WorldWideScience

Sample records for radiosterilization

  1. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Radiosterilization and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.A.; Gruenewald, T.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a survey of the principles of cold sterilization by radiation or gas, and also of the problems involved. The reader who has to do with sterilization of some kind or other, as e.g. sterilization of medicaments, medical supplies, medical device, drugs, grafts, or food, will find comprehensive information on the various available methods and their effects, as well as on monitoring procedures and techniques, together with proposals for efficient documentation and validation of partial sterilization processes. The introduction summarizes the potentials of sterilization by radiation, and the subsequent by radiation, and the subsequent chapters explain the specific applicabilities of radiosterilization along with the most important criteria for evaluating the sterilizing efficiency. The information on the legal situation and requirements takes into account the second amendment of the Medical Preparations Act. With 38 figs., 14 tabs [de

  3. Sera radiosterilization: studies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, Severino C.

    2000-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation for sterilization of animal serum increased rapidly over the last few years, due to the fact that most radiation-resistant living organisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.) can be readily inactivated without damage to the serum. The quality of sera sterilized by ionizing radiation has been investigated. Radiosterilization was carried out in the frozen state at doses between 25 and 50 kGy. The source of gamma radiation was cobalt 60. To demonstrate that serum proteins did not suffer alterations during the process of irradiation, SDS-PAGE, electrofocusing and non equilibrium pH gradient electrophoresis of the sera were carried out before and after irradiation. The biological efficiency of the irradiated sera was demonstrated by growth curves of several cell lines in cell cultures supplemented with it. The results demonstrated that radiosterilization is a simple and effective method for sera. (author)

  4. Present studies on the radiosterilized drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniec, B.; Dettlaff, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation

  5. Radiosterilization of medical products, pharmaceuticals and bioproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    A Panel on the Radiosterilization of Medical Products, Pharmaceuticals and Bioproducts was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency on 17-19 January 1966 at its headquarters in Vienna. The purpose of the meeting was to survey the activities of the Member States in this field with a view to preparing the way for an international code of practice for the radiosterilization of medical products, in conformity with existing legal international rules. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Radiolysis and radiosterilization of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, F.; Crucq, A.S.; Gibella, M.; Tilquin, B.

    1993-01-01

    Can the absence of increased toxicological danger in irradiated foods be applied with confidence to drugs. The World Health Organization stated that up to 10 kGy there is no toxicological hazard. However, even if the irradiated drugs meet official standards, it would have to be established that any traces of radiolysis product formed are not toxic. All the tests from PHARMACOPEIA are not appropriate to detect the radiolysis and new physicochemical tests have to be used. Chromatographic detection of the radiosterilization of antibiotics may be advantageously used when the pharmaceuticals are not radio-resistant. The main obstacle to practical application is the low sensitivity of the detectors in liquid-liquid chromatography, a re-irradiation of the suspected samples will be necessary after preliminary chromatographic studies. 8 figs

  7. Economic aspects of radiosterilization; Aspekty ekonomiczne sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The economic analysis of radiosterilization have been done. The costs have been estimated on the example of Electron Accelerator Irradiation Plant for Radiosterilization working in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw. 3 tabs.

  8. Progress of radiosterilization in the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, E.E.; Mugliaroli, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    The technological and economic advantages of radiation as a means of sterilization have led to a steady expansion of its use. With the significant increase in the radiosterilization of medical products, the health authorities have established standards for the use of radiation for that purpose. These standards will be incorporated in the next edition of the Argentine Pharmacopoeia. In general, Argentine legislation in this area is based on the IAEA's Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products. The microbiology services of Argentina's National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) determine the number of viable microorganisms in each product and package the product before irradiation. The controls are carried out on random samples. At the same time, the chemistry laboratories carry out quality controls on new products which have received sterilizing doses of gamma radiation. The gas sterilization methods employed most widely in the industrial manufacture of thermolabile products involve the use of ethylene oxide or formaldehyde. The cost of this process is influenced considerably by the fact that Argentina has to import ethylene oxide. The low penetrating power of formaldehyde means that the package containing the product must still be open at the time of sterilization if an adequate safety margin is to be ensured; consequently, one needs sterile installations for the post-irradiation sealing of packages. The capital and operating coats of such installations are high. A comparison has been made of the costs of sterilizing 11000 m 3 of a product with a density of 0.1 g/cm 3 and the following relative values obtained: ethylene oxide, 399.2; formaldehyde, 947.5; gamma radiation, 166.0. Studies of the effects of sterilizing doses on certain pharmaceutical products have demonstrated that the radiosterilization of some drugs is possible. The CNEA has designed an installation for the radiosterilization of medical products; the installation would have a 500000-Ci

  9. Electron accelerators for radiosterilization; Akceleratory elektronow dla potrzeb sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The applications of electron accelerators in commercial plants for radiosterilization have been shown. Advantages of such irradiation source have been presented. The types and parameters of accelerators being installed in worldwide irradiation plants for radiosterilization have been listed as well. 2 tabs.

  10. Effects of Radiosterilization on Sealed Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandula, E.L.; Farkas, E.; Rácz, I.

    1967-01-01

    For aqueous solutions sensitive to heat,and in connection with the use of plastic ampoules, the need for applying radiosterilization is growing. Studying the possibilities of radiosterilization, experiments were made with the following: 0.1% atropine, 1.0% morphine, and 2% lidocain in aqueous solutions. The aim of the work was to establish whether the active ingredients of the injections suffer decomposition or not, to study the factors influencing the degradation and, furthermore, to make attempts to prevent decomposition. The samples were irradiated by 420 Ci 60 Co γ-radiation source. The applied doses were 1 to 2.5 Mrad, with a 10 4 to 2.5 x 10 5 rad/h dose intensity. After irradiation the change in colour, pH-value, concentration and UV-spectra were studied. Changes of the last three types were found. Studying the factors influencing decomposition it has been found that the degree of degradation was increased by the increase of radiation dose, increase of concentration, decrease of dose intensity, and increase of oxygen content in the atmosphere over the solution. Attempts were made to prevent degradation. Solutions were prepared with sulphite, ascorbic acid, and AET, and some measure of success was achieved, especially with the sulphite addition. (author)

  11. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniec, B.; Dettlaff, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation

  12. International regulations concerning radiosterilization; Aktualne przepisy miedzynarodowe dotyczace sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluska, I [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    European norms (EN 552) and international regulations (ISO 11137) concerning commercial radiosterilization have been described. Licensing of irradiation installation as well as sterilization procedure requirements, and routine control have been discussed in detail. 3 refs.

  13. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuglik, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs

  14. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization; Zagadnienia mikrobiologiczne w sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniawski, E [Lodz Univ. (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs.

  15. Radio-sterilization and processing of frozen human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld G, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The Laboratory of Radio-sterilized Biological Tissues Processing (LPTR) belonging to the Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency have played a paramount role in our country, concerning the biological tissue processing, which can be radio-sterilized as human skin, pig skin, amniotic membrane, human bone and bovine bone. The frozen radio.-sterilized human skin processing began in 2001, by means of putting into practice the knowledge acquired in training courses through the IAEA and the experience transferred by experts who visited our laboratory. The human skin processing of dead donor can be divided into 6 stages: a) Profuse washing with physiological sterilized serum in to remove the microorganisms, chemical and pharmacological compounds; b) immersion in glycerol solution at 10% to better keep the stored tissues; c) packing, to avoid post manipulation of the sterilized tissue; d) microbiological controls which allow and guarantee a sterility assurance level of 10 6 ; e) radio-sterilization, technique that consists of exposing the grafts to electromagnetic gamma waves which eliminate the microorganisms of the tissue, f) and finally, dispatching and liberation of the frozen sterilized human skin for its clinical use in different centers that take care of burned people. The LPTR receives feedback from surgeons who have used these tissues in order to improve the processing stages based in an integral quality system ISO 9001.2000. The State Health System in our country counts on limited and scarce resources to implement synthetic substitutes that is why It is considered necessary to spread the use of these noble tissues which have sterility assurance and they are processed at low price

  16. ESR measurements and the detection of radiosterilization of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibella, M.; Crucq, A.S.; Tilquin, B.

    1993-01-01

    The ESR spectrum of trapped radicals in irradiated solid antibiotics could permit the detection of the radiosterilization. The ESR signal is detected only after radiolysis; at room temperature, this ESR spectrum is observable for a few hours or until several years. The rate of the metathesis reactions can be fast or very slow, the reaction path is unknown,. However, in many cases, the polycrystalline solid phase exhibits its ability to keep radicals for a long period of time and the detection of the radiolysis is possible during this period. 10 figs., 1 tab

  17. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmbold, J.

    1994-01-01

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  18. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs; Aktualny stan badan nad lekami sterylizowanymi radiacyjnie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciniec, B; Dettlaff, K [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation.

  19. Requirements concerning radiosterilization process organization; Wymagania dotyczace organizacji procesu sterylizacji radiacyjnej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluska, I [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Administrative procedure connecting for licensing new materials or consumer products appropriated to radiosterilization have been performed and explained. Also the organization of irradiation process for attaining the proper result have been described in detail. 4 refs, 1 tab.

  20. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-15

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  1. Radiosterilization of Medical Products and Recommended Code of Practice. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Proceedings of a Symposium organized by the IAEA and held in Budapest, 5-9 June 1967, together with the IAEA recommended 'Code of Practice for Radiosterilization of Medical Products' resulting from a panel meeting held in Vienna, December 1966, and considered at the Symposium. The meeting was attended by 160 participants from 25 Member States and 3 international organizations. The commercial use of ionizing radiation for sterilizing medical supplies extends back to the early 1960s. The ability of the process to sterilize products made of materials such as plastics, which are destroyed by traditional sterilization procedures, has promoted much new thinking in product design. Most important is the ability of the radiation to sterilize items finally sealed and packed for dispatch, eliminating risk of recontamination. Some new fields of research are discussed in the Proceedings. The Code of Practice, drawn up by experts at several meetings, is aimed at producing uniform, safe procedures throughout the world, facilitating international trade in radiosterilized products. Contents: Introductory lecture; Radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals and bioproducts (12 papers); Radiosterilization of biological tissues (6 papers); Vaccine production by ionizing radiation (5 papers); Radiosterilization of medical devices and supplies (4 papers); Radiosensitivity of micro-organisms and microbiological testing (4 papers); Technical and economic aspects of radiosterilization (6 papers); Code of practice for radiosterilization (full code and 1 review paper). The Code of Practice is in English. Each paper is in its original language (29 English, 5 French, 4 Russian and 1 Spanish) and is preceded by an abstract in English with one in the original language if this is not English. Discussions are in English. (author)

  2. Criteria for permission of radiosterilized products to application in medicine; Zasady dopuszczania wyrobow sterylizowanych radiacyjnie do stosowania w medycynie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmatowicz, T [Instytut Lekow, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    The criteria being used in Poland for permission of radiosterilized medical materials to commercial application result from regulations being in force. The international regulations are also taken into account. The all criteria and procedure needed for any product become accepted for radiosterilization and commercial medical use have been presented and discussed. 1 tab.

  3. Radiosterilization of Tissues Preserved for Clinical Purposes: Effect on Tissue Antigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowski, K.; Kossowska, B.; Moskalewski, S.; Komender, A.; Kurnatowski, W.

    1967-01-01

    The first part of the paper contains practical considerations on the radiosterilization of preserved human bone, human and calf cartilage, cow’s fascia and aponeurosis, based on material from the Tissue Bank which produces about 2500 transplants yearly. The method of preservation and packing of each type of tissue is mentioned briefly. The preserved tissues are irradiated in a cobalt bomb or in a nuclear reactor. The conditions of irradiation and the control of sterility are described. The advantages and disadvantages of radiosterilization are discussed on the basis of the authors’ own experience and clinical reports of surgeons using radiosterilized tissues in practice. In the second part of the paper, experimental studies on the influence of freezing, lyophilization and radiosterilization on tissue antigenicity are reported. The regional lymph node reacts to an antigenic stimulus by an increased production of large, pyroninophylic cells, so-called ''blast'' cells. The rabbits used as recipients received grafts of allogeneic cancellous bone, fresh or subjected to different experimental procedures. Smears from lymph node cell suspension were prepared and the percentage of blast cells was estimated. On the basis of the lymph node response, it appears that freezing and lyophilization, as well as radiosterilization, may abolish the antigenicity of cancellous bone. The practical implication of these results for methods of preservation of tissues for clinical purposes is discussed. (author)

  4. Radiosterilization and steam autoclaving sterilization effects on phosphite antioxidant stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagoubi, N.; Boucherie, P.; Ferrier, D.

    1997-01-01

    While the radiosterilization by γ rays, is mainly employed for medical devices, this procedure is not commonly used to sterilize and decontaminate raw material and finished product used in the pharmaceutical industry. Depending on the countries, the requirements for obtaining approval to treat this class of product with γ rays may be different. Usually it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to demonstrate not only the integrity of the irradiated product, but olso its efficiency, safety and quality. Our work consists of a comparative study of the effects of γ radiotreatment at 25 kGy and steam sterilisation on phosphite antioxidant incorporated in polypropylene. The γ radiosensitivity compared with thermolability of this antioxidant was studied by reversed phase HPLC, Fourier transform infrared (IRFT) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained proved that the phosphite incorporated into the polymer and treated with the two types of sterilisation is rapidly oxidized in phosphate. Nevertheless, this oxidation is more important when using radiotreatment at 25 kGy. (orig.)

  5. Radiosterilization dosimetry by electron-spin resonance spectroscopy. Cefotetan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basly, J.P.; Longy, I.; Bernard, M.

    1998-01-01

    As an alternative to heat and gas exposure sterilization, ionizing radiation is gaining interest as a sterilization process for medicinal products. Nevertheless, essentially for economic profit, unauthorized and uncontrolled use of radiation processes may be expected. In this context, it is necessary to find methods of distinguishing between irradiated and nonirradiated pharmaceuticals. In the absence of suitable detection methods, our attention was focused on electron-spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. A third generation cephalosporin, cefotetan, was chosen as a model; this antibiotic is a potential candidate for radiation treatment due to its thermosensitivity. While the ESR spectra of a nonirradiated sample presents no signal, a nonsymmetrical signal, dependent on the irradiation dose, is found in irradiated samples. The number of free radicals was estimated by comparing the second integral from radiosterilized samples and a diphenylpicryl hydrazyl reference. Estimation of the number of free radicals gives 7x10 17 radicals g -1 at 20kGy (1.1x10 16 radicals in 15mg). From this result, the G-value (number of radicals (100eV) -1 ) could be estimated as 0.6. Decay of radicals upon storage were modeled using a bi-exponential function. The limit of detection of free radicals after irradiation at 25kGy is up to two years. This result agrees with those obtained on other cephalosporins. Aside from qualitative detection, ESR spectrometry can be used for dose estimation. Linear regression is applicable for doses lower than 20kGy. Since the radiation dose selected must always be based upon the bioburden of the products and the degree of sterility required (EN 552 and ANSI/AAMI/ISO 11137), 25kGy could no longer be accepted as a 'routine' dose for sterilizing a pharmaceutical. Doses in the 5-20kGy range could be investigated and linear regression appeared to be the least expensive route to follow. The best results for the integration of the curves were obtained with

  6. Compatibility of polymeric materials with the radiosterilization of disposable medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The semiindustrial plant of irradiation located at the Atomic Center of Ezeiza entered into operation 20 years ago. This plant has a nominal activity of 3.7 x 10 16 Bq (10 6 Ci) and is presently operating with 1.78 x 10 16 Bq (4.8 x 10 5 Ci). The facility allows working in pilot plant scale for the study of industrial applications and also performs commercial services, the most important of which considering its volume, economic significance and social function is the radiosterilization of disposable medical products. Approximately 29,000 m 3 have been processed in this period, most of the materials being polymers, as component parts of the products as well as packaging. To validate the process of radiosterilization the materials compatibility with ionizing radiation must be known. In the department that operates the irradiation plant, the polymer laboratory is involved in the development of industrial applications and also in the subject of compatibility of polymers with radiosterilization. The laboratory gives advice on request about selection of materials as well as relevant information for the evaluation of radiation resistance and stability, including exposition doses for the samples and mechanical, physical or chemical tests according to the kind of product. In many occasions this laboratory has had to undertake these tests because local manufacturers of medical products not always have adequate facilities for quality control. Among mechanical tests the area under the stress-strain curve as a measure of the strain the material can undergo without fracture is perhaps the best for the evaluation of degradation. Among physical properties it is important to evaluate discoloration, usual in plastics irradiation, and concerning chemical tests the detection of migration of components from the polymer proves important in some cases. Although the irradiator cannot assume any responsibility concerning compatibility, local experience has shown the importance of having a

  7. Radiosterilization process control in plants using electron accelerators; Kontrola procesu sterylizacji radiacyjnej w stacjach korzystajacych z akceleratorow elektronow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuglik, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam parameters deciding the irradiation dose in radiosterilization plants should be continuously controlled during the process. Dosimetric procedure suitable to irradiated material and dose range should be chosen. The practical advice and directions in this subject have been done. 7 refs.

