systÂ?me nerveux central. L'une des principales fonctions du cerveau est de crÂ?er des relations entre leshumains.. .................

  3. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy of lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettinger, E.M.; Sack, H.

    1976-01-01

    Increased knowledge about the course of lymphogranulomatosis and technological progress in radiotherapy during the past 20 years have brought permanent recovery for a major part of patients from this disease which had been infaust before. The supplementation of the local radiotherapy by the systematic effects of chemotherapy enables us at the same time to control the infiltrations and disseminations which cannot be manifested clinically especially in malignant forms and later stages. The good healing results obtained presuppose careful clinical examination of the patient and attentive care during the therapy with regard to the potential complications of radio- and chemotherapy. As potential complications which may occur according to the method used we may name damage to the kidneys, radiopneumonia or pulmonal fibrosis, myocarditis or pericarditis, oeosophagitis, enteritis, and hepatitis. Relatively seldom we see the permanent depression of the bone marrow, induction of leucaemia, and myxoedema. All these complications can occure more frequently in the case of additional chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the clinically confirmed benefits of combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy. They have been found in a small group of diseases that respond to chemotherapy alone. According to the author, only when a drug or drug combination has the ability to eradicate occult disease or substantially to reduce the size of objectively measurable disease is there likely to be an demonstrable benefit from its use in conjunction with radiotherapy. It is the author's belief that the immediate future lies in selecting drugs and patients in which a good chemotherapeutic response can be expected, avoiding drugs that seriously enhance radiation damage to normal tissues and keeping drug and radiation treatments far enough apart in time to minimize interactions

  6. Conformal radiotherapy: a glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Giraud, P.; Beaudre, A.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. (author)

  7. Imagination in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourrez, A.; Truc, G.; Santona, M.; Crehange, G.; Peignaux, K.; Martin, E.; Maingon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a questionnaire given to the patients of a radiotherapy department and to the personnel of a centre of struggle against cancer, the study aimed at revealing imagination and representations about such an advanced medical technology, radio-physics and radioactivity. The patients and personnel were asked to answer the questionnaire with free words, images, or by expressing their own intimate or cultural visions of this environment. Implications on patients' anguish are foreseen. Short communication

  8. The pioneer of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.P.; Coursaget, J.

    2005-09-01

    This work narrates the history of the birth of a new field, the radiology and its application to radiotherapy for these multiform pathologies that are the cancers. Two leading figures will favour this field: Marie Curie, physicist and twice awarded by nobel price, and Claudius Regaud, histologist and become a specialist of the action of ionizing radiations on tissues. They will create the Curie Institute, in relation with the Radium Institute and the support of the Pasteur Institute in 1920. (N.C.)

  9. Quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the modalities and periodicities of internal quality control on radiotherapy installations. They indicate the different concerned systems and the aspects and items to be controlled (patient and personnel security, apparatus mechanical characteristics, beam quality, image quality, isodose and irradiation duration calculation, data transfer). They present the measurement instruments and tools used for the mechanical controls, dose measurement, beam homogeneity and symmetry, anatomic data acquisition systems, and dose distribution and control imagery calculation

  10. Radiotherapy of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de

  11. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  12. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  13. Radiotherapy in Cancer Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been used for curative or palliative treatment of cancer, either alone or increasingly as part of a multimodality approach in conjunction with chemotherapy, immunotherapy or surgery. Radiation must be delivered in the safest and most effective way. The use of radiologic and nuclear medicine diagnostic techniques, e.g., the use of CT (Computerized Tomography) and PET/CT allow better detection and staging of diseases by displaying both morphological and functional abnormalities within the affected organs and are essential in the process of radiotherapy planning. Technical advances in radiotherapy have allowed better targeting of tumors, sparing of normal tissue and, in the case of radiosurgery, a decrease in the number of treatments. The IAEA Programme in Human Health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the treatment of diseases, including cancer, through the application of nuclear techniques. The Programme supports quality assurance in radiation medicine; DIRAC, the only radiation oncology-specific resource database world-wide; significant, innovative education and training programmes through telemedicine and e-learning accessible via the human health campus website. Technical expertise for country– and region–specific technical cooperation radiation-medicine projects is provided to establish or enhance radiation medicine worldwide. (author)

  14. Paul Celan in Translation: "Du sei wie du"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Felstiner

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Translating the lyric poetry of Paul Celan, especially his later poems, carries not only the endemic challenge and difficulty of any verse translation, but the added incentive of doing justice to a writer whose whole recourse after the Holocaust—whose sanctuary, if he was to have any at all—he sought in language itself, specifically in the Muttersprache , the mother tongue that was as well the tongue of those who murdered his mother and father. This essay exposes a process of translating "Du sei wie du" (1970, which perhaps more than any other poem by Celan, at once solicits and defies translation, moving as it does from modern to medieval German, and closing with Hebrew words from Isaiah— a messianic imperative that shows Celan verging as ever on his Jewish identity.

  15. Le parcours migratoire de jeunes ruraux du bled du kif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Mouna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article analyse le parcours migratoire des jeunes ruraux originaires des zones de production du cannabis, jeunes qui cherchent à briser les chaînes de soumission et d’humiliation vécues au quotidien. Pour les jeunes concernés par notre étude, la migration constitue un moyen de s’intégrer dans des réseaux transnationaux et ainsi d’entamer une carrière de beznass (commerçant du cannabis. Ce parcours « initiatique » permet à ces jeunes de revenir au bled avec de nouvelles idées, des moyens accrus, et de jouer un rôle actif dans l’économie locale – qui reste pour eux focalisée sur la production de cannabis, cette dernière restant néanmoins officiellement interdite.

  16. Bassins versants du Loup, de la Cagne et du Malvan

    OpenAIRE

    Lepère, Cédric; Lautier, Laurence; Pellegrino, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 8453 Date de l'opération : 2007 (PC) ; 2007 (PI) Inventeur(s) : Lepère Cédric (AUT) ; Lautier Laurence (AUT) ; Pellegrino Emmanuel (AUT) Une campagne de prospection inventaire a été effectuée pendant trois mois, dans les bassins-versants de la Cagne, du Loup et du Malvan qui regroupent les communes de Cagnes-sur-Mer, Villeneuve-Loubet, La Colle-sur-Loup, Saint-Paul-de-Vence, Vence, Saint-Jeannet, Bezaudun, Tourrettes-sur-Loup, Roquefort-les-Pins, Le ...

  17. Marche du foncier urbain et promotion du logement au Benin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le marché du foncier urbain au Bénin est un secteur qui met en jeu l'intervention de plusieurs acteurs publics et privés mais également de l'informel. La notion de « foncier urbain » utilisée dans cet article englobe les acceptions et les utilisations faites en architecture, en urbanisme, en aménagement et en gestion urbaine.

  18. Gestion du parc agroforestier du terroir de Vipalogo (Burkina Faso ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Au Burkina Faso, l'arbre rural fait partie des systèmes de production. Le choix des espèces, leur densité, les modes de gestion ainsi que les besoins à satisfaire, obéissent à des critères propres aux producteurs. C'est pour comprendre ces logiques paysannes de la gestion du parc agroforestier que la présente étude a été ...

  19. Malformations du tube neural en chirurgie pediatrique du chu de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encéphalocèle et 6 cas de sipina bifida. La cure chirurgicale a été le principal mode de prise en charge des patients. Seuls 91,38% des cas ont été opérés. Pour toutes les malformations du tube neural, nous avons enregistré 7 décès dont 2 décès ...

  20. Three dimensional conformal irradiation with intensity modulation by tomo-therapy at the skull base in three patients with a acrochordoma and a patient with a chondrosarcoma; Irradiation conformationnelle tridimensionnelle avec modulation d'intensite par tomotherapie de la base du crane chez 3 patients atteints d'un chordome et un patient atteint d'un chondrosarcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, G.; Meyer, P.; Niederst, C.; Antoni, D.; Karamanoukian, D. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Froelich, S.; Boyer, P. [Hopital Universitaire de Hautepierre, 67 - Strasbourg (France); George, B. [Hopital Universitaire Lariboisiere, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-10-15

    The tomo-therapy of acrochordomas and chondrosarcomas of the skull base is possible. The dose distribution is satisfying the tolerance is acceptable. A dosimetry comparison with protons is being. (N.C.)

  1. L’Harmonie du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Clouzot

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available La Bourgogne est particulièrement bien présente et représentée dans l’exposition sur la musique et ses représentations au Moyen Âge organisée par Isabelle Marchesin (université de Poitiers, Christine Laloue (conservatrice du Patrimoine au Musée et Martine Clouzot (université de Bourgogne, au Musée de la Musique à Paris du 26 mars au 27 juin 2004. En Côte-d’Or, à Dijon, la Bibliothèque municipale a donné son accord officiel pour le prêt de la Bible d’Etienne Harding, les Moralia in Job et u...

  2. Les vicissitudes du fret ferroviaire

    OpenAIRE

    DABLANC, L

    2010-01-01

    Dans beaucoup de pays européens, et plus encore en Amérique du Nord et en Asie, le transport de marchandises par le train a augmenté depuis dix ans. Cette activité réduit la part des marchandises acheminées par la route et contribue ainsi au développement durable : un camion émet 8 à 30 fois plus de dioxyde de carbone que le train, pour une distance et une quantité transportée équivalentes. Pourtant, la France a raté ce renouveau. Filiale du groupe public SNCF, la Société Fret SNCF, qui assur...

  3. L'energie du moustique

    CERN Document Server

    Augereau, J F

    2002-01-01

    ENSEMBLE DE QUATRE ARTICLES - LARGE HADRON COLLIDER: Le dernier accelerateur de particules du CERN, le LEP, produisait des faisceaux d'electrons de 100 GeV chacun. Le LHC, qui accelere des faisceaux de protons, leur communiquera une energie de 7 TeV chacun. Une energie a la fois colossale et derisoire. Un TeV represente a peu pres l'energie cinetique d'un moustique (1/2 page).

  4. Revision des Symphurus du Siboga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabanaud, Paul

    1955-01-01

    Ce m’est un devoir particulièrement agréable que de saisir l’occasion de ce petit mémoire pour remercier M. L. F. DE BEAUFORT, M. H. ENGEL, Directeur du Zoologisch Museum, ainsi que M. J. J. HOEDEMAN de l’accueil qu’à diverses reprises, j’ai reçu de leur part, au Zoölogisch Museum, et aussi des

  5. Actes des 5èmes Journées Scientifiques du GDR3544 Sciences du Bois. Journées Annuelles du GDR 3544 Sciences du Bois

    OpenAIRE

    CHAPLAIN, Myriam; CARE, Sabine; GRIL, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Le Groupement de Recherche en Sciences du bois (GDR3544 Sciences du Bois) a été créé en 2012 par le CNRS et renouvelé en 2016 pour 5 ans. La mission de ce groupement est : (1) de structurer la recherche sur le bois en France pour lui donner une visibilité nationale, (2) de contribuer au développement de la formation en sciences du bois et (3) de servir de relai aux réseaux internationaux de sciences du bois. Les 5èmes journées annuelles du GDR Bois ont été organisées à Bordeaux, au domaine du...

  6. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  7. Original Paper Performances comparées du HDL-cholestérol et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CT/HDL-C) et du HDL-Cholestérol est le meilleur prédicteur du SMet chez les adultes béninois. .... (Canada) et du. Ministère de la Santé du Bénin. Le consentement éclairé écrit a été obtenu de chaque participant avant leur recrutement dans.

  8. Bystander effects and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy.

  9. Radiotherapy and pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S; Miyata, Y; Tachiiri, H [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Clinical findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were outlined, and the relationship between occurence of these disorders and radiotherapy, clinical findings and X-ray picture were studied. Standard radiation dose as cell lethal response of carcinoma of the lung were 4,500 to 5,500 rad in 4 to 5.5 weeks in undifferentiated carcinoma, 6,000 to 7,000 rad in 6 to 7 weeks in squamous cell carcinoma, 7,000 to 9,000 rad in 7 to 9 weeks in adenocarcinoma, 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4 to 5 weeks in the large sized cancer of the esophagus, 6,500 to 7,000 rad in 5 to 7 weeks in the small sized cancer of the esophagus, and irradiation of these amount of dose caused hazards in pulmonary function. Pathological and clinical findings of pulmonary hazards within 6 month period after irradiation, factors causing them and changes in X-ray pictures before and after irradiation were observed and discussed in clinical cases: the case of breast cancer in which 3,000 R/6 times/18 days of 5.5 MeV Liniac electron was irradiated to the chest wall, and the case of pulmonary cancer in which 5,000 rad/25 times/34 days of 6 MeV Liniac X-ray was irradiated in opposite 2 ports radiation beam treatment. The former revealed alveolar lesion and interlobular pleuritis at 4 month later, and remarkable lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was followed at 9 month after radiotherapy. The later developed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after radiotherapy, of which lesion extended to the upper part by 3 months later, and cancer recurred 6.5 month later.

  10. Radiotherapy for eyelid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saika, Kazumi

    2001-01-01

    Some studies on radiotherapy for eyelid cancer have been reported, but the optimal radiation doses for different histological types and tumor sizes have not been detailed. So I studied the optimal radiation doses in radiotherapy for eyelid cancer. The patients were fourteen and histological diagnoses were made on the basis of biopsies or surgery before radiotherapy. Surgical cut margins were positive in 10 cases. In 5 of these cases, tumors were visible. There were 9 sebaceous adenocarcinomas (SAC), 4 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and 1 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In 13 of 14 cases, radiation was applied to eyelids in which tumor-surgical cut margin distances were 3 mm or less. The eyeballs were covered with lead or tungsten shields, and the eyelids were irradiated with a total dose of 50 to 66.6 Gy. In 5 cases, radiation was applied prophylactically for ipsilateral pre-auricle lymph node areas. 11 of 13 cases were locally controlled. I gave greater radiation doses for SAC than for SCC or BCC. I also gave greater doses for in visible tumors than for invisible ones. In the acute phase dermatitis, inflammation of the cornea, conjunctivitis, etc. occurred but they were mild. Later reactions were decreased cilia, dry eye, inflammation of cornea, conjunctivitis, discomfort of the scar, etc. Cataracts were also seen, but they were of senile origen. Because 81.8% of the tumors were controlled, this radiation method was useful with salvage therapies to select an optimal radiation dose according to the differences among histological types and tumor sizes. 60% of visible tumors were also controlled so I think that radical therapy using radiation alone is possible. (author)

  11. Radiotherapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, W.

    1982-01-01

    Still today radiotherapy is of decisive relevance for several benign diseases. The following ones are briefly described in this introductory article: 1. Certain inflammatory and degenerative diseases as furuncles in the face, acute thrombophlebitis, recurrent sudoriparous abscesses, degenerative skeletal diseases, cervical syndrome and others; 2. rheumatic joint diseases; 3. Bechterew's disease; 4. primary presenile osteoporosis; 5. synringomyelia; 6. endocrine ophthalmopathy; 7. hypertrophic processes of the connective tissue; 8. hemangiomas. A detailed discussion and a profit-risk analysis is provided in the individual chapters of the magazine. (MG) [de

  12. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  13. Microplanar beams for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Allen, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron generated X-ray beams with high fluence rate permit the investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microbeams in radiotherapy. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which replaces the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. In this study using the Monte Carlo method, the lateral and depth dose of a single planar microbeam of 100 keV in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom is investigated. Poster 195. (author)

  14. 35 Typologie des eaux de surface du bassin du Sebou par multi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    2Service de protection de la qualité de l'eau, Agence du Bassin Hydraulique du ... pour montrer l'évolution de la qualité biologique des eaux de surface du ..... Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Environmental Management,.

  15. Régionalisation du recrutement du personnel de santé au Burkina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Régionalisation du recrutement du personnel de santé au Burkina Faso ... le ministère a adopté une politique de recrutement régionalisé de certaines catégories du ... de comprendre le contexte dans lequel une telle stratégie a été formulée, ...

  16. La disparition du temps en gravitation quantique

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Ours, Alexis de

    2012-01-01

    Le but de ce travail est d’examiner l’incidence philosophique de la gravitation quantique sur le concept de temps. Je cherche à montrer qu’elle conduit à une disparition du temps comme dimension et ouvre la voie à une compréhension du temps comme variation et même à l’idée de variation pure. En l’absence de temps mécanique, il est cependant possible de définir un temps d’origine thermodynamique. Je montre en quoi cette dissociation du temps mécanique et du temps thermodynamique, fait écho à l...

  17. Au fil du temps (1976 ou la loi du seuil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Singer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ayant choisi de vivre dans un camion, les héros d’Au fil du temps (film de Wim Wenders de 1976 font du seuil une expérience particulière. Celle de la rupture avec toute idée de foyer et celle du refus d’appartenance à la terre natale, cette terre allemande traversée par une frontière le long de laquelle ils vont voyager, et qui les renvoie à chaque instant aux traumatismes de l’Histoire. Sur le pare-brise du camion, l’extérieur (campagnes indifférenciées, villes à l’abandon… et l’intérieur se superposent. Au fil du temps questionne le paysage : il s’agit d’en décoller un à un les mythes qui le recouvrent. L’image alors n’est plus surface mais volume à traverser, à lacérer et découvrir ce qui est tissé dans le paysage. La démarche de Wenders est alors proche de celle d’un de ses contemporains : Anselm Kiefer. Le paysage allemand provoque le rejet parce qu’il y a là toujours plus que le visible : des strates et des strates de culpabilité que le mythe - et c’est sa fonction - a recouvert. Et qu’il s’agira ici, de soulever. Le choix du nomadisme, c’est celui d’un état de l’humanité antérieur à l’idée de patrie. Et c’est aussi celui de la solitude, comme prix à payer à ce refus d’appartenance et à cette mise à jour des mythes. L’appartenance à la terre allemande et à son Histoire est profondément problématique parce que les pères sont fondamentalement coupables. On se reconnaîtra alors des pères de substitution : des pères de cinéma (Nicholas Ray ou Fritz Lang. Et l’on substituera l’Histoire du cinéma à l’Histoire. Bruno est réparateur ambulant de projecteurs et Au fil du temps dressera, au gré de ses pérégrinations, un état des lieux du cinéma allemand des années soixante-dix : déliquescent, colonisé par les images hollywoodiennes. Il faut que cela change : état du cinéma ; état des protagonistes solitaires en quête d’une identit

  18. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  19. Radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshitani, Takashi; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Kano, Kyoko

    1988-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma were treated by high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using specially designed balloon application at Hyogo medical Center for Adults. 32 patients were treated from January 1982 through July 1986. According to the stage of UICC (1978), 10 patients were classified into stage I, 7 into II, 13 into III and 2 into IV. Acturial 5 year survival rate was 17.9 % in all 32 patients and that of 23 patients who received radical radiotherapy was 24 %. Local CR rate was 66 %. However, since 9 (53 %) of 17 CR patients were relapsed, local control rate for 2 years was 25 %. Mild adverse effects were experienced in 9 (47 %) of 19 CR patients. Our balloon applicator was easily fixed, could have an adequate space from esophageal mucosa and clarify the tumor site by filling with 20 % gastrografin. It is concluded that high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation with our balloon applicator is an effective boost therapy and decline a lethal adverse effect in radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. (author)

  20. Radiotherapy in free practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelz, H.P.

    1974-01-01

    Relating the X-ray ordinance cases of the fourth quarter 1971 to the whole year a total surface and incident dose of 2,107,656 R was administered in 2,189 cases (1,881 patients) in the course of 16,574 sessions. During the same period, 364 patients were treated in the 14 consultation rooms by radiotherapy because of malignant diseases. The genetically significant dose of 0,6 mrem/a is composed of the GSD of 0,194 in practice and 0,407 mrem in clinics and corresponds in its proportions to the GSD calculated and estimated in recent times. Compared with GSD values from other spheres of the application of ionizing radiation in medical practice, the calculated GSD of 0,6 mrem/a in radiotherapy for benign diseases corresponds to the GSD of approximately 0,5 mrem/a for the nuclear medicine in West-Berlin as stated by Hinz and Weil. It corresponds to 1% of the GSD of approximately/a as estimated recently for X-ray diagnostic applications. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  2. Proton minibeam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie

    2016-03-08

    The risk of developing adverse side effects in the normal tissue after radiotherapy is often limiting for the dose that can be applied to the tumor. Proton minibeam radiotherapy, a spatially fractionated radiotherapy method using sub-millimeter proton beams, similar to grid therapy or microbeam radiation radiotherapy (MRT) using X-rays, has recently been invented at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich. The aim of this new concept is to minimize normal tissue injuries in the entrance channel and especially in the skin by irradiating only a small percentage of the cells in the total irradiation field, while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose in the tumor, just like in conventional broad beam radiotherapy. This can be achieved by optimizing minibeam sizes and distances according to the prevailing tumor size and depth such that after widening of the minibeams due to proton interactions in the tissue, the overlapping minibeams produce a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the tumor. The aim of this work was to elucidate the prospects of minibeam radiation therapy compared to conventional homogeneous broad beam radiotherapy in theory and in experimental studies at the ion microprobe SNAKE. Treatment plans for model tumors of different sizes and depths were created using the planning software LAPCERR, to elaborate suitable minibeam sizes and distances for the individual tumors. Radiotherapy-relevant inter-beam distances required to obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume were found to be in the millimeter range. First experiments using proton minibeams of only 10 μm and 50 μm size (termed microchannels in the corresponding publication Zlobinskaya et al. 2013) and therapy-conform larger dimensions of 100 μm and 180 μm were performed in the artificial human in-vitro skin model EpiDermFT trademark (MatTek). The corresponding inter-beam distances were 500 μm, 1mm and 1.8 mm, respectively, leading to irradiation of only a few percent of the cells

  3. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  4. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  5. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  6. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy (XRT) for the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer is to improve the therapeutic ratio through the enhancement of local control and reduction of distant metastases without excessively enhancing normal tissue effects. Improved tumour control can result from sole additivity of either therapy or direct interactions between drug and radiation leading to increased tumour cell kill. Chemotherapy may sensitize the cells to radiation, interfere with repair of sublethal or potentially lethal radiation damage, induce cell synchrony, and reduce tumour mass leading to reoxygenation and decreased fraction of resistant hypoxic cells. Radiation may improve drug accessibility to tumour cells and reduce tumour volume leading to increased cell proliferation and chemosensitivity. If the enhanced effects of combined therapy are purely additive, then the two modalities can be administered either sequentially or concurrently with the same results. However, if the enhanced effects result from the direct interaction between drug and radiation, it is necessary that the two modalities be administered concurrently and in close temporal proximity. This review summarizes the results of clinical studies in which chemotherapy was administered concurrently during the course of radiotherapy for patients with previously untreated advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck

  7. Erythropoietin and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fur, E.; Albarghach, M.N.; Pradier, O.

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietin (E.P.O.) is a glycoprotein hormone. This hormone is a growth factor for red blood cells precursors in the bone marrow. The decrease of oxygen partial pressure, a reduced number of erythrocytes caused by bleeding or excessive destruction, or increased tissues oxygen requirements lead to increased secretion of E.P.O.. Its action takes place on bone marrow erythroblastic cells through specific receptors. E.P.O. stimulates the proliferation of red cell precursors stem cells in the bone marrow, thus increasing their production in one to two weeks. The effectiveness of E.P.O. at increasing haemoglobin and improving patients quality of life has been demonstrated by several studies. However, its use in radiotherapy remains controversial. While tumour hypoxia caused by anaemia is a factor of radio resistance and thus a source of local failure, tumour expression of E.P.O. receptors presents a significant risk for tumour progression and neo-angiogenesis, which would be increased during the administration of E.P.O.. The purpose of this article is to answer the question: is there a place for E.P.O. in combination with radiotherapy in the management of cancer?