  8. Review of the Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallings, L.O.

    1967-01-01

    The background of the IAEA recommendations for a Code of Practice is outlined. The possibility of laying down broad safety margins based on scientific foresight and detailed advanced planning will serve to guide the rapidly accelerating acceptance of radiosterilization by industry, especially in those firms producing supplies for use in medicine and surgery. Production control should be attuned to the scientific and technological advances, and it is becoming clear that the focus of control should be moved away from sterility testing of the finished products to hygienic and sterile operations during the manufacturing operations themselves. The contamination of the product before sterilization should already have been kept to a minimum, and this pre-sterilization level of contamination should be regularly recorded using bacteriological tests. The choice of dosage should be based on average pre-sterilization counts and the inactivation factors found desirable for die intended use of the product. On commissioning, or whenever an existing process is altered, the efficiency of the irradiation facility must be tested using microbiological reference standards. The margin of safety should be checked by using deliberately contaminated articles. However, the backbone of the control procedures must still be dosimetry. The preparation of a Code of Practice for the Radiosterilization of Medical Products will constitute a challenge to operators working with other sterilizing procedures. (author)

  9. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-01-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing the new risk

  10. Evolution of the Radio-sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Luna Z, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Radio-sterilized Tissues Bank (RTB) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) was established in 1997, as national project supported by the IAEA, who provided equipment, training and expert missions. In July of 1999, the Secretaria de Salud (Mexico) granted the sanitary license to the RTB. The first radio-sterilized tissue was the amnion. Later on, the process of frozen and lyophilized pig skin was development. Both tissue types are used as biological dressings in patient with burns, ulcers or on injuries difficult to heal, the amnion is also used for the damage treatment in the ocular surface. In 2003, the ININ improved the facilities of the RTB and in August of that same year the certification of the Quality Administration System was obtained under the standard ISO 9001:2000, at the present time ISO 9001:2008. The support of the IAEA granted to Mexico was of 1997-2004 and 2009-2012, by means of regional and inter regional projects where was obtained equipment and training mainly, for personal of the ININ and other institutions. With the last project supported by the IAEA, two very important documents were generated for the tissues bank of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, strengthening the interaction among these countries. To offer more radio-sterilized tissues to the medical community, in June of 2007 the RTB signed and agreement with the Secretaria de Salud of the Mexico State by means of the Centro Estatal de Transplantes del Estado de Mexico, for the process of muscle-skeletal tissue, skin and amnion. At present, besides amnion and pig skin, in the RTB there is in existence powdered and chips bone; concluding the validation stage the human skin process is. As a social function of the ININ, the RTB has contributed to the health improvement of patients of more than 50 hospital institutions, mainly those that assist to patient of low resources in different cities of

  11. Assessment of changes in chemical structure of vitamin K (K-thrombyl), due to γ-radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossman, A.R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The present application of radiosterilization is confined primarily to those materials which cannot be heat sterilized. This study involves: a) Finding the lowest possible dose that will produce a sterile product. b) Comparison of the physical and chemical properties of the irradiated products of different dose levels with those sterilized by other stated method (pharmacopoeial or currently applied methods), and of control composed of untreated ampoules. (orig.) [de

  12. Preliminary field studies on the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., using radiosterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, G.W.; Harwalkar, M.R.; Rananavare, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    Feasibility of using sterile male release method for the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrungineus Oliv., a serious pest of coconut and other cultivated palms in India was investigated. A total of over 5000 radiosterilized males were released in an 800 acre coconut plantation near Kayangulam in Kerala. Data on the fertility pattern of native females is presented and the factors affecting the efficacy of sterile male release for control of this insect are discussed. (author)

  13. Clinical uses of radiosterilized freeze-dried human bone: its application in buccomaxillary surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsohn, B.; Taramasso, F.; Godoy, J.; Wodowoz, O.; Saldias, M.; Silva, W.; Machin, D.; Sanchez, G.; Alvarez, I.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the uses of different human bone tissue allografts in bucomaxillary surgery between 2005 and 2007. Presentation of our experience using single freeze dried bone allografts and associated to bovine collagen membranes (commercial registered). Twenty patients were treated with cortical struts, cancellous chips, morsellized and morsellized demineralized bone. All the grafts were processed at the INDT multi tissue bank from cardiac arrest and brain death cadaveric donors. All the tissues were radiosterilized by Gamma radiation. Bone allografts were used: 1) to optimize bone support increasing maxillar or mandible bone before implant surgery. 2) in dehiscences and fissures during the implant surgery. 3) to stimulate bone regeneration in alveolar cavity, post-apicectomies, and cystectomies as well as for bone defects. The patients were periodically evaluated using standardized protocols. All the cases were successful showing clinic and radiologically osseointegration after 6 and 12 months. Results were evaluated considering surgical technique and patients bucomaxillary rehabilitation. Clinical uses of bone allografts confirm in our experience, as scientific literature outcomes shows, are useful in patients that refuses autografts ablation. (Author)

  14. Chromosome studies on bone marrow cells of chinese hamsters fed a radiosterilized diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    Metaphase preparations of chromosomes from bone marrow cells of Chinese hamsters were examined for mutagenic effects following the feeding of a radiosterilized diet. No increase in the incidence of structural chromosomal aberrations was observed. As far as numerical aberrations were concerned, the proportion of cells with polyploidy increased to between 4 to 5 times the control level, irrespective of the moisture content of the diet. This polyploidy effect occurred very early, being detectable within 24 h, if the diet fed had been irradiated with an absorbed dose of 4.5x10 6 rad. The incidence of polyploidy remained below 0.5%, however, nor did it rise with higher radiation doses. When the feeding of the irradiated diet was stopped, the proportion of polyploid cells returned to the control level within a maximum of 6 weeks. If the diet was stored (initially) for 6 weeks following irradiation before being fed to the animals no increase in the number of polyploid cells was noted. These results are not interpreted as a mutagenic effect of the irradiated diet. (author)

  15. Mating competitiveness of Aedes albopictus radio-sterilized males in large enclosures exposed to natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, R; Balestrino, F; Medici, A; Gentile, G; Veronesi, R; Carrieri, M

    2013-01-01

    Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females. The ratio was kept constant at 100-100_100 (fertile males-radiated males_virgin females). Mating competitiveness was estimated through the calculation of the hatching rate of the eggs laid in oviposition traps positioned inside enclosures. No clear effect of the strains tested (reared, wild, or hybrid) was found. Results demonstrated that reducing the radiation dose from 60 to 30 Gy increases males' competitiveness. Laboratory investigations conducted after controversial results in the 2006 preliminary trials, showed that radiation induces precociousness in adult male emergence.

  16. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D.; Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  17. Determination of sensitivity of staphylococcus SPP to xeno-graft of pig to be radio-sterilized subsequently with ionizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Tapia, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    The use of the pork skin heterograft or xenograft, as a temporary biological dressing in the treatment of extreme burns patients, may cause a risk due to the transmission of pathogenic bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus spp colonizing the outer part of the skin. The objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity of Staphylococcus spp from porcine xenograft, against ionizing energy and by antibiogram, which was carried out in the Radio-sterilized Biological Tissue Processing Laboratory (LPTR) of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, in together with the Microbiology Laboratory of the Santo Tomas University. The hides of pigs are processed to obtain sterile porcine xenograft. The determination of the radiosensitivity of Staphylococcus hyicus and epidermidis, required the use of 15 samples of pig skin of 0.5g sterile, for each species of Staphylococcus analyzed. Subsequently, the pig skins are contaminated with Staphylococcus hyicus and epidermidis. Once the contamination was finished, the samples were subjected to an irradiation dose of 0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 KGy, plus a control (without irradiation), to finally perform a microbiological count, which allowed to determine a DIO value that for Staphylococcus hyicus that was approximately 0.25KGy and for Staphylococcus epidermidis was approximately 0.29KGy. The microbial susceptibility tested by traditional antibiogram for Staphylococcus aureus, hyicus and epidermidis, allowed concluding that all staphylococci analyzed in the present study were sensitive to antibiotics: Cloxacillin, Amoxicillin + Ac clavulanic and Gentamicin, however were resistant to Penicillin and Erythromycin

  18. Evolution of the Radio-sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares; Evolucion del Banco de Tejidos Radioesterilizados del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Luna Z, D., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The Radio-sterilized Tissues Bank (RTB) of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) was established in 1997, as national project supported by the IAEA, who provided equipment, training and expert missions. In July of 1999, the Secretaria de Salud (Mexico) granted the sanitary license to the RTB. The first radio-sterilized tissue was the amnion. Later on, the process of frozen and lyophilized pig skin was development. Both tissue types are used as biological dressings in patient with burns, ulcers or on injuries difficult to heal, the amnion is also used for the damage treatment in the ocular surface. In 2003, the ININ improved the facilities of the RTB and in August of that same year the certification of the Quality Administration System was obtained under the standard ISO 9001:2000, at the present time ISO 9001:2008. The support of the IAEA granted to Mexico was of 1997-2004 and 2009-2012, by means of regional and inter regional projects where was obtained equipment and training mainly, for personal of the ININ and other institutions. With the last project supported by the IAEA, two very important documents were generated for the tissues bank of Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, strengthening the interaction among these countries. To offer more radio-sterilized tissues to the medical community, in June of 2007 the RTB signed and agreement with the Secretaria de Salud of the Mexico State by means of the Centro Estatal de Transplantes del Estado de Mexico, for the process of muscle-skeletal tissue, skin and amnion. At present, besides amnion and pig skin, in the RTB there is in existence powdered and chips bone; concluding the validation stage the human skin process is. As a social function of the ININ, the RTB has contributed to the health improvement of patients of more than 50 hospital institutions, mainly those that assist to patient of low resources in different cities of

  19. Radiation preservation of biological tissues with special emphasis on immunological alterations. Part of a coordinated programme on radiosterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feher, I.

    1977-01-01

    A method suitable for clinical use and preparations of tendon and skin preserved by lyophilization and radiosterilization were investigated. The fate of the graft was detected by histological and electronmicroscopical investigations. We demonstrated that the implanted preparation was desorganized and was absorbed within six weeks. Clinical examinations were made on pig-tendon preparations. Patients recovered without difficulties in every case. Skin preparations were prepared of pig-skin. It was demonstrated by indirect haemagglutination that pig-skin antigenity was decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude during the preservation process. The clinical application of skin preparations has been used for nearly two years. It is effectively used as a biological dressing for the covering of wound surface in case of burn injuries

  20. Effect of electron beam radio-sterilization on cyclo olefin copolymers and its impact on the interactions with other active molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of electron beam radio-sterilization on cyclo olefins copolymers (COC) used as pharmaceutical storage materials, as well as to investigate its impact on the interaction with pharmaceuticals formulations. Due to the analytical methodology used which has dealt with different techniques of characterization such as size exclusion chromatography, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements, we have been able to put into evidence different kinds of modifications both in the bulk and on the surface of the sterilized material and also after ageing. The principal modification of material's bulk, observed at the recommended dose for sterilization (25 kGy), was polymer chains scissions, accompanied with creation of low molecular weight compounds, that are potentials migrants that are likely to affect the safe use of COC. Indeed, some of these compounds have been found with a relatively important concentration in the solutions where sterilized COC has been stored, especially in aqueous solutions. However, the preliminary study of toxicity has shown the absence of cytotoxicity of the extractable by-products obtained at the sterilization dose. Surface modifications of radio-sterilized COC are of two types: a physical one, with an increase of the surface's roughness and a chemical one with the formation of polar oxidation products; these two modifications result in an increase of surface's wettability that may be important. However, in some cases such as for aged samples, these modifications are relatively weak even at doses higher than the one recommended for sterilization, which can explain the absence of the effect of radiation on the behavior of COC concerning drug solutions. Indeed, no variation of drug sorption has been observed between irradiated aged COC and no-irradiated aged COC. (author)

  1. The reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively. While in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4.500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5.000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population, resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot. (author)

  2. Reduction of population of cabbage pests plutela maculipennis curtis and crocidolomia binotalis zell as affected by the release of radiosterilized moths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoedaya, M.S.; Sutrisno, S.; Nasroh, A.; Sastradihardja, S.I. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1983-10-01

    Moths of plutella maculipennis curtis and crocidolimia binotalis zell radiosterilized with 30 Krad and 40 Krad of gamma radiation respectively were released into a laboratory-cage of 90 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm, a field-cage of 2 m x 2 m x 2 m and an experimental plot of 10 m x 15 m to study their effect on the reduction of F1-population. The release of 450 irradiated moths in the laboratory-cage containing 50 unirradiated moths can reduce the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis by 61.1% and 65.3% respectively, while in the field-cage the F1-population of plutella maculipennis and crocidolomia binotalis decreased by 55.6% and 50.55% respectively. The release of about 4,500 irradiated crocidolomia binotalis into an experimental plot containing 500 normal moths can reduce the F1-population by 41.02% in the dry season and 50.55% in the rainy season. The release of about 5,000 irradiated moths of plutella maculipennis into an experimental plot containing about 350 moths of natural population resulted in a reduction of egg hatch from 85.9% in the unreleased plot to 17.0% in the released plot.

  3. Amnion s and radio-sterilized porcine skin use as potential matrices for the development of human skin substitutes; Uso de amnios y piel porcina radioesterilizados como matrices potenciales para el desarrollo de sustitutos de piel humana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Reyes F, M. L.; Reboyo B, D. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Velasquillo M, M. C.; Sanchez S, R.; Brena M, A. M.; Ibarra P, J. C., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Calz. Mexico-Xochimilco No. 289, Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, 14389 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The injuries by burns constitute a primordial problem of public health; they cause a high mortality index, severe physical and psychological disability, etc. The autologous skin transplant is the replacement therapy recommended for its treatment, but in patients that present a high percentage of burnt skin; this is not possible to carry out. Another strategy is the transplant of donated skin; however, due to the little donation that exists in our country is not very feasible to apply this treatment. A challenge of the tissues engineering is to develop biological skin substitutes, based on cells and amnion s, favoring the cutaneous regeneration and quick repair of injuries, diminishing this way the hospitalization expenses. At present skin substitutes that can equal to the same skin do not exist. On the other hand, the mesenchymal stromal cells (Msc) represent an alternative to achieve this objective; since has been demonstrated that the Msc participate in the tissue repair by means of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and differentiation to dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. To apply the Msc in cutaneous injuries a support material is required that to allow transplanting these cells to a lesion or burn. The radio-sterilized human amnion and the radio-sterilized porcine skin, processed by the Radio-Sterilized Tissues Bank of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), are biomaterials that are used as temporary cutaneous coverings. We suppose that these two matrices will be appropriate for the growth and maintenance in cultivation of the Msc, to generate two biological skin substitutes, in collaboration with the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion. (Author)

  4. Development of a computational system for management of risks in radiosterilization processes of biological tissues; Desenvolvimento de um sistema computacional de gerenciamento de riscos em processos de radioesterilizacao de tecidos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Cynara Viterbo

    2009-07-01

    Risk management can be understood to be a systematic management which aims to identify record and control the risks of a process. Applying risk management becomes a complex activity, due to the variety of professionals involved. In order to execute risk management the following are requirements of paramount importance: the experience, discernment and judgment of a multidisciplinary team, guided by means of quality tools, so as to provide standardization in the process of investigating the cause and effects of risks and dynamism in obtaining the objective desired, i.e. the reduction and control of the risk. This work aims to develop a computational system of risk management (software) which makes it feasible to diagnose the risks of the processes of radiosterilization of biological tissues. The methodology adopted was action-research, according to which the researcher performs an active role in the establishment of the problems found, in the follow-up and in the evaluation of the actions taken owing to the problems. The scenario of this action-research was the Laboratory of Biological Tissues (LTB) in the Radiation Technology Center IPEN/CNEN-SP - Sao Paulo/Brazil. The software developed was executed in PHP and Flash/MySQL language, the server (hosting), the software is available on the Internet (www.vcrisk.com.br), which the user can access from anywhere by means of the login/access password previously sent by email to the team responsible for the tissue to be analyzed. The software presents friendly navigability whereby the user is directed step-by-step in the process of investigating the risk up to the means of reducing it. The software 'makes' the user comply with the term and present the effectiveness of the actions taken to reduce the risk. Applying this system provided the organization (LTB/CTR/IPEN) with dynamic communication, effective between the members of the multidisciplinary team: a) in decision-making; b) in lessons learned; c) in knowing

  5. Studies on the radiosterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Min, B.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    Most of the microorganisms isolated from the medical products were inactivated by the irradiation of 1.0-1.5 Mrad. However, some microorganisms were inactivated as the factor of 10 8 cells by the irradiation of 2.0-2.3 Mrad. Micrococcus roseus was a radioresistant strain, and on the view point of 10 8 cell number the dose for inactivating the Micrococcus roseus in a liquid and lyophilized condition was 2.3 and 3.5 Mrad, respectively. It has been found that the radiosensitivity of microorganism was influenced differently according to the suspended solution, oxygen, temperature and others. Radiosterlization of vaccine could not be performed due to the degeneration of vaccine. Cotton products were suitable where as disposable plastic set such as PVC product was not much suitable due to the reduction of pH or formation of oxidasable matter. Antibiotics in dry state was suitable where as dextrose solution or saline solution was unsuitable packing sheets (P.E, P.P, PVC) were suitable up to 2.5 Mrad dose. There was no relationships between cell growth rate and dose level in toxicity experiment of the irradiated plastic sets. Micrococcus roseus and Escherichia coli were effectively inactivated by treating heat pre-, post- or simultaneous irradiation. (author)

  6. Radiosterilization of medical products pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Chun, K.J.; Kim, K.S.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen kinds of antibiotics both in liquid or dry states were investigated for the purpose of radiation effect on the antibiotic activities after irradiation. In liquid states, the antibiotics such as amoxyllin, ampicillin, cepharolidin and hetacillin were inactivated 90% of their antibiotic activities at radiation doses of 50 Krad, and penicillin, dicloxacillin, cephalothin, cloxacillin, erythromycin and cephalexin were inactivated at 500Krad, however, the tetracyclin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and kanamycin were decomposed at radiation doses of 1.5 Mrad, respectively. In dry state, all antibiotics were stable at radiation doses of 5 Mrad. On the other hand, the neomycin in liquid state was rather increased the antibiotic activity about 1.2 and 8 times when the E. coli ATCC 113-3 and B. subtilis ATCC 6633 were used as a standard microorganisms, whereas, the decreased antibiotic activities were observed in S. typhi Ty-2(36.2%), St. faecium(10.79%), B. sphaericus CIA(9.065%) and St. aureus ATCC 6538p.(70%). (author)

  7. The effect of radiosterilization on surface properties of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effect of sterilization method by gamma-ray on structure and cytotoxicity of polyurethane film surface has been investigated. For this purpose reactive urethan prepolymer was synthesized by the reaction between Tdi with a mixture of Peg and castro oil (50/50, w/w). The cured prepolymer films were prepared due to the reaction of reactive prepolymer with air moister under ambient conditions. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by Sem and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast L 929 cells and sterilized polyurethane film was evaluated. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  8. The effect of radiosterilization on cytotoxicity of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a sequence of tests for evaluation of sterilized biomaterial includes an initial set of tests in vitro, both biological (cell culture) and non-biological (mechanical tests). In this paper the cytotoxicity of a sterilized polyurethane film, in order to use as biomaterial, has been investigated. For this purpose NCO-terminated urethane prepolymer in medical quality was synthesized without ingredients beside monomers (polyethylene glycol/castor oil and toluene diisocyanate). The cured prepolymer films were prepared under ambient conditions due to the reaction of free NCO-groups of prepolymer with air moisture. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface structure of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by SEM and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast cells and sterilized polyurethane film in culture medium containing serum was evaluated in comparison with control samples. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  9. Polypropylene and polycarbonate radiosterilization: effects on the stress resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musico Filho, W.; Terence, M.C.; Guedes, S.M.L.; Araujo, E.S. de

    1994-01-01

    The gamma radiation effect on polymer sterilization used in the fabrication of medical supplies, national polycarbonate and polypropylene, was studied in function of the tensile strength. During the polycarbonate irradiation occur the scission of polymer chain and the crosslinking/scission of the polypropylene, but in the sterilization dose, 25 kGy, does not occur expressive changes in the tensile strength. After the polypropylene sterilization the tensile strength continues increasing as consequence of the crosslinking. Since the sixth day the oxidation reaction predominates as consequence of the radical migration to the amorphous region. (author). 7 refs, 6 figs

  10. Radio-sterilization effects on adult males of Glossina tachinoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Induced sterility of adult males of Glossina tachiniodes irradiated with gamma doses of 130, 150 and 160 Gy, respectively, in air was investigated. The flies were irradiated at horizontal distances of 50 cm and 70 cm, respectively from the Gamma Facility. The mean percentage insemination of spermathecae ranged between ...