  8. Advances in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation therapy is in the midst of a rebirth largely driven by the use of computers for treatment planning and beam delivery. The first edge of this renaissance was the advent of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT). This was enabled by the widespread availability and utilization of three-dimensional imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanning, themselves products of the computer revolution. For the first time this allowed radiation oncologists to segment and visualize the tumor in association with it neighboring sensitive soft-tissue structures. Software tools to visualize the beam paths through the body enabled the beam directions and beam shapes to be manually optimized. Simultaneously, improved dose calculations utilizing the CT images of the patient anatomy produced more accurate distributions of dose. The dose was delivered with custom-shaped blocks or recently collimators with multiple leaves that allow complex shaped fields to be delivered without the need for block fabrication. In the last couple of decades new treatment delivery methodologies have emerged. The first has been stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which is the purview of neurosurgeons (who call it SRS) as well as radiation oncologists (who usually call it SRT). SRS and SRT are premised on multiple beams focusing on one location typically with circular aperture collimators but increasingly with fields shaped by multi-leaved collimators. Often only a single treatment session (the usual for SRS) is used when the treatment volume is small, but for larger lesions several treatment sessions, or fractions, are used (most often for SRT) to allow for normal tissue repair. The new equipment market for SRS and SRT is about 10% of the total for radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the latest treatment methodology and its adoption has been extremely rapid, particularly in the United States. IMRT uses

  9. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    In radiotherapy, the primary objective is to deliver a prescribed dose of radiation to a tumour or lesion within a patient while minimising the dose delivered to the surrounding healthy tissue. Traditional radiotherapy treatments usually involve simple external or internal irradiations of a tumour. External irradiations are normally achieved in the clinic with photon or electron beams produced by high energy linear accelerators. The photon or electron beams are collimated into regular shapes as they emerge from the treatment head of the unit which is supported by a gantry that can be rotated isocentrically to any position. A discrete number of photon or electron beams with different angles of incidence that intersect at the iso-centre are used to produce a region of high dose around the tumour volume (positioned at the iso-centre). Internal irradiations are normally achieved in the clinic by implanting radioactive sources in and around the tumour or lesion. Such irradiations are characterised by very high doses local to the tumour. Radioactive sources are also used to prevent post-angioplasty restenosis by inserting sources into arteries. Usually when treating a tumour, a compromise is made between tumour control and complications arising from normal tissue damage. One measure of this compromise, the therapeutic ratio, is defined as the radiation dose producing complications in 50% of patients divided by the dose providing tumour control in 50% of the patients. The therapeutic ratio depends on the radiobiological characteristics of the cancerous tissue and surrounding healthy tissues and on the radiation dose distribution achieved by the radiotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that the therapeutic ratio can be minimised by optimising the conformation of the radiation dose distribution to the target volume. This is difficult with traditional radiotherapy techniques since they do not produce dose distributions that adequately cover tumour volumes of complex

  10. Stereotactic radiotherapy in pediatric indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier-Chastagner, V.; Supiot, S.; Carrie, C.; Helfre, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy is a very high precision procedure, which has been limited to radiosurgery for a long time. Technological improvements allowed the development of radiotherapy in stereotactic conditions, leading to a lot of innovations. Previously indicated for cerebral pathologies, this procedure is now developed for extra-cerebral locations. In paediatrics, stereotactic radiotherapy is still limited, delivered precociously, due to the possibility of long-term late effects that needs to be addressed. This review reports the different useful conditions, technical evolutions, and the current validated paediatric indications, with differences from adults, and future directions. (authors)

  11. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  12. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  13. The dosimetric control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.

    2009-01-01

    The author first presents the thermoluminescent dosimetry method developed by the Equal-Estro Laboratory to control radiotherapy systems, according to which dosimeters are mailed by the radiotherapy centres to the laboratory, and then analyzed with respect to the level of dose bias. In a second part, he discusses the different techniques used for the dosimetric control of new radiotherapy methods (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomo-therapy) for which film dosimetry is applied. He also evokes the development of new phantoms and the development of a method for the dosimetric control of proton beams

  14. PET/CT and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; CNR, Milano; S. Gerardo Hospital, Monza; Di Muzio, N.; Picchio, M.; Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; Fazio, F.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of PET/CT applications in radiotherapy, specifically its use in disease staging, patient selection, treatment planning and treatment evaluation. Diseases for which radiotherapy with radical intent is indicated will be considered, as well as those in which PET/CT may actually change the course of disease. The methodological and technological aspects of PET/CT in radiotherapy are discussed, focusing on the problem of target volume definition with CT and PET functional imaging and the problem of tumor motion with respect to imaging and dose delivery

  15. Le vide univers du tout et du rien

    CERN Document Server

    Diner, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Pourquoi l'Univers plutôt que le vide ? Le temps et l'espace existent-ils en l'absence de l'Univers ? Que reste-t-il quand tout est enlevé ? Pourquoi quelque chose plutôt que rien ? Depuis des siècles, ces interrogations mobilisent philosophes et physiciens. Mais aujourd'hui, le vide n'est pas le rien. Il serait même l'acteur central de l'histoire de la matière et de l'Univers, le partenaire privilégié de la physique. Vide et matière ne sont plus deux manifestations séparées de la nature, mais deux aspects d'une même réalité. Le vide est l'état de base dont la matière émerge, sans couper son cordon ombilical Le vide comme Univers du rien cède la place au vide comme Univers du tout. Que le vide puisse être conçu par les physiciens comme réservoir potentiel d'univers, voici qui ne devrait laisser personne indifférent. Ce livre ouvre un débat et nous convie à une réflexion surprenante.

  16. Image du savoir, image du pouvoir dans le Lapidaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta LACOMBA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available À travers le prologue et les enluminures de présentation, le Lapidaire d’Alphonse X oriente l’interprétation de l’œuvre. Ces paratextes mettent en avant le rôle capital du savoir, représenté par la métaphore du trésor caché, qui a ici une valeur topique. Ils mettent également en exergue le rôle que s’attribue le roi dans la transmission de ce savoir, et placent cette nouvelle attribution royale au cœur de son projet politique.A través del prólogo y las miniaturas de presentación, el Lapidario de Alfonso X orienta la interpretación de la obra. Estos paratextos subrayan el papel capital del saber, representado por la metáfora del tesoro escondido, que tiene aquí un valor tópico. Ponen asimismo de manifiesto el papel que se atribuye el monarca en la transmisión de ese saber y colocan esta nueva atribución real en el centro de su proyecto político.

  17. Main: 1DU5 [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DU5 トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Zeamatin Precursor. Name=Zlp; Zea Mays Molecule: Zeamatin; Chai...eta Sandwich SWS:ZEAM_MAIZE,P33679|EMBL; U06831; AAA92882.1; -.|PIR; T02075; T02075.|PDB; 1DU5; X-ray; A/B=22-227.|Mai

  18. les cahiers du cread: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    les cahiers du cread: About this journal. Journal Home > les cahiers du cread: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. People. » Contact. Policies.

  19. Les figures multiples du maire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lebraud

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Alors même que l’ensemble du personnel gouvernemental et parlementaire est sujet à une relative désaffection de la part des citoyens, les maires français jouissent, on le sait, d’une popularité qui fait d’eux les figures centrales de la scène politique. Au-delà de la décentralisation, qui a souvent renforcé leur image de décideurs, ils ont su tirer parti de la dimension identitaire qui caractérise l’échelon communal pour devenir les acteurs indispensables de la vie locale. ...

  20. Vers une anthropologie du Confucianisme

    OpenAIRE

    Rieu , Alain-Marc

    2010-01-01

    Research in Anthropology developed in France by Jean-Pierre Vernant, Marcel Détienne and Philippe Descola opens the possibility to reframe the debate and research on the function of Confucianism in Chinese culture, history and society. This paper shows how Confucianism can be studied as a "mythology"; La fonction du Confucianisme dans l'histoire de la société et de la culture chinoise, les débats et les reconstructions dont il est l'objet et l'enjeu, ouvre la possibilité de l'étudier d'un poi...

  1. Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    Session du Conseil du CERN : le ministre britannique, Robert Jackson, souligne l'intérêt de on pays pour l'avenir du CERN : décisions du Conseil pour la mise en oeuvre des recommandations du Comité d'évaluation du CERN: départ anticipé pour 200 membres au moins du personnel - mise à jour de la méthode de calcule pour les contributions des Etats Membres au budget

  2. Resveratrol sensitization of DU145 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation is associated to ceramide increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlatti, Francesca; Sala, Giusy; Ricci, Clara; Maioli, Claudio; Milani, Franco; Minella, Marco; Botturi, Marco; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2007-08-08

    Radiotherapy is an established therapeutic modality for prostate cancer. Since it is well known that radiotherapy is limited due to its severe toxicity towards normal cells at high dose and minimal effect at low dose, the search for biological compounds that increase the sensitivity of tumors cells to radiation may improve the efficacy of therapy. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, was shown to inhibit carcinogenesis in animal models, and to block the process of tumor initiation and progression. The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not resveratrol can sensitize DU145, an androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line, to ionizing radiation. We report here that DU145 cells are resistant to ionizing radiation-induced cell death, but pretreatment with resveratrol significantly enhances cell death. Resveratrol acts synergistically with ionizing radiation to inhibit cell survival in vitro. Resveratrol also potentiates ionizing radiation-induced ceramide accumulation, by promoting its de novo biosynthesis. This confirms ceramide as an effective mediator of the anticancer potential induced by resveratrol.

  3. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  4. [Radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingon, P; Blanchard, P; Bidault, F; Calmels, L

    2016-09-01

    Nasapharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease. Oftenly, the diagnostic is made for advanced disease. Localized tumors, T1 or T2 NO observed a good prognosis and are locally controlled in more than 90 % of the cases by radiotherapy alone. The standard treatment of locally advanced disease is combined chemoradiation. A special vigilance of fast decrease of the volume of the pathological lymph nodes, sometimes associated to loss of weight might indicate an adaptive dosimetric revision. The treatment of recurrent disease is of great importance. Surgical indications are limited but should be discussed in multidisciplinary tumor board when possible. Surgical nodal sampling has to be proposed for nodal recurrence as well as reirradiation, which could be indicated according to the technical issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Image guided multibeam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the status of the first development stages for an updated design of radiotherapy conformal system based on tumor 3D images obtained as an output the last generation imaging machines as PET, CT and MR which offer a very valuable output in cancer diagnosis. Prospective evaluation of current software codes and acquisition of useful experience in surgical planning involves a multidisciplinary process as an initial and unavoidable stage to develop an expert software and user skills which assures the delivery of the radiation dose is done correctly in geometry and value in each voxel as a radiation protection basic condition. The validation of the images obtained has been done by the production of anatomical models of interest regions by rapid proto typing of the 3D segmented images and its evaluation by contrasting with the real regions during surgical procedures. (author)

  6. Device for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinta, A.

    2002-01-01

    The invention refers to medicine, in particular to radiology. Summary of the invention consists in that the device for the radiotherapy includes a base a headrest, a mechanism for head fixation, means for placement of the formation element, the mechanism for head fixation representing a semicircle situated in horizontal position and fixed to the base with the possibility of displacement, in the centre of which it is installed a fixing arm, and the means for placement of the formation elements representing at least two semicircles, mounted in vertical position and fixed into supports with the possibility of mutual swiveling of each of them, between the headrest and the base being installed the neck support

  7. Radiotherapy. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this medical specialty book, besides presenting the state of the art in clinical radiotherapy and radiooncology, is to explain the basic principles of medical physics and radiobiology. Following a number of chapters on general topics and theory it provides detailed coverage of the individual organ systems, briefly addressing future aspects in the process. The authors relate their view that radiooncology as a medical specialty will continue to be under pressure to change and that it will take continuous innovation to secure its status within the interdisciplinary context around the treatment of cancer patients. The authors of this, the textbook's second edition, have dedicated much space to modern methods and techniques in order to do justice to these developments.

  8. Radiotherapy on hidradenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalya, Issam; Hadadi, Khalid; Tazi, El Mehdi; Lalya, Ilham; Bazine, Amine; Andaloussy, Khalid; Elmarjany, Mohamed; Sifat, Hassan; Hassouni, Khalid; Kebdani, Tayeb; Mansouri, Hamid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Elgueddari, Brahim Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma arising from sweat glands. It is an aggressive tumor that most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera; surgery with safe margins is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of 68-year-old woman who presented with an invasive clear cell hidradenocarcinoma situated in the left parotid area which recurred 5 months after surgery, this recurrence was managed successfully by high-dose irradiation of the tumor bed (66 Gy) and regional lymphatic chains (50 Gy), after a follow-up of more than 15 months, the patient is in good local control without significant toxicity. POST OPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY ALLOWS BETTER LOCAL CONTROL AND SHOULD BE MANDATORY WHEN HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES PREDICTIVE OF RECURRENCE ARE PRESENT: positive margins, histology poorly differentiated, perineural invasion, vascular and lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular spread.

  9. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  10. Decision logics in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauwerky, F.

    1979-01-01

    Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de

  11. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  12. Radiotherapy in the Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.C.L.C.; Moura, J.E.F.M. de; Leite, M.T.T.; Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte

    1983-01-01

    An up-to-date summary of Hodgkin's disease is presented taking into account its natural history, dissemination patterns, history, staging and therapeutic sugestions, with special regard to radiotherapy. (Author) [pt

  13. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  14. The biological basis of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.; Adams, G.E.; Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this book is the biological basis of radiotherapy. The papers presented include: Temporal stages of radiation action:free radical processes; The molecular basis of radiosensitivity; and Radiation damage to early-reacting normal tissue

  15. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rommel, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  16. Radiotherapy of presenile spinal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, H.M.; Schiebusch, M.

    1982-01-01

    Painfull conditions of presenile spinal osteoporosis may no longer respond to medication or physical therapy. Analgesic radiotherapy coupled with mild physical therapy and if necessary supported by orthopedic measures frequently results in pain relief and physical stability. Fifty-two cases of osteoporosis and osteoporotic spinal fractures illustrate how better longterm results are achieved by increasing the customary dosage and speeding up radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  17. Contact radiotherapy. Report of technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Melin, Nicole; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean; Pages, Frederique; Devaud, Christine; Noel, Georges; Biga, Julie; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Canet, Philippe; Lascols, Sylvie; Lamas, Muriel; Ramdine, Jessica; Tuil, Louise

    2008-10-01

    This report aims at assessing safety, indications, the role in therapeutic strategy, and efficiency of contact radiotherapy. It also aims at answering questions like: is the contact radiotherapy technique validated? What are the indications for contact radiotherapy? What about the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy? After a presentation of preliminary notions on radiotherapy (radiation types, dose, and irradiation techniques), the report presents this specific technique of contact radiotherapy: definition, devices, use recommendations, issues of radiation protection, modalities of performance of a contact radiotherapy session, and concerned pathologies. Then, based on a literature survey, this report addresses the various concerned tumours (skin, rectum, brain, breast), indicates some general information about these tumours (epidemiological data, anatomy and classification, therapeutic options, radiotherapy), and proposes an assessment of the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy

  18. Intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Hidalgo, Sabrina A.

    2013-01-01

    A literature review was performed on intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer. The strength and attractiveness is established of techniques of partial irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. The benefit is originated to restrict the area immediate of radiotherapy to the tumor bed or quadrant index and identifying the benefit of being applied during the radiotherapy while surgical lumpectomy. The impact of local recurrence has been established using intraoperative radiotherapy. The advantages of intraoperative radiotherapy was compared in the management of the conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer with external radiotherapy. Different methods of intraoperative radiotherapy have been compared and individual impact on local recurrence ranges. Intraoperative radiotherapy has had many advantages: radiobiological, technical, clinical, psychological and economical in the handling of conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer, compared with external radiotherapy [es

  19. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Education in physics of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Judith; Feld, Diana B.; Portillo, Perla A.; Casal, Mariana R.; Menendez, Pablo R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the clinical application which requires the highest precision in dose delivery because of the very high doses administrated to patients, taking into account that new diagnostic methods and new modalities and treatment machines give greater possibilities of dose escalation. These higher doses may also produce serious side effects if not accurately administered. High qualified personnel is therefore needed for dealing with these new complex modalities, assuring that dose prescribed is correctly administered and providing adequate radiation protection to patients, public and staff. Education in Physics of Radiotherapy aims to provide students with solid theoretical and practical basis in order to be able to work with great responsibility and understanding in a Radiotherapy Department and assure that appropriate radiation protection to patients, public and staff. Since 1964 the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) gives course related to Radiotherapy and since 2002, due to a collaborative project, these courses are given at the Oncology Institute 'Angel H. Roffo' (IOAR) which belongs to the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). The IOAR is well equipped in Radiotherapy and new techniques are continuously introduced. That is why, being a University Institution and having highly specialized staff, it is the ideal hospital for teaching Radiotherapy in Buenos Aires, not only for regular courses but also for implementing workshops, seminars and updating courses as well. Continuous education helps to create and increase awareness of the importance of radiation protection in patients as well as in public and staff. (author)

  1. Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Culture du bambou : diversification des moyens de subsistance des petits producteurs de tabac du sud de la province de Nyanza, au Kenya - phase II. Au cours de la première phase du projet (projet no 103765), les chercheurs ont effectué une analyse de marché pour le bambou et les produits du bambou, comparé les ...

  2. COMMUNICATION DU CREDIT AGRICOLE - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    La Direction du Crédit Agricole informe son aimable clientèle du CERN des jours et heures d'ouverture de l'agence du site de Prévessin à compter du mardi 14 janvier 2003 : 1. Horaires pour les opérations bancaires courantes 7 jours sur 7 et 24h/24 avec l'espace libre service bancaire. 2. Horaires conseil du mardi au vendredi - Mardi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 14h.15 à 16h.30. - Mercredi, jeudi et vendredi, de 9h. à 12h. et de 13h.30 à 16h.30. Deux collaboratrices au lieu d'une seront désormais présentes toute la journée du mardi au vendredi pour vous accueillir, vous informer et vous conseiller en crédits et placements (réception conseil sur rendez-vous). Autre nouveauté : les mêmes conseillers seront aussi à votre disposition le samedi, sur notre agence de Gex, de 8h.15 à 13h.05, notamment pour les études de financements habitat. La Direction et toute l'équipe de l'agence du Crédit Agricole vous souhaitent une excellent année 2003.

  3. Nouvelles du Centre Aéré de l’Association du Personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Jardin d'enfants

    2015-01-01

    Cet été 2015, durant quatre semaines d’été, le Centre Aéré a accueilli plus de 40 enfants âgés de 4 à 6 ans. Devant le succès rencontré, et à la demande des parents, il a été décidé d’en doubler la capacité maximale. A l'été 2016, du 4 au 29 juillet, la structure pourra accueillir les enfants de 4 ans révolus et de moins de 7 ans (nés après le 31/07/2009 mais avant  01/07/2012). Les inscriptions se feront à la semaine durant le mois d'Avril 2016. Les programmes sont en cours d'élaboration cependant nous pouvons déjà vous communiquer le thème conducteur du centre qui sera : à la découverte d'un continent différent chaque ...

  4. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  5. Radioprotectors in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, C.K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Parida, D.K.; Nomura, Taisei

    2001-03-01

    This review article focuses on clinically relevant radioprotectors and their mechanisms of radioprotection. Radiotherapy is the most common modality of human cancer therapy. Obtaining optimal results requires a judicious balance between the total dose of radiotherapy delivered and the threshold limit of critical surrounding normal tissues, and the normal tissues need to be protected against radiation injury to obtain better tumor control by using a higher dose. For this reason, radiation-protective agents play an important role in clinical radiotherapy. Radiation-protective agents can be classified into three groups: radioprotectors, adaptogens, and absorbents. The first group generally consists of sulfhydryl compounds and other antioxidants. They include several myelo-, entero-, and cerebro-protectors. Adaptogens act as promotors of radioresistance. They are natural protectors that offer chemical protection against low levels of ionizing radiation. Absorbents protect organs from internal radiation and chemicals. They include drugs that prevent incorporation of radioiodine by the thyroid gland and absorption of radionuclides. This article thoroughly describes the properties, mechanisms of action, and perspectives on clinical application of the following categories of radioprotectors: sulfhydryl compounds (e.g., cysteine, cysteamine, glutathione, AET, WR 2127, and other WR-compounds), antioxidants (e.g., tempace, Hoechst 33342, vitamin A, E, and C, TMG, melatonin), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril, elanopril, penicillamine, pentoxifylline, L-158, 809), cytoprotective agents (mesna, dexrazoxane, and amifostin), metalloelements (e.g., manganese chloride, cadmium salts, bismuth subnitrate), immunomodulators (gamma-interferon, polysaccharides AM5, AM218, heat-killed lactobacillus cells, broncho-vaxom, trehalose dicorynomycolate, and AS101), lipopolysaccharides and prostaglandins, plant extracts and compounds isolated from plants (curcmin

  6. Coordonnateur du bureau d'assistance | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions. En tant que membre de l'équipe du Bureau d'assistance au sein de la Section du service à la clientèle (SSC), le coordonnateur du Bureau d'assistance offre au personnel du Centre et aux autres utilisateurs reconnus des installations TI du Centre un soutien de première ligne en matière d'utilisation ...

  7. La population du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord contribue ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    29 avr. 2016 ... Le degré d'apport au contenu varie grandement d'une population à l'autre. Si les habitants du Moyen-Orient et de l'Afrique du Nord (région MENA) utilisent Wikipédia, ils y contribuent cependant moins que les populations d'autres régions du monde. Le contenu au sujet de la région MENA est, le plus ...

  8. L'action du CRDI — le développement du secteur privé

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    Le CRDI est du nombre. Il reconnaît depuis longtemps la valeur de l'industrie, des échanges et du commerce comme moteurs de la croissance économique. Grâce au soutien concret qu'il a accordé au développement du secteur privé, le CRDI a appris que deux types d'aide peuvent porter fruit : améliorer le con- texte dans ...

  9. Sulphite metabolism; Metabolisme du sulfite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromageot, P; Chapeville, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Although the formation of sulphite by micro-organisms was observed as early as 1914 by Neuberg, it was only in 1932 that Nightingale showed it to be present inside cells, in the case of tomato leaf stalks, its formation being due to the reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. The presence of the thiosulphate formed was shown by the high refractive index of its barium salt. Today we have a certain amount of data concerning the formation and use of sulphite in the living cell, even through the knowledge is still incomplete. In this article we will describe and discuss the facts which are known, with particular reference to the oxidation of sulphite. (author) [French] Si la formation de sulfite par des micro-organismes a ete observee des 1914 par Neuberg, sa presence a l'interieur des cellules a ete demontree pour la premiere fois par Nightingale en 1932, dans des tiges et des feuilles de tomates, par la reaction: SO{sub 3}H{sup -} + (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup --} {yields} S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --} + O{sub 3}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup --}. Le thiosulfate forme etait mis en evidence par l'indice de refraction eleve de son sel de baryum. Aujourd'hui on possede un certain nombre de donnees, cependant encore tres incompletes, sur la formation du sulfite et son utilisation par la cellule vivante. Dans cet expose nous decrirons et discuterons quelques-unes de ces acquisitions, tout particulierement celles relatives a l'oxydation du sulfite. (auteur)

  10. Voice following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoicheff, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease

  11. Proton radiotherapy: some perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirn, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A news article highlighting the use of protons in radiotherapy is presented. Development of stereotaxic radiosurgery is the result of contributions from physicists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons, says Jacob Fabrikant, MD, head of the Arteriovenous Malformation Program at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. It also appears to have been the product of Harvard University (Boston) and University of California (Berkeley) cooperation. Robert R. Wilson, PhD, now a professor emeritus at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is credited with proposing the medical use of charged particles. Wilson, a physicist, says that the idea occurred to him while he was at Berkeley in the mid-1940's, designing the cyclotron to be built at Harvard. Although he was aware of their work, he does not remember discussing it with Robert Stone, MD, or John Lawrence, MD, who only a few years earlier at Berkeley had begun the initial medical experiments with neutrons. Wilson says that it simply occurred to him that in certain instances charged particles had two advantages over x-rays

  12. Automatization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, S.; Dutou, L.; Bernard, D.; Koechlin, M.; Beer-Gabel, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data-processing in external radiotherapy has to be adapted to each local situation, taking into account the patients to be treated, the irradiation equipment, the data-processing centers available locally, regionally, and nationally, and the rentability of the data-processing system required. It should be recalled that most dosimetric methods used today can be treated manually, and the question of rentability has to be kept in mind when deciding to buy a data-processing system. The radiotherapist should, therefore, prepare a list of costs for each situation, and verify the validity of each programme proposed by the supplier. It is difficult to make a definite choice between the presently available systems. The radiotherapist has to choose in relation to his activity, his availability and the systems available to him. It can sometimes be more advantageous to have a terminal linked to a large computer, rather than to readapt a series of programmes for a data-processing system available locally: many such solutions, though original, cannot be 'exported'. It should be recalled that a large number of dosimetries can be obtained manually, and on the rare occasions when the aid of a computer is essential, the assistance of better equipped neighbouring centers can be obtained. The decision as to whether a data-processing system needs to be acquired has to take all these imperatives into account [fr

  13. Erythropoietin in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenburger, R.

    2003-01-01

    A high blood hemoglobin level is an independent factor for good prognosis as demonstrated in retrospective and prospective studies in a number of cancer sites. However, there is still debate on how hemoglobin affects outcome after radiotherapy. The issues are: 1. How about the predictive power and the magnitude of effect in various tumor entities? 2. Are all potential mechanisms for the hemoglobin effect considered? 3. Do EPO receptors found on tumor and normal cells outside the bone marrow play a role? Experimental and clinical data on anemia and its treatment have been extensively discussed. So far, the means to manipulate the hemoglobin level, their indication and administration are to be clarified. The issues are: 1. Why does transfusion not improve prognosis? 2. What have we learned from trials using EPO to stimulate endogenous Hb production? 3. What are the potential pitfalls of correcting anemia with EPO? 4. What is the optimal design of EPO-RT trials? Although there are still more questions than answers, the therapeutic potential of erythropoietin is of considerable interest to radiation oncologists. This report gives a summary reviewing the topic and ends on a note of caution: Mild anemia in cancer patients is no indication to use EPO outside clinical trials

  14. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  15. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, F.

    1979-01-01

    Of decisive importance for superadditive enhancement is the close temporal correlation of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. It is recommended to first irradiate and then use heat treatment in order to ensure that dividable tumour cells are irradiated before hyperthermia. To achieve an optimal enhancing effect, temperatures of appr. 42 0 are sufficient. In order to be able to neglect temperature regulation and convection effects, hyperthermia for clinical use must be carried out in doses high enough to ensure that it can be finished within 3-4 minutes. It is necessary to make efforts to find out which forms of application can be realised in order to reach deeper tissue regions, thus making possible at least a half-depth-therapy. Up to day, only the 2 cm near to the surface can be heated in a sufficiently homogeneous way. In the FRG, there are more than 200 high-volt-therapy systems, including electron accelerators and telegamma systems. This is a dense network of radiation-therapeutical supply. An improved therapy effect of loose ionising rays which, with the help of the hypertherming, would almost be equal to irradiation with high ionisation density, is not only of scientific interest, but also of high interest for public health. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig.- 892 RDG [de

  16. Image-guided radiotherapy for effective radiotherapy delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, Ulf Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new radiotherapy technology that combines the rapid dose fall off associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and daily tumor imaging allowing for high precision tumor dose delivery and effective sparing of surrounding normal organs. The new radiation technology requires close collaboration between radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists to avoid marginal miss. Modern diagnostic imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, positron emission tomography with Computed Tomograpgy (PET-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the radiation oncologist to target the positive tumor with high accuracy. As the tumor is well visualized during radiation treatment, the margins required to avoid geographic miss can be safely reduced , thus sparing the normal organs from excessive radiation. When the tumor is located close to critical radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord, IGRT can deliver a high dose of radiatio...

  17. Epigenetics in radiotherapy: Where are we heading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Kim M.; Melotte, Veerle; Niessen, Hanneke E.C.; Dubois, Ludwig; Oberije, Cary; Troost, Esther G.C.; Starmans, Maud H.W.; Boutros, Paul C.; Vooijs, Marc; Engeland, Manon van; Lambin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important component of anti-cancer treatment. However, not all cancer patients respond to radiotherapy, and with current knowledge clinicians are unable to predict which patients are at high risk of recurrence after radiotherapy. There is therefore an urgent need for biomarkers to guide clinical decision-making. Although the importance of epigenetic alterations is widely accepted, their application as biomarkers in radiotherapy has not been studied extensively. In addition, it has been suggested that radiotherapy itself introduces epigenetic alterations. As epigenetic alterations can potentially be reversed by drug treatment, they are interesting candidate targets for anticancer therapy or radiotherapy sensitizers. The application of demethylating drugs or histone deacetylase inhibitors to sensitize patients for radiotherapy has been studied in vitro, in vivo as well as in clinical trials with promising results. This review describes the current knowledge on epigenetics in radiotherapy

  18. Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The dosimetric...

  19. Protection of patient In radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiyi, P.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify some aspects about protection of patient in radiotherapy. Therefore, some basic information about how the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has brought tremendous health benefits to the population globally, the requirement of radiation protection (Justification of practices, Dose limitation and Optimization of protection), and the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation are presented. The aim of radiotherapy is to use ionizing radiation to cure diseases or make the symptoms of a disease less severe. Also presented are layout of a radiotherapy facility (controlled areas, supervised areas, mazes, door and interlocks, patient observation and communication, and warning sign and lights), radionuclides commonly used for radiation therapy and their main emissions, equipment and devices used in radiotherapy, aspect of protection of patient in radiotherapy such as: leakage test, source on/off, emergency buttons, radiation oncology team, treatment planning, room monitoring, equipment or for protection and Cobalt-60 unit stuck source. The advantages of brachytherapy, leakage from the treatment head and radiation incidents resulting from incorrect dose calibration are discussed. The importance of minimization dose exposure, by considering the basic principles of: time, distance and shielding are also stated. These principles prevent deterministic effects and limit stochastic effects of radiation. (author)

  20. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  1. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  2. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  3. Curative radiotherapy of supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Chai, Gyu Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of curative radiotherapy in the management of supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottis were treated with radiotherapy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital between 1990 and 1994. Median follow-up period was 36 months and 95% were observed for at least 2 years. Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 39.3% for 21 patients. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 42.9% in Stage II, 33.3% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.54). The 5-year local control rate was 52.0% for 21 patients. The 5-year local control rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 57.1% in Stage II, 66.7% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.33). Double primary cancer was developed in 3 patients and those were all esophageal cancers. In early stage(Stage I and II) supraglottic cancer, curative radiotherapy would be a treatment of choice and surgery would be better to be reserved for salvage of radiotherapy failure. In advanced stage(Stage III and IV), radiotherapy alone is inadequate for curative therapy and combination with surgery should be done in operable patients. This report emphasizes the importance of esophagoscopy and esophagogram at the follow-up of patients with supraglottic cancer

  4. Monnaie du commun et revenu social garanti

    OpenAIRE

    Baronian, Laurent; Vercellone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Le but de cet article est de poser les bases d’une approche de la monnaie du commun à partir d’une interrogation évincée par la théorie économique des biens communs. Notre analyse de la relation entre monnaie et théorie du commun s’articulera en trois parties. Dans la première, il s’agit d’établir une conception dynamique du commun au singulier dans laquelle la question de la monnaie et des mutations de la division du travail occupe une place centrale. Cette démarche fondée sur la triade trav...

  5. Paysans du Brésil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Temple

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Eric Sabourin, « Paysans du Brésil : Entre échange marchand et réciprocité » Paris, Editions Quae, 241p, 30 euros, (préface de Maxime Haubert, 2007Dans la présentation du livre, Maxime Haubert dit :«Cet ouvrage propose une analyse socio-anthropologique et agronomique des sociétés rurales et paysannes du Brésil et des transformations qu'elles ont connues ces dernières décennies, en particulier face aux interventions de l'Etat et à l'expansion du marché capitaliste (.... «Le livre pose d'abor...

  6. Daphne du Maurier' unustatud jutud / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Ajalehe "The Independent" teatel kavatseb kirjastus "Virago" maikuus avaldada Daphne Du Maurier lühiproosa kogumiku "Nukk" (The Doll), mille on koostanud tema loomingu suur austaja Ann Willmore ja mis sisaldab 13 unustatud ja seni avaldamata novelli

  7. Radiotherapy and skin tumors; Radiotherapie et tumeurs curanees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitchi, E.; KIrova, Y.; Le bourgeois, J.P. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1998-09-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilo-voltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi`s sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control-whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. (author)

  8. Aux frontières du politique et du religieux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sylvanise

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman met en scène de manière spectaculaire deux figures de leadership noir-américain au XIXe siècle (Ned et au XXe siècle (Jimmy. Ned, fils adoptif de Jane Pittman, se rebaptise Professor Douglass en hommage au leader abolitionniste Frederick Douglass. S’il est fondamentalement laïc (il est instituteur, le texte lui confère néanmoins une dimension religieuse, notamment dans le chapitre intitulé « The Sermon at the River » , qui renvoie à la fois à Moïse (le fleuve et à Jésus (le sermon sur la montagne. Abattu par un tueur à gages, Ned est un martyr dont l’histoire était déjà écrite. Le personnage de Jimmy, attendu par toute une communauté comme le messie (alors que lui aussi est un laïc et un homme qui perd la foi, s’inscrit dans la même histoire. Lettré, éloquent et impliqué dans le mouvement pour les droits civils, il est assassiné comme son prédécesseur. Dans les deux cas, le texte lie donc le politique et le biblique comme s’il ne faisait qu’un : être un leader politique, c’est être un preacher et un messie qui guide le peuple. Il est possible de lire l’évocation de ces deux hommes à la lumière d’une certaine actualité. Ned et Jimmy connaissent en effet un sort proche de celui de Malcolm X et de Martin Luther King, récemment assassinés au moment de l’écriture de The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman. C’est l’histoire de la répression du leadership noir, au travers du portrait de deux de ses avatars, qui peut donc se lire en creux ici.

  9. Complications du traitement traditionnel des fractures : aspects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tous les patients reçus avec des complications du traitement traditionnel des fractures ont été inclus dans ce travail. Le diagnostic des lésions était clinique et radiologique. Nous avions reçu 51 patients porteurs de complications suite à des traitements de médecine traditionnelle, soit 13,7% du total des patients hospitalisés ...

  10. Le désordre du monde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    Le début du XXIe siècle se caractérise par l'accumulation et la consécution ..... Unis a présidé à la naissance aux forceps de cet outil d'équilibre du monde en ... De toute évidence, l'ONU reste l'instrument qui a marqué le siècle dernier,.

  11. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  12. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) are common benign tumours that arise from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Management options include observation with neuroradiological follow-up, microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effect of stereotactic radiotherapy compared to observation, microsurgical resection, any other treatment modality, or a combination of two or more of the above approaches for vestibular schwannoma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL......; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  13. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Computerised tomography in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badcock, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of computed tomography as an adjunct to radiotherapy planning. Until recently, acquisition of accurate data concerning tumour anatomy lagged behind other developments in radiotherapy. With the advent of computer-tomography (CT), these data can be displayed and transmitted to a treatment planning computer. It is concluded that the greatest inaccuracies in the radiation treatment of patients are to be found in both the inadequate delineation of the target volume within the patient and changes in body outline relative to the target volume over the length of the irradiated volume. The technique was useful in various subgroups (pelvic, intra-thoracic and chest-wall tumours) and for those patients being treated palliatively. With an estimated improvement in cure rate of 4.5% and cost-effective factors of between 3.3 and 5, CT-assisted radiotherapy planning appears to be a worthwhile procedure. (orig.)

  15. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  16. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Combined hyperthermia (HT 45 min once or twice per week) and low dose radiotherapy (LDRT 30-34.5 Gy in 2-3 weeks) have been given to 182 locally recurrent or metastatic superficial tumours in 133 patients. Tumour response was analysed in 137 tumours in 100 patients. The overall complete response (CR) was 50% with a median duration (DCR) of 13±3 months. When mammary carcinoma, representing 62% of the treated tumours, were analysed, CR was 62% with a DCR of 14±4 months. In a comparative, non-randomized study, on 34 matched tumour pairs in 24 patients, treatment was given with LDRT+HT to the larger and the same LDRT to the smaller tumour, the patients acting as their own control. A significant difference in CR was obtained in favour of the combined treatment (p=0.0013 all diagnosis and p=0.0027 mammary carcinoma). There was no significant difference in DCR between the two modalities. No significant difference in CR was seen when tumours were randomely treated with HT once (CR 56%) or twice (CR 69%) per week combined with the same LDRT. Predictive factors for CR, multivariately analysed (15 parameters), in mammary carcinoma recurring in earlier irradiated regions, were; the present LDRT absorbed dose (p=0.02) and the average minimum temperature in the best HT session (p=0.03). Significant skin toxicity was seen in 28% of all the 182 heated regions. Prognostic factors for skin damage, multivariately analysed, were; the extension of the heated region (p=0.007) and the highest average maximum temperature in any of the HT sessions (p=0.04). Pain was in some way correlated to severe toxicity but was not considered to be an optimal monitor for HT as many patients with severe and moderate pain were without any serious skin reactions, while slight or no pain sometimes were associated with severe reactions. 401 refs

  17. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  19. Use of the statistical control of processes through checking before treatment realised with the ionization chamber and by electronic portal system of imaging (E.P.I.D.) in intensity modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.); Utilisation de la maitrise statistique des processus dans le cadre des controles avant traitement realises avec la chambre d'ionisation et par systeme d'imagerie portale electronique (EPID) en radiotherapie conformationnelle avec modulation d'intensite (RCMI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villani, N.; Gerard, K.; Noel, A. [Nancy univ., Lab. de Recherche en Radiophysique, CRAN UMR 7039, CNRS, Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marchesi, V.; Huger, S. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, Unite de Radiophysique Medicale, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2009-10-15

    The expected results are to demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the times devoted to the pre-treatment controls, while keeping an optimal safety, on substituting the measures of the ionization chamber by this one of the electronic portal imaging device (E.P.I.D.). (N.C.)

  20. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The available literature on the cost of radiotherapy yields a large variation in data related to the specifics of the methodology used (the viewpoint of the analysis, time frame, health care system, etc.) and to the cost components and radiotherapy activities included. To overcome this difficulty, the reimbursement paid by medical insurance is commonly used as a proxy for the actual radiotherapy costs. Costs, however, generally bear little or no resemblance to charges, as the latter also include allowances for non-capacity use and profit margins. Accurate resource cost data are therefore more valid and should ideally be used in the context of economic evaluations and public health provisions. In addition to the theoretical problems related to obtaining accurate costs, it is difficult to interpret cost data across country borders because of differences in economics. If this is already the case for high income countries, using these cost data for low and middle income countries (LMICs) is even more problematic. Thus, there clearly is a need for calculations performed from the viewpoint of LMICs to prevent misapprehensions based on conclusions derived from data from their high income counterparts. The IAEA endeavours to assist Member States in accumulating appropriate and sufficient cost data for the initiation or expansion of radiation oncology services. Although relatively simple and easy to understand, the IAEA has found that in many countries where it has been involved in the establishment of new radiotherapy departments, the basic principles of cost calculation for radiotherapy facilities were not followed by the local planners. Radiotherapy needs careful planning, organization and a strong quality assurance (QA) programme in order to deliver safe treatments, due to the complexity of the planning and treatment process and the possibility of systematic errors. Administrators should be aware that the cost of building a radiotherapy facility and buying machines

  1. Who risk profile in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.; Sharfiq, J.; Nobleet, D.; Lemer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The different steps of a treatment in radiotherapy are: patient evaluation, decision to treat, prescription of the treatment protocol, positioning and immobilization, simulation, imaging and volume determination, planning and implementation of materials and software, transfer of treatment data, patient positioning, treatment realisation, treatment checking and follow-up. It exist processes of safety for any step of a radiotherapy realisation: patient identification, accreditation of equipment and processes, evaluation of the personnel competencies, quality assurance of equipment and management of the processes quality, redundancy during the data transfer, control of processes, errors reports and quality improvement, external controls, appropriateness of the workforce. (N.C.)

  2. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma treated with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, benign, locally aggressive tumor, affecting boys of adolescent age. The aggressiveness and high vascularity makes surgery and even a biopsy difficult in majority of cases. Although surgery is the treatment of choice in early cases, considerable debate exists regarding the treatment of advanced disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy provides a good response and also avoids surgery-associated morbidity. We are herewith reporting a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who showed complete hemostasis and improvement in vision to radiotherapy

  3. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  4. Les effets du changement climatique dans le bassin du Congo : la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    22 avr. 2016 ... Dans le bassin du fleuve Congo, plus de 80 % des habitants vivent exclusivement de l'agriculture, de la pêche, de l'élevage et de la cueillette, qui sont des activités largement tributaires du climat.

  5. Engagez-vous, devenez délégué(e) du personnel du CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Dans notre ECHO N° 275, nous avons annoncé les élections à venir au Conseil du personnel du CERN. Dans le présent ECHO, nous vous informons du lancement du processus des élections qui débute par le dépôt des candidatures. Tous les titulaires, boursiers et associés, qui sont aussi membres de l’Association du personnel, peuvent s’engager et déposer leur candidature entre le 11 septembre à 08 h 00 et le 13 octobre 2017 à 17 h 00. N’hésitez plus, remplissez le formulaire de candidature, présentez-vous aux élections au Conseil du personnel afin de pouvoir représenter et défendre vos collègues du personnel du CERN. ÊTRE DÉLÉGUÉ(E), C’EST QUOI ? Poser la question à plusieurs d...

  6. Therapeutic Results of Radiotherapy in Rectal Carcinoma -Comparison of Sandwich Technique Radiotherapy with Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Gil Cha; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Re Hwe; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Hong Yong; Kim, Sung Rok

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the potential advantage for 'sandwich' technique radiotherapy compared to postoperative radiotherapy in respectable rectal cancer. Between January 1989 and May 1994, 60 patients with respectable rectal cancer were treated at Inje University Seoul and Sanggye Paik Hospital.Fifty one patients were available for analysis : 20 patients were treated with sandwich technique radiotherapy and 31 patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. In sandwich technique radiotherapy(RT), patients were treated with preoperative RT 1500 cGy/5fx followed by immediate curative resection. Patients staged as Astler-Coller B2, C were considered for postoperative RT with 2500-4500 cGy. In postoperative RT, total radiation dose of 4500-6120 cGy, 180 cGy daily at 4-6 weeks was delivered. Patients were followed for median period of 25 months. Results : The overall 5-year survival rates for sandwich technique RT group and postoperative RT group were 60% and 71%, respectively(p>0.05). The 5-year disease free survival rates for each group were 63%. There was no difference in local failure rate between two groups(11% versus 7%). Incidence of distant metastasis was 11%(2/20) in the sandwich technique RT group and 20%(6/31) in the postoperative RT group(p>0.05). The frequencies of acute and chronic complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion : The sandwich technique radiotherapy group shows local recurrence and survival similar to those of postoperative RT alone group but reduced distant metastasis compared to postoperative RT group. But long term follow-up and large number of patients is needed to make an any firm conclusion regarding the value of this sandwich technique RT

  7. Aux marges du monde arabe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Thiollet

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available L’étude des migrations contemporaines des Érythréens vers le Yémen au tournant des années quatre-vingt-dix permet d’observer les transformations des dynamiques régionales à l’œuvre dans le monde arabe. Les migrations sont un phénomène sensible aux différents aspects (politiques, économiques, culturels, géographiques de l’intégration régionale. Celle si est envisagée dans cet article à travers une approche doublement marginale : -la marginalité géographique de l’Érythrée arabo-africaine et du Yémen, économi­quement isolé dans la péninsule Arabique, -l’étude des migrations formelles et informelles, élément souvent marginal dans l’étude des institutions et des échanges qui constituent un système régional intégré. Cette étude est fondée sur une série d’entretiens menés au Yémen entre février et avril 2002 auprès des administrations yéménites et de la population érythréenne.