  11. Evaluation of the toxicity of radiosterilized implantable materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.; Kudelska, D.; Mazur, M.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Autoclave and radiation sterilization modes of selected biomaterials and polymers were studied to evaluate the toxicity, if any, induced in the cells grown in vitro. The materials examined induced: crystalline and amorphous biocarbon, alumina, hydroxyapatite, powdered primary PP (radiation-sensitive), and PP modified with a polypropylene/ethylene or an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer to enhance its radiation resistance. Results showed no material to be toxic toward the cell examined. The viability of the cells cultivated in the presence of materials examined was found to remain unaffected regardless of the sterilization mode. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs

  12. Study on radiosterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Syojiro; Sasaki, Masahiro; Kondo, Yuichi; Jo, Hisanobu; Kanbashi, Toshitaka.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolysis of bilirubin and cholic acids (cholic acid, desoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid) in hydrous pellet have been investigated with following parameters, which were hydrous content, radiation dose and the dose rate, to discuss the application of gamma -irradiation for sterilization of crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis. At 774 C/kg(3.0MR) irradiation for 5% and 10% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percent of those components were less than 5%. However, the higher hydrous pellet, the radiolysis percents of those are more increase. At the same irradiated condition for 20% hydrous contents pellets, the radiolysis percents of those were 15--22%. The hydrous percent of commercial crude drug pill involving bezoar bovis are about 9%, so that the radiolysis of those components will be less than 5% on the sterilization. The radiolysis percent of bilirubin are constant to variation of radiation dose rate between 51.6--722.5C/kg.hr(0.2--2.8MR/hr). But, the values of cholic acids don't definite such as that of bilirubin, because of larger analitycal error. (author)

  13. Influence of radiosterilized cells on cells L1210 growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaise, E.P.; Decheva-Ninova, Z.; Tubiana, M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of cells sterilized by acute X-irradiation is investigated on the growth of L 1210 cells. For this purpose young male mice DBA 2 are injected intraperitoneally or hypodermically with suspension of either live cells or live and sterile cells. The effect is considered according to survival time of treated animals and the number of leukemic cells examined in dynamics after their intraperitoneal incorporation or according to tumor size after their hypodermical incorporation. In both cases the incorporation of sterile cells has an inhibitory effect - life duration of treated mice is increased. This common effect disappears if animals are previously irradiated with 350 R. The sterile cells have also a local stimulating effect when incorporated hypodermically - time for their duplication is reduced from 15,8 to 13,7 hours. This stimulation is much more expressed when the recipients are previously irradiated - the time for tumor cells duplication being 12,2 hours. Direct stimulating effect of sterilized cells is not established when they are intraperitoneally incorporated. (author)

  14. Investigation of radiosterilization feasibility of sulfamethoxazole by ESR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Şeyda

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the spectroscopic features of the radiolytic intermediates that were produced in gamma-irradiated (5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) sulfamethoxazole (SMX) have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and the radiation sterilization feasibility of SMX by ionizing radiation was examined. Gamma-irradiated SMX exhibited a complex ESR spectrum consisting of 13 resonance lines where spectral parameters for the central resonance line were found to be g = 2.0062 and ΔHpp = 0.6 mT. The radiation yield of SMX was calculated to be relatively low (G = 0.1) by ESR spectroscopy and no meaningful difference was observed in the comparison of unirradiated and 50 kGy gamma irradiated SMX by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) technique, confirming that SMX is a radioresistive material. Although SMX could not be accepted to be a good dosimetric material, the identification of irradiated SMX from the unirradiated sample was possible even for the low absorbed radiation doses and for a relatively long time (three months) after the irradiation process. Decay activation energy of the radical species, which is mostly responsible for the central intense resonance line, is calculated to be 45.15 kJ/mol by using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies. Four radical species with different spectroscopic properties were accepted to be responsible for the ESR spectra of gamma-irradiated SMX, by simulation calculations. It is concluded that SMX and SMX-containing drugs can be sterilized by gamma radiation and ESR spectroscopy is an appropriate technique for the characterization of these induced radical intermediates during the gamma irradiation process of SMX. Toxicology tests should also be done for its safe usage.

  15. Effect of radiosterilization of some antihistamines on their toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, M.E.; Roushdy, H.M.; Naiema, M.; Seham, H.M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation of pgeniramine maleate and menhydrinate solutions at the radiation levels of 15,25 and 50KGY on their toxicity has been investigated. Irradiation of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate solutions at dose levels of 15,25 and 50KGY resulted in no significant change in neither the gross toxicity of the two drugs nor in their LD 50's on rats. Pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate whether irradiated or not, resulted in no significant increase in serum GPT or alkaline phosphatase activities when given at a dose of 15mg/Kg suggesting no significant alteration to liver function in rats. Higher doses of the two antihistaminics, namely, the minimal lethal doses and the LD 50's induced hydropic degeneration of liver cells, lymphocytic infiltration of the portal tract and focal areas of necrosis of hepatic cells mostly in the central lobule. Fatty infiltration was observed with dimenhydrinate. Radiation treatment of those antihistamines up to 50KGY resulting in no alteration in their toxicity projects the high radiation stability of pheniramine maleate and dimenhydrinate and confirms gamma irradiation is a successful method for their sterilization

  16. Radiation sensitivity of the microflora in the plant producing radiosterilized disposable medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foeldesi, Maria; Gazso, Lajos; Molnar, Andor

    1983-01-01

    480 microbal strains were isolated from the plant's atmosphere and surfaces, the workers' hands and clothes. Sampling was continued for one year to determine seasonal variations. After a survival selection dose of 1 kGy, D 10 values for 53 strains were determined. No outstandingly high radioresistive microorganisms were isolated, the highest D 10 value was 1.83 kGy. The most essential sources of contamination were the surfaces of the production area and the workers' clothes. Regarding seasonal variability, spring and winter were considered as prominent seasons for careful attention to control the plant's microflora. (author)

  17. Allogeneic bone transplants, biostatic, frozen, radiosterilized, for application in the traumatology of the motion organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marczynski, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents statistical analysis of more than three tendon's of clinical cases of the motion organ transplantations. However, to store these organs they should be effectively sterilized. Irradiation should be accounted as one of such methods

  18. Study of the radiosterilization dose effect on properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) - PET recycled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoldi, Ana Beatriz Godoy; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e; Rosario, Salmo Cordeiro do

    2002-01-01

    The packing are in constant development, in function, especially, the process of globalization. The opening of the brazilian market after currency stabilization, caused technological innovations, change of habits and costumes of the population and environmental matters. Year after year, because of cost reductions, it became more extreme the hard study of the polymeric materials and their copolymers, their possible blends and their recycling, always seeking a better wrapping of the products, especially when it concerns to the food, increasing its shelf life. The process of sterilization of foods and modification of polymers through radiation are targets of growing interest by of the current industries linked to the nutrition and packing sectors. The objective of this paper is to discuss the application of the radiation (electron beam) in the sterilization of packings of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET, evaluating the possible effects on their properties. (author)

  19. Work within the coordinated programme on radiosterilization of medical and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, K.S.

    1978-03-01

    From surgical silk suture a radio-resistent microorganism was isolated and identified as Micrococcus roseus. It was not inactivated completely at radiation doses of 2.3 Mrad. The microorganisms originated from the raw materials of the surgical silk suture. The radiosensitivity of Micrococcus roseus in various environments was studied from 2.0 to 3.4 Mrad. The radioresistance was enhanced if the silk suture extract was used as a liquid media, indicating the presence of a radioprotective agent. The microorganism showed an increased radiosensitivity in oxygen bubbling conditions. Dextrose solution and physiological saline showed a decrease in pH and the presence of some unknown material. There indications, that the substances produced by radiolysis are different depending on the sterilization process applied. The antibiotic activities were stable for 10 Mrad at dry state. The activity was lost at low doses in liquid state except for neomycin which showed a tenfold increase in antibiotic activity. To evaluate the toxicity of irradiated transfusion sets a more detailed study is required

  20. Validation of radiosterilization dose of human skin dressings for burnt treatment: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Due to the need for better materials to treat burnt patients, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) and the Rosa Guerzoni Chambergo Tissue Bank are collaborating for developing human skin dressings. Skin was procured from living donors, who surgically were performed a dermolipectomy. Exclusion criteria, stated by the Peruvian Organization for Transplant and Donation were observed. Glycerolized human skin dressings were processed at the tissue bank and sent to IPEN, where the gamma irradiation sterilizing dose was determined. The purpose of this work is to validate the radiation sterilization dose delivered to human skin dressings using the IAEA Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control. A batch of human skin dressings was tested. Average values of bioburden present in ten samples was 30 UFC/item, obtaining a sub-sterilization dose of 4 kGy. Irradiations were performed in the GammacellExcel 220. Sterility tests performed fulfilled the requirements established by the Code, achieving a validated dose value of 19.7 kGy. This preliminary study, that should be repeated in two other batches of processed human skin, allows to diminish 25 kGy the sterilizing dose to the stated above dose value, in a frame of a quality assurance system that also comprises the processes held at tissue banks previous irradiation. It also permit the availability of these materials in Peruvian hospitals. (Author)

  1. Radiosterilization of historical documents: the potential effects of gamma irradiation on paper and printing inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Anderson G. de, E-mail: jesus.anderson@aman.eb.mil.br [Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (AMAN/EB), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Brandã, Luis E.B.; Salgado, César M., E-mail: brandao@ien.gov.br, E-mail: otero@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The controlled exposition to gamma radiation is a physical process which can be used for the preservation and recovery of historical documents. Depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material to be treated, it is necessary to research and establish, from time to time, the optimum dose rate and total dose, the conditions to eliminate or reduce the biological threat, the equipment and its logistics, the economic aspects and any other impact caused by radiation on the material to be treated. The references indicate that through research it is possible to consolidate the knowledge about gamma radiation emitted from {sup 60}Co in order to completely remove or at least greatly reduce infestation by insects or biodeterioration microorganisms. On this work we have used a MDS Nordion self-contained {sup 60}Co research irradiator, model Gamacell Excel 220, at Postgraduate Institute of Engineering and Research Alberto Luiz Coimbra, in Rio de Janeiro Federal University. The analysis of the samples submitted to controlled thermal dry aging and to gamma radiation made possible to verify the differences between treated and untreated samples. The results of the chromatic measures indicate that, with the optimum total dose, the gamma radiation treatment does not significantly alter the properties of paper or printing inks. This way, it is possible to conclude that even though the gamma irradiation of historical documents is a complex procedure which demands a detailed study in order to assure its safe application, it is environmentally safer than the use of chemical pesticides. (author)

  2. ESR spectroscopy applied to the study of drugs radiosterilization: case of three nitroimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duroux, J.L.; Bernard, M.; Basly, J.P.; Penicaut, B.

    1996-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is now a well established technology. In this paper, we examined the time stability at ambient conditions and higher temperatures of free radicals produced after the gamma irradiation of three nitroimidazoles: metronidazole, ornidazole and ternidazole. The bi-exponential model used to fit the decay curves showed, in major cases, two simultaneous phases: the first corresponding to a fast 'pure' exponential decay; and, a second corresponding to a slowly 'quasi linear' decay, possibly due to a solid diffusion mechanism. (author)

  3. The effect of 60Co-gamma radio-sterilization on Boswellia carterii essential oil composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Badr

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Gamma-irradiation is used vastly for both decontamination and sterilization of natural products; but these high-energy rays can affect heat-sensitive essential oils. Methods: The oleo-gum-resin of Boswellia carterii (Burseraceae was sterilized by γ-irradiation at dose 30 KGy. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of non-irradiated Boswellia (NIB and irradiated Boswellia (IB were analyzed by GC/MS and the changes were compared. The structure of octyl acetate as the major component and marker of B. carterii was confirmed by MS/MS. Results: Twenty-five compounds comprising 99.55% of NIB oil and nineteen compounds comprising 98.61% of IB oil were identified. Major constituents which were common for both oils were octyl acetate (52.67 % in NIB, 76.51 % in IB, 1-octanol (6.37 % in NIB, 5.19 % in IB, duva-4, 8, 13-triene-1,3α diol (5.52 % in NIB, 3.94 % in IB, verticiol (13.63 % in NIB and verticillane type diterpene (5.4 % in IB they made up 78.19% and 91.04% of NIB and IB, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma irradiation was an efficient method for sterilization of Boswellia carterii oleo-gum resin, but it resulted in change in the essential oil composition particularly octyl acetate changed from 52.67% to 76.51%.

  4. Radiosterilization of historical documents: the potential effects of gamma irradiation on paper and printing inks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Anderson G. de; Brandã, Luis E.B.; Salgado, César M.

    2017-01-01

    The controlled exposition to gamma radiation is a physical process which can be used for the preservation and recovery of historical documents. Depending on the intrinsic characteristics of the material to be treated, it is necessary to research and establish, from time to time, the optimum dose rate and total dose, the conditions to eliminate or reduce the biological threat, the equipment and its logistics, the economic aspects and any other impact caused by radiation on the material to be treated. The references indicate that through research it is possible to consolidate the knowledge about gamma radiation emitted from 60 Co in order to completely remove or at least greatly reduce infestation by insects or biodeterioration microorganisms. On this work we have used a MDS Nordion self-contained 60 Co research irradiator, model Gamacell Excel 220, at Postgraduate Institute of Engineering and Research Alberto Luiz Coimbra, in Rio de Janeiro Federal University. The analysis of the samples submitted to controlled thermal dry aging and to gamma radiation made possible to verify the differences between treated and untreated samples. The results of the chromatic measures indicate that, with the optimum total dose, the gamma radiation treatment does not significantly alter the properties of paper or printing inks. This way, it is possible to conclude that even though the gamma irradiation of historical documents is a complex procedure which demands a detailed study in order to assure its safe application, it is environmentally safer than the use of chemical pesticides. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the toxicity of radiosterilized implantable materials; Ocena wplywu sterylizacji radiacyjnej na toksycznosc wybranych materialow implantacyjnych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowska-Szumiel, M.; Kudelska, D.; Mazur, M. [Akademia Medyczna, Wroclaw (Poland); Zimek, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-01

    Autoclave and radiation sterilization modes of selected biomaterials and polymers were studied to evaluate the toxicity, if any, induced in the cells grown in vitro. The materials examined induced: crystalline and amorphous biocarbon, alumina, hydroxyapatite, powdered primary PP (radiation-sensitive), and PP modified with a polypropylene/ethylene or an ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer to enhance its radiation resistance. Results showed no material to be toxic toward the cell examined. The viability of the cells cultivated in the presence of materials examined was found to remain unaffected regardless of the sterilization mode. (author). 12 refs, 3 figs.

  6. Radiosterilization of freeze-dried human amniotic Membrane and its use in the treatment of burn wound. Algerian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djefal, A.; Mahlous, M.; Nacer Khodja, A.; Larbi, M.; Larbi Daho Bachir, M.

    2001-01-01

    The present study evaluates the usefulness of human amniotic membrane as biological dressing and its efficacy in the treatment of burns comparatively to the conventional dressing. We reported the practical methods of preparation, preservation and radiation sterilisation of amnion, and the clinical results of its successful use in the treatment of 80 cases of superficial and intermediate depth dermal burns. The increased rate of healing, pain relief, good adhesion to the bed wound and absence of infection were observed

  7. Radiosterilization and other sterilization methods of medical equipment on Kilmer's conference, Brussels, 12-16 June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1993-01-01

    The Johnson and Johnson Co. organized the scientific conference devoted to different aspects and methods of sterilization of medical equipment and materials. A condensed review of the main problems discussed during the conference has been done. Attention has been paid especially on: actual problems with primary infections control, problems of sterilization in pharmacy, hazards problems, investigations and control methods and radiation sterilization. 2 figs

  8. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh Kuswadi

    2011-01-01

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  9. Possibilities of sterilizing nutrient media used to grow tissue cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, P.; Leshko, Ya.; Gana, L.; Yankovicheva, T.; Yurmanova, K.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of radiosterilization on the properties of liquid and powdery Eagle's media and on inactivated calf and horse sera are described. It is shown that radiosterilization may be employed to sterilize biological agents required for in vitro cell cultivation. (author)

  10. Modification of a cyclo-olefin surface by radio-sterilization: is there any effect on the interaction with drug solutions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Hala; Saunier, Johanna; Aymes Chodur, Caroline; Aubert, Pascal; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Yagoubi, Najet

    2013-11-01

    A cyclo-olefin copolymer was subjected to an e-beam ionizing treatment. Two doses were studied: one corresponding to the recommended dose for the sterilization of pharmaceutical packaging (25 kGy), and a greater one to enhance the modifications caused by the treatment (150 kGy). The surface modifications were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The roughness and the wettability of the surface were enhanced by the treatment. The consequences of the surface modifications on the drug interaction with the polymer were studied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-01-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  12. Pharmaceutical aerosols. Study of their gamma radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebert, P.