  8. Construction of a remote radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takahashi, Chiaki; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Seiji, Hiromasa; Sasaki, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a remote radiotherapy planning system, and we examined the usefulness of and faults in our system in this study. Two identical radiotherapy planning systems, one installed at our institution and the other installed at an affiliated hospital, were used for radiotherapy planning. The two systems were connected by a wide area network (WAN), using a leased line. Beam data for the linear accelerator at the affiliated hospital were installed in the two systems. During the period from December 2001 to December 2002, 43 remote radiotherapy plans were made using this system. Data were transmitted using a file transfer protocol (FTP) software program. The 43 radiotherapy plans examined in this study consisted of 13 ordinary radiotherapy plans, 28 radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents, and 2 radiotherapy plans for emergency cases. There were ten minor planning changes made in radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents. Our remote radiotherapy planning system based on WAN using a leased line is useful for remote radiotherapy, with advantages for both radiation oncologists and medical residents. (author)

  9. Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, A.R.; Krajbich, J.I.; Fornasier, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12 have been alive and well without tumor for periods ranging from three and a half to 16 years and 3 of these are alive and well for 15 years or more following radiotherapy. The other 6 patients responded or desease stabilized following radiotherapy for periods ranging from 16 months to eight years. One poorly differentiated tumor was radically irradiated and did not respond. Eleven patients were irradiated palliatively, generally with low doses of irradiation, and only 4 responded transiently for periods ranging from three to 12 months. Seven patients with mesenchymal and dedifferentiated tumors were radically irradiated. Four responded or disease stabilized, and 1 of these patients was alive and well at 3 years; 3 did not respond. Six died with distant metastasis. It is concluded that chondrosarcoma of bone is a radioresponsive tumor and the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease and the reason for its being labelled a radioresistant tumor are discussed. The problems of assessing response of chondrosarcoma to therapy are also discussed. It is suggested that chemotherapy may have a role in the management of mesenchymal and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma

  10. Genetic Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    14. Lamberts SWJ, van der Lely A-J, de Herder WW, Hofland 30. Danielson S, Kilstrup M, Barilla K, Jochimsen B, Neuhard LJ. Octreotide. N Engl J Med...Kilstrup M, Barilla K, et al: Characteriza- Cobngcysiedans xpsin,5furytieexposure, and radiotherapy increases cytotoxicity to cholangio- tion of the

  11. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Radiotherapy in primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, L.; Benezery, K.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Primary cerebral lymphoma is a rare disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Whole brain radiotherapy has been the standard treatment, but neither the optimal radiation fields nor optimal dose level of the regimen are as yet firmly establisheD. From this review of the literature, it seems that the whole brain must be treated, and a boost to the area of the primary site must be discussed. With regard to dose, the radiation dose-response relationship is not clearly proven. Yet, a minimum dose of 40 Gy is necessary, and the maximum dose is set at 50 Gy because of late neurological sequelae. Because of the poor prognosis of this disease and the risk of late sequelae, other avenues have been explored. Chemotherapy has been studied, seem to have a survival advantage and combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, especially with high-dose methotrexate. Because primary cerebral lymphoma is an uncommon disease, randomized clinical trials that compare radiotherapy alone to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may not be feasible. Finally, even if chemotherapy seems to have a survival advantage, the regimen of chemotherapy is still a matter of debate. (authors)

  13. Thalassaemic osteoarthropathy treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with beta thalassaemia may develop a specific osteoarthropathy involving the feet. A number of different treatments for this condition have been tried, including rest, analgesia and hypertransfusion. We report a case of a patient with thalassaemic osteoarthropathy who responded to radiotherapy after failing conventional treatment. (author)

  14. Arterial occlusive disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Becquemin, J.P.; Blanc, I.; Lange, F.; Melliere, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen cases of arterial occlusion or severe narrowing following radiotherapy are studied in order to assess the possible etiological role of such therapy in arterial lesion. Surgical results are also discussed in terms of long-term efficacy. The average time of occurrence after radiotherapy was 8 years post-radiotherapy. This series includes 7 supra-aortic trunk stenoses and 7 abdominal aorta trunk stenoses. The doses received in the volumes iradiated ranged from 47 to 70 Gy with standard fractionation. Association of atherosclerotic risk factors was present in 12 patients, but stenoses were usually confined to irradiated areas, and at imes occurred in uncommon sites. Surgical management included 11 by-passes, 2 endarterectomies and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. All patients experienced immediate and satisfactory functional improvements. Three patients were re-operated on because of the re-occlusion of the by-pass and graft infection. On the whole, stenoses in previously irradiated areas showed no particular difficulties for surgical treatment. It was concluded that radiotherapy seems to be a definite risk factor for arterial occlusion or narrowing, especially in association in association with atherosclerotic risk factors. (author). 45 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. External radiotherapy of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, Dietmar; Flentje, Michael; Adolph, Juergen; Erdmann, Johannes; Raue, Friedhelm; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate therapeutic outcome and side effects of radiotherapy in pituitary adenomas as sole or combined treatment. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 138 patients (74 male, 64 female) irradiated for pituitary adenoma from 1972 to 1991 was performed. Mean age was 49.7 years (15-80 years). Regular follow-up (in the mean 6.53 ± 3.99 years) included radiodiagnostical [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray], endocrinological, and ophthalmological examinations. Seventy patients suffered from nonfunctional pituitary adenoma, 50 patients suffered from growth-hormone producing adenomas, 11 had prolactinomas, and 7 patients had adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing pituitary adenomas. In 99 patients surgery was followed by radiotherapy in case of suspected remaining tumor (invasive growth of the adenoma, assessment of the surgeon, pathologic CT after surgery, persisting hormonal overproduction). Twenty-three patients were treated for recurrence of disease after surgery and 16 patients received radiation as primary treatment. Total doses from 40-60 Gy (mean: 45.5 Gy) were given with single doses of 2 Gy 4 to five times a week. Results: Tumor control was achieved in 131 patients (94.9%). In seven patients, recurrence of disease was diagnosed in the mean 2.9 years (9-98 months) after radiotherapy and salvaged by surgery. A statistically significant dose-response relationship was found in favor of doses ≥ 45 Gy. Ninety percent of the patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas had a benefit from radiotherapy in means of complete termination (38%) or at least reduction (52%) of hormonal overproduction. Partial or complete hypopituitarism after radiotherapy developed, depending on hormonal axis, in 12 (prolactin) to 27% (follicle-stimulating hormone FSH) of patients who had not already had hypopituitarism prior to radiation. Two out of 138 patients suffered reduction of visual acuity, which was, in part

  16. Cirque du Monde as a health intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Cynthia; Drouin, Mélodie-Anne; Marcoux, Jérémie; Garel, Patricia; Bochud, Emmanuel; Théberge, Julie; Aubertin, Patrice; Favreau, Gil; Fleet, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present Cirque du Soleil’s social circus program, Cirque du Monde, to explore its potential as a primary health care tool for family physicians. Data sources A review of the literature in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, LaPresse, Eureka, Google Scholar, and Érudit using the key words circus, social circus, Cirque du Monde, and Cirque du Soleil; a Montreal-based initiative, Espace Transition, modeled on Cirque du Monde; and personal communication with Cirque du Soleil’s Social Circus Training Advisor. Study selection The first 50 articles or websites identified for each key word in each of the databases were examined on the basis of their titles and abstracts in the case of articles, and on the basis of their titles and page content in the case of websites. Articles and websites that explored an aspect of social circuses or that described an intervention that involved circuses were then retained for analysis. Because all literature on social circuses was searched, no criterion for year of publication was used. Synthesis No articles on the social circus as a health intervention were found. One study on the use of the circus as an intervention in schools was identified. It demonstrated an increase in self-esteem in the children who took part. One study on the use of the circus in a First Nations community was found; it contained nonspecific, qualitative findings. The other articles identified were merely descriptions of social circuses. One website was identified on the use of the social circus to help youth who had been treated in a hospital setting for major psychiatric disorders to re-enter the community. The team in the pediatric psychiatry department at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, the children’s hospital in Montreal, Que, was contacted; they were leading this project, called Espace Transition. The unpublished preliminary findings of its pilot project demonstrate substantial improvements in overall patient

  17. Stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy: Dose prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlienger, M.; Lartigau, E.; Nataf, F.; Mornex, F.; Latorzeff, I.; Lisbona, A.; Mahe, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was the study of the successive steps permitting the prescription of dose in stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy, which includes radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The successive steps studied are: the choice of stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy among the therapeutic options, based on curative or palliative treatment intent, then the selection of lesions according to size/volume, pathological type and their number permitting the choice between radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, which have the same methodological basis. Clinical experience has determined the level of dose to treat the lesions and limit the irradiation of healthy adjacent tissues and organs at risk structures. The last step is the optimization of the different parameters to obtain a safe compromise between the lesion dose and healthy adjacent structures. Study of dose-volume histograms, coverage indices and 3D imaging permit the optimization of irradiation. For lesions close to or included in a critical area, the prescribed dose is planned using the inverse planing method. Implementation of the successively described steps is mandatory to insure the prescription of an optimized dose. The whole procedure is based on the delineation of the lesion and adjacent healthy tissues. There are sometimes difficulties to assess the delineation and the volume of the target, however improvement of local control rates and reduction of secondary effects are the proof that the totality of the successive procedures are progressively improved. In practice, stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy is a continually improved treatment method, which constantly benefits from improvements in the choice of indications, imaging, techniques of irradiation, planing/optimization methodology and irradiation technique and from data collected from prolonged follow-up. (authors)

  18. Établissements recevant du public

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Synthèse pour les installations électriques, des règles de sécurité contre les risques d’incendie et de panique dans les établissements recevant du public (ERP), selon l’arrêté du 25 juin 1980 modifié. L'ouvrage traite à la fois des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe (1ère à 4ème catégorie), du 2ème groupe (5ème catégorie) et des règles particulières applicables aux différents types d'établissements (structures d'accueil pour personnes âgées ou handicapées, hôtels, magasins de vente, restaurants et débit de boisson, établissements de soins, administration, châpiteaux, etc...) Sont ainsi notamment traités, dans le cadre des dispositions communes aux établissements du 1er groupe, pour les installations électriques normales : les installations des appareils, tableaux et canalisations, les locaux électriques et installation de machines, l'éclairage normal des locaux accessibles au public, le chauffage et la ventilation, l'installation d'eau chaude sanita...

  19. Effect of radiotherapy on immunity function of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shentao; Xu Jiuhong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to observe the effect of radiotherapy on immunity function of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Methods: Cellular immunity is determined by APAAP; Humoral immunity is determined by transmission method. Results: The items of cellular immunity is lower than the control after radiotherapy. These items decrease continually. The difference between before and after radiotherapy has statistic significance. Of all Humoral immunity items, IgA, IgM decreased after radiotherapy and the difference has statistic significance. Conclusions: Radiotherapy can damage patients' immunity function

  20. Sådan kan du bruge optioner og futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Masterclass. Har du brug for at forsikre værdierne i din portefølje i en periode, hvor du forventer stor uro på finansmarkederne, kan du gøre det med optioner eller futures. Her kan du læse om de forskellige typer – og om de muligheder de giver dig.......Masterclass. Har du brug for at forsikre værdierne i din portefølje i en periode, hvor du forventer stor uro på finansmarkederne, kan du gøre det med optioner eller futures. Her kan du læse om de forskellige typer – og om de muligheder de giver dig....

  1. Intraoperative radiotherapy - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Willett, Christopher G.; Harrison, Louis B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Intraoperative irradiation (IORT) in its broadest sense refers to the delivery of irradiation at the time of an operation. This refresher course will discuss the use of both electrons (IOERT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) in conjunction with surgical exploration and resection ± external irradiation/chemotherapy. Both IORT methods have evolved with similar philosophies as an attempt to achieve higher effective doses of irradiation while dose limiting structures are surgically displaced. The rationale for each is supported by excellent local control ± survival results achieved with brachytherapy alone or as a boost to external irradiation in organ preservation efforts in traditional sites (head and neck, breast, gynecologic) wherein a boost dose could be delivered to smaller volumes than could usually be accomplished with external irradiation alone. IOERT has been a tool in modern radiotherapy in Japan since the 1960's and in the U.S. since the mid 1970's. Results from randomized and nonrandomized trials will be presented in the refresher course with major emphasis on GI sites (gastric, pancreas, colorectal) since the data is more mature. While the largest clinical experience with IOERT (± external irradiation/chemotherapy, maximal resection) has been with gastrointestinal cancers in adults, moderate experience has also been obtained with locally advanced retroperitoneal sarcomas and recurrent genitourinary and gynecologic cancers. With primary colorectal cancers that are unresectable for cure or for locally recurrent colorectal cancers, both local control and long-term survival appear to be improved with the aggressive combinations including IOERT when compared to results achieved with conventional treatment. When residual disease exists after resection of gastric cancers, IOERT ± external radiation has achieved optimistic survival results in trials in Japan, the U.S., Spain and China. With locally unresectable pancreatic cancer, an

  2. Science et technologie du collage

    CERN Document Server

    Cognard, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    L'Homme a su coller avant de savoir écrire et compter. Le collage est en effet l'une des premières techniques d'assemblage d'une structure que l'homme ait utilisée, technique qui n'est devenue science qu'au début du 20e siècle avec la fabrication des premières colles synthétiques. Cette science de l'adhésion a considérablement progressé ces dix dernières années et ce livre présente l'état actuel des connaissances en décrivant les progrès considérables réalisés dans la compréhension des phénomènes fondamentaux qui font qu'un collage tient bien et durablement. Après l'exposé des bases scientifiques nécessaires et des modèles théoriques récents, l'auteur introduit la distinction entre collages faibles et collages forts puis expose les difficultés rencontrées dans les cas pratiques, difficultés souvent dues à la complexité de la chimie des surfaces et des réactions surface-polymère. L'ouvrage se termine par la présentation de quelques applications récentes, en particulier dans...

  3. Accroissement du recours aux politiques fiscales dans la lutte ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Incidence de la hausse des taxes sur le tabac et du prix des produits du tabac en Ukraine, en Russie et au Bélarus. La recherche destinée aux responsables des politiques de l'Ukraine, de la Russie et du Bélarus mettra en évidence la façon dont les mesures de taxation des produits du tabac peuvent contribuer.

  4. Couzeix – Les Terres du Puy Dieu

    OpenAIRE

    Maniquet, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Identifiant de l'opération archéologique : 122281 Date de l'opération : 2005 (EX) Dans le cadre du projet de construction d'un lotissement constitué de trois pavillons au lieu-dit « Les Terres du Puy Dieu », un diagnostic archéologique a été prescrit par le service régional de l'Archéologie. En effet, plusieurs sites archéologiques avaient été inventoriés à proximité immédiate de la zone d'intervention. On notera, en particulier, la découverte en 1982, près du Puy Dieu, au cours de travaux de...

  5. Profils des porteurs du VIH/SIDA au début du traitement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Décrire les profils des porteurs de VIH/sida au début du traitement antirétroviral. Matériels et méthode: Les dossiers des porteurs du VIH/sida de la région maritime ont été analysés de mai 2008 à avril 2009 par le comité thérapeutique. Résultats: Parmi les 641 dossiers analysés, 67,40% venaient du district de Yoto.

  6. Distribution spatiale du singe à ventre rouge, Cercopithecus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    danger et endémique du Dahomey Gap est très peu documenté au Togo. Pour connaître sa ..... chaque secteur prospecté ainsi que celui du complexe en entier. ..... 2008-009 portant loi-cadre sur l'environnement au Togo. JO du 06 juin. 2008.

  7. Directeur, Gestion du risque et audit interne | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions En qualité de dirigeant principal de l'audit (DPA), ... président du Centre et au président du Comité des finances et de l'audit une assurance et des ... Il fournit des services de gestion du risque organisationnel et d'autres ...

  8. Webzzle : paradoxal confort du confinement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dumont

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La plupart des agences de « news » technologiques viennent de se faire l’écho du développement de Webzzle , un nouveau moteur de recherche dit « collaboratif ». Ce cas est tout à fait intéressant parce qu’il permet de pointer rapidement quelques grands enjeux du Web 2 que risquent souvent de dissimuler la jungle sémantique et l’enthousiasme qui l’entourent. Pour quelles raisons ? Rappelons d’abord les deux principales perspectives ouvertes par cette nouvelle ...

  9. Krypton purification (1961); Purification du krypton (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larher, Y [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Institut Fourier, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1961-07-01

    The amount of xenon in otherwise very pure krypton can be reduced from 1.5 to 0.0025 per cent approximately by passage through an activated carbon column at dry-ice temperature. The circulation of the krypton is effected by condensing at -196 deg. C and then evaporating. (author) [French] Le taux de xenon dans du krypton par ailleurs tres pur est ramene de 1,5 pour cent a 0,0025 pour cent environ au cours d'un passage a travers une colonne de charbon actif a la temperature de la carboglace. La circulation du krypton se fait par condensation a -196 deg. C, puis evaporation. (auteur)

  10. National arrangements for radiotherapy; Mesures nationales pour la radiotherapie. Travail collectif des missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee.

  11. Effets de la microdose sur la production du niébé, du mil et du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respectivement pour le sorgho, le mil et le niébé comparativement au témoin. La microdose a été .... Les prix utilisés sont celui du marché local au moment des semis pour les engrais soit 17500 FCFA pour NPK et ..... Projet « Transfert de la.

  12. L’ombre du Condor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Gaudichaud

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Si l’on observe aujourd’hui, avec un regard d’historien, le Cône Sud à la fin des années soixante soixante-dix et que par, la suite, on tourne une page de quelques années, pour fixer la même partie du monde, le constat est sans appel : le sous-continent latino-américain est passé, en général, d’une phase de forte mobilisation et politisation sociale, montée en puissance de partis et organisations révolutionnaires, surgissements de gouvernements populistes de gauche ou progressistes – appelant à une rupture avec l’impérialisme –, à un reflux généralisé du mouvement ouvrier, une ère de violence politique étatisée, la destruction massive de tous les espaces d’expression et de participation démocratiques, l’écrasement physique et idéologique sans relâche des militants et mouvements révolutionnaires, la mise en place de modèles économiques capitalistes dirigistes puis/ou néolibéraux. Que s’est-il passé ? Quel fil conducteur a été rompu et par quels moyens l’Amérique Latine a été conduite à ce reflux des luttes sociales ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous nous contenterons dans cet article de focaliser notre objectif sur un aspect spécifique et essentiel de ce retournement de tendance que vit alors l���Amérique Latine : celui de la mise en place d’un terrorisme d’Etat contre-révolutionnaire transnational, appuyé par l’impérialisme américain, nommé « l’Opération Condor ». Dans cet article, il s’agit de montrer le fonctionnement d’un terrorisme hégémonique dont l’impact sur les sociétés latino-américaines est considérable en termes de destruction du mouvement social, des activités culturelles et de l’ensemble de la vie sociale et politique qui restent marquées, encore aujourd’hui à des degrés divers, par la violence, la peur et l’atomisation structurelle.Si miramos hoy en día, desde una perspectiva histórica, el Cono Sur hacia finales de

  13. Étude de la qualité des eaux usées des deux retenues du bassin du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mai 2017 ... Gourou au carrefour de l'Indénié à Abidjan en 2012. 11138. Journal of Applied .... retenues sont nées du projet de gestion intégrée du bassin du Gourou (CI-FAD, ..... Contrôle de la qualité microbiologique des eaux usées ...

  14. 26 Calcul multi-caractéristique du coût du non-qualité via la fonction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    Le coût du non - qualité (CNQ) est un indicateur permettant l'estimation de la marge ..... multicritères de Taguchi en fonction de l'évolution du poids et capacité du ... A Scheduling Example; International Journal of Information and Management.

  15. Le Flaubert de Charles Du Bos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Neefs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Charles Du Bos a porté une attention constante à l’œuvre de Flaubert (à l’exclusion de Bouvard et Pécuchet qui semble ne pas exister pour lui, à Madame Bovary et à L’Éducation sentimentale en particulier. La mise en relation de son étude : « Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert », écrite en 1921, avec des textes du Journal de 1923 et de 1937, les rapprochements avec Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoï, Baudelaire, Henry James qui traversent les écrits de Du Bos, permettent de suivre ce que celui-ci décrit comme « l’expérience spirituelle » d’une matérialité comprise dans la conquête de la triple exigence du Beau, du Vivant et du Vrai. Du Bos décèle la force de l’œuvre de Flaubert dans la « disproportion » du style, et dans la puissance d’absorption qui fait la densité de cette prose, et qui désigne un extraordinaire travail de conversion. L’obscure expérience spirituelle ainsi poursuivie est celle d’un absolu de l’art, expérience paradoxale d’un « mystique qui ne croit à rien » (comme se désignait Flaubert lui-même, que le critique lie à une interrogation sur sa propre conversion.Charles Du Bos devoted an unflagging attention to Flaubert’s work (except for Bouvard et Pécuchet, which, apparently, according to him did not exist, to Madame Bovary and in particular L’Éducation sentimentale. The connection between his essay “Sur le milieu intérieur chez Flaubert”, written in 1921, and extracts from his Journal, from 1923 to 1937, the comparisons with Gogol, Thomas Hardy, Tolstoy, Baudelaire, and Henry James that run through the writings of Du Bos, allow us to follow what he terms “the spiritual experience” of a materiality encompassed in the conquest of the triple demand of the Beautiful, the Living, the Truth. Du Bos detects the power of Flaubert’s work in the “disproportion” of his style, and the power of absorption that forms the density of his prose, showing an

  16. The situation of radiotherapy in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    Published within the frame of the French 2009-2013 cancer plan, this report proposes an analysis of the situation of radiotherapy in France. More particularly, it analyses the French offer in terms of radiotherapy treatments and the French position in Europe. A second part analyses equipment (accelerators and other equipment) and techniques aimed at radiotherapy treatment preparation and delivery. The following techniques are addressed: three-dimensional conformational, intensity modulation, intracranial and extracranial stereotactic, image-guided, total body irradiation, hadron-therapy, and peri-operative radiotherapy. The last parts analyse the activity of radiotherapy centres in terms of treated patients, of patient age structure, of sessions and preparations, and of treated pathologies, the medical and paramedical personnel in charge of radiotherapy, and financial and cost aspects

  17. Psychosocial effects of radiotherapy after mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughson, A.V.M.; Cooper, A.F.; Smith, D.C.; McArdle, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychosocial morbidity was measured in 47 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy and in 38 who received no further treatment after mastectomy. Roughly one third of all patients experienced depression or anxiety. One month after operation, before radiotherapy, there were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the measures of psychosocial morbidity. Knowledge of impending treatment did not seem to influence morbidity. At three months patients who had completed radiotherapy had significantly more somatic symptoms and social dysfunction than those not so treated. At six months the radiotherapy group continued to show more somatic symptoms, but a year after operation there were no significant differences between the groups. Although several patients who received radiotherapy were upset by their treatment, the study failed to confirm that depression and anxiety were commoner among those given radiotherapy than among patients given no further treatment. (author)

  18. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  19. [Towards an improvement of the quality of life after radiotherapy in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Bernier, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric radiotherapy did not differ technically from adult radiotherapy but its characteristics, its difficulties and challenges are specific. Thanks in part to this treatment, overall survival of French children with cancer is around 80%. It is therefore important to integrate in the elaboration of the treatment planning potential side long-term effects. Indeed, whatever the technique is, even the most sophisticated, it is usually inevitable that healthy nearby organs receive a dose of radiation. Dose limits on organs at risk come from adult data and are adapted for children. After the treatment, it is important to graduate the potential risks of side effects to propose a personalized monitoring protocol avoiding excessive medicalization. This article presents the medical thinking concerning radiotherapy in different anatomical areas (brain, head and neck, chest, abdomen) including concepts of dose level corresponding to side effects usually described. In parallel, we present follow-up recommendations with the aim to preserve an optimal quality of life for the adults cured of a childhood cancer, currently called survivors. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)

  1. Radiotherapy Proton Interactions in Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    A survey of physics useful to proton radiotherapy, centered on stopping, scattering and hard scatters: 1. Introduction 2. The fundamental formula dose = fluence x mass stopping power. Practical units, comments on effective stopping power. 3. Range: experimental definition, Beth-Bloch CSDA theory, range-energy tables and approximations, range straggling. 4. Multiple Coulomb Scattering: suggested reading, elements of Moliere theory, the Gaussian approximation, scattering power. 5. Hard scatters...

  2. Breast post-radiotherapy angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, O.; Ocampo, P.; Repetto, M.; Schulz, D.; Rompato, S.; Batagelj, E.; Spadavecchia, G.