    1984-10-01

    The gamma radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical aerosols was studied. The following topics were investigated: radiosterilization of nitrogen protoxide used as a propellant; radiosterilization of packaging materials (aluminium containers, plastics valves); radio-sterilization of excipients and active ingredients. Most of the investigated materials proved to be stable to irradiation (2,5 Mrads) from pharmacopoeial aspect. Stability tests of the preparations packaged showed no change in the parameters investigated [fr

  13. International symposium on radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The book contains 116 extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the symposium. They present advances in radiation processing technology including radiosterilization and radiolysis of toxic wastes; radiosterilization of food, cosmetics and medical supplies; radiation assisted synthesis of polymer materials; design of gamma irradiation devices and accelerators for electron beam processing. Each of the papers was indexed separately

  14. International symposium on radiation technology in emerging industrial applications. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The book contains 116 extended synopses of the oral and poster presentations delivered at the symposium. They present advances in radiation processing technology including radiosterilization and radiolysis of toxic wastes; radiosterilization of food, cosmetics and medical supplies; radiation assisted synthesis of polymer materials; design of gamma irradiation devices and accelerators for electron beam processing. Each of the papers was indexed separately.

  15. Isotopes and radiation for modern industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.; Yuan, H.C.; Sevastyanov, Y.G.

    1983-01-01

    Brief information is given on the industrial use of isotope and radiation technology in the following fields: radiosterilization of medical supplies, non-destructive testing by radiography, wear and corrosion studies, on-line controls, exploration and recovery of minerals

  16. On radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukov, V.; Mende, V.

    1976-01-01

    The progress made in the GDR over the past decade in the field of radiosterilization of products of the medical industry, has naturally raised the question of radiosterilization in pharmaceutics. However, because of the diversity and complicated nature of pharmaceutical products and, consequently, longer periods of time required for preliminary studies, their radiosterilization has not yet been applied on an industrial scale, in contrast to the situation in the medical industry. The studies carried out so far have been mainly concerned with ascertaining the permissibility and effectiveness of radiosterilization of individual products under particular conditions rather than with laying down a broad theoretical basis. Accordingly, the present paper does not describe results of special studies but presents a brief rewiev of some studies on radiation treatment of pharmaceutical products undertaken in the GDR. (author)

  17. Food irradiation in EU and in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture shows comparison of food radiosterilization in Poland with selected countries in EU. The most popular commercial electron radiation sources are presented. Plant for Food Radiation Sterilization operating in the INCT is discussed in details

  18. The effects of gamma irradiation on diclofenac sodium, liposome and niosome ingredients for rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, A. Yekta; Turker, Selcan; Çolak, Seyda; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Kiliç, Ekrem; Özalp, Meral

    2013-01-01

    The use of gamma rays for the sterilization of pharmaceutical raw materials and dosage forms is an alternative method for sterilization. However, one of the major problems of the radiosterilization is the production of new radiolytic products during the irradiation process. Therefore, the principal problem in radiosterilization is to determine and to characterize these physical and chemical changes originating from high-energy radiation. Parenteral drug delivery systems were...

  19. Mass production in liquid diet and radiosterilization of South American fruit fly Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae); Criacao massal em dieta liquida e radioesterilizacao da mosca-sulamericana Anastrepha sp.1 aff. fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Aline Cristiane

    2010-07-01

    Both the biological control techniques as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), are used in many countries to control, suppress and even eradicate fruit flies and other pests in agriculture and public health. The use of such techniques minimizes the continuous employment of insecticides, protects the environment and conforms to standards for food safety. However, it is necessary to implement such programs, technology to produce millions of parasitoids and the pest in its own laboratory with biological quality similar to the insects found in nature and cost competitive with chemical control. The objectives of this study was to establish protocols for artificial rearing of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus in liquid larval diet that will achieve levels of mass production for a possible reduction in the cost of establishing and determining the dose of radiation sterilization of adult A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus meeting the quality parameters required by the Sterile Insect Technique with insects from the creation of Radioentomology Laboratory of CENA/USP. Seven experimental diets compared to the conventional diet used in Radioentomology Lab. of CENA/USP, which was used as control. All seven diets have in common the exclusion of agar in its formulation. Only two of the diets tested were suitable for larval development of the fly, they compared with the standard diet, showed inferior results with respect to the volume of recovered larvae, pupae and weight of emergency, however, no significant differences regarding the periods of development , pupal recovery, sex ratio and longevity under stress. It is possible to replace the diet with agar for liquid diets for artificial creation of A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus, reduced cost and greater convenience of handling, but due to their quality standards lower than the standard diet, more tests are needed especially regarding the adaptability of the insect to the new environment. To determine the sterilizing dose this study examined the fertility, fecundity, emergence, flight ability and longevity under stress in A. fraterculus irradiated with 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 Gy. The radiation source was a gamma irradiator with a Co-60 (Gamma beam-650) located in the same laboratory. The tests were performed under the following environmental conditions: 26 +- 1 deg C, 70 +- 5% RH and photoperiod of 12:12. The dose of gamma radiation sterilization for male A. sp. 1 aff. fraterculus was determined with 70 Gy. Irradiates females, even with the lower dose of 40 Gy, laid no eggs, possibly due to atrophy of the ovaries caused by radiation. The radiation did not affect the other quality parameters such as insect emergence, longevity and ability to fly. (author)

  20. Bacterial growth on Mueller Hinton medium sterilized by. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, E. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center); Bogokowsky, B.; Altmann, G. (Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer (Israel); Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Medical School)

    1981-12-01

    The possibility of radiosterilization of culture media for the cultivation of bacteria was investigated. Mueller Hinton agar, a medium widely used for the propagation of some fastidious pathogenic bacteria, was sterilized with 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad doses of ..gamma..-radiation. Bacteria belonging to seven different species grew as well on the radiosterilized medium as on medium sterilized by heat in a conventional way. Reduction in colony size was observed on the radiosterilized medium with Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii. Neisseria meningitidis, the most fastidious bacterium tested, did not grow at all. The addition of small amounts of catalase corrected the deleterious radiation effect and all bacteria tested could be successfully grown on irradiated Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with up to 11 Keil units catalase per liter medium.

  1. Bacterial growth on Mueller Hinton medium sterilized by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.; Altmann, G.; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of radiosterilization of culture media for the cultivation of bacteria was investigated. Mueller Hinton agar, a medium widely used for the propagation of some fastidious pathogenic bacteria, was sterilized with 1.0 and 1.5 Mrad doses of γ-radiation. Bacteria belonging to seven different species grew as well on the radiosterilized medium as on medium sterilized by heat in a conventional way. Reduction in colony size was observed on the radiosterilized medium with Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella boydii. Neisseria meningitidis, the most fastidious bacterium tested, did not grow at all. The addition of small amounts of catalase corrected the deleterious radiation effect and all bacteria tested could be successfully grown on irradiated Mueller Hinton agar supplemented with up to 11 Keil units catalase per liter medium. (author)

  2. Food irradiation with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudkova, A.; Pohlova, M.; Sedlackova, J.

    1974-01-01

    Application possibilities are discussed of ionizing radiation in inhibiting plant germination, in radiopasteurization and radiosterilization of food. Also methods of combining radiation with thermal food sterilization are discussed. The problems of radiation doses and of hygienic purity of irradiated foodstuffs are dealt with. (B.S.)

  3. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications; Irradiation de polyurethannes par electrons acceleres: evolution moleculaire et supramoleculaire, incidence sur les extractibles et implications biomedicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, C

    2002-11-15

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  4. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolisis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (author) [es

  5. Ordinance on radioactive drugs or drugs treated with ionizing rays (AMRadV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The ordinance relates to the rules governing the marketing permit (approval) for, and prohibition of, radiosterilized and radioactive drugs (section 1 respectively section 2) according to section 7, subsection 1, of the Drugs Act. It applies also to dental filling materials and artificial denture materials. Excluded are finished drugs. (HP) [de

  6. Microbiological criteria for evaluating the sterility of objects of medical use and drugs: past and present state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorakova, V.

    1976-01-01

    The past and present status of microbiological criteria for radiosterilization is surveyed, outlining microbiological procedures proposed or used for selecting sterilizing doses, controlling sterilization, and checking sterility. Differences of opinion on questions of international standardization are noted and a possible method of dealing with checklists is proposed. (author)

  7. Ten years' operation of an irradiation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icre, Pierre

    1979-01-01

    The Ionizing Radiation Application Center is equipped with an electron linear accelerator for diversified applications. Power of the electron beam is 7.5 kW and energy is 6 MeV. Main activity is radiosterilization of disposable medical and surgical materials. Remaining activity is irradiation of plastic especially grafting and cross-linking of polyethylene [fr

  8. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, C.

    2002-11-01

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  9. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite; Dosimetria quimica de la radiacion aplicacion del sistema nitrato-nitrito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormo Ferrero, M J

    1977-07-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs.

  10. The industrial applications of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This report presents all industrial applications of ionizing radiations in France, for food preservation, radiosterilization of drugs, medical materials and cosmetic products, for radiation chemistry of polymers. This report also describes the industrial plants of irradiation (electron, cobalt 60). Finally, it explains the legal and safety aspects

  11. Argentine National Pharmacopoeia (Argentine Codex Medicamentarius). 6. ed., suppl. 1982.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    Standards of mandatory application, established by Law No. 22729 of February, 1983, on radiopharmaceuticals and radiosterilization of products for medical use, issued as a supplement to the text of the Argentine National Pharmacopoeia. In particular, the general characteristics, identification and purity tests, radioactivity valuation, top date of utilization, and form of conservation of different radiopharmaceuticals are described. (C.A.K.) [es

  12. Industrial applications of ionizing radiation in France; Zastosowanie przemyslowe promieniowania jonizujacego we Francji promieniowania jonizujacego

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icre, P [CORFAR S.A., (France)

    1997-10-01

    The review of industrial applications of ionizing radiations in France has been done. The special attention has been paid on irradiation of minerals, polymers and biological materials.The perspectives of radiosterilization have been also discussed.The review of radiation sources commonly used in irradiation plants has been performed as well.

  13. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  14. Radiation chemical dosimetry by means of nitrate-nitrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    The different chemical systems used in dosimetry and the selection criteria for them are described. The general topics in dosimetry with alkali nitrates as well as the phenomena occurring in their radiolysis are also treated. The possibility of application in dosimetric areas useful in radiosterilization and industrial processes is studied too. (Author) 22 refs

  15. Microbiological control of sterilization efficiency by irradiation. Biological indicators. [Medical supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C [Institut National des Radioelements, Brussels (Belgium)

    1977-01-01

    The microbiological efficiency of the radiosterilization process was tested by means of biological indicators such as Micrococcus radiodurans R1 and Bacillus pumilus E601 for gamma and electron radiation doses ranging from 0.5 to 6 Mrad. The response of the biological indicators was studied in terms of conservation time, initial concentration of biological material, and sources of used radiation. Both the biological dosimetry of the process and the sterility after treatment were studied on the basis of inactivation curves.

  16. National experience in radiosterelization or radiodescontamination of biological products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron, E.; Romay, Z.; Otero, I.; Chavez, A.; Prieto, E.; Sainz, D.; Rodriguez, R.; Diaz, D.

    1997-01-01

    The ionizing radiations are especially important when other chemical and physical methods can't be used, or they don't give the result required, for which the employment of advanced technologies for the sterilization is found in ascent at world level. To such effect, the International Atomic Energy Agency has, sponsored a coordinated program for the radiosterilization of medical and biological products in Latin America, in which Cuba participates. (author) [es

  17. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  18. Effects of radioactivity on living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; Flury-Herard, A.; Cadet, J.

    1996-01-01

    After the discovery of X-rays by W.C. Roentgen and the discovery of radioactivity by H. Becquerel, about a century ago, the scientists were aware of the damaging effects of ionizing radiations on men. This digest paper describes the biological effects of internal and external irradiations: dose distributions, radio-induced DNA injuries, cells death, DNA mutations, carcinomas, radio-therapy, radiosterilization and ionization of food. (J.S.)

  19. Potential sources for the radiation treatment of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sande, W.E.; Libby, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present, near-term, and potential (through year 2000) supply of radiation sources for large-scale radiosterilization applications is discussed. Principal sources considered are 60 Co produced in nuclear power reactors, 137 Cs presently available from ERDA encapsulation operations, and a mixture of 134 Cs- 137 Cs potentially available from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Some consideration is also given to electron accelerators

  20. Radiation disinfestation of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on the radiodisinfestation of food and crops. Topics considered at the conference included food irradiation's impact of the US Agency for International Development, FDA regulations, irradiation as a quarantine treatment, quality attributes of irradiated fruits, low-dose irradiation, cesium 137 as a radiation source, radiosterilization, economic feasibility, marketing, consumer acceptance, and the packaging of irradiated products

  1. Biochemical effects on long-term frozen human costal cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santin, Stefany P.; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Yoshito, Daniele; Soares, Fernando A.N.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: mathor@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Currently, the progresses on treatment of musculoskeletal diseases with the evolving of artificial implants and the success of tissue transplantation between genetically different individuals have conducted to an increase in radiosterilization. Regarding to tissue transplantation, it is essential to have sterile tissue and many tissue banks use radiosterilization as an effective method to sterilize these tissues. However, high doses of ionizing radiation and the preservation method may induce structural modifications in the tissues, as degradation of structural scaffold, decreasing its mechanical properties. Particularly, cartilage have been preserved in high concentrations of glycerol or deep-frozen at -70 degree C for storage after radiosterilization. Therefore, it is important to study the modifications induced in cartilage by preservation methods and by radiosterilization to determine the appropriated parameters for high quality of human allografts. Costal cartilages were obtained from cadaveric donors and were frozen at -20 degree C for 2 years long in order to compare with previous studies for fresh, deep-frozen and glycerolised cartilages. The mechanical tests were carried out in a universal testing machine until sample failure. According our results, there is no significant statistical difference between stress at break of fresh, long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages and deep-frozen cartilage. This early result suggests, regarding to tensile property, that long-term - 20 degree C frozen cartilages corresponds to glycerolised costal cartilages irradiated with 25 kGy or deep-frozen cartilages irradiated with 25 and 50 kGy. Thus, this long-term frozen cartilages may be used for tissue banks, but more studies about effects of ionizing radiation are necessary. (author)

  2. The method of polymer compositions manufacturing on the base of polypropylene[Radiation processing]; Sposob wytwarzania kompozycji polimerow na bazie polipropylenu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z; Bulhak, Z; Bojarski, J; Stachowicz, W [Warsaw (Poland); Mirkowski, K [Legionowo (Poland)

    1966-06-28

    The method of manufacturing of radiation resistant polymer composition of medical quality have been proposed. The raw material consisted of polypropylene homopolymer with propylene-ethylene copolymer, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and polystyrene suspension have been mixed and extruded during heating at 190-270{sup o}C. Then obtained mixture have been granulated. The material structure with microagglomerates is responsible for elevated radiation resistance of material being destinated for medical devices production and radiosterilization.

  3. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojarski, J.; Zimek, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Radiation resistant modified polypropylene; Polipropylen modyfikowany odporny radiacyjnie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarski, J; Zimek, Z [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Radiation technology for production of radiation resistant polypropylene for medical use has been presented. The method consists in radiation induced copolymerization of polypropylene with ethylene and addition of small amount of copolymer of polyethylene and vinyl acetate. The material of proposed composition has a very good mechanical properties and elevated radiation resistivity decided on possibility of radiosterilization of products made of this material and designed for medical use. 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  5. Production of irradiated bone derivatives for odontology and traumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo R.; Murature, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the Industrial Human Tissue Processing Plant of the Cordoba University and the Cordoba Science Agency analyzed the joint installation and operation of a Gamma Radiosterilization Module for the production of sterile human bone tissues as allografts for odontology and traumatology. The irradiation procedures were developed at the CNEA's Ezeiza Atomic Center. The irradiated bone tissues are being used in odontology with an excellent clinical behaviour. (author)

  6. Radiation sensitivity of certain egyptian isolates of yersinia enterocolitica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zzawahry, Y.A.; Youssef, Y.A.; Awny; El-Sherif, W.M.

    1987-01-01

    An irradiation dose of 2 KGy was sufficient to destroy the cells of the six tested isolates of pathogenic yersinia enterocolitica and reduce the population of two isolates by log cycles, while the irradiation dose of reduced the number of cells by about 4 to 5 log cycles. Dose response curves of yersinia enterocolitica indicate that radio-sterile ground beef used as suspending medium was more protective for the tested isolates against the damaging effect of radiation than sterile nutrient broth. The cells of yersinia enterocolitica suspended in radio-sterile ground beef with few exception were more injured in presence of either 3% NaCl or 1% Nano 2 in the recovery medium than those suspended in a sterile nutrient broth. It has been found that, in general, irradiated cells of all isolates of yersinia enterocolitica were more sensitive to 3% Na No 2 in the recovery medium. The results indicated that there was no viable counts obtained for the three tested local isolates of yersinia enterocolitica at the lethal dose of 2.5 KGy during a storage period of 1 week up to 5 weeks at 4 degree C for both media, sterile nutrient broth and radio-sterile gound beef. Furthermore, significant effect of different increasing doses of gamma irradiation was obtained on the different chemical constituents of yersinia enterocolitica

  7. Influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants: A literature study. Pt. 9. Supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, L.; Schuettler, C.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Sterilization of medical aid articles (e.g. catheters, one-way syringes) with ionizing radiation is a successful practice in many countries. During recent years, the results from numerous experiments of radiosterillization of pharmaceuticals and adjuvants have likewise been published. Experience has shown that radiation treatment, in many cases, is leading to transformations of the irradiated substances. In the present part IX of the bibliographic study on the influence of radiation treatment on pharmaceuticals and adjuvants the results of experiments on ca. 80 substances from 36 different sources have been evaluated. In all parts of the study results of about 560 experiments on 360 substances from 176 different sources are present. (orig.)

  8. Planning of gamma-fields: forming and checking dose-rate homogeneity in irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, V.; Foldiak, G.; Horvath, Zs.; Naszodi, L.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal geometry of the sources of an 80000-Ci 60 Co irradiation facility was calculated. The array of the sources is suitable for fundamental research and pilot-plant radiosterilization simultaneously. A method was developed to compensate the inhomogeneity of the dose-rate field: it is no worse than that of the continuous large-scale facilities. In five years the activity of the sources decreased by about half; therefore, this recharge became inevitable. Experience proved that with the new source geometry optimalized by calculations a dose-rate of 1.2 +-10% became available with the packages. (author)

  9. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  10. Food irradiation and Hungarian experiences with it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Kiss, Istvan

    1988-01-01

    Among the different types of food irradiation techniques using ionizing radiations the methods serving - in a direct or indirect way - the purposes of health protection are reviewed. Based on foreign and Hungarian examples radurization of vegetables (potatoes, onions, garlics) by low irradiation doses, radiosterilization of corn, tropic and subtropic fruits, radicidation of dry additivies (spice, medicinal herb) and foodstuffs of animal origin (meat, poultry, egg, fish, shrimp, etc.) are discussed. The general situation of food irradiation in Hungary inlcuding licensing procedures is evaluated. (V.N.) 32 refs.; 3 figs.

  11. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@cham.ucl.ac.be; Tilquin, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ({gamma})) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  12. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals (eg chloramphenicol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, F.; Tilquin, B.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world-wide application of irradiation as a new technology for sterilization, the identification of the drugs products is very important. Introduction of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals is proceeding at a slower rate than that for disposable medical supplies; it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to prove that degradation of products is safe. Major advantages in the use of radiation as a sterilization procedure are high penetrating power, small temperature rise, ease of control and minimal degradation of irradiated solid drugs [fr

  13. Dewatering properties of differently treated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehnder, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study on dewatering properties of radiosterilized sewage sludge of different type and origin was carried out. For comparison, also heat-treated (pasteurized) sludge was investigated. The specific filtration resistance of irradiated sewage sludge was lowered in all types of sludge examined. In general, pasteurization increased this parameter. The settling properties of irradiated digested sewage sludge was slightly improved, mainly in the first hours after treatment. Microbial effects may mask the real sedimentation relations especcially in aerobically stabilized sludges. A pasteurization treatment of sewage sludge caused an increased content of soluble substances and suspended particles in the supernatant water. The supernatant water from irradiated sludge showed a smaller increase

  14. Possibility of the microbiological decontamination by irradiation of talc for pharmaceutical and industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, R.; Varela, A.

    1988-01-01

    The sterilization of talc is a demand of the national industry and health system. The results of a feasibility study on the radiosterilization of talc for industrial use and the manufacture of tablets using the Producto 1 facility are reviewed. It was found that a minimum dose of 25 kGy allows elimination of all microorganisms present. This assertion was proved through application of microbiological control according to the current Cuba standards. Physiochemical analysis of the irradiated talc demonstrated that the treatment did not cause detrimental changes of the product

  15. The effects of gamma irradiation on diclofenac sodium, liposome and niosome ingredients for rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, A Yekta; Turker, Selcan; Colak, Seyda; Korkmaz, Mustafa; Kiliç, Ekrem; Ozalp, Meral

    2013-09-01

    The use of gamma rays for the sterilization of pharmaceutical raw materials and dosage forms is an alternative method for sterilization. However, one of the major problems of the radiosterilization is the production of new radiolytic products during the irradiation process. Therefore, the principal problem in radiosterilization is to determine and to characterize these physical and chemical changes originating from high-energy radiation. Parenteral drug delivery systems were prepared and in vitro characterization, biodistribution and treatment studies were done in our previous studies. Drug delivery systems (liposomes, niosomes, lipogelosomes and niogelosomes) encapsulating diclofenac sodium (DFNa) were prepared for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This work complies information about the studies developed in order to find out if gamma radiation could be applied as a sterilization method to DFNa, and the raw materials as dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC), surfactant I [polyglyceryl-3-cethyl ether (SUR I)], dicethyl phosphate (DCP) and cholesterol (CHOL) that are used to prepare those systems. The raw materials were irradiated with different radiation doses (5, 10, 25 and 50 kGy) and physicochemical changes (organoleptic properties pH, UV and melting point), microbiological evaluation [sterility assurance level (SAL), sterility and pyrogen test] and electron spin resonance (ESR) characteristics were studied at normal (25 °C, 60% relative humidity) and accelerated (40 °C, 75% relative humidity) stability test conditions.

  16. 2, 4 and 6 kGy effect on the microbiological characteristics of chicken hamburgers stored at 2±2 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Z.; Basurto, H.; Silva, M.

    2001-01-01

    Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) of S. typhimurium irradiated in Casoy broth (TSB) and inoculated in chicken burger was found to be 0,425 and 0,547 kGy respectively being the second value 22,3 % higher than the first one. Then, chicken burger previously radiosterilized at 15 kGy was inoculated with S. typhimurium, irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and kept under storage for 57 days at 2± 2 o C and HR 90 5%. Another batch of chicken burger without radiosterilization was irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored under the same conditions than the previous one in order to study the natural bacterial flora. It was observed that there is a synergic effect between irradiation dose and time of storage (α=5%) in the counting of S. typhimurium. In unirradiated chicken burger, the number of total coliforms increased from 29 NMP/g at the beginning to 4250 NMP/g at day 22 and fecal coliforms from 4 to 240 NMP/g; subsequently the number of these bacteria dropped again at the end of the storage time, while in irradiated samples no coliforms were found. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria diminished its ability of growing up and making colonies, proportionally to the applied irradiation doses. However, as the storage time advanced these bacteria recovered its ability to grow up and of cause spoilage. (authors)

  17. 2, 4 and 6 kGy effect on the microbiological characteristics of chicken hamburgers stored at 2{+-}2 {sup o}C; Efecto de 2, 4 y 6 kGy sobre las caracteristicas microbiologicas de hamburguesa de pollo almacenadas a 2{+-}2{sup o}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Z [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru); Basurto, H; Silva, M [Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima (Peru)

    2001-01-01

    Decimal reduction dose (D{sub 10}) of S. typhimurium irradiated in Casoy broth (TSB) and inoculated in chicken burger was found to be 0,425 and 0,547 kGy respectively being the second value 22,3 % higher than the first one. Then, chicken burger previously radiosterilized at 15 kGy was inoculated with S. typhimurium, irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and kept under storage for 57 days at 2{+-} 2 {sup o}C and HR 90 5%. Another batch of chicken burger without radiosterilization was irradiated at 2, 4 and 6 kGy and stored under the same conditions than the previous one in order to study the natural bacterial flora. It was observed that there is a synergic effect between irradiation dose and time of storage ({alpha}=5%) in the counting of S. typhimurium. In unirradiated chicken burger, the number of total coliforms increased from 29 NMP/g at the beginning to 4250 NMP/g at day 22 and fecal coliforms from 4 to 240 NMP/g; subsequently the number of these bacteria dropped again at the end of the storage time, while in irradiated samples no coliforms were found. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria diminished its ability of growing up and making colonies, proportionally to the applied irradiation doses. However, as the storage time advanced these bacteria recovered its ability to grow up and of cause spoilage. (authors)

  18. EPR studies of free radicals decay and survival in gamma irradiated aminoglycoside antibiotics: sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Sławomir; Pilawa, Barbara; Koprowski, Robert; Wróbel, Zygmunt; Ptaszkiewicz, Marta; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł

    2012-02-14

    Radiation sterilization technology is more actively used now that any time because of its many advantages. Gamma radiation has high penetrating power, relatively low chemical reactivity and causes small temperature rise. But on the other hand radiosterilization can lead to radiolytic products appearing, in example free radicals. Free radicals in radiative sterilized sisomicin, tobramycin and paromomycin were studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Dose of gamma irradiation of 25kGy was used. Concentrations and properties of free radicals in irradiated antibiotics were studied. EPR spectra were recorded for samples stored in air and argon. For gamma irradiated antibiotics strong EPR lines were recorded. One- and two-exponential functions were fitted to experimental points during testing and researching of time influence of the antibiotics storage to studied parameters of EPR lines. Our study of free radicals in radiosterilized antibiotics indicates the need for characterization of medicinal substances prior to sterilization process using EPR values. We propose the concentration of free radicals and other spectroscopic parameters as useful factors to select the optimal type of sterilization for the individual drug. The important parameters are i.a. the τ time constants and K constants of exponential functions. Time constants τ give us information about the speed of free radicals concentration decrease in radiated medicinal substances. The constant K(0) shows the free radicals concentration in irradiated medicament after long time of storage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Studies on the radiation chemistry of biomolecules in aqueous solution with specific objective of minimizing their radiolytic degradation. Coordinated programme for Asia and the Pacific Region on radiation sterilization practices significant to local medical supplies and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayana Rao, K.

    1979-01-01

    As part of a study of radiolytic degradation of pharmaceuticals during radiosterilization, the basic radiation chemistry of the B-group vitamins, nicotinamide, pyridoxin, riboflavin and thiamine, and the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with these same materials has been investigated. The various aspects studied were - radiolysis under controlled conditions, effects of phase, temperature, pH and nature and concentration of additives. Some of the conclusions are: 1) with oxygen saturated aqueous solutions containing glucose, the radiolytic degradation of the vitamins is reduced: 2) results a similar for N 2 O saturated aqueous solutions; 3) in glucose-containing solutions, the protective effect is considerably modified at higher temperatures; and 4) irradiation of air-saturated aqueous solutions in the frozen state leads to reduced decomposition. It is concluded that in the presence of oxygen, in frozen matrices at low temperature, it appears possible to reduce the radiolytic breakdown of vitamins to low levels

  20. Effect of Co-60 irradiation on hyperimmune antimeningococcus globulins-gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galguera, M.; Le Riverand, E.; Padron, S.

    1990-01-01

    Globulins-gamma from voluntary blood donors immunized with the Cuban BC antimeningococcus vaccine is now being used in our country for the treatment of the meningococcus disease. This study of the effect of Co-60 irradiation on antimeningococcus globulins-gamma was carried out to try to eliminate the inconvenience shown by the traditionally used sterilization procedures (losses in the filter and persistence of viral contamination). globulins-gamma was obtained by ethanol fractionation and was irradiated at a different dose in solution with different stabilizers and it was also lyophilized. Results of the chemical controls carried out lead to the conclusion that it is possible to use radiosterilization on this product in a lyophilized form. The preservation of bactericidal activity, even after the highest irradiation doses, confirms the above mentioned. 13 refs

  1. Microbiological decontamination of cosmetics and beauty products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Galaud, G.

    1975-01-01

    Contamination by microorganisms in cosmetics and beauty products create two types of disadvantage: degradation of the product itself, making it unusable (change in color, ordor, etc); health hazards for users, liable to lead them to abandon the product (allergies caused by preservatives or infections). Radiosterilization is designed to achieve the most thorough possible disappearance of these microorganisms. In the case of radiodecontamination, the aim is merely to reduce the number below the acceptable level from the product quality standpoint, namely, a condition eliminating the above drawbacks. Cobalt 60 is currently the most widely used radiation source for treating products in irradiation installations, the operating conditions of which are discussed. The problems associated with this treatment are analyzed. Also provided are orders of magnitude of investments and costs [fr

  2. Kinetics of the radicals induced in gamma irradiated sulfafurazole: an EPR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, S.; Korkmaz, M.

    2004-01-01

    The spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radiolytic intermediates produced in gamma irradiated sulfafurazole (SFZ) were investigated at different temperatures in the dose range 5-50 kGy using EPR and IR techniques. The imodiation produced two species (A, B) in SFZ. The heights of the peaks were used to monitor the temperature, time dependent and kinetic features of the radical species contributing to the EPR spectrum. The applicability of EPR technique for monitoring radiosterilization of SFZ is discussed. The radiation yield of solid SFZ was found to be very low (G=0.16), and basing on this it was concluded that SFZ and SFZ containing drugs can be safely sterilized by radiation. The EPR data were used to characterize the contributing radicals produced in gamma irradiated SFZ. No definite difference was observed between unirradiated and irradiated IR spectra of SFZ. (orig.)

  3. Radiation-induced electron paramagnetic resonance signal and soybean isoflavones content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos R.R. de; Mandarino, José M.G.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2012-01-01

    Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) is a well-known spectroscopic technique that detects paramagnetic centers and can detect free radicals with high sensitivity. In food, free radicals can be generated by several commonly used industrial processes, such as radiosterilization or heat treatment. EPR spectroscopy is used to detect radioinduced free radicals in food. In this work the relation between EPR signal induced by gamma irradiation treatment and soybean isoflavones content was investigated. Present results did not show correlation between total isoflavones content and the EPR signal. Nevertheless, some isoflavone contents had a negative correlation with the radiation-induced EPR signal. - Highlights: ► Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) detects free radicals. ► Ionizing radiation as free radicals inducer. ► Total soybean isoflvones do not correlate with radiation-induced EPR intensity but a soybean glucosyl glucoside isoflavone does.

  4. Modeling of electron beams produced by linear accelerator installed at CNSTN / optimization study for the case of radiation sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellikh, Jihed

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of particle accelerators has led to the disposal of a very wide diversity of applications, such as the technique of treatment with Beta radiations. an electron accelerator has been installed at the National Center for nuclear Sciences and Technologies CNSTN) with the aim of controlling this technology, its development and its use in the areas of agriculture, industry, human health and scientific research. this project is committed for the study of the exploitation of this new facility in the field of radio-sterilization of medical, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and laboratory products. A numerical tool has been then developed to simulate the radio processing and to simplify this process. Due to this option of dose distribution modeling inside a studied product, it's possible to estimate the best configuration for the accelerator parameter setting. It is a solution allowing to guarantee at once the conformity of the treatment of a product, as well as the reliability of the installation.

  5. Sterilization of topical products by cobalt-60. Coordinated programme in practices for the radiation sterilization of medical supplies in countries of Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong-Kook Kim

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the test was to determine whether ointment can be sterilized or not by Co-60 irradiation. To evaluate the effect of radiosterilization, biological and physico-chemical tests have been performed. The effects of the Co-60 irradiation have always been compared with non-irradiated standard. The results showed that the ointment vehicles which were exposed in the air and contaminated from the surroundings contained no survivor germs after the irradiation with 2.5 Mrad doses. B. subtilis and B. pumilus which were artificial contaminants of ointment vehicles could not be detected after irradiation with 2.5 Mrad doses. The quantitative determinations of two ingredients (gentamicin and bufexamac) in ointments did not show changes between before and after irradiation. For the ointment vehicles no appearance changes have been observed, except slight discoloration. A change in hardness was observed after irradiation

  6. Change in digestibility of gamma-irradiated starch by low temperature cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Ishigaki, I.; Rahman, S.

    1988-01-01

    Combination effect of irradiation and low temperature cooking on starch digestibility has been investigated as a basic research for application of radiosterilization on starch fermentation. The digestion of corn starch by glucoamylase after cooking at low temperature was enhanced by γ-irradiation and the required cooking temperature was decreased from 75-80 0 C to 65 0 C by 25 kGy. Gelatinization of starches except tapioca starch was enhanced by irradiation and it corresponds to the digestibility. The digestibility of potato starch which has a high viscosity was especially enhanced at low temperature cooking because the viscosity was markedly decreased by irradiation. These results show that the irradiation of starches is useful not only for the sterilization of fermentation broth but also for the enhancement of digestion. (orig.) [de

  7. Thirteenth meeting of representatives of RCA Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The 13th Meeting of Member States of RCA (Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology) was held on 26 September 1984 in Vienna. This document constitutes the report of that meeting. It includes the list of participants, agenda, summary of discussions, and 1984 costing table. The Report of Recommendations for the meeting consisted of the Summary Report of the Sixth RCA Working Group Meeting held in Kalpakkam, India, 20-23 March 1984. This Summary Report dealt with such topics as RCA research projects (including nuclear techniques to improve legume and buffalo production, radiosterilization of medical supplies, maintenance of nuclear instruments, isotope applications in hydrology and sedimentology), progress of the RCA/UNDP Industrial Project, and future programmes and budget

  8. Radiation sterilization of triple sugar iron agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, G.; Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Triple sugar iron agar (TSI), a medium used for the identification of enteric bacteria, was sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation doses of 750-2000 krad. The radio-sterilized medium, slightly modified by increasing its Phenol Red content, performed well when tested with different enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative bacteria. Growth, change of indicator reaction in slant and butt and formation of gas and H 2 S were equal in irradiated and autoclaved TSI. Slants of irradiated TSI in stoppered plastic tubes kept their diagnostic properties during storage for at least 4 months. Gamma irradiation appears to be an attractive and economical method of sterilising nutrient media in sealed tubes or other containers, avoiding the risk of contamination during processing. (author)

  9. Gamma-radiolysis of chiral molecules: R(+)-limonene, S(-)-limonene and R(-)-a-phellandrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, F.

    2004-01-01

    Three isomeric chiral terpenes, R(+)-limonene, S(-)-limonene and R(-)-α-phellandrene were γ-radiolyzed in sealed vials at room temperature with a total radiation dose of 317 kGy. The radiolyzed samples were analyzed by FT-IR, electronic absorption spectroscopy, liquid chromatography using a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and by polarimetry. Despite a relatively high radiation dose used, all the chiral molecules selected have shown a low radioracemization rate. This fact and the role played by the impurities in the selective radio-degradation of one of the two enantiomers has been discussed in the context of the origin of chirality in prebiotic molecules and the chirality enhancement in a prebiotic world. The results were also discussed in the frame of the radiosterilization technique of chiral drugs, perfumes and food components. (author)

  10. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    2003-02-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  11. Utilization of electron accelerator in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabalfin, Estelita G.

    2003-01-01

    Radiosterilization of medical and surgical supplies, radiation treatment of consumer products such as food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and the modification of polymers, crosslinking or curing, using gamma irradiation facilities in Philippine industries are overviewed. Philippine Nuclear Research Institute(PNRI) conducts bioburden determination, dose setting and validation of compatibility with radiation of product and packaging with the technical assistance of IAEA. The products with yields treated at the irradiation facility from 1996-2001 are shown in table. An electron accelerator of 10 MeV and 28 kW, established by Terumo Corporation, is used since 2000 for in-house radiation sterilization of syringes. Current regulations and regulatory authority in Philippines are also briefly introduced. Future processes such as radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL), use of carrageenan as hydrogel for dressing wounds and others and fermented bagasse as animal feed are now in progress. (S. Ohno)

  12. The Relation of Design Parameters, Plant Capacity and Processing Costs in Cobalt-60 Sterilization Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    The paper describes the main features of three basic types of cobalt-60 sterilization plants which have been designed to provide a complete range of capacities for radiosterilization of medical products. The smallest plant has a capacity of up to 50 000 cubic feet of medical products a year, the intermediate size plant has a capacity of up to 500 000 cubic feet a year, and the largest plant has a capacity in excess of 1000 000 cubic feet a year. The relations between capital costs, rate of production, efficiency and unit processing costs for each type of plant are discussed. The method of selecting the best type of plant for a particular need will also be outlined. (author)

  13. Change in digestibility of gamma-irradiated starch by low temperature cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, T.; Ishigaki, I.; Rahman, S.