    2007-01-01

    Breast angiosarcoma after radiotherapy represents a rare pathology that have been increasing in the recent years because of the tendency to treat breast cancer with conservative therapeutic treatments. The forecast depends on the histological degree being the majority of high degree, with frequent lymphatic and local recurrences plus distance metastasis. The selected treatment is the mastectomy and also should be considered the adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  3. Fingerprints identification of radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, E.F.; Forrest, M.; Audebaud, S.; Dewitte, A.; Giscard, S.; Leclercq, B.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of patient plays a key role in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. It does impact on all professional staff and on patients. After the regulatory authority approval (Cnil), a pilot study has been performed on 1901 patients. Acceptance has been very high (> 93%) with a low risk of mis-identification (< 0.1%). The next step will be to implement and test a bimodal system in order to improve registration capacity and sensitivity. (authors)

  4. Ptanning radiotherapy of brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    It is emphasized that radiotherapy planing of neuro-oncologicai patients secures maximum optimization of radiation treatment. The planning involves preparation of anatomical profile diagrams of patient's head with plotted focal contrours; choise of ionizinq radiation type, directions of the working beam and dimensions and number of irradiation fields; choise of single dose vaiues and detemination of optimat distribution of integarl does in time; determination of focal projection on head surface of patients

  5. Effect of radiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Fujibuchi, Toshio; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained for the deterministic effect, secondary cancer formation and case reports of accidental exposure at radiotherapy. For the deterministic effect, the dose-effect relationship is sigmoidal in normal and cancer tissues, and the more separated are their curves, the more favorable is the radiotherapy. TD 5/5 is the tolerable dose to yield <5% of irreversible radiation injury to the normal tissue within 5 years after the therapy and is generally dose-limiting. The curves are of various shapes depending on the tissue composition that its functional subunit (FSU) is parallel like lobules of the liver, or in series like neuron. Symptoms appear complicated on these factors. Recent development of CT-based therapeutic planning has made it possible to analyze the partial tissue volume to be irradiated and its absorbed dose by the relationship (dose volume histogram, DVH) between the electron density vs CT value regardless to anatomy. The normal tissue complication probability is a model composed from the physical DVH and biological factors of FSU composition and cellular radiation susceptibility, and is a measure of the irreversible late effect manifested in normal tissues. Epidemiology has shown the increased risk of secondary cancer formation by radiotherapy. Children are highly susceptible to this, and in adults undergoing the therapy of a certain cancer, it is known that the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is increased in the particular tissue. There are presented such case reports of accidental excessive exposure at radiotherapy as caused by an inappropriate use of detector, partial loss of data in a therapeutic planning device, reading of reversed MRI image, and too much repeated use of the old-type electric portal imaging device. (T.T.)

  6. Analyses de la dégradation du lac Kinkony pour la conservation du ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le lac Kinkony fait partie des habitats clefs pour la biodiversité du Complexe des ... provide favoured habitat for numerous endemic and endangered avian, fish ... on fauna is essential for developing regional conservation and natural resource ...

  7. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  8. Experiment on radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhut'ko, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland

  9. Natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    The author examined the natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy using CT or MR imaging. Twenty patients with intracranial meningioma received radiotherapy from a high-energy linear accelerator (4-10 MV X rays) from 1980 to 1996. The total doses were 50 Gy to the tumor bed in single doses of 2 Gy in 5 weekly fractions. Meningiomas in 10 of 20 patients were reduced within 1 to 38 months after radiotherapy, the average being 11 months. The tumors were controlled for a median of 60 months after radiotherapy (range 19-126 months). Four other patients have shown no change in tumor size after radiotherapy. The tumors were controlled for a median of 70 months after radiotherapy (range 37-127 months). The other six patients have shown tumor growth within 3 to 25 months after radiotherapy, after which the tumors stopped growing for a median of 71 months (range 2-181 months). Neither tumor size nor histological type was related to response. The growth of tumors was controlled by radiotherapy for a median duration of 43 months in the meningothelial type, 52 months in the fibroblastic type, and 61 months in the transitional type. The median duration for all benign tumors was 52 months. A moderate correlation was noted between tumor response and functional outcome after radiotherapy in 9 patients with neurological deficits. The natural histories of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy were grouped into three categories. Some tumors showed no change in size over a long period. This was a characteristic response after radiotherapy that differed from that of other brain tumors. The results of this study provide important information for the follow-up of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation induced gliomas are uncommon. Occurrence of glioma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas is extremely uncommon and only eight case reports have been so far published. We present our experience with one similar case of temporal gliomas occurring twelve years following radiotherapy for a sub totally excised craniopharyngioma. Although the exact mechanism of gliomas formation is unclear, their occurrence following conventional radiotherapy is a distinct possibility and signifies a poor prognosis.

  11. Risk-adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole-breast radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max

    2014-01-01

    The TARGIT-A trial compared risk-adapted radiotherapy using single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) versus fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for breast cancer. We report 5-year results for local recurrence and the first analysis of overall survival....

  12. Radiotherapy in digestive tumours in elderly patients; Radiotherapie dans les tumeurs digestives chez le patient age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerme, F.; Clavier, J.B.; Nehme-Schuster, H.; Schumacher, C.; Noel, G. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors comment the taking into care of a digestive cancer in the case of elderly patient. These patients are treated by radiotherapy, operative radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy, or pre-operative radiotherapy, depending on the age, on the cancer type, with an adaptation of the total dose or with a hypo-fractionation of the treatment. Short communication

  13. Stereotactic radiotherapy in oligometastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas A C; Corkum, Mark T; Louie, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    Oligometastatic cancer describes a disease state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Proposed definitions of oligometastatic disease have typically used a cut-off of five or fewer sites of disease. Treatment of oligometastatic disease should have the goal of long-term local control, and in selected cases, disease remission. While several retrospective cohorts argue for surgical excision of limited metastases (metastasectomy) as the preferred treatment option for several clinical indications, limited randomized data exists for treating oligometastases. Alternatively, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a radiotherapy technique that combines high radiation doses per fraction with precision targeting with the goal of achieving long-term local control of treated sites. Published cohort studies of SABR have demonstrated excellent local control rates of 70-90% in oligometastatic disease, with long-term survival in some series approaching 20-40%. A recent randomized phase 2 clinical trial by Gomez et al. demonstrated significantly improved progression free survival with aggressive consolidative therapy (surgery, radiotherapy ± chemotherapy or SABR) in oli-gometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As additional randomized controlled trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy of SABR in oligometastatic disease, SABR is increasingly being used within routine clinical practice. This review article aims to sum-marize the history and current paradigm of the oligometastatic state, review recently pub-lished literature of SABR in oligometastatic cancer and discuss ongoing trials and future directions in this context.

  14. Extracranial radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This document reports a literature survey and the discussion of an expert group with the objective to assess the use of extracranial radiotherapy devices in stereotaxic conditions. After a brief overview of the technological context, the authors proposes a technical description of radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions, of the CyberKnife, of others radiotherapy techniques in stereotaxic conditions for extracranial indications, and of alternate techniques. They give an overview of concerned pathologies: skeleton, hepatic, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, prostate, kidney, and paediatric tumours. They describe the present care condition in France in terms of classification of medial acts, and of patient homogeneous groups. They provide the identification of this practice in foreign nomenclature. In the next part, they report the assessment, first through a critical analysis of published data and information in terms of act feasibility, efficiency and safety, of act role in the therapeutic strategy, of conditions of execution, and of impact on public health, and secondly through a statement of opinion of the working group in terms of terminology, indications, safety, and conditions of execution

  15. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  17. Consolidation du leadership en recherche en écosanté en Asie du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1 juin 2016 ... Financée par le CRDI, l'Initiative de renforcement du leadership en recherche en écosanté en Asie du Sud‑Est appuie l'exécution, dans la région, de travaux de recherche qui visent à permettre de mieux comprendre les effets de la transformation de l'agriculture sur les écosystèmes et sur la santé humaine ...

  18. Accroissement de la compétitivité du Kenya dans l'économie du ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La promulgation par le Kenya du Science, Technology and Innovation Bill, 2012 confirme l'intérêt et la volonté du gouvernement de mettre en oeuvre désormais un programme de développement fondé sur la science. La loi offre aussi au CRDI l'occasion d'appuyer le programme de recherche et de politiques de la nouvelle ...

  19. Effets du travail du sol sur le comportement chimique et biologique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2017 ... RESUME. Objectif : L'objectif de cette étude est de comparer les effets de six techniques culturales de mise en place du blé tendre sur certaines propriétés chimiques et biologiques du sol et les conséquences sur le rendement grain et ses composantes dans la région «non chernozem» en 7ème années ...

  20. OGM : vers une définition commune du contenu du problème ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icart Jean-Claude

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Les divergences croissantes depuis des années entre experts, responsables économiques, et acteurs sociaux et « citoyens » au sujet des OGM, ont pu être analysées à juste titre, comme exprimant la difficulté de dégager une « définition commune du contenu du problème »1.

  1. Évaluation du nouveau programme d'études du College of Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ces changements étaient jugés nécessaires pour préparer les professionnels de la santé aux nouvelles exigences de la prestation de services de santé décentralisés, pour juguler les nouvelles pandémies comme celles du VIH/sida et du virus Ébola, ainsi que pour répondre aux besoins des malades dans les zones ...

  2. Une force venant du futur chercherait à saboter l'expérience du LHC...

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    "A quelques jours de la reprise de l'expérience du LHC, on ne parle plus de la menace d'un trou noir, mais deux physicines souteinnent aujourd'hui une tout autres hypothèse: la nature, depuis le futur, va continuer de contrarier les travaux du Cern, afin d'éviter à l'Homme de mettre le doigt là où il ne faut pas..." (1.5 pages)

  3. Cartes infographiques du Symposium Afrique de l'Ouest et du Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    VILLES SÛRES ET INCLUSIVES | AFRIQUE DE L'OUEST ET DU CENTRE. Spécificités de violence, d'exclusion, et de lutte contre la criminalité. République démocratique du Congo: Taux de natalité par femme, en moyenne 10 enfants, très élevé. Exclusion sociale exacerbée : des jeunes enfants accusés de sorcellerie.

  4. Une mesure différente du bien-être : l'indice du bonheur national ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    À la lumière de ces données, le Centre for Bhutan Studies publiera, en 2011, un indice du BNB quantitatif. Cette subvention permettra à l'OPHI d'assister le Centre dans la synthèse et l'analyse des résultats de l'enquête de 2010. L'objectif : assurer la validité et la reconnaissance internationale de l'indice du BNB de sorte ...

  5. The role of radiotherapy in hospice care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo; Sugiyama, Akira; Shimizu, Teppei; Ichinohe, Kenji; Teshima, Takeshi; Kaneko, Masao; Hara, Yoshio; Chihara, Satoshi.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of palliative radiotherapy for the terminally ill is to improve the quality of the remaining span of life. From November 1982 to September 1987, 69 patients in the Seirei Hospice have been treated with such radiotherapy, and symptomatic relief was obtained in 64% of these patients. Radiotherapy also proved useful in achieving an improvement in their performance status. While the aim of hospice care is not directed towards treatment of the underlying disease, the use of radiotherapy is considered to have an important role in hospice care. (author)

  6. Guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at participating in the permanent optimization of the returned medical service and the ratio profit-risk. This first version of the guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007 processes only techniques of external radiotherapy, by opposition to the techniques of brachytherapy which use radioactive sources (iridium 192 , iodine 125 , cesium 137 ) placed in the contact of the tumor to be irradiated. Only, also, will be considered the irradiations of the most frequent cunning(malignant) tumors with the exception of the radiotherapy of the mild pathologies and the re-irradiations after a first radiotherapy. The first part is shared in eight chapters as follow: introduction, the steps of a treatment by radiotherapy, infrastructure, equipment and human resources, radiobiology mechanism of action of ionising radiations in radiotherapy, dose in radiotherapy, quality of treatment and radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy, prevention and risk management in radiotherapy, quality assurance and radiation protection for the pediatrics cancers and the case of pregnant women. The second part gives the tumoral localizations and the procedures; the third part is a glossary and different annexes such regulations and legislative texts. (N.C.)

  7. Otologic disorders following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely accepted as the first choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Delayed otitis of both external and middle ears is sometimes seen as a complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are usually hard to manage and some produces cochlear damages, finally resulting in a sensorineural hearing loss. However, these otologic disorders are tends to be overlooked, because physicians pay less attention to them than the concerning for cancer recurrence. Therefore, studies on the otologic disorders following radiotherapy are lacking. In this study, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases retrospectively to clarify the incidence of otologic disorders induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  8. Targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy critically depends on the activation of intrinsic cell death programs in cancer cells. This implies that evasion of cell death, a hallmark of human cancers, can contribute to radioresistance. Therefore, novel strategies to reactivate cell death programs in cancer cells are required in order to overcome resistance to radiotherapy. Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in multiple cancers and block cell death induction at a central point, therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins represents a promising approach to potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy. The current review discusses the concept of targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

  9. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  10. Every second cancer patient receives radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy to treat cancer was given for the first time exactly one hundred years ago. Today, radiotherapy and surgery are the two main modes of treating cancer. One in two cancer patients receives radiotherapy at some point during the course of treatment for the disease. Radiotherapy is applied most commonly in cases where surgery is not possible. Moreover, these two modes of treatment are often used together to supplement each other. About half of new cancer cases detected today can be ordered. The estimate given by the EU for cancers cured is 45 per cent, which is divided between the various treatment modes as follows: surgery 22 %, radiotherapy 12 %, surgery plus radiotherapy 6 %, and drug therapy 6 %. In addition to curative treatment, radiotherapy plays a crucial role in palliative treatment, i.e. treatment that alleviates symptoms. The sensitivity of malignant tumours to radiotherapy varies over a wide range; the same is true for healthy tissues. Radiotherapy can only be used to cure a tumour that is more sensitive to radiation than the surrounding healthy tissue. The tumour must also be sufficiently small in size and limited to a relatively small area. (orig.)

  11. Maison du Peuple; Jean Prouvè

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents a deep analysis of Maison du Peuple, de Clichy in Paris by the French architect and manufacturer Jean Prouvè. The historical context of the original ideas behind the building and how and by which means it was constructed are being examined from a tectonic perspective....

  12. les cahiers du cread - Vol 101 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les importations subventionnees de genisses a haut potentiel laitier : Un echec du a l'absence de politique laitiere globale · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Hamida Kheffache, Slimane Bedrani ...

  13. The case of Cirque du Soleil Dralion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cirque entered this landscape not by competing with the traditional circus, but by redefining it altogether (Leslie ... Amidst the decline in traditional travelling circuses in South Africa, the popularity of sold-out Cirque du Soleil ... about their motives in order to devise effective marketing strategies. Swanson, Davis and Zhao ...

  14. Picholine marocaine clones X Picholine du Languedoc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... marocaine" cultivar and the "Picholine du Languedoc" cultivar, the descendants and their parents were analysed using 35 ... marocaine" is the most dominant cultivar; more than 98% ... this proportion, a χ2 test was calculated to test the null hypothesis. ... a lethal or semi-lethal locus (Bradshaw and Stettler,.

  15. récolte du melon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 sept. 2015 ... In vivo, 600 ppm of calcium silicate, calcium hydroxide and calcium oxide inhibited ... En 2013, la production du melon au Maroc a été .... Ca(OH)2, l'oxyde de calcium CaO, le sulfate de calcium ...... rot disease complex.

  16. PREDICTION DE LA CROISSANCE DU BANANIER PLANTAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hornik K., Stinchcombe M., White H., Auer P. 1994. Degree of approximation results of feedforward networks approximating unknown mapping et their derivatives. Neur. Net. Comp., 6 : 1262 - 1275. Jannoyer M. 1995. Déterminisme du nombre d'or- ganes reproducteurs d'une inflorescence de bananier (Musa acuminata, ...

  17. Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique

    OpenAIRE

    Kvítek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Etude de la transition ferroelectrique-ferroelastique du KD2PO4 forme du front de phase en fonction du gradient thermique The thesis explores complex process of first order transition of KD2PO4 crystal from tetragonal phase to ferroelectric - ferroelastic orthorhombic phase and back at temperature 209 K. The experimental set up of nitrogeneous cryostat allowes temperature and temperature gradient variations during simultaneous three axes optical sample observations, dielectric measurements. T...

  18. Cervix cancer; Cancer du col uterin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointreau, Y.; Ruffier Loubiere, A.; Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S.-Kaplan CHU de Tours, Hpital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France); Pointreau, Y. [Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, GICC, 37 - Tours (France); CNRS, UMR 6239 -Genetique, Immunotherapie, Chimie et Cancer-, 37 - Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, laboratoire de pharmacologie-toxicologie, 37 - Tours (France); Denis, F. [Centre Jean-Bernard, 72 - Le Mans (France); Barillot, I. [Universite Francois-Rabelais, 37 - Tours (France)

    2010-07-01

    Cervix cancers declined in most developed countries in recent years, but remain, the third worldwide leading cause of cancer death in women. A precise staging, based on clinical exam, an abdominal and pelvic MRI, a possible PET-CT and a possible lymph node sampling is necessary to adapt the best therapeutic strategy. In France, the treatments of tumors of less than 4 cm without nodal involvement are often based on radiotherapy followed by surgery and, whereas tumors larger than 4 cm and involved nodes are treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Based on an illustrated clinical case, indications, delineation, dosimetry and complications expected with radiotherapy are demonstrated. (authors)

  19. Néotoponymie contestée à Potchefstroom / Tlokwe (Province du Nord-Ouest, Afrique du Sud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Houssay-Holzschuch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Illustration 1 - Extrait du site de la municipalité de Potchefstroom / TlokweSource : http://www.potch.co.za/newsarchive/streetnames.htmlIllustration 2- Potchefstroom (Afrique du SudAuteur : Béatrice Obry-Guyot, début décembre 2007.Illustration 3 - Extrait du plan Google Map de PotchefstroomSource : Google Map.La question toponymique en Afrique du Sud sur la longue durée porte sur deux thèmes essentiels porteurs de controverses : le plurilinguisme et le marquage symbolique et mémoriel du te...

  20. Differential response of DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells to ionizing radiation: role of reactive oxygen species, GSH and Nrf2 in radiosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Sundarraj; Kunwar, Amit; Sandur, Santosh K; Pandey, Badri N; Chaubey, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    Radioresistance is the major impediment in radiotherapy of many cancers including prostate cancer, necessitating the need to understand the factors contributing to radioresistance in tumor cells. In the present study, the role of cellular redox and redox sensitive transcription factor, Nrf2 in the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145, has been investigated. Differential radiosensitivity of PC3 and DU145 cells was assessed using clonogenic assay, flow cytometry, and comet assay. Their redox status was measured using DCFDA and DHR probes. Expression of Nrf2 and its dependent genes was measured by EMSA and real time PCR. Knockdown studies were done using shRNA transfection. PC3 and DU145 cells differed significantly in their radiosensitivity as observed by clonogenic survival, apoptosis and neutral comet assays. Both basal and inducible levels of ROS were higher in PC3 cells than that of DU145 cells. DU145 cells showed higher level of basal GSH content and GSH/GSSG ratio than that of PC3 cells. Further, significant increase in both basal and induced levels of Nrf2 and its dependent genes was observed in DU145 cells. Knock-down experiments and pharmacological intervention studies revealed the involvement of Nrf2 in differential radio-resistance of these cells. Cellular redox status and Nrf2 levels play a causal role in radio-resistance of prostate cancer cells. The pivotal role Nrf2 has been shown in the radioresistance of tumor cells and this study will further help in exploiting this factor in radiosensitization of other tumor cell types. © 2013.

  1. Summary of the report Asn n. 2006 E.N.S.T.R. 019 - I.G.A.S. n. R.M. 2007-015 P. on the radiotherapy accident occurring at Epinal, presented by Guillaume WACK (Asn) and the doctor Francoise LALANDE, member of the General Inspection of social affairs, with the help of Marc David SELIGMAN; Resume du rapport ASN n. 2006 ENSTR 019 - IGAS n. RM 2007-015P sur l'accident de radiotherapie d'Epinal, presente par Guillaume WACK (ASN), et le docteur Francoise LALANDE, membre de l'Inspection Generale des affaires sociales, avec le concours de Marc David SELIGMAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    In may 2004, the protocol of conformal radiotherapy applied to the prostate tumors has been modified. The change concerned the use of dynamic wedges in place of static wedges. This change supposed to change also the parameters of the calculation of irradiation intensity but this will not be made for some patients. This error could be corrected if the in vivo dosimetry had been kept and if the calculation of the number of monitors units had been maintained. 23 patients were submitted to an overexposure between the 6. may 2004 and the 1. august 2005. The first symptoms appeared in january 2005. The patients consulted their personal practitioner who sent them to a gastro-enterologist. The endoscopy revealed the existence of a rectitis which went by aggravating. In August, 2005 they were ten patients with severe hurts. During summer 2005, a radiotherapist doctor and a radio physicist found the error of overdose, They warned the manager of the hospital who warned in her turn, the D.D.A.S.S. (department direction of sanitary and social affairs) and A.R.H. (regional authority of hospitalization). Only seven patients were informed of the overdose, the sixteen other ones supposed wrongly unhurt, were not informed about the accident. The national authorities (I.R.S.N.) were warned in july 2006. Between september 2005 and september 2006 four patients died. Ten patients had severe damages, nine a moderate one. The report gives some propositions to avoid these kind of accidents in the future. (N.C.)

  2. Treatment outcome in patients with vulvar cancer: comparison of concurrent radiotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ki Won; Park, Dong Choon; Yoon, Joo Hee; Yoon, Sei Chul [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mina [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate outcome and morbidity in patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy. The records of 24 patients treated with radiotherapy for vulvar cancer between July 1993 and September 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received once daily 1.8-4 Gy fractions external beam radiotherapy to median 51.2 Gy (range, 19.8 to 81.6 Gy) on pelvis and inguinal nodes. Seven patients were treated with primary concurrent chemoradiotherapy, one patient was treated with primary radiotherapy alone, four patients received palliative radiotherapy, and twelve patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty patients were eligible for response evaluation. Response rate was 55% (11/20). The 5-year disease free survival was 42.2% and 5-year overall survival was 46.2%, respectively. Fifty percent (12/24) experienced with acute skin complications of grade III or more during radiotherapy. Late complications were found in 8 patients. 50% (6/12) of patients treated with lymph node dissection experienced severe late complications. One patient died of sepsis from lymphedema. However, only 16.6% (2/12) of patients treated with primary radiotherapy developed late complications. Outcome of patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy showed relatively good local control and low recurrence. Severe late toxicities remained higher in patients treated with both node dissection and radiotherapy.

  3. An investigation of anxiety about radiotherapy deploying the radiotherapy categorical anxiety scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Karasawa, Kumiko; Ito, Kana; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Izawa, Hiromi; Kawase, Eri; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the major methods for treating cancer, but many patients undergoing radiotherapy have deep concerns about receiving radiation treatment. This problem is not generally appreciated and has not been adequately studied. The objective of this investigation was to empirically investigate the anxieties that cancer patients feel towards radiotherapy by using questionnaires to classify and quantitatively measure their concerns. A preliminary interview to develop a questionnaire was carried out with 48 patients receiving radiotherapy to discover their anxieties about on-going treatments. Subsequently, a main study was performed using a questionnaire with 185 patients to classify their types of anxiety and to ascertain the reliability and validity of the responses. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out with a 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale. Three anxiety factors were abstracted by factor analysis: adverse effects of radiotherapy, environment of radiotherapy, and treatment effects of radiotherapy. Reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity were obtained. The adequacy of the three-factor model of anxiety concerning radiotherapy was confirmed. A 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale was formulated to quantitatively measure the specific types of anxiety among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Modern Radiotherapy & Brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2009-01-01

    This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data from digital imaging (Computed Tomography) is also underlined. Finally, despite the quasi- totality of patients being presently treated with gamma and X-rays, novel powerful tools are emerging using proton and light ions (like carbon ions) beams, bound to bec...