    1988-04-01

    Combination effect of irradiation and low temperature cooking on starch digestibility has been investigated as a basic research for application of radiosterilization on starch fermentation. The digestion of corn starch by glucoamylase after cooking at low temperature was enhanced by ..gamma..-irradiation and the required cooking temperature was decreased from 75-80/sup 0/C to 65/sup 0/C by 25 kGy. Gelatinization of starches except tapioca starch was enhanced by irradiation and it corresponds to the digestibility. The digestibility of potato starch which has a high viscosity was especially enhanced at low temperature cooking because the viscosity was markedly decreased by irradiation. These results show that the irradiation of starches is useful not only for the sterilization of fermentation broth but also for the enhancement of digestion.

  14. Proposal of implementation of Environmental Management System at the Laboratory of Radioactive Waste In IPEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Luiz Antonio Abdalla

    2008-01-01

    An increasing use of nuclear technology in the form of its several applications (electricity generation, medical, industrial, agricultural, environment and radiosterilization) is currently being observed in Brazil. Radioactive waste of high, medium or lower activity is produced in all fuel cycle and other research activities, industrial activities of fuel production and electricity generation. Appropriate and safe technologies are available for the treatment and storage of radioactive waste and, when applied, contribute for the acceptance of nuclear energy by the Society. With the increasing importance of demands related to environmental issues, the International Organization for Standardization issued the Standard ISO 14.001 - Environmental Management System, applied to all types and size of organizations, helping them to increase their environment performance. In this research, the standard requirements were commented in detail, being particularized to the Laboratory of Radioactive Waste from IPEN, as a case study. (author)

  15. The Portuguese gamma irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, C.M.; Almeida, J.C.; Botelho, M.L.; Cavaco, M.C.; Almeida-Vara, E.; Andrade, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A Gamma Radiation Facility was built up in the National Laboratory of Industrial Technology and Engineering (LNETI), Lisbon, Portugal. This plant (UTR GAMA-Pi) is a Cobalt-60 dry storage continuous facility with a nominal capacity of 1.5 x 10 16 Bq. The initial activity is 1.1 x 10 16 Bq and the throughput capacity 10 3 ton/year for product with a bulk density of 0.2 g/cm 3 treated with a minimum absorbed dose of 25 kGy. Complementary control devices were installed: ventilation system, closed water refrigeration circuit, internal TV system, detection and extinction fire system and emergency power group. It must be emphasized that the best attention was given to the conception and efficiency of the interlock safety systems. This facility will be utilized mainly for radiosterilization of medical articles and decontamination of wine cork stoppers. (author)

  16. Dose control in semi industrial irradiation plant at the Ezeiza Atomic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorda, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1975 a study was initiated at the Division of Dosimetry to develop a technique and a system of dosimetry to be applied to the radiosterilization processes in the semi industrial irradiation plant of Ezeiza Atomic Center. The result of this study was the potassium nitrate/nitrite dosimeter used as routine dosimeter for control processes in food conservation, with a dose range of 0.2 kGy-1 kGy and in radiosterilization processes of disposable medical products of 1 kGy-150kGy. The potassium nitrate crystals undergo a radiolytic reduction. A linear correlation between the dose applied to the solid and the production of potassium nitrite was observed. After the irradiation of solid, the produced nitrite solution is colorimetrically titrated by measuring the absorbency in a spectrophotometer at 504 nm. The color is due to the formation of a diazonium salt and its later copulation with N-1 naphtylethylendiamine hydrochloride in acid medium. In 1980 a postal survey was organized presenting this dosimeter to standardize the irradiation dose in industrial process for Latin America. This dosimeter was presented in 1984 at the International Symposium on High Doses of the IAEA that took place in Vienna. Since them, comparative studies were performed between this dosimeter and those internationally considered and accepted: cerium(IV)/cerium(III) sulphate, ionization chamber of parallel plates, alanine. The results of comparison with the alanine dosimeter, which was used by Dr. Regula of the GSF of Munich, were the following: February 1985: 0% deviation; February 1986: 0.43% deviation. (Author)

  17. ESR Study Applied To Thermal Stability Of Radiation-Induced Species Of Solid Ketoprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltar-Strmecki, N.; Katusin-Razem, B.; Razem, D.

    2015-01-01

    Ketoprofen [2-(3-benzoylphenyl) propionic acid] is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. It has been widely used in human and veterinary medicine. Radiation processing of drugs and its ingredients is recognized as a safe and effective method among the existing technologies for sterilization and protocols that can be found in ISO 11137-1. Radiosterilization of drugs or other medical products by a suitable dose of ionizing radiation conducted in an appropriate environment ensures sterile conditions by destroying or removing vegetative and sporulating microbes from the ingredients or environment. In earlier studies the effects of gamma radiation was evaluated by selected physico-chemical methods and the observations showed that solid ketoprofen is relatively stable toward ionizing irradiation and that radiosterilization might be a suitable method for the sterilization of solid ketoprofen. The studies reported in this work were undertaken to analyse thermal stability of free radicals by accelerated aging method with a view to the determination of shelf-life. The expiration date (shelf-life) of a product is based on evaluation of both, thermal stability of free radicals, as well as on the time evolution of stable radiolysis products. Namely, storage time is determined by the time required by any degradation product in the dosage form to achieve a sufficient level to represent a risk to the patient. This work shows that ESR spectroscopy provides means for determination of thermal stability of radicals induced by gamma-irradiation in solid drugs. Therefore, despite the complex mixture of individual free radicals induced by gamma-irradiation in solid ketoprofen, the overall lifetime of free radicals could be determined by using isothermal and isochronal annealing. This study shows that radicals induced by gamma-irradiation in solid ketoprofen are stable for at least about 6 months. (author).

  18. The recent development of isotope and radiation application in Taiwan, ROC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Gann; Tsai, Zei-Tsan; Huang, Henton [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Lung-Tan, TW (China)

    1996-10-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) plays a vital role in both isotope and radiation application in Taiwan, ROC. For research and development of reactor-produced radioisotopes, both Sr-90/Y-90 and W-188/Re-188 generators for therapeutic application were emphasized. For production of cyclotron-produced radioisotopes, I-123, Tl-201, Ga-67, In-111, Co-67 and F-18 were generated using a TR-30/15 cyclotron with H{sup -}/D{sup -} 30MeV/15MeV and maximum beam current of 400{mu}A/150{mu}A. For preparation of radiopharmaceuticals, a number of organic ligands have been synthesized such as d,1-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO), N- (S-benzoylmercaptoacetyl) triglycine (S-Bz-MAG{sub 3}), 2-alkoxyisobutylisonitrile and metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and octreotide. R/D and production of radiopharmaceuticals have been carried out in cooperation with domestic hospitals. Some research work related to target radiotherapeutic and radiopharmaceuticals has also been carried out with cooperation of domestic hospitals. The C-13 urea breath test (C-13-UBT) has been extensively studied clinically to investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The detection of this bacteria in the stomach ulcer becomes very important in both diagnosis and therapy monitoring. There are three large Co-60 irradiation plant in Taiwan. The radiosterilization of medical devices has been used in Taiwan for more than 14 years. Besides INER conducted R/D on (1) radiosterilization study of porcine serum, (2) insect sterilization, (3) treatment of condensate microphone with gamma ray, and (4) radiation polymerization for industry and medical applications. In conclusion, the prospects of isotope and radiation applications in Taiwan are very promising and encouraging. The R/D and development of the applications will contribute technical, economic and social benefits to the society. (J.P.N.)

  19. Comparative Radiosensitivity of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghys, R.; Vandergoten, R.; Paquette, J.-C.; Fredette, V.; Plante, C.; Pavilanis, V.; Gilker, J.-C.

    1967-01-01

    The authors exposed to gamma rays from a MCo source (''Gammacell 220'' from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.) various pathogenic micro-organisms: a slow-growing aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10 varieties of the strain B. C. G.), a fast-growing anaerobic bacterium (Clostridium perfringens, strain SWG-121) and 4 strains of influenza virus (2 from group A and 2 from group B). In the case of B. C. G., an LD 90 of 29 ± 1 kR is reported for bacilli irradiated immediately before subculture and subsequently cultivated for at most 14 days. If the microbes are cultivated for 28 days, the yield from cultures after exposures of up to 50 kR is at least equal to that of control specimens; it then decreases rapidly, and a dose of 140 kR inhibits bacterial growth completely. It is reported that the LD 90 of the strain of Cl. perfringens used in the study is very much dependent on die culture conditions and die conditions under which die microbe growth measurements are made; 24 h after irradiation it is at least 1 MR. Although no spores are seen in the microscope, this would seem to demonstrate the presence in the cultures of extremely radioresistant sporulated individuals. Group A influenza viruses are found to be more radioresistant than those of group B. The LD 90 of relatively low radiation doses varies between 75 and 100 kR, and is higher if irradiation is performed at -78.5°C. It is very difficult to inactivate the last virus particles; multiplicity reactivation seems to occur in certain experimental conditions. Haemagglutinant activity does not vary, even after die highest exposures used (4 MR). Two important practical conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of a single dose (e. g. 2.5 Mrad) for radiosterilization gives an exposure which is unnecessarily high in some cases and insufficient in others, and (2) Selective radiosterilization is sometimes possible: the viability of a micro-organism used, for example, to produce a vaccine may not be

  20. Preparation and Testing of Radiovaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet-Maury, P.; Olivier, H.R.; Gallut, J.; Lepine, P.; Mollaret, H.; Servant, P.

    1967-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiations on viruses and bacteria differs from that of the physical or chemical bactericides used in vaccine production in that it leads to dissociation of the cellular functions. This appears to be a general property of ionizing radiations, since it has been found to occur with many different types of radiations, including alpha particles, X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, boron fission rays and protons. It is therefore hoped that radiosterilization will result in a permanent inhibition of the virulence of pathogenic germs while affecting to a lesser degree their antigenic properties, and that vaccines of valuable immunizing power can be produced. The absorbed doses of various ionizing radiations (alpha particles, neutrons, boron fission rays and 60 Co gamma rays) which completely suppress virulence have been determined for a number of viruses (vaccine, aphthous fever, poliomyelitis) and bacteria (Escherichiacoli. Koch, Yersin, Mallassez and Vignal bacillae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi). The antigenic properties and immunizing power of these vaccines are compared with those of heat-sterilized vaccines of the same germs. (author) [fr

  1. Application of radiation in agriculture in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrizal; Sumanggono, Riyanti; Kuswadi, Ahmad Nasroh; Arifin, Muchson; Gandanegara, Soertini [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Research and Development Center for Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation has been used in agriculture research and development in Indonesia since several decades ago, especially in fields of mutation breeding, pest control, plant nutrition, and animal health. Mutation breeding using gamma radiation has contributed several crop varieties, namely seven varieties of rice, three of soybean, and two of mungbean to national agriculture. Besides, hundreds of promising mutant lines of rice, soybean, mungbean, peanut, sorghum, horticultural crops, and industrial plants which are ready for multi-location trials. Radiation is also used for the control of insect pests, either field or storage pests. Storage pests are eradicated by lethal dosage for direct killing, while the population of field pests (especially fruit flies) is eliminated by the release of radiosterilized insects in the program of sterile insects technique (SIT). A pilot scale trial of SIT to control fruit fly is being conducted in East Java province. Lethal dosage of gamma irradiation is used as post-harvest treatment for food of such as dried spices, fresh fruits, and packed foods. Gamma radiation has been also used to sterilize culture media of Bradyrhizobium, a nitrogen fixative bacteria that is the symbiont of soybean to be used in yield improvement. In animal health, gamma radiation can be used directly or indirectly to eliminate, decrease diseases. Disease control can use irradiation to develop vaccines, and to produce the diagnostic reagent kits. Vaccines for Coccidiosis (chick) diseases have been produced and disseminated in Indonesia. (author)

  2. Polyaniline nanofibers as a new gamma radiation stabilizer agent for PMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyanilines are reported to exhibit stabilizing effects in rubber mixtures submitted to gamma-irradiation and thermo-oxidative treatment. Such abilities may be explained by their action as radical scavengers. Since radical formation followed by main chain scission is a widely accepted mechanism for radiolytic degradation of PMMA, polyaniline is a promising additive for commercial plastics submitted to radiosterilization processing. In this work, we investigated the ability of polyaniline emeraldine salt nanofibers (PANF-HCl in preventing radiation damage on PMMA matrix. Effects of gamma-irradiation on PMMA/PANF-HCl composites films were assessed by comparison of the variation of viscosity-average molar mass (Mv of PMMA at 25 kGy dose when compared to commercial PMMA films. Samples containing 0.15% PANF-HCl (wt/wt retained 92% of the initial Mv after irradiation while control sample presented 42% of Mv retention. When exposed to 60-200 kGy doses, PANF-HCl embedded into PMMA matrix preserved their oxidation state but started to exhibit mild deprotonation. PANF-HCl nanofibers were characterized by Diffuse Reflection Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM. PMMA/PANF-HCl composites films were characterized by SEM and UV-VIS spectroscopy.

  3. Application of radiation in agriculture in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrizal; Sumanggono, Riyanti; Kuswadi, Ahmad Nasroh; Arifin, Muchson; Gandanegara, Soertini

    2001-01-01

    Radiation has been used in agriculture research and development in Indonesia since several decades ago, especially in fields of mutation breeding, pest control, plant nutrition, and animal health. Mutation breeding using gamma radiation has contributed several crop varieties, namely seven varieties of rice, three of soybean, and two of mungbean to national agriculture. Besides, hundreds of promising mutant lines of rice, soybean, mungbean, peanut, sorghum, horticultural crops, and industrial plants which are ready for multi-location trials. Radiation is also used for the control of insect pests, either field or storage pests. Storage pests are eradicated by lethal dosage for direct killing, while the population of field pests (especially fruit flies) is eliminated by the release of radiosterilized insects in the program of sterile insects technique (SIT). A pilot scale trial of SIT to control fruit fly is being conducted in East Java province. Lethal dosage of gamma irradiation is used as post-harvest treatment for food of such as dried spices, fresh fruits, and packed foods. Gamma radiation has been also used to sterilize culture media of Bradyrhizobium, a nitrogen fixative bacteria that is the symbiont of soybean to be used in yield improvement. In animal health, gamma radiation can be used directly or indirectly to eliminate, decrease diseases. Disease control can use irradiation to develop vaccines, and to produce the diagnostic reagent kits. Vaccines for Coccidiosis (chick) diseases have been produced and disseminated in Indonesia. (author)

  4. Microbiological studies on drugs and their raw materials, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tatsuo; Yoshida, Yumi; Demura, Harumi; Yanagita, Tomomichi; Meiwa, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    The decimal reduction dose of γ-ray on freeze-dried clean Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells and Bacillus subtilis spores was about 7 x 10 4 rad and it was about three times higher than that on E. coli cells suspended in saline. E. coli cells contained in Takadiastase or trypsin powder showed quite the same susceptibility of γ-irradiation as they were present cleanly. These enzyme activities were not impaired at all even at the dose of 2 x 10 5 rad. When these enzyme powders containing E. coli cells were stored under varied atmospheric relative humidity, the deleterious effect of γ-ray on bacterial cells was highly enhanced in those samples stored under more than 80.5% relative humidities. The additions of excipients, such as glucose and lactose, and of a protectant, L-cysteine, to the bacteria-containing dry enzyme powder did not show any sign of either enhancement or retardation of γ-ray action on enzyme and bacteria. Based on these observations, the utilizability of radiosterilization on biological medicaments is discussed. (auth.)

  5. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  6. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  7. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico)], E-mail: memp@nuclear.inin.mx; Ley-Chavez, E. [ISSEMYM Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Reyes-Frias, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apdo. postal 18-1027, Col. Escandon 11801 Mexico DF (Mexico); Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P. [Hospital ' Dr. Nicolas San Juan' , Toluca, Mexico DF (Mexico); Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A. [Hospital General de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  8. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, M. E.; Ley-Chávez, E.; Reyes-Frías, M. L.; Rodríguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vázquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M. A.

    2007-11-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is "Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation". At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders.

  9. Color formation on irradiated polystyrene by electrons beam; Formacao de cor no poliestireno irradiado com feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: smguedes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The color formation on national and commercial polystyrene (PS) irradiated by electrons beam was investigated in function of dose (0-150 kGy), post-irradiation time (0-31 days) and heating by colorimetry (CIELab), electron spectroscopy resonance (RPE) and photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). Visually or by colorimetric parameters the radiation became the PS yellow and dark which intensified by increase the dose and disappeared after the post-irradiation time. Variations of green/red colors were insignificant. After post irradiation time of 30 days (150 kGy) or the heating (150 kGy) both yellow color and darkening decreased significantly showing the unstable color centers formation during the irradiation. The RPE spectra indicated that the radicals can be responsible by the formation of these color centers but there can not be responsible s by stable color centers. The FTIR-PAS spectra did not show the presence of different functional groups after irradiation. The PS studied can be radiosterilized (25 kGy) without significant colorimetric changes because it is radioresistant. (author)

  10. Morphological analysis of amnion stored in glycerol sterilized with different doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: fernandonevessoares@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CTR/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia das Radiacoes

    2013-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost layer of the fetal membranes (placenta), widely used in transplantation being a tissue that combines anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifibrotic, and limited immunogenicity. The tissue can be used a bandage biological for treatment of burns and skin wounds, chronic ulcers, reconstructions from different body areas, including ophthalmic repairs. In the last decades the amniotic membrane has been used widely also as a carrier substrate to transfer tissues cultured 'in vitro'. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations, the main ones are being necessary your quick use and the inability to obtain full security for certain infections. Other types of preservation require a processing thereof. The radiosterilization is an alternative for ensuring quality and safety of tissues used in transplants, and other clinical applications in order to minimize the risk of contamination of the receptor tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test various doses of radiation using two sources of ionizing radiation: the cobalt-60 irradiator Gamma and Electron Beam Accelerator (E.B.). A tissue analysis was done by visual and tactile qualitative analysis, semi-quantitative (solid colorimetry) and light microscopy to observe morphological and physic-chemical changes after the irradiation of AM preserved in glycerol, comparing the results obtained with the sample not irradiated. It was noted that at higher doses, for both radiation sources, irradiated membranes suffered greater color change, becoming yellowish and thereby reducing their initial malleability. (author)

  11. Color formation on irradiated polymethyl methacrylate by electrons beam; Formacao de cor no polimetil metacrilato (PMMA) irradiado com feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, Daniela T.; Guedes, Selma M.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: smguedes@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The color formation on national and commercial polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) irradiated by electrons beam was investigated in function of dose (0-150 kGy), post-irradiation time (0-31 days) and heating (110 deg C/1 h) by colorimetry (CIELab), electron spectroscopy resonance (RPE) and photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy (FTIRPAS). The irradiation promoted the formation of unstable color centers responsible by changing of colorimetric and optical properties. Visually or by colorimetric parameters the radiation became the PMMAS yellow and darkening which intensified by increase the dose and disappeared after the post-irradiation time. The yellow color disappeared and darkening increased when the irradiated PMMA (150 kGy) was heated. It was impossible to see the green and red colors however the colorimetric parameters showed a little decreasing of the Da value in function of the increased dose and a little increasing in function of post-irradiation time. The FTIR-PAS spectra did not show the presence of different functional groups after irradiation however the correlation among the Db values and RPE spectra suggested that the radicals could be responsible by unstable and yellow color centers. The radiosterilized PMMA (25 kGy) showed significant colorimetric changes that decreased but continued visible yet after 31 days. (author)

  12. Morphological analysis of amnion stored in glycerol sterilized with different doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Fernando Augusto N.; Santin, Stefany P.; Martino Junior, Antonio C.; Machado, Luci Diva B.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2013-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is the innermost layer of the fetal membranes (placenta), widely used in transplantation being a tissue that combines anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antifibrotic, and limited immunogenicity. The tissue can be used a bandage biological for treatment of burns and skin wounds, chronic ulcers, reconstructions from different body areas, including ophthalmic repairs. In the last decades the amniotic membrane has been used widely also as a carrier substrate to transfer tissues cultured 'in vitro'. The use of fresh membrane has some limitations, the main ones are being necessary your quick use and the inability to obtain full security for certain infections. Other types of preservation require a processing thereof. The radiosterilization is an alternative for ensuring quality and safety of tissues used in transplants, and other clinical applications in order to minimize the risk of contamination of the receptor tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test various doses of radiation using two sources of ionizing radiation: the cobalt-60 irradiator Gamma and Electron Beam Accelerator (E.B.). A tissue analysis was done by visual and tactile qualitative analysis, semi-quantitative (solid colorimetry) and light microscopy to observe morphological and physic-chemical changes after the irradiation of AM preserved in glycerol, comparing the results obtained with the sample not irradiated. It was noted that at higher doses, for both radiation sources, irradiated membranes suffered greater color change, becoming yellowish and thereby reducing their initial malleability. (author)

  13. Efficiency recovery determination of microorganisms in the assurance of the sterility in radioactive sterile porcine xenograft in the stage of microbiological counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier Joost, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Use of porcine xenografts as a temporary dressing for treating burns may generate a risk of infection in patients who require due to the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Porcine xenografts reach the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission to be radiosterilized. To accomplish this, a process that ensures sterility of these tissues, called Test of sterility assurance, comprising several stages is performed. In this work the efficiency of its stages, which is the microbiological count (Bioburden) was measured. According to the protocols established by the ISO 1137 standard and the current conditions of the laboratory where this is done. Staphylococcus aureus strain was isolated from pig skins and confirmed in the laboratory of microbiology at the Santo Tomas University. A polluting inoculum to later make an artificial contamination of skin samples was performed previously radioesterilized pig. The bioburden count technique was used in 7 groups with 6 individual repetitions, and in parallel the BAM (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) method was performed to have a benchmark for the Bioburden. It was determined that the average concentration of contaminant inoculum was 4.35 ± 0.13 LOG (cfu/mL), with a recovery of 3.71 ± 0.1 LOG (cfu/g) by the method Bioburden, equivalent at an efficiency of 84 ± 3% recovery of microorganisms, falling within the optimal range for these tests established by the ISO 11137 standard (author)

  14. Radiation chemistry from basics to applications in material and life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belloni, J.; Mostafavi, M.; Douki, Th.; Spotheim-Maurizot, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book gives a progress report on the many and original contributions of radiation chemistry to the fundamental knowledge of the vast domain of chemical reactions and its applications. Radiation chemistry techniques indeed make it possible to elucidate detailed physicochemical mechanisms in inorganic and organic chemistry (including in space) and in biochemistry. Moreover, this comprehension is applied in materials science to precisely control syntheses by radiation, such as radiopolymerization, radio-grafting, specific treatment of surfaces (textiles, paintings, inks,..), synthesis of complex nano-materials, degradation of environmental pollutants and radioresistance of materials for nuclear reactors. In life sciences, the study of the effects of radiation on bio-macromolecules (DNA, proteins, lipids) not only permits the comprehension of normal or pathological biological mechanisms, but also the improvement of our health. In particular, many advances in cancer radiotherapy, in the radioprotection of nuclear workers and the general population, as well as in the treatment of diseases and the radiosterilization of drugs, could be obtained thanks to this research. Abundantly illustrated and written in English by top international specialists who have taken care to render the subjects accessible, this work will greatly interest those curious about a scientific field that is new to them and students attracted by the original and multidisciplinary aspects of the field. At a time when radiation chemistry research is experiencing spectacular development in numerous countries, this book will attract newcomers to the field. (authors)

  15. Effect of ionizing radiation on structural changes of energy nutrients in feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Smid, K.; Hrusovsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    For the purpose of testing the effect of ionizing radiation, feeds for dogs (meat feed mixture VETACAN and loose feed mixture VETAVIT) irradiated with 60 Co at a dose of 25 kGy/kg were studied for 60 days. It was found that the total volume of energetic and non-energetic nutrients did not change. Qualitative structure, however, displayed a significant, on the average 35% disintegration of essential amino acids, a decrease in proteins and increase in free ammoniacal bases. A significant oxidation effect of radiation is exerted on the decomposition of fats with a release of free fatty acids from the glycerol bond in a process similar to racidification (from 13.3 - 20.88 - 37.10 mg/g in meat mixture, from 103.1 - 130.04 - 135.04 mg/g in loose mixture). A certain disintegration of nutrients, only within the limits of significance, occurred also in the saccharide proportion of the loose feed mixture (acidity of water extract 348.8 - 403.99 -436.60 mg/100 g). It was proved that radiosterilization reliably secured microbiological and mycological sanitation of feeds and caused no sensory changes noticeable by human senses. It follows from the results that ionizing radiation had a pronounced antimicrobial and antimycotic effect. However, it caused significant structural changes in energetic nutrients in the feeds of animal as well as of vegetable origin. (author)

  16. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, S H.M. [Durng Research Dept., National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Pharmacological toxicological studies on certain drugs subjected to radiation or used radioprotective agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, S.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    The present study represents two main subjects. The first encounters the effect of radiosterilization of certain pharmaceretical preparations such as antihistaminics (cimetidine), anticonvulsants (diazepam), beta and calcium channel blacker (propranolol and verapamil) on their pharmacological activity. Results of this study revealed that the previously mentioned drugs can be effectively and safely sterilized by gamma irradiation without deleterious effect on their pharmacological activity. The other subject presented in this study is essentially a pharmacological subject encountering toxicological problems. Data of this study demonstrated that chemical radiation protection has been successfully reported using single drug administration has been successfully reported using single drug administration such as imidazole, and Sh-bearing compounds. In the present work, the radioprotective effect of imidazole was demonstrated on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Furthermore, combined drug administration was found to exert more protective action with less toxicity and therefore minimize the side effects of the radioprotective drugs. Thus, combination of imidazole and serotonin showed potential protective effect on blood gases was also reported. In addition, combination of cysteine and vitamin E afforded a better protection on adrenocortical function in rats than either agent alone. 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Progress in the processing of radioesterilized tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate S, H; Espinoza B, J; Ribbeck N, J; Vargas Q, M; Gutierrez D, K

    2003-01-01

    Since 1996, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission has been carrying out work to implement the first Radiosterilized Tissue Processing Laboratory (RTPL) in Chile, in order to introduce the use of sterilized biological tissue for clinical application. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has provided collaboration and technical assistance for this work. The processing of biological tissues has been done in conjunction with physicians from different state hospital centers, mostly in the Metropolitan Region. Among the tissues primarily processed are allografts such as frozen human skin at - 80 o C, freeze-dried human bone and amniotic membrane. We have also been working with xenograft developments such as freeze-dried pig skin and demineralized ground cow bone. All these tissues are sterilized by means of gamma radiation, in order to obtain a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . This laboratory has already completed various stages, from the beginning when it was only just an idea up to the production stage where a large quantity of processed tissues have been delivered to physicians of different specialties, resulting in a contribution to medical science as well as to the treatment quality of a great many patients. The preliminary results and the opinions of those physicians who have used the processed products from our laboratory have encouraged us to continue developing new products, thus enlarging the scope of application (author)

  19. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A.; Isaac, Cesar; Herson, Marisa R.; Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st and 90 th days; optical coherence tomography on the 90 th day and histological assay on the 3 rd , 7 th , 21 st days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  20. Comparison of techniques for morphologic evaluation of glycerol-preserved human skim subjected to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de A. [Faculty of Humanities, Economic and Health Sciences of Araguaina ITPAC (FAHESA/ITPAC/TO) Araguaina, TO (Brazil); Isaac, Cesar [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo (FMUSP/SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Herson, Marisa R., E-mail: marisah@vifm.org [Tissue Bank of Victoria, Victoria (Australia); Freitas, Anderson Z. de; Martinho Junior, Antonio C.; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: azanardi@ipen.br, E-mail: mathor@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Radiation Technology Centre; Oliveira, Sergio F. de [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo (ICB-USP/SP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for auto graft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, causes breakdown of collagen I fibrils in the skin preserved in glycerol at 85% and this change influences fibroblast migration and deposition of new collagen. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. After the surgery the skins of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} and 90{sup th} days; optical coherence tomography on the 90{sup th} day and histological assay on the 3{sup rd}, 7{sup th}, 21{sup st} days to compare the results of the repair process among the techniques, considering that the OCT allows in vivo and not destructive morphological analysis. According to the results obtained through OCT it was possible to observe a more organized repair process in the animals which received irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) if compared to unirradiated grafts. It was not possible to observe such phenomena through macroscopic or histological evaluation. (author)

  1. Adjustment of gamma radiation doses for sterilization of Egyptian surgical sutures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, Z.S.; Helmy, M.M.; Roushdy, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    The adjustment of gamma radiation doses for sterilization of catguts under local manufacturing conditions has been performed. Average total initial counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria per item were relatively low, in the range of 1000 counts for aerobic and 10 counts for anaerobic bacteria. The microfiora (aerobic bacteria) of the studied sutures were isolated and identified to be: Bacillus sp.; Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus roseus, and Staphylococcus. Each purified and identified isolate was exposed to gamma radiation both in liquid media (broth) and in the preservative in which the sutures were supplied by the company. The LD values of the most resistant microorganisms in both case of liquid media and preservative, were obtained to be around 5 KGy. Deliberately contaminated sterile sutures with each isolate and with mixture of isolates were studied. The sterilizing dose was obtained to be 20KGy for most heavily contaminated items (10 10 counts) irradiated both in saline and in preservative. This sterilizing dose was found to be dependent of the initial viable counts. This value was considered to be a safe value for radiosterilization of the studied sutures preserved in isopropyl alcohol, glycerin, and water (90:3.5:16)

  2. Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis in the healing area of athymic nude mice skin engrafted with human skin sterilized with gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de; Bringel, Fabiana; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Antebi, Uri; Funari, Ana Paula; Mathor, Monica B., E-mail: tomaz_ju@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades there has been a great interest in the radio-sterilized grafts for human skin grafts. This tissue is taken from a cadaver or multi-organ donor and samples are processed and stored in glycerol at concentrations above 85%. Although this procedure is carried out under aseptic conditions, after the final packaging one can sterilize the tissues with ionizing radiation in order to increase the safety level of sterility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the healing repair process that occurs between the graft and the skin of athymic NUDE mice. The samples of human skin treated with glycerol were divided into three groups: the control group 1 (non-irradiated), irradiated group 2 at 25 kGy and irradiated group 3, at 50 kGy. These tissues were grafted onto athymic NUDE mice which were sacrificed after 3, 7 and 21 days. After the sacrifice, part of the back fur of the animals containing human skin graft was removed with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E). The histological sections were analyzed for the integrity of tissue, presence and location of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, defense cells and blood vessels. Thus it was examined whether over time the graft was incorporated into the body or if there was a process of healing by secondary intention. (author)

  3. Dosimetry in the region of 0.25 Mrad and 25 Mrad using cellulose triacetate films (CTA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafferner, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dosimetric characteristics of a cellulose triacetate dosimetric film (CTA) from different places of origin, recently placed on the market to be used in dosimetry, are investigated. The charge in the optical absorption in the ultraviolet region induced by gamma radiation of Co-60 is found to be a linear behavior with the absorbed total dose, within a range of 0.25 to 25 Megarad. For the spectrophotometric reading the wavelength of 290 nm was chosen for the French CTA film, while 294 nm was used for the Japanese one. The response of the film is stable in time after the irradiation. By means of an adequate and careful handling the response does not change. One must always maintain, in practical usage, the same conditions of irradiation and the spectrophotometric reading used in the calibration. This film appears well suited for monitoring and control the dose of industrial irradiation process such as: process that involve application of chemical effects undergo by polymers when irradiated (polymerization), radiosterilization of medical products and equipments, food sterillization etc. (Author) [pt

  4. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-01-01

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60's as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with γ rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx ∼ 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs ∼ 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex's molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author)

  5. Qualitative and semi quantitative analysis in the healing area of athymic nude mice skin engrafted with human skin sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Jurandir Tomaz de; Bringel, Fabiana; Alves, Nelson Mendes; Antebi, Uri; Funari, Ana Paula; Mathor, Monica B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a great interest in the radio-sterilized grafts for human skin grafts. This tissue is taken from a cadaver or multi-organ donor and samples are processed and stored in glycerol at concentrations above 85%. Although this procedure is carried out under aseptic conditions, after the final packaging one can sterilize the tissues with ionizing radiation in order to increase the safety level of sterility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of the healing repair process that occurs between the graft and the skin of athymic NUDE mice. The samples of human skin treated with glycerol were divided into three groups: the control group 1 (non-irradiated), irradiated group 2 at 25 kGy and irradiated group 3, at 50 kGy. These tissues were grafted onto athymic NUDE mice which were sacrificed after 3, 7 and 21 days. After the sacrifice, part of the back fur of the animals containing human skin graft was removed with hematoxylin and eosin (H/E). The histological sections were analyzed for the integrity of tissue, presence and location of keratinocytes, fibroblasts, defense cells and blood vessels. Thus it was examined whether over time the graft was incorporated into the body or if there was a process of healing by secondary intention. (author)

  6. Application of nuclear energy to agriculture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moh, C.C.

    1976-06-30

    The following research projects in radiation botany were conducted: mutation breeding of beans and cassava; biological response of coffee plants; and radiosensitivity of tropical plants. In the field of entomology experiments were conducted on radiosterilization of the Mediterranean fruit fly, the coffee leaf miner, the torsalo and the meliaceous shootborer. The following research projects in plant physiology were conducted: physiology of cassava plants; effects of temperature on germination of cacao seeds; physiology of cacao seeds; sulfur metabolism using /sup 35/S; diseases and parasites of banana fruits; the mechanism controlling dwarfism in a radioinduced single gene bean mutant; and the use of wetting agents in foliar nutrition. The following research projects in soil chemistry were conducted: acidity and cation movement in tropical soils; phosphate in soils of the humid tropics; movement, adsorption and desorption of sulfates; free iron and aluminium oxides in tropical soils; mineralization of organic nitrogen in soils on volcanic materials; soil chemical properties of recent volcanic ash; and spatial distribution of the absorbing roots in coffee. Discussions are presented of installation of radiation facilities and collection of rainfall for fallout analysis. (HLW)

  7. Introduction of gamma irradiation Center in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakiba, H.; Sohrabpour, M.

    1985-01-01

    Industrial sterilization, and especially radiation sterilization, of single use, disposable medical supplies are contributing significantly to health standards in each country. Today there are in excess of 135 plants around the world using gamma radiation by more than 90 million curies of cobalt-60 to sterilize single use medical products. This process in far superior to other methods of sterilization, some of the advantages of this process include its basic simplicity compared with thermal or chemical methods. In the former process only a single variable of time is controlled while for the latter processes five or six parameters such as time, temperature, pressure, humidity, concentration, type of cover etc. need to be monitored. Compared with the chemical method, irradiation technique is also free from the environmental hazards associated with the exhausting of the, often carcinogenic sterilizing agent. United Nation Development Programs (UNDP) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have, through financial and technical support, promoted the introduction of radiation sterilization in several developing countries. This centre is also being established in Iran through UNDP financial and IAEA technical assistance. Although the main task of this centre is to radiosterilize the disposable medical products, but the scope of activities also encompass investigation of processing techniques of various products as well as research and development in the related fields. (Author)

  8. Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation: Mexican clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pardo, M.E.; Ley-Chavez, E.; Reyes-Frias, M.L.; Rodriguez-Ferreyra, P.; Vazquez-Maya, L.; Salazar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Biological wound dressings sterilized with gamma radiation, such as amnion and pig skin, are a reality in Mexico. These tissues are currently processed in the tissue bank and sterilized in the Gamma Industrial Irradiation Plant; both facilities belong to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) (National Institute of Nuclear Research). With the strong support of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the bank was established at the ININ and the Mexican Ministry of Health issued its sanitary license on July 7, 1999. The Quality Management System of the bank was certified by ISO 9001:2000 on August 1, 2003; the scope of the system is 'Research, Development and Processing of Biological Tissues Sterilized with Gamma Radiation'. At present, more than 150 patients from 16 hospitals have been successfully treated with these tissues. This paper presents a brief description of the tissue processing, as well as the present Mexican clinical experience with children and adult patients who underwent medical treatment with radiosterilized amnion and pig skin, used as biological wound dressings on burns and ocular surface disorders

  9. Microbiological studies on drugs and their raw materials, 4. Sterilization of microbial contaminants in enzyme powder by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, T; Yoshida, Y; Demura, H; Yanagita, T [Toyama Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Meiwa, M

    1978-04-01

    The decimal reduction dose of ..gamma..-ray on freeze-dried clean Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells and Bacillus subtilis spores was about 7 x 10/sup 4/ rad and it was about three times higher than that on E. coli cells suspended in saline. E. coli cells contained in Takadiastase or trypsin powder showed quite the same susceptibility of ..gamma..-irradiation as they were present cleanly. These enzyme activities were not impaired at all even at the dose of 2 x 10/sup 5/ rad. When these enzyme powders containing E. coli cells were stored under varied atmospheric relative humidity, the deleterious effect of ..gamma..-ray on bacterial cells was highly enhanced in those samples stored under more than 80.5% relative humidities. The additions of excipients, such as glucose and lactose, and of a protectant, L-cysteine, to the bacteria-containing dry enzyme powder did not show any sign of either enhancement or retardation of ..gamma..-ray action on enzyme and bacteria. Based on these observations, the utilizability of radiosterilization on biological medicaments is discussed.