  5. Three dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postoperative radiotherapy of the parotid gland could be achieved with various radiotherapy techniques. However they irradiate differently the surrounding organs at risk (OARs) in particular the cochlea, oral cavity & contralateral parotid causing significant increase in the risk of oral mucositis, xerostomia, and ...

  6. Radiological protection of the radiotherapy patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.; Lesiak, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the system and concepts of radiation protection should not be used with reference to radiotherapy patients. We justify this on conceptual grounds. The patient undergoing radiotherapy procedures, as prescribed by the medical practitioner, is protected by the quality assurance system legally required for medical exposures. (author)

  7. Radioactivity helps out in Medicine. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Michel; Olombel, Andre

    1978-01-01

    Some notions on the action of radiations on tissues are followed by a review of the different radiotherapic techniques: metabolic radiotherapy, curietherapy, transcutaneous radiotherapy. The radioelements used in these various techniques are then described, together with the way in which they are conditioned (colloids, applicators, sources) [fr

  8. Different styles of image-guided radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    To account for geometric uncertainties during radiotherapy, safety margins are applied. In many cases, these margins overlap organs at risk, thereby limiting dose escalation. The aim of image-guided radiotherapy is to improve the accuracy by imaging tumors and critical structures on the machine just

  9. Reducing radiation induced emesis in abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, K.

    1994-01-01

    In patients with seminoma testes, a comparison was made between radiation induced emesis suffered by patients receiving 'dogleg' radiotherapy with those suffered by patients who received para-aortic radiotherapy. The same comparisons were made between the effects suffered by those patients who received the anti-emetic, Ondansetron, and those suffered by patients who received conventional anti-emetics. (UK)

  10. Approaches for improving cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation and cancer are intricately related. Radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, is used for treatment of 60% of cancers. It will continue to be the mainstay for multi-modality treatment protocols unit new molecular therapies can be developed and brought to the stage of clinical trials. It will continue to be relevant thereafter, to compare the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the novel drugs under development. And it could also be useful as an adjuvant therapy, to augment the effects of novel drugs, at optimum dose levels. However, radiation is a well documented carcinogenic agent. Several studies have shown a statistically significant, though small enhancement in the risk of second malignancies, particularly in long-term survivors. The above discussions suggest that it is imperative to carry out preclinical radiobiological research for increasing tumor cell damage, while reducing the effective radiation doses. Development of radiobiological research programs in our institutions of higher learning such as post graduate medical institutions, cancer centers and universities could lead to the generation of a wealth of radiobiological data with potential clinical applications. Radiobiologists could utilize the infra-structure such as expensive radiotherapy equipment as well as clinical materials. For example, tumour biopsies readily available in the medical and cancer centers. However, if these studies have clinically meaningful implications it will be important to facilitate very close interactions between the basic scientists and clinicians. Some of the approaches for improving radiotherapy of cancer will be very briefly reviewed. Our current work about the effects of radiation-drug and drug-drug interactions for increasing cellular damage and death in brain tumor cells will also be presented. (author)

  11. Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Bergsma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC typically presents at an advanced stage, which is often felt to be incurable, and such patients are usually treated with a palliative approach. Accumulating retrospective and prospective clinical evidence, including a recently completed randomized trial, support the existence of an oligometastatic disease state wherein select individuals with advanced NSCLC may experience historically unprecedented prolonged survival with aggressive local treatments, consisting of radiotherapy and/or surgery, to limited sites of metastatic disease. This is reflected in the most recent AJCC staging subcategorizing metastatic disease into intra-thoracic (M1a, a single extra thoracic site (M1b, and more diffuse metastases (M1c. In the field of radiation oncology, recent technological advances have allowed for the delivery of very high, potentially ablative, doses of radiotherapy to both intra- and extra-cranial disease sites, referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (or SABR, in much shorter time periods compared to conventional radiation and with minimal associated toxicity. At the same time, significant improvements in systemic therapy, including platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, molecular agents targeting oncogene-addicted NSCLC, and immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors, have led to improved control of micro-metastatic disease and extended survival sparking newfound interest in combining these agents with ablative local therapies to provide additive, and in the case of radiation and immunotherapy, potentially synergistic, effects in order to further improve progression-free and overall survival. Currently, despite the tantalizing potential associated with aggressive local therapy in the setting of oligometastatic NSCLC, well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials sufficiently powered to detect and measure the possible added benefit afforded by this approach are

  12. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, T.; Itami, J.; Kotaka, K.; Toriyama, M.

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [de

  13. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy in the maxillofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdellmann, H.; Otten, J.E.; Lachard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic treatment of patients with tumours in the oral, perignathic, facial, and neck region can lead to considerable complications under irradiation and any time after irradiation if dental aspects are not considered. A dental treatment should therefore be planned in close cooperation with a dental-, oral-, and orthodontic centre before starting radiotherapy. In many cases, a preparing treatment is not possible for important reasons. Therefore, it is very important that patients who are being or have been treated with radiation are dealt with extremely carefully. (orig.) [de

  15. Quality and safety in radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The first text to focus solely on quality and safety in radiotherapy, this work encompasses not only traditional, more technically oriented, quality assurance activities, but also general approaches of quality and safety. It includes contributions from experts both inside and outside the field to present a global view. The task of assuring quality is no longer viewed solely as a technical, equipment-dependent endeavor. Instead, it is now recognized as depending on both the processes and the people delivering the service. Divided into seven broad categories, the text covers: Quality Management

  16. Radiobiology of human cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has systematically collected and collated the scientific literature correlating the basic and clinical sciences in this field in order to produce a definitive treatise. The book thoroughly reviews the biology and biochemistry relevant to radiobiology and describes the critical locus for the extinction of cell reproductive capacity. Extensive coverage is given to oxygen effect, hyperthermia, high linear energy transfer, cell populations, and similar topics. Separate sections cover time, dose, and fractionation; radiation hematology; cancer chemotherapy; and cancer immunology. The book also contains invaluable discussions of techniques for optimizing radiotherapy alone and in combination with other therapies

  17. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  18. Présentation du volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Zwitter Vitez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreuses disciplines scientifiques, le discours parlé représente depuis quelques décennies un objet de recherche proéminent. Ce fait s’explique probablement par deux caractéristiques principales du discours parlé: la structure complexe de sa matérialité et les fonctions variées de différentes pratiques langagières. C’est pourquoi le présent numéro réunit les articles basés sur les approches actuelles du discours parlé et sur les pratiques langagières spécifiques. Le volume est introduit par deux articles interdisciplinaires: Peter Garrard et Ahmed Samrah présentent le domaine de la pathologie du langage en donnant une revue fouillée sur les approches actuelles de l’analyse linguistique lors de la détection de la maladie d’Alzheimer, tandis que Harry Hollien donne un aperçu structuré sur le domaine de la phonétique judiciaire destiné à dévoiler l’identité des locuteurs et de détecter la déception dans le discours parlé. Les analyses explorant l’acquisition du langage commencent par l’article de Katharina Zipser qui examine la progression de structures grammaticales en les mettant en comparaison avec la compétence des apprenants et continuent par l’étude de Meta Lah proposant une évaluation des documents audiovisuels proposés aux apprenants de langue étrangère. Vesna Požgaj Hadži, Damir Horga et Tatjana Balažic Bulc remettent en question la corrélation entre la compétence linguistique et la fluence linguistique auprès de locuteurs non-maternels et l'analyse de Gemma Santiago Alonso aborde l'acquisition de l'article défini dans le langage enfantin. Les articles suivants se réunissent autour du domaine de l'interprétation: Jana Zidar Forte présente une approche actuelle dans l'entrainement d'interprètes, Lea Burjan analyse les phénomènes issus de la pratique de l'interprétation juridique et Simona  Šumrada traite de la reformulation dans le discours de la traduction et de

  19. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.A.; Dendale, R.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Marchand, V.; Mazal, A.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.M.; Kirov, K.M.; Esteve, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic Irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. We studied the breast cancer patients who needed breast and/or chest wall and lymph node irradiation to assess the feasibility and tolerance in this population of patients. Patients and methods. - From November 2008 to December 2009, more than 900 patients received radiotherapy for their breast cancer in our department using megavoltage linear accelerator (X 4-6 MV and electrons). Among them, seven patients were with permanent pacemaker. All patients have been treated to the breast and chest wall and/or lymph nodes. Total dose to breast and/or chest wall was 50 Gy/25 fractions and 46 Gy/23 fractions to lymph nodes. Patients who underwent conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation were boosted when indicated to tumour bed with 16 Gy/8 fractions. All patients were monitored everyday in presence of radiation oncologist to follow the function of their pacemaker. All pacemakers were controlled before and after radiotherapy by the patients' cardiologist. Results. - Seven patients were referred in our department for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy. Among them, only one patient was declined for radiotherapy and underwent mastectomy without radiotherapy. In four cases the pacemaker was repositioned before the beginning of radiotherapy. Six patients, aged between 48 and 84 years underwent irradiation for their breast cancer. Four patients were treated with conserving surgery followed by breast radiotherapy and two with mastectomy followed by chest wall and internal mammary chain, supra- and infra-clavicular lymph node irradiation. The dose to the pacemaker generator was kept below 2 Gy. There was no pacemaker dysfunction observed during the radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The multidisciplinary work with position change of the pacemaker before

  20. Family physicians' perspectives regarding palliative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess family physicians' views on common indications for palliative radiotherapy and to determine whether this influences patient referral. Methods and materials: A 30-item questionnaire evaluating radiotherapy knowledge and training developed at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) was mailed to a random sample of 400 family physicians in eastern Ontario, Canada. The completed surveys were collected and analyzed, and form the basis of this study. Results: A total of 172 completed surveys were received for a net response rate of 50% among practicing family physicians. Almost all of the physicians (97%) had recently seen cancer patients in their offices, with 85% regularly caring for patient with advanced cancer. Fifty-four percent had referred patients in the past for radiotherapy and 53% had contacted a radiation oncologist for advice. Physicians who were more knowledgeable about the common indications for palliative radiotherapy were significantly more likely to refer patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Inability to contact a radiation oncologist was correlated with not having referred patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Only 10% of the physicians had received radiotherapy education during their formal medical training. Conclusions: Many of the family physicians surveyed were unaware of the effectiveness of radiotherapy in a variety of common palliative situations, and radiotherapy referral was correlated with knowledge about the indications for palliative radiotherapy. This was not surprising given the limited education they received in this area and the limited contact they have had with radiation oncologists. Strategies need to be developed to improve continuing medical education opportunities for family physicians and to facilitate more interaction between these physicians and radiation oncologists

  1. DU-AGG pilot plant design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessing, P.A.; Gillman, H.

    1996-07-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is developing new methods to produce high-density aggregate (artificial rock) primarily consisting of depleted uranium oxide. The objective is to develop a low-cost method whereby uranium oxide powder (UO[sub 2], U[sub 3]O[sub ]8, or UO[sub 3]) can be processed to produce high-density aggregate pieces (DU-AGG) having physical properties suitable for disposal in low-level radioactive disposal facilities or for use as a component of high-density concrete used as shielding for radioactive materials. A commercial company, G-M Systems, conducted a design study for a manufacturing pilot plant to process DU-AGG. The results of that study are included and summarized in this report. Also explained are design considerations, equipment capacities, the equipment list, system operation, layout of equipment in the plant, cost estimates, and the proposed plan and schedule

  2. L’écologie du coupable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ourednik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available « Denn dass der Mensch erlöst werde von der Rache  : das ist mir die Brücke zur höchsten Hoffnung und ein Regenbogen nach langen Unwettern. » 1 Nous l’aurions presque oublié, en fouillant parmi les fondations du rapport moral au monde de nos sociétés, nous trouverons encore bien en place deux piliers érigés au cours du processus de la chrétienté : celui de l’ empathie et celui de la culpabilité . Le premier semble offrir le seul appui plausible à notre vivre ...

  3. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH and Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations

  4. Autour du paradigme d’écotourisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Transler

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available L’écotourisme ouvre un cadre conceptuel original qui permet d’envisager des démarches renouvelées de développement à partir des revenus issus de consommations touristiques mieux réfléchies et organisées, susceptibles de soutenir des initiatives de développement local s’inscrivant dans un projet global de développement durable. Variante douce du tourisme, loin du tourisme de masse, le champ de l’écotourisme s’étend aux confins du tourisme de nature, du tourisme culturel et des pratiques scientifiques et sportives de plein air. Une définition de l’écotourisme peut être proposée à partir des six points suivants : 1/ nature et culture, 2/ le bien-être des sociétés hôtes, 3/ des touristes responsables, 4/ la participation des sociétés hôtes, 5/ la durabilité, 6/ l’art de la rencontre.Ecotourism provides an original conceptual framework that enables approaches to development that are better able to provide a more equitable distribution of income, as well as better organized and thought through initiatives which are more likely to promote a holistic sustainable local development. With somewhat less negative impact than normal tourism, considerably less that mass tourism, ecotourism can encompass nature tourism, cultural tourism, scientific exploration, and even outdoor sports... A definition of ecotourism should take into account the following six points: 1/ nature and culture, 2/ the welfare of the host community, tourists acting responsibly, 3/ participation by the local community, 5 / sustainability , 6/ promotion of cultural exchanges

  5. Le cas du Brésil

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    pwust

    important volet des activités de coopération du Brésil dans les pays en développement, ...... attention à l'Amérique latine ou aux Caraïbes, malgré la priorité accordée à .... prudente et sélective face aux opérations triangulaires, afin d'éviter la ...

  6. Fès, la cybercapitale du Maroc

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Fès, la cybercapitale du Maroc. La ville de Fès est devenue un modèle primé en matière de mise en œuvre efficace des technologies de l'information et de la communication (TIC) dans les services publics d'un pays africain. ès, au Maroc. Dans une pièce renfermée datant des années 1950, des centaines de documents.

  7. Inventaire des champignons ectomycorhiziens du Maroc

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 juil. 2014 ... RÉSUMÉ. Objectif : Le travail présenté ici a pour objectif de dresser, à partir de la bibliographie, l'inventaire des espèces ectomycorhiziennes du Maroc. Méthodologie et résultats : Les données sur les champignons, recueillies à partir de différents travaux publiés nous ont permis de réaliser un premier ...

  8. Les sens du musée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grison

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, fondé sur l'exemple de la National Gallery de Londres, porte sur l'intégration dans le cadre urbain, l'aménagement et les dynamiques spatiales du lieu muséal. Sur le même thème, nous relatons un exercice réalisé avec des lycéens.

  9. Technostress et autres revers du travail nomade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popma, J.

    2013-01-01

    L'Internet et l'utilisation des ordinateurs portables, des téléphones mobiles et des tablettes ont accru l'importance du « travail nomade». Ce type de travail, sans contrainte de lieu ni de temps, peut entraîner, d’après ce working paper, une plus grande autonomie et une plus grande flexibilité pour

  10. KYSTE DERMOÏDE DU PLANCHER BUCCAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    18 juin 2007 ... molle, indolore bien limitée, sessile ou pédiculée, lisse avec un aspect jaune caractéristique[10]. La palpation bidigitale, l'échographie associée à une ponc- tion cytologique, le scanner et au mieux l'IRM sont essen- tiels pour l'orientation étiologique devant toute lésion du plancher buccal [8]. En effet, l'IRM ...

  11. Administration des subventions du CRDI aux institutions :

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Comment puis-je réviser le budget de mon projet ? Le CRDI couvre-t-il les dépenses engagées en sus du montant de la subvention ? De quelle façon le CRDI transmet-il les fonds ? Mon institution doit-elle déposer les fonds reçus pour le projet dans un compte bancaire distinct ? Combien de temps faut-il au CRDI pour ...

  12. PersPectives du Programme acca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    à acca@crdi.ca. À propos du programme ACCA. Lancé en 2006, le programme Adaptation aux changements ... Nous pourrions y ajouter, par soucis d'équilibre, les « connus inconnus », c'est- à-dire les connaissances que nous ne ...... marocain m'a déjà dit ceci : « Je comprends vos préoccupations, mais mes questions ...

  13. Les Gammaridae (Crustaces, Amphipodes) du Massif Central

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedmakers, Annemarie

    1974-01-01

    Une prospection systématique des eaux courantes du Massif Central a permis de reconnaître le nombre d’espèces des Gammaridés présentes dans cette région. On a trouvé les espèces suivantes: Gammarus pulex (Linnaeus, 1758), G. fossarum Koch, 1835, et G. ibericus Margalef, 1951. G. ibericus, espèce

  14. L’écriture du temps dans Robinson Crusoe

    OpenAIRE

    Bulckaen, Denise

    2018-01-01

    “Le récit est une séquence deux fois temporelle... il y a le temps de la chose-racontée et le temps du récit (temps du signifié et temps du signifiant)”. Cette citation se trouve au début du chapitre que Genette consacre à “Ordre” dans Figures III. Elle s'applique à de nombreux romans, mais elle est particulièrement intéressante quand on considère le roman de forme autobiographique. Le décalage entre “le temps du signifié” et “le temps du signifiant” est plus ou moins grand selon les romans. ...

  15. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Rhein, Bernhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcome and toxicity after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with FSRT between May 1989 and February 2001. Median age was 33.5 years (range: 5-57 years). Nine patients received FSRT after surgery as primary treatment, and 17 patients were irradiated for recurrent tumor or progressive growth after initial surgery. Median target dose was 52.2 Gy (range: 50.0-57.6 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Follow-up included MRI and neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic examinations. Results: The median follow-up was 43 months (range: 7-143 months). The actuarial local control rate and actuarial overall survival rates were 100% and 100%, respectively, at 5 years and 100% and 83%, respectively, at 10 years. Four patients showed complete response, 14 patients showed partial response, and 8 patients remained stable. In 5 patients, vision improved after radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was mild. One patient required cyst drainage 3 months after radiotherapy. Late toxicity after radiotherapy included impairment of hormone function in 3 out of 18 patients at risk. We did not observe any vision impairment, radionecrosis, or secondary malignancies. Conclusions: FSRT is effective and safe in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas. Toxicity is extremely low using this conformal technique

  16. Palliative radiotherapy for liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, M.J.; Gademann, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1993-01-01

    The role of palliative irradiation was analysed in 55 patients with liver metastases from colorectal, breast and lung cancer, treated with irradiation doses more than 10 Gy. In 47 patients irradiation alone was done. In 29 patients the disease involved not only the liver, but was disseminated. A mean dose of 23.8 Gy was delivered, with daily fractions of 1.5, 1.8 or 2 Gy. Complete and near complete pain relief was obtained in six and nine patients. Normalized and near normalized values of bilirubin serum levels were obtained in five and seven patients. Relief of pain as well as normalisation of cholestasis were significantly correlated with the irradiation doses applied. Median survival was 36.5 days for patients with lung cancer, 70.5 and 73 days for patients with breast and colorectal cancer. Irradiation doses given and the status of disease were significantly correlated to prognosis. In the majority of our patients with clinical symptoms, i.e. pain or cholestase, irradiation alone was sufficient for palliation of these symptoms. Prognosis is limited because of the disseminated state of disease in 62% of the patients. In a group of patients, suffering from colorectal cancer with good prognostic criteria, the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was able to increase significantly the survival with minor toxicity. The use of a three-dimensional treatment planning could optimize the radiotherapy, due to the dose-volume histogram analysis. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Optimization of human cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, George W

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical models in this book are concerned with a variety of approaches to the manner in which the clinical radiologic treatment of human neoplasms can be improved. These improvements comprise ways of delivering radiation to the malignan­ cies so as to create considerable damage to tumor cells while sparing neighboring normal tissues. There is no unique way of dealing with these improvements. Accord­ ingly, in this book a number of different presentations are given. Each presentation has as its goal some aspect of the improvement, or optimization, of radiotherapy. This book is a collection of current ideas concerned with the optimization of human cancer radiotherapy. It is hoped that readers will build on this collection and develop superior approaches for the understanding of the ways to improve therapy. The author owes a special debt of thanks to Kathy Prindle who breezed through the typing of this book with considerable dexterity. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction 1...

  18. Craniospinal radiotherapy in adult medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selek, U.; Zorlu, F.; Hurmuz, P.; Cengiz, M.; Gurkaynak, M.; Turker, A.; Soylemezoglu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors of adult patients with medulloblastoma. Patients and Methods: 26 adult medulloblastoma patients with a median age of 27 were subjected to craniospinal radiotherapy. A dose of 30.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy/fraction/day was prescribed to M0 patients, while 36 Gy were to be applied in patients with positive cerebrospinal liquor findings. The posterior fossa was boosted to 54 Gy. While 20 patients underwent external-beam radiotherapy alone, only six received sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Male/female ratio was 1.2. Preradiotherapy Karnofsky performance status was recorded as median 100%. 50% were classified as poor risk (n = 10, subtotal resection; n = 3, M+). The median follow-up time was 46.5 months. The 5-year actuarial survival rates for recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival were 82.5%, 90.8%, 73.5%, and 89.7%, respectively. Patient characteristics, treatment factors and tumor characteristics failed to show any significance in univariate analysis. Grade 3 or 4 late morbidities were not observed. Conclusion: Yet, the current standard of care seems to remain craniospinal irradiation after maximal surgical resection of the primary neoplasm without clear indications for adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Quality control programme for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Viamonte, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A 3 years pilot programme started in January 2000 with 33 philanthropic cancer institutions that provides medical services to 60% of the patients from the national social security system. Brazil has today 161 radiotherapy services (144 operating with megavoltage equipment). These 33 institutions are distributed over 19 Brazilian states. The aim of this programme is: To create conditions to allow the participants to apply the radiotherapy with quality and efficacy; To promote up dating courses for the physicians, physicists and technicians of these 33 Institutions. With the following objectives: To recommend dosimetric and radiological protection procedures in order to guarantee the tumor prescribed dose and safe working conditions; To help in establishing and implementing these procedures. The main activities are: local quality control evaluations, postal TLD audits in reference conditions, postal TLD audits in off axis conditions and training. The local quality control program has already evaluated 22 institutions with 43 machines (25 Co-60 and 18 linear accelerators). In these visits we perform dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. As foreseen, we found more problems among the old Co-60 machines i.e., field flatness, size, symmetry and relative output factors; lasers positioning system alignment; optical distance indicator; radiation and light field coincidence; optical and mechanical distance indicators agreement, than among the linear accelerators i.e., field flatness and size; lasers positioning system alignment; tray interlocking and wedge filter factors

  20. ORO dental complications of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaumuri, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Radiation and radioactivity were discovered more than 100 years ago. Since then, radiation has become important in cancer treatment. Approximately one million people will develop invasive cancer each year. Of these, 40% will receive curative benefit from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination modality. Normal body tissues vary in their response to radiation. As with tumors, normal tissues in which cells are quickly dividing may be affected. This causes some of the side effects of radiation treatment. Since radiation is a local treatment, side effects depend on the area of the body being treated. The early effects of radiation may be seen a few days or weeks after treatments have started and may go on for several weeks after treatments have ended. Other effects may not show up until months, or even years, later. As radiotherapy is a viable treatment modality for head and neck cancer, however a wide range of potentially debilitating dental complications may accompany this treatment. The orofacial tissues of dental significance that may be affected by head and neck radiotherapy are the salivary glands, mucous membranes, taste buds, bone and teeth. (author)

  1. Enfants du soleil histoire de nos origines

    CERN Document Server

    Brahic, André

    1999-01-01

    D'où venons-nous ? Comment le Soleil et la Terre sont-ils apparus ? Nous avons enfin atteint le moment où la science peut apporter des réponses de plus en plus précises, de plus en plus étonnantes. La Nature a décidément plus d'imagination que les hommes ! Depuis l'exploration spatiale, nous en avons plus appris sur notre système solaire et son origine en une génération qu'en quarante siècles. Là où l'on attendait l'uniformité, on a trouvé la plus grande diversité. André Brahic, qui a découvert les anneaux de Neptune, nous présente les multiples facettes du système solaire et nous raconte quatre milliards et demi d'années de son histoire. Les planètes sont les soeurs du Soleil. Nous sommes les enfants du temps et des étoiles. Sommes-nous seuls dans l'Univers ? Les astronomes commencent à apercevoir d'autres planètes autour de quelques soleils proches, Ils espèrent bientôt trouver d'autres Terres...