  10. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation; Preparacion de hueso desproteinizado esterilizado con radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlz@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  11. Preparation of denatured protein bone sterilized with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna Z, D.

    2005-01-01

    The bone is one of the tissues more transplanted in the entire world by that the bone necessity for transplant every day becomes bigger. In the Bank of tissues Radio sterilized of the ININ the amnion and the pig skin are routinely processed. The tissue with which will be continued is with bone. Due to that in our country it doesn't have enough bone of human origin for the necessities required in the bone transplant, an option is the bone of bovine. Of this bone one can obtain denatured protein bone, with the same characteristics of the denatured protein human bone, the one which has been proven that it has good acceptance and incorporation in the human body when is transplanted. The method for the obtaining of the denatured protein bone of bovine, with the confirmation of the final product by means of X-ray diffraction is described. The radiosterilization of this bone with gamma rays and the determination of the lead content. (Author)

  12. Atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanna, R.

    1978-01-01

    Development of nuclear science in India, particularly the research and development work at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay, is described. Among the wide range of materials developed for specific functions under rigorous conditions are nuclear pure grade uranium, zirconium and beryllium, and conventional materials like aluminium, carbon steel and stainless steels. Radioisotopes are produced and used for tracer studies in various fields. Various types of nuclear gauges and nuclear instruments are produced. Radiations have been used to develop new high yielding groundnut mutants with large kernals. The sterile male technique for pest control and radiosterilization technique to process potatoes, onions and marine foods for storage are ready for exploitation. Processes and equipment have been developed for production of electrolytic hydrogen, electrothermal phosphorus and desalinated water. Indigenously manufactured components and materials are now being used for the nuclear energy programme. Indian nuclear power programme strategy is to build heavy water reactors and to utilise their byproduct plutonium and depleted uranium to feed fast breeder reactors which will produce more fissile material than burnt. Finally a special mention has been made of the manpower development programme of the BARC. BARC has established a training school in 1957 giving advanced training in physics, chemistry and various branches of engineering and metallurgy

  13. Morphofunctional evaluation of human skin preserved in glycerol and exposed to gamma radiation: a study in athymic mice; Avaliacao morfofuncional de pele humana conservada em glicerol e submetida a radiacao gama: estudo em camundongos atimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bringel, Fabiana de Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Extensive skin lesions expose the body to damaging agents, which makes spontaneous regeneration difficult and, in many cases, leads patient to death. In such cases, if there are no donating areas for autograft, allografts can be used. In this type of graft, tissue is processed in tissue banks, where it can be subjected to radiosterilization. According to in vitro studies, gamma radiation, in doses higher than 25 kGy, induces alterations in skin preserved in glycerol at 85%, reducing the tensile strength of irradiated tissue. Clinical observation also suggests faster integration of such graft with the receptors tissue. In order to assess if the alterations observed in vitro, would compromise in vivo use, transplants of human tissue, irradiated or not, were performed in Nude mice. The skin of the mice was subjected to macroscopic analysis, optical coherence tomography imaging, histological and biomechanical assays. It was possible to conclude that grafts irradiated with 25 kGy promoted greater initial contraction, without alteration of the final dimensions of the repair area, also displaying a faster closing of the wound. Moreover, the use of irradiated grafts (25 and 50 kGy) enabled the formation of a more organized healing process without significant effects on biomechanical properties. (author)

  14. Application of nuclear energy to agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moh, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    The following research projects in radiation botany were conducted: mutation breeding of beans and cassava; biological response of coffee plants; and radiosensitivity of tropical plants. In the field of entomology experiments were conducted on radiosterilization of the Mediterranean fruit fly, the coffee leaf miner, the torsalo and the meliaceous shootborer. The following research projects in plant physiology were conducted: physiology of cassava plants; effects of temperature on germination of cacao seeds; physiology of cacao seeds; sulfur metabolism using 35 S; diseases and parasites of banana fruits; the mechanism controlling dwarfism in a radioinduced single gene bean mutant; and the use of wetting agents in foliar nutrition. The following research projects in soil chemistry were conducted: acidity and cation movement in tropical soils; phosphate in soils of the humid tropics; movement, adsorption and desorption of sulfates; free iron and aluminium oxides in tropical soils; mineralization of organic nitrogen in soils on volcanic materials; soil chemical properties of recent volcanic ash; and spatial distribution of the absorbing roots in coffee. Discussions are presented of installation of radiation facilities and collection of rainfall for fallout analysis

  15. ESR identification of gamma-irradiated albendazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, Seyda

    2010-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation for sterilization of pharmaceuticals is a well-established technology. In the present work, the spectroscopic and kinetic features of the radicals induced in gamma-irradiated solid albendazole samples is investigated at different temperatures in the dose range of 3-34 kGy by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Irradiation with gamma radiation produced two different radical species in albendazole. They were fairly stable at room temperature but relatively unstable above room temperature, giving rise to an unresolved ESR spectrum consisting of three resonance peaks centered at g=2.0057. Decay activation energies of the contributing radical species were calculated to be 47.8 (±13.5) and 50.5 (±9.7) kJ/mol using the signal intensity decay data derived from annealing studies performed at high temperatures. A linear function of the applied dose was found to best describe the experimental dose-response data. Albendazole does not present the characteristics of good dosimetric materials. However, the discrimination of irradiated albendazole from its unirradiated form was possible even 6 months after storage in normal conditions. Based on these findings, it is concluded that albendazole and albendazole-containing drugs can be safely sterilized by gamma radiation and that ESR spectroscopy could be successfully used as a potential technique for monitoring their radiosterilization.

  16. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  17. Ionizing radiation effect on sensory changes in feeds with respect to their usability by dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smid, K.; Dvorak, J.; Hrusovsky, J.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of ionizing radiatin on sensory changes in feeds, four groups of experimental animals were formed. Two groups were fed a ration where the main component (meat feed mixture VETACAN and loose feed mixture VETAVIT) was irradiated with 60 Co to a dose of 25 kGy/kg for a period of 90 days. In the remaining two groups a non-irradited ration was used for the same period. For both diets, control groups of dogs were formed and the feed ration was biologically fortified with a vitamin-mineral supplement to the physiological standard. The observations showed that the effect of radiation caused a significant qualitative decrease in the level of energy nutrients, particularly in proteins and lipids. It is assumed that the extent of damage of the lipid fraction is also accompanied by deficient vitamin activity and by significant changes in taste and aromatic properties felt by animals. Irradiation of the feed ration caused a significant 20 to 25% decrease in food intake with a subsequent decrease in live weight and deterioration of physical condition. Irradiated diets without biological fortification caused significant losses of weight from the initial value x-bar = 39.5 kg to x-bar = 35.33 kg, in comparison with the non-irradiated rations through which the live weight was stabilized, and at biological fortification positively influenced. Irradiation of the feed ration during the period of study did not cause a response of the organism displayed by changes in the pysiological values of body temperature and heart and respiration rates in experimental animals. Radiosterilization of feeds any significant decrease in training ability and performance of the dogs. (author)

  18. Data on the disinfection of liquid manure by gamma irradiation at Baja, Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, J.

    1975-01-01

    At Baja in southern Hungary there is a large state farm producing 100,000 swine yearly. The amount of liquid manure produced by the farm daily totals 800-1000 m 3 . The aim of the present investigation was to determine those radiation doses which are completely lethal to microbes that cause various food infections, so that we could provide a liquid manure with a satisfactory microbiological condition and that this sludge, and also the separate water, could be used agriculturally, as up to now the application of this product to vineyards and orchards has been prohibited. The irradiation of samples was carried out with a NORATOM-type gamma-cell equipment with a 60 Co source. The dose rate was 228.2 rad/s, and the activity about 9,000 Ci at the time of our experiments. The results showed that the aeradion of liquid manure, i.e. filling with oxygen, did not influence the effectiveness of the ratiosterilization procedure. We agree therefore with the literature that states that anaerobic bacteria are more radioresistant than aerobic bacteria. In this respect, spores play a subsidiary role, because the vegetative Clostridia are much more resistant than the aerobic spores. It seems reassuring that to destroy Salmonellae a relatively low dose of 0.4 Mrad is sufficient. It is not, however, useful to sterilize Mycobacteria by gamma radiation. No great differences have been observed in the radiosensitivity of the aerobic and anaerobic microbes. The authors point out that by means of radiosterilization the liquid manure becomes a harmless product from the microbiological point of view. Disinfection of liquid manure by gamma irradiation enables it to be reused for its nutritive value. (author)

  19. Gamma radiation effects on the structure and properties of polystyrene; Efeitos da radiacao gama na estrutura e nas propriedades do poliestireno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Ivania Soares de

    1996-12-31

    Polystyrene is a linear thermoplastic with a molecular weight ranging from 130,000 to 300,000 g/mole. This polymer has wide industrial applications. In medicine it is used to manufacture medical supplies which can be sterilized by ionizing radiation. The sterilization of medical instruments by ionizing radiation was introduced in the 60`s as an alternative method to the conventional treatment with ethylene oxide gas. Radiosterilization is now worldwide standard procedure, as it is cheaper and cleaner. Some polymers, however, may show some changes in their physical properties following irradiation. These changes are due to the prevailing crosslinking and main chain scission induced by the irradiation of the polymeric system. In the present work, Brazilian-made polystyrene Lustrex was irrigated with {gamma} rays in the presence of air at room temperature. Under these conditions, the analysis of viscosimetric essays showed the prevalence of crosslinking effects at doses up to 25 kGy and of main scission effects at does from 25 to 200 kGy. Observed G values (number of events per 100 eV of absorbed energy) pointed to low degrees of both crosslinking (Gx {approx} 0.15) and main chain scission (Gs {approx} 0.09). Therefore, the minor changes in Lustrex`s molecular structure induced by irradiation have not influenced significantly its mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. As a result, Lustrex can be used in applications involving radiation without the need to introduce radioprotective to the polymeric system. (author) 43 refs., 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Combination of irradiation and thermal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozova, B.; Sorman, L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the technology and methods of food preservation have searched for ever better and less destructive methods and procedures which prolong the shelf-life of the primary products so that they do not undergo degradation processes. New non-traditional methods of preservation, as well as the procedures based on scientifically controlled combination of two or more preservation methods give increasingly higher chances for the improvement of the quality of canned products. Such combinations should reduce the intensity of the adverse effects of separately applied preservation methods. The aim is to achieve synergic or additive effects of the decisive factors, which would ensure microbiological adequacy and storage stability of canned foods, including maximum retention of their nutritional and sensory characteristics. If the published scientific papers dealing with non-traditional methods of food preservation and application of combination of preservation methods are evaluated, it can be seen that there is no work which provides an analysis of this problem. The use of ionizing radiation can reduce the number of microorganisms on foods and doses of up to 10 kGy are not considered to present any toxicological risks. However results have not been satisfactory mainly due to the interaction of ionizing radiation with the components of the irradiated foods. It is desirable to reduce the side effects of radiosterilizing doses by reducing the dose and using another method to complete the processing. Special attention is paid particularly to the use of combinations of heat and irradiation, since this is suitable mainly for the preservation of meat products but can also be applied to vegetables and other products. (author)

  1. Sterilization experiment of crocidolomia binotalis zeller by gamma ray irradiation and its control application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutrisno, Singgih

    1986-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted to study C. binotalis control initiated with the rearing method and ended with the release of sterile irradiated insects. Rearing of cabbage pest using modified artificial diet of Pieris rapae gave better result compared to that with natural diet. The larval viability was 58% and 25.9% from the artificial and the natural diet respectively. Gamma ray doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.4 and 0.45 kGy were introduced to six-day-old sexed pupae in nitrogen and air atmosphere. A 100% sterility on males was obtained at 0.45 kGy in both air and nitrogen atmosphere. 100% sterility on females was found at 0.25 kGy in nitrogen and 0.2 kGy in air atmosphere. The effect of dose on the percentage of sterile and mating competitiveness were not significantly different (P ≥0.05). A significant correlation (r=0.8774) was found between the percentage of fertility and the mating competitiveness of irradiated insects. The lower the fertility of the insects the less mating competitiveness they have. 0.4 kGy was considered to be adequate for sterilization of C. binotalis. It produced a high percentage of sterility besides moderate mating competitiveness, 84.52% and 0.57% respectively. 0.4 kGy seemed to give 3 days shorter longevity of moth than the normal one. The number of F 1 larval population was not significantly different if the released insects were either females or males or mixed sexes. The ratio of 9:1 of the sterile and normal insects under laboratory, field-cage, and in the field indicated that the sterile insect technique has the potential to suppress F 1 population by about 50% due to the mating competitiveness of the radiosterilized insect still maintained at the level of 0.57. (author). 17 refs

  2. Comparative Radiosensitivity of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses; Radiosensibilite Comparee de Bacteries et Virus Pathogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghys, R.; Vandergoten, R.; Paquette, J. -C.; Fredette, V.; Plante, C.; Pavilanis, V.; Gilker, J. -C. [Institut de Microbiologie et d' Hygiene de l' Universite de Montreal, Laval, P.Q. (Canada)

    1967-09-15

    The authors exposed to gamma rays from a MCo source (''Gammacell 220'' from Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.) various pathogenic micro-organisms: a slow-growing aerobic bacterium (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 10 varieties of the strain B. C. G.), a fast-growing anaerobic bacterium (Clostridium perfringens, strain SWG-121) and 4 strains of influenza virus (2 from group A and 2 from group B). In the case of B. C. G., an LD{sub 90} of 29 ± 1 kR is reported for bacilli irradiated immediately before subculture and subsequently cultivated for at most 14 days. If the microbes are cultivated for 28 days, the yield from cultures after exposures of up to 50 kR is at least equal to that of control specimens; it then decreases rapidly, and a dose of 140 kR inhibits bacterial growth completely. It is reported that the LD{sub 90} of the strain of Cl. perfringens used in the study is very much dependent on die culture conditions and die conditions under which die microbe growth measurements are made; 24 h after irradiation it is at least 1 MR. Although no spores are seen in the microscope, this would seem to demonstrate the presence in the cultures of extremely radioresistant sporulated individuals. Group A influenza viruses are found to be more radioresistant than those of group B. The LD{sub 90} of relatively low radiation doses varies between 75 and 100 kR, and is higher if irradiation is performed at -78.5°C. It is very difficult to inactivate the last virus particles; multiplicity reactivation seems to occur in certain experimental conditions. Haemagglutinant activity does not vary, even after die highest exposures used (4 MR). Two important practical conclusions are drawn: (1) The use of a single dose (e. g. 2.5 Mrad) for radiosterilization gives an exposure which is unnecessarily high in some cases and insufficient in others, and (2) Selective radiosterilization is sometimes possible: the viability of a micro-organism used, for example, to produce a vaccine may not be

  3. The development of radiation-induced sterility for the management of lepidopterous maize stem bores:El dana saccharina walker (pyraldae) and sesmia calamistis hampson (noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annoh, C. E

    2003-01-01

    Radio-sterilization study was conducted on the biology of two lepidopterous maize stem borers, Eldana saccharina Walker and Sesamia calamistis Hampson to induce inherited sterility for insect pest management programme in Ghana. Bioecology of the two borer species was also studied for a 3-year period, 1997-1999 at Medie, a predominantly maize growing community in the Ga District of Greater Accra Region, to determine the population dynamics and climatic factors influencing the population of the borer species. It was observed that Sesamia species usually attacked the young maize crop, with peak infestations occurring about 6-S weeks after emergence of the crop. Eldana species preferred mature maize with peak infestations around 10-12 weeks after emergence of the maize crop. Larval numbers of E. saccharina showed inverse relations with rainfall, r= - 0.5899; p= 0.043. Infestation levels of larvae of both species were relatively higher during the minor rainy season than the major season. Larvae and pupae of E. saccharina that developed separately on natural and artificial diets did not show significant difference in most of their biological parameters. In both borer species, pupal weights of natural dieters were slightly heavier than those of artificial dieters. Exposure of young pupae (less than 6 days old) of the two borer species to increasing doses of ionizing radiation, SO-ISO Gy, resulted in high percentage of deformity and un emerged adults. Mature pupae of 6-S days old were less susceptible to increased doses and exhibited fewer body deformities and unemerged adults. The mating capability of adults emerged from irradiated mature pupae of E. saccharina was not adversely affected. In the parent generation (P), fecundity and fertility decreased with increased doses of radiation for crosses involving irradiated males and normal females as well as irradiated females and normal males. While the treatment m the former crosses resulted in partial fertility (40% at 180

  4. The scientific basis for the establishment of threshold levels and dose response relationships of carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Over the last one and a half decades the variety of radiosterilized articles has increased to such an extent that it is almost impossible to present a complete list. They include disposable surgical and medical instruments and devices, laboratory equipment, sutures and other temporary and permanent implants, medicaments and pharmaceutical starting materials, biological tissues for transplantation and other biological preparations. A large volume of radiation-sterilized hermetically sealed, ready-to-use medical supplies are imported by many non-producer countries to supplement their public health care services. During the recent years this trend is increasing and several developing countries are even planning to introduce this technology in the near future, while some have already done so through the provision of expertise and funding by the IAEA and UNDP. Unlike the technologically advanced countries, the medical care services in most of the developing countries are inadequate still today. Against the figure of one doctor per 500 people in the most highly advanced countries the corresponding figure in some developing countries stands as one doctor per 60,000 people. The available limited number of hospitals in many such countries are located only in the urban areas, while the preponderance of rural populations are served through non-equipped mobile dispensaries and camp health centres. Based upon these factors, many developing countries are opting to introduce the technology and practices of radiation sterilization of medical products even if the products cost slightly more. During the last ten years the Agency's programme has attached great importance to encouraging this development of peaceful application of atomic energy in the form of accumulation of relevant technical information through co-ordinated research and its early dissemination by holding international meetings. The Agency's second symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products