  2. Ksenia Pimenova, Les sources de savoirs. Le renouveau du bouddhisme et du chamanisme chez les Touvas de la Sibérie du Sud

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenova, Ksenia

    2013-01-01

    Cette thèse présente une étude comparative du « renouveau » post-soviétique du chamanisme et du bouddhisme tibétain (école Guélougpa) chez les Touvas, un des peuples autochtones de la Sibérie du Sud (Russie). Ce phénomène a lieu après des décennies de politique antireligieuse (dès la fin des années 1920 jusqu’aux années 1980) ayant abouti à la destruction de la communauté bouddhique et à la marginalisation du chamanisme. Nous analysons le chamanisme et le bouddhisme post-soviétiques comme deu...

  3. Ved du, hvad der er i dine varer, når du handler?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Anja; Smith, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    I supermarkedet på vej hjem køber du ind til madpakken. Ved kølemontren med pålæg ser du en pakke Gårdlykke Hønsesalat. ... Måske vælger du den uden at tænke nærmere over hvorfor, eller fordi emballagen og navnet får hønsesalaten til at fremstå lokal, hjemmelavet eller økologisk. ... Alt dette ba...... bakkes op af resultaterne fra årelang forskning på CBS, hvor universitetets forskergruppe Fair-Speak har undersøgt emballagernes måde at påvirke forbrugerne til at købe produktet....

  4. 98 Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    98. Etude Comparative du Systeme Phonematique et Tonal des. Deux Parlers: Le Yoruba du Nigeria et L'itsa Parle en. Republique du Benin. Ajani Akinwumi Lateef et Ayuba G. Ajibabi http://dx.doi./org/10.4314/ujah.v18i3.5. Résume. En ce début de l'époque ou la mondialisation et la coexistence des peuples dans le ...

  5. Carcinome du tube collecteur de Bellini: une nouvelle observation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le carcinome du tube collecteur de Bellini est un type très rare des carcinomes à cellules rénales (CCR), sa fréquence est inférieure à 1%. Il dérive de la partie distale du néphron, plus précisément du tube collecteur. Ses aspects morphologiques sont extrêmement variables, rendant son diagnostic difficile. Nous rapportons ...

  6. Bourse du CRDI aux chercheurs candidats au doctorat 2018 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les nouvelles du CRDI chaque mois. Abonnez-vous · Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique de confidentialité · Transparence · Utilisation du site Web. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter ...

  7. Customized mold radiotherapy with prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tadahide; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Hayasaka, Junichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakazawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Eight patients (6 males, 2 females; median age, 78 years; age range, 31-94 years) were treated by mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers between October 2006 and March 2013. The primary sites were the tongue in 3 cases, hard palate and buccal mucosa in 2 cases each, and oral floor in 1 case. The type of treatment consisted of radical radiotherapy and palliative radiotherapy in 2 cases each, and preoperative radiotherapy, postoperative radiotherapy, additional radiotherapy after external beam radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy in 1 case each. Patients received 40-50 Gy in 8-10 fractions with mold radiotherapy. Two patients who received radical radiotherapy showed no signs of recurrence or metastasis. The present therapy contributed to patients' palliative, postoperative, and preoperative therapy. Mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic appliance was performed safely and was a useful treatment for several types of oral cancer. (author)

  8. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Johnson, N; Cornes, P; Simera, I; Collingwood, M; Williams, C; Kitchener, H

    2007-04-18

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy) in stage I endometrial cancer following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH and BSO) remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, Physician Data Query (PDQ) of National Cancer Institute. Handsearching was also carried out where appropriate. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared adjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer were included. Quality of the studies was assessed and data collected using a predefined data collection form. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence and endometrial cancer death. Data on quality of life (QOL) and morbidity were also collected. A meta-analysis on included trials was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software 4.2. The meta-analysis was performed on four trials (1770 patients). The addition of pelvic external beam radiotherapy to surgery reduced locoregional recurrence, a relative risk (RR) of 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.44, p ASTEC; Lukka) are awaited. External beam radiotherapy carries a risk of toxicity and should be avoided in stage 1 endometrial cancer patients with no high risk factors.

  9. The development of radiotherapy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhelj, Janez; Ravnihar, Bozena

    1996-01-01

    The historical data on the development of radiotherapy in Slovenia are presented from its first use in this county in 1902 until the present. The Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana was established in 1938 with the intention of providing a sound development of radium and roentgen cancer treatment. After World War II, the development of radiotherapy was dynamic, which is evident from the data on new radiation sources in external beam therapy (accelerators, telecobalt units), in brachytherapy (various sealed radioisotopes) as well as in the introduction of therapy with unsealed radioisotopes. In 1947, a Chair of Oncology and Radiotherapy was instituted at the Medical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (with the seat at the Institute of Oncology). In 1955, radiotherapy and oncology were officially recognized as separate branches of medicine requiring special obligatory postgraduate residency training. Within the Medical Society of Slovenia, the Section for Radiotherapy was established in 1987. The following year, the Section for Radiotherapy of Slovenia became a member of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Considering the size of population of Slovenia (nearly 2 million), it was reasonable that by this time radiotherapy became almost completely concentrated in one central institution, the Institute of Oncology, whose core and cohesive activity were represented in the multidisciplinary cancer treatment approach

  10. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Astrid N.; Leer, Jan-Willem H.; Collins, C. David; Wondergem, Jan; Hermans, Jo; Timothy, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The policy of the Radiotherapy Department of St. Thomas' Hospital in London for patients with invasive bladder cancer, used to be treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The advantages of this fractionation scheme included reduction of the number of treatment sessions and better use of limited resources. Our results after hypofractionation were compared to series with more conventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between 1975 and 1985, 123 patients with a T2-T3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated by a radical course of hypofractionated radiotherapy. Local control, survival and morbidity rates were analysed retrospectively. Results: The actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 31 and 29%, respectively. The actuarial cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were 48 and 39%, respectively. Acute side effects were observed in 87% of patients. The actuarial overall and severe late complication rates at 5 years were 33 and 9%, respectively. The local control, survival and early side effect rates we found, were in the same range as those reported in literature. Late radiation side effects however, were more common after hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy schedules. Conclusions: We conclude that the potential advantage of a reduced number of treatment sessions may be lost in the long term, because of the higher incidence of late morbidity after hypofractionated radiotherapy. Hypofractionation however, remains a valuable technique for palliation and deserves further investigation for radical treatment where access to equipment is difficult or resources are limited

  11. Cancer occurring after radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can effectively control cancer but can also cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Almost all types of cancer have been associated with radiotherapy. The breast, thyroid, and bone marrow are the organs most susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. The bone marrow is also most frequently involved by chemotherapy and the leukemia risk is much higher than after radiotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. The latent period between radiotherapy/chemotherapy and the appearance of a second primary cancer ranges from a few years to several decades. The risk for a second primary cancer following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for life long follow-up of patients receiving such treatments. This is particularly the case in individuals with long life expectancy, for example, patients treated for childhood neoplasms. The benefits of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncology exceed the risks for second primary cancers. Efforts should be directed towards identifying those patients who will benefit from the treatments so that only they are exposed to the risk. 33 references

  12. Incorporation du coprah et des cuticules de cacao et d'arachide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporation du coprah et des cuticules de cacao et d'arachide dans l'aliment du ( tilapia du nil( ( Oreohromis niloticus , linné, 1758) eleve en etang : Effet sur la croissance et la composition biochimique.

  13. Matere z motnjami v duševnem razvoju

    OpenAIRE

    Kolarič, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    S pregledom tuje literature in že opravljenih raziskav v tujini smo v teoretičnem delu magistrske naloge zajeli značilnosti mater z motnjami v duševnem razvoju, dejavnike, ki vplivajo na uspešnost opravljanja materinske vloge, ter pravice oseb z motnjami v duševnem razvoju do starševstva, v povezavi z zakonodajo na slovenskem. Navedli smo vzroke za omejevanje reprodukcije pri ženskah z motnjami v duševnem razvoju in problematiko odvzema skrbništva materam z motnjami v duševnem razvoju nad otr...

  14. Autonomie du groupe restreint et performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Un groupe est autonome lorsqu'il prend lui-même en charge sa gestion (Abric, 1996 et lorsque celle-ci fonctionne bien. L'autonomie du groupe restreint est une caractéristique revendiquée dans le cadre actuel de l'expansion de dispositifs collaboratifs à distance entre apprenants. La question qui se pose alors est de savoir si un groupe restreint autonome est plus performant qu'un groupe moins autonome. L'autonomie d'un groupe d'apprentissage en ligne est-elle en relation avec la qualité de la réalisation de la tâche ? Est-elle en relation avec les progrès réalisés par les membres du groupe ? Dans le cadre de notre étude expérimentale, menée dans deux dispositifs pédagogiques différents (l'environnement d'apprentissage Babbelnet et une formation sur la plate-forme Acolad, des étudiants ont réalisé en groupes restreints, avec l'accompagnement d'un tuteur, une tâche de type actionnel – en l'occurrence une rédaction en langue étrangère (allemand ou anglais. Pour ce faire, ils disposaient d'aides méthodologiques et linguistiques dans l'environnement pédagogique en ligne. Ils ont interagi par le biais d'Internet au moyen de différents outils de communication. Une analyse de l'interaction qui a eu lieu dans chaque groupe, l'évaluation des rédactions réalisées conjointement, deux tests réalisés respectivement avant et après la phase de travail en groupe ainsi qu'un formulaire auto-administré nous permettent de mettre en lien l'autonomie des groupes, d'une part, et leur performance, voire leur apprentissage, d'autre part. Au vu de cette étude, il apparaît que l'autonomie du groupe n'a pas d'influence directe sur l'apprentissage des groupes restreints. En revanche, un rapport est visible entre l'appréciation du fonctionnement du groupe par ses membres et l'évolution de la performance des groupes.

  15. EQUILIBRE GLYCEMIQUE ET COMPLICATIONS MACROANGIOPATHIQUES DU DIABETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyse BORDIER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available La question de l’efficacité d’un équilibre glycémique optimal dans la prévention des complications macroangiopathiques du diabète a fait l’objet d’une récente polémique. Si les faits sont clairs pour la microangiopathie notamment au cours du diabète de type 1, ils paraissent moins certains pour les complications cardiovasculaires du diabète de type 2. Cette constatation vient de l’intrication des autres facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires qui sont très fréquents chez ces patients. Cependant, les études de suivi sur une longue durée s’inscrivent en faveur de l’intérêt d’un bon équilibre glycémique sur les complications macroangiopathiques. Les résultats négatifs sur la mortalité de l’étude ACCORD et les inquiétudes concernant la rosiglitazone ont conduit à la mise en place d’études sur la sécurité d’utilisation des nouvelles molécules. Tous ces travaux ont abouti à la démonstration de l’absence de risque des iDPP-4 et de l’effet très positif de certaines molécules de la classe des analogues du GLP-1 et des iSGLT2.Il reste à espérer que la récente mise au point de l’Académie de Médecine soulignant que les complications du diabète de type 2 exigent une prévention multifactorielle qui passe obligatoirement par un contrôle optimisé de l'équilibre glycémique mette fin à une polémique inutile et dangereuse pour nos malades.

  16. Visite du Conseil des gouverneurs du CRDI en Afrique de l'Est ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 oct. 2017 ... La délégation dans la communauté La délégation à l'école féminine. La délégation avec les membres du Women's Group. Durant la visite, Jean Lebel et Molapo Qhobela, directeur général de la Fondation nationale de la recherche de l'Afrique du Sud, ont annoncé les projets retenus au Kenya et en ...

  17. Quality Audits In Radiotherapy. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that quality audits constitute a vital component of quality management in radiotherapy [20.1–20.3]. The main reason why quality audits are considered an important activity is that they help to review the quality of radiotherapy services and improve them. Quality audits check whether radiotherapy practices are adequate, i.e. that what should be done is being done; and in case it is not, audits provide recommendations to encourage improvements to be made. Without some form of auditing, it would be difficult to determine whether radiotherapy services are safe and effective for cancer treatment. In other words, a quality audit in radiotherapy is a method of reviewing whether the quality of activities in a radiotherapy department adheres to the standards of good practices to ensure that the treatment to the cancer patient is optimal. Overall, audits lead to improvements of professional practices and the general quality of services delivered. There are many recommendations regarding quality in radiotherapy practice, both national and international. Practices vary depending on the economic level of States, including specific procedures, equipment and facilities, as well as available resources. Good practices evolve with research developments, including new clinical trial results, progress in evidence based medicine and developments in radiotherapy technology. Quality audits involve the process of fact finding and comparing the findings against criteria for good practices in radiotherapy. Various issues and gaps may be identified by the auditors in the audit process, for example insufficiencies in structure, inadequacies in technology or deviations in procedures. This way the weak points or areas of concern are documented and recommendations for the audited centre are formulated that address these areas with the purpose of improving quality.

  18. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  19. Radiotherapy-induced emesis. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Buchali, A.; Hinkelbein, M.; Budach, V.; Zimmermann, J.S.; Titlbach, O.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: A significant number of patients receiving radiotherapy experience the distressing side effects of emesis and nausea. These symptoms are some of the most distressing problems for the patients influencing their quality of life. Methods: International study results concerning radiotherapy-induced emesis are demonstrated. A German multicenter questionnaire examining the strategies to prevent or to treat radiotherapy-induced nausea and emesis is presented. An international analysis concerning incidence of emesis and nausea in fractionated radiotherapy patients is discussed. Finally the consensus of the consensus conference on antiemetic therapy from the Perugia International Cancer Conference V is introduced. Results: Untreated emesis can lead to complications like electrolyte disorders, dehydration, metabolic disturbances and nutrition problems with weight loss. Prophylactic antiemetics are often given to patients receiving single high-dose radiotherapy to the abdomen. A survey has revealed that antiemetic prophylaxis is not routinely offered to the patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy. However, there is a need for an effective treatment of emesis for use in this group of patients, too. In 20% of patients nausea and emesis can cause a treatment interruption because of an inadequate control of symptoms. Like in chemotherapy strategies there exist high, moderate, and low emetogenic treatment regimens in radiotherapy as well. The most emetogenic potential has the total body irradiation followed by radiotherapy to the abdomen. Radiotherapy induced emesis can be treated effectively with conventional antiemetics up to 50%. Conclusions: Studies with total body irradiation, fractionated treatment and high-dose single exposures have cleary demonstrated the value of 5-HT3-receptor antagonist antiemetics. There is a response between 60 and 97%. There is no difference in the efficacy of the different 5-HT3-antagonists. High-risk patients should be prophylactic

  20. Radiotherapy for MTRA/RT; Strahlentherapie fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetter, Christiana [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2012-07-01

    The radiological practice textbook covers the following issues: tumor diseases, tumor diagnostics, fundamentals of radiotherapy, DIN, irradiation planning, documentation and quality assurance, strategies of tumor therapy, basic physics of radiotherapy and dosimetry, radiation protection - regulations and guidelines, radiobiology, biological radiation effects, special organ toxicity, psychological and medical attendance of patients, special oncology of the most important organ carcinomas, palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of benign diseases, other indications of radiotherapy, supportive therapy.

  1. [Use of hypnosis in radiotherapy as an alternative to general anesthesia in pediatric radiation oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Line; Morelle, Magali; Mancini, Sandrine; Duncan, Anita; Sebban, Henri; Carrie, Christian; Marec-Berard, Perrine

    2016-11-01

    General anesthesia (GA) is often needed for radiotherapy (RT) in young children. This study aimed to evaluate the place of the rituals and/or hypnosis in pediatric in a reference center in pediatric radiation oncology in Rhône-Alpes Auvergne. This observational study retrospectively collected data on AG in childrenhypnosis systematically. Explanatory analyses of AG were performed using logistic regression. One hundred and thirty-two children benefited from RT in that period and were included (70 patients until 2008, 62 after 2008). Fifty-three percent were irradiated under GA. There was significant reduction (Phypnosis can be used instead of GA in about half of patients under 5 years, even also with high-technicity RT requiring optimal immobilization. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Hausse du niveau des océans et perte de terres dans le delta du Nil ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    9 juin 2016 ... Au moyen de systèmes d'information géographique (SIG), des chercheurs subventionnés par le CRDI ont déterminé les zones littorales du delta du Nil qui pourraient être touchées par la hausse du niveau des océans. Il pourrait en résulter d'importantes pertes de terres d'ici 2100. Selon les plus récentes ...

  3. Le Silurien du Synclinorium de Moncorvo (NE du Portugal): Biostratigraphie et Importance Paléogéographique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarmiento, G. N.; Picarra, J. M.; Rebelo, J. A.; Robardet, M.; Gutiérrez-Marco, J. C.; Štorch, Petr; Rábano, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (1999), s. 749-767 ISSN 0016-6995 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR Projects 351 et 421 du Programme International de Corrélation Géologique et au Projet Iberian Variscides du programme Europrobe, Projet 061-B0 du Programme de Coopération Scientifique et Technique Franco-Portugais Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.736, year: 1999

  4. Gestion intégrée du mildiou du mil en station au centre régional de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Le mil (Pennicetum glaucum) L.R.Br constitue 75% de la production céréalière du Niger. Cependant, son rendement est très faible dû à plusieurs types de contraintes. La maladie du mildiou du mil causé par un champignon Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc) Schroët, occupe une place importante. L'objectif de cette étude.

  5. Radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaus, M.C.; Neuhof, D.

    2014-01-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma require a differentiated radiotherapy. The irradiation for plasmacytoma with an adequate total dose (medullary 40-50 Gy or extramedullary 50-60 Gy) leads to a high degree of local control with a low rate of side effects. In cases of multiple myeloma radiotherapy will achieve effective palliation, both in terms of recalcification as well as reduction of neurological symptoms and analgesia. In terms of analgesia the rule is the higher the single dose fraction the faster the reduction of pain. As part of a conditioning treatment prior to stem cell transplantation radiotherapy contributes to the establishment of a graft versus myeloma effect (GVM). (orig.) [de

  6. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)

  8. Radiological diagnostics and radiotherapy in Wilms' tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzner, J

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of diagnosing Wilms' tumor correctly have been greatly extended by the introduction of computerised tomography and ultrasonic examination. In view of the fact that Wilms' tumor is subjected to combined treatment involving chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy, it appears justified to reduce the dose to 20-30 Gy, depending upon the age of the child and the extension of the tumor. It is believed that preoperative radiotherapy will yield better surgical possibilities in large tumours. Radiotherapy can be omitted in infants in the stages I and II as well as in children in stage I.

  9. Imaging and concomitant dose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Image guidance in radiotherapy now involves multiple imaging procedures for planning, simulation, set-up inter and intrafraction monitoring. Presently ALARA (i.e. as low as reasonable achievable) is the principle of management of dose to radiation workers and patients in any diagnostic imaging procedures including image guided surgery. The situation is different in repeated radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging performed for simulation, dose planning, patient positioning and set-up corrections during preparation/execution of Image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) as well as for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). Reported imaging and concomitant doses will be highlighted and discussed for the management and optimization of imaging techniques in IMRT and IGRT

  10. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  11. Radiotherapy: an interactive learning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, T.; Kruell, A.; Schmidt, R.; Dobrucki, W.; Malys, B.

    1998-01-01

    The program is primarily intended for radiological medical technicians, student nurses, students of medicine and physics, and doctors. It is designed as a tool for vocational training and further training and gives comprehensive insight into the daily routines of a radiotherapy unit. The chapters deal with: fundamental biological aspects - fundamental physical aspects - radiation sources and irradiation systems - preparatory examinations - therapies and concepts - irradiation planning - irradiation performance - termination of irradiation treatment. For every page displayed, spoken texts and written, on-screen keywords, illustrations, animated sequences and a large number of videos have been combined in a way easy to digest. The software of the program permits handling also by learners less familiar with computer-based learning. (orig./) [de

  12. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  13. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  14. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavere, P.; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A.; Roullet, B.; Morzel, A.; Rhein, B.; Bonnetblanc, J.M.; Olivier, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected

  15. Radiotherapy of malignant eyelid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Chentsova, O.B.; Korshunov, A.I.; Biryukov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Immediate, early and delayed results of short-remote and combined radiotherapy in 348 patients with malignant eyelid neoplasms were presented. A single focal dose was 1.5.-2.5 Gy, an integral dose 45-80 Gy with relation to tumor prevalence and histological strucute. The eyeball was protected with the help of a lead lens (''eye prosthesis'') and a universal tun.gsten membrane. The devices ensured nearly 100% protection of the eyelid against ionizing radiation. Direct clinical cure was noted in 342 patients, partial tumor resorption in 6 patients. Three-year recurrence-free survival was noted in 330 patients (94.8%), five-year survival in 319 (92.8%)

  16. Palliative radiotherapy for multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Toshimi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Uozumi, Hideaki; Takada, Chitose; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1995-01-01

    This study reviews the experience of palliative radiotherapy to patients with multiple myeloma to define the optimal dose for pain relief. The records of 31 patients (66 sites) with multiple myeloma irradiated for palliation at Kumamoto University hospital between 1985 and 1994 were reviewed. Total dose ranged from 8 to 50 Gy, with a mean of 32.2 Gy. Symptoms included pain (78.1%), neurological abnormalities (28.1%), and palpable masses (34.3%). Symptomatic remission was obtained in 45 of 46 evaluable sites (97.8%). Complete remission of symptoms were obtained in 28.3%, and partial remission in 69.6%. According to fraction size, there was no significant difference between 3-5 Gy and 1.8-2 Gy. The incidence of complete remission increased when a total dose of more than 20 Gy was given. When the quality of life is considered, hypofractionation was recommended for the palliative radiation therapy of multiple myeloma. (author)

  17. Radiotherapy for early rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A literature review of 10 series using electrocoagulation, fulguration, or local excision demonstrates that about 70% of all patients had tumors smaller than 3 cm and the remainder had tumors measuring between 4 cm and 7 cm. Although primary tumor size in rectal cancer has little prognostic value per se, it is obviously important when determining the appropriateness of local therapy. Selecting patients for local therapy based on tumor size alone seems reasonable, since the recurrence and survival rates for the patients are similar to those achieved with radical surgery. Since patients treated with local excision alone have predominantly T1 or T2 tumors, a comparison with the data of others illustrates the prognostic utility of the degree of bowel penetration and shows five-year survival rates of 71% to 76% for patients with limited disease. In this chapter, the author describes an additional group of patients who also did well following postoperative radiotherapy after conservative surgical treatment

  18. Tomodensitometry images: integration in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessy, F; Hoornaert, M T [Jolimont Hospital, Haine Saint Paul (France). Cancer and Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Malchair, F [Biomed Engineering, Boncelles (France)

    1995-12-01

    With a view to utilization of CT scan images in radiotherapy, the effective energy and the linearity of four different scanners (Siemens somatom CR, HiQS, Plus and Picker PQ 2000) and two non standard scanners, simulators with CT option (Webb 1990) (Varian Ximatron and Oldelft Simulx CT) has been measured using the method described by White and Speller in 1980. When the linearity relation in presented using the density or the electron density as the abscissa, a blurred area where two different components of equal density or electron density can have two different Hounsfield`s numbers. Using the linearity relation, the density of Rando`s lung heterogeneity is determined. We calculated a treatment planning (TP) using this value and made a comparison between the TP and the real absorbed dose with was measured using diodes. The comparison between the TP and the relative Absorbed doses showed a difference of up to 4.5%.

  19. Evolution of radiotherapy at MOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passi, Kamalesh

    2016-01-01

    Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Institute was started by Oswals, a philanthropist family of industrialists, in the memory of their mother Smt Mohan Dai Oswal, who died of cancer. This was the first of its kind charitable institute in the private sector in north providing comprehensive cancer care under one roof. The large number of patients that the hospital attracted in the very first year revealed the huge lacuna in cancer care that had been existent in the region. Since then this hospital has been catering to all of Punjab, Himachal, J and K and a large area of Haryana. It has built a reputation for high-tech, yet cost-effective, care. There are multiple dimensions to the evolution of Radiotherapy at MDOH- build-up of technical hardware, growth of skilled personnel, laying down and development of protocols and processes and the evolution of a unique work culture

  20. Intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akira; Iida, Koyo; Sato, Shigehiro; Sakata, Suo

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with pancreatic carcinoma, 23 (82 %) of whom had Stage III or IV, received intraoperative radiotherapy (IOR) with curative or non-curative surgery. Electron beams (10 to 18 MeV) with doses of 20 to 40 Gy were delivered to the tumor. Eight of 26 patients with unresectable tumor had postoperative external irradiation of 10.5 to 50 Gy. Abdominal and back pain relief was achieved after IOR in 12 (71 %) and in 6 (60 %) of the 26 patients, respectively. Appetite was promoted in 11 patients. In the case of unresectable carcinoma, survival time tended to prolong in the 8 patients receiving both IOR and postoperative external irradiation. One patient developed perforation of the colon probably caused by IOR. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Proton radiotherapy of skin carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Y.; Uyeno, K.; Otsuka, F.

    1994-01-01

    At the Proton Medical Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, a pilot study of proton-beam radiotherapy was performed in 12 patients with the following types of carcinoma: Bowen's disease (4), oral verrucous carcinoma (5), and squamous cell carcinoma (3). They received total doses of 51-99.2 Gy in fractions of 2-12.5 Gy. All tumours responded well to the treatment. All four lesions of Bowen's disease, three of the five oral verrucous carcinomas, and the three squamous cell carcinomas completely regressed following irradiation. Two squamous cell carcinomas recurred during the follow-up period. One recurrent squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated by a salvage surgical operation, and in the other case the patient refused further therapy. In two verrucous carcinomas there was 90% regression of tumour volume. No severe radiation-related complication occurred. (Author)

  2. Stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Daisne, J.F.; Thillays, F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is now well implanted in the radiotherapy treatment tools of brain metastasis. The dose can be delivered in one or multiple sessions. Results seem equivalent. CT scan and MRI imaging are required to delineate and calculate dosimetry. Doses are variable according to the size of the metastases, localization, pathology or equipment. Stabilization or reduction of tumour size is the rules after stereotactic treatment. Impact in terms of overall survival is more difficult to apprehend because of the general context of the disease. Many questions remain unresolved, such as the usefulness of whole brain irradiation, adaptation of the treatment schedule to tumour pathophysiology, role of stereotactic treatment after surgery of metastases, etc. (authors)

  3. Radiogenomics and radiotherapy response modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, Issam; Kerns, Sarah L.; Coates, James; Luo, Yi; Speers, Corey; West, Catharine M. L.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.

  4. Progrès de la connaissance du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi de 1993 à 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cette chronique, la vingt et unième d’une série qui a commencé avec l’année 1949, couvre la période 1993-2008 et a pour objectif de faire le point sur les progrès réalisés sur la connaissance du Congo (République démocratique du Congo, du Rwanda et du Burundi, dans le domaine de la géographie mais aussi dans les domaines des sciences naturelles et des sciences humaines qui peuvent fournir des données utiles ou indispensables aux géographes. Chaque référence bibliographique, livre ou article, est accompagnée d’un bref commentaire qui en retient les éléments principaux et surtout les faits ou les idées qui intéressent particulièrement les géographes. L’article comporte onze chapitres dont les plus importants concernent le milieu naturel, la géographie de la santé, la démographie, l’histoire (y compris l’histoire récente, la vie sociale et économique des campagnes traditionnelles et modernes, le secteur informel, les aspects de la vie urbaine. Les événements dramatiques qui se sont produits dans ces territoires africains au cours des quinze dernières années ont rendu la recherche sur le terrain particulièrement difficile tant pour les chercheurs nationaux que pour les chercheurs étrangers, ce qui se traduit notamment par une part de plus en plus importante des recherches menées en milieu urbain.This paper, the 21st issue of an edition of books and paper reviews on the knowledge of three countries of former Belgian Africa (DR Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi, covers the period 1993-2008. A short text for each reference points out the facts or ideas that are useful for geographers. The paper is composed of eleven sections. The most important are coping with the natural environment, health geography, population geography, history (including recent events, social and economic life in traditional and modern rural areas, informal economy, and urban geography. During the last sixteen years, conditions for field

  5. Postoperative radiotherapy for intracranial meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ha Chung; Lee, Myung Za

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of postoperative external radiotherapy for patients with intracranial meningiomas. The records of thirty three patients with intracranial meningiomas who were treated with postoperative external irradiation at our institution between Feb, 1988 and Nov, 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Median age of patients at diagnosis was 53 years with range of 17 to 68 years. Sites of involvement were parasagital, cerebral convexity, sphenoid ridge, parasellar and tentorium cerebella. Of 33 evaluated patients, 15 transitional, 10 meningotheliomatous, 4 hemangiopericytic, 3 atypical and 1 malignant meningioma were identified. Four patients underwent biopsy alone and remaining 29 patients underwent total tumor resection. A dose of 50 to 60 Gy was delivered in 28-35 daily fractions over a period of 5 to 7 weeks. Follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 8 years. The actuarial survival rates at 5 and 7 years for entire group of patients were 78% and 67%, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival rates were 73% and 61 %, respectively. The overall local control rate at 5 years was 83%. One out of 25 patients in benign group developed local failure, while 4 out of 8 patients in malignant group did local failure (p <0.05), Of 4 patients who underwent biopsy alone, 2 developed local failure. There was no significant difference in 5 year actuarial survival between patients who underwent total tumor resection and those who did biopsy alone. Patients whose age is under 60 showed slightly better survival than those whose age is 60 or older, although this was not statistically significant. There was no documented late complications in any patients. Based on our study, we might conclude that postoperative external beam radiotherapy tends to improve survival of patients with intracranial meningiomas comparing with surgery alone

  6. Pregnancy and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy is relatively uncommon but breast cancer is one of the most common malignancy occur with pregnancy. Prescribed doses of radiotherapy are significantly higher than those of diagnostic procedures. Fetal exposure and damage can occur during radiotherapy within target area. Because of those risks, radiotherapy during pregnancy is basically has to avoid. Even though, feral damage depends on fetal dose and has some threshold dose. Practically, even in stochastic effect, there are some minimal doses. A most important point is careful estimation of fetal dose before radiation. The physician has to inform the patient about risk and benefit of radiotherapy to fetus and to mother and have an ethical balance to help the mother and family to make a final decision. (author)

  7. Radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Immediate results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, M.V.; Silveira Filho, L.; Martorelli Filho, B.

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with advanced breast cancer were submited to local radiotherapy of the affected regions. The response of 155 metastatic lesions are recorded. Early results are good, with objective and functional clinical improvement [pt

  8. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  9. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  10. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  11. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author)

  12. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)

    1993-02-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  13. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  14. Urological sequelae following radiotherapy of gynecological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, M.; Jacob, J.; Burgkhardt, C.

    1983-01-01

    After radiotherapy of malign tumors of the female genitals early and late radiation effects, resp. of the urogenital system may arise. Reversible as well as irreversible radiation injuries appear and very often develop fistulae of different kinds

  15. Radiological protection and its organization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    By means of a research carried out in Radiotherapy Centers in Mexico City, divided in 7 public institutions and 5 private, aspects related to the radiological safety and its organization in radiotherapy were evaluated. The population being studied was: medical and technical personnel, that works in the selected radiotherapy centers. The survey was made with 36 dichotomic variables, being obtained 90 surveys. The personnel characteristics are: 76% works for more than 3 years in radiotherapy, 93% has updated information about radiological protection, 67% knows the general radiological safety regulations, 93% knows the radiological emergency project and 95% makes use of personal dosemeter. As result of this research we found that the main problems that the radiological protection have are: lack of personnel training in radiological protection, although the 93% states to have updated information, the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Geographic delivery models for radiotherapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.H.; Dunscombe, P.B.; Samant, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The study described here was undertaken to quantify the societal cost of radiotherapy in idealized urban and rural populations and, hence, to generate a measure of impediment to access. The costs of centralized, distributed comprehensive and satellite radiotherapy delivery formats were examined by decomposing them into institutional, productivity and geographical components. Our results indicate that centralized radiotherapy imposes the greatest financial burden on the patient population in both urban and rural scenarios. The financial burden faced by patients who must travel for radiotherapy can be interpreted as one component of the overall impediment to access. With advances in remote-monitoring systems, it is possible to maintain technical quality while enhancing patient access. However, the maintenance of professional competence will remain a challenge with a distributed service-delivery format. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Stereotactic body radiotherapy a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gaya, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Collecting the key information in this burgeoning field into a single volume, this handbook for clinical oncology trainees and consultants covers all of the basic aspects of stereotactic radiotherapy systems and treatment and includes plenty of case studies.

  18. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  19. Radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Immediate results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, M V; Silveira Filho, L; Martorelli Filho, B [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with advanced breast cancer were submited to local radiotherapy of the affected regions. The response of 155 metastatic lesions are recorded. Early results are good, with objective and functional clinical improvement.

  20. Radiotherapy. Radiological oncology. Strahlentherapie. Radiologische Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, E [ed.; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum

    1976-01-01

    This book attempts to give a survey of the present status of radiological tumour therapy with some emphasis on the clinical aspect of neoplasms. The physical and radiobiological fundamentals important for practical radiotherapy are discussed in great detail.

  1. Un Genevois coopte a la tete du Front islamique du salut

    CERN Multimedia

    Merckling, N

    2002-01-01

    "Le Front islamique du salut (FIS), a nomme a la tete de ce parti fondamentaliste un resident genevois, Mourad Dhani, chois parmi trois candidats. Ce physicien algerien est arrive a Geneve il y a 14 ans pour travailler au CERN (1 page).

  2. La ministre Bibeau annonce la nomination du président du CRDI et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    il y a 5 jours ... ... et chargé de cours associé à l'Université Griffith de South East Queensland, en Australie. Ancien professeur adjoint auxiliaire à la School of International and Public Affairs de l'Université Columbia, à New York; et ancien chercheur du Centre international pour la recherche en agroforesterie, à Nairobi.

  3. 73 Utilisation du SIG pour une réorganisation urbaine du centre-ville ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TOHOZIN

    restructuration des routes, du chemin de fer, des bâtis et des cours d'eaux. ... aussi la réalisation d'une mappe foncière qui est un instrument capital en matière ..... confirmer que le SIG, en tant qu'outil de décision et de planification a ...

  4. Résultats du traitement chirurgical des traumatismes du rachis à l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    incomplète était prédictive de bon pronostic P< 0,001. Les traumatismes du rachis cervical sont des urgences neurologiques qui mettent en jeu le pronostic vital et fonctionnel des patients. Mots clés : Traumatisme, rachis, traitement. The purpose of this series was to describe the results of surgical treatment of spinal injury.

  5. ETUDE DU COMPORTEMENT MECANIQUE DU BETON CELLULAIRE AUTOCLAVE PRODUIT EN ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R BELOUETTAR

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail présente une étude expérimentale du comportement mécanique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. L’étude est portée essentiellement sur une série d’essais mécaniques en compression quasistatique à différentes vitesses de déformation variables entre 10-4 s-1 et 10 s-1 et à deux états différents (état sec et état saturé d’eau. En général, l’augmentation de la vitesse de déformation donne une augmentation de la contrainte critique du béton cellulaire autoclavé. Le béton cellulaire autoclavé présente une sensibilité à la vitesse de déformation positive. La valeur du module d’élasticité est proche de la valeur standard (1.5 GPa pour un béton cellulaire autoclavé de masse volumique égale à 500-550 kg/m3.

  6. La reconstruction du sourcil par greffon composite du cuir chevelu: une astuce pour faciliter la technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Omari, Mounia; El Mazouz, Samir; Gharib, Noureddine; EL Abbassi, Abdallah

    2015-01-01

    Les sourcils jouent un rôle important dans l’équilibre esthétique du visage. Leur reconstruction ou ophriopoïése, après séquelle de brûlure fait partie intégrante du programme de réhabilitation de la face brûlée. Plusieurs techniques ont été décrites. Nous insistons ici sur l'intérêt d'une technique simple, à la portée de tous les chirurgiens, et dont la méthode et les résultats peuvent être améliorés par un dessin bien planifié des zones donneuse et receveuse: la greffe composite prélevée au niveau du cuir chevelu dessinée à l'aide d'un calque du sourcil controlatéral. PMID:26401195

  7. Lignes directrices du CRDI pour la préparation du rapport technique

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    fdieudonne

    l'accord de subvention et doivent faire partie de tout rapport hébergé dans la ... questions de nature délicate ou confidentielle doivent être traitées par un échange .... les innovations relevant des sciences, de la recherche ou du savoir;.

  8. L'aventure du grand collisionneur LHC du big bang au boson de Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Denegri, Daniel; Hoecker, Andreas; Roos, Lydia; Rubbia, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Qu'est-ce que la physique des particules élémentaires, le LHC, et le boson de Higgs ? Ce livre présente de manière simple le monde des quarks, des leptons et de leurs interactions, gouvernées par des symétries fondamentales de la nature, ainsi que le lien entre ce monde de l'infiniment petit et celui de l'infiniment grand. Cette conjonction entre la physique des particules élémentaires et l'évolution de la matière dans les premiers instants de l Univers qui ont suivi le Big-Bang est un des plus beaux acquis de la science de ces cinquante dernières années. Après une description du cadre théorique, le modèle standard, et de son élaboration durant la deuxième moitié du XXe siècle, l'accent est mis sur ses grands succès expérimentaux, mais aussi sur ses faiblesses ou insuffisances telles que nous les percevons aujourd'hui. La passionnante histoire du grand collisionneur de hadrons du CERN, le LHC, le plus grand projet purement scientifique jamais réalisé, est présentée à la fois sous ses...

  9. Une brève histoire du temps du Big Bang aux trous noirs

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Stephen Hawking est universellement reconnu comme l'un des plus grands cosmologistes de notre époque et l'un des plus brillants physiciens depuis Einstein. Successeur de Newton, il occupe à l'université de Cambridge la chaire de Mathématiques, et s'est rendu célèbre pour ses travaux sur les origines de l'Univers. Une brève histoire du temps est le premier livre qu'il ait décidé d'écrire pour le non-spécialiste. Il y expose, dans un langage simple et accessible, les plus récents développements de l'astrophysique concernant la nature du temps et du monde. Retraçant les grandes théories du cosmos, de Galilée et Newton à Einstein et Poincaré, racontant les ultimes découvertes de l'espace, expliquant la nature des trous noirs, il propose ensuite de relever le plus grand défi de la science moderne : la recherche d'une théorie unitaire combinant et unifiant la relativité générale et la mécanique quantique. On sait que Stephen Hawking lutte depuis plus de trente ans contre une maladie neurolo...

  10. Harmful effects of DU in the offspring of the military personnel employed in DU contaminated regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlagic, N.; Lisov, Lj.; Barjaktarovic, V.; Djurovic, B.; Spasic, Jokic V.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1999, during the NATO attacks on Kosovo, from AT-10 aircraft has been shot over 50000 30-mm projectiles which contained approximately 15 tones of DU. Besides DU, projectiles contained products of DU radioactive decay as well as americium, neptunium, plutonium and technetium. Due to DU contamination military personnel employed near hit targets could be contaminated and irradiated. Besides the harmful effects in exposed military personnel, harmful effects were noticed in their offsprings, too. DU can cause genetic and teratogenic harmful effects in the embryos/fetus. It is concentrated in semen of contaminated males and also can contaminate the embryo/fetus through placenta. DU, as a toxic and radioactive element, can cause variety of harmful effects, but the most important are the effects on DNA which are the cause of many diseases. The aim of this paper is to examine is there any change in the incidence in heritable effects, congenital malformations, malignant diseases, endocrine and immune disorders. For that reason we compared the incidence of these diseases in the offspring's of military personnel born from 1995-1999 (1204) with the children born from 2000-2004 (1131) / and 2005-2008. Our results showed higher incidence of congenital malformations and chromosomal abnormalities (12.55 % vs 4.57 %), with highest incidence of foot deformity-52.04 % and hip deformity. These abnormalities were followed with immunological disorders and dysfunction of the urine bladder. Endocrine diseases were increased too(2.16 % :1.63 %). In this period higher incidence of malignant diseases was not noticed, but in the second period (from 5-9 year) after 1999, higher incidence of malignant hematological diseases was noticed, as well as Down Sy. During the conflicts future parents as well as embryo/fetus are exposed to many harmfulness and it is very hard to separate the influence of each. Considering the fact that the effects of DU, could be delayed and synergistic with

  11. Suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Geneviève; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Offrir aux médecins de famille un résumé des recommandations fondées sur les données probantes pour guider les soins aux survivantes traitées pour le cancer du sein. Qualité des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE entre 2000 et 2016 à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines et survivorship care plans, en se concentrant sur la revue des lignes directrices publiées récemment par les organismes nationaux de cancérologie. Les données étaient de niveaux I à III. Message principal Les soins aux survivantes comportent 4 facettes : surveillance et dépistage, prise en charge des effets à long terme, promotion de la santé et coordination des soins. La surveillance des récidives ne se traduit que par une mammographie annuelle, et le dépistage d’autres cancers doit suivre les lignes directrices basées sur la population. La prise en charge des effets à long terme du cancer et de son traitement aborde des problèmes courants tels la douleur, la fatigue, le lymphœdème, la détresse et les effets indésirables des médicaments, de même que les préoccupations à long terme comme la santé du cœur et des os. La promotion de la santé met en relief les bienfaits de l’activité chez les survivantes du cancer, avec l’accent mis sur l’activité physique. Les soins aux survivantes sont de meilleure qualité lorsque divers services et professionnels de la santé participent aux soins, et le médecin de famille joue un rôle important dans la coordination des soins. Conclusion Les médecins de famille sont de plus en plus souvent les principaux fournisseurs de soins de suivi après le traitement du cancer du sein. Le cancer du sein doit être considéré comme une affection médicale chronique, même chez les femmes en rémission, et les patientes profitent de la même approche que celle utilisée pour les autres affections chroniques en

  12. Atomic and molecular data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1989-03-01

    This is the summary report of the First Research Co-ordination Meeting of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Atomic and Molecular Data for Radiotherapy, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna, from 30 January to 2 February 1989. The main objectives of the CRP are to generate, compile and evaluate the important atomic and molecular data relevant to radiotherapy. (author). 38 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankina, V.Kh.; Sarkisyan, Yu.KH.

    1978-01-01

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  14. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author)

  15. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H. [Inje Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, H. L.; Shon, S. C. [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author).

  16. 31-P NMR spectroscopy in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Beyer, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results suggest 31-P NMR spectroscopy to allow a discrimination between good and bad blood supply to the tumour owing to different metabolic behaviour and to furnish important information on tumour response to radiotherapy just a few hours after the application of a relatively low dose. Spectroscopy showed the radiation-sensitive tumour cells to behave relatively uniformly after radiotherapy suggesting this behaviour to be interpreted as therapeutical effectiveness. (orig./SHA) [de

  17. Implementation of patients radiation protection in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridal, I.; Klaclova, T.; Novotny, J.; Zackova, H.

    1998-01-01

    Current status of quality assurance programmes in the Czech Republic is highlighted and the structure of quality audits is explained. The results of radiotherapy department auditing are given in a tabular form. It is shown that deviations from tolerable levels are mostly due to obsolete equipment and lack of health physicists at radiotherapy departments. The audits can help rectify the situation in part at least. (P.A.)

  18. Acute myocardial infarction after mediastinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Juan; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel; Avalos, Adolfo; Sarubbi, Augusto; Padilla, Lucio; Espinosa, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Mediastinal radiotherapy can affect the heart and great vessels to different degrees. It may turn up as coronary heart disease and less frequently as acute myocardial infarction. We report the case of a patient without coronary risk factors and an antecedent of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Considerations about mediastinal radiation as a risk factor for early development of coronary heart diseases are exposed. (author) [es

  19. MR-only Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maspero, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a local approach that involves the use of ionising radiation by exploiting its cell-killing effect to cure cancer. This effect, however, is not specific to damage only cancerous cells and spare healthy cells. Therefore, developments in radiotherapy aimed at reducing treatment uncertainties such that therapeutic radiation dose may be delivered to a malignant tumour while decreasing the dose received by healthy tissues. The recent advances in imaging techniques impacted and radi...

  20. Value of radiotherapy of gastric carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiotherapy of gastric carcinoma, in contrast to malignant lymphoma, is not commonly in use, until today. Provided that there is a close cooperation between surgeons and radiooncologists, radiotherapy with sufficient, tolerable doses should be considered in any case of complete resection in order to improve the control of subclinical disease as well as cure from cancer. But also in non-resectable carcinoma of the stomach suitable radiotherapeutic approaches may give helpful palliation. (orig.) [de